Charles Dunstone and His CarPhone Warehouse

The research has demonstrated that Charles Dunstone was in possession of certain characteristics that put him in a favorable environment, and that enabled him to take advantage of certain opportunities. The enterprise culture in the UK has also not played a major part in Charles Dunstone’s success, as he relied more on himself and close associates to make his business a success.Entrepreneurship is the creation of new enterprise (Low and MacMillan 1988) and it is also often focussed on profit-making. Examples of famous entrepreneurial ventures include Gerber baby foods, Barbie dolls, and Heinz ketchup. Entrepreneurship is important for any country as it has significant economic and social contributions (Bartol and Martin 1998). For instance, the creation of new enterprise is associated with job creation and the creation of other smaller businesses to supply the business. The economic impact of small business job growth is likely to be greatest during times of economic slowdown when larger companies are cutting back (Case 1989). During such reductions, many individuals whose jobs are eliminated find employment with small businesses. According to one estimate, as many as 20% of managers who have lost their jobs as a result of downsizing in recent years have become entrepreneurs (Zimmerer and Scarborough 1996). New jobs and new businesses increase a government’s tax base and improve the general standard of living. Notable examples of changes in the standard of living include the motor car following Henry Ford’s invention of the automobile.Despite the benefits of entrepreneurship, many new ventures still fail and this has led to research on the factors that make some entrepreneurial ventures successful, as it is also reported that as many as 50 -70% of new businesses fail or merge with other larger organizations within their first five years (GPO 1990). In the United Kingdom, there are examples of successful entrepreneurs which include but are not limited to Sir Richard Branson with his Virgin empire, Sir Alan Sugar with Amstrad and Anita Roddick with The Body Shop.

Female Identity Revealed Mainly Through Opposition to Male Identity

Mabel Waring, with her new dress, exposes the thoughts of a few hours, focused on herself, apparently driven by an obsessive inferiority complex. Celie exemplifies a woman escaping the patriarchal order, winning the right to be her own person, no longer socially, sexually, or psychologically enslaved. Mabel progresses some way along that road, identifying what is good in her life, and by that process, finding a resolution. Both achieve self-realization and peace. The stories will be examined separately, exploring the male-female interactions and the women’s development towards liberation.The New Dress (Woolf, 1927): Told as a stream of consciousness, in the third person, the narrator allows access to all thoughts and feelings. What Mabel Waring wore, symbolically represents her need for acceptance as a witty, beautiful woman in the social setting of a party, a microcosm of society. She craved this from the men in particular. Unable to afford to be fashionable, fashion.., meant thirty guineas at least – but why not be original? (Woolf, 1927, p. 296), Mabel convinced herself of the possibility with Miss Milan, her dressmaker. That was discounted when Mabel was confronted by the ordinary people (p.296) at the party, for which the dress had been made.Mabel interpreted Mrs. Barnet’s offer of mirror and brush on arrival as confirmation of how ‘wrong’ she looked, and Rose Shaw’s compliment But my dear, it’s perfectly charming! (p.296) meant the opposite, as Rose was dressed in the height of fashion, precisely like everybody else, always. (p. 297). Metaphorical imagery of Flies trying to crawl (p.297, applied to the company as a self-protective mantra, failed for Mabel. in her yellow silk dress, she defined herself as ..some dowdy, decrepit, horribly dingy old fly, while the others were dragonflies, butterflies, beautiful insects, dancing, fluttering, skimming. (p.297) Mabel’s feelings of social and economic inferiority made her unable to accept reassurance from other women.

Financial Assessment on Shareholders Interest Rates and Cash Flows

Enforcing such contracts will involve transaction costs (often referred to as agency costs), and these costs may sometimes be very high indeed.The more autonomy that agents have to have in order to do their particular kind of work effectively and efficiently, the less useful coercive sanctions are likely to be, and the more important it becomes for agents’ moral and material incentives to be appropriately aligned with their broader obligations to their principals. That is, organizations need to be structured in such a way so the agent will expect that diligently serving the interests of his or her principals will also be in his or her own long-run best interests. In order to accomplish this, the principals need to be reasonably clever in setting up the initial rules of the game that are set in the employment contract, sufficiently vigilant in keeping track of their agents quality of performance over time, and willing to bear at least some minimum level of agency costs in order to provide the necessary incentivesThere are many definitions for the term ethical investment, and what this term entails. Ritsie Lowry, maintainer of the GoodMoney site1 suggests that In one sense, ethical investment is just like a traditional investment. Ethical investors pursue the same economic goals as all investors: capital gains, higher income, and/or preservation of capital for future needs. However, ethical investors want one additional thing. They don’t want their investments going for things that cause harm to the social or physical environments, and they do want their investments to support needed and life-supportive goods and services. From this certain definition, we are able to realize that ethical investment is similar to the conventional investment, but differs from the fact that it needs one more requirement. Ethical Investors are very strict as far as the kind of business their money is going to fund.Many kinds of research have proved that ethical investors prefer to invest their money ethically although they know beforehand that the investment will not be as lucrative as a traditional investment.

Multiple Culture Identity Comparison of Two Stories

The hardships of Chinese immigrants are envisaged in the most peculiar way. Brave We Are discusses another form of cultural identity in which a mother tries to keep her Pakistani culture alive in America. In doing so she does not become rigid so that her children adapt themselves to the country they are living in. By doing so she makes sure they do not get totally free from their cultural identity. Her son investigates the word hybrid. this makes a series of events to unchain. Dealing with the identity crisis in this story reveals the amount of difficulty a mother goes through. Language, code of conduct, the way of thinking, and interpretation of things all play a major role in making the cultural identity. When a human being shifted from one country to another, he displaces his cultural identity. He has to adjust to the new environment so that he does not look like an alien. In adjusting to the new society, it becomes difficult for him to keep both ends of his identity together. This is where identity crisis comes in. the person who learns to deal with the problems in the correct way and has creates an equilibrium of personality. According to Lafromboise, Coleman, and Gerton (1993, pp. 395), it is not necessary that people who live in two cultures always suffer. Control over personal, communal and economic expectations brings about a balance in the life of a marginal person. Both stories under consideration show the alien identity crisis with equal emphasis but in different nature. For example, Manchin was pushed to the level that he became suicidal whereas Kasim or his mother was not affected by the level of giving up their lives. However, the amount of problems they get because of identity crisis is the same.

Chinook Platforms Issue

a, especially when the decision to go ahead with new composite frames needs to be considered, in the current economic scenario, wherein gaining largesse of funds to invest in high capital ventures needs to be contextualized and appropriately dealt with. Thus, the present fiscal climate having been fuelled by fiscal indiscipline and loose controls, it is necessary that a budget committee consensus is gained before final approval for large scale investment in capital projects of this kind is undertaken. Moreover, it would also be more fiscally prudent and judicious to assess the economic and financial impacts of projects before they are actually implemented and enforced upon the community.The below-mentioned report is based on a Comparative statement annexed in Appendix 1 at the end of this report. From the survey conducted on several respondents, the majority of them opted for the purchase of new composite airframes. Currently, most of the crews are using Chinook remanufactured airframes and their average flying hours are between the flying time.In this survey, most of the respondents strongly agreed that the composite airframes will be the mainstay of Chinook platforms. Presently, these genres of helicopter variants are the fastest and most sought after. Their main role is during the deployment of troop movement, artillery, and other war-related supplies. The US Army’s first major step is in the introduction of a more powerful version of war helicopters, which is CH-47.However, the survey seems to reestablish the fact that composite airframes are more superior on all counts, safety, efficiency, proficiency, and operational savings. The actual deliberations of the survey and its outcome are being discussed in the next pages.There were so many improved versions of the Chinook helicopters. the most recent one being the CH-47F (ICH) and the MH-47G. Special Operations Aviation (SOA) version is a new arrival in the US Army. The CH-47F (ICH) and the MH-47G Special.

Advantages Of The Hydraulic Fracturing

Advantages Of The Hydraulic Fracturing Hydraulic Fracturing which is also referred to as fracking is a procedure which has been gaining popularity owing to its assistance in the extraction of oil and gas that cannot be obtained through other methods (Frosch). This method allows for the creation of eithernew paths of gas production or the extension of old paths. The oil and gas is gained from shale rock by first drilling deep in the Earth till the rock layer is reached. This is followed by blasting the rock underneath with a large quantity of water which has a high pressure. The water that is blasted is basically a mixture containing various chemicals and sand. This high pressure mixture provides for an outward path for the gas and oil (DECC). Hydraulic fracturing has many advantages. The most significant advantage is that greater quantities of fossil fuels can be produced through this method. This provides for an economic benefit which can be understood by the reduction in the gas price in the United States due to increased production. It also provides for accessibility and production from oil and gas reserves which could otherwise not be utilized. The United States and Canada have achieved the maximal benefit and they can rely upon gas production through fracking for the next hundred years. Another added benefit of this technique is that it allows the generation of electricity through natural gas. This is beneficial to the environment because electrical energy produced from natural gas results in the release of half the amount of carbon dioxide in comparison to the electricity produced from coal. Furthermore, hydraulic fracturing has provided for an economic boost to the areas where this process is carried out. It provides for employment opportunities for the local people (DECC. Koch). Despite of the benefits of hydraulic fracturing, many concerns have been raised regarding the usage of this technique. It is argued that a very large quantity of water is required at the site of hydraulic fracturing which incurs environmental costs. Also the water which is blasted into the rock layer contains various chemicals. These chemicals seep into ground water and pollute it affecting the quality of water available in the local area for the residents. Another environmental problem posed by fracking is that it can lead to earthquakes of low magnitudes. The last negative aspect cited by environmentalists is that hydraulic fracturing diverts the government and its agencies from spending on energy sources that are renewable and do not pollute the environment. It rather increases the reliance of the nations upon fossil fuels (DECC). The United States is the nation which has the highest rate of production of natural gas by means of hydraulic fracturing. In the year 2012, approximately 39 percent of the natural gas production in the country was through the process of fracking. According to an expert from the Energy Information Administration, gas is produced in substantial amounts through fracking only in the United States and Canada. This has greatly benefited America as the production of natural gas has increased more than thrice since the year 2005 (Koch).Fracking is a beneficial procedure but the government should also divert its funds and resources to check for alternative energy sources which are renewable and environment friendly. Works CitedDECC. What is fracking and why is it controversial?BBC News UK. BBC News UK,27 Jun. 2013. Web. 14 Feb. 2014., Dan. In Land of Gas Drilling, Battle for Water That Doesn’t Reek or Fizz. The New York Times.The New York Times,2 Jun. 2012. Web. 14 Feb. 2014., Wendy. Fracking puts U.S. first in shale gas production. USA Today. USA Today,23 Oct. 2013. Web. 14 Feb. 2014.

Contemporary Issues in International Business

It should be also noted that the environment in which international businesses operate is briefly explained so that the position and the challenges of global clothing industry to be fully understood.Businesses that operate globally have to face a series of issues. The willingness of investors to support global business initiatives is not standardized. In fact, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows in markets worldwide present high variation, being reduced from time to time, usually because of local political or economic crises.1 FDI has become popular due to the low level of its risks, compared to other internationalization strategies. Justin explains that FDI can be described as ‘the investment in the real assets of a foreign company so that a product is produced or marketed.2During the last five years, FDI shows important downturns probably because of the recession of 2008. The specific fact is reflected in Graph 1 and Graph1a (Appendix) where the changes in FDI globally, both as inflows and outflows, are presented. The recent trends in regard to FDI globally are also presented in Graph 2 (Appendix) where the emphasis is given on the FDI inflows in developing countries.It should be noted that a firm that wishes to secure its position in the global market needs to be able to continuously improve its productivity in order to respond to global competition, which tends to favor the most powerful organizations.In fact, due to globalization, competition has become stronger not only in the international market but also in local markets.[i] Another issue for international business is the elimination of trade barriers. In practice, it has been proved that trade barriers can significantly threaten the prospects of firms in the global market, either temporarily or permanently.

H1N1 Virus Description

This virus is classified as an avian virus and the virus is believed to be first found in birds, mainly the ducks from which it is transmitted to the pigs and then it finally infects humans. This virus needs to be understood because it has been associated with many outbreaks throughout the world and it is also believed that such outbreaks serve to be an economic burden and a reason for morbidity and mortality (Brooks et al 2004).The history of H1N1 virus dates to the beginning of the twentieth century and there have been many outbreaks due to this virus along with a very high rate of fatalities. The first outbreak due to this virus was reported in the year 1918. It was a pandemic and the estimated number of deaths was so high that it was said that the deaths due to this outbreak were more than the total number of people who died in World War 1 and 2, the Korean War as well as the War of Vietnam (Levinson 2008). It was analyzed that approximately 50 million people died due to this outbreak and at the same time an illness among pigs assisted the scientists to reach to a decision that this illness had been contracted from the pigs (Zimmer and Burke 2009). In 1930, the virus was found in pigs in the United States and occurrence of disease in the animals was reported. In particular, the season of winter is optimum for the occurrence of this virus (CIDRAP). Ever since then, there were cases of influenza due to this virus but no significant outbreaks. In 1957, the virus got completely eradicated and it was in the 1970s that this virus reemerged. In 1976 there was an outbreak at an army base in New Jersey and many soldiers were affected. In the year 1977, a global pattern was reported with the Soviet Union, China, and Hong Kong

Government Deregulation and Business

Proponents of deregulation consider that regulation of business is costly to consumers even when cautiously constructed by the best of intentions as this tactic adds to the expenses that companies shoulder which is then passed on to consumers. To the degree of increased regulations imposed by the government, the greater proportionate financial burden is consequently incurred by the consumer. In addition, whatever benefit incurred from regulations do not outweigh the costs. Unregulated competition among companies is characteristically healthier as this allows businesses to contain everyday costs in imaginative and adaptable ways and allows for experimentation to discover the methods customers would prefer to pay those costs. Efficient production should be calculated in terms of customer demand, not by means of economic philosophies, or set pricing structures set by the government that only foresee long-term production costs. All regulation can hope to accomplish is to keep consumer prices as low as possible for the consumer, its original intent. In doing this, many times short-term costs are not properly accounted for. The implementation of pricing structures requires a massive amount of information, which, while it may be accurate during the initial study, may vary widely during the term of price fixture. Temporary and fluctuating factors where costs, investment, and demand are rather unpredictable have been problematic for industries that have come under government regulation such as transportation and utility. A marketplace devoid of regulation provides incentive to minimize costs and maximizes investment potential. Price caps. a slightly less intrusive method of regulation is not as cost-effective as having an unlimited positive aspect.

GDP A Flawed Measurement of Economic Welfare

However, during this century, and particularly since the war, the progressive process has drastically slowed. The market economy has persisted to alter fundamentally (Krane 2003). Specifically, it has infiltrated deeper and deeper into the domains of family, society, and natural environment that sometimes appeared over its reach. Yet, even as this change has gathered speed, the way people evaluate economic well-being and development has been halted in place (ibid).The initial approximations of national accounts in Western nations were the ideas of one Thomas Petty, in England in 1665. Petty’s range was somewhat broad. he was attempting to determine the taxable capability of the nation. However, in France, a more restricted emphasis materialized. The dominant economic assumption was that of the Physiocrats, who claimed that agriculture was the genuine resource of a nation’s prosperity and wealth (Auty 2001). Unsurprisingly, their economic evaluation emphasized agricultural production. There was an immense multiplicity of perspectives, nevertheless, even in France. In England, a more developed country, Adam Smith introduced a more encompassing theory of national wealth that integrated the entire organization of manufactures as well (ibid).Yet, one of many significant points missed by his enthusiastic supporters is that Smith omitted what people refer nowadays the entertainment and service economic sectors, including government and lawyers. Such objectives might be valuable or otherwise, he stated. But all are absolutely unproductive of any value (Halstead Rowe 2004, p. 1) since they don’t give impetus to a concrete product. That perspective was questionable. But Smith was uttering an essential question, one that has relatively much vanished from economic schools of thought.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

The prevalence has not proved to be influenced by ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or educational achievement. OCD is more common than schizophrenia, and almost half as common as depression. Yet little is known about the illness, its causes, and effective treatment. OCD is still largely under-recognized in clinical practice, while its economic costs are essential.Obsessive-compulsive disorder emerges as early as age 4. In case it is not treated at once it may have profound impacts. Though males have shown to develop the disorder earlier than females, women have demonstrated a lager predisposing to it, being especially at risk of developing OCD during pregnancy and the puerperium. On the other hand, the symptoms of the illness are more severe among men (Fineberg and Roberts, 2001. Thomsen, 2000. Heyman, et al, 2006. Freeman et al., 2007).Both the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) and the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) recognize obsessions and compulsions as the main symptoms of OCD. Obsessions are unwanted, repetitive, disturbing thoughts, images, ideas, or impulses running through the person’s mind over and over again. These are not merely excessive worries about real-life problems. These thoughts, being generated by the individual, are distressing and egodystonic. The individual recognizes that the obsessional images, thoughts, and impulses are a product of his own mind, but they make him feel nervous and afraid. Trying to avoid these feelings people with OCD start performing certain actions (rituals or compulsions) corresponding to the rules they have created for themselves. So compulsions are repetitive, time-consuming, stereotyped, anxiety-reducing rituals (behaviors or mental acts), driven in response to the obsessions, and according to rules that must be implemented rigidly.

MultiSelf Model and the DualSelf Model Approaches to SelfControl Problems

According to the research findings, it can, therefore, be said that the multi-self model is a complex topic in behavioral economics. Authors like Ambrus and Rozen have described it as a broader conception in the form of an array of self-control concepts or theories. As such, the concept of aggregator appears at the center of this approach. The aggregator can be understood as a behavioral and psychometric mechanism that organizes the available choices before the individual. The aggregator factors cumulate a suitable prioritized list of choices, and the individual’s sense of rational behavior ultimately leads him or her to select the most appropriate one for oneself. However, in the deep trenches of mind and thought processes, this one self is actually consisting of many selves. Hence, according to Ambrus and Rozen, one of the most important characteristics of a given set of aggregators is that the aggregation can be dependent on the consumer’s economic utilities and objectives. Therefore, if an individual is considered as a coherence of more than one economic self, then preferences of oneself may differ from that of another. Consequently, several contemporary models of multi-self decision-making utilize pieces of cardinal information that are embedded in the utility functions of an individual’s diverse economic selves. Aggregators being considered as the fundamentals of utility functions can also be defined as the intensity of preferences, which are capable of molding the dynamics of intra-personal economic decisions. However, this paradigm can be extended to inter-personal economic decisions too.

Monopolistic Competition Concept Advantages and Limitations

These factors could be the brand name, brand personality, quality etc. Examples of firms competing in the monopolistic market are clothing brands, restaurants, and other service industries. This kind of competition is termed as monopolistic because each firm has its unique position in the market despite the presence of several other competitors. They usually have a loyal customer base that comprises of people who are not frequent switchers. Switching is generallyassociated with some sort of dissonance occurring in the whole buying experience and customers are generally indifferent to small price fluctuations. As far as the market is concerned, it has certain key characteristics including: presence of many firms selling the same commodity with a slightvariance also known as a Unique Selling Proposition (USP) that makes them stand out amongst the market clutter. Product may have substitutes but the exact identical cannot be present due to its unique differentiating factors that are not based on prices. Customers have lesser control over prices as compared to the producers. Prices are also unlikely to be influenced by the competition. Market leadership can be attained but by a small margin and on the basis of captured market share. There are no serious barriers to entry as compared to other market competition types. Production is usually lesser than the capacity and is based on carefully calculated demand. There are several problems associated with monopolistic competition that have been identified by several economists. Firstly, this form of competition will lead to no economic profits in the long run. This is because here are likely to be more market runners after some years and they will offer better incentives or differentiating factors if the current… This paper offers a comprehensive theoretic analysis of the monopolistic competition, as a type of economic market. The limitations of that type of market, as well as its advantages and disadvantages to producers, customers and the economy as a whole are considered. Monopolistic competition refers to several different market players with unique differentiating factorsThe firms operating in monopolistic competition are also inefficient as they do not produce at the optimum level. Inefficiency, in economic terms, means that the available resources are not use at the optimal bringing down the chances of incurring lower cost with every marginal product.This form of competition will lead to no economic profits in the long run. This is because here are likely to be more market runners after some years and they will offer better incentives or differentiating factors if the current firms do not invest heavily in product research and revamping. This, too, will be an addition to the costs and in the long run, the convenient and inevitable influx of new competition will result in minimal or no economic profits. In order to minimize future losses and build customer loyalty , focus should be on the quality management and customer service as advertising and marketing campaigns, packaging and ambiance stay for some time until a prospective market leader enters the picture and replicates it.Negative aspect of monopolistic competition is that firms engage in misleading advertising and focus less on quality control after sometime.

What Do Poverty Rates Depend on

The article argues the limited amount of earning in the labor market is implicated to the individual poverty and the difference in groups’ rates poverty. The main goal of the article was to give an alternative view of how labor markets work to generate poverty that provides a richer basis for generating good policy advice. The article believes the working class, who are the main contributors to poverty, is seriously limited and flawed. Because of this, they provide a poor basis for generating good antipoverty policy advice.Economic theory related to the issueThe article tried to expound the issue of poverty among the working class individuals from an economic point of view. The article argues that the kind of poverty affecting the working class occurs primarily due to the interaction between the supply and demand forces in a competitive market environment. It states that the difference in levels of poverty experienced by different families who are exposed to the same poverty standards occurs strictly from differences in the ownership of or willingness to supply labor. The article, therefore, states that poverty, unemployment, or underemployment can be corrected only through adoption f efficient market processes.The article found out that the working class poverty occurs when there is an increase in wages of high wage workers and decrease in wages of low-wage workers. One-market processes that can help in reversing the poverty among the working class is through improving the human capital of poor workers.

British Airways Analysis

There are new opportunities and threats existing for the European players.European Airlines Industry has been experiencing changes from the last few decades. These changes were results of various factors like political, social, technological, and economic. The first section of the paper describes British Airways and the European airline industry. It discusses the key factors of the industry. It further explores the environmental factors by doing PEST analysis for the industry. Porter’s five forces model of industry competitiveness is discussed in the next subsection, followed by opportunity and threat analysis.European Airlines Industry has gone through a tough phase just after the September 11 Twin Tower Tragedy of 2001. This has not only impacted the aviation industry across the globe but had the greatest impact on the European Airlines Industry and American Airlines Industry. The air travel market has grown in the last few years considerably with the growth of the leisure industry and the number of fliers for holiday destinations. The deregulations and other governmental policies have impacted the industry as well. There are various political, social, economical and technological factors that have impacted the industry and its structure. One of the largest players of the European Airlines Industry is British Airways. British Airways is ranked at 442 in the Fortune 500 companies with revenues of $ 15,189 million (as if March 2006). It is one of the world’s most successful airlines.British Airways is one of the world’s largest international airlines, carrying in the year to March 2005 almost 36 million passengers worldwide. Also, one of the world’s longest established airlines, it has always been regarded as an industry leader. The airline’s two main operating bases are London’s two main airports, Heathrow (the world’s biggest international airport) and Gatwick. An average of 49,490 staff was employed by the Group worldwide in 2004-2005, 86 percent of them based in the UK. Unlike some of the world’s other airlines, British Airways is owned entirely by private investors – with around 240,000 shareholders, including some 50 percent of the Company’s own employees.

Tourism strategy for Glasgow

The research paper title highlights tourism strategy for Glasgow that is guided by its vision statement, which states that their shared ambition for metropolitan Glasgow is of sustained and sustainable growth in the tourism industry as a contribution to the wealth and well-being of all. In addition, the vision for Glasgow 2016 action plan is of leading destination in key markets offering a unique, dynamic, and authentic experience through the quality of place, product, and service differentiated through the strength of the brand, Glasgow: Scotland with style. Glasgow 2016 action plan takes advantage of the city’s growth, favorable national policy environment, and higher level of ambitions and desire for Glasgow’s future prosperity and well-being. This clearly indicates that the strategy for Glasgow tourism is closely linked to the national and city policy document. The Glasgow outcomes and to ensure it meets its 2016 vision, there are certain elements that highlighted in its vision that shows its intention of ensuring economic growth of Scotland. Due to this, the tourism sector takes a major role in protecting the environment and working closely with communities for mutual benefits (Tribe 2010 p. 5). For successful strategic planning, there are several key elements of corporate strategy, which if well implemented, leads to success. These elements include. i. Strategic analysisii. Strategic purposeiii. Strategic choice iv. Strategic implementation Strategic purpose for tourism Glasgow is defined in its mission which states what the organization aims to achieve in the specified period. In the case of Scotland tourism 2016 action plan, the mission is that by 2016, tourism is seen as the major contributor to economic growth of Scotland. in this regard, the key contributor to Scotland tourism include Glasgow leading attractions, Tourism retail and leisure group, Greater Glasgow hotels association, Glasgow restaurateurs association, Scotland tourism and ministry of tourism. Strategic analysis incorporates consideration of influences upon Scotland tourism in terms of operating environment and resources available in order to attain its objectives by 2016. Strategic analysis is concerned in dealing with major strengths and weaknesses within internal resources and threats and opportunities posed by external environment in which the organization operates (Tribe 2010 p.10). In this sense, Scotland tourism identifies some threats in its external environment. These threats include. i. The use of IT by customers ii. The impact of travel on climate change iii. Competitive nature of tourism destination iv. Increase in fuel prices The major strength include i. Brand name ii. culture iii. partnership and joint working iv. international gateway v. city centre retail offer vi. architecture vii. conference facilities and viii. access to highlands Major opportunities for Scotland tourism include. i. Continued brand development ii. Increase in short break travel iii. , New hotel development iv. Experiential services v. Collaboration with Edinburgh and other, surrounding destinations vi. Developing service excellence vii. Attracting large scale events viii. Innovative new products and packaging ix. Waterfront regeneration x. Differentiation through unique selling points xi. Employment-rich sector xii. Green issues Major weakness includes. i. Signage ii. gaps in transport infrastructure iii. packaging of experience iv. cleanliness v. Image of sector for employment Strategic choice is more concerned with selection strategy, evaluation of available options and generation of strategic options. The strategic option favored by Scotland tourism 2016 action plan has moved from mass tourism where they initially concentrated on price to major emphasis on quality or differentiated tourism where consumer or visitor and host experience is emphasized. The Glasgow: Scotland with style

Raisins in the Sun Dreams Realized and Deferred

The older women do domestic work, while Walter is a chauffeur. The play revolves round their receipt of a $10,000 insurance check from the death of the father. The family strives to use that check to realize its dreams. Hansberry’s play poses Langston Hughes’ question What happens to a dream deferred? as its epigraph. The various characters in the play have their own, unique dreams: Eleanor Younger dreams of a house in the suburbs. Beneatha dreams of becoming a doctor. Ruth dreams of a better life for the family and Walter dreams of economic success. As each member of the Younger family struggles to come to terms with their identities, weaknesses and wants, there is no doubt that The simple eloquence of the characters elevates the play into a universal presentation of people’s hopes, fears and dreams (Washington, 110). In very simple terms, Raisins in the Sun may be viewed as the struggle of the Younger family to reach out for the great American Dream in their own ways. The dreams of Eleanor Younger and Walter Younger come into conflict in the play, but the resolution demonstrates that deferred dreams can survive. Right from the early days of her marriage, Eleanor Younger dreams of a house in the suburbs. … She agrees with her husband that Seem like God didn’t see fit to give the black man nothing but dreams but He did give us children to make them dreams seem worthwhile (Hansberry, 46). She allots money to fund Beneatha’s dream of becoming a doctor. At the same time, when Eleanor realizes the extent of Walter’s emotion regarding becoming a businessman, she gives him money to invest in his dreams of entrepreneurship. Walter is a young man who is obsessed by his dreams of wealth. He is tired of the poverty of their life, which threatens to extend into the future, Just waiting for me a big, looming blank space full of nothing (Hansberry, 73). He is determined to change the course of his life. He declares to his wife, I got me a dream. (Hansberry, 33). He resents Ruth’s refusal to encourage him in his scheme of opening a liquor store. He models his ideas of success on the affluent young white men he sees downtown. He envisions success on a huge scale. He seeks to emulate the success of George Murchinson’s father, telling George that Walter thinks like he does. I mean think like he does. Big. Invest big, gamble big, hell, lose big if you have to, you know what I mean (Hansberry, 84). He is swept up by his fury to make good in life: I want so many things that they are driving me kind of crazy (Hansberry, 72). As Walter reaches out for the American Dream, and pursues financial security and prosperity, he bears the dreams of many generations of black suffering, and he demands his place under the sun of the American dream (Saber, 459). When Eleanor gives him money to invest in his liquor store, Walter is confident of realizing his dream. His flawed judgment leads to his betrayal by Willy Harris and the loss of his money and


Canada’s Future Labor Market: Immigrants to the Rescue? Introduction Canada has a large population of aging people thus likely to face an economic future challenge. Hodgson (1) observes that though recession has greatly relieved Canada from tight conditions in the labor market, it is expected that its national unemployment rate is likely to reduce by 6% with recovery of the economy. Planning is therefore very essential in order to effectively deal with the expected decrease in supply of labor. Therefore, I strongly agree that immigration can ensure a significant labor source in dynamism market supply if it is done n the right way. Therefore, Canada’s immigration policy need to be modernized, and Canada should add the weight it accrues to streamlining immigration systems, economic factors expand programs that deal with use of temporary immigrant workers and improve upfront involvement and foreign credential programs. Why Canada should Adopt Immigrants in its Future Labor Market For a country to have potentials for long-term economic growth, or just sustainable economic growth it must have growing labor force, undertake investment in physical capital, and thus increase its productivity. In the last years, Canada has been a poor performer in terms of investment in physical capital and productivity, compared to other developed nations. Since 1980, physical capital investment and investment in human capital have not been in a similar pace (Hodgson 3). Its rate of productivity growth has hence been declining and its performance in productivity lags behind that of countries that compare to it like US. reliance on Canadian dollar that is very low, excessive capital taxes and regulatory barriers have been considered as the root cause of this underperformance, but recent research shows that low supply of market labor in Canada is now one of the greatest cause of low productivity. To ensure enough supply in the labor force, it is important for Canada to employ immigrants since its current rate of unemployment has a deficit of 8.5% and is expected to further decline since many of those in labor force are aging and expected to retire, yet the youths are very few, that they cannot provide enough supply that is required in the market (Hodgson 31). The jobs data in Canada shows that with growth in the rates of unemployment, workers supply in skilled trade and some occupations is still very slim. To prevent such problems, I agree that Canada should make use of immigrants, who will ensure that labor supply and market requirements are in line. It is true that immigrants play a great economic role in Canada’s development and many Canadians believe that they should be embraced and appreciated. The results also confirm that the role played by immigrants is less understood, yet it will play even greater role if economic growth and development in Canada is to be sustained in the years to come. As a result of the great growth in Canada’s aging population, policies that encourage immigration in Canada to compensate its labor market supply should be encouraged. Although there has been some relaxation on foreign workers control, its underlying potentials in economic growth is under a steady erosion by the aging phenomenon and hence the shrinking workforce. To avoid future problems in its labor market, Canada should therefore attain foreign students and give them permanent residency in order to increase its immigration levels with people who are interested in Canada, and who have started to make the values of Canada their own by studying there. Work Cited Hodgson, Glen. Canada’s Future Labor Market: Immigration to the Rescue? Retrieved on 14th June, 2011 from: – Similar.

Analysis of The Dispossessed written by Ursula LeGuin

When he finally succeeds in his intellectual mission, LeGuin describes his moment of ultimate fulfillment: And yet in his utter ease and happiness, he shook with fear. his hands trembled, and his eyes filled up with tears as if he had been looking into the sun. After all, the flesh is not transparent. And it is strange, exceedingly strange, to know that one’s life has been fulfilled. (LeGuin, 281) The fulfillment that Shevek experiences—the ‘childish joy’ at solving the problem before him highlights LeGuin’s representation of people’s natural initiative to engage creatively in work/play that at once benefits society as a whole and also forwards the Contemporary Justice Review 309 free and full development of the individual. Here the term that can be used if ‘work/play’ because in the Anarrean society imagined in The Dispossessed, separate terms do not exist for work and play, as Anarreans are not required to do work they do not enjoy but instead freely choose of their own initiative, without external coercion, the work they want to do (Brennan, 25).The character of late philosopher and revolutionary Odo, whose teachings form the basis of culture and society on Anarres, articulates the theory informing this conception of human motivation. A child-free from the guilt of ownership and the burden of economic competition will grow up with the will to do what needs doing and the capacity for joy in doing it. It is useless to work that darkens the heart. The delight of the nursing mother, of the scholar, of the successful hunter, of the good cook, of the skillful maker, of anyone doing needed work and doing it well this durable joy is perhaps the deepest source of human affection, and of sociality as a whole. (LeGuin, 247) What Odo’s words suggest here and what LeGuin ratifies throughout the novel is that the organizational forms of capitalism such as private property and competition do not enhance or optimize people’s capacity to realize their highest potential but rather deaden that capacity.

Real vs Nominal Interest

The fact that changes in the rate of interest brought about by the central bank of any nation will have significant consequences on the real and monetary variables of the economy is hardly unexpected or in any way surprisingly stunning a conclusion. Generally, the central bank changes the interest rate as a part of its inflation-targeting monetary policy package. As a direct result of this rise in interest rate, commercial banks find borrowing from the central bank to be more costly now and thus overall lending outfalls and the pace of the price movements slow down as there is a decline in overall spending.The first step, in identifying these channels and more importantly perceiving the mechanism through which they work, is distinguishing between real and nominal interest rates and clarifying how changes in nominal interest rates affect the real interest rate. The nominal interest rate refers to solely the monetary value of the price of borrowing funds while the real interest rate refers to the effective cost of borrowing which incorporates the rate of inflation along with the nominal interest rate. So, we have the relation:Generally, the rate of interest refers to the nominal rate unless specifically mentioned. Thus, when we discuss the effects of changes in the interest rate by the central bank we are talking about the impacts of a change in the nominal rate of interest.The impact of a change in the interest rates can be very lucidly explained in terms of the substitution, income, and wealth effects generated through interest rate movements. An increase (decrease) in the rate of interest (nominal or real) reduces (raises) the relative attractiveness of spending now as opposed to in the future for economic agents. So, the nominal variables domestic credit, the quantity of domestic money as well as real demand all fall (rise). This is referred to as the substitution effect.

Analyse the construction of female subjectivity in Caterina Albert’s Solitud

Being married in a backward community and living in the rural set up in the mountain, made it even tougher for her to advance economically and academically1,. Mila represents women in that community who are treated as subjects to men. This dates back to the history of Europe when women originally used to be taken by force or regularly sold by force by their father. They were not consulted or given the chance to make their own choice with regard to their life partner hence it was solely a decision between the father and the man interested with his daughter. Church was there to set the moral pace by making it a requirement that a formal wedding is conducted to join the two parties involved but nothing to show that the bride’s consent was considered before the ceremony. Thereafter, the man had power over life and death over his wife making her forcefully reliant and dedicated to him. Mila embraces this to as her marriage to Matia, a vow of lifelong obedience to him. Women’s main roles were is to stay at home, do the chores and other duties regarded as feminine. They do not have an opinion of their own. Men however are at liberty to do what they wish as depicted by Matia, the husband to Mila. His gambling receives less judgment from the society even though it poses a threat to his marriage and eventually causes it to crumble Pressure mounts in her matrimonial life from the behavior of her husband and the society instead of offering support, expects her to keep her home together despite the fact it brings to her total misery. Her husband fails to play his role and so it is expected of her to fill in cover up for him. She has to put up with what he does given that no alternatives are mentioned in such a case which would be of help or at least intervene. On her own, she has to struggle to find a solution to a stifling and perverse life. She could not automatically result to change of partners at her will which in this case would have the ideal solution to her problem at. This was so as she lived in a strict and morally upright community that is rural. The expectation the society has of a married woman is to be a submissive and loyal wife to her husband in all circumstances. She had not failed in performing her duties as a wife. Mila’s husband however who is expected to be her partner and also a provider merely was the one adding trouble to their life. He is a gambler and keeps adding debts to the already poor life they are living which Mila has to struggle and pay. But being male he is considered not at fault and that gambling is a man’s thing. Furthermore he treats her as an object rather than a life companion. For a long time she suffers in solitude and misery. She is forced to play subject to her community wishes which cause her to be afraid. Her fear is governed by the way the community would view her if she walked away as well as the consequences that would follow thereafter. She is torn between living up to their expectation and walking away to find her happiness. Eventually Mila reaches a point of realization and comes out boldly with a tough decision. She decides to go against the traditions, stand on her own and eventually walks away from her husband. She makes a decision that does not meet the expectation of the community for her own good and peace no matter the risks or costs involved. This is on the realization that she cannot depend on Matia her husband for neither emotional nor even economic support. She considers herself

The Dangers Associated With Marijuana Use

Medically marijuana can be consumed due to its ability to ameliorate nausea and vomiting. It is also used to stimulate hunger to cancer patients during chemotherapy and general analgesic effects as a pain reliever (Iversen, p12-16). Consumption or use of Marijuana may take several different forms depending on the intention. For psychoactive purpose it may involve smoking or drinking associated with dried flowers, kief and hashish whereas for the medicinal purpose it is taken through ingestion of medically approved food products like hash oil, infused dairy butter and pipe resin. Despite the superficial analysis on the use and perceptions of marijuana, the drug use poses a lot of dangers both to the primary user and the secondary one. The effects on these dangers may vary depending with factors like how long has the drug been used by the individual, his/her age of debut, the level of addiction, social and cultural background and the biological and genetic organization of an individual. These dangers and the long term effects to an individual are witnessed irrespective of the time the drug is used. We shall analyze these dangers on the specific effects they have on the user. Health wise, marijuana is associated with development of several illnesses such as bipolar disorder which is a mental disease whereby the user experiences a frenzied maniac mood and mixed state of mental confusion and retention. These maniac mood swings and depressions are dangerous as they may cause one’s risk to others, involuntary commitments and suicidal ideation as a result of social stigma, stereotype and prejudice. Marijuana also averts someone’s concentration to an activity and low mood affecting someone’s feelings, behavior, wellbeing and thoughts. Depending with the length of time used and genetical structure of the user this can result to anxiety, guilt hopelessness and restlessness. These disorders affect the normal functioning of the body and daily activities of a person which in turn affects sleep patterns, eating habits, rejuvenation of the body and control. These hormonal and psychological imbalances affect productivity and health (Carter, p23-25). Marijuana is highly associated with cardio vascular or commonly known as heart diseases which are not only life threatening but economic burden to the user and society. They are of different types such as coronary heart diseases which affects the cardiac artery, cardiomyopathy which is the disease of the cardiac muscle, heart failure and other complications of the heart beat rhythm and blood circulation. Cardiovascular diseases are statistically the number one killer diseases in the world generally referred to as strokes and heart attacks. Marijuana is highly associated with the development of major cancer diseases of the human race. Its nicotine content is believed to accelerate the growth of carcinogens which are the causative agents. These cancers vary from throat, lung and other chest complications. Cancer is among the five global killer diseases posing a great danger of the human health and thus need to avoid use of marijuana to control and minimize the deaths caused by these diseases (Ra?tsch, p16). Although scientists argue that Marijuana taken in small quantities has no adverse effects on the pulmonary function of the body, there is significance association of the smokers with pulmonary


Trade deficit among other effects makes a country spend or export a lot of its currency to the foreign market, which may create shortage of the currency in the local market. Cause of trade deficit may attribute to the practices of by foreign markets or countries lowering the cost of their export to the affected country and increasing cost of importing goods and services from the affected country. This means that the affected country will have to spend a lot of its currency to export goods and services, and spend very little to import goods from the competitor country. From the analysis, it means that trade deficit literally increases supply of a country’s currency in the foreign market making the currency depreciate. This means that it impossible and practical difficult to maintain the value of local currency with negative balance of trade. For example, if supply of US dollar in the Euro market increases, the number of Euro required in buying one dollar will decrease. When the number of Euro required in buying one unit of dollar decreases, the demand for dollar in the foreign Euro markets will increase due to the low prices of dollar. This means that many foreigners in the European countries will be holding large quantities of dollars, as they will not be in demand for the American goods. This effect will result to decrease in the supply of dollar in American economy and subsequent rise in demand for dollar in the same American economy. The general effect of such market trend on the American economy will sharp deflation as locals will be not be willing to spend the little dollars they have in their custody. Economic recession occurs due to scarce supply of local currency in the local market, which affects demand among the local consumers. To correct the shortage, a country can resort to borrowing from foreign countries to spur its production and manufacturing activities. A country can also review its market and monetary policies to attract foreign investors who be returning local currency lost to the foreign markets. The best way that countries exercise control over their value of their respective currencies in the international market is through intervening the foreign exchange market. Foreign exchange market specifically deals with daily and periodical valuation of all international currencies depending on the international flow of the specific country’s currency. Intervening in such a market may mean that an interested country buy its own currency from the international exchange and create shortage of the same in the international market. A country can also intervene by selling its currency in the international market with aim of acquiring another currency with high value. In so doing, the buying country shields it domestic economy from any economic shifts in the foreign market country. This kind of economic practice is common among the developing countries but rare in the stable and industrialized countries. Industrialized countries do not like intervening in the foreign exchange market or various reasons. One of the reasons why industrialized countries do not intervene in the foreign exchange market relates to their developed statuses that makes them perform many manufacturing and production activities that earns them foreign income when exported. This means that they are always in situation of competition for the international market where they export their goods and services. Attempts by anyone of

Personal Mythology

As Robert Root shows us, creative non-fiction is a challenge to write and the following is my personal story about growing in China and wanting a better life in the United States of America (Root 2009).An ancient civilization and an emerging economy in the heart of Asia, China is quickly developing one of the strongest countries in the world. Chinese products can be found all over the world and my country has exhibited phenomenal economic growth in a very short span of time. China has developed its economy while resisting pressures to democratize and has continued to develop inline with Maoist socialist thought. I read somewhere that the Chinese model of development is called authoritarian capitalism (Gat, 2001). I agree with this assessment and while I understood the potential for success in China growing up, I was also very aware that if I really wanted to succeed and have the personal freedoms that I so desperately craved as a young boy in China, I would have to pick up my life and move across the ocean to the United States of America. The American dream was a powerful force for me as a young boy. While I was aware that the opportunities were great, I also knew that the opportunities in America were greater and at the age of 17, I immigrated alone to the United States of America. I was drawn to the ideals of the American way: endless opportunity and personal freedoms which I knew I could never have in China. Although it is true that China today has shown incredible economic growth and it seems like opportunities to make money are everywhere, the people of China are not free and do not share the freedoms that people in this country have come to take for granted. China’s history and traditions are too strong and the people there today look to the West with a mixture of suspicion and envy.I came here because I wanted to make my life in the United States and benefit from the mixture of opportunity, quality of life, and freedom.

The Year 1982 Up Close

Although the Cold War was not violent, there were other wars going on across the globe that was quite different. Argentina and the United Kingdom were fighting over the Falkland Islands, while Israel was invading Lebanon. In the earlier years, both Argentina and the U.K. suffered damages by losing a ship and a submarine respectively. They also lost lives in the war and thousands of Palestine refugees in camps in Beirut were slain by the Lebanese Militia. Not everything that occurred in the year was detrimental, there were instances that were celebrated. For instance, the first CD player was sold in Japan. In sports, Italy won the world cup in Spain. In the field of medicine, doctors massive improvement by implanting the first permanent artificial heart. Commercial whaling is also banned in this year with the help of the International Whaling Commission. On a relatively surprising end, the largest cash robbery was reported in New York after just below ten million dollars is stolen from an armored car (Collins 308). The Recession The recession of early 1980s began in July of 1981 and ended in November the following year. Although it was considered that the developed nations had been experiencing some economic hardships since the 70s, the recession in the United States was clearly evident in this time frame of 1981-1982. The key reason stated for the destitution was that the Federal Reserve System has an ineffective contractionary monetary system in place to control inflation. This system had been put in place since the country was hurting from the 1973 Oil Crisis along with the energy crisis in 1879. These two events in the 70s had caused the Federal Reserve to seek a plan as they were causing massive inflation… The recession of the early 1980s began in July of 1981 and ended in November the following year. Although it was considered that the developed nations had been experiencing some economic hardships since the 70s, the recession in the United States was clearly evident in this time frame of 1981-1982. The key reason stated for the destitution was that the Federal Reserve System has an ineffective contractionary monetary system in place to control inflation. This system had been put in place since the country was hurting from the 1973 Oil Crisis along with the energy crisis in 1879. These two events in the 70s had caused the Federal Reserve to seek a plan as they were causing massive inflation at a time of little growth. In an economy such as the United States, it was utterly irresponsible to use systems without the proper knowledge of the possible outcomes.The recession caused some adverse impacts that were felt on an international scale since the U.S. was a big part of the global economy. Some of the most notable outcomes are discussed below, and some proposals put forth to solve them.As with any other period with economic hardships, the employment figures in the U.S. in 1982 swelled rapidly. It stood at 5.1% at the start of 1974 and 9% in May 1975. The 70s were times of crisis such as the Oil Crisis followed by the Energy Crisis and hence the figures would occasionally shift. At the start of the recession in 1981, the unemployment percentage was 7.5% but steadily rose through to the following year.

Business Correspondence packet

Living a sedentary lifestyle makes us more unhealthy as well, as we are more prone to eating convenience foods that are most always closely related to junk food and therefore deficient in nutritional value. We would be taking part in this effort by organizing two or three skits of short duration that would educate the kids and their caregivers about the risks and outcomes of ignoring the benefits of a balanced diet and a balanced lifestyle. In this connection, we would be printing invitation cards, brochures, program schedules and thank you cards. We are sure that you would want to do your part by agreeing to print out these items free of cost and thereby add to the success of this gala party. Apart from the theatre presentations, we have also added a number of attractions for the kids like a Merry-go-round, Bouncing Castle, Rides, Slides, See-saws, Swings and a Running Track that has been offered free of charge by the owners of a nearby park. We look forward to your taking part in this effort. … There is talk about the last depression and whether we are really out of it, whether the impending debt default and the impasse by the Republicans will create further financial and economic crisis for America, and whether the Obama Administration will manage to ride out these difficult times. Among the various uses of money, nothing is more appreciated than a donation to a good and worthy cause. We at the Save the Children Foundation of the USA are glad that we are saving our children from the menace of obesity and disease. In modern times, it has been found that lack of exercise and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle coupled with bad food choices has contributed to a rise in diabetes, malnutrition and even heart disease among kids of younger ages. To educate the local community about these risks, we are planning to organize a three day Gala Party for kids and their caregivers that will give them a picture of these diseases of a modern sedentary lifestyle, as well as tell them about the risks and responsibilities that they need to take if they want to avoid a bad fate. We invite you and State Farm Bank to donate towards this worthy cause that will protect the lives of our children and grandchildren. We daresay its one of the best investments you can make in terms of protecting your future customers. If you would like any clarification or more knowledge about the event, please contact me at (405)-345-6787 on any working day. Sincerely, Name of the Student Team Leader, Fund Raising Committee, Save the Children Fund, USA. 3. A Bad News/Refusal Letter Mr. Never Dowell, Splendid Heights, Signature Market Lane, IL 10034, USA. Dear Mr. Dowell, We refer to your recent application for a State Farm Silver

Alternative Energy Sources And Sustainable Development

This can be made possible if we put much effort and genius, just the same way the world discovered the first atomic bomb. The best source would be hydrogen fusion, but this miracle may be far than imagined. It became discovered that wind, solar, biomass, among many others, may also serve as a success, but require further effort to enhance them. Essential and crucial to whatsoever success is the ability to be able to achieve anything. Furthermore, renewable energy, can and certainly make a replacement of both fossil fuel and nuclear power as fast as possible if the globe is to avoid the hazardous effects of runaway climate change. Although wind, solar, biofuels and nuclear try to compete with oil as alternatives of basic energy, their contribution to the global energy in total can be limited or restricted since they are expensive compared to oil. In the case of nuclear, it can be restricted by waste and their disposal problems. As we acknowledge the hazards of climate change, we nonetheless, make a conclusion that the globe will continue to demand oil and gas for most of the basic supply of energy for several decades to come (Hurt, 2008). Wind energy is another key aspect. In the year of 2007, approximately twenty thousand megawatts became installed worldwide, enough to power 6 million homesteads. Nevertheless, most wind energy manufacturers can not be restricted to the USA, thanks to decades of funding cuts by the conservatives. Moreover, new wind can be poised to be a large contribution to America and worldwide generation of electricity, compared to nuclear power in the future decades. Furthermore, solar energy could be an even larger energy source, and it can share and distribute power lines with the wind. This… This paper tresses that new wind can be poised to be a large contribution to America and worldwide generation of electricity, compared to nuclear power in the future decades. Furthermore, solar energy could be an even larger energy source, and it can share and distribute power lines with the wind. This implies we can visualize an electric grid that would be built around renewable electricity having no greenhouse gas emissions, zero fuel cost, no future volatility of the energy prices, and zero radioactive waste. The wind does not necessarily always blow, and sunshine is not always present for each solar panel. This report makes a conclusion that there happens to be a stoppage at the first half of the oil age, because of the current economic and financial crisis, which is torturing the globe. Natural gas and oil can be set to fall during the second half of the oil age, to levels of exhaustion by the end of the century because of continuous depletion. Today, renewable energy, inclusive of hydro, accounts for not more than twelve percent of the globe’s total energy consumption. It can hence be known that their demand for them would grow rapidly in the forthcoming years, but it can be doubted if they can be used to replace fuels of fossil origin. Upgraded efficiency and changed lifestyles can be called to encounter the setbacks imposed. Hence, the tensions and setbacks of such a transition threaten to be disastrous

What Can Be Done to the Tax System of the USA

As might be expected, one of the reasons why a value-added tax/sales tax/fair tax has not caught on within the United States is because a preponderance of negative trade-offs exists with regards to implementing this.1 As a function of seeking to understand this issue to a more complete degree, the following analysis will present the reader with an understanding of how a federal sales tax represents both positive and negative externalities and could ultimately harm many at-risk individuals within the current society. The current complex and ineffective tax system in the United States needs to be replaced with a flat tax system to avoid the country from falling further into an economic collapse.Although the analysis will most certainly go into a greater level of death concerning each of the pros and cons of a potential federal sales tax, figure 1.0 below helps to sustain sleep illustrate some of the key points that will be under discussion within this brief analysis.As can be seen, the main benefits that a federally mandated sales tax could incur would most certainly be with regards to leveling the playing field between all taxpayers within the system.2 The current system is one that places an undue level of stress upon certain individuals within society while others do not have any tax burden whatsoever. As such, a federally mandated sales tax would be a system that would invariably change this dynamic and ensure that each individual who participates in the economy would be the same rate. Another added benefit is about the fact that a nationally mandated sales tax would serve to increase investment. Because investments themselves and savings would not be taxed, individuals would realize that a heavy national sales tax burden would encourage them to save their money rather than spend it.

Fighting for Four Freedoms and the Cold War and the United States

Inserts His/her Inserts Inserts Grade Inserts Here (Day, Month, Year) FIGHTING FOR FOUR FREEDOMS AND THE COLD WAR AND UNITED STATES The Four Freedom theme was derived from the 1941 State of the Unoin Addressby United States President Franklin Roosevelt delivered to the 77th United States Congress. His speech identified four essential Human rights i.e. Freedom of Speech, Freedom of Worship, Freedom from Want and Freedom from Fear which should serve as the basis of motivation for the US. This theme was incorporated into the Atlantic Charter. These four freedoms are just like any of human’s basic needs. Peace is far better tool rather than war. The cold war was a hostile rivalry between the US and Soviet Union which started from 1940’s and continued till the Soviet Union broke in 1991.The main reasons of the Cold war was the difference of ideologies. Soviet union which was basically a communist country was ruled by a dictator .this idea was not appreciated by the Americans. Both the nations believed that the other would harm the other nation beliefs. Stalin wanted other countries to come forward to help protect the Soviet Union from being invaded again on the other hand, US and Britain were worried that most of the areas of Eastern Europe were falling under Soviet Union. So lack of trust weakened these nations and they fell apart. Who was responsible for this Cold war? Some blame America some USSR. America tried to show their power and attacked Japan with an atom bomb which was very harmful for the upcoming of generations. During the reign of Eisenhower, most of the population wanted to live a luxurious life.It was a period of prosperity and most of the people started purchasing material things which did not happen ever before. Consequently, Eisenhower put forward the idea that the government should come forward and help in building roads and highways that were to connect to the suburbs. Due to this the Highway act came into being. In return, the government established more industries, shops, malls which lead to the expansion of the job opportunities and lead to economic development. (Causes of the Cold War) Reference Causes of the Cold War, Online, Web, 2011.

Greeces Economic Crisis

2-3). In a research paper of Cardiff Business School the researcher has concluded that the macroeconomic fundamentals like the inflation, the exchange rate arise for Greece which is more than the European average (Arghyrou and Tsoukalas, 2010, p.5). In a research paper of Capitalvia the researcher has opined that the economic situation of Greece and U.S.A. is similar as both of them are depending on the foreign investors for funding of the budget deficit. For the crisis the value of Euro would come down and the fact is that United States’ trade with EU is the highest. As a result the investor would lose confidence on U.S. economy and U.S. economy also would come down. According to this research though the U.S. investors’ investment is low in Greek bonds, if Greece would default the investors would lose money and U.S. economy gets hampered (Capitalvia, 2010, p.11-12). According to a research paper published by Konrad Adenauer Stiftung for improving the economy of Greece the euro countries are providing bridge loan and the tight austerity program introduced in Greece. As the countries are providing loan in a lower rate it is also necessary for them to tight the monetary policy in their countries. As a result the growth would be slow in those countries. As the Euro slow down, as an effect the dollar would go down. Then U.S. also has to tighten its monetary policy and as a result the economy would get hampered (Wagner and Machnowski, 2010, p.2). In a research paper of CEPS the researchers have compared the economic crisis of Argentina in 2001 and the crisis of Greece in 2011. Argentina has defaulted as there was lack of support from the outside of the country. Argentina has tried… The paper tells that the economy of the European Union is facing problem due to this crisis. As the investor is losing their confidence in Euro, the value of the currency is going down. As a remedial measure the governments of the European countries are providing bridge loan and as a result the countries have to tighten the monetary policies. The governments are providing monetary package to the banks which are in problem due to the crisis of Greece. In turn the bank interests come down and the world economy is facing certain problem. As the trade of U.S. is mainly with the European Union countries so the economic crisis of Greece would surely affect U.S. As the European countries are going to tighten their monetary policy for the economic crisis so certainly they would decrease their import and the main trading partner of Euro zone is U.S. The export would get hampered and the economic growth would not be much. As a result U.S. has to tighten its monetary policy and the overall economy of U.S. gets hampered. For the short term remedial measures the European Union countries have to provide loan in low cost to Greece and for long term remedial measures the European zone can take some policies like introducing common Euro bonds. The share of the capital would be as per the share of the countries and the interest rate would be provided by the countries would be like they are providing the interest rate they are providing in the domestic market. For the short term measures Greece should restructure its debt using some process like debt swap.

Wealth Distribution as a Major Determining Factor for the Economic Growth in Regions of the World

The need to pursue economic equality among individuals and between different countries of the world arose upon the realization of the exploitative nature of humans by their fellow likes. This was as a result of the ever-escalating gap between the bourgeoisie and lower class people in society (Wilkinson and Pickett). In a bid to minimize this gap, there arose a quest for wealth harmonization between individuals and countries hence the origin of the appeal for equitable distribution of wealth for the purpose of attaining a uniform economic growth across the globe. Much effort has been invested in this quest although always met with a lot of resistance from the high-class property owners. In some instances, the appeal has minimally succeeded for instance in Russia and Switzerland. The recent state of equality with regard to wealth distribution and ownership between different parties in the world has raised eyebrows as the gap between the poor and the rich continue to widen across the board. The rich still continue to earn more as the poor continue receiving diminishing wages in the world economic market. This is the state of the matter in most European countries with the exception of France, Japan, and Spain with Israel, Turkey and United States mostly trapped in the vicious circle of an increasing gap between the poor and the rich. On a broader dimension, economic inequality has been majorly experienced in the less developed regions of the world such as the Indian subcontinent as well as in sub-Saharan Africa. According to UniversityWorldNet, one of the most contributing factors to economic inequality and unequal wealth distribution around the globe is the trend and the nature of taxation in many countries which has not favored development in these regions.

Collective and Distributive Power of the United States

America enjoys a power in the international system that is indispensable as the state wishes to take their leadership responsibilities as well as share the burdens of others. Thus the country of America enjoys both collective as well as distributive powers. (Simone, 2000, p 39) The United States of America play an important leadership role in the policies regarding the international trade. Thus the paper aims at evaluating the role of the country in international trade.Trade relations existed among economies from the period of Mercantilism in the world economy. The large economies of the world have always been dominating the small economies in their economic interaction in terms of trade. One main instance that reflects the dominance of the United States in the dealings of international Trade was the signing of the conditional MFN clause in the year 1778 between the United States and France. The equality of the privileges enjoyed in the market was to be ensured by the treaty. However, the clause held by the US was the main factor responsible for destroying the equality in the market. (Trebilcock Howse, 2005, p 50) In the period following the Second World War and the establishment of universal balance in the economies of the country, that is, after such a huge disturbance, there had been a significant increase in international trades. In order to conduct the liberalization of the world economies in a systematic way, a certain agreement was planned to be signed between the nations participating in international trade. This gave rise to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trades, which was followed by the establishment of a general governing body for monitoring the international trade, namely the World Trade Organization. The main aim motive behind the formation of GATT was to avoid the difficulties of the policies of imports and exports of individual countries prevalent before the Second World War. An overall policy for all member countries participating in internationaltrade was the main aim.

Coach Working at Different Levels within the UK

This paper illustrates that sports coaching has followed the trajectory of sports in the international market. Some coaches such as Alex Fergusson are as famous as the players whom they coach. This section discusses the functions and roles of coaches and helps in developing an understanding of their use. Sports’ coaching is linked to the economic and social events of the past and coaching follows the story of sports. Modern sports such as football, cricket, and others were not invented in the ancient times and the common people had neither the energy nor the inclination to take up sports after a hard days labor. The ancient Greeks conducted the Olympics and the first mention of athletes who trained under special trainers is known. Plato, Archimedes, Hippocrates and other philosophers also served as coaches for they believed in a sound body and a sound mind. Wealthy patrons brought in expert wrestlers and runners, winners of Olympic events became celebrities, and wealth was showered on the winner and his coach. Imperial Rome had trainers who trained slaves for gladiator contests and training was limited to war games such as wrestling, sword fighting, archery, Javelin, horse riding, running and other such events. Kings and Lords maintained armies and these were kept in fighting shape through constant training. Coaches toured villages and picked up fit and strong youths and these were trained as soldiers. Contests of strength and skills were held during community feasts and trained soldiers participated in these events. The common peasant or tradesmen never participated in these contests or sports and coaching was limited to only events that helped in war.

The Impact of Soft Drugs Legalization

In Romania soft drugs remain illegal as a measure to curbing soft drug trafficking, but currently there are endeavors to legalize soft drugs (Ioan 2010, Para. 4).Economists have opposed the prohibition of recreational drugs since the time America had prohibited alcohol consumption by a clause in the Constitution (McKenzie 1985, p. 210). Later by 1930, they revealed how expensive it was to enforce the laws against alcohol consumption, scholars opine that had they consulted economists they would have advised how difficult and expensive it was to enforce the law (Ioan 2010, para. 7). For example, Irving Fisher one of the United States of America’s greatest economists claimed that he could not find an economist to speak against the ban on alcohol consumption. The advice could have helped them not to make laws only because of morality but to consider other economic factors too Prohibition(Fisher 1930, p. 60). The same consideration should be taken into account with respect to other drugs.Initially, economists associated to the Chicago school of Economists who are liberals have advocated for the legalization of soft drugs consumption others did not support the legalization of the drug, but they changed stand after prohibition after observing that prohibition led to the following: corrupted morals of the law. undermined the respect of the law. and, failed to stop consumption of alcohol. (Friedman 1972, p. 82). The failure of the prohibition of alcohol to succeed implies that even the prohibition on soft drugs cannot succeed.Previous research on drug prohibition shows that, the prohibition led to shooting up of recreational drug prices, secondly, increased crime as consumers of drugs be regarded as criminals (Smith 1997, p. 35). Thirdly, overcrowding of prisons as more people got arrested and a backlog of cases in court as the arrested persons got prosecuted.

Guidelines Australia Should Adopt in Area of Foreign Economic Policy

Moreover, this paper intends to assess the economic impact of the Australian international trade-related strategies along with its budgetary implications. Additionally, it measures the response of the Australian community towards governmental reactions in order to resolve the problem.The recent GFC of 2007-2008, primarily began with the ‘credit crunch’ due to the failure of confidence by US investors in the value of ‘sub-prime mortgage’ which in turn led to a liquidity crisis in the international market. Subsequently, the international stock markets became highly unstable as this global economic crisis was observed to harm the financial institutions globally due to the bank solvency, decline in credit availability and lowering investor confidence level. This in turn influenced the securities in the worldwide economy as the credit rate increased and international trade declined. The housing markets of many regions were also influenced due to this economic crisis. Furthermore, it raised the issues related to eviction, unemployment and foreclosure in various interrelated economies1.With due consideration to this, it has been observed that European economy was also affected that in turn persuaded the government to borrow money from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and from the other neighbor countries in order to mitigate these negative effects of global economic crisis and thus led towards the rise of Euro crisis. It is in this context that with due effect to the recent Euro crisis, Australia also had to suffer. The effect of the Euro crisis transmitted to the Australian economy fundamentally due to the reason that both the economies were strongly interrelated in terms of strong government finances and a resilient banking system2. For instance, the Commonwealth Bank decided to terminate its plan for an enclosed bond issue due to market turmoil in relation to the European crisis.

Globalization and the state discuss

Marxism is a case in point. It argues that the system is rife with exploitation, greed and is destined for an inevitable demise. The position is that nation-states are rendered helpless as globalization forces wrest control of the social, economic and political spheres. These issues highlight the conflicting views on the link between globalization and the state. Is there an accurate approach to explaining the phenomenon and its impact on nation states and the world? This paper proposes that the Marxist perspective can be effective in answering this issue. What is a state? For the purpose of this paper, it is helpful to establish the concept of the state. Max Weber defined it as an agency of domination which bounds civil society together (Abinales and Amoroso 2005, p6). The domination variable is important because it guarantees and holds together what Weber called the state’s main attributes: territory, monopoly and legitimacy (Stewart 2001, p103). This is one of the most comprehensive and widely cited definitions. In the Communist Manifesto, Marx and Engels (2012, p3) also provided his own definition by explaining that the state is a committee for managing the common affairs of the whole bourgeoisie. Both of these definitions – as the rest of other conceptualizations – differ in elements, structure and they do vary according to politics. But there are commonalities such as territory and control and, interestingly, most of these elements are present in the modern world system under globalization. This factor along with the state’s response to internationalization underpins the relationship between state and globalization. Globalization and the Marxist View It is important to note that Marxism is fundamentally a critique of capitalism. It established how the economic organization of society defines and control the political and social system (Neack 2003, p21). Any society that adopts this system is said to be characterized by stratified socio-economic classes. The Marxian analysis approaches globalization from this perspective. It maintains that globalization, as a capitalist system, is endlessly driven by the need to accumulate more. Here, the means of production and consumption is cultivated in such a pattern of expansion, where the market is pushed further from the local to the nation on to the international levels (Milward 2003, p23). In 1857, Karl Marx (1973, p524, p.539) published Grundrisse, wherein he predicted globalization by declaring: capital by its nature drives beyond every spatial barrier, in order to conquer the whole earth for its market. The Marxist theory accurately explained globalization as a phenomenon wherein the world comes together in order to create a system that is conducive to profit making and wealth accumulation. Marx has explained that capitalistic development cannot be confined within states. Ultimately, such development was expected to break free of its spatial constraints and this is supposedly underpinned by the nature of capital mobility. Marx and Engels (1973, p77) wrote: The bourgeoisie has through its exploitation of the world market given a cosmopolitan character to production and consumption in every country… [old industries] are dislodged by new industries, whose introduction becomes a life and death question for all civilized nations, by industries that no longer work up indigenous material, but raw material drawn from the remotest zones. industries whose

China Economic Analysis

Amongst the top three economies of the world, and just after United States has more stable condition after the international recession as the world recovers from it five years after the biggest slump hit the entire globe. The trade partners stretch far and wide and its industries are strong enough to manufacture all kinds of stuff, with specialization in electronics in modern times. China has the largest population bench in the world, and thereby resources are needed to accommodate the citizens. Energy sources are a serious concern, for this purpose the government in recent years has started focusing on energy sources besides the conventional sources. Nuclear power plants and other renewable energy sources are in line for this purpose. Only recently did China become the world’s largest exporter to all parts of the world. This despite being the recession that has hit the entire world with its storm. While the period from 2008 to 2011 marked severe lows in the world market, china has shown better performances in terms of their economic growth, their exports and other variables. They have devised policies that ensure minimizing the deficit and losses due to recession. Though it would be a biased statement to say that it was not hit by the recession, it’s wise and safe to say that the policies crafted by Chinese helped resisting the global recession in a better and organized manner. Government has contributed in the field of state owned organizations and with its efforts has aimed at revamping the entire structure to strengthen this sector. In recent times, the G.D.P growth has come down slightly to a single digit value (Mundi). This has to do with the international recession, the domestic demand increase and various other factors. Still considering the nature of recession all over, this is considerable resistance with regard to the G.D.P decrease. Down slide on Chinese graph of economy and G.D.P will definitely effect the other pats of the world and their economies since its economy, exports and investments are spread are spread all over in the local markets(The Economist Online). Chinese exports find a large market in Europe and considering the inter dependence, with Europe still strangled deep into the economic crisis and with Euro issues looming dark over their markets, being a global player China is, it is bound to feel the heat from the Europe side and this could impact its G.D.P and overall economy’s progress. China’s success can be attributed to its separation of currencies on local and international front. Without any surprise people are advocating this form of approach for the euro crisis as well. After the policy change from 1980s, China’s policy depended largely on the private sector organizations, however having stabilized that pole, their forte in recent times has been the governmental organizations. They have regularized them, brought about necessary changes and provided them with the necessary security that would be demanded for the investors who are willing to invest in the state owned organizations. This is aided by the incentives attached to the investments in the government sector by both the local investors and the foreign investors. Having identified the achievements and the pluses that are there, there are obstacles at the same time that are being faced by the Chinese government and economy. One of these is the small domestic demand. this has largely got to do with the low capita income in domestic. The per capita income zone has the margin for improvement as it is relatively lower compared to other parts of the world and especially those countries that are in the rank and have some say and command over the international markets. Other problems and challenges faced include the handling of the large number of immigrants

Anheuser Busch SWOT Analysis

The company was a pioneer in introducing pasteurization to keep the beer fresh and also was the first to use refrigerated cars for transport of beer. The company’s early innovations also included a network of railside ice houses to preserve the beer. It was in 1981, that this small firm became Anheuser-Busch International and currently owns 12 breweries in the US and 20 breweries outside the US. The flagship brand of the company is Budweiser which is brewed in 10 countries and has a global market. Other brands include Bud Light, Michelob Honey Lager, Michelob, Busch, Busch Ice and Bare Knuckle Stout. The presence and the strength of the company as continued to grow and it was the largest brewer in the United States in the year 2007. (Leone, 1995) The company’s goals are to extend its position as the leading brewer internationally. This is perceived would be achieved by increasing its share in the domestic beer market and also extends its presence internationally. It is tapping thirsty markets internationally by using two pronged strategies for growth. These two pronged strategies include expanding the Budweiser brand globally and simultaneously strengthening equity partnerships with other large brewers around the globe. Since the company produced two thirds of all beer in the US, it could easily be assumed that the local market was saturated with Anheuser-Busch products. It was evident that the linear growth model that the company has been following for the last so many years will have to be stretched beyond the boundaries of the United States if the company has to make its presence felt. Section II- Strengths and Weaknesses Strength no 1: Cost effectiveness The company has adopted its strategies to revolve around its key strengths and opportunities. Its biggest strength lies in its ability to produce cost effective products by capitalizing on product development expertise within the company. It also used its substantial capital for equity investments and acquisitions. The tax laws and regulations caused it to change its prices to adjust for tax changes. The company is also not new to low cost packaging and production for new markets. It has a cost strategy for the economic segment and is an expert at using the value chain to assess the supply side of its production. Thus its two pronged or rather multiple pronged strategies were based on its core competencies. Equity investments include a $105 million investment to own 10% of Antarctica and to control 70% of Antarctica’s operations. It again involves the exchange of representatives on both the company’s boards. This deal helps Anheuser-Busch garner a share from the huge Brazilian beer market which is growing at a rate of 15% annually. Besides the coalition and partnership, another move by Anheuser-Busch includes a licensing agreement for a new company. This will be a joint venture where Antarctica will brew Budweiser in Brazil. This joint venture is an example of production in the host country and will be 51% owned by Anheuser-Busch and 49% by Antarctica. This local production will maintain Budweiser quality standards and allow for more competitive pricing as importing costs and taxes will be eliminated. (Nelson, 2005) Here again, like in all global markets Anheuser-Busch capitalizes on its beer making excellence and combines it with the expertise and the reach of market leaders in the host countries. Normally a coalition results in the increased sales of products of both companies and a more competitive beer market which results in benefits for both suppliers and consumers. Strength no 2: Leading market Position Anheur Buscher also enjoys the leading market position in the industry. It kept its

Right ingredients for a successful M&amp

AFactors such as shifting market dynamics from US to Emerging Markets, rising healthcare demand due to ageing population, regulatory and government changes due to economic environment and patent expiration of blockbuster drugs and the failure of RD have led companies to restructure, grow inorganically and contain costs. Rationale behind MA in Pharma There are a number of reasons behind which organizations merge or aquire each other, the most presiding one is accelerating growth. Pharma industry has some unique growth drivers that lead the companies to grow inorganically rather in the conventional way. The key drivers of MA growth in the pharmaceutical industries are: 1. RD Productivity: The pharmaceutical industry is research-intensive industry, with an average RD to sales ratio as high as 18%, compared to 4% for US manufacturing industry overall (Pharmaceutical Researchers and Manufacturers of America, 2011). The RD process is expensive costing $1.3bn in average (Grabowski, 2007) time-consuming (12-15 years) and highly risky in their outcomes. Hence, by joining the research expertise of the two companies, MAs can profoundly improve the research performance of the firms involved. 2. Pipeline growth: An important investing criterion in pharma firms is evaluating company’s drug pipeline. Inspite of the exorbitant RD spend, drug pipelines of companies are quite barren, especially the late?stage pipelines. Hence it is imperative for the Pharma companies to look outside in order to fill their pipelines. 3. Search for Blockbusters: Blockbusters, defined as brands with annual sales in excess of $1 billion, continue to drive growth. Pharma companies constantly search for blockbuster drug molecules such as Eli Lily’s Prozac or Pfizer’s Lipitor to boast their… Right ingredients for a successful MAThere are a number of reasons behind which organizations merge or aquire each other, the most presiding one is accelerating growth. Pharma industry has some unique growth drivers that lead the companies to grow inorganically rather in the conventional way. The key drivers of MA growth in the pharmaceutical industries are: RD Productivity: The pharmaceutical industry is research-intensive industry, with an average RD to sales ratio as high as 18%, compared to 4% for US manufacturing industry overall.The RD process is expensive costing $1.3bn in average time-consuming and highly risky in their outcomes. Hence, by joining the research expertise of the two companies, MAs can profoundly improve the research performance of the firms involved. Pipeline growth: An important investing criterion in pharma firms is evaluating company’s drug pipeline. In spite of the exorbitant RD spend, drug pipelines of companies are quite barren, especially the late
stage pipelines. Hence it is imperative for the Pharma companies to look outside in order to fill their pipelines. Blockbusters, defined as brands with annual sales in excess of $1 billion, continue to drive growth. Pharma companies constantly search for blockbuster drug molecules such as Eli Lily’s Prozac or Pfizer’s Lipitor to boast their top lines. The period for which the patented drug can be masrketed is effectively 4-5 years after which the patent owning company loses its exclusivity to market and sell the drug.

Discuss the extent to which Poverty Reduction Strategies represent a major changes in policy for the World Bank in relation to t

Moreover, this review featured a chance to acknowledge the process, which was enhanced on the basis of preliminary evidence that was available. In this case, there were numerous issues that had to be resolved and this gave rise to several questions, which were asked by NGOs. For instance, some of the hard questions to be asked related to assimilation of Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP). In addition, this review sought to determine whether the process of implementing PRSP had met the expectation within stipulated administrative costs. This is a report focusing on assessing the changes that has occurred due to the implementation of Poverty Reduction Strategies through programmes established by World Bank and IMF. On the other hand, it will discuss the way poverty has been utilized as a facilitating Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) among poor countries. In fact, this has resulted to a sever condition of their economic crisis. The World Bank and IMF have formulated strict policy focused on operations involving Bank Fund. For instance, they have focused on assortment of prescriptions that are merely classified as good governance. Nevertheless, there are international donors, who have complied with the Bank development models that is featured in PRSP. As a matter of fact, this has failed significantly during the years that it has been implemented in the Global South. Apparently, World Bank and IMF have been avoiding ways to tackle the problems that has contributed to failure of implementing Poverty Reduction Strategies. Instead, they focus on evaluating the PRSP process, thereby identifying chance of replicating favourable practices. In this case, these practices are emanated from the PRSP process that is considered helpful. Moreover, this process is far much better compared to other processes, which disregard poor people, thereby imposing solutions without reference to specific subject country. besides, there are instances where the processes are derived without consulting the counties receiving the funds. Therefore, PRSP has been evaluated by several NGOs, and this has given rise to a desire of determining whether the World Bank is still fixated to achieving their mission of eradicating poverty. Consequently, this leads to a substantial challenge in discussing the extent of implementing Poverty Reduction Strategy on the basis of policies implemented by the World Bank on the based on effects in the Global South. Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) A country’s macroeconomic condition is explained by the Poverty Reduction Strategies (PRS) and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) (IMF-World Bank, 1999, 1). Moreover, Poverty Reduction Strategy features a structural and social policies, and programs that are focused on promoting growth as a way of reducing poverty. Therefore, PRS serves as a substantial source of financing countries that are languishing in poverty (Robb, 2000, 2). PRS are established by the governments of respective countries through their participation in the process, which involve civil society and necessary development partners. In fact, this process involves the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) (IMF-World Bank, 2001, 1). On the other hand, the PRSP is written by a given country thrice in a period of one year. However, the content entailed in the PRSP varies from one country to the other. through they all share a similarity of covering

Political International Economy Free Trade or Isolationism Avoiding Trade Wars

In other words, when every single nation of the globe is permitted to conduct free trade, the general financial condition of the world is expected to prosper. In the broader sense, trade (free trade in this case) can raise the income level and provide organizations and customers to have more choices to purchase products/services from their revenue. Unfortunately, there is also the occurrence of inequality with respect to deficits and surpluses in the monetary worth of products and services that are merchandized. Owing to these factors, considerable segment of concerned scholars, view the notion of free trade as a game with apparent winners and losers. Free trade also uncovers manufacturers and generates trade wars (Epping 43). Thesis Statement The paper will intend to describe the impact of free trade along with its relation to politics. The objective of the paper is to analyze the aspects of free trade and also to describe the methods through which the trade wars can be avoided in today’s 21st century. Discussion Trade Wars Free trade creates international competition among organizations which often results in layoffs and indolent plants. It creates difficulties for national capital cities which rely on industries of neighbor countries for occupation and tax income. However, nothing in the international economy remains identical in the long run. As a result of international competition, numerous local industries are stressed to consider the extreme measures in order to become more productive, thus permitting them to contend and flourish at local as well as in the global periphery. Free trade facilitates organizations to access the entire international market and thus they enjoy higher economies of scale in order to manufacture vast quantity of products at lower cost and positively impart cost advantages to customers equally in the cross border nations. Free trade generates tremendous economic consciousness for nations to alleviate their restrictions for trading purposes (Epping 43). Although trade wars generate prosperity for global economy, it also leads to losses at times. It can result in imposition of protecting local trade and trade barriers. Tariffs, quotas, and nontariff barriers are commonly used by governments. Tariff is considered as a kind of tax rate that is imposed on products for accessing certain state. On the other hand, quota restricts the level of foreign products which can be imported from a certain nation. Both have immense power to raise the expenses of manufacturing. Government also provides subsidy to the local manufacturers in order to make the cost of products artificially less compared to the cost of corresponding imported products. The trade policy often regulates affluence for economic groups and also gives rise to recurrent domestic political conflict (Spero and Hart 72). International Trade and Politics Stolper-Samulson has depicted that free trade provides advantages in relation to the locally abundant elements of manufacturing such as land, workforce, and wealth and also harms the locally scarce aspects of manufacturing. Higher free trade can increase the political strength of locally profuse facets of manufacturing, whereas declining free trade can damage these aspects (Frieden, Lake and Broz 318). Through protecting few productive or unproductive

Factors Affecting Trade of Sugar

70% of this production is for domestic consumption while 30% is traded in the world. Since only a small portion of the production is being traded freely, it is subjected to government policies and production so that any change affects the trading practices of the commodity. These are trade barriers such as quota and bilateral agreements that limits trading opportunities of least developed countries. As 120 countries partake of sugar allocations imposed by importing countries, it is important to understand if trade barriers create equal opportunity. Sugar producers believe that by removing these restrictions and opening of markets, supply is ensured, rational pricing will be maintained, and smaller countries can have an equal share of sugar quota ( GATRL, 2009). The top sugar producing countries in the world are Australia, Brazil, China, Columbia, European Union, India, Mexico, Pakistan, Thailand, and United States. World production as of 2010/2012 estimates is 168,647 metric tons raw value. BraziL has the biggest share of production followed by India and next by China. The rest is accounted for by Asian production (SUCDEN). With a global population of 7 billion, sugar consumption is estimated at 171.4 million tons and a per capita consumption of Per capita sugar consumption is highest in Brazil, Australia, and Cuba. … 1, and has not changed ever since ( Tariff quotas and bilateral agreements limit the free trade of small producing country with the US while farmers support policy is addressed to maintain the domestic farmers. Quota system controls the volume of sugar imports by limiting amount of sugar that enters US on a zero rate tariff rate. The amount set for import must meet the US World Trade organization requirement which is 1,117,195 tons of raw sugar and 22,000 tons of refined sugar. Any over quota export under the system is not advisable since US imposes a higher tariff rate. (Edwards, Chris, 2009). Bilateral arrangement disenfranchises smaller producing countries as they are out on agreements. For instance, the North American Free Trade Agreement with Mexico gives it a distinct advantage over other countries since US provided them with tariff free and attractive provisions including a guaranteed quota that increases yearly.(Office of The United States Trade Representative, n.d.) For fair treatment, the recent talks of world organizations such as the Uruguay rounds, AEFA, and APEC are all aimed toward trade liberalization. (Economic Research Services, USDA, 1997) Simulations and five scenarios have been expounded to know effects. The Uruguay Rounds will expand global trade and social welfare of countries and regions, except China. AEFA trade liberalization would increase social welfare of ASEAN in limited way. All APEC members tend to gain in the liberalization since high import protection is eliminated. (See FAO Explanation (Annex 1) Koo, Woo ‘s scenario of trade liberalization of both US and EU, and retaining of sugar subsidies will allow most sugar producing countries to survive. However, if only the U.S. eliminates the program, Koo said all U.S. sugar

Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Treatment

Correspondingly, this paper intends to critically describe the notions of delinquency prevention and delinquency treatment along with explaining the respective fundamental principles. Furthermore, the paper conducts a critical analysis of effectiveness, underlying the similarity and the differentiation in between delinquency prevention and delinquency treatment along with identifying the importance of juvenile justice system with respect to juvenile delinquency. DELINQUENCY PREVENTION Recent analysis of American society has revealed that America as a nation faces a significant risk of juvenile delinquency. Concerning the youth’s anti-social activities, the US Federal law has incorporated several state policies with the juvenile court system in order to prevent the act of delinquency. Based on the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, the US government provides a lot of funds to the states for focusing on an assortment of delinquency protection principles and Acts. The core protection principles as well as Acts are especially focused on four parameters which include Deinstitutionalization of Status Offenders (DSO), Disproportionate Minority Confinement (DMC), sight and sound as well as jail removal. The DSO along with sight and sound protection Acts are included with the original Federal law 1974. However, owing to the increasing rate of physical, mental and sexual assaults, suicides and drug addictions, the government of the US had to add ‘Jail Removal’ Act in 1980. Furthermore, federal system of the US also added DMC Act with the constitution in 1992 for effectively restraining rising issues related with the youth crime within the American society (United States Legal Inc, Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Law Legal Definition). FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES The prevention of juvenile delinquency is ascertained to be utmost important for attaining all-round socio-economic development of a country. Furthermore, a culturally sound society seeks for immediate focus on the prevention measures of juvenile delinquency. Accordingly, it has been ascertained that several factors are responsible for the emergence of juvenile crime such as economic and social factors, urbanization and impact of media among others. In this context, an assortment of principles is required to be followed for the prevention of juvenile delinquency. Correspondingly, a few important principles are represented below: The government should emphasize and promote humanistic orientation programs to reduce criminal activities among the juveniles The entire society should duly involve in developing harmony among the adolescents The parents should take initiatives to guide their children properly In accordance with national legal system, various preventive programs should be implemented in the society such as DMC and gang reduction program among others (United States Legal Inc, Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act Law Legal Definition) EXAMPLES OF THE TYPES OF PREVENTION STRATEGIES AND AN ANALYSIS OF THEIR EFFECTIVENESS In order to restrain the adverse consequences of juvenile delinquency, several prevention strategies and programs are implemented in t

Relationship Between the EUs Protection of Human Rights and Other Domestic Regional and International means of Protecting Human

Among these three human rights protection mechanisms, EU charter of Fundamental Rights is the focus of this paper, and so this paper will critically discuss the relationship between this EU charter’s protection of Human Rights and other domestic, regional and international means of protecting human rights, particularly its relationship with national constitutional traditions, ECHR and United Nations (UN) Background of EU’s protection of Human Rights European Union (EU) views protection of human rights, uploading of democracy and the rule of law as its core values. Although EU has not embedded human rights in its founding treaties, it spelled out its stance on human rights protection through the adoption of a Charter of Fundamental Rights in the year 2000. … t human rights, as the well as countries which have concluded trade and other agreements with it.3 Thus, on the whole, EU charter of Fundamental rights is uploading human rights in EU countries, as well as doing its part in non-EU countries, in association with other regional and international entities. As mentioned above, EU charter is one of the three layers of human rights protection in EU member countries, so it have ‘relationship’ with other layers of national constitution traditions and importantly with fellow regional grouping of ECHR, with varying degree of cooperation as well as divergence. Relationship between the EU’s protection of Human Rights and domestic entities’ means of protecting human rights For most part of their existence, EU and its ECJ did not try to dominate or usurp the powers of the national governments in relation to human rights. This is because ECJ was not a human rights guardian per se, instead it was established by EU as the highest legal institution, designed to uphold the process of economic integration among various member states.4 However, it all changed with EU’s adoption of charter in 2000, and also due to certain actions by national legal bodies, which in a way tried to undermine EU. The threat to the supremacy of EU’s human rights laws over national laws arose when constitutional courts resisted Community action, insofar as they considered it as violating fundamental rights protected in national constitutions.5 This can be seen in Stauder v. City of Ulm, Case 29/69, [1969] ECR 419, in which the decision of the ECJ appeared to be contrary to the basic rights that were enshrined in the German constitutional law. To further assert its supremacy only, EU and ECJ decided to include fundamental human rights in

The Causes of the Economic Financial Crisis of 2008

A case can be made that it was the lack of regulation of the banking sector that led to the financial crisis of 2008-9. Regulation today, both in the US and UK, is dedicated to preventing such an occurrence in the future, and in many cases, this regulation is based on increasing transparency and accountability in the banking sector. In other words, today, the causes of the economic crisis are being examined closely, and governments worldwide are working towards averting future disasters, by analyzing exactly what went wrong. There were many reasons for the financial disaster of 2008-09, and a lack of proper regulation may have been one of them.In looking at the original causes of the crisis, one has to look not just at the banking industry, but also its relationship as an industry to housing and mortgage concerns, especially in the US, but also in the UK. The banking system has had its critics, but current regulation in the US under Obama and UK under Brown has also made significant progress in averting a continuance of worldwide chaos, by increasing regulation and legislative power. The mortgage industry is still currently affecting the consumer and banks in complicated ways and was one of the main scapegoats of the 2008 financial crisis and recession. In the US, President Barack Obama focused less on blame, and more on recovery, when he saved AIG and other companies, along with several major banks, from disaster. There was a lot of media coverage about it and there was at times the atmosphere of panic, with economists have over-valued the impact of the mortgage industry and also seeing this sector through a sort of blinder effect, due to its proximity to financial sectors. The same situation played out in the UK under Brown. As one source states, Shock waves from the collapse of the subprime mortgage market have been shuddering through segments of the economy for months. But this month, with the announcement of as many as 12,000 layoffs at the nation’s largest home mortgage lender, an unemployment report that showed net job losses for the first time in four years, and some economists are predicting a recession (Larsen, 2007).

US covert action

programs and policies abroad that are not apparent or acknowledged publicly. Whether it is a realistic expectation for U.S. to continue with covert action? There is no realistic expectation that U.S. can continue with covert actions without been discovered. Covert action remains a third option for American foreign policy beyond the initial two options of diplomacy and combat. On covert action, the CIA can be regarded as damned when they do, and damned when they do not. Can one expect the U.S. hand to remain hidden even if the action is discovered? Covert actions details activities of the U.S. government to influence political, military, or economic conditions abroad. The U.S. government conceals its responsibility based on the justification that the U.S. responsibility would render an operation infeasible. The core objective of covert action rests on influencing events overseas secretly and in support of U.S. foreign policy.2 The U.S. would be overly optimistic for its hand to remain hidden even if the action is discovered…. For instance, if Israel was to admit having a nuclear program, such an action can trigger a nuclear arms race within the Middle East, who may feel threatened by Israel. Plausible deniability or the non-attribution to the U.S. for its covert operations makes it impossible to trace back to their point of origin. Plausible deniability is pertinent in protecting the U.S., and it operatives’ from the consequences of disclosures. Measures to make covert action a continued viable policy? Covert action is a necessary, but controversial instrument for U.S. foreign policy. The government should undertake covert actions only if: the intentions and objectives are concisely spelled out, just, and reasonable. there is a reasonable possibility of success. the methods envisaged are commensurate with the objectives. and, due deliberation undertaken with the full knowledge and concurrence of appropriate constituents. Question 2: (A) What was the objective of each operation? The overthrow of Mossadeq in Iran (1953) arose when Kermit Roosevelt and few other CIA operatives orchestrated a successful coup against Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadeq the U.S perceived as becoming allied with Iran’s Soviet-dominated Tudeh Party. Roosevelt secured the hesitant support of the Shah dismissing Mossadeq. Zahedi, a highly ranking officer, selected to lead the coup.5 In the wake of the success of the Iranian operation, the CIA also orchestrated a combination of both military and psychological pressures to force leftist Guatemala president, Jacobo Arbenz from office in 1954. The operation (labeled as Operation BPSUCCESS) utilized an invasion by a ragtag liberation army, fictional arms drops, psychologically effective CIA air attacks, and disinformation disseminated to prompt

Macro &amp

Micro economics (Economics)6 (E) If an economy is initially operating at its potential output, explain the short and long- run consequences of a permanent increase in government spending. 9 References 11 (A) Explain why perfectly competitive markets lead to an allocative efficient allocation of resources in the long run. It has often been argued that perfect competition is a market structure which results in efficient allocation of resources. Evidently, the efficient allocation of resources is achieved with due concern towards the profit-maximizing quantity of output produced by perfectly competitive firms which further leads towards price equality with respect to marginal cost. Primarily, in the long run, there exists equality between price and marginal costs at minimum efficient scale of production. In other words, an efficient allocation of resources is realised when it is not possible to enhance the society’s overall degree of satisfaction by generating more of one good and less of other goods. Contextually, such efficiency can be achieved when the price of goods is equal to the marginal cost of production. Notably, in the long run, firms entering and exiting the industry maximizes profit where these firms generate the below illustrated long-run equilibrium: P=SRMC=LRMC=SRAC=LRAC [Note: P- Price for the good produced. SRMC-Short-run marginal cost. LRMC- Long-run marginal cost. SRAC- Short-run average cost. LRAC-Long–run average cost] Additionally, the above depicted conditions reveal that market price for a good is equal to marginal cost and average cost in both the circumstances i.e. in short-run as well as in long-run in equilibrium situation. Due to the equality in the price and the marginal cost, each firm is able to maximize their profit without making any adjustment to their output quantity. Furthermore, equality of price and average cost renders each firm in the industry to earn normal profits. In such circumstances, economic profit is zero with no economic losses. Precisely stating, allocative efficiency is witnessed in a perfectly competitive market in the long run as the firms are determined to maximize their profits by producing quantity of output where marginal cost equals to the price and therefore leads to effective allocation of resources (AmosWEB LLC, 2013). Profit Maximizing Behaviour Result in Allocative Efficiency in the Long-Run Source: (Pearson Education Limited, 2013) (B) Explain why free markets will under-produce goods with positive externalities (e.g. vaccinations against infectious diseases). Briefly suggest how government might intervene to correct this under-provision? Positive externalities are usually related with public commodities in an economy which can be defined as the situation where the goods are valued incorrectly, i.e. the goods are purchased either at under-valued or over-valued prices owing to the failure of the free-market to accurately determine to various factors when taking decisions regarding pricing. Public goods are generally identified by their distinctive features of non-rival and non-excludability. One of the primary reasons behind the under production of such goods can be related with the emergence of free-riders. Free-riders, in the economic context, can be identified as an individual party who enjoys the direct benefits from the purchase of a public good by other parties. Notably, the primary objective of the private firm is to earn substantial profits, but wherein a problem of free-riders persist,

Health Economics Policy and Law

The field imposes the significant emphasis on rigorous conceptual development and analysis (Thomas p. 217 232). Further, it significantly emphasizes on empirical evidence presented that is particularly relevant to the policy process. In this paper, I seek to critically analyze the aspects of the economics of policy and law, while assessing its regulatory intervention in ensuring food safety in Canada, as well as protecting Canada’s public health. This study will basically be done in connection with the obligations of the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) whose priority is to maintain food supply safety. In so doing, the paper will analyze all relevant concepts of the economics of law and policy, including externality, market failure, and government failure (Gillian et all p. 131-169). Law and economics are foundational to any production. Basically, we have positive and normative law and economics which highly govern production. Positive law and economics use economic analysis to predict the effects of various legal rules. For instance, the analysis of the law of tort would predict the results of the strict liability rule contrary to the results of a negligence rule. On the other hand, normative and economics use economic analysis to make policy recommendations based on the economic results of various policies, the key concept for normative economic analysis being efficiency. In every dimension, standardization of consumer foods is essential to human life. In other words, it is important that before chemical foods are distributed to people for consumption first they must undergo inspection to be proven that they are harmless for use.

Summary of on Current Business Issue

Each year thousands of new college graduates enter the job market in America. During the summer of 2012 the U.S. economy lost 8.8 million jobs and only added 3.8 million which results in a net job loss of 5 million jobs (Corona, 2012). It is estimated that if the U.S wants to cut down the unemployment rate to 6%, which would be near the natural unemployment rate of 5%, for it to happen the U.S would have to create 361,000 jobs a month for the next three years (Corona, 2012). One of the reasons that the official economic unemployment rate the government promotes is not accurate is because it does not account for the 88 million Americans that have given up in finding a job due to the poor job marketplace in America. The unemployment dilemma in our country is about to get worse because as reputable sources such as the Wall Street Journal predict a slowdown in the second half of the year and high unemployment for years to come (Corona, 2012). The current employment crisis in America is the government fault. The current economic policies the government is implementing are not creating sufficient jobs to reduce unemployment in America. President Obama has been heavily criticized for maintaining Bush tax cuts for the middle class for another year. The policy Obama implement has been viewed as a strategy to earn votes during the upcoming elections. These fiscal policies are outdated since they are aligned with the strategies that the government has used during the last ten years. There is some speculation that the current government is going to impose tax hikes if the Democratic government is reelected. The Unites States economy has a great effect on the economies of many countries around the world. There is some truth that our problems are a reflection of troubles in the European Union and a softening of the Chinese economy (Corona, 2012). The Unites States is the largest trading partner with China and it is not in the best interest of China for the U.S economy to be suffering. Most economists agree that when the U.S economy is booming it has ripple effect that positively impacts the global economy. The TARP legislation has been viewed as a negative variable that has not served its purpose of helping the economic system. These governmental policies were focused on saving the banking industry rather than the general business community. A major reason for the bad state of the U.S economy is the lack of trust of American in what the government if doing. People are getting frustrated at the slow reaction of governmental official at tacking the issues and problems in the economy. A major drawback of the new governmental policies is that they are increasing the taxes for business entities. This is causing a lot of multinational companies to move their operations oversee where they can obtain cheaper labor costs and preferential tax treatments. A lot of companies in the U.S are riding tough economic times and the government is not doing anything to gain their confidence that they can continue to operate in America in a profitable manner. When businesses face tough economic times the inevitable result is a lack of job creation and a movement of multinational operations to downsizing their operations in America in search for cost savings by moving operations oversee. It is sad that in the United States small companies

Economics of Competition

The MES gives a range of production values, but its relationship with the market determines how many firms can operate effectively in the market.When MES is significantly smaller compared to the market demand then the market will be concentrated with small firms, each producing a very small market share. In this case, the firms which are comparatively small will enjoy a cost advantage over the larger firms. Consequently, the economies of scale are exhausted rapidly. An example of such a case is the market for personal services.When MES is one-quarter of the market demand, then the market observes a few large competitors. Such market economies of scale are created with a huge amount of inputs until each of the firms expands enough to produce a large share of the market.Economic theory explains that perfect competition is the most socially optimal market structure. But in reality, markets always deviate from perfect competition reducing the social welfare. Departure from the perfect competition gives way to market power. Most of the markets contain large firms and the presence of even a single large firm is sufficient to influence the price through output adjustment. Large firms are always coupled with cost advantages which help them to enjoy the economies of scale. And this ability to influence the market price is termed as market power.The highly concentrated market involves the accumulation of a very small number of firms sharing larger shares of the market. Such a condition is not desirable since it leads to high prices and low outputs. Consequently, the firms existing in such market accrue high profits and sustain for a long period of time. These firms, earning high profits, tend to lower the competition level in the market. Influencing the price thorough output adjustment is not the only way of using the market power by these firms. There are other ways to use market power.

Development of the Agency for Forgotten Elderly

There are several different organizations designed to offer services and support for the elderly American citizen, including the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) and The Gray Panthers, both organizations working toward improving the welfare of older Americans. This represents very limited support for the countless elderly that either do not understand how to access the benefits provided by these organizations or those that continue to be exploited by others in society. Older Americans are often the victim of many ageism prejudices and often they are abandoned by family members when they are considered no longer relevant as contributing members of society. Despite the best efforts of agencies such as AARP, older Americans often face psychological problems stemming from depression, loneliness, social isolation, or simple ageism from younger Americans still in their prime.The current economic climate creates many different budget cuts for social services, therefore many elder-related services have limited programs to help, thus this group tends to suffer more than any other social group (Dauphin, 2006, p.23). It has always been a problem, even prior to the aforementioned budget issues for social services, to come up with a meaningful organization equipped to provide extended support services for elderly Americans struggling with difficult social or psychological issues. In society, the elderly are often the target for many different exploitations, ranging from financial extortion and fraud to being unable to procure meaningful work because of ageist principles in the social norm. Elderly citizens are often abused by their caretakers or sociopathic types that seek to cause them emotional harm to justify their own egocentrism. Agencies such as AARP and The Gray Panthers simply are not equipped to handle these complicated issues with real-time support services.When older Americans are the victim of exploitation or abuse, they are often reluctant to report it because they feel ashamed, embarrassed, humiliated, afraid and may even defend the abuser (, 2008, p.3).

Impact of the Single Market Program on the Regulatory Role and DecisionMaking System of the EU

The residents of the various countries could move to other countries without the problems of documentation and the governments of the various countries did not charge customs and taxes in the borders. This helped in the rise of trade and commerce in the region. (The history of the European Union, n.d.. The EU internal market, n.d.)The EU has been responsible for the development of the continent economically and socially. At present the EU comprises 27 countries and there are more countries to be added in the anvil. The construction of the EU has benefited the business and the residents alike. The construction of the single market has enabled the prosperity of the people of the continent. In 2006, the EU enabled the growth of Euro 240 billion. The goods are cheaper with the abolition of the taxes and the duties and there are wide choices for the customers. There are more jobs and the businesses in the area benefited from the abolition of the complex rules and regulations of the individual countries. It is much easier now to do business and the customers get the real value for money. There have been several benefits to the construction of the EU. However, the benefits of the EU have been a result of the vision of the policymakers for the last 50 years. The construction of the EU gave rise to the need for a coherent regulatory and decision-making system. (EU single market-benefits, 16th November 2007. How the EU single market benefits you, n.d.)The modern system of the EU is based on the emergence of the EU as one of the hotbeds of economic growth in the global world. The economic and financial growth of the region meant that there was a need for a system to look after the regulatory and the decision-making process. The modern system of the EU stands on the five bodies created to form the Commission’s treaties. (The institutions and bodies of European Union, n.d.) They are as follows:The CA examines the financial records of the businesses and the trading activities within the area.

Economic Factors

Industry A: 20 firms and a Concentration Ratio (CR) of 30% Name and some of the industry’s characteristics An industry with 20 firms and a CR of 30% is called a low concentration industry. This is a type of industry in which its four largest firms control less than 50% of its market. According to Ruffinand Gregory (2000), this type of industry is monopolistically competitive and the market control gained by its four largest firms/industries is moderate. There are many firms producing a similar product. Prices are set through a contestable market model hence the decisions of one firm are not influenced by the decisions of another firm. The above is supported by the fact that in this industry, the key to success is the ability to offer products at a lower price (Weiss, 1989). Even of the sellers were few or even one, they would act as if they were many. Entry and exit from the industry is costless and new entrants are mainly attracted into the industry if a possession of market power if profitable. The pressures of competition help to prevent monopoly and keep the industry operating at a prices and outputs that are competitive. Expected long-run adjustments in case there was an increased demand for a product that pushed up the price of goods When there is an increase in demand of a product that in turn leads to an increase in its price, all the 20 firms in the industry are going to make positive profits and prosper. In the short-run, marginal costs and marginal revenue will be equal indicating an equilibrium or profit maximization. In the long-run, firms will alter the scale of product and leave or enter the industry. Other firms who want to take advantage of the profit will enter the industry leading to a rise in supply of the product. This will push the market prices of the product down to the long-run equilibrium. What the anticipated adjustment process imply about the CR for the industry The above-mentioned anticipated adjustments imply that there is a relationship between the CR of the industry and the properties of the industry. For example, when the CR is low as in this case, monopolistic competition takes place resulting to the market exhibiting elements of both monopoly and perfect competition. The reason behind this is that since the industry is monopolistically competitive, each of its existing firms has the power to set prices. They will compete for a control of the market share by lowering their prices and in the end, many of them will charge the long-equilibrium price. This establishes an equilibrium and eliminates incentives for entry. In other words, a low CR eliminates temporary rise in prices and restores the economy to a long-run equilibrium level, a characteristic of a competitive market. Therefore, it is true to say that the lower the CR, the higher the level of competition of the market. Industry B: 20 firms and a Concentration Ratio (CR) of 80% Name and some of the industry’s characteristics An industry having 20 firms and a CR of 80% is called a high concentration industry. 20 firms and a CR of 80% indicate a highly oligopolistic industry. In this type of industry, a significant level of market control is under the power of four of its largest firms (Ruffinand, 2000). The market is dominated by few firms who sell slightly differentiated

Housing and the Inclusive Society

According to the EU, as per the Charter of its Fundamental Rights, and as quoted by the Joint Report by the Commission and the Council on Social Inclusion, adopted by the council (EPSCO) on 4th March 2004, the definition of Social Inclusion stands as Social Inclusion is a process which ensures that those at risk of poverty and social exclusions gain the opportunities and resources necessary to participate fully in economic, social and cultural life and to enjoy a standard of living and well being that is considered normal in the society in which they live. It ensures that they have greater participation in decision making which affects their lives and access to their fundamental rights. Poverty and other factors: Poverty is a factor that divides people into the haves and have not’s. However, when one looks at social inclusion, it is an aspect that can do away with poverty and in fact, unite people. Inclusion is a factor that stresses upon people that they should live together, and work towards a single purpose. Social exclusion takes place when certain people living in a society are pushed right to the edge because they do not have as many resources or means to live as others might. They do not possess the basic amenities and that is why, they are left out or face discrimination by other people. They do not have the ability to take control over their lives because they do not have any property to their name so they end up feeling so helpless and powerless. However, social exclusion is not always about only poverty. the term coined ‘les exclus’ referred to those whose income bracket did not meet sufficient standards. People can also face exclusion or be excluded from housing because they are disabled, or might have a different sexual orientation. When a person is excluded from society, this means that he has been stripped of all his participation powers and does not get a say in how things should work. That is why, much is being done to make sure that no citizen feels this way, and that everyone gets equal participation in the framework of tasks carried out within a society. (Atkinson, 1998) The private rented sector contributes to social inclusion and exclusion in the following ways: The housing systems in different economies are one of the main reasons why exclusion might take place. This includes that there might be many who are not able to afford the rent or pay their landlords the amount asked for, and thus are not able to get a house for themselves. People who have low or marginal incomes are not able to afford the rent and so are excluded from housing societies. The amenities provided inside, like the heating or the fuel systems and such other resources might not be affordable by the tenants waiting to take the house on rent. Apart from this, many disabled people just might not be able to live in homes that are not designed for their needs, for example, they might not have stairs for wheelchairs, and thus these people cannot live in such accommodations. Many landlords still practice discrimination today, and everything cannot be checked by the governments at all times. Many potential tenants do not even have the information about housing locations and this leaves them out of the private rented sector, and otherwise, they are located in specific areas, thus leading to exclusion of people who do not belong to those areas. In order to fix these problems, much could be

Conservatives During the Premierships of Macmillan and DouglasHome

Inflation was a significant political and economic problem. it generated a rebellion among the middle-class center constituency Conservatives. Macmillan was aware of the problems in the economy and it was during his reign that Treasury underlined inflation as a major economic problem in its 1956 White Paper The Economic Implications of Full Employment. For the most part of 1957, he concentrated on the strategies to reduce inflation by minimizing investment and public expenditure (Green 2004, p175).In 1958, he could not very well reconcile the problems of full employment with those of the stable prices. the middle way was to be gotten between deflation and inflation. In 1960, the problem of reconciling stable prices and full employment was still unresolved and Macmillan was warned of the inflationary consequences of the action (Green 2004, p177).Douglas-Home inherited many of the economic problems from his predecessor. However, he sought not to be involved with them partly because of the realization that he had his own limitations and partly due to the belief that the ministers should do their own work (Thomas 1998, p106).The Profumo affair was the much-publicized scandal during the premiership of Macmillan. The press blew it out of proportion and it made the government look like it might have to resign. The scandal involved John Profumo, the Minister for War. He had an affair with a model, Christine Keeler. the two had met during an osteopath named Stephen Ward. Christine was suspected of having an affair with a Russian official and it is at this time when a rumor began circulating that she had an affair with Profumo. The Labour raised the matter as a probable security risk (Roberts 2001, p273).Profumo denied having an affair with the model at the House of Commons but the press had stories about his sexual affair with the model and spies. Profumo was forced to resign and the press used the scandal.

Key Skills of the Britain Education System

The policy planners envisioned a society, where people would have the necessary opportunity and incentives to take up learning as a lifelong process. The process is a basis for building as large a pool of human resources as possible, that would be educational, skill-wise and motivationally sound and full of confidence with respect to their life’s needs. A major contribution of such a pool of Human resources or people would be towards achieving sustainable economic growth. Such a revolutionary change would not be possible without having a look at our educational system. The strengths and weaknesses of the existing system would be an able guide towards moving ahead in the said direction. The existing centres of excellence in Higher education were identified as a major strength. However, the major weak link was the problems at the basic and intermediate levels of education. A contemporary international survey found the UK lagging behind in performance at these levels among other leading industrial nations of the world. The results at these education levels are indicative partially of our attitudes to learning.As per the Learning theory, Learning is essentially a process among other things. Insofar as learning is seen as a process, it has to be ongoing. A process that would result for us in the acquisition of capabilities that would put us in a better position with respect to our past knowledge and skills and make us better able to deal with problems and utilize the opportunities in a better way (Illeris, 2000).The said attitudes to learning had to be shaped to make it a lifelong process for as many people as possible. The paper emphasised on the need to institutionalise this attitude and make it a part of the education system to ensure such a transformation of collective and individual thought.The paper talked at length as to why ‘Learning’ as a lifelong strategy mattered so much.

British Airways’ Business Environment

The environment is basically thought of as being at two levels. One is the generic environment and the other is the task environment (Kew Stredwick, 2005).There are both internal and external factors that affect the success of a firm. It is to be noted that the firm exercises direct control on its internal factors whereas the external factors are beyond the control of the firm. These factors are economic environment, technological environment, socio-cultural environment, political environment and international environment. Competition is also one of the external factors that affect the operation of the firm. The internal environment constitutes the internal factors like objectives of the business, various departments of the organization, managerial policies, labor-management relation, brand image and corporate image and so on. The external environment is of two types namely the microenvironment and the macro environment (Jain Et. Al., 2010).The head of the British political system is a monarch. There are three main political parties present in the UK and they are The Labour Party, The Conservative Party and The Liberal Democratic Party. In the UK political scenario, there is general consensus on certain factors like UK membership of the European Union and also NATO, the free market-based economy, and the rule of law, along with the National Health Service (RogerDarlington, 2010).There has been heavy regulation from the government. Therefore, it is important for British Airways to comply with such regulations if it wants to operate successfully. It has also been found that during the time of the economic slowdown the company has received support from the UK government in order to tackle the financial crisis (Scribd, 2009).The country has an aging population. Therefore, it is implied that there seems to be high potential for growth because the senior population has more time to spend on the leisure activities.

Financial Planning of Sainsbury Supermarket

The 2008 outlook also reports that downside risk to the outlook seems more threatening that at the time of the September 2007 outlook. This is because oil price declines since the last august and generally benign global financial conditions have helped to limit spillovers from the corrections in the US housing market and to contain inflation pressures. (IMF World Economic Outlook, 2008). Thus, multinational companies must rethink their global strategies, in the phase of the foreign exchange rate and the falling price of oil. The present circumstances make them victims of foreign exchange risk and exposures.Against this background, the purpose of this paper is threefold. The study, first of all, is aimed at carrying out an analysis of the impact of foreign exchange exposure on a United Kingdom UK based retail company-Sainsbury Supermarket. In the second part of the paper, the paper analysis the impact of capital investment appraisal tools on the activities of Sainsbury group. In the third part of the paper assess the impact of share valuation on Sainsbury group. The last section of the paper presents the conclusion and a brief recommendation to the company’s management on how to go about getting the best from foreign currency exposures.Like macroeconomic analysis, the analysis of the industry is important because it enables the analysts to make abnormal profits arising from information asymmetry between the proper analyst and competitors who fail to carry out a proper analysis. Just as it is difficult for a firm to do well in a poor macroeconomic environment, so too is it difficult for a firm to perform well in a troubled industry. (Bodie et al, 2002). Similarly, as performance can vary across countries, so too does it vary across industries. (Bodie et al, 2002).

Coming of Age in Mississippi by Anne Moody

They remained anxious about the safety and welfare of their children. In the absence of parental care and love, the children lived on day to day basis, worrying what calamity awaited them each day, as their caretaker was a rude individual. He often inflicted physical injuries on Anne particularly. Her father did love Anne but distress due to hard economic circumstances made him lose the temper and he punished her without rhyme or reason. She did not receive love to which a child was entitled to and craved for. The rounds of punishment by the caretaker bordered cruelty, and he indulged in it just for the heck of it. About the consequences of one such punishment Anne wrote, (2004, p.10) I tried to sit down once. It was impossible. It was hurting so bad even standing was painful. An hour or so later, it was so knotty and swollen I looked as if I had been stung by a hive of bees.Anne’s writings graphically revealed the history of African-Americans of the 1950s and 60s and details about the harsh realities of the black children growing up. Going by the provisions of the Constitution, all the citizens were equal. But the whites were unwilling to change. The habitation of the plantation laborers was of sub-human standard, whereas the plantation owner lived in a palatial building. The Christian principles of love thy neighbor did not work. The differences in the living standards of the plantation owners and plantation laborers were described by Anne poignantly. She wrote, Most evenings after Negroes had come from the fields, washed and eaten, they would sit on their porches, to look up toward Mr. Carter’s house and talk. Sometimes as we sat on our porch, Mama told me stories about what was going on in that big house.(p.5) Next to parental love at home, the place where one could expect the growth of the personality of children and get some affection was theschool environment.

Performance and reward management

The challenge to any organisation is to formulate a fair reward system that can motivate employees to work with enthusiasm. In the present context, implementation of proper incentive system along with well defined performance appraisal system is primarily convened by HR personnel. Reward management is important in order to achieve organisational strategies, to build up the psychological bond with employees and to act in accordance with legislation. Reward management is related with performance appraisal of an organisation as it motivates employees to perform better day-by-day. Performance appraisal is the other tool to measure performance of employees which increases motivation level and determines the training needs among others. By implementing reward system in an organisation and recruiting the best talents of the industry and by retaining the top performers’, competitive advantage can be maintained. … Employees are the backbone of any organisation and an organisation has to pay a substantial amount to the employees for rendering services. While facing cost pressures, organisations are bound to implement major cost saving measures by cutting the jobs of the employees. Consequently, it affects on the service quality of organisations. Organisations may face unforeseen circumstances. Organisations have to implement strategies incredibly decisively so that it does not hamper the operations. Otherwise, it may be detrimental for the organisation for long-term period. The influence of downsizing can not be kept away totally but it can be reduced. By reducing the cost, managers facilitate the organisation to generate profitability. Downsizing of employees affects a company in social as well as economic perspective. As after downsizing employees face tremendous challenge to survive. A company must consider the available alternatives and calculate the feasibility with applicability of cost-reduction options before deciding on layoffs (Gandolfi, 2008). Cost reduction stages are framed by the assumption of certain periods of time to make cost adjustments which affect the HR practices. Short Range Cost Adjustments: The primary stage of the ‘cost-reduction framework’ signifies ‘short-range cost adjustments’ in order to arrest a short-term decline in business operations. The business slowdown is anticipated to be a period for six months. Companies face such type of challenges by virtue of sudden decline of sales (Gandolfi, 2008). Framework of Cost-Reduction Stages Source: (Gandolfi, 2008). The preliminary cost-reduction techniques must allow an organisation to focus on its activities in a cost-sensitive approach for an immediate improvement. The top management has to

Case Study Foreign Direct Investment

Continuous growth is essential for company’s survival in the interest of its investors and work force. Hence, this reports addresses strategy development directions in this regard. The idea of growth should be one of the business objectives. The company needs to engage in strategy development so as to create competitive advantage over its competitors. The strategy development is important as it should be difficult for the competitors to replicate. Collaboration with business partners or the stake holders such as the company’s suppliers, distributors and customers is a guarantee creating a competitive advantage which the competitors cannot easily emulate (Campbel, Stonehouse, Houston, 2002) Different strategies to achieve competitive advantage are 1) knowledge-based strategy, 2) generic strategy 3) hybrid strategy and 4) core competence/distinctive capability/resource-based strategy. Organizations generally will select one of the strategies and incorporate value-adding activities in support of the strategy selected. These strategies are briefly explained (Campbel, Stonehouse, Houston, 2002). … Tacit knowledge is that which cannot be stored being mostly of individual experiences of experts. This is also not possible to be copied by the competitors (Demarest, 1997). There should be at least three types of knowledge available within firms. They are know-how, know-why and know-what referring to practical knowledge, theoretical knowledge and strategic knowledge respectively. All these combine to form core competencies of a firm. Generic strategies are the well known Michael Porter’s generic strategy frame work that explains the competitive advantage of a firm. (Campbel, Stonehouse, Houston, 2002). Hybrid strategy is the combination of knowledge strategy and generic strategy. Lastly, the core competency strategy which is nothing but the essence of the firm’s vast experience in the tradional activity the firm has been engaged in. Ansoff’s matrix will also serve to give the proper direction for the company’ s future activity. In view of the saturated market in Europe, the only way out for XYZ Plc is to seek greener pastures abroad. Developing countries are the niche market for automobiles because the globalization has improved the standard of living for the people therein resulting in creation of demand for automobiles. Markets for automobiles in these countries has not yet saturated. These countries are attractive not only within the context of domestic market for automobiles but also the savings in wages by almost 65 per cent. The countries offering huge opportunities for investment are China and India, the world’s two largest populated countries. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) These countries have benefited a lot from the inward FDI flowing in continuously. India especially has survived the economic crisis that

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Emissions Permit System

A broad spectrum of concerned individuals and corporations are in agreement over one basic fact: a price-tagged emission of global-warming greenhouse gases is an idea whose time is ripe. Whether not available for now, legal, binding pricing mechanism on the use of traditional fossil fuels seems all but inevitable in the 21st century. Nevertheless, pricing carbon emissions remain in dispute among policymakers and academics voicing backing to the old command controls. Evidently, nations only possess limited experience with the cap-and-trade system in controlling greenhouse emissions. This paper endeavors to highlight the intrinsic worth and costs of implementing a cap and trade policy in pollution abatement.Emission trading permits with a pricing scheme on carbon usually strives to achieve two interrelated but beneficial ends: discouraging— with increasingly inhibitive economic costs — the use of traditional sources of energy such as oil, natural gas and coal, to inspire the development of innovative renewable sources of energy that are less costly to the environment (Wills, 2006). Cap-and-trade policy instruments place progressive harsher limits on the usage of fossil fuels by conditioning pollution limits from industrial power plants among other major emitters of greenhouse gases through licensing. Extra emissions above the prescribed limits are surcharged prohibitively. In contrast to the traditionally regulatory command models that were rather rigid with regards to the requirements specified outcomes irrespective of the costs incurred, the prohibitive costs in cap and trade systems provide the needed incentives to either shift to the best alternative sources or to make more than necessary steps for compliance.

Was the Iraq war legal

The reason is that the US adopts a realist policy as the basis of carrying out its foreign policy. Successive American governments have followed offensive realist approaches and refused to agree or endorse any treaties, whose objectives do not correspond to United States interests. In a bid to strengthen its power, United States has repeatedly called for greater global acceptance of democratic ideologies, as well as an increased role of global institutions. Ironically, the United States has ignored global institutions like United Nations (Jakobsen and Jakobsen 2009). Another underlying reason behind Iraq incursion is the US energy policy, despite perpetrators stressing that Iraq war was solely for self defense against weapons of mass destruction, and for humanitarian intercession, as well. US policy on energy is based on a strong fervor that the nations’ needs may only be met through economic and military superiority. A principal upshot of this policy is that corporations that have associations with the oil sector are not to be defied in any manner. America tolerates sufficient refinery capacity and seeks alternative sources of energy elsewhere. Accordingly, once publicized policies to develop artificial fuels to recover oil from shale have resulted into a scam on the country’s taxpayers. Additionally, United States vehicle makers whose profits depend on guzzlers have the lowest convoy average mpg in many years. As global demand for oil increases, American leaders have come to increasingly depend on their military strength when required to take control of oil producing nations such as Iraq, which are less accustomed to America’s fuel precedence. Hence, United States decided to meet its energy needs by continuing a geopolitical realm… Another underlying reason behind Iraq incursion is the US energy policy, despite perpetrators stressing that Iraq war was solely for self-defense against weapons of mass destruction, and for humanitarian intercession, as well. US policy on energy is based on a strong fervor that the nations’ needs may only be met through economic and military superiority. A principal upshot of this policy is that corporations that have associations with the oil sector are not to be defined in any manner. America tolerates sufficient refinery capacity and seeks alternative sources of energy elsewhere. Accordingly, once publicized policies to develop artificial fuels to recover oil from shale have resulted into a scam on the country’s taxpayers. Additionally, United States vehicle makers whose profits depend on guzzlers have the lowest convoy average mpg in many years. As global demand for oil increases, American leaders have come to increasingly depend on their military strength when required to take control of oil-producing nations such as Iraq, which are less accustomed to America’s fuel precedence. Hence, United States decided to meet its energy needs by continuing a geopolitical realm using force on Iraq (Hinnebusch 2007). Some manifestations to this assertion were the posting of more than one hundred thousand troops and additional fourteen thousand oil infrastructure security guards in Iraq in 2005. America also puts some warships to defend oil tankers in and around the Persian Gulf.

Impact of Urbanization on Ecology

Urbanization means an increased scale of settlement and business in the area over time. This process can be either natural expansion of the existing population, or the transformation of the population from rural to urban areas, or a combination of these two processes.Besides this, urbanization strongly has effects on the ecology of a region and its economy. With the increase of the activities in the urban area of large cities the volume of waste which accompanies increased affluence and reliance on purchased goods also increases. Moreover, harmful synthetic materials used in packing, household appliances or machinery threatens neighboring rural areas and water sources. [Batten, 1995]Environmental effects due to urbanization have been observed since early in the 18th century, while until the middle of the 20th century the levels of urbanization were too low and the number of cities was too small. But since 1950 the number of large cities has increased rapidly, provoking large metropolitan areas and agglomerations appear. The effects of urban development on ecology can be defined by many factors, the most important of which are air quality, the availability of safe water supplies, provisions of sanitation and waste management.Urbanization often provides people with contact with wildlife. For example, hunting deer is forbidden in settled areas, and it became tame. puma as a natural predator of deer and pets such as cats and dogs, which becomes at home in the urban setting and thus often addresses people as a source of food. [Fisher, 1976]In urban areas, the majority of economic activity often occurs outwards from the city core, so that people need to go greater distances to offices and markets, situated in the core. Most of them use cars, which pollute the air with emissions and waters with auto fluids, rubber, metal and grime, and road salts.

The National Labor Union

The workforce today has just become an instrument for these corporations to multiply their wealth. The workforce is being exploited by these corporations in all parts of the globe, sometimes as child labor, sometimes as human trafficking and sometimes as sweatshops. The workers working in sweatshops are subjected to miserable and dangerous working condition. Similarly they are deprived of their basic rights such to raise voice against the employers, demand higher wage or to have extensive breaks during the working hours. Here it can be observed that the conditions of utilitarianism are not satisfied as the greater number of people in this case the workers are subjected to hardships and sufferings (, 2009). The workforces of big fishes like Nike and Walmart are subjected to perilous working conditions and are given qualms of excruciating pain and restless environment. These companies treat their workforce as an entity rather than human assets that need to be valued and taken care of. To steady the ship and to assist the workforce in obtaining its due rights through proper channel Labor Unions all over the world work day in and day out to resolve spats and cases of injustice (Selig, 1994). Labor Unions try to offer defiance to the helpless and weak workforces and try to abate the hardships that they are subjected to in their working environments. Labor unions help workers voice their opinions out loud to the management to get what they deserve rather than acting as silent observers or machines. There is a number of Labor Unions that are found across the United States of America namely American Labor Party, Farmer Labor Party, US Labor Party etc. throughout the length of this assignment American Labor Party will be the focal point to be elaborated upon (Russel Saga Foundation, 2006). History Taking account of the blows that the capitalist system has made to the world in general including the classification of the people into socio economic classes, alienation of workers from their intellectual and physical rights, the phenomenon of rich getting richer leading to ever greater miseries of the poor people and accumulation of the wealth in 2007 a voice was raised. This voice was established using the internet protocol bearing in mind the possibilities attached when it comes to the digital medium. The aim of this party is to get America back to where it used to be before the influence of other world powers over its economy like Europe. Bringing US back on track is elaborated by this Labor Union on its website as restoring the free market economy and transfer of wealth more to labor as compared to capital (American Labor Party, 2011). The American Labor Party provides the hapless and helpless labor of the US Companies to voice their opinions, raise their voices and participate in the democratic system of government to be a part of the system and get the things done correctly. The American Labor Party is an integrated platform that raises ugly issues in the America Corporate sector by sharing blogs and articles and bringing important, unheard and attention gaining issues to limelight. This is where this party becomes unique and effective because it does not only provide a platform to speak to the unheard but on the other hand it also creates awareness among the people and the laborers

Marketing Plan for Harvey Norman

Due to the high demand of electronic products both locally and internationally, Harvey Norman Company has opened different stores to cater for the different needs of their customers both locally and internationally. The market situation analysis for the company indicates that the company has increased its sales significantly over the last years despite the harsh trading conditions they have operated. However, their retail spending has been largely affected by debt they have accrued both internally and externally. This is negative to the grot of the company, since most customers have decided to shop online because of the readily available substitutes for the products produced by the company by other companies (Synnot Fitzgerald, 2007). Harvey Norman Company faces stiff competition from other companies dealing in similar products because of its large scale production tendencies. There are many companies that form strong competitive force for Harvey Norman Company dealings. Theses are companies that also share similar market as Harvey Norman Company, therefore, are major competitors for the company as they also target similar customers like Norman Harvey Company. Most major competitors for the company originate from the United States. … According to the PESTLE analysis, there are different factors affecting the operation of Harvey Norman Company. These factors range from political, economic, social and technological. Political factors affect the company’s operation in terms of regulations placed by the government to control various activities being conducted by the company. Harvey Norman Company is both affected by internal and external regulation. Despite some of these working towards the growth of the company, others create conflict within the company, therefore, making the company unable to achieve its goals and objectives. Harvey Norman Company is forced to take into considerations various clauses stipulated by the law so as not go against specific regulations set by the government in their course of operation within different countries. An example is the environmental clause which is there to protect the environment from toxic waste or substances produced by companies. Moreover, there are consumer laws also plays a significant role in determining the success of the company. This is because all companies dealing in the same or different line are always eager to achieve a competitive advantage of their competitors. Harvey Norman Company is forced to adopt different consumer laws in the different countries they sell their products in despite some of the laws being unfruitful to their profits. Harvey Norman Company has devoted its time in concentrating on the society and engaging in various ways that has played in improving people’s way of life. In its contribution to charitable organizations, the company has show to the world that it not only concerned about their profits, but to the welfare of all their stakeholders which forms the current Harvey Norman Company. In addition,

Inflation in Saudi Arabia

The economy of the country of Saudi Arabia is oil based with active government intervention in major economic activities. The country ranks on the top in exports of petroleum products and plays an active role in OPEC. The petroleum sector of the economy accounts for 45% of the total revenues. Currently the government is engaged in encouraging the growth of the private sector within the economy as they believe such strategies will reduce the dependence on oil. The growth the private sector will also create employment opportunities. It has permitted investments in the telecommunication and the power sectors. In an effort to diversify the economy, the country acceded to the WTO in 2005. Focus was given to form a regulated market and the Saudi Arabia Monetary Agency (SAMA) emerged in 1984 after the government passed an instruction. The Capital market authority took over the responsibilities of the agency after its formation in 2003. November 26 marked the day when the first corporate governance code was implemented. The sections provide provisions like preliminary level, board of directors, lucidity and disclosure, shareholders authority and the provisions for the general assembly and the closing provisions. Some of the experts opine to measure corporate governance using the Gompers and Metric. … Considering the resource endowment of the country it was a logical decision to increase the development of oil and gas resource through downstream investments in refineries. Three factors influenced the decision. The investments were mostly capital intensive which was just appropriate for the small population of the country with enormous reserves of oil. It would have been possible to generate value added income which would maximise the revenues of the country through the export of refined petroleum as well as crude oil. The natural gas which would have been wasted can also be utilised and processed. Inflation The budget impacts on the growth of the economy and allocation or redistribution of resources. The difference between budgetary spending and revenues is defined as the budget deficit. Budget deficit contribute in the level of national debt. A variety of problems can result because of budget deficit. Lower national savings rate, higher rates of interest and inflation are some of them. It is possible to treat inflation as the continuous or sustained rise in the level of prices. A situation marked by inflation is witnessed by continuous reduction in the value of money. The transformation of the general level of prices is a common situation of inflation. In a situation characterised by inflation, the period of the rise in prices continues for a year, week or month. Some of the factors that lead to inflation are rise in the costs of imported materials, the costs of labour to rise and the high rate of indirect tax from the part of the government. In cases where the rise in the general price level is caused by increase in the level of wages as well as raw materials are regarded as cost push inflation. With rises in the costs of production the firms tend to

The Development of Criminal Process in the Chinese Legal System

The competences of the police unit to administer legal sanctions as determined by the courts are key concerns of this paper. The evolution in legal justice especially conflict resolution between the government and the court is also discussed. Further, the paper looks into the punitive measures established by the law and their administration. It goes ahead to determine how much significant this has had in China in terms of integration towards globalization. The timeline of these events especially after World War II is showed. Introduction The most general temperament of human rights infringement in the Republic of China is a crucial point of view both internationally and within the China’s state. General seminars are cruelly suppressed. The rights of expression and sense of right and wrong are critically examined. Basic freedoms of association for work unions and other independent societies are not valued. The criminal justice system carry on to spate torment, random detention and rebuff of due process. These tortures and the other have extremely been recorded by the international human rights organizations for example the Amnesty International, Human Rights watch and Human Rights in the people’s republic of China, besides inter governmental bodies and national authorities (Stanley, 1999, p36)1. Despite the magnitude of the international focal point on china and the re-occurrences solitude of the Chinese’s government for its deeds, development towards improvement ha appreciated very slowly. The lawyers Committee for Human Rights value that a long outcome to these are rooted problems which lie in all-inclusive change of those Chinese laws and practices which encourage the continuity of serious abuse. This on the other hand will need an increased participation of the Chinese lawyers, legal academics and the rights advocate in efforts to put into effect these new rules. It is believed that the new chance exists in making progress in this route. In the past years, Chinese authority has embarked on the right track of reform which contributes to societal upgrade and law abiding through a driven desire to put up to date most of its institutions to be fully amalgamated into the economical world. The consequences involved in these processes include enormous part inadvertent by the Chinese state to give specific grounds for careful hopefulness. Growth and area of specialization of legal communal within China that is growing cognizant of global rules that are to say these individuals, of which some work at the margins of official elegance, represents a specific prospect of change from within. The other is the going through of the law into the everyday’s matter of Chinese life, which began slowly to inspire the sense that freedom and rights is defined, codified and is real through the accepted procedure. Boarding on it policies of Reform and Opening, the Chinese government has put in place constantly concrete stress on the needs to improve the country’s legal system. The strategy has made the government be driven by strong values of real politics at the onset of the Chinese leaders who are principally motivated by desire to allure west investment and put to bay a re-occurrence of riot in the communal growth. In 1980s, this made them stress the law duties in guiding the dos and don’ts of economic values and state rules in the market specialization. In the process, china was pulled rootlet

International aid is always welcome Discuss

Foreign or international aids play a very imperative role in the overall development of a country unless it gets utilized properly. International aid is mainly required in case of scarcity of economic resources or for any other natural restraint, when a country needs sufficient amount of foreign funds in the style of foreign aids to regain its position. Generally foreign or international aid is presented to reduce the deficit budgets, trade promotions along with strategic considerations. Other than this, Foreign or international aids are also offered in the form of economic, technical or military relief by one nation to another for the purpose of rehabilitation and support to make a real life difference. Not only this, foreign aids are also offered so as to present the opportunity to attain basic educational facilities to the poor children as well (Little Clifford, 2005). Due to such reasons, it is highly admired by the individual all round the world. There are mainly two types of aids like emergency and developmental aids. Emergency aids are those presented by varied nations to offer relief to the individual ruined due to natural calamity such as fire, drought, flood, sudden break out of epidemic and breaking of large boulders and many others. Apart from this, aids are also offered in case of developmental purposes as well. When a developmental country is trying to become developed, then varied types of aids are also offered to help the suffering individual of those countries (Little Clifford, 2005). These aids help in improving the condition and status of the individual in the developing countries and it is highly preferred by all of them. Discussion The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) is one of the well-known international reliefs providing organization positioned in New York of USA. It was established in the year 1946 in the month of December. It is established in order to offer emergency relief and developmental support to the suffered families. It also works for the betterment of the poor and deprived families and mothers so as to improve their living conditions and economic standards. Therefore, these organizations are developed in order to improve and protect the families below poverty line and also to protect the rights of the small children as well. Almost 16 million individual became victimised due to the devastating drought that broke in Africa (UNICEF UK, n.d.). In 18th April, in the year 2000, a massive drought broke out in the eastern and southern parts of Africa in which numerous families and children became homeless and almost ruined (UNICEF UK, n.d.). At that time, in order to help those ruined families, UNICEF came forward. It offered varied types of reliefs such as money, clothes, food, medicines and safe drinking water facilities to those families and individual. Other than this, it also appealed for proper medicinal treatment for the children suffering varied types of trouble-some diseases (UNICEF UK, n.d.). Therefore, in order to treat these suffered individuals, UNICEF appealed for $1.7 million from both government and private donors. But they received only $ 500,000 to fulfil the basic needs like water, medicines, food, clothes and others. This helped in saving the lives of numerous suffered and diseased individual and children to

The Effect of Crises on the Tourism Industry

For years, the tourism industry developed almost fluently and now it has become a chief economic segment. For many countries in the developing world, tourism is a significant basis of income creation and therefore, a key element of economic improvement. A good positive state related to tourism can improve the relationship and its rewards nations. But the consequences of negative conditions such as terrorism are massive on a countries’ financial system. Tourism contributes about 10 percent of global GDP. Tourism industry needs to predict customer requirements, recreate its business strategy, and relocate on providing good services because in recent years customers have become more demanding and a good tourism system can improve the image of the nation. Therefore, the terrorist attacks can play a massively derogatory role in a country’s economy and thus, the tourism sector similar to other sectors can bear the brunt of such scenario (Wharton University of Pennsylvania, 2010). Tourism has become a key economic activity in the 20th Century. The World Travel Tourism Council had generated income of US $ 655 billion from the tourism industry in the year 1995 and had created 212 million jobs. Global employment growth was estimated at 21 percent in the year 2007. This increase was primarily due to increase in capital investment and it contributed to 610,000 people globally being engaged to the tourism industry. The employment increase was from complimentary services such as entertainment and restaurants.

Financial Statement Cash Flows and Taxes

Gradually pressure went on increasing on the banks so the reserve banks allowed local banks to lower both the lending as well as borrowing rates.According to economic theories when demand goes down, the governments introduce more liberal monitory policy so that more liquidity can be introduced. As soon as the reserve banks reduce their interest rates, following the trend other banks have to reciprocate the same and they also lower the interest rates. So it becomes more convenient for business persons to opt for debt capital which is available at a much lower rate. In the downturn economical phase, it becomes too difficult to raise equity capital from primary markets hence lower interest attracts the companies who have expansion plans.The financial environment and the interest rates are related to each other and while setting the interest rates government takes into account the financial environment more seriously. The financial environment comprises of many factors such as money market, capital market, secondary market, primary market, debt markets, liquidity state of the economy, the performance of banks and their level of profitability, business performance in the nation, demand and supply state and so on. Rather than the home country, the financial condition of neighboring nations and the state of the international market also influences interest rate.When the financial environment in the US was poor due to the subprime crisis, Fed reduced interest rates to sub-zero levels with an aim to boost demand and introduce liquidity in markets. Loans were quite cheap for the business entities so that they can start new projects. All this will result in more jobs and a reduction in the rate of unemployment and a higher demand for raw material and other facilities. There was a plan to accelerate the production cycle but stimulating the demand in the US economy through the lower interest rate.

Empirical EvidenceFinancial Systems and Economic Activity

er, it was found that the expenditures over research and development, and not fixed capital formation, serve are the medium through which this impact takes place. It was also observed that the interaction amongst the structures and the industrial activity of the country greatly depends upon the levels of its economic growth. The concluding chapter of this paper explains the implications for the economic policy of the consideration that the institutional structure might be inter-related with the type of activity. 2. Review of Economic Performance and Financial Systems Joseph Schumpeter explained in 1912 that how the provision of loan was essential for the development and for the entrepreneurship. According to him, despite giving loan is not central to the normal circular flow, it is true that there exists a gap to overcome in the execution of new combinations. He further affirmed that the obligation of the lender is to bridge this gap, which he very well does by placing the power-to-purchase developed ad hoc at the disposal of the businessman. Thorstein Veblen observed that the mechanism of assessing firms subject to standardized bureaucratic routine adopted by the entrepreneurs whom he referred to as the lieutenants of finance where as he dubbed the syndicated bankers as the captain of finance (Veblen, 1919). Nevertheless, Robert Lucas, among various others, debates that the economists poorly exaggerated the importance of financial attributes in economic performance (Lucas, 1988). While the significance of financial systems is doubtful, the efficacy of various sorts of financial systems has been found to be even more controversial. Clapham (1936) in his work agreed with the views of a principal officer of one of the Great Banks of Germany that… The paper includes the theoretical literature on the interaction among the financial and corporate mechanisms and the types of economic activities. Link of high risk R D type activities has been established with the dispersed ownership financial systems and the market based financial systems, in case of the significant imposition of strict budget constraints. On the other hand, the financial systems with concentrated ownership and the bank oriented financial systems should be linked to long term investment with stimulated nature, in case of financial structures that require commitments to other stakeholders. This paper makes a conclusion that the empirical analyses of the relationship between the types of economic activity and financial and corporate systems are currently at its initial stage, they have significant policy implications if they are promoted through the provision of further evidence in this regard.Specifically, they indicate that there is not essentially a commanding financial system that is suitable for all economies or for all industries inside an economy. The financial systems or considerations that are deemed appropriate for a developed economy might turn inappropriate for a developing economy. Similarly what is appropriate for a highly innovative R D economy might be inappropriate for a more imitative economy. There might be essential adjustments in making financial systems to comply with the countries’ stages of economic development, industrial bases, regulatory and legal policies.

Human Resources

Preparing this portfolio has enabled me to explore myself and identify my strengths and weaknesses that will help me in planning my career. I have compiled this portfolio with the objective of analyzing my skills and interests for framing my career objectives and overcome inherent weaknesses to help me achieve my goals.Common to all career problems is a gap between the reality that prevails and things we hope for (Lock, 2004, p2). Career decision can be complex and there are many factors influencing our choice. Individual interests and capabilities are the vital elements guiding our future career plan and vocational training that can help in realizing these plans. One of the pre-requisites for choosing the right career lies in identifying one’s strengths and interests that guide personal goals and objectives. This involves introspection of personal needs, skills, aptitudes and capabilities that help in deciding on a specific field for the career. Individual career planning is based on the educational background, physical abilities, skills, competencies, economic situation, awareness of job markets, and circumstances that shape the choice of career (Rothwell, 2009). The choice of career is hence guided by individual capabilities and interests that match his personality traits and meet his financial needs.As part of my initiatives to explore and assess my skills in different categories, I undertook three psychometric tests that include abstract reasoning skills, verbal reasoning skills, and numerical reasoning skills. Psychometric tests are structured test formats that can be taken either online or by filling in responses in printed answer sheets. These tests usually consist of multiple choice questions that test the aptitude levels of individuals in different subject contexts. The effectiveness of these tests lies in the assessment of individual competencies and skills that can be used to promote specific areas of strength or overcome inherent weaknesses.

The Determinants of Trade Policy Preferences in the UK

One is that the factor type dominates the sector of service or employment and thereby becomes an important determinant throwing light on the positive preference for trade barriers. Secondly, the study also includes the homeownership aspect to the determinants of preferences regarding trade. It indicates that home ownership taken independently of the type of factor has a correlation with trade barrier support in the countries where the manufacturing mix has a concentration in sectors of comparative disadvantage.Here, we see that the preferences have a dependence on the effect of trade policy on the income of factors of production as well as on the economic benefit of the individual. Therefore, the preferences towards trade policy may be a result of not the only income of the factors, but also of the ownership of the assets that they possess. However, the assets such as housing do not become a part of the standard theory of trade since it is not employed and nor is it presently produced asset. The study also says that ownership of the home is correlated to a negative preference for free trade in places having a manufacturing mix that is concentrated in comparative-disadvantage sectors.It is to be noted that when the economy runs on the basis of certain sectors, factors have a direct link in those specific sectors. Hence, it so happens that factors in different sectors show their different preferences i.e. support or negativity. This happens when there is an assumption of immobility of factors between sectors. Here, if the sector is not an exporting one, they prefer protection. However, free trade is the most preferred, if the sector is an exporting one, which means there is a negative preference for trade barriers. However, if we assume that factors have mobility, factors who have a higher supply (those factors that are more in number) will have a preference for free trade policy those which are less in number will have a preference towards protection.

I Have Also Attached The Original Document With The Same Questions /&Gt


Part 1

The Toledo Mudhens, a minor league baseball team, breaks an average of eleven bats per week during a 42 week season. The team purchases it bats from a national supplier. The order cost is $295 and the annual holding cost is 25 percent of the purchase price.

What is the annual demand for bats?

If bats cost $30.00 each, what is the economic order quantity for bats?

What is the total annual cost associated with the EOQ quantity?

What impact will an decrease to $195 in the order cost have on the EOQ quantity?

Suppose the Mudhens break an average of 9 bats per week during the season, what impact will this have on the EOQ quantity? (Assume the order cost is $295)

Assume the bat manufacturer offers the Mudhens the following price schedule

Order Quantity Price per Unit

– 49 $28.00

– 143 $27.00

144 or more $26.50

How many bats should the team order if the discount applies to all units?

What is the total annual cost associated with the best order quantity?

Part 2

Below is the Bill of Materials (BOM) and Master Production Schedule (MPS) for a chair. The number in the parenthesis indicates the quantity needed and the lead time is shown in weeks.










Quantity Needed









Determine the timing of the Pl

41) A Firm Will Always Make An Economic Profit If A) P = Atc B) P &Gt


C) P = MC.

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n maustry attract
A) high revenues B) normal profit C) economic profit D) low cost E) lack of competition
MR 3
MR 2
(note: each of the above horizontal curves (lines) represent a different demand curve for firm
A. Remember that in pure competition a firm’s demand curve D = P = MR)Microeconomics

5 Macro Economic Questions About

AS/AD and IS/LMif asking illustrate the short run effects of anQuestion one
Crowding Out is a decrease in investment which is brought about by increase in interest rates due to expansionary fiscal po
When the government increases borrowing,prevailing interest…Economics

1 Points


  1. Consider a firm that employs some resources that are owned by

1. Economic profit is
the difference between total revenue and the opportunity cost of all of the resources used
in production.
(opportunity cost of all resources include the…Economics

I Need Help With My Data Exercise

1 In macroeconomics. Please let me know if you need any information.Economic Statistical Data Institution: Instructor: Name: Economic Statistical Data Real GDP is an aggregate measure of the value of economic output adjusted for prices changes.
Nominal GDP is the…Economics

I Need Answer By

Thursday 6pm

Multiple choice questions

1 Economic profit
a is a theoretical measure of a firms performance and has little value in real world decison
b can be calculated by subtracting implicit costs of using owner owner-supplied…Economics

You And Some Friends Are Discussing News That Could Change The World As We Know It If The Worldchanging Company


You and some friends are discussing news that could change the world as we know it, if the world-changing company

survives! Hermes, a

new automaker, unveils a new automobile that runs on plastic grocery bags and gets 100 miles to the bag. It enjoys a monopoly on this new

technology. Assume that Hermes is a profit-maximizing firm and currently operates at a negative economic profit in the short run.

1. Draw a correctly-labeled graph for Hermes, showing the profit-maximizing price P and quantity Q of the new car. Also shade the area

of the negative economic profit.

2. Why would Hermes continue to operate in the short run if it is earning negative economic profit?

3. What would happen to the total revenue of Hermes if it decided to make one fewer car than Q ? Why?

Monopoly making economic loss
Unit cost amp; revenue ($) – thousand
Quantity (thousands of units sold per year)Microeconomics

Initially An Economy Has 90 Million People Employed 10 Million People Unemployed And 15 Million People Not In


Initially an economy has 90 million people employed, 10 million people unemployed, and 15 million people not in

the labor force. Because of a new round of tax cuts, households expectations for the economy improve. 4 million people who previously were not in the labor force now join it. Now there are 92 million employed. What happens to the unemployment rate? Provide an economic explanation as to what happened to the unemployment rate and why ?


Using The Graph Above What Is The Profit Maximizing Or Loss Minimizing Output And Price?

Using the graph


1. Using the graph

above, what is the profit maximizing or loss minimizing output and price?

2. Using the graph above, what is the profit or loss at the profit maximizing or loss minimizing point?

3. What would happen in this market in the long run. Be sure to explain in detail what happens in the market and the firm. What would be the long run price, and output.

4. How, if in the long run there is zero economic profit, do producers stay in business? *(think about the difference between economic and accounting costs and the implications of this.)*


__________ Is The Amount Of Real Gdp An Economy Can Produce By Fully Employing Its Existing Levels Of Labor


__________ is the amount of real GDP an economy can produce by fully employing its existing levels of labor,

physical capital, and technology, in the context of its existing market and legal institutions.

Select the two correct answers below.

Select all that apply:

  • Full-employment GDP
  • GDP
  • Potential GDP
  • Real GDP

2.Factors that may change net exports are

Select all that apply:

  • changes in the price levels of countries
  • changes in the relative growth rates of countries.
  • changes in domestic consumption of US goods
  • changes in government spending

3.Although you can make a purchase with a credit card, _______.

Select the two answers below that correctly fill in the blank.

Select all that apply:

  • it is not considered money.
  • it is considered as a long-term loan.
  • it is considered as a short-term loan.
  • it is not considered as a reliable way to purchase goods and services.

4.t he long run aggregate supply curve is

Select the correct answer below:

a)horizontal at a fixed price level

b)vertical at the full employment level of GDP

c)upward sloping, illustrating the tradeoff between inflation and GDP

d)downward sloping, illustrating a negative relationship between price level and GDP

5.Economic adjustments can be slow if

Select the correct answer below:

a.people cannot form expectations about the futureMacroeconomics

Chapter Name Economic Fluctuation &Amp


note: the home country is INDIA according to the


chapter name Economic fluctuation unemployment

note: the home country is INDIA according to the


C. Economic Fluctuations and Consumption (9 Marks)
1. Sickness and accidents are one of the largest shocks that affect households. These
shocks include the costs of healthcare and the loss of income.
a) Name your home country. What are the two main mechanisms that exist in your
home country that help insure households against the shocks of healthcare costs?
Are these examples of co-insurance or of-insurance? (2 marks)
d) Name the cause of an economy-wide shock that has occurred in your home
country. Did households have access to any form of co-insurance to help with the O
shock? (2 marks)

Land Not Developed Is Sometimes Called Dead Capital This Means That The Sole Objective Of Land Development Is


Land not developed is sometimes called dead capital. This means that the sole objective of land development is

to turn this dead capital into useful capital for the creation of economic wealth for the good of the state and all citizens.

Is the above statement true?

oIf in your opinion a statement is incorrect or partially correct only, explain why you think so by giving reasons or

oIf you fully concur with a statement, please also explain.


4 (10 Points) In A Perfectly Competitive Industry Demand Is P = 850 2qand Industry Supply


4. (10 points) In a perfectly competitive industry, demand is:

P = 850 – 2Q

and industry supply


P = 250 + 4Q

a The supply is simply the sum of the marginal cost curves of all the firms in the industry. Suppose that all the competitive firms collude to form one single monopoly firm. (Collusion changes neither the demand nor the cost conditions in the industry.)

b Discuss the economic effects of the change in market structure. More specifically, quantify the possible changes in the market price and output of the commodity.


Please See Below Advocates Of Globalization Including Professional Economists And Business


Please see below:

Advocates of globalization, including professional economists and business

leaders stress the benefits of globalization on economic growth. According to them, one of he benefits of globalization is that it will strengthen the middle class, which is the driving force of the economy.

Do you think that globalization will further economic growth and strengthen the US middle class? Or do you see it as a threat to the well-being of the middle class? Provide your arguments in favor or against this claim.


In Chapter 7 The Environment Part Ii Hite And Seitz (2016) Discuss The Existing Tension Between


In Chapter 7: The Environment – Part II, Hite and Seitz (2016) discuss the existing tension between

development and the environment. Development brings economic growth as well as social and environmental changes. To a developing country, economic growth may be of a higher priority than the consequences to the long-term health of its citizens or its environment. On the other hand, poverty can also harm the environment such as how searching for land to farm contributes to deforestation.

Do wealthy nations using the labor of developing nations have responsibilities to the people and environment of that country? Why or why not? Be sure to use examples of existing companies to support your response


The Characteristics Of Perfect Competition In The Long Run Include All Of The


The characteristics of perfect competition in the long run include all of the

following except:

Select one:

a. efficient production

b. output at minimum long run average total cost

c. marginal cost equals price

d. positive economic profit

e. total revenue equals total cost


Economists Consider Both Explicit Costs And Implicit Costs When Measuring Economic Profit The Reason They


Economists consider both explicit costs and implicit costs when measuring economic profit. The reason they

consider implicit costs is that

Group of answer choices

a business must cover its opportunity costs as well as its out-of-pocket expenses to be truly profitable.

most businesses forget to pay their implicit costs.

implicit costs include expenses like taxes and fees to the government.

they are more conservative than accountants, who consider only accounting costs.

implicit costs are typically far larger than explicit costs.


The United States Is Able To Experience Economic Growth To The Extent That A

the government


The United States is able to experience economic growth to the extent that:

A. the government

involves itself in the economy.

B. jobs are protected from outsourcing.

C. trade is restricted.

D. consumers are encouraged to buy domestically produced goods.

E. specialization and trade are encouraged.


Assume The Market For Beef Is Perfectly Competitive Beef Producers Are Currently Earning A Zero Economic Profit


Assume the market for beef is perfectly competitive. Beef producers are currently earning a zero economic profit.

If consumers switch from beef to chicken, which of the following is most likely to occur?

Select one:

a. Beef producers will incur economic losses in both the short run and the long run.

b. Beef producers will earn economic profits in the short run and there will be no additional adjustments in the long run.

c. Beef producers will incur economic losses in the short run. Some producers will exit the industry until those remaining beef producers are earning a zero economic profit.

d. Beef producers will incur economic losses in the short run. Some producers will exit the industry until those remaining beef producers are earning an economic profit.


For The Following Questions First State Whether The Test Needed Is A Zstatistic Or Tstatistic And Calculate The


For the following questions, first state whether the test needed is a Z-statistic or T-statistic and calculate the

test statistic.

Note: Feel free to make a new cell to do some calculations with Python if need be.

a. The grades on a statistics test at GW University are normally distributed with μ = 55 and σ = 12. George scored G = 65 on the exam. You want to test whether George’s score is more than the mean.

b. The heights of the statisticians working on the Large Hadron Collider project seems to be normally distributed with μ = 68 inches and σ = 5 inches. Dr. Numbercrackers’ height is H = 61 inches. You want to test is Dr. Numbercracker’s height is different from the mean.

c. The Bureau on Economic Development conducted a survey of families residing in a small town of Gugelshnackel. 100 residents were surveyed and the survey revealed that X ̄ = 45, 000 and s = 10, 538. You need to test whether mean income is statistically different from a null hypothesis of 40,000.

Statistics and Probability