The Impact of Debt on the Housing Market in the United Kingdom

In order to address this issue, this paper will first identify what the level of personal debt is for the nation and then make predictions as to what direction the level of personal debt will be going in the near and long term future in the UK. This will be followed by a discussion as to what consequences of having personal debt are for the people in the UK. This section will conclude with a discussion as to what is the impact of personal debt on the housing market.According to (2009), the level of personal debt in the UK stood at approximately £1,458bn (October statistics). Building on this point, in an article by Pym (2009) it is the case that personal borrowing actually declined over £600 million over previous months and as of present personal debt in the UK now rests at approximately £1.457 trillionAccording to the CIA World Factbook (2009), the UK falls 50th on a list of 126 on a ranked scale of nations representing what percentage of total GDP is a public debt which is debt owed by the government to holders of government debt instruments, estimated in 2007 to be approximately 43.60%.Keeping in mind that it is the fact that in recent months people have been paying off a significant portion of their personal debt one must also question why it is that this action is transpiring. One logical conclusion is that with falling interest rates the price of loan repayments such as mortgage payments would likely be falling. It could be the case that people would opt to repay their loans faster rather than spending it. According to the Telegraph (2009), UK homeowners have been paying down their mortgages for six straight fiscal quarters which as was argued by the article is largely owing to changing consumer preferences in the wake of falling house prices. It is often the case that when house prices are increasing people are more willing to increase the size of their mortgage and the opposite holds true when the price of a mortgage is falling.

Benefit Of Scholarship Of Teaching And Learning For Teaching Practice

Benefit Of Scholarship Of Teaching And Learning For Teaching PracticePope-Ruark, R. (2012). Back to our roots: An invitation to strengthen disciplinary arguments via the scholarship of teaching and learning. Business Communication Quarterly, 75(4), 357 –376.Pope-Ruark (2012) asserted the importance of a scholarly research plan in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) because it expands professional communication by differentiating SoTL from other kinds of teacher-scholar practice, specifically, anecdotal publications, action research, conventional educational research, and academic teaching. Pope-Ruark (2012) provided a short history of the Association for Business Communication (ABC) and the Association of Teachers of Technical Writing (ATTW) because they are the proponents of professional writing pedagogy. In SoTL, the researcher is an instructor of any discipline who seeks to enhance personal, disciplinary, and/or higher education training in general or for specific students, certain teaching methods, and teaching or learning problems and opportunities (Pope-Ruark, 2012, p.365). The primary methods of SoTL are wide-ranging literature reviews in disciplinary pedagogical journals and SoTL scholarship. qualitative or quantitative scientific methods, and other empirical approaches (Pope-Ruark, 2012, p.365). Furthermore, the implications and distribution of SoTL includes the development of a research agenda to understand teaching and learning practices and outcomes and to share learning through peer-reviewed journals or conferences in related disciplines or the SoTL community (Pope-Ruark, 2012, p.365). Pope-Ruark (2012) concluded that implementing an SoTL research agenda in the field of professional communication will shape teaching and publishing activities, theory-building, and disciplinary identity by improving how SoTL researchers and practitioners see themselves in relation to other fields and how they can contribute to the latter’s communication skills development, thereby boosting (inter)disciplinary communication knowledge and practices. The evaluation of the paper reveals several strengths and weaknesses. The strengths of the article are its differentiation of SoTL from other teacher-scholar practices and provision of a case study of SoTL practice. First, the delineation through comparison and contrast helps readers understand what SoTL is in comparison to others and why it offers something more. The differentiation further captures the relevance of SoTL to those who want an empirical approach to the disciplinarity and teaching and research-agenda support of SoTL to teacher-scholars. Second, the case study shows SoTL in practice. SoTL in everyday practice shows the centrality of an empirical research agenda in understanding and examining teaching and learning practices for purposes of enhancing school outcomes and theory-building. SoTL supports the pedagogy that ABC and ATTW promote. The article has its weaknesses, however, because it does not show statistics or qualitative research on how SoTL has directly improved the disciplinarity of professional communication in any specific way. Readers would also be interested in a further discussion of SoTL’s future research plans that contribute to specific emerging professional communication issues and trends that the paper lacked. Despite these weaknesses, I find the article useful in determining the roots of SoTL in two respected communication organizations. These roots showed the origins and purposes of SoTL in defining the nature and direction of professional writing as a discipline. I learned something new also from the article because it showed how SoTL can help scholars shape their research agenda from existing professional communication issues and how it can support them in finding new theories and teaching practices that fit modern technological advances and communication pattern changes. Finally, the article is important in underscoring the role of peer-reviewed publication in expanding professional communication theories and practices through knowledge-sharing that invites further research and theory-testing. This aspect encourages me to one day publish my own professional communication studies.

Collecting Waste Recyclable Products and Different Projects

The project managed to collect as much as forty million pounds of waste materials in this year. The project only concentrated on moving around the Terre community and collecting waste material that is recyclable and delivering it to the enterprise for recycling.As a recycling facility, Indiana State University started out with a Wastage Management department in 1990. This department, at the time, comprised of two old cubic yard compactor trucks, five employees and a Cushman truck. The knowledge regarding recycling was not as plentiful as it is nowadays. In addition, the department did not have the necessary budget to undertake effective recycling activities. However, this did not deter them from recycling aluminum can which was the recycling trend at the time. Since then, the department has grown by leaps and bounds to its current state. At the moment, ISU recycling activities are recognized by the Indiana community. The program has developed a drop-facility and has started accepting e-Scrap. Its recycling statistics are impressive considering they have recycled more than 2 million pounds to date.The main activity was driving around collecting garbage. We would drive around in trucks and load recyclable materials to the trucks. The materials include plastic bottles except those that carried oil, glass bottles, cardboard, old telephone books and any other recyclable materials and glass containers provided they did not contain Pyrex.While recycling trash and garbage, we learned the procedures of handling solid waste in the county of Indiana. In the state, we learned that the Indiana County Solid Waste Authority was the authority in matters regarding the disposal of solid waste. This authority was formed as part of the county’s compliance with the Pennsylvania Act of 101 of 1988. All members of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania has to enforce theappropriate solid waste disposal techniques.

Claim to Cancel the Legitimacy of Gambling

Claim to Cancel the Legitimacy of GamblingMy presentation was on the bad roles of gambling to the American society. The objective was to convince the audience to claim the cancelation the legitimacy of gambling given its consequences such as the loss of health and money. My topic was appropriate for my classmates. My approach started with little connection between the financial crisis and gambling and how people could not pay their obligations to banks. In my presentation, I tried to simplify the topic so that it could be easily understood by my classmates given the complexity of the subject. As such, I managed to accomplish 95-97% of my presentation goals. The organization and development of my presentation was divided into three points. The first category was to clarify some misconceptions about gambling. For instance, people perceive gambling as a hobby. I persuaded them to understand that gambling is a serious business. In addition, I informed the audience that, as individuals we cannot control chance or luck. The second point elaborated on the health risks associated with gambling. Here, I mentioned the serious disease associated with people addicted to gambling. The diseases were such as liver disease, high blood pressure, increased rates of heart diseases and angina. My final point was ideally to support my presentation goal. I was able to convince them to claim to cancel gambling indirectly via clearly showing the existing relationship between gambling and increased rate of crimes and drug business. As a matter of fact, I made an outline to my professor to make sure that my structure was easy to follow. I provided enough testimony when I used the statistic. Throughout my presentation, I used transitions to navigate from one point to another. Unfortunately, my conclusion ended abruptly as my time was already out. Therefore, I was unable to conclude what I had prepared for my audience.My use of verbal communication was fine as everyone could get me clearly. This was evident from the various questions asked by the audience. However, I had some weakness in pronouncing some words but that did not stop me from continuing with my presentation. With nonverbal delivery, I tried my level best to maintain eye contact with my audience. This is because, eye contact helps in establishing a relationship with the subjects in question. In addition, I tried to smile when appropriate to create a friendly environment. I used my platform very well moving from one place to another as I tried to dish out cards and papers that contained significant information on gambling. I also interacted with the audience in order to make them active. The information I provided to the audience was not that satisfactory. Therefore, in future I plan to carry out extensive research before conducting any presentation.By use of questions, my presentation became easier to be understood by the audience. Through the questions, I was able to clarify some misconceptions about gambling. Moreover, I provided real statistics on individuals involving themselves in gambling. Furthermore, I clarified my points to increase the level of understanding of the topic. However, the audience was not enthusiastic about the subject. This was attributed to the insufficient background for gambling as it is not allowed in my country, Saudi Arabia. For the questions, I just had about three questions, which I answered effectively due to the prior preparation I had done before the presentation. However, this was a good experience as in future I want to be a teacher.In conclusion, verbal communication can only be improved when a person is a good listener. Listening enhances an understanding of how other people views a subject under discussion. Before presenting anything to the audience, it is essential to take time and meditate upon the subject so as to offer your best to the audience. Allow discussions so that people can air their views. Gesture should be used effectively to match what you are talking about. It is also useful to understand ones audience facial expressions, intonations and body language to improve on non-verbal communication (Lucas 1).Work CitedLucas, Army. The importance of verbal and non-verbal communication. Web. 1 August. 2012.

Research For Marketing Practitioners

About half of the dishes are made up of ethnic dishes, for instance Chinese and Indian, indicating an interest in exotic tastes, but some of the recipes are made up of Continental recipes, such as Italian. Italian ready meals are made up of pasta which has a healthy image and attractive to children and students. The vegetable-based ready meals sector is also growing and attractive to students. This is followed by the fish-based and then the meat-based. Considered health foods are primarily made up of vegetables and fish. The UK has been hailed as the most developed market in Europe when it comes to chilled ready meals. (Dennis and Stringer 2000, p. 14) In 1994, chilled ready meals had a per capita consumption of 1 kg., compared to Germany’s 0.3 kg, France’s 0.2 kg and Spain’s .1 kg. In other words, the potential for chilled ready meals is great in the UK and if this is reflected in Europe, it has great future potential for business venture. (Dennis and Stringer 2000, p. 14) Pizza sales registered a high growth of 10% during the period 1994-97. Manufacturers wanted to stimulate more demands for pizzas by introducing various flavours and in exploiting consumer’s growing love for exotic tastes. … Mixed salads with new varieties of leaves have also been introduced to the craving palates of students. Manufacturers have introduced sandwiches, a favorite feature of student snacks. The British Sandwich Association released statistics stating that sandwiches have been hailed as the most popular fast food in the UK. It has a market of ?3.25 billion and fast growing at a rate of 13% annually. Sandwiches have been reported to represent 41% of the fast food sector, while burgers only represent 18%, and fish and chips only represent 12%. Sandwiches are a favorite snacks meal for the British, with the UK having the world’s highest per capita consumption of sandwiches. And this is true for men, women and children. (Dennis and Stringer 2000, p. 15) This paper is a proposal to outline a research programme to test a range of meals amongst the student population in the UK. The client is focusing on selling low value/medium quality product ranges, and is particularly interested in the market for consumers on limited incomes. Their product consists of a range of nutritious, but reasonably priced ready meals – individual and paired servings – and is targeted on the UK student population. 2.0 Research Objective The purpose of this paper is to determine the growing demand of ready meals from the UK student population and to determine what particular dishes they require for snacks, lunch and dinner. For this company to meet its goals, it is essential that the food shall be tested by the students in a specific university which has been identified by the client. The university is a popular institution of higher learning with a very large population and can represent the student population in London. This research will determine

A public/community health problem analysis

In the face of this ever increasing problem, several strategies have been developed and enacted worldwide for the effective screening, timely diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of HIV/AIDS and the sixth Millennium Development Goal (MDG) aims to control and counter the spread of this ailment by the year 2015 (Global Health Council, 2010). This paper overviews the scope and magnitude of the burden of HIV/AIDS in the Seattle, Washington population, identifies and discusses the existing issues related to the provision of optimal care for individuals affected by HIV/AIDS and proposes some recommendations to overcome this issue. Epidemiology: Ever since the first case of AIDS was diagnosed in America in the year 1981, the incidence of HIV/ AIDS has been on a continual rise (AVERT, 2010). In the last several decades, an exponential rise in the incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the United States has been witnessed and this can be gauged from the fact that currently, approximately over a million people with HIV and AIDS are residing in the United States (UNAIDS, 2010) and each year almost 50,000 individuals are newly infected by HIV in the United States only, one-fifth of whom are unaware of their disease status (Moore, 2010). Moreover, it has also been observed that even in developed nations such as the U.S, a significant fraction of individuals who are aware of their disease status are not involved in accessing the health care facilities for this disease (Moore, 2010). In order to devise effective screening, diagnostic, treatment and monitoring strategies for HIV/AIDS, a clear understanding of the various risk factors and modes of transmission is required. It has been elucidated that there are several groups of individuals which are particularly at risk for contracting HIV/AIDS. These high risk groups include injection drug abusers, men who have sex with men (MSM), i.e. homosexual individuals, and from an infected mother to her infant (Beyrer, 2007). Moreover, it has been found that there are three main modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS, viz. via contact with infected body fluids, such as blood, semen, etc. via sexual contact with infected individuals and vertical transmission from the mother to the fetus during the antenatal period or during birth via passage through the birth canal (Leblebicioglu, 2007). Most preventive strategies for HIV/AIDS are focused on the reduction of transmission of HIV/AIDS via these routes and creating awareness amongst the general population, and in particular amongst those who are at high risk for contracting and transmitting HIV/AIDS regarding this debilitating disease. Scope of the Problem in Seattle, Washington: The magnitude of this problem in the state of Washington is reflected by the statistics reported by the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) which reveal that in the year 2007, the Seattle metropolitan statistical area ranked 24th in the number of Aids cases reported annually with a case rate of 10.9 per 100,000 population (Public Health – Seattle King County, 2011). Moreover, a study conducted by the Department of Public Health – Seattle King County elucidated that King County was the top amongst all Washington counties having the highest AIDS rates and

Divorce in the UAE has increased during the last 2 decades

Why divorce in the UAE has increased during the last 2 decades Introduction Divorce is regarded as one of the serious social problems in any given society. According to government statistics, United Arab Emirates (UAE) experienced a divorce rate of 24 percent in the year 2003 (Sherif 2). There are numerous psychological and economic factors that have led to high divorce rates in UAE. Lack of communication in marriage, early marriages, changing marriage expectations, addiction, child-bearing issues, and financial issues, cultural background of the spouses, the differential in education levels, infidelity and arranged marriages are some of the causes of high divorce rates in UAE (Sherif 8). Divorce leads to severe negative consequences to children and involved parents. Some of the negative impacts of divorce include delinquent behaviour of the parents, psychological trauma, aggression, and nightmares (Hasso, 2011). Thesis statement: poor communication in marriages is the leading cause of the high divorce rates in United Arab Emirates. Causes of high divorce rates in UAE Communication problems in marriages are the leading cause of divorce. … Marital financial issues such as disagreements on the best investment opportunities and sexual incompatibility also contribute towards dissatisfaction with the marriage thus forcing the partners to divorce (Hasso, 2011). According to a research study done by Marriage Fund in collaboration with University of Sharjah in 2011, absence of communication within the marriage and lack of proper relations were the leading causes of divorce (Sherif 3). Differences in an opinion between the partners often resulted in constant bickering thus hindering love within the marriage. Accordingly, Islamic traditional marriage practices such as arranged marriages made women discover certain personality traits of their husbands later after marriage thus leading to intolerance and ultimately divorce (Sherif 5). The same study indicated that polygamy, physical abuse of wives, inadequate financial support and unshared responsibilities were secondary causes of divorce in UAE (Sherif 7). According to educationists and family affairs experts, the annual rates of divorce were estimated at 30 percent compared with a rate of 21 percent in Dubai in 2011 (Al Sadafy 3). Statistics fro the Dubai courts pointed out that one divorce occurred for every four marriage court cases with more than Dh 800 million being paid annually as divorce settlements. Accordingly, the Advisor for family affairs noted that 90 percent of the instances of divorce were occasioned by trial reasons with lack of communication among the partners being the leading cause of divorce (Al Sadafy 5). How divorce affects children, parents and society Divorce is associated with negative social and physical effects on children, parents and the society (Hasso, 2011). Divorce denies the children the opportunity

Discussion Questions WK

STATISTICS Statistics Questions Word Count: 250 page) Question What is correlation? What is an example of two variables that are likely to be correlated because they are both changing over time? (125 words) Correlation mean how much two elements are most alike. According to Reinard (2006), In simplest terms, a correlation is the extent to which two or more things are related…to one another (pp. 88). An example of two variables that are likely to be correlated because they are both changing over time are air quality and soil quality. If we were to measure over a specific period of time, we would see that these two variables could be measured in the environment and to have sustained about an equal amount of pollution over time, considering that the amount of pollution to each variable would be constant. These variables would then be said to be correlational. In that sense, one sees that these variables are good examples. Question 2: ?If a researcher were studying the effects of a teaching method on patient learning outcomes, how must he or she word the research question (different from the hypothesis) to use a t-test to test for statistical differences? What type of data must he or she collect ( interval, ratio, ordinal, nominal)? Why? *Hint: An example of a research question is: Will drug B do a better job of curing acne then drug A? (250 words) In order to do any kind of experiment, one must have a control subject. In order to keep this particular study viable for the control part of the experiment, a t-test must be conducted. According to Allen (2004), Under a set of assumptions that are usually referred to as the Gauss-Markov conditions, the t test can be used to test the significance of a regression… (pp. 66). The type of data which must be collected has to be ordinal data, which basically implies the preference of one value over another, usually (but not always) on a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the strongest indicator and 1 being the weakest. Ordinal data will definitely be used instead of interval, ratio, or nominal data. REFERENCES Allen, M.P. (2004). Understanding regression analysis. US: Springer Science Business. Reinard, J.C. (2006). Communication research statistics. US: Sage Publishing.

The PostAmerican World by Fareed Zakaria

Post-American World is a book written in 2008 by Indian American on the rise of other powers in the world.This book primarily deals with how power has shifted from one power center to another over the period of time and how different actors during those eras emerged. This book is about the rise of the rest as the author puts in by arguing that after two power shifts in favor of the West and US, the third power shift is taking place away from these centers as countries such as China and India are emerging on the world scene. In this book, besides providing the history of the non-American world and how it has been able to seriously challenge the economic prosperity of America, Zakaria has further discussed issues such as modernization and the rise of nationalism. By citing over 500 years of non-Western history, Zakaria has been able to show how other countries have actually progressed during this period and its foundations and development differences between the West and the rest of the world. In this book, Zakaria has actually focused on two countries, i.e. China and India, and presented their social, economic and political rise and how they can take advantage of their size and market strength to seriously challenge America in the 21st century. He argues that the largest challenge these countries can pose to the US is economic and not the political one as may have been perceived during the recent past. By presenting statistics and other historical material, he argued that many countries are showing higher economic progress and are also witnessing reduction in poverty. He argues that the wealth accumulation and innovation are rapidly taking place, which are unexpected for US and can, therefore, create a shift in power away from US and in favor of other countries. In Chapter 1 of the book, he suggests that: We are now living through the third great power shift of the modern era. It could be called the rise of the rest. Over the past few decades, countries all over the world have been experiencing rates of economic growth that were once unthinkable (Zakaria 2). The above argument, therefore, indicates that the economic power of the rest of the world is on the rise as most countries have been showing economic growth rates of over 4% during the recent decades. Though he argues that Asia has been leading in economic progress, this economic growth is not confined to Asia as other countries are making progress too. He argues that t

An empirical evaluation of the Purchasing Power Parity

In pursuit of investigating the empirical validity of the PPP theory, this study uses the monthly Japanese Yen to US Dollar exchange rate and the seasonally adjusted Japanese and US monthly Consumer Price Index series as the representative of the price levels as available from OECD main economic indicators 2010. Our data set covers a sample period ranging from 1st January1960 to 1st June 2010. The indexing of CPI for both the Japanese and US series is in accordance with assuming the price level of 2005=100.5.EstimationThis section presents the results of the estimations specified in section 2. We start of by presenting the statistical preliminaries and time series plots of the variables to engender a preconception of what can be expected from the estimated equations. a.Statistical preliminariesTable 1 presents the summary statistics for the variables of interest. Note that these are expressed in terms of natural logarithms of the levels.Figure 1 below depicts the inter-temporal dynamics of the natural logarithm of the series of Japanese Yen to US Dollar Exchange rates. Observe that the series provides a clear visual evidence of a downward trend implying that over the period of 1970 to 2011, there has been a gradual decline in the exchange rate. Additionally, the series also appears to be non-stationary. Of course stationarity properties can only be conclusively verified after formal conduction of unit root tests. Figure 3 presents the time plots of Japanese and US consumer price indices in logs…. tion: where is the natural log of the Japanese Yen to US Dollar exchange rate at time t, is the natural log of the price level index of Japan and is the natural log of the price level index of USA and is an additive iid noise term. 3. Testable Hypothesis The hypotheses that we can test using this specification are as follows: i) Strong or absolute PPP: ii) Relatively weaker form of PPP: ? iii) Weakest form of PPP: ? Note that for ii) and iii) to be valid specifications, the additive error term will have to be stationary. Otherwise estimates will be spurious. 4. Data In pursuit of investigating the empirical validity of the PPP theory, this study uses the monthly Japanese Yen to US Dollar exchange rate and the seasonally adjusted Japanese and US monthly Consumer Price Index series as the representative of the price levels as available from OECD main economic indicators 2010. Our data set covers a sample period ranging from 1st January1960 to 1st June 2010. The indexing of CPI for both the Japanese and US series is in accordance with assuming the price level of 2005=100. 5. Estimation This section presents the results of the estimations specified in section 2. We start of by presenting the statistical preliminaries and time series plots of the variables to engender a preconception of what can be expected from the estimated equations. a. Statistical preliminaries Table 1 presents the summary statistics for the variables of interest. Note that these are expressed in terms of natural logarithms of the levels. Table 1: Summary Statistics of the variables of interest Figure 1 below depicts the inter-temporal dynamics of the natural logarithm of the series of Japanese Yen to US Dollar Exchange rates. Observe that the series provides a clear visual evidence of a downward trend

Nutrition Practices among Ethnic Groups In The US

The cultural issues or backgrounds ofnutrition practices are attributed to various eating habits and nutrition practices. The United States is one of the nations with varied ethnic groups that have been significantly influenced by nutrition practices. Thus, many individuals are at high risk of experiencing nutrition deficiencies and other health-related issues due to poor eating habits among varied ethnicity groups. The food preference and eating habits have changed in the U.S because of increased ethnic differences and cultural groups. Native Indians are among the majority of the largest minority group followed by the Latino and the African American population. These groups have varied eating habits, but many of them have been influenced by eating habits from varied ethnicity group. Every culture has varied beliefs, customs and eating habits. Some of the ethnicity groups have their own traditions of preparing cuisines. These inherited behaviors of eating habits are passed from one generation to another (Ahmad, W. I.-U. and Bradby, 2008). However, fast food and take- away restaurants in U.S have nowadays influenced the eating habits of many ethnicity groups living in the U.S. These restaurants provide fast food to customers including pizza, egg rolls, baked bread, sausages and hamburgers. Therefore, many people have now developed complicated health related issues due to poor eating habits. Kaufman (2007) argues that although many ethnic groups in U.S tend to adopt American nutritional practices, the nutrition choices of ethnic groups tend to be influenced by cultural food practices. The American nutrition practices continue to evolve especially the culinary influences not only within the ethnicity groups living in U.S but also across the globe. The research survey indicates that many people are at high risk of being affected by nutritional deficiency diseases. The research statistics indicates that the Native Americans or the Africans American children suffer from dietary deficiency diseases (Kaufman, 2007). For instance, the Pima Indians are high affected by high incidences of obesity and diabetes diseases. Moreover, the lactose intolerance health issues are common among the Hispanic-Latinos and Asian Americans. Malnutrition often results because of failure to understand nutrition and learn the way of maximizing nutrition status. Many ethnic groups have been affected by nutrition-related health issues. The researchstudy reveals that the largest populations of people with complicated health issue in the U.S are the people who consume fast food. Many industries in U.S produce fast foods that have nowadays become the common food for many ethnicity groups living in the U.S. Therefore,many people suffer from nutrition health related issues such as overweight, high blood pleasure and elevated cholesterol levels. Whitney and Rolfes (2011) argue that understanding nutrition is essential because it will enable individuals to eat a balanced diet for maintaining their body health. Therefore, nutrition education among varied cultural groups including the native Indians, Hispanic-Latinos and other varied ethnicity groups living in U.S is significant. This will enable various ethnicity groups to understand the importance of consuming effective, balanced diet.

History of Fire Prevention

Fighting Fire Being one of the most fearful things in life, fire is considered as one of the most practical problems affecting not only the American nation but the rest of the world too. However, in a report of the National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control (NCFPC), it has been noted that whereas the United States, the leading country in terms of industrial development, has significantly benefited in the increase of technological use, and its industrialization has also been the leading cause of fatal fire disasters that cost them not only millions of dollars of damaged properties, health care fees, lost jobs and other opportunities, and alike, but also thousands of lives per year due to injury and deaths — notably including the deaths of children, as well as those of the firefighters who die while on or caused by their duty (NCFPC, n.d.). In line with this, authorities all over the world have continued to search for knowledge on how to prevent fire and its spread in case of disasters. While the earliest ancestors used and had not to worry for the rage of fire in their daily living, the advent of the principles on how to prevent damaging and fatal fires had been noted at the spring of industrialization as civilization started to form and fire become a necessary tool for heat, light, cooking, and industry (Diamantes, 2005, p. 4). Public policies to control careless use of fire among people and prevention of other causes of fire occurrences around the country (e.g., faulty wiring, arson, etc.), as well as informing and training firefighters on several principles about how to stop the fire have since then been formulated and reformulated to avoid and interrupt fire from causing damage and taking lives (US Fire Administration, 1977, p. 4. US Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1994, p. 297). Nevertheless, due to the prevalence of fire disasters despite efforts to prevent it, the necessity of application for insurance company services have also sprouted as unpleasant events are expected to occur any time. Utilization of such services helps victims of fire, including fire fighters, in facing the financial burdens that will result from any fire accident or event if not to prevent its prevalence (Mankiw, 2007, p. 148). References Diamantes, D. (2005). Principles of Fire Prevention. New York, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning. Mankiw, N.G., 2007. Essentials of economics (4th Ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson Higher Education. National Commission of Fire Prevention and Control (NCFPC). (n.d.). America burning. Washington, DC: NCFPC. US Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statitistics. (1994). Occupational outlook handbook. Washington, DC: US Gov’t Printing Office. US Fire Administration. (1997). Fire prevention program planning in a social action perspective: an exploratory study of knowledge, attitudes, and leaders in a high fire risk area of New Orleans, Louisiana. Louisiana, USA: Planning and Research Associates, Inc.

How to Develop Firm Internationally Electronica

With every organization expanding its horizons and making an imprint in various markets, the organization had to put in an extra effort to formulate strategies to reach the customer’s minds. ESC Electronica also has plans to expand internationally. ESC is a well-established company with a healthy customer base in the field of manufacturing of cars, electronic parts, parts for aerospace and electronic clogs industry, delivering process monitoring, and control systems. In order to expand the healthy customer base, ESC recognized in its 5-year plan that there will be good business in England, Belgium, and Germany. But while trying to achieve this objective, ESC could face obstacles. So, this paper as a form of a report to Jan will advise him, on how to develop his firm internationally.After deciding to enter the international market, a variety of options are open to ESC. (Joint Ventures, Direct Exporting, Contractual Agreements, Licensing / Franchising). FDI statistics may be becoming increasingly irrelevant as new forms of international investment are devised (Oman).The feasibility of these options is dependent on a variety of factors like investments, costs, risk, knowledge, and the degree of control, which can be exercised over them in terms of security.Since ESC is a small company and resources are limited, I would advise ESC to first export directly the materials needed in the PMC process (Process Monitoring and Control systems), through qualified agents and distributors in these countries – England, Belgium, and Germany. This strategy only requires a surveyable degree of commitment and is of low risk. Then, this strategy would also support the limitation of investments and resources, while at the same time helping to maintain the optimum quality in the installed PMC systems.But the challenge to this strategy would come in finding qualified agents/distributors or middlemen, who could represent ESC in their home and local market. The operation in the foreign markets requires only limited resources and could be done by a family member of ESC.

Impact of Immigration on American Society

The fear of the negative impact of immigration has led to passage of Acts. These acts restrict the inflow of immigrants to the main parts of America. Moreover, after Second World War, American soldiers married foreign women from 50 different countries. This paper will discuss the impact of the positive as well as negative impact of the immigration and the controversy revolving around the war brides of the American servicemen. Additionally in this paper, the negative impact of immigration will provide justification of the passage of Acts that intended to limit large scale immigration.1 Some level of immigration has been continuous throughout American history. There have been two epochal periods: the 1880 to 1924 Age of Mass Migration, primarily from Southern and Eastern Europe, and the Post 1965 Wave of Immigration, primarily from Latin America and Asia. In 21st century the impact of the immigration is relatively less than that in the 20th century with the American population reaching a total of 300 million. 2 Therefore, Acts were passed to limit the amount of foreigners intending to settle in America because of the fear that the Americans won’t conform to the typically American way of life. The first law that caused the prevention of Immigration was the Immigration Act of 1882. Congress passed a new Immigration Act that stated a 50 cents tax would be levied on all aliens landing at United States ports. It was an act in which the State Commission and officers were in charge of checking the passengers upon incoming vessels arriving in the U.S. The passengers were examined by a set of exclusionary criteria. Upon examination passengers who appeared to be convicts, lunatics, idiots or unable to take care of themselves were not permitted to land. The Immigration Act of 1891 was a revised version of the aforementioned Act and it declared that certain classes of individuals are considered unfit to become American citizens. 3 Moreover, the Immigration Act of 1917 excluded diseased people as well as prostitutes from immigrating to America. Also, the Immigration Act of 1924 set quotas that limited annual immigration from certain countries. The 70 million immigrants who have arrived since the founding of the republic (are responsible for the majority of the contemporary American population (Gibson 1992: 165). 3These Acts were passed because of the concern of the natives over immigrants polluting the American society or bringing negative sides of their heritage to America. In addition, in the years between 1942 and 1952, servicemen started the tradition of marrying women where they waged wars. In addition, 100000 war brides were British, 150,000 to 200,000 hailed from continental Europe, and another 16,000 came from Australia and New Zealand. There were brides from non-Allied countries, too. Military estimates indicate that 50,000 to 100,000 servicemen wed women from countries of the Far East, including Japan, and immigration records show that by 1950, 14,175 German brides of American servicemen had entered the United States. 4These statistics show the diversity with regards to the nationalities these brides belonged to. Interestingly so, foreign women were willing to marry these soldiers on the mere basis of their proximity, generosity and opportunity. British women, in particular saw the American soldiers as a breath of fresh air and the continental European pictured

The Effective Use and Importance of Hypothesis in Management

The hypothesis such as presented by Bryant (1998) about the claim that CEOs who play a good game of golf also run high-performing companies is subject for various tests and more researchers for it to be proven correct. Thus, hypotheses are to be tested just prior to proving them in the case of some claims underlying various researchers.There are many ways on how to test a hypothesis. Statistically, a hypothesis can be viewed as the subject for testing the validity or truth of the statement. If the researcher failed to prove the hypothesis, then he or she has also failed to provide sufficient evidence to prove the validity of a null hypothesis (Reeves Brewer, 1979).Statistics is one of the best tools used to analyze and obtain information from a given data or set of information. Statistics consists of numbers and these are used to define and form concrete information. In the article of Bryant (1998), the importance of statistics was justified when specific average handicap index of golfers was calculated to obtain and deduce specific information from it. The given information when combined can be used effectively especially in inferential statistics.Inferential statistics uses numbers and data or data set to obtain conclusive information. However, it cannot be denied that the information that will be obtained is dependent on the raw data. There are many ways to draw inferences from the raw data but many of them are heading to wrong direction (Knowledge @ Wharton, 2008).In the article of Bryant (1998), the inference is dependent on the given numbers explaining average handicap index of golfers. There can be many things related to these figures but the bottom line is that all of them explained how to classify information to finally come up with a general conclusion.

Outsourcing of American Jobs to Other Countries Strengthens the US Economy

Corporate restructuring, downsizing, and layoffs have led to fundamental changes in the workplace on a global basis. Senior executives and corporate leaders around the world agree that outsourcing is good for the world economy. These executives also realize that outsourcing can deliver more than just labor cost savings (Daga Kaka, 2006). While in all markets executives think outsourcing is better for the world economy rather than their own markets, the issue has become politically sensitive in America (PP, 2004). The issue has become highly emotional because of two dramatically different effects – while some claim that it will result in layoffs and dislocation for many US workers, most economists believe that it will ultimately strengthen the US economy (Otterman, 2004).Strong arguments against outsourcing have arisen from statistics revealed through surveys and studies. According to a study by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), migration of tech jobs to low-paid foreigners has eliminated 104,000 American jobs, nearly 3% of the positions in the U.S. technology industry (MSN Money, 2004). Outsourcing causes damage to the people and the communities and there is an impulse to protect the American workers. Outsourcing has been referred to as the ultimate betrayal of the American workers which is morally repugnant and profoundly un-American. A survey by Merrill Lynch indicates that the proportion of IT projects outsourced to India by Fortune 500 companies could increase from below 5 percent to over 15 percent in the next two years (Solita Systems, 2002 cited by Nair Prasad). A research report from Deloitte showed two million of the 13 million jobs in financial services across Western economies will be transferred to India by 2008 (Moller, 2006). Arguments in support of outsourcing are equally strong. Despite the recent economic downturn, according to a McKinsey analysis, the U. S. economy created an average of 3.5 million new jobs in the private sector per year (Otterman).

Monitoring in Safety Management Systems in Aviation

Data collection is an intricate part of a safety management systems and under the FAA AC 150 5200-37, it is not only required but it is essential to ensure that all the provisions of the FAA AC 150 5200-37 are adhered to. It should be noted that the FAA AC 150 5200-37 ensures that a proper balance with regards to the implementation of any safety management system and the capability of the organization itself to implement its own should be considered as long as it adheres to the minimum safety threshold prescribed by law. This way, even the safety strategy that maybe formulated and implemented by the organization itself may far exceed the standards prescribed by law but the development of a stringent safety policy should be encouraged beyond what is mandated by law if it vital or essential in the operation.Data collection should have the following focus: First is the Compliance Monitoring of the Policies and Procedures and the other is the incident recording and resolution recording that should similarly detail the temporary solutions provided therein. The twin strategy should ensure that old safety issues are addressed not to mention the new ones including those neglected or overlooked in the first assessment are recorded when they create a problem. The data collection strategy will equally be used as a means or as a vehicle to discover patterns if not continuously manifesting incidents that could be an indication of a systemic problem that should be resolved at the soonest possible time.Compliance monitoring is best conducted using an objective measure in the form of statistics that best convey the true state or the actual compliance of an organization. Compliance monitoring is also the best way to determine the preparedness.

The Students Go to College is a Good Choice

Additionally, for most American students, the fact that they can generate income immediately after their graduation is always a pleasing thought. Despite that, students may be discouraged by the ever-rising tuition costs: college education is among the greatest expenses one can ever face. Furthermore, recent coverage depicts the existence of huge studentdebts, with a possibility of low wages. This creates the question as to whether it is still worth attending college or not.Statistics imply that in recent years the loan debts held by students seem to top the debt lists. The number is so massive that the only manageable way to look at the debt is to consider every debt per borrower. Researchers, for instance, denote some horror stories concerning graduates who have loan debts of over $100,000 yet the wages they earn are approximately three times less the debt (Wilson). Only a few borrowers owe approximately more than $100,000. However, one needs to note that the debt number also comprises students graduating medical or professional schools: both medical and professional schools are often well-known for higher student debt levels, higher salary payoffs, and job security (Wilson).Generally, one significant fact is that the average debt held by a student per borrower seems to be increasing at a fast pace. As years progress the loan debt increases thereby bringing the question as to whether higher education is worth more the increase every year. This may perhaps not be indefinitely. however, currently, the best answer is yes. Throughout the recession period, for instance, an elevation in the student loans given out was predictable. Since most families had less money at hand, they could not afford to take their children to colleges. Unfortunately, it was at this time that most colleges took a hitas well. With several endowments suffering, the capability to offer financial aid got crippled, but fortunately, that ended.

Explore the relationships between nursing health and the policy processes

Explore the Relationships between Nursing, Health and the Policy Process Due Explore the Relationships between Nursing, Health and the Policy Process Introduction to the case This paper presents the case of a patient representing a diagnosis. It deals with the case of bipolar disorder which is a mental illness disorder. Bipolar disorder, also referred to as manic depression (Lyness, 2011), is a mental disorder that leads to changes in a person’s moods, ability to work or undertake numerous activities as well as shifts in energy (Goodwin Sachs, 2010). The illness is mainly characterized by numerous mood swings, irritability, feelings of hopelessness and sadness and suicidal thoughts and attempts (NIMH, 2012). The case is that of one of the patient that I have handled while at the community hospital. When the young man, Paul, visited the clinic he presented a number of behaviors that led to the diagnosis of the disorder. The abnormal behaviours were characterized by pacing up and down, incoherent fast speech and increased irritability. On the other hand, the 28 year old patient seemed to feel agonized by life to an extent that he considered it screwed up and contemplated suicide. Despite the fact that Paul looked disoriented with fluctuating bouts of energy and lethargy, the arrival of paramedics had completed irritated him. At one time, Paul reverted to a high mood during which he insisted on talking to his sisters and refused to be examined by the medics in spite of his awareness of the situation at hand. His mood was that of agitation and he looked so pressed and tired that he could hardly remain steady on his feet. At one point, in his many outbursts, Paul had talked of his boss threatening to fire him over his attitude at work. Further inquiries from his sister indicated that Paul was having problems at work as a result of his frequent mood changes and irritation that were as a result of his illness. The man had been issued with a suspension letter by his boss a few days prior his coming to the hospital. The patient was reported to have missed work for many days and his productivity reported to be very poor. Identified Policies related to the Case There are a number of policy issues that guide the diagnosis, treatment and care of mental illnesses. These are useful in the provision of guidelines on how the various mental health illnesses should be addressed not just in the health sector, but also in the social and economic institutions as well. Statistics obtained from the National Institute of Mental Health in 2002 indicate that over 2 million adults in American suffer from bipolar disorder (NIMH, 2002). By 2005, the number had increased to 5.8 million adults (Kessler et al., 2005). This makes a huge part of the working population making the diseases have an enormous effect on the economic sector. Putting this into consideration, a number of policies have been implemented to allow for interventions to the gap in the employment sector from this mental illness to be put in place. The policies among other things protect bipolar patients from discrimination and failed employment. Bipolar disorder has been regarded as a disability and the patients are therefore protected by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The law serves towards protecting persons with disabilities. According to the act, an individual is regarded as disabled if he or she has a mental or physical impairment that prevents him or her from engaging in one or more activity (EEOC, 2011). Upon assessment, bipolar disorder has been found to always limit the normal functioning of the brain as well as the normal undertaking of the various day to day activities. Having an accommodation as a bipolar disorder patient allows one to freely acquire reduced hours of work, get moved a working area that is more peaceful and quieter, break off from the job once in a while, get a job that is not strenuous and modify the various roles and responsibilities at work. According to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the discrimination of an employee or a potential employee on the basis of his disability, color, race, family or class among other factors is unlawful (EEOC, 2011). Through the ADA act, therefore, bipolar patients are protected from getting fired or unfairly dismissed on the basis of their illness. Stakeholders The stakeholders relevant to this case include the health professional (nurses, psychiatrists and doctors) and governmental and Nongovernmental organizations such as National Alliance on mental Illness (NAMI), The National Institute of Health (NIH) which is under the US Department of Health and Human Services, The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) the National Institute of Mental Health, Mental Health America and the Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance. In relation to his job insecurity, Paul’s employer company will serve as another major stakeholder in this case. Nursing’s political involvement in the issue The role of every nurse should be to ensure that the patient receives all necessary treatment and care, and to provide all necessary information related to the patient’s illness not just for the patient but other affected persons, such as family members and guardians, as well (Hungerford, 2012). In the case presented above, the main role of the nurse will be in educating the patient about the protection accorded by the ADA with regard to his employment status. Providing related information to the patient’s employer may also be another important aspect. In case the employer is aware of the patient’s condition and his various rights as stipulated in by the ADA act, then necessary legal action needs to be taken against him. Nurses can help in providing all the relevant information related to bipolar disorders and employment not just to the patients, but to the various work institutions as well for both employees and employers to gain all the relevant knowledge. Personal Opinion With this, then it is evident that Paul does not deserve to be dismissed from his job provided he has an accommodation. The patient has been protected by the ADA and needs to be aware of this. Generally, patients suffering from bipolar disorder in the US need to be well aware of the various policies that protect them and the various rights and privileges they enjoy. Just as is common with all other mental illnesses, bipolar disorder has a strong impact on a patient’s relationships with other people that include friends, colleagues, spouses and family members. The need for psychotherapy for bipolar patients undergoing treatment is therefore important, making it need an evident one in this case. Psychotherapy is said to be important in mending the broken relationships. The available professional resources are likely to be highly beneficial for the family members as well as help the patients mend their relationships at work. References Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). (2000). EEOC enforcement guidance on the Americans with Disabilities Act and Psychiatric disabilities. Goodwin, G. Sachs, G. ( 2010). Fast Facts: Bipolar disorder. , Oxfordshire: Health Press Limited Abingdon. Hungerford, C., Clancy, R., Hodgson, D., Jones, T., Harrison, A. Hart, C. (2012). Mental Health Care: An Introduction for Health Professionals. Sydney: Wiley Meadows. Kessler, R., Chiu, W.,Demler, O. Walters, E. (2005). Prevalence, severity and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives of General Psychiatry, 62 (6): 617-27. Lyness, J. ( 2011). Psychiatric disorders in medical practice. Saunders Elsevier: Philadelphia. National Institute of Mental Health. (2002). Bipolar disorder. index.shtml

Britain Fights EU’s ‘Big Brother’ Bid

Britain Fights EU’s ‘Big Brother’ BidAnalysisThe article Britain fights EU’s ‘Big Brother’ bid to fit every car with speed limiter (Owen, 31 August 2013) was written by Glen Owen and published in the Daily Mail on 31 August 2013. The main points in the article is the proposition by European Union through the European Commission to fit each car with a speed limiter that has a camera that read roads signs and a satellite that communicates speed limits to the driver (Owen, 31 August 2013). An alarm then goes off when the limit is breached for the advice option, the driver uses an arrest to slow down and has an option of disabling the device or the third option is mandatory, where in no way can the driver be allowed to exceed the speed limit. The aim of the Intelligent Speed Adaptation technology (ISA) is reducing accident death tolls by a third but according to Mr McLoughlin, UK Transport Secretary, comparing UK road deaths of 1754 deaths to 3,645, and 3,657 deaths in France and Germany respectively, UK has lowest death rates from road carnage in Europe. After being briefed that newly, designed vehicles will have camera and satellite systems allowing for easy and cheap addition of speed limiters, Mr McLoughlin instructed his officials to block the move terming it as a violation of British motorist’s freedom. According to AA the new technology is poised to create dangers at lower speeds especially when there is a requirement to accelerate and the speed is limited resulting in an avoidable collision but believes audible speed alerts would work (Owen, 31 August 2013). EC reports that ISA and other issues will be published by the commission in a document in the autumn according to its mandate by member states and that there are ongoing consultation on the speed limiters. Evaluation The research in the article is exemplary done owing to the reporting of the views of the different stakeholders on the introduction of ISA and this has a relation to the course material since it deals with a transportation policy issue aimed at implementation in the UK and Europe limiting driving beyond set speeds. The exemplary sections in the article are the workings of the Intelligent Speed Adaptation technology (ISA) that is well explained in the article allowing for a clear concise understanding by the reader. The appropriate data presented in the article include the death toll rates from accidents in the European Union to which the Intelligent Speed Adaptation technology (ISA) is poised to reduce by a third and those in United Kingdom, France, and Germany that are given for comparison purposes. The article clearly reports that the result was a clear rejection by the UK transport minister of the planned implementation of Intelligent Speed Adaptation technology (ISA) in UK and clearly gives his reasons for the rejection. This is a good study due to the consideration of the statistics on road safety in different member states, different stakeholder views, and the conclusion is based on this information. The subject of the article is applicable to a transport organization that uses road transport as it affects the ability of cars to travel at speeds beyond the stated limits if the policy is implemented in the United Kingdom. This would result in high transportation costs, long travel times, and a reduction in revenue for the transportation organization. ReferenceOwen, G. (31 August 2013). Britain fights EU’s ‘Big Brother’ bid to fit every car with speed limiter. Daily Mail.

Economic inequality in Canada

Trend in economic inequality Economic inequality is a common social issue that affects many Canadians, either directly or indirectly. It has for example led to social stratification by economic capacities. Osberg identify five economic classes in the Canadian society and offers a review of times series data for percentage income distribution among Canadians. The evaluation of five economic classes, bottom 20 %, second 20 %, middle 20 %, fourth 20 %, and the top 20 % identifies concentration of resources in the hands of a few individuals while a majority of the Canadian citizens are within average and poor economic classes (Osberg, 2008, p. 7). Data, obtained from Statistics Canada, reported that by the year 2005, 60 percent of Canadian population only controlled less than 30 percent of the country’s wealth while the larger portion, more than 70 percent was in the hands on the top economic class that forms only 40 percent of the country’ population…. This is attributable to the great depression of the 1970s that contracted profit margins for business organizations and prompted measures for increasing profitability. Reduced wage rates for employees, and layoffs became characteristics to reduce the percentage of wealth ownership by the low classes while the capitalists retained their share of profits. The move to increase organizations’ profitability also led to high remunerations for top managers to facilitate their inputs towards operational efficiencies. Change in demand for labor is another factor to the increasing economic inequality. While Canada is becoming more industrialized and oriented to developing skills-based commodities, demand for skilled labor has risen while demand for unskilled labor has lagged. The trend in demand has therefore led to higher remuneration among skilled workers than among the unskilled to contribute to economic inequality. Effects of globalization that allows the capitalist class to dictate low wage rates for employees has also ensured higher profit margins to increase wealth concentration among rich investors. This is because enterprises can obtain alternative cheap labor through importation of workers or relocating to other countries, and these forces Canadians to accept low remuneration rates (Conference, 2012). Macroeconomic factors have also significantly facilitated the increasing trend of economic inequality. The decreased effectiveness of trade unions has weakened workers bargaining power for equitable remunerations and consequently led to high wage rate disparity. Minimum wage rate has also remained constant and allowed employers to stipulate low wages among the bottom economic class. A shift from a regulated economy to a deregulated

Do you believe that the choice of research method is simply based upon the type of information you wish to collect or do differe

Qualitative on the other hand is better when the researcher wants to describe, understand or explore phenomena. Therefore, there is a great deal more to research than just the answering of questions or testing hypothesis. This paper will largely discuss the choice of research methods and the methods themselves in light of their compatibility with social reality. There are two methods used by researchers to gather the required information or test hypothesis: quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative is more positivistic and deductive with qualitative being phenomenological and inductive. Qualitative is more of a holistic approach while the other is particularistic (Bryman Bell, 2011). Qualitative is discovery and process oriented and explanatory while quantitative is verification and outcome oriented and confirmatory. Quantitative Method This is a method which offers a chance for statistical analysis as data is provided as measurements or counts. This method is credited for being quite objective as the research follows laid down procedures as well as analysis. There are also procedures that dictate how a researcher is to report their findings. This method is mostly used where comparison of variables is of essence. Statistics form the basis of analysis where meaning is attached to results that are in form of numbers (Blankie, 1993). The results, findings or conclusions are standardised data and numerical in form. A researcher employing quantitative methods starts by observing or asking questions through interviews or questionnaires. The questions asked should not demand for open answers but rather fixed ones. The second step is tabulation of results of the observation and questionnaires. Then data collected is analysed and lastly conclusions are made on whether the hypothesis is true or not and whether the fundamental question of the research has been answered. Qualitative Methods This method applies where quantitative method may not obtain the required insights. It is also more than just non-numerical research. The data collected is nonbiased and mostly on natural occurrences and their interaction with the project’s subject (May, 2002). Due to the aim of describing quality, words are used in place of numbers. Here structured interviews as well as unstructured ones are utilised. It is however important to note that the results of qualitative research are usually generalisations of observations made unlike the specific ones of the quantitative research. The researcher starts by observing and asking open ended questions. Recording is then made and there after results interpreted. More time is spent on further observations and questioning where observation and recording take place again. Theorisation is then done after which final conclusions are drawn. Epistemological stance denotes one’s assumptions regarding the world around them. This assumptions guide researches and influence how researchers work with the collected data (Blankie, 1993). In this respect there are two separate extremes one whereby the researcher takes a disjointed relationship with data found and the other is where the researcher and their data are one and the same thing. The former extreme is more objective and the researcher aims at uncovering the truth. The latter extreme is at times regarded as relativistic as researchers believe that meaning is observer

Dark Pools

They are known to be trading in a dark pool. Thus, the concept of Dark Pool was introduced much back in 1980. This was initiated when many few of the institutional investors and traders got involved in trade in a secure place, away from the interfering eyes of the brokers or public exchanges. Their main aim was to sell or buy large amount of the stocks without being affected by the market fluctuations and achieve a better price than that provided by the public exchanges (Definition of Dark Pools). It was noticed that around 2005, the dark pools was successful in capturing 3-5% of the total market activity. After that, the situation had started to improve when the Security and Exchange Commission (SEC) passed a new regulation, called the Reg NMS (Regulation National Market System). In this regulation, there were provisions which had increased the level of competition among the exchanges. However, it got rid of the rules that confined manual quotations which are generated by the stock exchanges. It allowed the investors the option to avoid the exchanges, if they are unsatisfied with the price and receives better price and convenience elsewhere. Dark Pools The dark pools can be defined as the name that is given to the networks which enables the traders to sell or buy huge orders without bearing the risk of other traders and their price of selling the orders. Thus, they are criticized for the lack of transparency that the later possesses. The unavoidable fragmentation of trading can lead to less competent pricing in the conventional open stock exchanges. In the dark pools, the pre-trade prices of the shares that are open for sale are not detectable to the public. The participants are also not aware of the prices at which the shares are traded. The prices are revealed only when the trade is done (What the Heck is a Dark Pool and Why are People Trading in Them?). The Reg NMS gave an opportunity to the brokers and the dealers to start their own automated trading, thereby creating dark pools. The institutional investors and the banks which generate huge money, started to head towards these dark pools in order to save their trading costs. The recent statistics indentify that there has been 12% trading in the dark pool accounts in United States (What are dark pools?). The main benefit of trading in dark pool can be recognized as the price improvement. The benefit can be explained through an example. Suppose the bid price of a stock on an exchange is $10.00 and the asking price is $10.10. The dark pool will set the price at $10.05 which is in the midpoint of ask and bid price. The investors like the activity of the dark pool and thus, prefer to invest there. The equity markets in United States and worldwide are prospering at an increasing rate. The participants work on a certain model which allows the people, interested to trade display the sell or buy price and ask or bid price. In the exchanges, the displayed prices by the brokers are seen in the Tier II quotes (What the Heck is a Dark Pool and Why are People Trading in Them?). The opposite of the displayed prices are the dark pools. It refers to the place where the trading liquidity

Wealth disparity and effects of longterm Unemployment on the United States Economy

It is important to undertake a critical analysis of unemployment in respect of the article to establish the effects this has on the entire economy of US and any other nation.This article explores the varuios employment related economic issues. It is also importasant to note that the author gives a vivid description of the consequences of unemploymdent and the indirect challenges it will pose on the wealth disparity among citizens. 1.0 Introduction Unemployment is a situation where a person is able and willing to perform tasks or work but is unable to find a job. However, there is no clear definition of long-term unemployment. economists define a period of six to twelve months as a long-term unemployment period. This is when an individual is unwillingly unemployed. Several factors lead to long-term unemployment. some of these factors are facilitated by economic changes such as economic recession, an individual not willing to work or dynamic technological changes (Hollander,2011,45). Previously, the United States’ labor market had short periods of unemployment for most workers who were jobless. they would be easily absorbed into the labor market. Even though jobless workers especially the elderly had a long unemployment period, the level of long-term was less comparing to other countries. The rise in the long-term unemployment and unemployment rates has severe human, social, and economic costs. Wealth disparity, also known as wealth gap or inequality, refers to state of uneven distribution of financial assets among citizens of the United States of America. Wealth includes automobiles, value of homes, savings, investments and businesses. Those who have a great deal of financial assets have primarily acquired them by appreciation of fiscal portfolios. Hence, financial wealth involves mutual funds, stocks, as well as other investments. Thus, there is a greater wealth inequality than basic net worth disparities (Lubik, 2010,20). Statistics show that the top ten percent possess eighty percent of all financial wealth and the bottom ninety percent only hold twenty percent of all financial assets.Employment plays a vital role in determining the amount of economic wealth hence the observed disparity. 2.0 Discussion Unemployment is risky to the country’s economy and to other countries worldwide as well, with some costs of unemployment being levied to the society such as exchequer cost due to unemployment and social cost. While the short term unemployment may or may not have implications on an individual, long term unemployment may have a demoralizing effect to an individual. Long-term unemployment causes negative effects to individuals. Some of the most common effects include financial difficulties, health related diseases, psychological problems, boredom, idleness, losing close friends and relatives and eventually depression. Severe long-term unemployment results are mostly seen in the disadvantaged in the society. The unemployed are wasted resources, and they also waste resources meant for humanity. It is a life full of unhappiness and sorrow as unemployed individuals live in suffering and poverty. economically, human labor is devalued. The social results from unemployment lead to rise of rebellious groups, riots, family breaks, divorce and some cases of death (Hollander,2011,45). The impact of the recession shows in the United States and many countries where long-term unemployment majorly impacts the male. During the recession, construction and manufacturing industries were affected by unemployment. In the United State wealth, ownership has been concentrated in the small minority population due to their well grounded employment status. The minority

Marketing Objectives

The new product is code named as M2030. Marketing Objectives The target market of the company is all the households and offices of that are looking for lighter and efficient products. The product is aimed for UK market. M2030 will be a good choice for families considering the product’s ease and efficiency. UK Households spent an average of ?474 per week in 2010. (Office of National Statistics, 2011) As per the statistics department, fuel and power form one of the major components of the expense items. It is also seen that consumers have spent more disposable income for consumer durables in 2010. This trend is expected to continue in 2011. The product will be more focused on London, Northern Ireland, South East, East and South West. (Office of National Statistics, 2011) The marketing objectives of the product M2030 are as follows: 1. To become the best in class product in the product category 2. To make the product available in all the leading electronics stores 3. To offer the product to the customers at a highly competitive price 4. To create an impact in the minds of the customers regarding the benefits of the product. This report will further look into the detailed aspects of marketing of M2030 in UK. A detailed analysis of the competition and environment is also included in the report. Competitive Situation Analysis G’s products can be classified based on the three way consumer classification system of convenience, shopping and specialty goods. The products of G Electronics are kettles, toasters, juicers, mixers, ovens, dish washers, and micro waves. All these products can be classified as Shopping Goods. (Kurtz, 2011) The following five force model analysis will analyze the competitive situation of Company G. Supplier Power: The Company maintains excellent relationships with the existing suppliers. But for producing M2030, the company requires new materials which are different from those supplied by the existing suppliers. The supplier power is comparatively less for G as the numbers of suppliers are high. Threat of Substitutes: The threat of substitutes is comparatively higher for Company G. Products that are not as efficient as M2030 are available at a lesser price in the market. But then this happens only if the customers prefer cost benefit over efficiency. Switching cost is comparatively low for this product category. Buyer Power: Buyer power is very high in this case. The customers are flooded with numerous products by various brands. All products differs each other in terms of the design, price, efficiency, etc. Buyer concentration is high for microwave oven market. Also, the chances for customers to have inclination towards a particular brand are very high. Threat of new Entrants: Threat of new entrants is low in this industry though there are big companies who still foray into unrelated businesses. Brand identity and research costs are two main factors that hinder companies from entering this industry. There is definitely a threat from big companies who has the capital and knowhow to enter the segment. Degree of Rivalry: Some of the strongest players in the industry are Philips, IFB, Panasonic, Samsung, Siemens, LG, Sharp, Whirlpool, Daewoo, etc. There are just the leading brands. Apart from this there are other brands that has significant cumulative market share. Therefore, the degree of rivalry is high in this industry. (Mindtools, 2011) SWOT Analysis

Airline Industry

Cost of ASK (Available Seat Kilometres) An available seat kilometre in airlines is calculated by multiplying the total number of seats offered by an airline and the total distance flown by an airline (British Airways-a, 2010). The Available seat kilometres for British Airways was found to be 141178 in 2010 which represents a decline from its previous year figures of 148504 in 2009 (British Airways, 2010, p.128). The statistics for its competitors Emirates airlines states the corresponding figures at 161756 which represent a rise from its figures last year that was quoted at 134180 (Emirates Airlines, 2010, p.4). The low value of ASK for British Airways can be largely held accountable to the financial downturn which put a pressure on the profit and revenue margins of the firm. Emirates airlines owning to better fleet management and route optimisation generated a much better performance than its competitor British Airways. Revenue per RPK (Revenue Passenger Kilometres) Revenue passenger kilometres (RPK) is calculated by multiplying the total number of revenue based passengers and the total air miles flown by the airline (British Airways-a, 2010). A good value of this statistic represents a healthy operational and financial aspect of the organization. The value of RPK for British Airways in 2010 was calculated at 110851 which represent a decline from its figures in the last year which was stated at 114346 in 2009 (British Airways, 2010, p.128). The slump in figures can be attributed to decline in the revenues per passenger as well as reduction in the total air miles flown due to route optimisation owning to pressures from the economic recession. The figures for Emirates airlines however show a distinct and definite opposite trend which is pegged at 126273 representing an improvement from its previous year’s figures of 101762 (Emirates Airlines, 2010, p.123). BELF (Break Even Load Factor) Break Even Load Factor or BELF is a value term expressed in percentage that represents a scenario in which revenues and operating costs become equal. This factor has different values for different flights and includes aspects like seasonal fluctuations and is largely based on the dynamics of demand and supply in the market (Radnoti, 2002, p.99). The Break Even Load Factor for British Airways was found to be 78.5 percent which represents a rise by about 1.5 percent from its figures in the last year. This was mainly reported due to a reduction in revenue from passengers by about 10.9 percent from the previous year (British Airways, 2010, p.16). The Break Even Load Factor for its competitor Emirates Airlines was found to be 64.4 percent which again represents a rise by about 0.3 percent from its corresponding figure quoted last year (Emirates Airlines, 2010, p.123). The major reason for this trend is accountable to the large scale dip in demand for air travel by business as well as individual passengers which was due to the reduction of disposable income and decline in profit margins of the other business travellers. The advent of low cost airlines has also led to a reduction in the

Team Project Report

One very important reason why Mt.Gravatt Club provides various sports facilities is the recent change in Family Life System. People are now extremely concerned about health and the way it can be sustained with help of sporting and recreations as well as a way to entertainment. Sports means most to Australians than almost any other country’s people (Conway, 2009) and therefore sports always has greater business opportunities as well. Australian Bureau Of Statistics (2005, p. 403) reported that Australia is internationally recognized as a nation being very much involved in Sport. Most Australians believe in benefits associated with sports and recreation, including enjoyment, social interaction, health, personal achievement, national pride and community involvement etc. In Australia, Sports Industry’s revenue has been recorded as $5900.6 million, with 3.4 % revenue growth and this shows increasing trend towards sports in the country. According to the statistics, there are 6133 Sports Enterprises that provide 49,900 employment opportunities (ibisworld, 2011). Reports show that both males and females are increasingly attracted to various sports activities. Young and school children are major groups among Mt.Gravatt’s customers. in order them to get improved in sports and recreation activities and to make them more aware of various sports activities, Mt.Gravatt has planned and already started various programs including Grass Root Course, Junior Development Program, Sports Development, Sponsorship etc (, 2011). When it comes to the need for sports and recreation, it is basically a life need. By considering how people recently perceive the importance of sports, it can be perhaps reckoned to be a basic need in the ‘need hierarchy’ as detailed by Abraham Maslow. It can be understood from the total expenditure for the Sports equipment in Australia during 2003-2004, which was estimated as 357 617.4 million. Impacts of Sports Facility Development on Stakeholders When Mt.Gravatt Club designs and develops its facilities, sports arrangements and all other services to its people, it will consequently have many positive impacts on its major stakeholders- customers, employees and management, and relatively very few negative impacts on them like time consumption, spending, accident and injuries. As compared to vast opportunities and health and other benefits, these negative impacts are of meager significance to be debated on. The management of Mt.Gravatt can have greater influence and social reward from communities that it represents, and the employees and others who come to help sportsmen will be more likely to involved in a service job as well as good entertainment. The major stakeholders are no doubt its people or customers who come from around 5 kms from Mansfield, mainly from nearby areas like Wishart, Carindale, Burbank etc. For these customers, Mt.Gravatt Club will be an amazing experience for rejoice, entertainment and more importantly for their long-term health benefits. As Waddington (2000, p. 34) argued, the widely accepted view that ‘sport is good for health’ might be the very basic reason why people extensively fund for sport. Perhaps, many people within

Ways to Reduce the Risk of CVD Amongst Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

One of the proposed techniques for avoiding complications such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients with diabetes is to stringently control and manage blood pressure of the patient. The author believes that this practice of keeping blood pressure in check could actually be efficient in preventing CVDs. This paper aims to discuss the mechanism of diabetes mellitus, focusing on type 2. At the same time, a discussion of why strict control and management of a type 2 diabetic patient’s blood pressure could prevent CVDs will also be presented. Pertinent and related information such as prevalence of diabetes particularly in the United Kingdom will be discussed, as well as the social and economic impact of this disease.The organization of this paper begins with a brief description of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. The author deems it necessary to also present statistics such as prevalence of diabetes in the United Kingdom and CVDs. After which the author will once again emphasize on the thesis statement, followed y a presentation of supporting journals and other studies. The social and economic bearing of all these will then be expanded on, ending with the recommendations of the author, applicability of the paper to actual practice and ultimately, the conclusion.Around the world, diabetes mellitus continues to be a concern for many. In fact, over the years its prevalence has grown in several countries. According to a 2004 study by Diabetes UK (2004), since 1996 the statistics of people who have been diagnosed with diabetes went up from only 1.4 million during that year to 1.8 million. By the year 2000, they believe that diabetes will further go up to 3 million (Diabetes UK, 2004). An estimate of the International Diabetes Foundation done in 2003 was thatin 2007 the prevalence of diabetes would go up to 4% of the population (, 2008). Notably, Diabetes UK claims that most of these cases will be Type 2 because of the fast increase in the statistics of the obese and overweight individuals (Diabetes UK, 2004).

Systematic Literature Review

Cognitive behavioural treatment was mainly developed through an incorporation of cognitive psychology research with behavior therapy. Cognitive behavioural therapy focusses on the problem of the patient and the action that the therapist takes to help the patient. OBJECTIVE/S OF THE REVIEW Researchers’ studies and journals, on cognitive behavioral therapy, uses patients with mental disorder in order to express and draw conclusions on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy on the patients with disorder. I will base my article on their research and show how effective cognitive behavioral therapy has been to patients with disorders. SEARCH STRATEGY I used two types of databases: Informit and Eric. To perform the search I had to use some terms that would lead me to the databases. The first was key words I used were ‘Cognitive behavioural therapy’ that had 41 results. The next search I used ‘Reducing anxiety’. These came up with a result of 119. … Those who have dropped out have not received the therapy as they are supposed to. SELECTION CRITERIA The choice of sources to use was dependent on inclusion criteria. To be included in the study, you had to be a patient suffering a disorder. The studies carried out were quantitative majorly because they relied more on the statistics to come up with findings. The participants in the studies were chosen using the inclusion criteria (suffering from a form of mental disorder). The participants were studied and data was collected to come up with statistics that showed the level of effectiveness of the cognitive behavior therapy (Richards et al. 2006, p. 8). The main method used in the sources was the random controlled trial. The participants who met the inclusion criteria would randomly get assigned to various scenarios and they were observed on how they were doing and data was collected for analysis. There was also use of the cohort study where the participants had matching inclusion criteria and hence observations were carried out on the cohort/group. MAIN RESULTS (use sub-headings as appropriate) Social phobia. According to Richards et al. 2006, the cognitive behavioral therapy was successful in reducing the symptoms of social phobia that was coming from the interaction with the internet among the participants in his study. He carried out his study on participants who had phobia of accessing their e-mail. This was concurred with by in a study by Carlbring et al. 2006 who also carried out a study on social phobia in his participants. He used cognitive behavioral therapy on the participants using a method referred to as bibliotherapy where each participant was to have access to internet and instructions were sent through e-mail to the patients

Another Gender Issue that Needs an Immediate Solution Women groping

In Sharon Moshavi’s essay titled, Groped, the author recounts her experience when a man who looked decent groped her on the street. Unlike some Japanese women who would stay mum about the issue, Moshavi beat the man as much as she liked. The issue of groping implies gender issues which ultimately challenge authorities to do their share in resolving the problem. Moshavi’s account of the groping experience can be considered an unusual act in Japan. Beating the man who violated her may be heroic to some, and very few women in Japan can do the same thing. Being subject to groping when walking on the streets alone is a gender issue that can be traced in the history and culture of a particular country. Specifically, Moshavi confesses that in Japan, I don’t have much opportunity to get angry. People just don’t do it. Yelling and anger are considered immature (in Rutledge 17). By not expressing anger, women could be misinterpreted by men. Men do not feel afraid to grope women, thinking that the latter will stay calm about it. On the one hand, the culture of the people can be a significant factor to the problem. Being afraid of the groper is an act that could tolerate the offender because he will not think of the circumstance that would eventually happen. Moreover, as Moshavi mentions, I’ve been pawed and pinched from India to Indonesia (in Rutledge 16) It should be noted that the countries she mentions, including Japan are all located in Asia. This implies a possibility that the incidence of groping could be related to the Asian culture because expressing anger and being furious is not common among Asians, whereas in the US expressing anger is a part of daily life. Addressing the groping problem in Japan, authorities claim that having commuter trains for women is not the solution to the problem. In Paul Jackson’s article which appeared in The Daily Yomiuri Tokyo, an authority claims that the communication gap between the sexes (Jackson, Women Only: Are train carriages for females an effective solution or effective PR?) may be part of the frivolous behavior of Japanese men. Japanese men may see their anonymity in commuter trains as an opportunity to get free from the rigid, traditional roles they play in society. Considering this, the problem really points to a cultural issue. Ultimately, the current issue reflects a more serious gender problem for Asian women than for American or other women in the West. Nevertheless, one needs to establish the statistics to prove this point. On the other hand, the problem of groping may not just be a cultural issue. It may imply the current situation of women in media, school, and society in general. Jackson quotes Sanae Tanaka, a lawyer, saying that the increase in the violence against women may be due to the commonality of the issue in social places such as commuter trains. It has become far more normal to hear people talking about sex and sexual harassment (Jackson, Women Only: Are train carriages for females an effective solution or effective PR?). People, particularly those in Japan, are getting used to discussing about sex in public places. Likewise, there are men who bring pornographic materials in trains. This observation is not limited to Japan. In fact, many magazines from the West may be considered as pornographic materials easily available worldwide in supermarkets and coffee shops. With this consideration, the problem of groping may be considered a global gender problem. It makes one wonder how come women in magazines are recruited to pose in sexy pictorials if they

QI Plan Part IV Implementing and Revising

Quality Improvement Plan IV Lecturer Implementing and revising The Quality Improvement Plan of the organization will be implemented by the officials with the mandate to do so. There are various committees and officials charged with the responsibility of implementing this Quality Improvement Plan. The authority structure of the Quality Improvement Plan is based on the Quality Management Committee. The structure of authority, in the pecking order of seniority, include: the Chief Executive Officer of the facility, the Director of the support services to the community, the Director of Hospice unit, the Manager of the clinical program, a Nurse Practitioner, the coordinator of the performance management, and two members of the Board. All these individuals are charged with the responsibility of ensuring successful implementation of the Quality Improvement Plan and its success in improving quality of services and care delivered to the community. The Chief Executive Officer and the directors over see the functions of the committee at the decision level. In accordance to the mission of the facility. to be the leader in the delivery of responsive, integrated health and support services for the community as well as collaborative designs that respect the individual independence and dignity, and to build a healthy, safe environment where staff, physicians and volunteers join hands in working to provide clients with quality services and care. the main goal of the management committee is to collect and analyze data from multiple sources and initiate the impact of change in the care patterns within the area that is targeted with the Quality Improvement Plan. Within the committee, the coordinator for performance management oversees the process of data collection and have all the reports prepared on the behalf of the Quality Management Committee under the supervision of the mentioned directors. The Quality Improvement Plan is implemented by the Quality Management Committee who shall be responsible for the following functions: the Quality Improvement Plan coordination and assembling professional literature, standards, statistics originating from banks of data, criteria and other necessary information that allows the committee to plan for quality improvement, evaluate their performance and to implement the identified improvements. ensuring the completion of the review functions of the Quality Improvement Plan. coordination of Accreditation Committee. prioritizing issues for review by the committee. ensuring availability of needed resources. analyzing data collected. appointing small teams to handle minor issues. reporting findings, recommendations and studies. determining sources to be incorporated in the efforts of the quality improvement of the organization. and identifying needs of training and education to the staff. Other committee roles include the roles in communication, education, annual evaluation, and the general staff responsibilities and obligations to the program. Communication: it is the responsibility of the Quality Management Committee to communicate the outcomes of the Quality Improvement Plan to the rest of the board of directors and other staff. The committee may appoint the coordinator of the performance measurement to read the report on behalf of the committee. The Quality Management Team offers functions and oversight as a central house for improving data quality and the collected information within the organization. The committee is responsible for tracking aggregate data from other sources in order to remit the results and outcomes. Education: the staff members have educational needs among themselves. The staff needs to be educated and trained on the process of the Quality Improvement Plan and the methods that will be used to implement it so as to avoid resistance to change by the staff. Every staff member has the authority and responsibility to participate in the Quality Improvement Plan of the organization. The committee will provide education that pertains to the needs of the Quality Improvement Plan. This will include QIP description and how the other staff members fit into the Quality Implementation Plan process based on the specific duties and responsibilities of their jobs as well as the plan’s implementation. It is the responsibility of the Quality Management Committee to consistently and continuously evaluate and review the educational needs of the staff members. The findings from the formal evaluations will be used to coordinate the topics of education. This will ensure there is an attempt to focus on the problem with the educational labors. The Quality Management Committee shall ensure that all the volunteers and staff members access the available educational offerings. Annual Evaluation: The Quality Management Committee will be responsible for monitoring and evaluating the Quality Improvement Plan annually in order to ensure effectiveness in the accomplishment of the goals and objectives that see to it that the quality of services, care and associated programs are improved. Some of the elements that will be monitored on annual basis in the process of evaluating improvement include: modified processes of care and service delivery, recommendations for the Quality Improvement Plan changes, and other projects still in progress. In order to monitor the effect of the changes that have been implemented, the following will be put in place for the monitoring and evaluation process: effectiveness of the procedure of offering information regarding access to care and availability of care to the community. the high volume, high risk and patient areas that are prone to problems. and the statistical information that relates to the increase in the outcomes desired by the clients as well as the committee roles and effectiveness in directing the quality improvement and management of the organization. Finally, the external entities also pose a great effect on the measure of quality and performance in the process of decision making. This is due to their influence through competition on offering the services. Health care organizations like Community Care Center aims at providing services such as: health services for the community like programs of wellness, health promotion, and primary health care. support services to the community like meal programs, transportation, adult day programs, and in home maintenance and support. services of hospice like bereavement, palliative and grief support. and dental clinic. These services are provided in other organizations too, and it is the interest of the clients to have the best services, therefore is an external entity offers better services and the clients notice this, it will influence the decision of the Community Care Center to implement the Quality Improvement Plan in order to catch up with the other competitors. It is hence evident that external entities directly influence the process of decision making in terms of quality improvement and performance measurement. References Albanese, M. (2010). Engaging clinical nurses in quality and performance improvement activities. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 34 (3), 226-245. Kliger, J. (2010). Nurse-driven programs to improve patient outcomes: transforming care at the Bed side, integrated nurse leadership program, and the clinical scene investigator academy. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 40 (3), 109-114. Murray, M. (2010). Teaching quality improvement. Journal of Nursing Education, 49 (8), 466 469. Walsh, T. (2010). Quality and Safety Education for Nurses Clinical Evaluation Tool. Journal of Nursing Education, 49 (9), 517-522.

What options do the elderly have for housing and what is the best option

Knowing this, we come to realization that there will be an increased need for a vast array of different types of housing. The choice of the living arrangements largely depends on the capabilities and needs of the individual. Despite needs for changes, there are things, specific to aging that do not change. Throughout the retirement time the individual will likely have smaller income, and his problems with health are likely to increase. According to statistics, those who live to age 65, on average are likely to live to over 80 years, which makes about 15 – 20 years of life after the retirement. That is a long enough period of time, which presents its challenges: economical, health and psychological pressure, etc. This often leads to the necessity of changing the housing situation a number of times during the time between the onset of retirement and death. To get information on the available housing options for elderly, to determine what are the options preferred and recommended, we looked into variety of sources such as articles, congress Acts, governmental and non-governmental Internet resources. Study of the sources provided both the clear description of the problem of housing for elderly as well as wide variety of options of solving the problem. There are many reasons of why the senior citizens might have issues about the housing. However, as the professor McFadden summed it up: The main issues in housing the elderly in the United States are affordability and suitability. (Noguchi, p.109) Once a person or household gets retired, they face the fact that their income will get significantly lower than on the peak of their life. The Government provides senior citizens with Social Security income, private pensions, and public assistance programs. All of these will enable most elderly not to live in poverty. However, the more they age, the less income they will receive. Other issues such as healthcare and quality of life will become more urgent as well. Therefore the housing itself will become a problem. The society at large is aware of this problem and significantly contributed to its solving. As of now, elderly citizens have different options to accommodate their housing needs. When considering housing options, the first question is if in-home care is possible. The best advantage for the elderly is that he would stay in the most comfortable place – their own home, and the care givers, such as medical assistant or companion and helper in the home comes to the house. However, this option can too costly. According to the Fair Housing Act (Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968) and The Housing for Older Persons Act of 1995(HOPA), there are two basic federal strategies to accommodate housing needs of the elderly. One of them is building new public complexes. This project is under supervision of Section 202 HUD governmental department. The other strategy is to assess the needs of residents through the governmental funding. However, there is large percentage of senior citizens, who will not use federal assistance in solving their housing situation. They do have many options to choose from. All of those options have one big disadvantage to the elderly – they will have to permanently leave their home and start living in a totally new environment. For some, it will be difficult to adjust. Considering housing options, these are the main factors of concern of senior citizens or their relatives: safety issues, location – to be close enough to their children. availability of transportation. challenging inside house set up – staircases, facilities matching to the need and ability of the senior. present house is too big or too costly to maintain, etc. Seniors Only complexes or communities These are apartment complexes,

American Medical System (Is or not) broken

When all these aspects are put together, the American health system is deemed broken. This paper is going to give its focus on the broken American health care system. Furthermore, this paper will highlight the reasons behind having a broken health care system in the United States. In this paper, I ask. why is the American health care system broken? Reasons behind the American Broken Health Care System The broken American health care system can be attributed to various reasons. It is apparent that the American health care system is a complete paradox. This is because in regards to technology in medicine as well as the disease scientific understanding, the United States is a leader. Doctors in America are the best paid in the world. Despite all these privileges, the Americans are still not the beneficiaries (Gumbel). Gumbel continues to argue that the healthcare system is run by insurance companies that are profit-propelled thus making the system be inefficient and more expensive, besides being dehumanizing. America’s expenditure on healthcare is two and a half times that of Britain, and twice as much as that of France. However, the health care system is on a meltdown in almost every key indicator in public health sector, high infant mortality rate when compared to other developed countries like Britain. There has been no serious debate on healthcare system in America since 1994 when Bill Clinton was the president and his wife Hillary Clinton failed in her attempts to overhaul the health system. About 45 million American citizens are not insured (Garson). This number includes 10 million children (Gumbel). Gumbel continues to remark that the growing numbers of uninsured is unacceptable in any civilized society, more so not in America. Analysts had predicted that the American health care system would be broken, come the year 2011, and the government would have taken measures to avert the situation before it happens. For instance, Bolen, a consumer advocate, had remarked in 2004 that everybody was aware that the U.S Medicare system would experience a meltdown in 2011. According to him, the healthcare care system was going to be unaffordable to most Americans. Bill Frist, the majority leader of the senate and a heart specialist physician, gives scary Statistics on the American health care system. The statistic show that America spends about 15% of its overall income on health issues. This is higher than other developed nations. In this regard, when broken down, America spends approximately $5,540 annually on every man, woman and child (Broder A24). Similarly, health care costs are experiencing four times increase when compared to wages. Broder predicted that in 2006, the cost of health care coverage sponsored by the employers would be at $14,500 per family. However, the health stakeholders and the government did not do anything to prevent the situation from taking place. In 2003, the Census Bureau stated that about 44 million Americans were rendered without health insurance in 2002. Amazingly, the number of uninsured has been on the increase to approximately two million people every year. A consumer group known as Families USA reported that about 82 million Americans did not have health insurance cover in 2002/2003 period, most of them for a period not less than nine months (Broder A24). Furthermore, The American Journal of Medicine, as

The Thirty Years War

Later, the war turned into a rather general conflict involving France and the Hapsburg poweri. As mentioned earlier, the war was spread in phases over the period from the year 1618 to 1648. Initially, there was a treaty called Peace of Augsburg signed in 1555 which brought temporary peace in regards to religious competition in the state of Germany. However, the treaty only recognized the Lutherans and Roman Catholic. Despite this, the Cal-vines had made gains in a number of states and consequently began to demand recognition of their rights and acceptance of their ways of life. In 1617, Ferdinand of Styria was the king of the Bohemian Kingdom and was an ardent supporter of numerous Catholic missions. This did not go well with the Calvinists because they feared that under Ferdinand rule they would be oppressed and their rights would not be recognized. The Calvinists went ahead and threw two Catholics from a building, seventy feet tall, as a show of their dissatisfaction with the king. Fortunately, the two Catholics just sustained minor injuries as they fell on a pile of manure. But this action led to the Catholics invading Bohemia which was a Calvinist strong hold. The conflict resulted into war ending with Catholics winning and Calvinists losing and sustaining heavy and multiple casualties1. Another significant period of the war was between 1625 and 1629 in Denmark where the Protestants went into battle with the Catholics. During this phase, the war claimed many casualties and a significant destruction of property from both sides. In the end, the Catholics claimed victory and installed their king who continued the unpopular policies directed towards oppressing non-Catholics. This alarmed those Christians who viewed this as sheer absurdity and ways of oppressing fellow man. As a result, the Protestants cooperated came together all over Europe with an aim of championing their rights and revolting against the dominant Catholic majority ii. The entire period of the thirty years war was characterized by many religious conflicts in many European countries and empires. However, the saddest thing was that, besides causing psychological harm, it also claimed many lives and led to massive destruction of property and infrastructure. Therefore, the war considerably affected the lives of many Europeans. According to statistics, it reduced the population of German states by about 25% with the male population being reduced to half. The destruction was also aided by diseases and famines in different regions all over Europe. It was hard to feed the masses as there was no time to cultivate hence significantly reducing the food supplies. Diseases were also hard to treat as there were no properly organized supplies of medicine and medical personnel. Furthermore, the hostility between different groups resulted in blocking of supply routes as rivals did all they could to cut supply to opposing sides. The destruction was also catalyzed by the expulsion of opposing religious groups from the regions where they were the minority. For instance, Protestants were expelled from Czech land. an action which reduced the population of the land by a third. The destruction was quite severe that the regions that were hard hit by the war took centuries to recover. Despite the thirty years war largely being religious inclined, it also involved political supremacy and conquest. This is because many rulers looked forward to taking advantage of the weakened regions to conquered them and spread their dominance.

Breakthrough career aspiration

This is by first being able to identify existing barriers to the medical practitioners of not being 100% compliant with the VAP bundle. Contrary to numerous researchers who normally concentrate on the patients by alleviating their pain first, my first step would be to deal with the practitioners’ case (Fitzpatrick Kazer, 2012). This is because the patients’ relief in this research would only be realized if only the healthcare providers are able to comply effectively or 100% to VAP bundle. This is because my core aim in this pathfinding research will entail seeking absolute solution towards healthcare providers being able to comply 100% with VAP bundle (Koenig Truwit, 2006). Hence, being able to decrease incidences of VAP complications and attain zero rate occurrences as per the medical theory (Koenig Truwit, 2006). This will shun increasing of both the morbidity and mortality rates that are evident presently in the ICU, which I have witnessed all through my career. In addition, my research’s breakthrough will also aid in lessening days that an individual normally stays in the ICU. Consequently, this has prompted both the healthcare and caregivers incur substantial expenses during the patients’ prolonged hospitalization (Doyle, Fletcher, Carter, Blunt Young, 2011). 2. The uniqueness of my pathfinding research The success of my pathfinding research will yield to numerous benefits especially in achieving zero VAP rate targets, which thehospital organization has always anticipated to achieve (Pneumatikos, Dragoumanis Bouros, 2009). This is because Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) cases have always prompted to both the hospital facility and patients’ caregivers to incur untold expenses owing to prolonged stay in ICU. For example, statistics have confirmed that Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) mortality rates range between 24% and 76% despite the efficiency of medical practitioners (Pneumatikos, Dragoumanis Bouros, 2009). This is an alarming rate, which might trigger fear to patients or their caregivers especially when an ailing person develops VAP complications. Since studies reveal a higher mortality rate of 46% of VAP complications compared to 32% of the ventilated patients (Pneumatikos, Dragoumanis Bouros, 2009). Therefore, this breakthrough will be remarkable in the medical field where besides decreasing mortality and morbidity rates, it will also relive patient’s pain. Besides, it will also lessen healthcare’s high expenses that are evident currently due to extended hospitalization. 3. Theoretical path that I took Behavior change theory In improving compliance to VAP bundle, the application of behavior change theory proved to be of significant importance where I utilized Prochaska and DiClementes’s change theory (Kritsonis, 2005). This theory offered the theoretical framework required to execute this change though it contends that people usually undergo diverse stages in realization of any transformational transition. According to Prochaska and DiClementes’ theory, intervention is essential in all its five stages to effect the required or anticipated change (Kritsonis, 2005). The initial stage entailed shifting people’s perception from precontemplation to contemplation via organizing educational programs. Precontemplation is where the people owing to their ignorance are

How is the development of hybrid car for the next 5 years in the United Kingdom

This research will begin with the statement that the turnover of the automobile industry in UK has improved after the recession, as it was around £41 billion in the year 2009, which has escalated to £49 billion in the year 2010. However, it was £50 billion before recession. The value of vehicle export also increased in 2010 to £29 billion, which is even more than the pre-recession figures. All this statistics indicates that the automobile industry in UK contribute majorly towards the national income of the country. UK automobile segment contribute 11 percent of trade profit for the country. The popularity of automobile from UK can be understood from the fact that almost four vehicle out of five are exported out of the country. It has been many years the vehicles manufacturers are trying to reduce the environmental impact on the manufacturing process and products. This has been done in order to maintain balance between environmental care, economic progress and social responsibility. It was the automobile industry in UK who first issued their sustainability report, and expressed their environmental achievements in that report. In the past 10 years, this industry has been making strong strides to reduce the impact of products throughout the lifecycle of the product. Improvement in the production process has been seen in the automobile industry since 2000. For example the usage of water has been cut by around 34 percent, and the CO2 emission has reduced by 17 percent…. The popularity of automobile from UK can be understood from the fact that almost four vehicle out of five are exported out of the country. It has been many years the vehicles manufacturers are trying to reduce the environmental impact on the manufacturing process and products (Elliott, and Percy, 2007). This has been done in order to maintain balance between environmental care, economic progress and social responsibility. It was the automobile industry in UK who first issued their sustainability report, and expressed their environmental achievements in that report. In the past 10 years, this industry has been making strong strides to reduce the impact of products throughout the lifecycle of the product (Franzen, and Moriarty, 2008). Improvement in the production process has been seen in the automobile industry since 2000. For example the usage of water has been cut by around 34 percent, and the CO2 emission has reduced by 17 percent. It has been also noticed that around 73 percent of less dissipate enter for landfills (Gelder, 2005). Automotive industry of the country is engaged in revolutionising the transportation system in the country. The automotive sector of UK is considered to be one of the largest investors in research and development, which assist in delivering sustainable motoring in 21st century. One of the outcomes of such initiatives is the hybrid cars (Holt, 2002). The market for hybrid cars are booming and the demand is good, if not high like the conventional cars. However, statistics shows that the sales of hybrid cars escalated from 9000 units to 39,880 units in the year 2006. Companies like Toyota sold 91 percent of hybrid cars in UK and Honda sold about 3,410 (King, 2006). The sales of hybrid cars

Victimization of people in power

Yet, they firmly disagree over how to change the institution. The agreement among the professionals who place emphasis on the concerns of victims is that the criminal justice system is inefficient. It fails to satisfy the victims’ needs and demands. Challenging difficulties continue, and the condemnations of the institution expressed over the years are still present nowadays. Law enforcers are the criminal justice authorities that victims encounter at the onset. Law enforces could quickly help the victim and give whatever assistance is necessary. They could capture the criminal and promptly gather evidence that will be used in trial. They may recover stolen properties grabbed by the thieves and quickly bring these properties back to the real owner. Meanwhile, the victim, who is a major witness for the government, must be safeguarded from retaliations and threats. After verdict, the opinion of the victim about a just decision may be completely made public (Walklate, 2007). The judge may give the punishment that would complement the victim’s demands with the demands of the community and the needs of the thief. Correctional officials may ensure that the parolee, prisoner, or probationer does not assault or pester the individual whose grievance activated the mechanism of the criminal justice system (Tonry, 2009). However, these ‘ideal’ scenarios often do not happen. … the problem. legal status of the victim group. the latest official statistics on extent of the problems faced by the victim group. news media coverage. nature and effectiveness of policy interventions. empirical research findings from journals and official reports. and key recommendations. The main objective of this essay is to determine whether victimised people in power receive fair and sympathetic treatment from the criminal justice system, or whether the policy interventions regarding this matter are effective in preventing their victimisation. An Overview of the Problem Even though several kinds of victimisation framing highlight the role of people in power in victimising those belonging to the lower class, there are also analyses that demonstrate how the upper class or people in power is being victimised by those underneath them. The issue of victimisation of the elite by the poor usually appears in media reports (Allen, 2011). However, studies show that people in power are prone to become victims of identity theft. Identity theft is the specific crime that is widespread among the upper class. Generally, identity theft is an offence which can happen to anybody (Roberson, 2008). In spite of the fact that identity theft is unselective as regards its victims, specific people seem to be more vulnerable to be victimised by this criminal act. Keith Anderson carried out a research to determine whether specific people are in fact more prone to be victimised by identity theft (Letschert van Dijk, 2011, p. 162): The risks faced by consumers do differ, and these differences may manifest themselves in differences across groups with different demographic characteristics. Anderson outlines several aspects which could heighten the vulnerability to identity-theft

Comparison of Three Books about Vietnam War

While different authors appreciate the occurrences during the war, they portray the war and the US interference in different ways. This paper will examine three such books, comparing the description of the Vietnam War in all the books. The Vietnam War was a memorable event in the history of the US. A People’s History of the United States In the book, A People’s History of the United States, Zinn presents the history of the Vietnam War in a simplistic manner that common people can appreciate. Zinn provides this history through the eyes of the common folk instead of the economic and political elite. For instance, he focuses on the US citizens’ resistance to the Vietnam War, as well as the people of North Vietnam who though deemed insignificant, were able to defeat the US-backed South. Zinn terms the US involvement in the Vietnam War as a mission in futility. He exemplifies that regardless of its military and technology superiority, the US was unable to defeat Northern Vietnamese whose main weapon was human strength and tactical thinking capacity. According to Zinn, US victory in Vietnam was impossible because North Vietnamese dejected colonial imperialism after Japan’s failed attempt to capture Indochina. He argues that the US was fighting a war it could not win. This is because the people of Vietnam favored the government led by Ho Chi Minh and were against Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime. This allowed the people of Vietnam to maintain high morale throughout the war. On the other hand, morale among US military fighters in Vietnam was quite low because most of the American soldiers revolted against the atrocities they inflicted, like the My Lai massacre. Zinn describes the Vietnam War as a war between the wealthiest and most powerful nation in global history and a nationalist, revolutionary movement in a peasant nation. This description paints the picture of a fight akin to a cat and mouse fight where the insignificant revolutionary people fought against a mighty nation such as the US. Normally, one would expect that the stronger party in the fight wins, but in the Vietnam War, Zinn asserts that it is the small, insignificant humans who won against the technology of the US. In addition, Zinn speaks of the impact the US citizens had on the culmination of the Vietnam War. Zinn talks of the impact of the US movement against the Vietnam War as having, played a critical part in bringing the war to an end. Nonetheless, Zinn attempts to dispel the common belief that US opposition to the Vietnam War was amongst college students and intellectuals from the middle class. He uses statistics from the war period to show evidence that considerable opposition also came from the US working class. For instance, poet Robert Lowell refused to attend a luncheon at the White House, while singer Eartha Kitt spoke out against the war in the presence of the first lady. Zinn maintains the stance that it is the common people that brought change in Vietnam. The assertion the revolutionists fought against the Japanese and defeated the superior nation speaks of the impact of Vietnamese on the going on within their country. Zinn’s description of the war also holds that the troops also opposed the war, citing refusals and desertions to progress to war, as well as movements like Vietnam Veterans Against the War, which subsequently covered US invasions

To what extent is the documentary film ‘sisters in law’ a reliable source to account for the situation of women’s rights in Came

Issues in Cameroon In this section, the issues faced by women in Cameroon have been listed down and discussed as shown in the documentary. The reliability of the documentary is also analysed with the help of some independent sources. Child Marriage The documentary shows that women are usually married off at a very young age in the country (Ayisi Longinotto, 2005). Due to early marriage, they are unable to complete their education. An early marriage also gives rise to early pregnancies which is risky both for the mother as well as the child. This problem is corroborated by the statistics presented by UNICEF. According to UNICEF 36% of women were married before the age of 18 in 2010. Thus, the problem of Child marriage is really a big issue in Cameroon and has been captured well by the documentary (UNICEF, 2010). Selling off Daughters In the beginning of the documentary we have seen a case in which the women were ‘sold’ of as wife by the father in return for dowry. This is a very big problem in many Islamic societies. Women are considered as merchandise by the family which can be sold for the right amount (Ayisi Longinotto, 2005). Although the documentary has failed to take into account the issue that majority of Cameroon residents are not Muslims but the issue is still worth discussing as it affects one-third of Cameroon’s population. The documentary presents this issue in a good way but fails to tell us about the extent to which this issue plagues the society. Custody of Children The Islamic law says that if there is divorcee or if the wife runs away, the custody of the children stays with the father. This is in sharp contrast with the modern law which regards the mother as the most natural custodian of the child. Although Cameroon has modern system of law in place but the society still follows age old tradition and a woman has to fight in order to get custody of her children (Ayisi Longinotto, 2005).Once again the documentary focused on the Islamic population of Cameroon and fails to give an insight into the practices followed by other people of Cameroon. Physical abuse Physical Abuse is another big problem which is faced by women in Cameroon. This abuse is not only inflicted on older women but even children are not spared from it. It is common for the husband to regularly beat up his wife over small things. Children are beaten up mercilessly by their guardians over small faults (Ayisi Longinotto, 2005).Report of UNICEF in 2010 also supports the issue shown in the documentary. It shows that 56% of population of Cameroon justifies wife beating and a very high 93% has justified the beating of children (UNICEF, 2010).Thus the issue shown in the documentary also finds resonance with UNICEF and shows that the issue has been shown reliably and correctly. Social Boycott Cameroon is a traditional society where matters of the house are not taken outside. The elders of the house or of the village gather together in order to solve the issue .It is taboo for women to drag her husband to the court even if she has been suffering a lot. Once a woman decides to break free of

An economic issue of current interest

of Debt Crisis to be solved by US and Europe: Journal Opinion Article In the contemporary globalized world, it has become significant for the business enterprises to look at the profit maximization through the lens of international business setup. This gives a clear call to the political-economic policymakers to cater the stranding business crisis of all sorts. Considering the International monetary fund (IMF) recent meetings regarding the international debt crisis due to the developed economies of the world such as US and Europe, it is easier to note that the bigger spectrum of international business is not stable at the moment. It is merely a key factor for which the business economists have blamed the developed economies of the world. Alone, Asia is not able to provide any elucidations to the increasing debt crisis. This journal opinion article symbolizes the contemporary issue of international debt crisis. As per the opinions of the wall street journal, it is much easier to note that the developed countries such as United Sates and Europe needs to make efficient and quick change to make sure that the debt issue is being controlled. In my viewpoint, I would also consider United States to be the most crucial element for removing the deficit. It is because United States is still undergoing the crisis scars of 2008. Taking a closer look at the Obama Administration, I t was being expected from the campaign that there will be a more understandable and effective planning for tax reserves etc. opposite to the expectation, United States under the provision of Obama policies have not been able to come up with any plan which could lesser down the need budgetary deficit. As per the statistics, it was observed that the figure has been in trillions and sedentary throughout the Obama administration (Tailey). The aspect that needs to be understood by the developed economies is mainly because lowered growth. The overall expected growth in the international revenue has become a very dreamy picture. One needs to understand the fact that global crisis will continue to increase if no check and balance been undertaken by the developed economies in particular. The question in concern is because United States of America is the largest economy of the world that in return is having issues in return. Obama needs to find out the right measures to solve economic problem which is only possible if he is able to find out the right plan. Seemingly, the political stigma in US continues to make this situation cloudy (Tailey). On the other hand, taking European intervention to meet the need of resolving debt crisis has been successful. Policymakers have shown great concern and effective planning has made it rather easier for Europe to contribute to the IMF and World Bank expectation charter. The increased focus has been given to this economic issue because the richer economies such as US have been affecting the developing economies. Increase reliance of developing economies on US and European’s business franchises has helped their economic interest but on the other hand, it is easier to note that it has reflected a great deal of risk (Tailey). The situation of 2008 crisis affected many developing countries which further led their progress to the downward array. Thus, it is not being expected that if the debt crisis are met with effective planning than it will help the developing countries to take benefit of revenue generation (Tailey). As a matter of fact, it has been noted several times that China can also play a key role in helping the developed countries such as US and Europe to undergo the deficit solution only in the case of it is ready to mark its share. Seemingly, China has not been able to play a role of a coordinator with IMF because Japan has also been invited to the meeting. For the sake of political interest, China has not been able to bring any changes or agendas for the meeting of IMF (Tailey). Therefore, it can be a possible attempt to note that United States is expected to do more as it is in the lime light. In case Obama administration continues to fail to provide elucidations to the crisis management then the figures of the debt deficit will increase dramatically causing the IMF to bring strict policies. Overall, it can be said that the global business sphere needs quick and effective planning. Countries such as China need to contribute as well leaving their political interest as overshadowed fact as overall growth is much significant at this stage of complex and competitive business craft. Works Cited Tailey, I. IMF Urges EU to Deploy Bailout Funds. Wall Street Journal 14 October 2012: Online.

How has the cultural identity of China responded to and adapted to contact with foreigners

Evidently, this goes to show that despite the achieved modernization of China in its economic, socio-political state of affairs, among others, it proved to the world that it has truly maintained its cultural identity. Maybe one inquisitive critic would like to know the factors how China kept its culture through all these years amidst the salient events that led to the great transformation of China from what it was before, having a weak economy, to what it has become today, a sprawling economic giant in East Asia and these are the issues which this paper intends to present. China’s achievements all these years may be traced from a number of significant events in its history that involved politics, culture and economic reforms that shaped China’s destiny and these can be viewed separately in four phases. First phase involved Ancient China. In its early beginnings, China started to be governed by feudalism and monarchy altering one dynasty after another. In fact, it was the Han dynasty which was considered the East Asian counterpart of and contemporary of Rome’s golden age rule (Cultural Essentials 2004). Ruling China for more than 400 years was reasonable enough to expect that it left lasting legacies in China and to the world like the invention of the first ‘paper’ and the adoption of Confucianism. … This probably explains why it was so difficult then for China to accept modernization. (Wu, J. n.d.). It was also during the four decades of Mao Tse Tung’s rule and his declaration of ‘self-reliance’ marked the deepest period of withdrawal from the international economy. (Schenk 2006). Contacts with the outside world were treated as risks to come with political destabilization. economic exploitation and cultural subversion thus, must be totally restricted and regulated (Harding 1993). It took so many years for the traditional China to keep its state of affairs closed from the Western world. The third phase begins with Western intrusion to China’s affairs whereby there were sporadic internal uprisings opposing to foreign encroachments, for example the Opium Rebellion in 1839-1842 (Ebrey, 1993) and Boxer Rebellion in 1900 (Rosenberg 2013). Milestones also occurred between 1899-1900 when US Secretary of State John Hay first initiated the ‘Open Door Policy’ through Notes( US Department of State, n.d.) which actually was a scuttle for concessions in China, so to speak ,among superpowers. This was also the period of Cultural Revolution as well as the momentum when China opted to adopt new economic and political reforms. The fourth phase is Contemporary China. Presently, China sprawls as the largest country in East Asia dealing with approximately almost 1.4 Billion people (China: World Statistics 2013). Finally, it was during the era of Deng Xiaoping that changed the course of the world by steering China’s class-oriented revolutionary struggle into tangible, economic development (Chihua Lin 2007). Actually, it was considered a period of sustained reforms under his leadership (Kau

Statistics homeless people

Number of Homeless Households Figure 1 below shows the evolution of the number of homeless households from 2002 to 2010. While the number of homeless households increased from 2002 to 2004, it reduced continuously from 2004 to 2009, and in 2010 again, there was a slight increase in the number of homeless households. Figure 1 Number of Homeless Households in Wales The maximum number of homeless households was 9855 households in 2004. From 2004 to 2009, homelessness decreased at an average of nearly 11% per year and in 2010, the increase in homeless households was just over 12%. The average number of homeless households from 2002 to 2010 was 7182 households. Clearly, this shows that the efforts of the Welsh Government have been successful in their commitment for controlling homelessness and supporting homeless people. Reasons for Homelessness In order to succeed in their aim to reduce and eventually eradicate homelessness, the Welsh Government also studies the reasons why people/households become homeless. Figure 2 below shows the break-up of these reasons. Figure 2 Reasons for Homelessness in Wales in 2010 Figure 2 shows that the biggest reason, which accounts for 20% of homelessness in Wales in 2010, is the loss of tied accommodation which may be due to disasters like fire or for other social/financial reasons. If we combine this with the factor of loss of rented or tied institution or care centre which accounts for 16% of the homelessness, we see that just over 1/3rd, that is 36% of homelessness is caused by loss of rented/tied accommodation or institutions. The next biggest reason is the inability or unwillingness of parents to accommodate which accounts for 19% of homelessness. However, if we combine this statistic with homelessness due to inability or unwillingness of other relatives or friends which accounts for 8% of homelessness, we see that 27% of all homelessness is caused by social exclusion of homeless people by their parents/relatives/friends. Broadly speaking, the categories of reasons for homelessness may be divided into two parts: financial reasons and social reasons. Financial reasons include loss of rented/tied accommodation, mortgage arrears, and rent arrears. The financial reasons together are responsible for 42% of all homelessness. The social reasons include inability or unwillingness of parents/relatives/friends, break-up with partner and violence or harassment. The social reasons are responsible for 47% of all homelessness. In fact, a lot of social reasons also arise out of financial difficulties like the inability of parents to support. Economy and Homelessness As we have seen that 42% of homelessness is caused by purely financial reasons and some of the social reasons are also due to financial troubles, we now take a look at how homelessness varies with the economic output. For the economic output, we consider the data for Gross Value Added (GVA) for Wales. According to the statistics bureau of the Welsh Government, the GVA can be considered as a close substitute for Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the measure of economic output. Figure 3 below shows the relationship between actual GVA and the number of homeless households for different years. The data points shown in figure 3 are the values of GVA and number of homeless households in Wales from 2002 to 2009. The line has been drawn to show the approximate trend in the data points. Figure 3 GVA and homelessness in Wales for

Ethnicity Measures Intermarriage and Social Policy

For the New Zealand census, respondents have the freedom to choose their own ethnicity how they see fit. Of course, this can sometimes lead to skewed data. Another factor that contributes to unreliable data is how the questions about ethnicity are worded. In the New Zealand censuses of 1991, 1996, and 2001, the way questions about ethnicity are worded have varied considerably. Inevitably, responses have also varied depending on how the question is asked. For those who are of mixed ancestry, they can sometimes claim to have ties to a number of different races or none at all. Maori people in particular have a hard time responding to questions about ethnicity because they can often claim more than one. Interracial marriage has led to many people who have a stake in more than one culture, and this had led to questions about which group they truly belong to. However, because respondents have the ability to be able to choose which ethnic group they affiliate with the most, they are more likely to choose the group that they feel the most comfortable with. The definition of ethnicity in New Zealand will continue to provoke debate about how people are classed in terms of their ethnic groups. Due to the rise in interracial marriages, it is likely that this definition will become more clouded over the next few decades. In my mind, ethnicity is an important part of a person’s being because it gives them an identity. Without an identity, we are likely to become defined by how other people view us. If people are to be given the choice to choose which ethnic group they belong to, then there should be some measures put in place to make sure that census data does not become unreliable. From Statistics New Zealand’s Review of the Measurement of Ethnicity, I feel that a fractional ethnicity model from Gould would be the best option. This way, the total number of responses would equal the total population. Also, each part of a person’s ethnic background would contribute towards the total makeup of New Zealand’s population. This is better than forcing people who identify with more than one ethnicity to choose one over the other. Also, it would be more effective than randomly allocating prioritisation, where people of more than one ethnicity are randomly applied to only a single ethnicity. Politics, power and indigenous tourism In his article Politics, power and indigenous tourism, Michael Hall investigates how tourism is thought of in terms of politics and power. Power is something that is placed in the hands of those qualified to lead on a certain issue. For the tourism industry, many of the decisions are made without consulting the local people who perhaps have more expertise and cultural links to the tourist attractions that are made available. Power can be given or taken away depending on who has the power and what they have it over. Lukes identified three approaches that analyze power. a one-dimensional view (observable, over behaviour, conflict and decision-making), a two-dimensional view (decisions and non-decisions and observable conflict), and a three-dimensional view (decision-making and control over political agenda, observable and latent conflict). The one-dimensional view says that even though the community decision-making process is imperfect, it can at least be observed since two

Fast Food Fast Life and Fast Death

This essay explores the relationship between fast food and the obesity epidemic. Fast food contains alarmingly high levels of fats, carbohydrates, cholesterol and refined sugar, which are loaded with calories, and are the main factors responsible for triggering obesity. The large amounts of empty calories ingested coupled with lack of an active lifestyle and exercise, lead to accumulation of unhealthy fats the body. Cholesterol clogs arteries, leading to severe complications like heart disease. According to statistics released by the CDC1, 26.6% of Americans are obese, and obesity is the direct result of eating improper diet coupled with a lack of exercise. As many as 16% of US soldiers are obese, making it the primary reason for discharging them from duty in the Military. Fast foods lack desirable essential nutrients and dietary fiber, the most important components of a healthy diet. British researchers from the Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Center and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine have determined that repeated eating at McDonald’s or KFC or Burger King, people are more likely to gain weight and become obese. This is because fast food not only contains many more calories than traditional food but also is more likely to undermine normal appetite control systems. Obesity isn’t the only harmful effect of Fast food consumption. Research done by national and international organizations has revealed indigestible facts about fast foods that most consumers would never have imagined. The USDA in a 1996 study found that at meat processing plants, 78.6 percent of the ground beef contained microbes … spread primarily by fecal material. There is a real shit, not figurative, but real mammal made shit in that burger. This statistic alone made me give up fast food. This indicates that fast food is often contaminated by feces from sewage and other sources. Eric Schlosser, an investigative journalist writes in Fast Food Nation: the Dark Side of the All-American Meal, The medical literature on the causes of food poisoning is full euphemisms and dry scientific terms: coliform levels, aerobic plate counts, sorbitol, MacConkey agar, and so on. Behind them lies a simple explanation for why eating a hamburger can now make you seriously ill: There is shit in the meat. Food contaminated with coliform, that are residents in the digestive tract, is indicative enough about the unclean and unhealthy meats and other products used in the fast food industry that can eventually have serious manifestations on the health of the consumers.

Childhood Obesity A heavy Burden

The burgeoning of childhood obesity in the United States stems from many causes, from sedentary lifestyles to poor diet to lack of education – and solutions must be set in place toward reestablishing the health of our youth. But has America always had this problem with obesity? The answer is no. In fact, from 1960 to our present time, childhood obesity rates have more than tripled, soaring from 5 percent to 16.9 percent. This crisis that is seen through accelerated rates of obesity that has risen for 50 years must be addressed by society.There is a direct correlation between obesity and health problems, such as heart disease, strokes, cancer, and diabetes, and health care costs to treat these problems have reached epic proportions. In 2008, $147 billion was spent in medical costs to treat health problems due to obesity, and $116 billion was spent to care for diabetes in 2007. And when this generation is grows up and its metabolisms slow down, this rate will likely double for them − if they reflect today’s obesity rate amongst American adults, which is at 33.8 percent. And the foreboding statistics do not stop there. Many find it alarming that the very diseases incurred through obesity – which usually begins in childhood or is induced by poor habits learned during childhood – are on the top ten list of causes of death in Americans, with heart disease ranking as number one and diabetes registering in seventh place., (Heron, 2011). All of these statistics point to a pandemic problem with our nation’s youth that must be explored and evaluated before real changes can take place. Since approximately nine out of 10 children in this nation are enrolled in public education, it is only natural to believe that the policy makers of this massive system will be instrumental in bringing about the positive changes needed to minimize childhood obesity. The learning and practical application of knowledge – also known as wisdom – is the primary concern that educators must address today. Students must be taught how to make wise decisions regarding their health, as these concepts do not just come naturally to children. A case and point to demonstrate this reality would be to put a bowl of celery and carrot sticks next to a bag of potato chips and dip on a table in front of the classroom. Unless the students are properly trained or cognizant of possible negative reactions from adults around them, most would devour

Whites Swim in Racial Preference

However, many people find this concept disturbing as it seems counter-intuitive to the American meritocratic society (Feagin, 2000). However, the reasons why minorities may not be as outwardly qualified as white people is due to a deeper social problem rather than any inadequacies with the people themselves (McConahay, Hardee Batts, 1981). The purpose of this paper is to explore how white people have (and still do) experience racial preference and to show that it is so ingrained into society that it can be difficult for many people to understand the level at which it operates in America today. Wise (2003) explained the long history of white affirmative action in the U.S. in his article Whites Swim in Racial Preference. For example, the article states that white families have eleven times the net worth of the average African American family. To put this into context, this would afford the average white family a far higher quality of healthcare and education than the average African American, and therefore make the children of the white family appear to have more merit. This would then translate into the white children having more opportunities in college and the job market, allowing them to earn more money than their African American counterparts, ensuring that the cycle continues. This, therefore, explains the purpose of affirmative action, in that it goes some way towards counteracting the culturally sanctioned beliefs (Armour, 1997) of white supremacy that have led to this situation in modern America. What is perhaps most striking is that much of the information provided by Wise (2003) seems historical, but many of the statistics date from modern society. Feagin (2000) has used information such as that described in the article (and from further afield) and come to the conclusion that America is a total racist society (p121). This may be inadvertent in many cases, and many sources have shown that racism is either changing in form to become less aggressive or less commonplace (Dovidio Gaertner, 2004). However, despite these positive changes, it is evident that there are still huge improvements to be made with respect to racism, particularly in the world of work and education (Armour, 1997). Again, minority discrimination seems historical to modern Americans, but as recently as 2011 the Bank of America was sued for racial bias (Savage, 2011). One of the major points that Wise (2003) made was that white people perhaps struggle to recognize the priveledge that they are afforded in modern society. One of the major reasons for this is that, as previously mentioned, racism is changing in its form. If we apply the theories of cultural and moral relativism to racism, it is easy to see how this has happened. For example, when slavery was still legal in the US, there was a clear hierarchy that was based on race – black people were slaves, whilst white people were their masters. In a system such as this, overt racism and violence towards African Americans was viewed with a completely different mindset to how it would be today. Slaves were a different type of being, and therefore traditional moral laws did not apply to them (Dovidio Gaertner, 2004). Thankfully, this mindset has changed dramatically. Slavery was abolished, and soon after, so was segregation. Racism as a cultural norm would therefore have to change to fit the morals and societal features of this evolved society. Violence and outward racism was no longer seen as appropriate or fair (Armour, 1997) because African Americans now play a

Current issues application and practice

Agriculture is very important in the economy of a country especially among developing countries like the Philippines. It provides food for the nation’s inhabitants. It supplies the raw materials needed by the other sectors of the economy such as the manufacturing, trading and services sectors. Agricultural products are an important source of exports for the country. It also generates employment especially among those living in the rural areas. Approximately 30 million hectares or 40 percent of the total land area of the country is classified as farm lands. The country is composed of 7,107 islands with a total coastline of about 18,000 kilometers and which boast of bountiful fishing areas. Farming and fishing are major sources of livelihood for most people in the rural areas. The food crops produced by the farm lands are used for local consumption while some crops are exported. One then wonders why inspire of the rich natural resources of the country it has remained to be a Third World country. The answer is simple. There is not enough government support being given to the industry. Without the necessary government initiatives to improve the agricultural sector, one cannot expect the industry to grow. The people who rely on agriculture are not given the opportunity to raise their income. thus, pushing the economy downwards. To determine the impact of agriculture in the Philippine economy, recent developments in the industry must be examined. In 2010, despite having vast agricultural lands and an ideal geographical location, the agriculture and fishery sector contributed only17 percent to the gross domestic product of the Philippines, a .34 percent decline from the previous year (Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS), 2011). Compared to last year’s level, the gross value of agricultural output rose by 15.97 percent to P706.4 billion at current prices. The BAS also reported that of the country’s total labor force of 38.89 million, about 11.96 million persons or 33 percent were employed in the agriculture sector. During the first half of 2010, the daily nominal wages of workers in palay farms in Philippine pesos was P227.23 while those in corn farms earned P175.25. In terms of support services, government expenditures in agriculture amounted to P89.22 billion or six percent of the national expenditures, which represents an increase of 9.58 percent from last year. In the case of irrigation, only 49 percent of the total potential irrigable area is irrigated. The production performance of the agricultural sector in 2010 showed that output of palay and corn dropped by 3.04 percent and 9.34 percent, respectively. Coconut production registered a loss of one percent in the same way as sugarcane also recorded a loss of 21.82 percent. On the contrary, production output for mango, tobacco, onion, cabbage and eggplant grew by more than three percent (BAS, 2011). While agricultural products did not show remarkable improvements, the livestock production went the opposite direction (BAS, 2011). Carabao production increased by 5.05 percent, cattle at 2.71 percent, hog at 1.11 percent and goat at 1.38 percent. Likewise, production of dairy products grew by 11.14 percent. Chicken meat production increased by 4.01 percent and chicken eggs grew by 5.12 percent. Among the major livestock products only duck meat and duck egg production declined by 8.24 percent and 7.44 percent, respect

Women Issues Statistics on Women Violence

Moreover, the paper will highlight the current statistics of violence committed towards women. Additionally, the paper will address the impact of violence committed towards women. In addition, the paper will address ways of reducing violence towards women by the community and governments. In the end, the paper will entail a detailed conclusion based on issues reflected on the topic.Violence against women continues to be reported from various parts of the world. The number of women abused, forced into sex, and beaten has been common (Amnesty International, 2013). Consequently, women lives have been affected by either violence committed in the home and community set up. On the other hand, such form of violence may endanger the lives of those in close relationship with those abused in significant ways. However, violence against women might be said to be declining due to the rise of advocacy groups and women fight for their rights and recognition in the society (Amnesty International, 2013). On the other hand, some of the violence committed towards women has a common foundation in the societies around the world. In most cases, violence against women is rooted in a global culture of discrimination that considers women as a lesser being than men (Dale, 2005). As a result, women are denied equal rights as men in the society. Violence against women is more pronounced at home as compared to other places. However, other violence may take place in custody, the community set up, and workplace. On the other hand, there are some factors that lead to increased violence against women. Such factors include race, ethnicity, sexual identity, social status, class, and age (Amnesty International, 2013). Domestic or intimate partner violence occurs when one person in a relationship harms another person (Office on Women’s Health, 2011). Such violence is either committed by a husband, ex-husband, boyfriend, or ex-boyfriend (Office on Women’s Health, 2011).

Trafficking in Person’s

Whereas the individual reader may be thoroughly familiar with the trade in illicit substances and/or narcotics, the level of knowledge that many societal shareholders have with respect to human trafficking is quite limited. One need look no further than the way in which popular culture and media portray drug smugglers, drug addicts, and each and every wrong of the supply and demand chain for narcotics to realize that this has primarily come to be the focal point of discussion and analysis with respect to the illicit/underground economy. However, according to 2011 statistics, human trafficking is a $35 billion a year global industry (Knepper, 2013). Moreover, from an ethical and moral standpoint, the trade of human beings and the buying and selling of these individuals as if they were merely a commodity to be consumed and disposed of as perhaps the most troubling aspect of all. Whereas it is true that the impacts of illegal drugs have far-reaching consequences that can harm any number of individuals in any socioeconomic strata in any country, human trafficking is unique due to the fact that it is one of the only exhibitions of slavery that currently exist within the world. Sadly, human trafficking is increasing with each and every passing year as the demands for cheap labor, sexual services, and healthy babies only continues to rise with the increasing population of the world. As a function of this sad reality, the following analysis will seek to analyze the scope, definition, impacts, policies, levels of governmental engagement, and factors that ultimately encourage the prevalence and continued exhibition of human trafficking around the globe. Although the greatest emphasis with regards human trafficking will necessarily be with respect to the way it is evidenced within the United States, it is impossible to engage such a topic without realizing and appreciating the global ramifications that the increasingly interconnected world demonstrates. Within such a manner, global aspects of human trafficking will be discussed and engaged interchangeably with domestic concerns. The United Nations typically defines human trafficking as international organized transnational crime. For this very purpose, the United Nations reached an international agreement entitled The UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. specifically targeting trafficking protocol is one of the first major issues that must be engaged. With regards to the actual definition of human trafficking, this particular analysis will refer to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a means of defining the way in which the reader should approach the issue throughout the course of this analysis (Onuoha, 2011). As such, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights defines human trafficking as the following: …the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of the production, of fraud, a perception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or the giving up of receiving payments or benefits to achieve the consent that a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs

Dementia Treatment and Types

In addition to health issues, dementia causes world-wide economic challenges. The total cost reported in 2010 was $604 billion with 45% of the cost going to informal care, and another 40% of this cost going to formal social care (Chan, 2012, p. 2). These estimates are in high income countries, with another 15% going directly to medical costs. In countries that are considered lower income countries, the informal care costs are higher (Chan, 2012). The result of dementia for many families is devastating and difficult, especially when patients begin to lose their cognitive functioning. Most people are familiar with Alzheimer’s disease as a form of dementia and most of the public knows something about this disease. According to the Alzheimer’s Association (2012) states that one out of eight people, over the age of 65 have Alzheimer’s disease. Also, 5.4 million people in America have the disease with 200,000 people under the age of 65 having symptoms (Alzheimer’s Association, 2012). These statistics show that dementia is an important disease to study and to understand. Definition of Dementia Dementia is a word that is used to categorize several different types of cognitive impairments. Specifically, Dementia is an umbrella term describing a variety of diseases and conditions that develop when nerve cells in the brain die or no longer function normally (Alzheimer’s Association, 2012, p. 4). When these nerve cells do not function well, the individual’s cognitive reasoning and they begin to lose memory (Alzheimer’s Association, 2012). Many people are familiar with Alzheimer’s disease, but they may not be familiar with other types of dementia. Types of Dementia The following chart provides a list of the types of dementia and their characteristics: Type of Dementia Characteristics Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) Similar to Alzheimer’s but with problems sleeping, visual hallucinations, and rigid muscles that are like in Parkinson movements. Mixed dementia Can be seen like Alzheimer’s or other types of dementia. Sometimes there are more than one type of symptom that is seen, so one type of dementia may not be able to be diagnosed. Parkinson’s disease Many patients with Parkinson’s disease have problems with dementia as the disease progresses. Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) There are several types of dementia that are in this category. Many of them suggest that there are changes with the personality or behavior, and difficulty with their speech (language). Crutzfeldt-Jakob disease This is a fatal disorder that creates behavior change and also impairs a person’s coordination as well as their memory. Normal pressure hydrocephalus This individual will have difficulty walking and have memory loss. they will also have problems controlling urination. Alzheimer’s disease The most common type of dementia that is shown in 60 to 80% of diagnoses. The individual forgets names and recent events, may have apathy or depression, and may have confusion and can begin before signs of the disease are present. Vascular dementia Was called multi-infarct or post-stroke dementia and is not as common as Alzheimer’s. An individual may have impaired judgment or may have trouble making plans, but may not have memory loss. (Alzheimer’s Association, 2012) The challenge with dementia is that it can be a part of many different diseases as seen by this chart.


Gross domestic is one of the leading predictor of the economic size of the country and his significantly influence the financial market and economic cycles which would be useful in formulating business plan and target projections (Madura,2008,99). Good GDP figures indicate positive performance of the overall economy and vice versa. Inflation rate is a factor in price and cost of input factors and therefore significantly influences investment decision. It would therefore be imperative for the trader from Japan to analyze this factor in the context of US economy. Unemployment rate reflects the consumption level and living standard in general. In the event that unemployment in US is relatively high then this would send wrong signals for a better business future in the country. Considering the trend of the above mentioned factors in the past 12 months in the US, it would be easier to make informed decision in respect of viable engagement. … Positive GDP predicts better market response for any potential investor and it would therefore important for the Japanese investor to consider starting the venture. Nonfarm payroll employment over-the-month change, seasonally adjusted, April 2012–April 2013Month Data retrieved on May 10, 2013 from: Month Employment change Apr 2012 112,000 May 2012 125,000 Jun 2012 87,000 Jul 2012 153,000 Aug 2012 165,000 Sep 2012 138,000 Oct 2012 160,000 Nov 2012 247,000 Dec 2012 219,000 Jan 2013 148,000 Feb 2013 332,000 Mar 2013 138,000(p) Apr 2013 165,000(p) From the change of employment rate that can be observed above, it is important to note that the trend in unemployment has been steady and changes very insignificantly. However, the latest period running through March and April 2013 there is slight fall in this change and this means that level of income is still in the right track. It would therefore be viable for the Japanese lady to kick-start the business as the US future is bright except for small disturbances that are likely to arise from economic cycles. Unemployment is one of the most important indicators of the overall economic progress and this is clear from the socio-economic and political concepts that surround employment in the society (Madura, 2008, 99). When the rate of unemployment is fairly down, there is better business prospects in the country and this can be predicted to be working out for US from the data provided by the Federal bureau of statistics. Inflation data for Jan 2012 to March 2013 Retrieved on May 10, 2013: Year Jan Feb Mar

Research report on Australian financial services industry

The economic recession spiralled by the subprime crisis has called upon business organizations particularly banks and other financial institutions to ensure better risk management practices. It also calls for financial institutions to increase the level of compliance. These calls for a collective effort on the part of bankers, central bankers as well as policy makers to formulate policies that seek to ensure financial health and stability of these crucial institutions of the economy. The present study would analyse the financial institutions in Australia with regards to their structure and legal framework. Special emphasis would be given to the banking sector in the report that would also analyse the challenges faced by the Australian banks. Structure of Australian Financial Institutions The Australian financial services industry is divided into a total of nine distinct sectors which includes deposit based financial institutions like banks and other credit agencies, non deposit based financial firms, the central bank, asset investing firms like stock trading companies, pension and superannuation fund management companies, auxiliary firms like stock brokers, mortgage securities firms, life insurance, general insurance and finally the insurance broking companies. The financial sector contributes about 18 billion Australian dollars to the nation’s economy which equals almost 8 percent of the total GDP of the nation. The nation has a total of 30000 financial institutions which also provide employment opportunities to a significant share of the population of the nation that is being pegged at 700000 individuals which includes approximately 6.4 percent of the total workforce in Australia (IBSA, 2010, p.4, 6). Figure 1: Assets of the Financial Institutions in Australia (Source: Austrade, 2009, p.13) The figure above shows the total assets of the financial institutions in Australia as of the year 2009. According to the statistics shown in the figure the total assets of the financial institutions of the nation was 4431 billion Australian dollars. The compounded annual growth rate is being pegged at 11.8 percent starting from the year 1994. The financial institutions in Australia have also expanded their reach to across all the major and developing markets across the globe (Austrade, 2009, p.13). In terms of investment based funding assets the current value of the total assets in the nation is 541 billion AUD which is the fourth largest in the world. The figure is expected to grow to about 1979 billion AUD by the year 2015 (Austrade, 2009, p.16). Banking Industry in Australia As per the latest information from the Australian Reserve bank there are about 58 banks in the nation that includes 7 major banks, 7 local banks, 9 foreign banks incorporated in Australia and 35 foreign banks. The total cash and liquid assets including notes, deposits and coins apart from other liquid assets amounted to 3 percent of the total assets of residents in Australia. Trading and investment based securities accounted for 9.3 percent and 6 percent respectively. The loans and advances segment including all forms of loans extended to the retail as well as corporate houses in the nation amount to 62.2 percent. Other

Field Notes and Structured Interviews in Education Research

If field notes are accurate, detailed, relevant, descriptive and reflective at the same time, then they may be very advantageous as compared to audio or video recording transcriptions. The reflective part of field notes can inform us if the event was exclusive, extraordinary or frequent. That is, the researcher can very well tell us about the statistics regarding how distinctive the event was. He can tell this as he must have spent much time in the field as a scrutinizer recording specification of events. This task is not performed by audio and videotape recordings. Field notes can provide an overall view of the setting and the system depending on how deeply the researcher has observed. Video recordings can only give us a confined view of the scene due to the limitations of the camera lens range, states Fetterman (1998). It would take too much budget and human resources to arrange for multiple cameras. The range of human eyesight is always wider than that of the camera lens. Field notes do not require any special recording equipment with the need for attendants and trained professionals and this lessens down the research budget. Audio and video recordings require more resources and hence are at a loose edge this way. Field notes are at a disadvantage because audio and, especially, video recordings give us a complete picture of the whole setting under observation, people involved, activities taking place and the nature of these activities (Dufon 2002: 43). Field notes might give an unclear picture of the setting or the system because it requires great expertise in language and descriptive and reflective writing to make the field notes a crystal clear sense of the observation.

Paper_Literature Review

In giving statistics in support of these facts, Andrade and Evans (2009) discussed that the incoming international students and their guardians or parents contribute up to about USD 14.5 billion every year, towards supporting their living expenses during their stay. One benefit drawn from the inflow of Chinese learners into Canada, which cannot be overlooked, is the fact that they increase cultural diversity at the learning facility and in the classes, which adds value to education and enriches the academic environment (Olivia and Lee, 2006). Yoon and Portman (2004) noted that, despite the wide variety of facts on the advantages that they bring into Canada, Chinese students, like other international learners may face strains during their adjustment within the social fabric and the host environment. These strains emanate from language constraints, cultural differences and social behaviors. Despite the fact that a lot of information is available on the adjustment crisis facing this group, Olivia and Lee (2006) note that there is a need to integrate the statistics and the findings. For this reason, this literature review will explore the adjustment issues of these students, exposing the costs and the benefits of international learning at Canada. lastly, future inferences will be developed to demonstrate the outcomes of international learning. … Unlike social cultural adjustment, which refers to the ability of the learners to fit into the Canadian culture, psychological adjustment will cover emotional well-being also. Andrade and Evans (2009, p. 2) discuss that the Chinese learners at Canadian schools and campuses do not face problems that are unique to them. they also experience the problems experienced by Canadian students. However, Ward et al. (2008, p. 35) noted that, in addition to the problems experienced by their Canadian counterparts, they will also suffer from unique problems that could be traced to cultural differences, potential prejudices and language difficulties among others. For that reason, exploring the adjustment needs of Chinese students in Canada and the world at large can increase the information to facilitate student decision making and can improve the acculturation of the different students groups. Berry (1980) notes that, starting from the 1980s. research studies were commonly focused around the acculturation of international students and acculturative-related stresses, where focus was direction was directed towards the coping approaches adopted by international learners. The studies also entailed reviewing the experiences in adjusting to the different society, from a social point of view (Ward et al., 2008, p. 146). The change shows that there has been a change from viewing Chinese among other international student groups from a clinical to a development-related outlook. For these different reasons, irrespective of the expanding knowledge in the area, the need to synthesize and merge the inferences, as a way of further illuminating the available knowledge is necessary. Kwon, Y. (2009) and Swagler and

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome as Public Disease

One of the major epidemics that has affected millions of people around the world is AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). I believe that AIDS is the disease which holds vital importance for all of mankind. It is a disease which is brought into the body by the human immunodeficiency virus. This virus drastically reduces the natural immunity of the body and makes the patient susceptible to numerous infections.
One of the major reasons in my choosing this disease is the manner in which it spreads. Unfortunately, its spread is very directly linked with many of human being’s pleasures. Sex and drug abuse are phenomena which haunt even the most developed societies. To add to their unique challenges, HIV attaches itself with different modes of transmission. These modes range from many forms of sex (oral, vaginal etc) to use of contaminated needles. The virus also is transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and even breast milk can cause infection (Woodward, 104).
All these things create a very scary picture of the disease. AIDS is a disease that continues to spread in different parts of the world at an alarming rate. World Health Organization (WHO) comes up with frightening statistics every year which reveal that millions of people are killed every year due to AIDS. Tens of millions are affected by it and they live under a cloud of fear and shame. The region that seems to be most affected is the continent of Africa (WHO, 5).
People need to be informed about the importance of safe sex and marital faithfulness. There is no intention of limiting people’s sexual freedom but discretion and control should be practised. Another way of slowing down the spread of AIDS is through needle-exchange programs (Chiras, 276).&nbsp.

Inflations in UK

(Davies, 2012). The Inflation is stated as a percentage. For example if the CPI is 2%, it means that we now have to spend 2% more on the same goods and services than we were doing earlier. Consider the price of a Cinema Ticket. Suppose it was £10 last year and the CPI is 2%, this means we will now have to expend £10.2 for the tickets this year. (2% increase in price) (Davies, 2012)
CPI measures the changes in prices for Consumer goods and services only, whereas RPI includes mortgage costs taxes and interest payments. CPI accounts for consumer choice as well. It formulates that with a change in price, a consumer shall move to a cheaper alternative or go for a substitute product. For example, if the price of Tea increases too much for the liking of a consumer, he may opt to consume Coffee if it is available within his price range. The Government and Bank of England use CPI and RPI to fix interest rates, if inflation is expected to rise beyond a certain level, the Government may increase interest rates in order to curb inflation.
The Office of National Statistics (ONS) collects several prices of goods and services. It weighs how much we spend on the relative products every month and then these prices are combined to produce a composite index which is the Rate of Inflation.
The Inflation in UK in January 2014 was recorded at 1.9%, with the average Inflation between 1989 till January 2014 being 2.8%. It recorded a High of 8.5% in April 1991 and a low of 0.5% in May 2000. (Taborda, 2104)
The following table represents the history of Inflation in UK over the past decade. As we can see from this table, the highest Rate of Inflation was recorded in Sept. 2011 and Sept. 2008 at 5.2%, and the lowest at 1.1% in Oct. 2009 and March April Oct. of 2004.
As we can see from the 2 graphs, controlled inflation is good for the economy. The BOE has set the benchmark for controlled inflation at 2%. At

Forum 3 rape and sexual violence

Rape and Sexual Violence Research Paper Institute Introduction The history of women being raped during wars can be traced back tothe eleventh century and continues to paramount levels even today (Hagen &amp. Yohani, 2010). In a cultural perspective rape can be seen as expressive of the dominance, oppression and the inequality that women suffer (Hagen &amp. Yohani, 2010). During war rape is utilized as a tool of war against families and communities, used to tear them apart and inflict psychological damage to counter resistance (Hagen &amp. Yohani, 2010). The long-term consequences on the individual victim, and families make this crime the most violent war tool (Hagen &amp. Yohani, 2010).
Example of Rape during the Bosnian War
Inger Skjelsbaek (2006) in her research, narrates the story of a woman who was raped during the Bosnian war. Danira was raped during the war more than a hundred times over, she was raped by military personnel and by groups of them (Skjelsbaek, 2006). She states that they were never the same men and hated the Muslim women (Skjelsbaek, 2006). Danira asked them to kill her as she did not want to go back to her family after going through the ordeal (Skjelsbaek, 2006).
The Military personnel who raped her and many others with her, were not held accountable for the war crimes and did not undergo any punishment whatsoever. Despite the fact that rape is held prohibited under the ‘Geneva convention’. committing rape during war is a crime punishable by death or under the ‘Article 120 of the American Uniform Code of Military Justice’ the perpetrator can be imprisoned (Stuhldreher, 1994). Rape cases during war go unpunished due to two main reasons. first for not being reported and secondly for rape being treated as a war weapon (Swiss &amp. Giller, 1993. Keith, 1997).
Rape within Military Ranks
Recently female army personnel being raped by their colleagues or seniors has become an ‘occupational hazards’ with a drastic increase in the number of occurrences (Meleis, 2013). Statistics in the documentary ‘The Invisible War’, reveal that females serving in the military in the war zones of Iraq and Afghanistan are less likely to be killed in battle and more likely to be raped by a military colleague (Meleis, 2013). Almost 20, 000 people in service are each year raped or sexually assaulted and the victimizers manage to get away with it (Kitfield, 2012). In 2011, 883 cases in the marines and Navy were reported for sexual assault and for the army the number was 1,695 (Wilkinson &amp. Hirschkorn, 2013). Not only women but also men suffer at the hands of the sexual victimization. The number of men being treated for Military Sexual Trauma is above 40% (Wilkinson &amp. Hirschkorn, 2013).
Sexual assault can result in disciplinary action against the military personnel. They can result in monitory fines, suspensions or even a court martial (Wolf, 2012). But the rate of prosecutions in the military are extremely low, due to being not reported, discouraged to be reported and also non-action. It is estimated that 14% of people who experience a sexual assault report it and the rate of prosecution is even lower. 2011 saw a total of 3,192 cases of sexual assault reported, 1,518 were deemed suitable for disciplinary action. of which only 191 convictions in the form of court martial were seen (Wolf, 2012). No record of sex offenders in the military is kept that could lead to alerting the soldiers and reduce the number of cases. also pointing out that rape and sexual assault are not treated as a serious crime by the department of defence to be kept record of (Wolf, 2012).
Nonexistent Law Implementation against war time and war zone rape and sexual assault against the enemy indicate how lightly this violent and heinous crime is taken and is manipulated to harm the army. Which can sometimes give the officers and commanders the false impression and sense of security of not being accountable for such a crime and in turn leads to a high rate of rape and sexual assault against the soldiers (men and women) in ranks of the same forces.
Keith, S. (1997 March). Rape as a Weapon of War. Peacework, 270/9. Retrieved from
Kitfield, J. (2012). The Enemy Within. National Journal. [Electronic Version]. Retrieved on 7 May 2013 from
Kristine, H. &amp. Yohani, S. (2010 Dec.). The Nature and Psychological Consequences of War Rape for Individuals and Communities. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 2/2, 14 – 25. Retrieved from
Melesis, D. A. I. (2013). Rape within the Ranks. Dean Meleis. [Electronic Version]. Retrieved on 7 May 2013 from
Stuhldreher, K. (1994 March). State Rape: Representations of Rape in Viet Nam. The Vietnam Generation Big Book, 5/1-4. Retrieved from
Swiss, S. &amp. Giller, J. E. (1993 August 4). Rape as a Crime of War A Medical Perspective. The Journal of American Medical Association, 270/5, 612 – 615. Retrieved from
Wilkinson, M. A. &amp. Hirschkorn, P. 1998. Pentagon battling military rape ‘epidemic’. CBS News. [Electronic Version]. Retrieved on 7 May 2013 from
Wolf, N. (2012). A Culture of Cover-up: Rape in the ranks of the US military. Guardian. [Electronic Version]. Retrieved on 7 May 2013 from

Unemployment in UK

The history of unemployment in the UK tells that during Great Depression the rate of unemployment was very high in the country. It reached to the level of 25 percent but after that time, unemployment rate used to remain at a low level and with the help of different policies and strategies the government of the UK succeeded to attain more or less full employment level until the 1970s. However, after an oil prices fluctuation in the 1970s the unemployment rate was also badly affected and gradually it began to rise. The recent rise in the unemployment rate is highest during the last decade and the country is facing the worst situation with respect to unemployment crisis in the country (Pettinger, p2, 2009). The following table shows the United Kingdom unemployment rate during last three years and it is clearly seen in the table that unemployment rate is continuously increasing in the country with each passing year.
The recent statistics also show that the unemployment is recorded at the highest rate in last eight years. The rate of unemployment is rising at an alarming pace due to which the year 2009 is also expected as a stagnant year for the economy of United Kingdom. (Monaghan, p1, 2008) The country while responding towards the global financial crisis is witnessing worst situation of unemployment and there is a high level of concerns and worries at all level regarding the rise of the unemployment rate. The following chart shows the current situation of unemployment in the country that is expected to rise even more.
Unemployment is closely related with the economic development of a country. When an economy faces recessions, the rate of unemployment also increases. Thus, the economic recession is the major cause behind the high rate of unemployment in the UK and it is expected that if the UK will face deep economic recession in 2009 then the unemployment will also reach the level of 3 million.&nbsp.

Introduction to Emergency Planning and Operations

Running head: INTRODUCTION TO EMERGENCY PLANNING AND OPERATIONS Introduction to Emergency Planning and Operations Introduction to Emergency Planning and Operations
It is important for small businesses to develop Emergency Response Plans considering the social and economic impacts that disasters and setbacks can have on people’s livelihoods. Some of the most common emergencies that require a response plan for businesses include fires, bomb threats and medical emergencies.
Fire Emergency Response Plan
Fires are among the most frequent disasters in the US, ranking besides weather related and health related events (Poyzner, 2011). A fire Emergency Response Plan must avoid duplication of roles among the involved people and lack of clarity in the steps to be taken since this may cause confusion, inefficiency and even risk to lives. The plan should clearly define the personnel, facilities, procedures and communication channels and procedures to be undertaken, while at the same time being tiered to the National Response Framework (National Response Framework, 2009).
The Concept of Operations to be followed in case of a fire emergency is as follows. the first step is to evacuate everyone from the building and from the vicinity, gather them at fire assembly points and account for everyone, meanwhile, the fire brigade should be called. if it is safe (small fires), put out the fire using fire extinguishers and fire blankets. If the fire gets out of hand close the door and keep everyone away from it. When the fire brigade arrives it is important that they are informed of your involvement (Emergency Management Plan, 2008).
Bomb Threat Emergency Response Plan
The threat of terrorism is very much with us today, with statistics indicating that the bigger proportion of the population feel that the country is unsafe especially after the September 11 terrorist attacks (Bergen, 2011). It is thus imperative that even small businesses develop an Emergency Response Plan to counter bomb threat eventualities. Such a plan should not contain actions that will antagonize the caller, and at the same time actions that will create panic among the public since it will only make the operations difficult. The National Response Framework (2008) requires that the support and incidents annexes be followed in such a case.
In case one receives a call warning of a bomb placed in premises, the action plan should be as follows. keep the caller on the line as long as possible, attempting to write as much information as possible and ensure you inform the security department. ask questions such as the time set for explosion, appearance of the bomb, location, type of bomb and name of caller. avoid divulging the news to the public to prevent panic. in case of evacuation follow the right procedures. notify security about any suspicious packages (Bomb Threat, 2011).
Medical Emergency Response Plan
According to Poyzner (2011) medical related emergencies are at the top spot of all emergencies reported hence this is a critical issue for any organization. Some of the problems that may find their way into a medical emergency response plan include performing medical procedures by untrained individuals and raising alarm and panic. The response doctrine developed by the National Response Framework (2008) indicates that emergency measures should take into consideration tiered action, unified, efforts and engaged partnerships.
The correct course of action for a non-first aider is to stay away from the casualty and instead immediately seek for first aid help. In case of a life-threatening situation one should call for emergency services with an ambulance. Correct reporting of the situation once medical help arrives is important to ensure effective response (Emergency Management Plan, 2008).
Small businesses can undertake Emergency Response Plans that will make their premises much safer to operate in and visit. In all the emergency cases that might arise including fires, bomb threats or health related issues, the response plans should beware of integrating certain mistakes in their procedures. They should at all times also cooperate with the doctrines of the National Response Framework.
Bergen, P. (2011). The FP survey: Terrorism. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from
Bomb Threat. (2011). Bomb Threat (Code Purple) Risk Management (AS/NZS 4360). The University of Adelaide. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from
Emergency Management Plan. (2008). ‘Charles Darwin University’. no. 6.4.01. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from
National Response Framework. (2008). ‘Department of Homeland Security’. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from
Poyzner, M. (2011). ‘North America Disaster Timeline’. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from

Country cultures

28/09 Country cultures The work of Geert Hofstede continues to be analyzed in the manner in which he approached country cultures. According to Hofstede, “culture is a source of conflict than synergy. cultural differences are a nuisance at best and more of a disaster” (Hofstede 12). Organizations are turning their focus on global virtues in order to enhance teamwork among employees as a means of realizing success. Hofstede gathered and analyzed information from different cultures and made conclusions using similarities and differences which enabled him come up with the five dimensions of culture. He conducted his research amongst employees of IBM which he believed had a national representation of all cultures. In this discussion, I am going to discuss Hofstede’s approach to country cultures using his proposed model.
The diagram below illustrates a comparison of culture indicators of Canada and China as proposed by Hofstede.
First, there is the power or distance dimension. This dimension addresses the extent of inequality in the society and the level of acceptance in a community without power. In this dimension, when there is a high score of power/distance (PD) it implies that the community acknowledges unequal dispersion of power in the society and that people accept their placement as dictated by running systems. A low indication of PD sends signals that power is well distributed among members of a community and that people perceive themselves as equals. In relation to Canada, the PDI is approximately 40 according to Hofstede statistics. This is slightly lower than fifty percent implying that there is unequal distribution of power though not to a large extent. The PDI of China is 80 which indicate existence of high levels of unequal distribution of power compared to Canada.
The second indicator is Individualism (IDV) which refers to the level at which people maintain ties with others in the community. A big score of IDV implies that there is loose bonding among individuals in the community. In countries which are characterized by a high IDV, there is low indication of interpersonal connection among people and people shy away from sharing except for immediate family members and friends (Hofstede 101). A community that has got low IDV indicates that people have strong cohesion among themselves. I addition, people respect and value each other. Canada’s IDV index is placed at eighty percent which is high score. This is an indication that there exists loose bonding among people in Canada compared to countries like China which has a score of 20. This shows that bonding among Chinese people is high compared to Canadians.
Masculinity (MAS) is another index described by Hofstede which refers to the manner in which people in the community stick to and value customary roles of men and women. In countries that have a high score of MAS, men have the characteristic of toughness, bread winners and forceful in their decision making. On the other hand, low MAS imply that men and women share roles in all tasks without a limitation. Canada has a fifty percent score in MAS indicating that there is equal sharing of roles without limitation to female or male orientation. A score of fifty reveals that there could be some sectors of work that could be set aside either for men or women though it is not strongly followed. China’s MAS score is 70 which is slightly higher than Canada’s implying that people are more masculine than Canada and males are likely to succeed in their dealings compared to women.
Uncertainty/avoidance index (UAI) describes the extent to which members of the society get anxious when faced with complex situations. A high UAI implies that members of this society try to avoid uncertain situations using all the means possible. People strongly follow rules and orders which are set collectively. Low UAI means the differences are valued in the community and people have the liberty to discover what they think is the truth. Canada has a UAI of fifty percent indicating that there is a balance on what people believe is the common truth and what individuals think for themselves. China has a score of 30 which implies that people are freer to find their own truth compared to Canada.
The last dimension is the long term orientation (LTO) which refers to how members of the society place emphasis on what have been the long term traditional values compared to the short term values. Countries with high score of LTO indicate that people are committed to meeting societal obligations so as to avoid embarrassment. Canada has a low score of LTO (20%) which means that anything is expected from people in this society due to the freedom to express themselves and their ideologies. China has a score of approximately 120 which clearly shows that people are committed to meeting what the society demands of them which is not a big issue in Canada.
These dimensions do not illustrate individual behavior but the averages of a collective group of people. Hence, the scores should not be used to conclude the behavior of an individual person.
Works cited
Hofstede, Geert (2001). Cultures Consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Print.
Hofstede, Geert. Hofstede, Gert Jan (2005). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind (Revised and expanded 2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Print.


Health and social security of refugees and asylum seekers in UK Health and social security of refugees and asylum seekers in UK Refugees and asylum seekers are a diverse group of people that are subject to forced migration and have fled due to political instabilities in their countries (COSLA, 2007). They are victims of a wide range of problems due to their migration status. The United Kingdom provides them with a registration procedure, which helps them to enjoy rights equal to the other citizens. Prior to confirmation, the nation provides them with a temporary registration. In spite of these efforts of the government, there are some clear differences between the rights and responsibilities of the natives and those of the Asylum seekers. This essay compares the rights and responsibilities of Asylum seekers and adult U.K citizens in terms of health and social security.
The United Kingdom adult citizens exercise their rights and responsibility of contributing to the issues of health and social securities by voting and raising public opinions to the government. In contrast, the contribution of asylum seekers in these issues is minimal due to language barriers. The government tries to involve them by providing them with channels to communicate and give their decisions regarding the issues affecting them (NRIF, 2006: CRC, 2004). For instance, the ‘English for Speaker of other Languages’ program aimed at teaching English to this group of people (ISE, 2005: Ragu, 2008). This effort aims at improving their communication abilities so that they can be able to take up their rights and responsibilities.
All adult citizens of U.K. have an absolute right to the National Hospital Services (NHS), which includes free medical treatment and care. On the other hand, not all Refugees and Asylum seekers receive this facility (Aspinall &amp. Watters, 2010, p.23). Those asylum seekers who have not received permanent residence confirmation from the government cannot access this facility. They have access to the medical services but at their own cost (Palmer &amp. Ward, 2007). Those who have received confirmation enjoy national health services (NHS) without any payment (Crawley &amp. Crimes, 2009).
All adult citizens in U.K. have the right to register with a general practitioner of their choice free of charge. If a general practitioner cannot register them, he or she should give a substantial reason in writing to explain the cause (CIC, 2007). Contrary, refugees and asylum seekers may apply with general practitioners (Lee, 2006: Refugee Council, 2005). However, the general practitioners have the right to consider such applications and decide whether to accept them or reject them (CRC, 2004: Greenslade, 2005). In a research by Bhatia and Wallace (2007), it is clear that there are many barriers. In rare cases, they receive only a temporary registration (Aspinall &amp. Watters, 2010, p.20). For this reason, the asylum seekers cannot receive special medical care.
During pregnancy, adult female citizens have the right to access maternity services from midwives, general practitioners or even obstrecian based in hospital. Their cases are given immediate attention. On the other hand, asylum seekers face a lot of problems while trying to access these services. According to the law, the asylums seekers have the right to maternal care and antenatal services (Department of Health, 2007: Feldman, 2006). Nabb’s research (2006) proves that health sectors highly regard maternity care in the United Kingdom and that it is organized and efficient. However, access of these services by this minor group is a rough process due to social factors such as communication barriers (CHAI, 2005: Bhatia &amp. Wallace, 2007: Crawley and Crimes work 2009).
All adult citizens in the United Kingdom have a right and responsibility to work for their nation. After retirement, they get social security funds as a benefit. On the other hand, asylum seekers have the right to apply for jobs, but there are many obstacles to qualification (Lee, 2006). As a result, they cannot obtain any social security funds. This is the major cause of destitution of this minor group (Coventry Refugee Centre, 2004). In fact, poverty is always increasing amongst this group of people in the United Kingdom.
In summary, it is clear that the United Kingdom has in its best tried to defend the human rights and responsibilities of refugees and asylum seekers in their territory. They have strived to ensure that the gap between the adult citizens and these immigrants is minimal. However, there exist significant differences in these issues in that the adult citizens are more privileged than them. The whole integration process faces many challenges such as the existing language barrier, ignorance from refugees and failure in implementation of the law.
Aspinall, P. &amp. Watters, C., 2010. Refugees and asylum seekers. A review from an equality
and human rights perspective. Manchester: Spring publishers. Retrieved from.
Bhatia, R. &amp. Wallace, P. 2007. ‘Experiences of refugees and asylum seekers in General practice: A qualitative study’ Commission for Healthcare Audit and Inspection.
CHAI, 2005. Review of maternity services provided by North West London Hospitals NHS Trust. London: Healthcare Commission.
Commission on Integration &amp. Cohesion (CIC). 2007. Our Shared Future. London: Retrieved from :&lt. Convention of Scottish Local Authorities (COSLA). 2007. Asylum and Migration
Statistics. Retrieved from: Coventry Refugee Centre, 2004. Destitution and Asylum Seekers: A Human Rights Issue.
Coventry: Coventry Refugee Centre.
Crawley, H. A &amp. Crimes, T., 2009. Refugees living in Wales: A survey of skills,
Coventry Refugee Centre, 2004.Destitution and Asylum Seekers: A Human Rights Issue.
Coventry: Coventry Refugee Centre.
Department of Health, 2007.Human Rights in Healthcare – A Framework for Local Action.
London: Department of Health and The British Institute of Human Rights.
Feldman, R. 2006. ‘Primary health care for refugees and asylum seekers: A review
of the literature and a framework for services’. Public Health
Greenslade, R. 2005. Seeking Scapegoats: the coverage of asylum in the UK press. Asylum and Migration Working Paper 5. London: Institute for Public Policy Research.
ISE, 2005. National Statutory Context for ESOL Delivery for Asylum Seekers. Aspire
Partnership. Retrieved from:
Nabb, J. 2006. Pregnant asylum seekers: perceptions of maternity service provision.
Evidence-Based Midwifery.
National Refugee Integration Forum. 2006. Rebuilding Lives – Groundwork: Progress
report on refugee employment. Home Office.
Newbigging, K &amp. Nigel T. 2010. Good practice in social care with refugees and asylum seekers. Britain. Social care Institute of Excellence. Retrieved from:
Lee, J. 2006. Social Exclusion, Refugee Integration, and the Right to Work for
Asylum Seekers. Refugee Council. Retrieved from: Palmer, D. &amp. Ward, K. 2007. ‘Lost”: listening to the voices and mental health needs of
for advisers. London: Metropolitan University.
RAGU. 2008. Refugees &amp. asylum seekers: An education, training and employment guide
for advisers. London: Metropolitan University.
Refugee Council. 2005. Tell it like it is: The truth about asylum. Retrieved from:
Ward, K. &amp. Lagnado, J. 2008. Supporting disabled refugees and asylum seekers: opportunities for new approaches. London: Metropolitan Support Trust.

Article critique

Democracy in the current world is spreading very fast even entering into the countries that was against it in the past like china and Serbia, but Arab countries have refused to accept democracy. The Arab leaders have continued with their dictatorship even as many countries accept democracies. Most of this Arab leaders gain power through killing their predecessors and they end up running the risk of being eliminated also. For example, leaders like Gamal Nasser, Anwar Sadat, and King Hassan II gain power through violence and once in power they have all escaped several assassination and Sadat end up being a victim. In countries where democracies has taken root, fighting for power has been replaced by voting, but in Arab countries that has embrace democracy, elections are always ricked by the dictators and make the people believe that they have won. In Arab countries where democracy does not exist, they believe that democracy is not compatible with the Islam religion. The democracy that exists in some few Arab countries that believe in democracy is just a theory but it is not there in practical. Corruption and dictatorship goes together since in their institution, promotion is provided only for the rich, highest ranking and best paid jobs are offered to few known individuals who are loyal to their leader.
Tunisia and morocco are well known in human rights violation. For instance, in a human rights meeting that was held in Tunisia, morocco deny the human rights watchdogs to attend the meetings by confiscating they passports. Those who want to speak out about dictatorship in Tunisia have been discredited and dishonored and if you come up with a slight diversion of opinion against the government you will be disposed. The people’s brains have thus been weakened, emptied of all principles, thoughts and desires. The intellectuals who remain defiant from the rules are silence in the name of respecting Islamic culture. These governments set up good government structures operating under different designations, this will be used to filter all what is heard, seen, read, and written within the country.
These dictators view information as an enemy, all information coming from abroad into the country through internet are censored. Some like Saudi Arabia have resorted to limiting the number of internet subscribers, Iraq and Libya are not connected to the World Wide Web, and Syria which was connected has blocked the site. These dictators use power to enrich themselves leaving the population poor, according to the recent statistics on the 10 wealthiest head of states, 7 out of 10 was found to be Arab leaders. Even with the current financial crisis they continue to enrich themselves. Research has shown that corruption gave rise to Islamism in Arabia, Saudi Arabia and Algeria. Due to how they handle leadership, they feel so in secured such that they spend billions of money in buying military weapons, they also get involved in purchases deals such that for any purchase of military weapons, the royal family receive 30-40% commission, for example, a country like France spend 4% of their GDP in the military while Saudi Arabia spend 30% of their GDP in military. These dictators believe all the laws are in their side. Though repression, every citizen have been made to applaud the leader. When these countries gain independence, the people were told that they are now citizens not the subjects, this caused a stir in mid 20th century, but these were not to be due to dictatorship. Most of these countries relies on food from foreign countries. Those with money invest abroad hence they end up exporting work and importing unemployment.

Information Management and Statistics Component A

This paper discusses how chase bank manages their data so as not to hurt their dear customers in the human resources department. It also deals with how the organizations gears towards tight security for their customers’ information from online data warfare which has been growing each day. Further, it will review the ethical issues involved when there is data loss of any magnitude. In addition, this paper will evaluate the laws and the set regulations which are aimed at protecting organizations, and in particular banks, from this menace.
Electronic commerce depends entirely data and its security which emanates from how it is managed in the organization and the way customers perceive the organization as far as the issue of data security is concerned (Agnes, G.M 2004). Personal data held by chase bank is under threat from many unauthorized users and their numbers have been rising daily. Credit cards data, identity card numbers, account number as well as social security card numbers are some of the forms data which is most targeted. In this regard, the human resources department has come up with some procedures to manage data and to provide the needed security.
First, it is the obligation of the human resources department to ensure that only the well qualified are employed and allowed to see customer’s data. In chase bank, the human resources department uses databases in the management of data about there employees and about customers. The use of a database is an effective way of storing data about a certain aspect at once. Databases in the bank allows for instant changes in the data thus affecting the whole database and not just changing file by file. The database is administered by an expert who engineered it. he has become part of the data management team. Further, through the IT department, the human resources

Flaws of the Employment System in the United States

The white settlers adopted superiority complex hence crediting them with civilizing them. The false notion came to be known as the white man’s burden. It was used to justify Europeans taking land away and enslaving the natives. This became a system of exploitation and discrimination as naturally-occurring differences became apparent. It became a system of denying people access to rights, representation or access to resources as it was institutionalized to affect virtually every aspect of life even the judicial system.
Though progress has been made in the eradication of racial discrimination in employment, there is still some ground to be covered in eradicating the rampant prejudice. The situation is worsened by the statistics that are still a characteristic of modern day America which show that black people who have been arrested, charged or served a jail term can hardly get employment. The statistics show that one in every three black men has to be incarcerated in their lifetime, one in six Latino and one in seventeen Caucasian men. Disciplinary actions still are harsher for the black comparatively. The immigrants’ rights are not guaranteed as natives while per capita employment levels comparatively show that blacks are four-times less employable than the whites (“American Law Reports: Annotations and Cases” 115).
Most of the big companies as is presently constituted in its ranks show that the majority of top management is white-dominated. Even if, there is an equal opportunity in hiring upward mobility is still a problem as most of the blacks remain in the same position for long a time. On the contrary, the white counterparts are being promoted to take positions of responsibility. They are segregated into the lowest level positions and still earn less than the white counterparts even if they are in the same job cadre.

Why is prison overcrowding a growing concern in the US

The challenge is costing tax payers more money, in US, there are many people behind bars than any other country in the world.
According to current statistics by Wagner and Sakala (2014), it is estimated that between 1.4 million to 2 million people in US are in prison. The numbers of people released in jails inclusive of local jails are approximately 688,000. Collection of all information provides a clear perspective of number of prisoners in United States. According to the authors, the U.S. hold 2.4 million people in all states prisons including 1719 states prisons, 2259 juvenile correctional centers, 79 Indian jails, 102 federal confinements, military, immigration and civil confinements. Crowding of correctional facilities is quite significant to prisoners, tax payers and the officials working in confinement centers. An analysis of the topic is important, measures taken to correct problems arising from crowding or overcrowding of state prison can only be done by a study of the topic. This makes it quite significant to every citizen in US. They provide views on how to tackle such difficulties.
The crowding effect in US correctional facilities started in early the 1980s due to an increase in criminal activities such as drug use. The war on drugs with tough policies increased the number of inmates in the U.S. Research shows that the U.S. has the highest number of inmates in the world. they are currently higher than prisoners held in Russian and South Africa. Prisons in the southern part of the United States have more inmates that any other region. The state of Alabama contains the highest number of prisoners than any other state. Despite the highest number of prisoners held in Alabama, they also have small number of staff. However, federal prisons in the U.S. saw a decline in the number of admission of prisoners in 2009. There was an increase of prisoners by 430%, which saw the number of prisoners rising from 294,000 to

System Thinking/Soft Systems (PROPERTY PRICES)

are some of the major causes of the unstable rise in the prices of property in Britain.
With a support from the current macro – economic growth which has been some what remarkable in the past year as the GDP had an interminable growth in the year 2006 (OECD Economic Outlook, 2006) also supported by a perpetual rise in the investment and an auxiliary rise in the consumption (OECD Economic Outlook, 2006).
This constant growth in the property prices also has its drawbacks. some of these drawbacks are incompetency regarding property purchase and loath for having kids. The demand for housing has also increased tremendously due to the increasing net immigration figures estimated between 250,000 to 400,000 concluded on basis of figures available for each of the years ranging from 1997 – 2007 (Office for National Statistics, 2007)
New Immigrants that move to the U.K., the figures of new net immigrants is estimated at about 250,000 to 400,000 concluded on basis of figures available for each of the years ranging from 1997 – 2007 (Office for National Statistics, 2007)
Divorced couples: Once a couple gets divorced one of them will have to move out and search for a new home, but the good news is that in the year 2005 – 2006 the divorce rates were down by about 4.5 % (National Statistics “U.K.”,2006) , which if remained constant may not decrease but slow down the property boom.
The instability in the property prices usually arises due to sudden demand or supply in the property which are normally caused by change in the figures pertaining to net immigrants, divorce rates and death rates. This is the reason to why the property prices in various different areas of the U.K. have such a huge amount of variation.
Net immigration cannot be stopped as under most circumstances the immigration is also necessary for the development of the country due to the fact that major companies extract good

Violence in Families

VIOLENCE IN FAMILIES The debate on gender-based violence has been raging across the world and women have felt the brunt of it more than men. There have been significantly high reported and unreported cases of women experiencing abusive marital relationships. One question that has been asked for critical research by scholars is the reasons women either stay or leave an abusive relationship. Research findings and factual evidence which is supported with statistics gives an insight into the diverse reasons that make women cling to their marriages despite frequent battering and emotional abuse by the partners (Zinn, Eitzen &amp. Wells,2011). A critical evaluation of an article Why women stay in abusive relationships: Facing the stigma by Hope Gillette dated Jun 20, 2013. it is notable that this is a complex problem. The structure of the society in regard to gender roles plays a centre stage in this issue. Statistical analysis awards over 70% to expectation of the abused women that the husbands will probably change. This is a great motivational factor that ties the woman to the husband despite battering (Hope, 2013). This concept explores the complex socio-economic twist in which women find themselves despite regular violence they suffer in the hands of their partners. The article also emphasizes love and the socio-economic insecurity which is likely to characterize leaving the relationship. Although there are many other factors, the article and other texts explore the stigma of abusive husbands.
To mitigate this social challenge in the modern society, there is need to offer counseling as the ignorance and conservative culture among womenfolk has been the main obstacle. To measure the level of understanding in as far as the vice is concerned, the researcher must underscore the existing statistics and observed behavior among the children and women who are likely to be experiencing the problem. A mixed intervention between counselors and strict legal structure would significantly help women against the widespread abusive husbands as the article stipulates.
Hope Gillette (2013).Why women stay in abusive relationships: Facing the stigma.Saludify.
Retrieved on 20th June 20, 2014 from:
Zinn, M. B., Eitzen, D. S., &amp. Wells, B. (2011). Diversity in families. Boston: Allyn &amp. Bacon.

Affects of Poor Nutrition on Childrens Behavior

In 2003, Africa had an estimated 200 million children and adults that were under nourished according to the Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations (The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2003). Malnutrition is the reason for 55% deaths of children under 5 years of age globally. Out of 2.9 million deaths annually in Africa, approximately 0.1 million were as a result of malnourishment (Benson &amp. Shekar). Several statistics are available that show the severity of poor nourishment and to what extent is it prevalent in the world today.
According to UNICEF, millions of people Worldwide suffer from varying degrees of brain damages and stunted growth due to different deficiencies. In Sub-Saharan Africa, every third child is underweight and about 20% are found to be stunted (Bekele, 1998).
According to research, proper nutrition is a major determinant of a child’s growth starting from as early as the intrauterine period. when the child is in the womb of the mother. Therefore, proper intake of nutrients begins before birth with the mother who bears the child. It is essential for the mother to take a nutritionally balanced diet which has a direct impact on the child’s growth and development. Absence of proper nutrition intake during pregnancy can have a permanent and irreversible impact on the child. Therefore, breast- feeding determines a major chunk of child’s cognitive and other development per se. If the mother herself does not take a healthy diet, it is going to effect the child’s growth negatively. Iron being an important part of brain tissue determines the speed of nerve impulses. which means deficiency of iron in the infancy period is likely to cause permanent damage to brain cells. This results in poor motor skills and abnormalities in behavior. It is also noticed that poorly nourished children find it hard to fight diseases or infections and so they are often found in poor health and

Saudi Arabia profile

Saudi Arabia profile Saudi Arabia profile (Maps related to Saudi Arabia, n. d) Saudi Arabia is not only one of the major countries in Middle East, but also a prominent member of Arab world or Islamic world. Saudi has a land area of 2.15 million Sq. kilometers and a population of over 28.7 million as per the UN statistics 2010. More than 7 million of the Saudi population is foreigners. The population growth rate is Saudi is around 1.8%. More than 90% of the Saudi population are Muslims and Arabic is the official language (Saudi Arabia, 2011). Riyadh is the capital and most heavily populated city in Saudi with a population of 4.3 million followed by Jeddah (3.4 million), Makkah, (1.6 million), and Dammam (1.6 million). As in the case of many other Middle Eastern countries, majority of the land area are deserts with some rugged mountains in the southwest. Hot and humid climatic conditions prevail in Saudi throughout a year with an exception of only few months.
78.8% literacy is reported in Saudi as per the 2010 statistics. Saudi males are more literate (84.7%) than Saudi females (70.8%). Infant mortality rate is 11.57 deaths/1,000 live births according to the 2010 statistics. Women dominate in life expectancy rates in Saudi with 78 years against 74 years of the males.
More than 35% of the Saudi workforce are from foreign countries and service sector is the major revenue source in Saudi (63%) followed by industry (25%) and agriculture (12%). 2010 statistics show that GDP of Saudi is $623 billion and annual growth rate is 3.8%. Per capita of Saudi population is one among the bests in the world with an attractive figure of $24,200.
Gold and oil are the major natural resources or revenue sources of Saudi. Before the discovery of oil sources in Middle East, gold mining and fishing were some of the major revenue sources of Saudi. Hydrocarbons, uranium, coal, phosphate, and tungsten are some other natural resources of Saudi Arabia.
Surface water sources provide 10% of the Saudi’s drinking needs whereas 84% provides by ground water sources. Desalinated seawater not only used for the drinking needs (5%), but also for generating electric power. Even though the climatic conditions are not so good for agriculture, dates, grains and vegetables are cultivated at some parts of Saudi Arabia.
As in the case of majority of the other Middle Eastern countries, export of petroleum products is the major revenue source of Saudi Arabia. Petroleum and petroleum products export of Saudi worth around $253 billion whereas its imports (manufactured goods, transportation equipment, clothing and textiles, processed food products) worth only $99 billion. In other words, Saudi’s imports are very small compared to its exports which underline the major reason for Saudi’s rapid progress. In short, oil accounts for more than 90% of the countrys exports and nearly 75% of government revenues and more than 95% of all Saudi oil is produced on behalf of the Saudi Government organization. Saudi ARAMCO.
Saudi’s social culture is undergoing severe criticism from the westerners now because of some of the controversial laws with respect to religious freedom and women activities. No Muslim can accept conversion to another religion in Saudi and it is illegal to spread any other religion in Saudi. Because of the domination of religion in politics and social life, Saudi females forced to limit their activities within their home. Two of the most sacred places of Islam. Makkah and Madina are situated in Saudi Arabia.
Maps related to Saudi Arabia, (n. d). Retrieved from
Saudi Arabia, (2011). Retrieved from

National Database for Police Killings

When I attempted to search the internet for the number of civilians killed yearly by the police, I realized that there were no official or valid statistics. Presently, I believe that this could be because police departments do not want this information released and this may also have influenced the media.
I only became aware of this lack of reporting on civilian deaths at the hands of police after the shooting of Michael Brown and yet, reading some news reports made me realize that the issue of a national database for police shootings has been ongoing for some time. Why, then, is there such a dearth of information on these deaths in mainstream media. From the media sources that I analyzed, the most prevalent repetitions were "justifiable homicides" and lack of a database to track all civilian deaths at the hands of the police. For example, Lowery (p.1) in the Washington Post notes that there were at 461 "justifiable homicides" carried out by the police, which he defines as the killing of felons by police when on duty, while he also notes that no one knows for sure how many civilians are killed overall by the police.
On, the writer also notes that that the only police killings that are reported are those that the police consider justifiable, in this case noting that only those instances that can be justified before juries are reported both by the police and the media (Markus 1). Moreover, this story also mentions the absolute lack of reporting on the number of civilian deaths at the hands of the lethal police force. Indeed, most of the reports about the issue of police shooting keep repeating the same thing. that the death of civilians at the hands of police is grossly underreported both by police databases and by the media as well. Benzkofer (p.1) in the Chicago Tribune also covers the same issue and repeats that reports on civilian deaths are completely lacking in the media, which, again, mostly covers the case when the killing of a civilian is justified. He adds that Chicago had a police censor who ruled over the media with an iron fist to ensure that they did not report "damaging" reports about civilian deaths at the hands of the police.

The Economic Causes of the Current Level of Unemployment in the UK

The level of unemployment varies with economic conditions and other circumstances” ( From a European perspective, unemployment is “A measurement reflecting the number of people actively looking for, but unable to find work” We can say that unemployment is normally limited to the wage economy. It is a situation when there is no work to do, neither in paid employment nor in self-employment to be done for profit and livelihood. In official statistics, an unemployed person is one who is ready to take employment when offered and is searching for it.

Measuring unemployment is not easy. generally, it is taken as the workforce ready to work at the offered wage rate. Defining a term and making computations are two different concepts. A number of methods have been formulated to measure unemployment.

The method of Claimant Count has been in use in the 1980s and 1990s. It is based on the counting of unemployed persons, availing benefits of remaining without a job. Those claiming benefits and those registered in employment exchanges should be counted carefully to avoid double counting. The method of claimant count has its own benefits and limitations. First, it is possible to count all those who are unemployed. there is no scope of committing an error in counting. Secondly, it is a cost-effective and recurrent resource for gathering data (

The Labor Force Survey takes into consideration samples of households, asking all people of work age to provide the data whether they are employed, unemployed or economic activity. This data is computed to know the exact number of unemployed, employed and underemployed. The biggest advantage of this computation method is that it adheres to global computing parameters. Statistically, it is possible to compare data among countries and different time periods (

Cyclical unemployment is due to a lack of demand for all those who want to work. Keynesian economists stressed specifically on this type of unemployment arising from disequilibrium in the economy.

Critical Reflection on the Use and Understanding of SEN Data

Thankfully, SEN is very well-regulated in English law and every child – including those in independent schools – is covered equally”(Summersgill, 2009). Data are used to analyze and monitor the academic, social and behavioral progress of these children with special needs. It is a basic component of special education and it is necessary to measure the effectiveness of therapies applied to the student with special needs. SEN Data is an important aspect of the educational process. There are various ways a co-coordinator can collect data to assess the progress of the students. One type of data is student performance data in which data comprise information on individual students. They include information on school previously attended, courses are taken, scores attained, current classroom assessments, grades, diagnostic assessment, programs enrolled in, participation in projects and extracurricular activities of the students, etc. The program for special educational needs is conducted in schools at all levels. SENCO approaches schools and collect data and study them exclusively to benefit the students.

Data is a very crucial element in the Special Education Need program. It allows the student performance appraisal and assists in the progression of the educational standard of the student.“Data are raw ingredients from which statistics are created”(Erickson).Data are produced and collected in various ways and also used by different parties like teachers, SEN coordinators, and Government officials. Teachers analyze the data in order to improve the learning capacity of the students. The primary subject of data is dominating student and their learning process.

Even though students are the focus of the process it also includes people who support students in the learning process. These are teachers, principals, parents, school management, school communities, etc. The sources of data can be various like simple observations, questionnaires or surveys.

The Rental Apartment Agency Industry

In addition to apartment rentals, we will be providing additional services, which will not be considered our main services, such as car or limo rentals, student admission, translations, and immigration attorneys. We will be targeting people who are coming from the Middle East to start with, then we might expand the business to target a larger segment in the future. You can find more information about targeting and segmentation in the Segmentation section.
According to the reports for the Texas medical centers, “The Texas Medical Center is the largest medical center in the world with one of the highest densities of clinical facilities for patient care, basic science. The Texas Medical Center receives 160,000 daily visitors and over six million annual patient visits, including over 18,000 international patients.”
These visitors would definitely need to find the right one or two-bedroom apartments to stay in. We conducted a site survey. Our sample was not too big, 50 Middle Eastern patients and 10 students, and we found the following results:
The demand for this service is increasing every year. More patients and students from the Middle East are coming to Houston as mentioned previously because it has some of the best hospitals and schools in the world. The following figures show statistics about the number of patients’ families who come to Houston from Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the Emirate and Kuwait who we managed to get from the consulates and the medical attaches offices.
On the other hand, the supply is not great. There are very few new firms that enter this industry. Those who already exist are not providing good quality service or customer service, and they are met with too many complaints to be successful. Also, there is no single firm who can provide all of the many services that we are providing. (More information about competitors can be found in the Competitors section.)

“Proctor &amp

Gamble" Proctor &amp. Gamble Compared to FY the performance of Proctor and Gamble in FY is better. The total revenue of P &amp. G was 84167 million dollars whereas in 2012, it was 83680 million dollars. The net income or profit of P &amp. G in FY 2013 was 41739 whereas that in 2012 was 41780 million dollars (Stock analysis on net). From the above statistics, it is evident that the future of the company is promising. However, it is necessary for the company to expand its business more in emerging markets such as India and China. It should be noted that these two countries are the most rapidly emerging economies as well as the most heavily populated countries at the moment. Both top and bottom line products suitable for these counties should be developed more by P &amp. G. The company should think about merger and acquisition strategies to create new business in these countries.
P&amp.G has 300 plus brands sold in more than 180 countries at the moment. Even though majority of these brands are performing well, some of them are performing below par. The company has 22 billion-dollar brands and 19 half-billion-dollar brands (P &amp. G Media kit, p.4). 70 to 80 brands account for 90 percent of P&amp.G sales and 95 percent of its profit (Monk). In other words, around 100 brands perform insignificantly for P &amp. G. P &amp. G believes that the time and efforts given for the sustainment of these underperforming brands can be better utilized for the development of better performing brands. In my opinion, P &amp. G’s strategy will be successful since the closure or the restructuring of underperforming brands would help the company to allocate more resources to the better performing brands and thereby monopolize concerned markets. Therefore, investors need not worry too much about the brand restructuring strategies of P&amp. G.
A.G. Lafley is the Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer of Procter &amp. Gamble. It is believed that Lafley was rehired mainly because of the inefficiency of Robert McDonald, the predecessor of Lafley. Under the leadership of McDonald, the company failed to win in emerging markets because of its poor organizational structure, marketing problems, and bloated overhead (Nisen). Lafley on the other hand is believed to be an expert in increasing company value through various strategies. His leadership style is highly motivating and his business principles are highly effective in modern day market. His book “playing to win” helps organizational leaders to learn some important lessons about the importance of every day actions, and strategies built around business elements that are capable of bringing success. This book helps leaders to understand where to play and how to win in tough situations (Lafley and Martin)
P &amp. G’s hiring process consists of total assessment of the applicants with the help of sound resume screening, multiple interviews, and multiple tests. The ultimate aim of the hiring process is to identify the best talents from the employment market (Hiring process, your steps to success, p.2). The company conducts many behaviour based interviews to get more insights about the candidate. These interviews will test the behaviour as well as the skills and capabilities of the candidates. Numerical reasoning test is conducted with the help of numeric and logic based questions among college students in order to identify their reasoning skills. It is important for me to improve my verbal as well as nonverbal communication skills to be considered a serious candidate at P&amp.G. It is believed that more than half of the actual message is communicated through nonverbal means. Moreover, nonverbal means of communication helps the interviewer to assess the behaviour of the candidates properly. Therefore, I should improve my communication, especially the nonverbal communication skills more to get a job in P &amp. G.
The major advantage of working at P &amp. G is the prestige it gives to an employee. Even though the work climate could be demanding, employees in P &amp. G is getting a decent salary and other benefits. I believe that I will not get enough opportunities for work life balancing while working in a big company like P &amp. G. At the same time, the experiences received from a company like P &amp. G would definitely help me in my future endeavours.
Works Cited
“Hiring Process, Your Steps To Success”. Web. 28 October 2014
Lafley A.G. and Martin, Roger L. “Playing to Win: How Strategy Really Works”. Publisher: Harvard Business Review Press (5 February 2013). Print
Monk, Dan. “Procter &amp. Gamble Co. (PG) Plans Major Restructuring Of Its Brand Portfolio”. Web. 28 October 2014.
Nisen, Max. “Heres Why Wall Street Loves The Return Of P&amp.Gs Old CEO”. Web. 28 October 2014.
“P &amp. G Media Kit”. Web. 28 October 2014.
Stock analysis on net. “Procter &amp. Gamble Co. (PG)”. Web. 28 October 2014.

Female Circumcision

e statistics are very important because they show the prevalence of FGM worldwide. they reveal that the fight against FGM must be waged more fiercely because it is far from over. In Kenya, for example, 38% of women have been subjected to some kind of FGM. in some parts of the country (like Kisii) this figure rises to 97% (Wangila 27).
Female circumcision and the removal of female genitalia are thought to be almost 2,000 years old (Female genital mutilation: report of a WHO Technical Working Group, Geneva, 17-19 July 1995 103). In fact, some scholars speculate that it may even be older than Islam. Its exact beginnings have not been properly documented, but there is no dispute that it has been around for centuries. FGM basically involves the intentional alteration or causal of injury to parts of the female genitalia out of reasons that have no medical basis whatsoever.
In the Islamic world, female circumcision is less prevalent (compared to Africa) and is limited to certain communities that try to justify it by employing the Quran. Among Jews, it has only been documented as practiced by Ethiopian Jews (Falasha), but currently it is also limited among them (Gruenbaum 93). Currently, there are few (if any) known religious sects that advocate for female circumcision anywhere in the world.
This involves the forceful reduction in size (or narrowing) of the vaginal opening by creating some kind of seal to cover it (Female genital mutilation 1). This seal is created by excising and adjusting the position of the outer, or inner, labia, with or without necessarily removing the clitoris.
Apart from these three procedures, there are others that are not usually classified as circumcision but also involve alteration or causal of injury to female genitalia. These include (but are not limited to) piercing, cauterizing, scraping, pricking and incising the genital area.
Female circumcision can leave a girl scarred for life. The procedure is often carried out without sedation and

I don’t have a topic yet

The second chapter describes the thesis objectives, methodology and the formulated hypothesis. The third chapter presents a review literature on agriculture in Ghana and historical trends of data mining. The fourth chapter presents the analytical part of this thesis. The fifth chapter constitutes the results and discussions pertaining to this project. Chapter six contains the conclusion and finally, chapter seven contains the list of references used in this thesis.
Data mining refers to the analysis of data to discover the hidden patterns through the use of hidden methodologies. Though the concept has been in place for quite a long time, it only became more prevalent after the advent of larger data sets inside organizations. Big data sets resulted into explosion in the utilization of extensive data mining techniques because of the increasing variation and size of the nature and content of the stored information. From the larger data sets, obtaining simple and straightforward statistics from the system under use will never suffice in good decision making hence the need for discovery of the hidden patterns.
The present economy is increasingly becoming information based. This state has brought about changes in the operation environment for businesses or organizations. Consequently, it has also changed the manner of collection and analysis of business data. Bearing in mind the widespread embracement of information technology, a greater percentage of data is collected in the online and real time environments that bring forth large volumes of data. Experts can be in a position of aggregating such time ordered data using a desirable time interval, producing great volumes of time series data that is equally spaced. The data can then be explored followed by analysis through the use of multiple important tools or methodologies that are developed using modernized time series analysis.
The storage or

A Plague Upon Us

The root cause of these diseases is necessary to be found and eradicated to avoid the emergence of an epidemic in other parts of the world.
An epidemiological study is required to find out the characteristics of the epidemic in the African region. First of all, it is very important to identify the primary case and find out where the disease started. This can be done by studying the epidemiological statistics of the affected areas such as the number of people affected and the mortality rate. Also, it very important here to understand the Ice Berg phenomenon which helps identify cases with no signs and symptoms. It is also important to identify those at risk e.g. family, close relatives and those who have been in contact with the affected patients. It is important to identify the causative agent of the disease, find out its incubation period and quarantine those at risk at least for the incubation period of the disease.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Media Event

PART I: The Best Kept Secrets Movie The Best Kept Secrets chronicles the efforts of a heroic woman called Janet Mino, a special education teacher who has devoted her entire career to working with students with special needs. It is set in the John F. Kennedy School, in Newark, a school for students with special needs. This movie begins with the arrays of sobering statistics that Newark is the poorest city in the US and one in every forty nine children have special education needs as a result of living with autism. It features the efforts of Mino, their teacher with twenty years in the field, to help the male children to be independent after school. Her main objective is to find them suitable jobs or protective environment after graduation. This is to prevent them from landing in the streets.
The director of this movie, Samantha Buck, demonstrates sensitivity in a dramatic way to those students with special needs as the camera keys rove in on Mimo’s reactions. Ms. Mimo is the star and a protagonist with a bright face that does not hide anything as she focuses on the audience’s emotions. The camera lingers on the students who have grown with frustrating experiences longer than comfort. The “Best Kept Secret” film is exemplary in the sense that, it never seeks to hide any truth from the framework of the narrative.

Special Education Laws and Special Education Court Cases
This section will explore two Special Education Laws websites, and two special education court previous cases. The first website is ( This website explores various cases from the U.S Supreme Court, Courts of Appeals, District Courts, and Noteworthy Cases.
The first case mentioned in this website is the case of U.S Department of Justice Verses Day Care Centre in Oklahoma. The case was filed with the U.S Department of Justice. The statement of the case alleged that, the Camelot denied the person the right to participate in field trips, hence violating the Americans with Disabilities Act. The case was settled on the November 27th, 2013, the child in question, with Down Syndrome and toileting issues. The court ruled that, Camelot shall not discriminate any child on the grounds of disability. This includes full participation and enjoyment of goods, services, privileges, advantages and accommodation.
The second website is the special education ( The case was heard by the Supreme Court. The case was between the Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson Central School District verses Rowley, 458 United States. 176. The school district had decided to find an interpreter for Amy Rowley, who was a bright student, but deaf. After the parents lost the case in the District Court, they finally won the in the U. S Court of Appeals. The Supreme Court provided the disabled children with access to public schools.
Work Cited
“Special Education Caselaw”. Wrightslaw. 7 July, 2013. Web. 5 January 2014.
“Special education Advisor”. Brief History of Special Education Court Cases. 2010. Web. 5 January 2014.

The Concept of Total Quality Management

One example of such organizations with ideal TQM environments was Xerox under the leadership of David Kearns, who served as its CEO from 1982 to 1990. What Kearns did for the downward spiraling company became a landmark in the history of quality management. Henceforth, this essay will endeavor to examine Kearns’ role as a quality leader in Xerox, his management approach and the applicability and certain processes of such approach, and finally, the issues that followed Kearns’ administration.
David Kearns’ assumption as Chief Executive Officer (CEO) in 1982 was not without eventualities. Before bringing quality into the forefront of management, Kearns had to confront “skepticism and resistance” (Pfeffer, 1992, p.317). There was already a fixed mindset among top managers that Xerox was a world-class corporation and therefore need not change. Kearns said of his time as a leader: “One of the main things I learned at Xerox is that radical change in any organization is incredibly painful. In the language of change theorists, we were moving between several different states” (Kearns &amp. Harvey, 2000, p.79). When statistics finally provided evidence of the company’s bad performance, Kearns and his management team formulated an integrated bottom-up and top-down TQM approach focused on increasing customer satisfaction and striking a balance between quality processes and quality outcomes. The approach was governed by the Leadership through a Quality policy which revolved around four areas or goals where quality must be directed: customer, employee, the business, and process. This holistic policy “radically changed” Xerox’s business outlook. Throughout the whole ordeal, Kearns’ thought of himself as the “captain of a sinking ship.” When he became CEO, he believed Xerox was already on the brink of going under due to unsolved internal and external problems&nbsp.(Novgorod State University, n.d.. Kretchmar, 1992).&nbsp.

Importance of Service Encounters

Service industries make a huge part of economies. It is safe to say that every single person consumes services at one point or another. The Australian Bureau of Statistics recently published a report that 75% of workers in developed nations are employees in service industries (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008). Albeit service industries are a crucial part of any economy, Koepp (2007) has made an observation that the quality of service is on the decline.
For the customer, the most important thing is the quality of the service encounter. Notably, most employers don’t train their employees sufficiently on how to handle customers professionally and discreetly. These employees may be demotivated perhaps because of underpayment, high turnover or job dissatisfaction which eventually translates to poor customer service.
The unfortunate thing for most of the employers is that they fail to grasp the solid understanding of how best to improve service encounters with potential or present clients. They often assume that employees need to learn how to smile at, welcome and serve customers. As much as this is important, more emphasis needs to be on the employees themselves. When staff members are well taken care of, great service delivery is almost impossible. In the quest to improve the quality of service encounters and ultimately save the firm from spiralling downwards, effective management of the complex behaviours of employees needs to be maintained at an all-time high. Customers judge the quality of the services offered to them through service encounters ultimately affecting the overall judgment of the service provider.
So I am on a flight heading to New York City to visit a relative. Once the seatbelt light is turned off, a man walks to the front where the cabin crew members are and proceeds to take the microphone to make an announcement. He introduces himself as the CEO of the airline and goes ahead to say something along the lines of, “Thanks for choosing to fly with us especially with the highly competitive market in this country.&nbsp.

How to Promote NonSmoking in a Group of Smokers

82000 In accordance with the above, the expansion of smoking as a common daily activity for millions of people cannot be doubted. In fact, smoking has been closely related to all aspects of daily life. For this reason, in the above survey it has been found that ‘in 2006, 59 percent of smokers felt that it would be difficult to go without smoking for a whole day’ (National Statistics Online, UK, 2008). Although the above statistics refer to Britain, it has to be noticed that smoking is not related to a particular country. In a similar survey conducted in USA it was revealed that in the specific country ‘an estimated&nbsp.25.9 million men (23.9 percent) and&nbsp.20.7 million women (18.1 percent) are smokers’ (National Health Interview Survey (NHIS),&nbsp.2005, National Center for Health Statistics, in American Health Association, 2008). It is clear from the above statistics that smoking is a severe problem the expansion of which cannot be easily controlled. The specific problem has a series of consequences that are not limited to the damages of health but they can also take the form of the financial damage the person involved (cost of cigarettes – the cost of treatment for diseases developed because of smoking). For the countries around the world, smoking has been proved to be a severe problem leading to a continuous increase in the cases handled by the hospitals and other medical treatment providers internationally. As an example, for England, the cost of medical treatment provided to smokers has been proved to be extremely high. In a relevant survey, it has been found that ‘in England, 364,000 patients are admitted to NHS hospitals each year due to diseases caused by smoking. this translates into 7,000 hospital admissions per week or 1,000 day. for&nbsp.every death caused by smoking, approximately 20 smokers are suffering from a smoking-related disease’.&nbsp.

Critical Review of 4 Papers about Education

The author argues in this article that the real problem between races in Great Britain goes beyond individuals that discriminate and hate one another base don race. He argues that institutional racism is a real problem. Part of the problem is that Citizenship Education has been touted as the cure for the nation’s racial strife. The author argues that Citizenship Education does little more than making people feel good because it looks like the government is doing something to address the problem. In reality, the author contends that Citizenship Education acts as a placebo. He argues that it is impossible for the institution to eliminate racism if the institution itself is racist.

Much of the author’s foundation for argument is based upon the findings of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry. Stephen Lawrence was an 18-year-old black college student. He was murdered by a group of white youths that have never been convicted of the crime. The subsequent report identified failings, bias, and racial hatred not just in individuals but also in the institutions that should have brought Stephen Lawrence’s murderers to justice. The author then goes on to back this claim up with some powerful statistics. The white-black discrepancy in achievements in national standardized tests is discussed. AS are the shocking statistics that show white and black students begin their public educations in Great Britain scoring equal on standardized tests but from the preteen years onwards, black students begin to lag farther and farther behind. The author points to this as a clear indication of institutional racism. He then concludes his argument by showing the failings of Citizenship Education as something that ignores the institutional role in poor race relations. By focusing on interpersonal relationships, Citizenship Education fails to address the inherently unfair situation minority students encounter by being part of the public education system.

A Problem of Food Wastage

As one problem is solved, a myriad of others are created. the production and consumption of more food have come to a problem of food wastage.
Research work has proved that about one-third of the food produced for people’s consumption is wasted or lost. This represents a missed opportunity for better global food security. Food wastage takes place during production and the transmission channels. According to Stuart,
Total food wastage is about 1.6 Gigatonnes for primary food products and 1.3 Gigatonnes for the edible part of the food. This is a lot of wastage given that total global agricultural food production is estimated to be about 6 Gtonnes” (Stuart 3).
Most of this food is wasted during harvesting, storage and transportation phases. The United States is one of the nations that waste a lot of food in the world. Out of the total food produced, 34 million tons go to waste annually(Stuart 6). About 97% of this food waste ends up in incinerators and Landfills. Total food waste in the United States is approximated at 14% of the total American Municipal solid waste. Since 1974, food waste in the United States has increased by about 50% and it has now exceeded 1, 400 kcal per person per day according to Stuart (6). This food wasted has been estimated to have a monetary value running into billions of U.S. dollars annually. Households in America have also been very wasteful whereby 25% of the food that is brought in each household goes to waste. There is enormous food waste at the retail level. While about one-third of the food produced globally goes to waste, 40 percent of the food produced in the United States goes to waste. A large portion of this waste is caused by consumers. About 25 million Americans can be fully fed if this waste is reduced by 15 percent. Going by the statistics, it is beyond doubt that a lot of food goes to waste in the U.S. If this wastage can be reduced, many people can benefit from the amount that is saved.

Macro Economic Policies used by the British Government and the Bank of England

The reports from the office for national statistics have reported the gross domestic product rose by 0.2 percent in the quarter ending June 30th, which brought down the annual GDP rate to 1.6 percent from 2.3 percent in the first quarter this year (Duncan, 2008).
The United Kingdom is one of the most developed countries in the world and has made a mark for itself throughout the world. The United Kingdom comprises England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The capital of England London is rated as the world’s most expensive city. According to Professor Bean’s (Bank of England chief) bleak assessment, the United Kingdom has seen an undisturbed and unbroken expansion for over sixteen years and as mentioned earlier the country is starting to face recession. Almost every country has been facing an economic slowdown since the market crash in the 1970s however there have been strong efforts from almost every economy to ensure the economies get back into stable positions. United Kingdoms has held the fifth position in the global economies however the risk of the recession since the 1990s is now growing for the country and the living costs are also growing along with this. This has made it difficult for the Bank of England to cut down the interest rates and is causing a lot of issues with the Labour governments’ handling the economy as the public is extremely dissatisfied with the growing interest rates (Reuters, 2008).
It has been noted by economist James Knightley at ING that the growing credit crunch and the rising food and energy prices are disrupting the growth of the country and there is no solution to this by the fiscal and monetary policies. This slowdown was triggered by the biggest drop in the construction sector during 2005. This resulted in a drop in the decline in the building industry which converted the decade long housing boom into slums. The government, however, did its bit by contributing to the infrastructure projects which helped the industry stabilise and get back into action.

Financial Econometrics

ables fall into 3 general classes, namely: location statistics (eg, mean, median, mode, quantiles), dispersion statistics (eg, variance, standard deviation, range, interquartile range), and shape statistics (eg, skewness, kurtosis)”.The descriptive statistics gives the overall description of the data by providing the measures of central tendency, and the measures of dispersion.
statistics. According to Petty( 2015) “A logarithmic price scale is plotted so that the prices in the scale are not positioned equidistantly. instead, the scale is plotted in such a way that two equal percent changes are plotted as the same vertical distance on the scale. The log returns basically is auto – correlated while the case is different with log prices. The log return are usually preferred in quantitative analysis as it gives a better insights in to aspects like normalization and classical statistics. Here the data stream for the 20-year period of January 1995 to December 2014 is used to calculate the log price and log return.
Also a graph representation for the log price and the log returns is formulated in order to deliver a quantitative analysis of the specific data of the company. Here, histogram is used to represent the graph of the statistical data in a visual form
The above analysis explains the descriptive statistics of the log prices and the log return of the data. From the log return, we can observe that the mean value of log return is 5.740008, with a standard deviation of 8.558659. The mean of log prices is 334.934 with the standard deviation of 0.024659. The skewnes of the variable log return is equal to 0.2427 which is a negative value implying that the value of the log return is negatively skewed. The value of kurtosis of the log return is equal to -1.02302 which is a negative value. This implies that the data of log return has a low distributed or low peaked about the mean. The skewnes of the variable log price is equal to -0.785038 which is a negative value

English as Todays Global Language

According to statistics, about one-quarter of the world’s population is already fluent in English and this number is constantly growing: the beginning of the XXI-st century, it was more than a half-billion people. Any other language, for the speed and magnitude of the proliferation, can not be compared to English.

The reasons that language becomes the first international, then global, have nothing to do with the number of people who speak it, but rather depends on who are those people. There is an inextricable link between language dominance and economic, technological and cultural dominance of the people speaking this language.

In the absence of any power of the people, no language can not become a means of international communication. Language does not exist separately from people who speak it. Language exists only in their heads, ears, hands, and eyes of its users. When they succeed in the international arena, their language thrives. (Soler, 2008)

These arguments seem to be obvious, but they need more time to pay attention because in the past few years other misleading views about the causes of a global status of English have emerged and have spread completely. Very often it is possible to hear statements about the English language that has received such wide distribution in the world because of grammatical structures which are simpler than in other languages or because of the fact that the English words do not need to add a lot of different endings, in English, it is no need to remember the difference between male, female and middle-born, so it is easier to teach. Many people talk about the similarities between the English vocabulary with the vocabulary of other languages, particularly French. Indeed, more than half the English words are borrowed from French and the English lexical point of view is actually the Romance languages than German. Another frequent argument is that English is a very democratic language, where there is no system of class differences.

The Chancellor of the Exchequers Budget Statement Claim

The Annual Growth for UK GDP was 3.8 % in 1999. In The ‘UK GDP’ Published Accounts (Chained Volume Measure £1million) presented for the 3rd Quarter of 2006, published on 21.12.2006, the Overall GDP stood at £301.1 million, signifying a 0.7change since the last Quarter and 2.9 since the last year. (http://www/ The office of National Statistics revealed that UK GDP during the period grew by 0.4% from the previous quarter and 2.1% on a year-on-year basis. Both were downward revisions from rises of 0.5% and 2.7% respectively ( Whether this change of 2.9 measures to a “strong and strengthening” proponent, as ascribed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, is a contentious issue.
Employment rates have changed in these years and some sectors reported an increase in employment while other sectors show a fall in the number of employment opportunities. In the context of the Labour Market, the employment rate was 74.5% and the unemployment rate was 5.5%. “The number of unemployed people increased by 197,000 over the year to reach 1.70 Million” (Http: www/ ID=5900 2006). Thus we find that the UK government has not been able to exactly control unemployment, which is a significant indicator of economic growth since the increase of job opportunities leads to higher earnings and consequently, more money in circulation.
Consumer expenditure accounts for 2/3 of the total UK’s domestic expenditure. The government expenditure reported an increase in this year’s expenditure and continues to rise at a steady rate of 0.7% in the 1st quarter of the previous year. As the Keynesian Theory has propounded, “if free market forces are not capable of regulating the level of economic activity, there is a clear case for state intervention” (Nellis, Parker. 1996).

The Issues of Medicating Kids

The Issues Of Medicating Kids
Doctors and the pharmaceutical industry have made people believe that there are myriad pills that virtually cure all types of diseases. Statistics shows that there is a large consumption of pills per day, a trend that is worrying especially among children. Gavin, an 11-year-old fifth grade student takes an average of 17 pills on a single day and 119 tablets per week. The overwhelming question is whether it is healthy or rather advisable to consume such large quantities of pills. The question is augmentative, and it is the objective of this paper to explore the case for and against consumption of large amounts of pills for medication purposes (Park, 2011).
Rob Gorski, the father to Gavin, says he cannot do without medicating his son with pills. Clozapine, one of the pills administered to Gavin, help him reduce the hallucinations and imaginary voices he hears. Lithium, on the other hand, is useful in stabilizing Gavin’s moods. Failure to take the drugs results in sleepless nights and uncontrolled impulses. Rob is not comfortable with the pill medication he administers to the son. In fact, he was reluctant at first and wrestled within before he started the medication. According to Rob, it is impossible for them to stay without administering the pills to the son. Rob argues that without the medication, their son’s quality of life of deteriorates. The above is an example of a genuine reason that justifies the use of pill medications because the child, Gavin, has an extreme condition (Park, 2011).
Readings reveal an increase in the use of behavioral drugs by children. Most of the children however do not suffer from extreme health conditions. Intellectual disability and related behavioral disorders are some of the reasons that necessitate their uptake of pills. The trend is worrying, and experts warn that this is dangerous because there are instances where misdiagnosis appears. Children exposed to multiple drugs are susceptible to drug abuse as well as other side effects. Pavuluri, a doctor and pediatric at the University of Illinois, cautions that drugs ought to be administered only in extreme cases where injury and hurt may result from such neglect. However, the medication is appropriate for children who have attained five years. Pavuluri further adds that people should visit pharmaceutical after behavioral therapies are done (Park, 2011).
Mental illnesses justify the use of pills for medication. Gavin, for instance, has a schizoaffective disorder. The pills help him distinguish between hallucinations and reality. Without the pills, Gavin loses all fear and can boast of flying outside the window or even rushing head-on towards vehicles. According to the father, the drugs are quite beneficial to their son’s life. Additionally, administration of pills may be beneficial to patients contemplating committing suicide. According to Pavuluri, such situations substantiate the use of pills. She advises the doctors to use milder forms of pills for non-emergency cases (Park, 2011).
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an emerging diagnosis among children. The diagnosis of ADHD has made many people administer drugs to their children. Experts however warn that not all ADHD cases that require medical treatment. Parents can study skills that will enable them to enable their children overcome interruptions without necessarily having to use pills. Poor child-rearing and family issues play a central role in defining a child’s behavior pattern. Experiences like the loss of a precious one in a family and insulting relationship within a family are such examples. Therefore, it is improper to medicate pills for behavior resulting from poor parental relationship (Park, 2011).

Park. (2011, May). Little people, lots of pills: Experts debate medicating kids –

Photography and Graphic Design

Given that this is a career that needs a creative mind, it is also important to note that it has evolved with technology. These are my key reasons that inspired me to take a career in photography and graphic design.
Years ago, artists and graphic designers got inspired by earlier painters and ideas from art origins. Art such as medieval architecture, early paintings were an inspiration to artists and graphic designers in the 19th century (Kleiner, 2009). The same paintings and architecture inspired the modern-day graphic designer and photographer. Some of the early painters or pioneers were Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti, an Italian painter, architect and Leonardo da Vinci also a painter and architect (Kleiner, 2009). Therefore, this shows that cultural influences were equally critical in making the history of photography and graphic designs.
According to the report made by the U.S Department of labor, graphic designers in the year 2006 held about 261,000 jobs in different fields (2008, p.305). Out of these jobs, 25% of them were self-employed as full-time or part-time freelancers. Latest Bureau of labor statistics from the U.S Department of labor shows that in 2012, there were 136,300 jobs, held by photographers.
The current employment trends related to this career only depend on photographer designer’s professional experience, education level and the size of the firm hiring. The employment statistics also show a photographer graphic designer’s career is also projected to grow by 4% by the year 2022 (U.S Department of Labor, 2008).
The general duties of photographer and graphic designers revolve around their use of creativity, technical expertise, and skills composition.

The Security of Payments in ECommerce

The Internet can be considered as one of the most revolutionary inventions of the last century [2]. It is used by different people for different reasons. some people use it to communicate with the other end of the world, some use it to increase their knowledge with the vast information available online [1]. Another area that has made a prominent name in the World Wide Web is E-commerce. E-commerce, which is the process of business transactions on the web. is preferred for its simplicity and ease [3]. However, one of the factors that cause a great degree of concern for customers and merchants is the level of security involved with these business transactions [4], [15]. The mode of payment in e-commerce transactions is through ‘credit cards’. which have established more opportunities for businessmen but at the same time introduced new problems in the whole process of selling goods.
The fear of fraud in online business transactions keeps on increasing every year due to the increase in the respective crime [8], [39], [40]. According to National Consumers League statistics for the year 2007. millions of dollars were lost in e-shopping transactions and have exposed the weakness of the credit card payment system [5]. Credit card fraud and identity theft [11] are the two most prevalent security risks.
In the past, many efforts have been done to secure online transactions and make this medium a trusting one. During such efforts, the protocol of Secure Electronic Transactions (SET) was developed to secure credit card information from several kinds of attacks present online [6]. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) also helps in providing a secure environment as it provides an encrypted medium to transfer credit card information [7]. The use of biometrics has also been proposed by one of the researchers. this proved helpful to prevent identity theft and any false authorization regarding the credit card information.

Fashion and Consumer Culture

82000 The essay "Fashion and Consumer Culture" concerns the consumerism and fashion. Factors include religion, beliefs, climate, gender, and economic and cultural situation, among others. Though fashion may change as dictated by society, clothes are more than just about warmth and protection. In fact, clothes have become a representation of particular cultures that create them. Clothes are considered consumer goods. But then again, more than being consumer goods, it defines the cultural class that wears them. It is one of those consumer goods that are being used as tools for social mobility as stated in the ‘Conspicuous Consumption’ theory by 19th Century economist and sociologist Thorstein Veblen. In his book ‘The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study in the Evolution of Institutions, he says that luxury goods are tools to display economic power, and that such display of discretionary economic power is a means of attaining or maintaining a particular social status. Moreover, as an elaboration, these consumer goods have become tools to provoke envy from other people. Ultimately, consumer goods, and fashion is one of them, is a means of displaying a buyer’s superior socio-economic status. In the article ‘Consumption and the Consumer Society’, it says that the average United States resident consumes 275 lbs. of meat, uses 635 lbs. of paper and uses energy equivalent to 7.8 metrics tons of oil. Forty-five years ago consumption was about half of current statistics. In the U.S. there are 2 persons.

Critically evaluate evidence obtained from a range of sources demonstrating how it can inform practice

In Wales, the National Health Services (NHS) holds the mandate of providing a functional framework that guides the entire social and health sector address the health needs of all the different groups. NHS also sets the required standards of health care that the people of Wales should enjoy (National Service Frameworks, 2012:1). The organization came into place in order to address the issue of inconsistency that had prevailed concerning the availability of and access to healthy care. Therefore, the organization has the special mandate of ensuring that a level of consistency does exist. In order to make its goals a success, the body sets up assessment measures of determining the rate at which the departments and organizations involved meet their goals. Moreover, NHS has multiple programs that foster implementation of its goals. Upon defining the desired health standards, it becomes easy for the body to recognize and address the issues that arise (Pierson, 2011:243). However, despite its efforts, the organization lacks the capacity of handling all the health issues of the people of Wales (Pierson, &amp. Thomas, 2010:185). The government of Welsh government has monitors and regulates the care delivery systems to its people (Welsh Government, ‘Bill’, 2012:20). It does this by designing policies, setting of standards, and inspection of service delivery programs and provision of funding to the local authorities. An independent committee looks into the delivery of social services in Wales and presents reports on the areas that need improvement (Independent Commission, 2010:8).
According to recent statistics, a third of people in Wales live with a permanent condition reducing the quality of life that they lead. Moreover, a fifth of the entire population had disability issues in 2010 and the prevalence keeps increasing. Other researches indicated that the chances of disability increased with age. This translates to the fact that the


PSY 870: Module 4 Problem Set 2 × 3 Between s Factorial ANOVA: Study Environments by Gender This study investigates whether study environment affects academic performance. In addition, this study investigates whether sex of student "moderates" the effect of study environment on academic performance (that is, do males and females differ in how much benefit they get from studying in certain environments).
During the first half of the spring semester, 120 male students and 120 female students in grade 10 at a public high school in a large metropolitan area in the southwestern region of the United States were randomly assigned to one of three study environment: study in front of the TV, at the library, or in the food court. The students could ONLY study in the environment to which they were assigned during the research period. At the end of the 7-week research period, mid-term GPA was computed for each student. A change score was computed for each student: each students spring midterm GPA was subtracted from his or her GPA for the preceding fall semester. The difference was each students GPA Improvement score. The GPA improvement score was used to measure academic performance.
Using the SPSS 2 × 3 ANOVA data file for Module 4 (located in Topic Materials), answer the following questions. NOTE: Helpful hints are provided here for you to use while answering these questions. There is no separate answer sheet/guide to use while doing this assignment.
1. What are the two independent variables in this study?&nbsp.What is the dependent variable?
Independent variable:
Study environment
Dependent variable:
Academic performance
2. Why is a two-way between-subjects factorial ANOVA the correct statistic to use for this research design?
Then two‐way between subjects ANOVA is used to analyze the results of a between subjects factorial design with two independent variables (factors). The two‐way ANOVA tests three hypotheses: the main effects for each of the two factors and the interaction effect
3. Did you find any errors that the researcher made when setting up the SPSS data file (Remember to check the variable view)?&nbsp.If so, what did you find? How did you correct it?
No errors are observed in setting up of the data file. the data is coded and appropriately entered
4. Run Descriptive Statistics on the dependent variable data. What do the skewness and kurtosis values tell you about whether the data satisfy the assumption of normality?
Descriptive Statistics
Std. Deviation
Std. Error
Std. Error
GPA Improvement
Valid N (listwise)
The data is positively skewed while the kurtosis value is -0.063 and is platykurtic. The assumption is not satisfied.
5. Perform a between-subjects factorial ANOVA on the data.
Multivariate Testsb
Hypothesis df
Error df
Pillais Trace
Wilks Lambda
Hotellings Trace
Roys Largest Root
Environment * sex
Pillais Trace
Wilks Lambda
Hotellings Trace
Roys Largest Root
a. Exact statistic
b. Design: Intercept + sex
Within Subjects Design: Environment
a. What do the results of the Levenes Test tell you about your data? What does this mean in terms of interpreting the outcomes of the ANOVA?
Multiple Comparisons
GPA Improvement
(I) Environment
(J) Environment
Mean Difference (I-J)
Std. Error
95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
Upper Bound
Front of TV
Food Court
Front of TV
Food Court
Food Court
Front of TV
Based on observed means.
The error term is Mean Square (Error) = .030.
*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.
The results are statistically significant
b. What do the results of the Tests of Between-Subjects Effects tell you? Was there a significant main effect of Environment on GPA improvement? Was there a significant main effect of Sex on GPA improvement? Was there a significant interaction effect of Environment X Sex on GPA improvement? Report the results for each of these questions providing the actual F-value and p value using the following format: F(df1, df2) = 0.785____, p = .__000_ or if the p is shown as .000, write it as p &lt. .001. an example of this formatting is F(1, 400) = 15.4, p = .02).
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable:GPA Improvement
Type III Sum of Squares
Mean Square
Corrected Model
envir * sex
Corrected Total
a. R Squared = .515 (Adjusted R Squared = .505)
For environment,
F (2, 239) = 77.173, p &lt. 0.05), significantly related to academic performance
For sex (2, 239) = 2.651, p = 0.105, not significant related to academic performance
c. Use eta squared to provide effect size/proportion of variance accounted associated with each F-value. If the F-value for a main effect and/or for an interaction effect is statistically significant, what is the eta squared (2) value associated with that outcome?
Report eta squared, 2. ignore partial eta squared that SPSS can provide. You have to calculate eta squared yourself. It is not given to you by SPSS, but you can use what SPSS provides to calculate it. Eta squared is calculated by using the values in the column headed "Type III Sum of Squares" from the table with the results for Tests of Between-Subjects Effects." To compute eta squared, which would be notated as 2, take that sources Type III Sum of Squares and divide it by the value for Corrected Total in the same column. For example, if the Type III Sum of Squares for Environment had been 4.5 rather than 4.696, you would divide 4.5 by 14.677 to get the effect size for Environment. If the Type III Sum of Squares for Sex had been 2.0, you also would divide that by 14.677, etc. Interpret these eta squared results for effect size using the following guidelines from Cohen (1988):
.01 ~ small
.06 ~ medium
.14 ~ large
For environment, 4.696/14.677 which gives 0.319956394 and hence considered large
For sex, its 0.081/14.677 = 0.005518839 and hence considered small
d. If the result for the main effect of Environment was statistically significant, what did you find out when you performed post hoc tests (Tukey HSD) to look at possible statistically significant differences in the pairs of means for Environment groups?
GPA Improvement
Tukey Ba,,b
Food Court
Front of TV
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.
Based on observed means.
The error term is Mean Square(Error) = .030.
a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 80.000.
b. Alpha = 0.05.
The results are confirmed as being statistically significant. It is more better to study in the library than in front of TV or food court.
e. When you have a factorial ANOVA and the interaction effect is significant, does the researcher give much attention to any significant main effects when interpreting the results of the study?
Yes, these are important in further explaining the findings of the research.
7. Citing the results of your statistical analyses, what is the conclusion you can draw (and support) regarding research question that was posed in this research (see problem statement)? Write a results section for this study that expresses and supports this conclusion.
Use the sample write-up of the results for the Two-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA example that is in the textbook to see what you should report and how to say it. Just substitute the correct language and values for the analyses you have done for this problem.
There is a relationship between academic environment and academic performance but not sex

Exercising Facilities at the Workplace

This is more than a third of the population and excludes children and teens. The report further states that in 2008 alone, $147 billion was spent on obesity-related health complications and that obese people were spending at least $1400 more on medication than their normal counterparts.
As highlighted by the above statistics, many Americans are not exercising as they should. They are leading unhealthy lives and exposing themselves to obesity-related health risks such as cancer, heart diseases, and type 2 diabetes. I formulated this research to investigate the advantages of setting up exercise facilities at workplaces and also to come up with ways of encouraging people to regularly visit them. This will reduce the obesity rate in the country and the health risks associated with it.
I recently witnessed two colleagues discussing a move by their company management to set up a physical fitness facility at the company’s premises to encourage workers to live healthy lifestyles. I was struck most by the agility and enthusiasm that the two exuberated as they discussed the matter. Prior to this incident, I had never envisioned a gym within a working premise.
Fitness sections should be constructed in every workplace as a way to encourage people to exercise regularly. The management will, therefore, be forced to allow workers to exercise during working days since most of them will be unwilling to show up at work during the weekends. However, the sessions will only be possible during off-peak hours such as lunch breaks and in the evenings when everyone is breaking for home.

Tuberous sclerosis

92250 The most common drugs to control brain and kidney tumors are mTOR inhibitors such as sirolimus and everolimus. Screening tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an ultrasound scan, spirometry, echocardiogram and blood tests can help to identify tumors connected with tuberous sclerosis. Appropriate diagnostic and treatment plans are quite necessary for successful health care and support of patients with tuberous sclerosis. Tuberous sclerosis the other name tuberous sclerosis complex(TSC) is a genetic disease. It is characterized by the formation of benign, noncancerous tumors in the different organs of human body such as kidney, lungs, brain, heart, eyes and skin. Benign tumors formed in the human body when function of cell growth is damaged. Abnormal quantity of cells formed an extra mass surrounded by outer layer and cause different negative health defects. The statistics show that the most common benign tumors caused by tuberous sclerosis occur in the brain and in skin in 9 causes between 10. kidney and eyes 8 cases between 10. in kidney 8 cases out of 10 and more rarely in the lungs 4 cases between10 especially in women. Tumors in the brain can cause different neurological defects and abnormal brain function. The most common disorder of the nervous system during tuberous sclerosis is epilepsy. It is a long-term neurological defect that characterized by repeated spasms, convulsions and loss of consciousness. Tumors in the brain can cause different neurological defects.

The Policy of Deportation and Detention in Greece and the UK

Seeking to explore European immigration policies with respect to asylum seekers and refugees in comparative perspective, I propose to analyze the policies of deportation and detention in Greece and the United Kingdom, respectively. European immigration is an important issue which is receiving more and more attention in light of global economic flight from the poorest regions of the world and the humanitarian crises forcing people to abandon their lives and seek a better life. Along with the United States, Australia and Canada, the European Union remains one of the most sought after destinations for migrants from around the world and both Greece and the United Kingdom receive their fare share of migrants, both legal and illegal. This is an understudied field of scholarship and I hope to bring my extensive analytical skills to your university in order to pursue my studies. The following will provide a summary of my proposed research questions as well as the intended methodology.
Research Questions
Through an exploratory analysis of the immigration policies of both Greece and the United Kingdom, central questions I hope to address include the following: how do the immigration policies of Greece and the UK differ with respect to illegal migrants? Alternatively how are their policies the same? What roles do deportation and detention play in the immigration process and how have Greece and the UK applied these measures in an attempt to stem the flows of migration, both legal and illegal? What role does the European Union play in dictating immigration policy and what does Brussels have to say with respect to the deportation and detention of migrants? These questions and many more will be explored in this comparative analysis of the immigration systems of both Greece and the United Kingdom. Utilizing data from the UK Border Services as well as from the Greek national authorities, this analysis will integrate raw concrete data with scholarly research in the field of immigration studies.
A comparative exploration of immigration policies in the twenty-first century will benefit significantly from an amalgamation of the latest scholarly research on the subject of British and Greek immigration trends and policies with tangible demographics obtained through the respective immigration authorities of each national government (EU statistics may also be used in this endeavor). Accordingly, the basis of this analysis will largely be qualitative but this analysis will most certainly benefit from quantitative data on immigration trends and issues. A mixed qualitative/quantitative research framework will provide the primary methodological underpinnings of this analysis. We will utilize the best scholarly research in the field, including peer-reviewed journals and books published by university presses.
Issues and Available Research
Immigration remains an important issue in a global world and the rights of migrants are rarely brought to the fore. Principle issues included in the study of deportation, detention and disposition are the respect for human rights and the inaliable rights of individuals seeking a better life, regardless of race, creed or nationality. I will also explore the refugee/asylum seeker process in each respective country. What does the literature say about the rights of migrants and their abuse as part of the European immigration process? In “Used, Abused, Arrested and Deported”, Dina Francesca Haynes examines the maltreatment of migrants in to the EU and argues for legislative change to combat their maltreatment at the hands of traffickers and malicious immigration authorities. In “The Deportation Machine: Europe, Asylum and Human Rights” Liz Fekete examines the human rights of migrants through a race and class-based lens. Furthermore, in Citizenship Today, Aleinikoff et al. provide a succinct analysis as to why people choose to immigrate abroad and explores the ethical and moral issues associated with transnational migration. Seeking to address these questions and many more, my research intends to provide a holistic approach to analyzing an important social phenomenon which is seeped in complexity and intrigue. This is an understudied field of scholarship and I hope to bring my research project to your institution and thank you for taking the time to consider my application.
Aleinikoff, T.A. et al. 2001. Citizenship Today: Global Perspectives and Practices
Washington: Brookings Institution Press.
Fekete, L. (2005). “The deportation machine: Europe, asylum and human rights”,
Race &amp. Class, Vol. 47, No. 1, 64-78.
Haynes, D.F. (2004). “Used, Abused, Arrested and Deported: Extending Immigration Benefits to Protect the Victims of Trafficking and to Secure the Prosecution of Traffickers”, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 2.

Inferential Statistics (m4c)

It is claimed that a new drug is developed which provides the same level of efficacy as the currently used cocktail of multiple drugs in treating AIDS. Problem is to set up an experiment and select subjects to test the efficacy of the new antiretroviral drug.
Antiretroviral drug treatment guidelines have changed over time and there is no unique guideline for all countries. Treatment regimen prescribed is also different for different groups of patients. For example, drugs prescribed for pregnant women in a developing country may be different from drugs prescribed to adults and adolescents in a developed country (World Health Organization Guidelines). Therefore, identification of the population among whom the new and the current combination of drugs are to be compared is necessary. Let the population thus selected be the adult and adolescent population in the United States.
There are literature considering differential effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy among patients of different gender and race. (King et al., 2008. Campo, Alvarez, Santos, &amp. Latorre, 2005). However, part of the difference may be attributed to availability of the drug, following the prescribed regimen and lifestyle, rather than any inherent difference in genetic composition. Nevertheless, it will be a good policy at the initial stage to limit the experiment among adult and adolescent Caucasian males to protect against possible confounding effects.
Once the population is identified, a sample of specific size needs to be selected. The sample size will depend on the power of the testing procedure, which is outside of the purview of the present consideration. Current guidelines recommend start of antiretroviral therapy when the disease has progressed to WHO Stage III when CD4 cell count is less than 350/μl. This may be taken to be the baseline criterion for inclusion. Also, the standard guidelines for adherence to the protocol, testing for baseline resistance etc must be satisfied to be included in the drug testing.
It is of singular importance to compare the new drug against one specific drug combination. The preferred regimens may be any one of the following
emtricitabine, tenofovir,&nbsp.ritonavir&nbsp.and&nbsp.darunavir
mtricitabine, tenofovir, ritonavir and&nbsp.atazanavir
Any one of these regimens needs to be chosen for the new drug to be compared against. Ideally this experiment would be a matched case-control study. Two HIV/AIDS patients with very similar profiles with respect to advancement of disease, CD4 cell counts, age, sexual orientation and other possible factors that may have bearings on the disease are to be randomly assigned either to the cocktail drug regimen or to the new drug regimen. However, there may be ethical consideration to such assignment. Without informed consent of the patients they may not be assigned to a new drug therapy.
As antiretroviral therapy is to be continued life long, it is difficult to arrive at a definite conclusion regarding efficacy of the new drug within a definite period of time. One way to deal with that is to compare count of CD4 cell counts for patients under existing and new drugs from time to time and monitor the disease’s progress or retardation. Naturally, count of CD4 cells is the dependent variable, which depends on the effectiveness of the drug.
It needs to be noted that the new drug may be more efficacious at the beginning of the regimen and may, in the long run, be bioequivalent to the existing regimen. Alternatively, the effect of the existing regimen may taper off at some point where the new drug may continue to be active. Therefore, the experiment may have multiple end-points and one or more end-points must be clearly noted in the protocol.
World Health Organization (2011). HIV/AIDS Guidelines. Accessed on Jan 27, 2011. .
King, W. D., Minor, P., Kitchen, C. R., Ore, L. E., Shoptaw, S., Victorianne, G. D., &amp. Rust, G. (2008). Racial, gender and geographic disparities of antiretroviral treatment among US Medicaid enrolees in 1998. Journal of Epidemiology of Community Health, 62, 798-803.
Campo, R. E., Alvarez, D., Santos, G., &amp. Latorre, J. (2005). Antiretroviral treatment considerations in Latino patients. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 19(6), 366-374.

The Issue of Retention and the Cost of Education in Colleges and Universities in U S A

Due: Research Paper, Statistics Introduction U.S.A universities and college fees have caused a lot ofmixed reaction nowadays. Parents with college or university going students in today have to dig deep into their pockets in order to meet the rising higher education fees.
In recent studies conducted in various universities in U.S.A, the average cost of pursuing a higher education in the public universities is more than $27,000 per year. This is excluding the top end universities such as Cornell and Columbia. The top end universities in the year 2010 to 2011 total fees budget including accommodation, food and books totaled to $55,862 and $56,253.
In addition the government owned universities and colleges are cheaper than the private owned. The average fees required for tuition in the private universities in a year is $20,000. In a 4 year term, that would total to $80,000. While in the private institutions is more than $40,000 per year. The wide fee difference between the two sector universities has resulted to increased undergraduate intake in the public universities. The government run colleges and universities have enrolled 70% of the total undergraduate intake a year, with the colleges enrolling half of the country’s full time undergraduates. But not all the public colleges charge minimal amount, colleges such California, fee rate is the same as top end private universities. The rate of graduation in public colleges and universities has fluctuated from 70% to 60% in the past ten years. This is due to the low availability of resources in the public universities as compared to public. The graduation rate in the private universities and the top universities has increased from to 50% to 80% this due to the high level of education offered as well as the selective nature of the private universities however, the number of graduates in public universities and colleges is still high when compared to the private owned.
The difference in the fees rate charged in the two sectors means that some education accessories are only available in the high end universities and vice versa. In today, only time will tell whether the two education sectors will reach a point and charge tuition fee regardless of access and quality.
Works Cited
N.p. “Student information, How much does it cost,” 11 May. 2014. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. ‹›.
N.p. “Trends in College Pricing.” College Board. 11 May 2014. Web 2013

The differences between Americas mass incarceration rates compared to one other country

This essay compares US and Canada incarceration rate and the costs, in an attempt to provide viable recommendation on how the government should conduct its incarceration.
Incarceration refers to the arrest of suspected criminals before their conviction and to confine them from the public. Incarceration in US was started as a security measure that aimed at safeguarding the public from potential criminals. The US imprisons many types of criminals including drug offenders and non-violent offenders. This situation is different in Canada as the government imprisons only those with high risk of violence. Statistics shows that the US has five times higher the rate of incarceration as compared to Canada. Approximately, the US incarcerates about 750 people per every 100 thousand which is much than the rate Canada which about 117 people per every 100 thousand individuals. In total, there are about 1.6 million prisoners in America. 90% of the prisoners in the US comprise young males at the age bracket of 20 to 30 years. In Canada, 70% of males of young age are in prison, and the rest is composed of women. By race, the percentage of blacks and Latinos in prison is much higher than that of the whites. Per every 100 thousand people in US, 3,074 blacks, 1258 Latinos are imprisoned while only 459 whites are victims (Cox, 2012). This is different in Canada where the ratio of whites to blacks in prison is fairly balanced. From the statistics, it is clear that the incarceration rate is much higher in US and more biased than the case in Canada.
Evidently, the US spends a lot in maintaining their prisons as compared to Canada. Many scholars have come up to criticize the hefty spending of the US in maintaining prisons. The average cost of maintaining a prisoner is between $20 thousand and $30 thousand each year. Canada prisoner maintenance cost is much lower by 30%, which ensure that the nation spends little on incarceration. This shows that the US

Week 12 Environmental and Socioeconomic Issues

your s Week 12: Environmental and Socio-economic Issues In Week 12, Prof. Norris completed the environmental LCA subject and introduced the concepts of non-point impacts, ecological damage and resource depletion. He also discussed the socio-economic pathway to healthy impacts, the listed categories of impacts, and the concept of life cycle attribute assessment.
Citing an example of non-point impacts, he explained that extracting clay from the earth has no environmental significance for the earth per se and hence will not figure in any of 18 impact categories. But clay extraction has multiple impacts on the environment if one considers the process involved. These impacts are captured in the supply chain for extracting clay and consist of fuel usage, equipment operation, land occupation and land transformation and water pollution. While the flow of natural clay into the economy is not considered as significant resource depletion, the unit process environmental impacts are significant.
Discussing resource depletion, Prof. Norris explained that the earlier methods of calculating depletions were inaccurate and resembled attempts to weigh frogs, literally. Just as frogs do not keep still while being weighed and keep jumping, it was very difficult to estimate existing resources, usage and left over balance since new discoveries of resources are also to be considered continuously. If one product life cycle uses one mega joule of coal and another
(your last name) 2
product life cycle also uses one mega joule of oil, both have same consequence in terms of fossil fuel depletion, as per the methods used in the 1980s. However, since then the method has been improved. For instance, as we use the established resources (proven reserves) of coal or oil and move to next one, they tend to be smaller, deeper, less assessable and more expensive to extract. The EcoIndicator-99 focuses on the fact that it takes more energy to extract usable resources (whether fuels or minerals) from lower quality deposits. In other words, he explained, the future generations have to pay a higher price to get lesser resources, if we deplete them now by reckless usage. The EcoIndicator-99 developed the scenario for quite far into the future for predicating the energy cost of extracting resources/substitutes in future.
The next aspect is the ecosystem damage and its measurement. The recipe developers focused on biodiversity as an indicator of ecological impact since it is extremely difficult to figure out the relationship between human consumption and loss of species. Therefore, instead of consumption-related studies, we take a more universal view of the ecological pressure from human activities on different ecosystems. All our activities put pressure on the species, both in the animal and vegetation worlds, leading to depletion and/or extinction. Even if they survive, we are making ecosystem less healthy, less diverse, less functional, and less productive. Ecoindicators help to inform us of such ecosystem damage.
Prof. Norris then discussed the social-economic interrelations. Consumption drives economic activity which causes pollution and resource depletion. Consumption also generates employment and incomes, providing livelihood for many. Businesses pay taxes, which are turned into public investments into infrastructure, human development, technology, etc., all of which
(your last name) 3
can be beneficial. Thus, he explained that the traditional LCA methods of environmental impact assessment should be combined with the beneficial impact of economic activities. There is a risk of applying LCA methods only and avoiding an activity to save, for example, climate, but this decision may adversely impact other forms of pollution like water pollution. Therefore, the traditional LCA should be expanded through adding data on economic activity in each unit process and reducing the risk of shifting burden from environment to other impacts in supply chain. Citing the example of the burden of disease, among the 155 risk factors for human health and disease, unsafe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene account for 45%, indoor smoke from solid fuels for 32%, lead exposure for 11%, urban air pollution for 7% and climate change for 5%. These statistics clearly point out the limitations of LCA method. Hence, improved economic conditions can reduce the risks of exposure to risk factors, even though the related economic activities have other environmental impacts and solution lies in new pathways of socio-economic activities.
New pathways of socio-economic activities start from selection or redesign of products and processes, leading to reduced levels of activity in supply chains – from resource extraction through end-of-life cycles. These should reduce emissions without impacting employment, and economic growth. Improved economic activity in a sustainable manner can lead to improved health and reduced illnesses.