Chapter 7. Clinical Issues, Challenges, and Strategies in Intensive Outpatient TreatmentOnce clients are engaged actively in treatment, retention becomes a priority. Many obstacles may arise during treatment. Lapses may occur. Frequently, clients are unable or unwilling to adhere to program requirements. Repeated admissions and dropouts can occur. Clients may have conflicting mandates from various service systems. Concerns about client and staff relationships, including setting appropriate boundaries, can compromise care. Intensive outpatient treatment (IOT) programs need to have clear decisionmaking processes and retention strategies to address these and other circumstances.This chapter discusses common issues that IOT programs face and offers practical approaches to retaining clients in treatment. Experience has taught IOT clinicians that every problem can have many solutions and that the input and ideas of colleagues lead to creative approaches and solutions. The chapter presents specific scenarios and options from clinical practice and experience for clinicians to consider, modify, or implement.Go to:Client RetentionReducing client attrition during treatment must be a priority for IOT providers. Compared with clients who drop out, those who are retained in outpatient treatment tend to be White, male, and employed (McCaul et al. 2001). Client attributes associated with higher dropout rates are labeled “red flags” byWhite and colleagues (1998); these red flags include marginalized status (e.g., racial minorities, people who are economically disadvantaged), lack of a professional skill, recent hospitalization, and family history of substance abuse. Being aware of these red flags can help clinicians intervene early to assist clients at increased risk of dropping out.Veach and colleagues (2000)found that clients who abuse alcohol were more likely to be retained and those who abuse cocaine were less likely to be retained in outpatient treatment. Other studies have found that the substance a client abuses is not a good predictor of retention (McCaul et al. 2001).The following strategies improve retention of clients in treatment: Form a working relationship with the client.The counselor should foster a respectful and understanding relationship with the client. This therapeutic relationship reduces resistance and successfully engages the client in working toward mutually defined treatment goals. Learn the client’s treatment history.If the client has dropped out of treatment previously, the counselor should find out why. If the client has engaged and been retained successfully in treatment before, the counselor should ask what made treatment appealing. Use motivational interviewing.The counselor should help clients work through ambivalence by supporting their efforts to change and helping them identify discrepancies between their goals and values and their substance use. Involving clients in activities, such as support groups, also is effective. Provide flexible schedules.IOT providers need to consider the client populations they serve and schedule groups accordingly. For example, morning groups can be for clients who work swing and night shifts and for women with school-age children and evening groups for those working regular business hours. It can be difficult for clients to fit many hours of treatment into their week. Multiple Retention Challenges Clinical issue.A man, age 35, single, and an immigrant from El Salvador, has failed to return to treatment or contact his counselor in the last 3 days. Approach The counselor writes a note to the client in Spanish, encouraging him to return to treatment. The counselor arranges for the client to get a ride to the next group session and for public transportation vouchers for subsequent sessions. The counselor schedules an individual counseling session for the client to discuss several retention problems, which include lack of transportation, language barriers, and shame over lapses to his previous drinking pattern. Use the group to engage and reengage the client.The counselor should encourage members to talk about their ambivalence, how they are overcoming it, and their experiences of dropping out of treatment, as well as the negative consequences of dropping out. The counselor can supply all group members with an updated telephone list and encourage them to talk to at least two other members daily. The counselor can ask members to call those who are absent to let them know that they were missed and are important to the group. It is important to check with clients to be sure that they are receptive to these phone calls; some may view them as intrusive and disrespectful. Increase the frequency of contact during the early treatment period.Clients often feel vulnerable or ambivalent during the first few weeks of treatment. Counselors need to contact each client frequently during this period to enhance retention. These contacts can be brief and made by telephone, e-mail, or letter. At the same time, counselors should encourage clients to contact other group members to reinforce the value of reaching out for support. Use network interventions.Counselors need to work with individuals in the community who are invested in the client’s recovery to encourage the client to stay in treatment. These individuals can be probation officers, ministers, employee assistance program counselors, friends, and co-workers. If the program identifies supportive individuals early in treatment and obtains a written consent for release of information from the client, the counselor can ask these individuals to encourage the client to attend sessions or increase his or her commitment to recovery. Deliver additional services throughout the treatment period.Fishman and colleagues (1999)found that attrition was lower during the intensive “services-loaded” phase of IOT and, conversely, that attrition increased during the less rigorous program phases. Never give up.The counselor should make continual efforts to follow up with clients who have dropped out. Successful techniques include telephone calls, letters, and home visits to encourage the client to return to the program. This level of dedication can affect the client’s attitude and willingness to complete treatment.Go to:Relapse and Continued Substance UseLapses often happen in the difficult early months in treatment. These brief returns to substance use can be used as a therapeutic tool; the goal is to keep them from becoming full relapses with a return to substance use. IOT clients living in the community are exposed to pressures to relapse, often while struggling with cravings and their own resistance to change. Clients need to use relapse prevention strategies when they are exposed to alcohol and drugs, experience cravings, are encouraged by others to return to substance use, or are exposed to personal relapse triggers (Irvin et al. 1999). (Seeappendix 7-Afor descriptions of several instruments for assessing clients’ relapse potential.) The Difference Between a Lapse and Relapse Jack’s experience: A lapse. Jack comes to group distressed because he drank on the weekend. He has been abstinent for 2 months and is concerned that he has jeopardized his employment and the return of his driver’s license. He discusses the episode with his counselor, and they identify treatment options. The therapeutic goal is to reinforce Jack’s desire to stay abstinent, and the episode becomes an opportunity to strengthen his relapse prevention skills. This is a lapse, that is, a brief return to substance use following a sustained period of abstinence (a month or more). The client still is committed to his recovery and has not experienced loss of control. The event is used to help the client identify relapse triggers and increase his understanding and ability to withstand pressures to use substances. Phil’s experience: A relapse. Phil is in treatment for methamphetamine use. He has disappeared from treatment again. When he returns, he is hyperactive, has a positive drug test, and refuses to talk about the test results or his return to drug use. He then fails again to return to the program. He is seen on the street obviously intoxicated. The compulsion to use is strong. This is a relapse, that is, a prolonged episode of substance use during which the client is not open to therapeutic intervention or learning. Often a relapse can lead to dropout and indicates a continuing struggle by the client with his or her disease. General relapse prevention strategies are to Educate clients and their family members about addiction and recovery.Clients and family members need information about the disease of addiction and its stages, cues to relapse, early signs of relapse, how addiction affects relationships, and how to find resources for support (e.g., Al-Anon). Counselors need to enlist the support of family members and significant others to keep them from sabotaging treatment. Family members need advice on how to support the client in recovery and how to cease enabling behaviors. Conduct an early assessment of specific relapse triggers.Together with the counselor, clients can conduct a functional analysis of their substance use, working to identify and understand with whom, where, when, and why they use substances. Functional analysis is a tool that identifies not only clients’ high-risk circumstances for substance use but also the ways in which triggers are linked to the effects that substance use produces. TIP 33,Treatment for Stimulant Use Disorders(CSAT 1999e), and TIP 35,Enhancing Motivation for Change in Substance Abuse Treatment(CSAT 1999c), explain how to perform a functional analysis. Develop a relapse prevention plan immediately.A relapse prevention plan should include coping strategies developed by the counselor and client, such as going to support group meetings, avoiding places where the client used substances in the past, identifying good things about a substance-free life, and telephoning the client’s sponsor regularly. TIP 33 (CSAT 1999e) contains information and worksheets to develop a relapse prevention plan. Technical Assistance Publication (TAP) 8,Relapse Prevention and the Substance-Abusing Criminal Offender(Gorski et al. 1993), and TAP 19,Counselor’s Manual for Relapse Prevention With Chemically Dependent Criminal Offenders(Gorski and Kelley 1996), are helpful in developing a relapse prevention plan. Provide intensive monitoring and support.These activities include random drug testing (including urine samples that are collected under observation of program staff to prevent tampering), family counseling or education sessions about supporting the client during and after treatment, and the client’s self-monitoring of exposure and response to substance use triggers. Evaluate and review all slips and lapses.Despite their negative consequences, lapses can be used therapeutically. The counselor and client can learn more about what constitutes high-risk situations for the client. The client needs to consider the slip or lapse a discrete, unique event that does not need to be repeated or continued. The client should remember that abstinence can be regained and that the client can renew his or her commitment to abstinence. Clients should be reminded to contact the counselor, other group members, their sponsor, or other mutual-help group members when they sense that they are verging on relapse. Use the behavioral contract with clients.A behavioral contract spells out treatment expectations and goals, the rewards when goals are met, and the consequences if the contract is broken. The counselor should involve clients in writing the contract, encouraging them to use their own words. The behavioral contract helps bind clients to their commitment to abstinence and change. TIP 35 (CSAT 1999c) provides more information on behavioral contracts. Introduce the stages of change.Marlatt and Gordon (1985)andProchaska and colleagues (1994)recommend using relapse prevention interventions that are matched to the client’s stage of change.Joe and colleagues (1998)andConnors and colleagues (2001a) argue that for clients who are ambivalent about abstinence, for example, initial interventions might focus on strengthening their resolve by analyzing the pros and cons of use, rolling with resistance, and never directly confronting clients. Subsequent interventions support abstinence by altering stimulus control and developing skills for negotiating high-risk situations. After a client experiences a period of abstinence, emphasis shifts to lifestyle modifications that promote long-term abstinence. A Relapse Prevention Quiz This quiz can be a tool to support and strengthen a client’s readiness to avoid relapse. Having senior members in a group answer the questions reinforces their knowledge while they educate newer members in relapse prevention skills. • What might you say to co-workers if they ask you to have a drink or get high with them? • Craving a drink or drug is quite natural for people who are dependent on alcohol or drugs. What three things can you do to get past the craving? • What are three common reasons for feeling that you don’t belong in a support group such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) or Narcotics Anonymous (NA)? • What two things can you do if someone at an AA or NA meeting annoys you? • Why must recovery from your disease be your highest priority? • What three qualities should you look for in a sponsor? • Emotional discomfort takes a variety of forms. What are the three biggest problems for you? Anger, depression, self-pity, loneliness, boredom, worry, frustration, shame, guilt, or another emotion? • What three things can you do to handle each emotional discomfort you identified? • What are the key elements of an assertive response when offered alcohol or drugs? • Why is it important to avoid starting romantic relationships during early recovery? Multiple Dropouts and Readmissions Some clients relapse or drop out of treatment and return repeatedly to treatment before they achieve a stable recovery. Providers may be reluctant to keep offering scarce treatment resources to the same individuals or to readmit individuals who drop out continually. Programs can respond to multiple dropouts and readmissions strategically by • Conducting a comprehensive evaluation of each client to determine whether IOT is the appropriate level of care. Some clients, for example, may benefit from a brief inpatient placement to ready them for IOT (seechapter 5). • Reviewing the client’s cycle of dropouts and admissions. Several cycles may be appropriate for a client with severe, complex needs and issues. Arbitrary rules regarding the number of permitted admissions and dropouts may be too rigid to support recovery of a severely impaired individual. • Establishing an admissions committee to review and recommend action regarding clients who seek readmission following repeated dropouts. The committee can include staff and alumni representatives. • Developing a profile of clients likely to drop out and designing a plan for them. • Arranging a psychiatric evaluation for the client, which may indicate that psychiatric treatment and medication are required. Go to:Substance Use by Family MembersA client may have one or more family members who also actively abuse substances. In fact, research shows that individuals with substance use disorders are more likely than others to have family histories of substance use disorders (Johnson and Leff 1999). The client may be in regular contact with members of the extended family, a close friend, spouse, or a boyfriend or girlfriend who uses substances. Active substance use by someone living in the same place as the client or who is part of the client’s social support network clearly threatens a client’s recovery. The IOT counselor can consider using these options: Stay alert for others using substances.Construct and update regularly a genogram or social network assessment (seechapter 6) to identify possible substance use among family members, significant others, and friends who are likely to influence the client’s recovery. Gather information from the family and client about the nature, extent, and frequency of any substance use. Request that the family and client develop an agreement about substance use in the home.It is important to enlist family members in the treatment process to help the client and any other family members who are using substances (seechapter 6). A substance use agreement, signed by family members, identifies substances that will not be kept or consumed in the home and the consequences for violating the agreement. Part of the agreement can be to report all substance use to IOT program staff for discussion during group and individual sessions. Assist the client in identifying alternative housing if needed.Recovery homes, halfway houses, and shelters, among others, may be necessary temporary alternatives for a client who needs alcohol- or drug-free housing during and after treatment. If the client’s recovery is undermined continually in current housing, the counselor should consider such a housing referral. Provide information about treatment to a family member who needs it.Offer information about treatment options or referrals to a family member with a substance use disorder in a manner that ensures the privacy of the individual and does not divert attention from the client’s treatment and recovery.Go to:Group Work IssuesGroup work is a core service of IOT and offers many opportunities for educating, supporting, and nurturing clients. Clients’ feelings toward their peers are important factors in shaping the way clients view the treatment experience. Clients are more likely to continue with treatment when they feel accepted, supported, and “normal” and receive empathy and kindness from others in the treatment group.Many issues can affect group work and impede the progress of clients. For example, clients may be disruptive or withdrawn, have poor English or comprehension skills, and attend sessions sporadically. TIP 41,Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy,provides additional information on working with clients in therapeutic groups (CSAT 2005f).Developing Group CohesionGroup cohesion can be a central element in a client’s recovery process. Frequent changes in group membership make it difficult to build group cohesion.Washton (1997)suggests that frequent shifting of clients among groups can result in higher dropout rates. This observation argues for limiting changes in group composition that sometimes occur in a “phased” or “stage-oriented” IOT program. Adding new clients to groups generates challenges for the counselor who must become oriented to new clients. The following approaches help create effective IOT groups and group cohesion: Create group rituals.When new clients join a group or others depart, group rituals promote a sense of acceptance, safety, and support. Current members should orient new members to group rules and speak about their group experience. A ritual can mark a client’s graduation from the program and celebrate his or her success. Departure rituals may include a client’s demonstration of recovery knowledge and skills, a group discussion of the departing client’s strengths and how group members can be supportive, a review of the client’s relapse prevention plan and options if the plan should fail, and presentation of the program’s emblem (see below). Institute a program emblem.Staff and clients can design a program emblem to build and sustain group cohesion. The emblem is a visual symbol that represents the essence of the treatment program. For example, a coin, badge, or cup might be inscribed with a recovery motto such as “Serenity and Strength Day by Day” or “Hope, Freedom, and Recovery.” A logo might feature the rising sun, a stately oak, or clasped hands. These emblems can incorporate and reflect various cultural and ethnic values and designs. Some programs leave space in the emblem to inscribe each client’s name and his or her program completion date. Programs that have emblems have found that clients keep them and use them as reminders of their commitment to recovery and their success in remaining abstinent. The emblem and motto should convey a message of support while maintaining the confidentiality of the client (e.g., by not including the name of the treatment program). Explore the group’s feelings about clients who drop out.When a member relapses and drops out of the group, the group provides a safe environment for other members to discuss their feelings or fears about failure and relapse and their own relapse prevention strategies. Because a client’s perception of his or her ability to complete the program influences the outcome, counselors need to support group members with positive statements about their potential to do well in treatment. Encourage identification with the program in addition to the group.It can be helpful if clients develop a sense of belonging to the group and the treatment program. For instance, IOT staff can share information about the overall goals of the program, use guest counselors or supervisors to co-facilitate groups, and encourage former clients to return to share their experiences. Contacts with alumni outside treatment can be valuable, too. Maintain effective group size and staffing.The ideal adult IOT group consists of 8 to 12 clients, although up to 15 clients may be on the group roster (CSAT 2005f). Programs may need to adjust group sizes according to staff resources, the availability of co-therapists, the experience of the counselors, and the composition of the client population (e.g., adult or adolescent, women or men, people with co-occurring mental disorders).At least one therapist should have the required academic credentials for group therapy; a co-therapist can be an intern or trainee who assists with managing client behaviors and observing the dynamics of the group. Example of a Sendoff for a Treatment Program Graduate As a client leaves treatment, he or she is invited to take a marble from a bowl of marbles. The group leader then tells the graduate: “Now that you have begun this new stage in your recovery, keep this marble with you always—perhaps in your pocket or purse. Keep it where you will see it often to remind you of how hard your addiction was on you and your family. More important, it will remind you of how firm and resolved you must be in your commitment to stay clean and work on a healthy recovery program. “Each time you reach into your pocket or purse and touch that marble, you will be reminded of the hard times that are behind you and those that may lie ahead. If, after all this, you decide that you do not care about the hard times and suffering that your addiction has caused and may cause again, and you decide that you want to sink back down into the mess of your addiction, then take the marble and toss it as far as you can, because you will have already lost the rest of your marbles!” Preparing Clients for GroupIOT programs should orient new clients about how group therapy is conducted and how they are to use the group counseling sessions (seechapter 4). One way to do this is with a pregroup interview that allows the counselor to assess clients’ readiness for treatment, learn more about clients’ circumstances, and help shape clients’ expectations by answering questions and supplying information (CSAT 2005f). This information should include group norms and expectations and be reviewed with clients so that it is clear from the outset. Programs also should consider posting group norms on the wall of the meeting room and having clients read them aloud at the beginning of each group session.Working With Uncommitted, Ambivalent ClientsSome clients in group treatment may not be committed to their recovery from substance use disorders. Clients who have been mandated to treatment by the justice system may feel that they do not have a problem but are only following a judge’s orders. Some clients may be late habitually or talk about their continuing interest in a substance-abusing lifestyle. The counselor cannot permit the client to attend group while under the influence of drugs or alcohol because this behavior can compromise the progress of other members of the group. However, the counselor can address behaviors displayed by uncommitted clients by Discussing the behaviors with the client individually to identify the issues and discuss options Moving the client to a precontemplator or other group or terminating the client from the program Introducing more structure into the group to enhance its therapeutic value for all members (e.g., by combining theme-oriented information with client discussion and concentrating less on process and more on organized content)Working With Clients Who Have Severe Mental DisordersIndividuals diagnosed with severe mental disorders often require a high level of management by trained medical and substance abuse treatment professionals. These clients may have difficulty bonding with a group and may be disruptive or unable to focus for long periods. To enhance the effectiveness of group for individuals diagnosed with severe mental disorders, IOT providers are encouraged to consider these approaches: Treatment should be coordinated with the client’s psychiatric care provider to determine how best to respond to crises that may arise during group. Group treatment should be guided by clients’ readiness for and ability to engage in group work (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 2002). Group treatment staff members should be educated and trained about mental disorders so that they are familiar with the signs and symptoms of psychoses and crisis intervention techniques.For more information about treating this population, see chapter 9 of this volume or TIP 42, Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons With Co-Occurring Disorders (CSAT 2005e). Treating Individuals Who Have Severe Mental Disorders Sam increasingly was unable to control his outbursts when in group. Although he usually was able to return to a calm state, the incidents persisted. His counselor was aware that Sam experienced hallucinations and, with input from Sam’s psychiatrist, determined that Sam was receiving little benefit from being in a group. His treatment plan was revised to increase his individual counseling sessions in place of group participation. Marjorie was diagnosed with bipolar disorder and functioned well while taking prescribed medications. Her counselor noticed behavior changes in group (such as flirting with male members, hyperactivity) over several days. After Marjorie was referred to her psychiatrist, it was determined that she had stopped taking her medications. After she resumed taking her medications, her symptoms disappeared. Working With Disruptive ClientsClients in group express a wide range of feelings, thoughts, and behaviors. Some members may disrupt the work of the group by challenging or interrupting others, demonstrating their impatience and restlessness, or otherwise offending other group members. Some strategies to address these disruptions are to Ensure that all clients know the group rules; provide them in writing, if possible. Consistently point out group rules about disruptive behaviors and the consequences for engaging in them. Reassess the client’s level of readiness to change, and assign the client to another group if appropriate. Hold individual counseling sessions to discuss specific disruptive behaviors, how they are disruptive, and why they are not allowed; then explore and identify factors that may underlie the behaviors. Refer the client to a mental health professional if needed. The Angry Client in Group Problem behaviors • Yelling • Foul language • Interrupting • Being mean or insulting to others Key concepts for counselors • Be in control. • Avoid a power struggle. • Address the behavior, not the content. • Don’t raise your voice. What to do Listen reflectively to validate the client’s feelings and to deescalate the situation. If the client remains angry, use these approaches: • State that you are there to protect and safeguard the members of the group. • Identify specific behaviors that are inappropriate. • State that these behaviors are not allowed. • Identify the consequences if the behaviors continue (e.g., being removed from the group, not being permitted to participate in discussion for the remainder of the group session). • Follow through with the stated consequences if the behaviors are repeated. • Transfer the client to a different group or clinical service. Working With Quiet, Withdrawn ClientsClients may be reluctant to participate in group therapy for many reasons. They may be fearful or ashamed of revealing to strangers the extent of their substance use and related behaviors. Cultural values may inhibit the sharing of personal problems with those outside the family. Language and comprehension barriers may make it difficult to follow or participate in the conversation.Clients may refuse to take part in group discussions beyond the level of perfunctory comments because they resent being in treatment, are depressed or have some other mental disorder, find the group boring, or are uncomfortable in a group. Some clients resist treatment because they believe that they do not have a disease or do not belong in treatment.Some strategies to assist withdrawn clients are to Ask clients individually why they are quiet; then explore options based on the feedback. Assess and diagnose language and comprehension skills, and assign clients to a group that functions at an appropriate pace and level. Provide individual mentoring to ensure that treatment information is conveyed and understood. Create a “buddy system,” pairing clients to encourage a sense of acceptance and belonging among the members of the group. Contract with the client to increase participation in the group incrementally. Refer the client for psychiatric evaluation, if needed. Adjust the client’s treatment plan to include individual rather than group counseling if that seems to be in the client’s best interest. Helping the Client “Speak” A counselor noted that, time after time, a client sat quietly in group and spoke only a few words, usually when she was called on. Despite gentle, persistent encouragement from the members of the group and the counselor, the client was quiet and watchful. After a week, the counselor suggested this reticent client write out whatever she might want to communicate. The client was instructed to take an open-ended approach to the writing, similar to writing in a journal. The counselor also asked the client to complete the following statements: • My health concerns are • The most stress this week came from • This week I’d rate my stress level as ___, with 1 being low and 10 being high 1. • The best thing that happened this week was • I’m working on my treatment goals by • How I’m feeling about group is • My most likely relapse trigger is • I get support for the healthy changes I’m making from • I participated in the following substance-free activities this week After several days, the client returned with a sheet containing her thoughts and comments about daily events, her concerns for her children, and the statements completed. The counselor used the information to begin developing a relationship with the client that helped her feel more comfortable in the program and ultimately with the group. Responding to Intermittent AttendanceIt takes time for a group to become a cohesive unit, and clients who do not attend sessions regularly can impede the group process. The client who misses sessions may feel left out of discussions and may jeopardize the development of trust among group members that is at the heart of forthright communication. Counselors may find that such clients are strongly ambivalent about being in treatment, have practical barriers that prevent them from attending regularly, or feel uncomfortable in the group.Some strategies to assist these clients are to Assess their readiness to change, and assign them to a precontemplator or other group whose members are at a similar stage of readiness. Identify and address any barriers such as lack of reliable transportation, conflicting work hours, lack of child care, protests by the spouse or significant others to treatment, and fear of violence from a domestic partner. Assign these clients to a group whose members share a similar cultural orientation, age range, gender, substance used, or level of psychological functioning. Provide refreshments on days when attendance is high to reward desired behavior. Monitor attendance and seek guidance from the supervising clinician.Go to:Safety and SecurityClients, family members, and staff members must feel comfortable and safe when coming to the IOT program. IOT programs that treat high-risk clients need to monitor these clients carefully, anticipate problems, and plan appropriate interventions. Common safety and security issues that IOT programs face are identified by examples inexhibit 7-1along with the counselor responses.Exhibit 7-1. Examples of Immediate Safety Concerns and Counselor Responses Threat of violence against another.While in group, a male client expressed strong feelings of anger toward another man involved with the client’s ex-wife. The client stated that he had a gun and wanted to kill the other man. Counselor response.The counselor removed the client from the group and engaged him in a discussion about his feelings and remarks. The counselor expressed concern about the client’s well-being and assessed whether he understood the seriousness of his statements. The client’s anger began to subside, and the counselor had him sign a “no violence” contract. For several days thereafter, the counselor telephoned or spoke in person with the client to assess his feelings and thoughts. The client stated he would “never do anything like that” and had regretted his outburst. Threat of suicide.A female client telephoned her counselor and said she was tired of struggling with her addictions and other problems and was thinking about killing herself. Counselor response.The counselor assessed the immediacy of the threat by reviewing the case record to determine whether there had been any previous attempts at suicide and asking the client whether she had a specific plan and the means to carry out the plan. If the counselor were still concerned, he or she would have consulted immediately with the supervisor or program director to develop and document a plan to inform the police, relatives, and the client’s doctor and scheduled an immediate one-on-one session. Because these criteria were not met, the counselor, with the agreement of the client, scheduled an individual therapy session. During the session the counselor and client negotiated a “no suicide” contract that included a commitment by the client to see a psychiatrist for evaluation as soon as possible. The counselor recorded the incident in the case record and discussed it further with the supervisor. Presence of Drug Dealers or Gang Members at the FacilityEvery IOT program should post prominent signs (in multiple languages where appropriate) inside and outside its facility that prohibit loitering, drug-related activity, or unauthorized persons on the premises. One or more trained staff members promptly and firmly should ask individuals not in treatment or not participating as family members to leave. Police assistance should be requested if there is any resistance to the request or if unauthorized individuals return.In some cases, a client may encourage the presence of drug dealers or gang members. Criminal justice-mandated clients and individuals who are ambivalent about treatment, for example, may be susceptible to the influence of individuals who use substances and are part of their social networks. If the counselor finds this to be true, the counselor should inform the client that program rules prohibit such activity and explain the consequences of the client’s continued involvement with drug dealers or gang members. A client may need the encouragement of the counselor and the support of program rules and policies to end harmful associations.Stalking, Domestic Violence, and Threats Against ClientsIOT programs must take appropriate steps to ensure the safety of clients and staff members during treatment. Safety may be threatened by stalkers, violent domestic partners, former spouses and significant others, drug-related associates, or gang members. Counselors should consider following these steps: Privately and in a nonjudgmental way, ask the client about restraining orders, threats, or violent incidents that have occurred or that may occur. Knowing about possible problems helps staff members and the client take needed precautions. They can be alert for evidence of any immediate danger and attempt to prevent it. Treatment staff have a duty to warn if the danger is clear and imminent, provided that confidentiality regulations are met (CSAT 2004b). Intervene early to deescalate any situation that potentially could become violent. Place violence-related information, such as occurrences of stalking, in the client’s case record. Help the client create a detailed, personal safety plan, and include it in the case record. (See TIP 25,Substance Abuse Treatment and Domestic Violence[CSAT 1997b], for a sample plan.) Require the client to sign a no-contact agreement that prohibits contact with a batterer during the course of treatment, with clearly delineated consequences for violations. Assist the client in obtaining a civil protection order that prohibits harassment, contact, communication, or physical proximity by a batterer, stalker, or other threatening individual. Connect the client to community services that address domestic violence, such as advocates, counselors, emergency housing, and financial assistance.Treating Violent ClientsOccasionally, a client may display violent behaviors while in treatment, such as brandishing a weapon or threatening others. IOT staff can take these steps: Have all newly admitted clients sign a client code of conduct that states that threats of violence or acts of violence result in immediate termination of treatment and possible criminal prosecution. Give examples. Notify a law enforcement agency if a threat to safety exists or an assault or other crime occurs on the program premises; report the incident and client’s name, address, and treatment status, as permitted by Federal regulations. If the client is mandated into treatment from the justice system, follow the steps prescribed in the program’s agreement with the justice agency. Certain rule violations, for instance, may require that the IOT provider notify the justice agency. Response to other violations may fall within the discretion of the treatment program. (See TIP 44,Substance Abuse Treatment for Adults in the Criminal Justice System[CSAT 2005d].) Notify supervisors about threats.Clients Arriving Under the Influence of Drugs or AlcoholClients in IOT programs are expected to attend sessions drug and alcohol free. Arriving under the influence interferes with clients’ participation, their ability to recall material covered, and the ability of other group members to benefit from therapy. It also indicates that a client’s substance use disorder is active and that an alternative treatment plan is indicated, at least for that day. Strategies to respond to such occurrences are as follows: Develop clear program rules regarding use of drugs during treatment.If a client arrives under the influence, a therapeutic response is called for. The counselor takes the client aside, reviews the rules, and helps the client arrange alternative transportation if the client drove to the program. The client is instructed to return when abstinent and is informed that the substance use will be discussed in the next session. The counselor also can write a note to or call the client to emphasize that the client is expected to return to the group—actions that are intended to normalize the event and reduce any feelings of failure and shame. Assess the client’s health status.When a client arrives under the influence of drugs or alcohol, the counselor should assess the client’s need for acute care or detoxification. If it is indicated, the counselor should refer the client to detoxification. In a life-threatening overdose situation, no signed release is required to arrange for emergency medical care. If indicated, emergency personnel can be called. If acute care is refused, the counselor should contact a family member or significant other to escort the client home. (Unless the situation is life threatening, the significant other can be contacted only if the client has signed a release specifying such contact is permitted.) The counselor also should provide the family member with emergency care numbers. Under the Influence in Group George arrives at group intoxicated. His speech is slurred, he staggers somewhat, and he laughs loudly and inappropriately. Counselor response. • Inserts an educational video, and instructs the group to continue on its own for the next 15 minutes. Alternatively, asks another staff member to sit in temporarily with the group. • Escorts George from the group. • Obtains a urine sample and conducts a Breathalyzer™ test to determine the substances consumed. • Asks George in a one-on-one session how he will return home. Because George drove to the facility, the counselor tells him that he cannot drive home and that the counselor will contact police if George tries to drive. The counselor reviews with George the names of family members who can provide a ride home. The counselor follows applicable Federal, State, and local laws regarding contacts with authorities (CSAT 2004b). • Allows George to use the phone to call his wife to pick him up. Note: Some programs pay for a cab. • Expresses concern about the substance use and encourages George to return to the next session where the episode will be discussed therapeutically. Key point.The counselor did not engage George in a discussion about his substance use, such as why it occurred and the circumstances. Instead, the counselor immediately focused on confirming George’s substance use, ensuring his safety, encouraging him to return to treatment when sober, and preserving group time for the benefit of the other clients. Go to:Client PrivacyTreatment programs often receive inquiries about clients or unsolicited information about clients. Some clients in treatment may be HIV positive but indicate they have not reported their status to their partners or a well-known leader or celebrity may enter the program. Each situation presents client privacy and ethical issues for IOT providers.Inquiries About ClientsFederal confidentiality regulations do not permit providers to reveal, even indirectly, that someone is a client unless a signed release has been obtained from the client and is on file. IOT staff members must consult a list of client-approved individuals before they (CSAT 2004b) Acknowledge that a client is a participant in the program. Share any information. Transfer a telephone call to the client. Take a message for a client.Unsolicited Information About ClientsClients’ spouses, domestic partners, or other acquaintances may leave messages with information about clients’ continued substance abuse or other activities and history while they are in treatment. Sometimes these individuals share their identities but do not want them revealed to clients because they fear for their safety. The counselor can respond to unsolicited information by (1) raising the general topic with the client during individual counseling and revising the treatment plan accordingly and (2) increasing the frequency of drug testing if substance use has been reported. The Informant Maria calls the IOT counselor to say that her husband Juan (an IOT client) is drinking almost every night and gets really drunk every weekend. She insists that the program “has to do something about it—treatment isn’t working.” Counselor response.Because Juan has signed a release that permits the counselor to speak with Maria, the counselor asks for her permission to confront Juan with this information. Maria refuses permission because she is afraid Juan will be angry with her. The counselor schedules a session with the couple to discuss problems at home. The counselor tells Maria that, without her permission, the information will not be conveyed directly; rather, it will be used in the most therapeutic manner possible. That is, the counselor will pay increased attention to Juan’s behavior and communications and will perform breath tests more frequently to obtain evidence of alcohol use. Key points. • The counselor avoids being drawn into keeping the wife’s secrets; a couples session is scheduled to discuss openly the relationship and the husband’s drinking. • IOT staff members must have a written release to discuss Juan’s behavior with anyone. • Spouses and others who provide information about clients need to be protected from possible harm. • Information obtained “anonymously” can be therapeutically useful. • Clients may continue in the program, even though they may be surreptitiously using substances, if all other program criteria are met. Knowledge of HIV Status Withheld From PartnerSubstance abuse, particularly the injection of drugs, increases risk of HIV infection (Pickens et al. 1993). During treatment the IOT counselor may learn that a client has not informed a partner of his or her HIV-positive status, exposing the partner to potential infection. The following approaches help reduce this risk while maintaining client confidentiality: Ensure that the client is informed fully about the connections among drug use, unprotected sex, and the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Acknowledge and discuss with the client any fears, feelings of embarrassment, and guilt about revealing his or her HIV status to a partner. Include information about HIV transmission in educational materials and presentations made to family members. Assist the client in finding ways to talk about the issue with the partner, offer assistance in informing the partner if the client consents, and refer the client to an HIV/AIDS counselor for assistance. Encourage the client to participate in a support group for HIV-positive individuals, and provide a specific program referral. Discuss possible referrals to community-based providers if notifying the partner results in a need for services.(See TIP 37, Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons With HIV/AIDS [CSAT 2000c].)Entry of a Well-Known Individual Into TreatmentRecovery from substance use disorders is the focus of treatment for all clients, regardless of their position or visibility in the community. When a well-known person, such as a political leader, sports personality, artist, member of the clergy, or media representative, enters an IOT program, a variety of issues may surface. Examples include Increased risk to maintaining privacy and confidentiality.Interest in the client may result in inquiries by media representatives, curious callers, or program visitors. Remind all staff, including administrative and support personnel, as well as clients, to adhere to the program’s confidentiality procedures that protect the privacy of every client. Feelings of privilege.Well-known clients may enter treatment with a belief that they do not need to follow all the program’s procedures or meet each requirement. Counselors must assist these clients in assimilating as quickly as possible into the treatment milieu by (1) relating to the private and not the public individual, (2) communicating treatment procedures and requirements, and (3) securing a signed behavioral contract. Individuals who are well known in the community may be concerned about protecting their privacy. The IOT counselor can assist these clients by (1) acknowledging their concerns while assuring them that others in similar circumstances have completed treatment and are recovering successfully, (2) evaluating the feasibility of their being treated out of town, (3) reviewing and discussing the program’s confidentiality regulations and policies, and (4) encouraging clients to attend support group meetings, which have a strong tradition of protecting the identity of participants. Effect on the treatment milieu.The presence of high-profile clients or relatives and friends of such clients may mean that the treatment environment is tense or unsettled because of media attention; group cohesion based on trust may be slow to develop. The IOT counselor might consider these approaches: (1) discuss interpersonal issues that a client may have with other clients in individual counseling sessions, (2) use the group process to discuss confidentiality, trust, or other concerns, and (3) place any clients who express a concern about being in a group with a high-profile client in different groups. Dual relationships.High-profile clients may offer to help the counselor or program financially, through a personal appearance, or through their influence. Acceptance of such an offer from a client introduces a “dual relationship,” which is unethical. Programs should not accept gifts or favors from clients beyond the published fee schedules. Only after a client has been out of treatment for an extended period (which many programs consider to be 1 year or longer) should the person be considered a successful alumnus and eligible to support the program in these ways.Go to:Clients Who WorkMany clients have employment-related challenges, which can include schedule conflicts, associating with co-workers who use substances, and unrealistic employer requests.Conflicting Work and Treatment SchedulesIndividuals who enter IOT may face conflicts between work responsibilities and attending IOT group sessions. Some clients may rotate shifts or be asked to work overtime or work on weekends. Work schedules may interfere with treatment sessions. This situation most likely occurs when the employer is unaware that the employee is in treatment. The following approaches may be helpful, depending on the client’s situation: Encourage clients to make treatment and recovery their first priority; help clients understand that by doing so they are better able to meet their work obligations. Support clients in making treatment a high priority by being flexible with treatment schedules. Encourage clients to inform their employers that they have a health condition and to ask the employers to cooperate with efforts to address the health condition.Working and Socializing With Co-Workers Who Use SubstancesClients may have used substances with co-workers and may find it difficult to renegotiate their relationships with co-workers and to avoid circumstances that can lead to relapse. Options for addressing these issues include Assisting the client in identifying specific work-related circumstances that may be uncomfortable or increase the risk of relapse Encouraging the client to distance himself or herself from co-workers who use substances Using role plays and other counselor-client interactions so the client can practice responding to questions about treatment and invitations to use substances in ways that preclude uncomfortable discussions and limit risk-oriented situations Encouraging the client to transfer to another work environment that is more supportive of recovery, if possibleEmployer RequestsIf the employer referred the client to treatment, the employer may expect information from the IOT provider about whether the client can assume his or her job responsibilities. Many large employers have policies that address this question, specifying when an employee can resume driving a bus or carrying a gun and mandating regular drug testing for a specified period. Key points concerning this issue include that IOT providers do not have the expertise to determine whether a client can perform his or her job duties. Only the employer can determine this. IOT providers can inform an employer (with the client’s consent) about the client’s progress in treatment and the drug test results. IOT providers can refer the employer to resources such as professional associations and the drug-free workplace information available on the Internet from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Workplace Resource Center (workplace.samhsa.gov). IOT providers can negotiate with the employer for an additional period of continuing care for the employee; this period reinforces treatment gains and reduces the risk of relapse.Millions of private-sector workers in the aviation, maritime, railroad, mass transit, pipeline, and motor carrier industries are governed by Federal legislation (the Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991) that makes workplace drug testing mandatory. If an employee of one of these industries fails a workplace drug test and is mandated to treatment, the treatment program is required to inform the employer in writing of assessment results and treatment recommendations (Macdonald and Kaplan 2003).Helping Clients Achieve BalanceOnce in treatment, clients sometimes try to make up for past harmful behavior during periods of substance abuse. Feeling guilty and remorseful, clients may take on additional work, extend their workdays, and try to become perfect employees. IOT providers should caution clients about the risk of compromising their recovery efforts by taking on too much responsibility too quickly. The following responses may assist a client who tries to overcompensate: Remind the client that recovery is the first priority. Encourage the client to maintain balance and perspective with respect to the type and intensity of activities that are undertaken. Assist the client in understanding that there will be time to address past mistakes once recovery is solidly underway. Conflicting Schedules Emily decided to seek treatment for her substance use disorder. She was employed at a firm that depended on her to work on key projects. During treatment entry, the IOT counselor learned that Emily’s supervisor sometimes expected her to work beyond regular hours. On these occasions she would be unable to attend IOT group sessions consistently. Counselor response.After exploring this issue, the counselor concluded that Emily was unable to resolve her schedule conflicts with her employer without jeopardizing her position. The counselor then arranged for Emily to attend a Saturday group session and to increase the number of individual counseling sessions to compensate for the reduced number of group sessions. Emily was able to complete treatment successfully. Co-Workers Who Use Substances John and several co-workers went out together every Friday evening after work and drank heavily. They drank on Saturday and continued drinking during the Sunday football games they watched together. After making a decision to stop drinking and enter treatment, John wondered what he could say to his co-workers. Counselor response.The counselor suggested that John follow these steps: • Maintain distance from friends and co-workers who use substances. • Avoid explaining or defending his decision to enter treatment. • Avoid giving detailed explanations for refusing invitations to activities where substances are used. • Practice using concrete statements to avoid situations in which substances are used, such as “I need to attend to personal problems in the family”; “Thanks, but no.” Practice these statements in group sessions; role play the responses in individual counseling sessions. The counselor also worked with John to develop a new social network and find recreational activities that would support his recovery. Go to:Boundary IssuesClients in treatment and IOT program staff members interact with one another on many levels—intellectual, emotional, and spiritual. The IOT experience is intense for all participants. Forming a therapeutic relationship with the client helps the counselor focus on the client’s recovery and influence the client’s behavior. At the same time, clients work together in group sessions over weeks and months on issues of profound significance to them. Furthermore, group members may attend community-based support groups together during and after IOT. In the process, they often develop trust and genuine concern and caring for one another. The intensity and environment of an IOT program can lead to behaviors and issues that challenge the boundaries between staff members and clients. The following are examples of these challenges and suggested responses.Clients Giving Gifts to StaffGift giving is relatively common and may have meanings and consequences that require careful consideration by counselors. For example, the customs and traditions of some cultures encourage gift giving to show respect for someone who offers a valuable service. Recent immigrants from these cultures may continue this practice and bring a small gift or food item to the IOT counselor or other program staff members. In some cases, failure to accept the gift may be viewed as a lack of courtesy and result in the client’s dropping out of treatment.Other gifts given by clients to IOT staff members may be inappropriate and should be refused politely and tactfully. Most program rules prohibit staff members from accepting gifts if they Exceed a certain value (e.g., more than $20) Are not the result of a religious or cultural tradition Are offered in anticipation of some response or benefit (e.g., special treatment or favor) Are obviously personal in nature Are likely to cause discomfort, questions, or confusion for others about the relationship between counselor and clientOther programs permit only such gifts as flowers, candy, cookies, or plants that can be shared by all staff members and clients rather than given to an individual staff member.IOT providers should develop program rules that discourage gift giving and discuss these rules with clients. However, the rules should permit some flexibility for individual circumstances. It is recommended that programs require staff members to report all gifts to supervisory personnel and in the case record. Counselors should be familiar with the program’s policies on these issues. The Meaning of Gifts: A Cultural Perspective A gift has meaning both to the individual who gives it and to the one who receives it. Understanding and appropriately acknowledging the true meaning of a gift always require an awareness of the giver’s cultural background. For example, many cultures place significant value on relationships rather than on individual priorities or achievement. The giving of a gift recognizes and reflects the value of the relationship and signals respect and caring. Gifts are given frequently and generally are not connected to an expectation of favor or privilege. By accepting modest and especially handmade gifts from these clients, IOT staff members acknowledge the respect, cultural values, and practices of these individuals. Socializing Among ClientsIOT programs differ in the degree of socializing expected outside group sessions. Some programs encourage clients to attend mutual-help meetings together and support one another in other aspects of their lives. Other programs discourage contact between clients except within the program. Most IOTs have rules regarding dating, sexual involvement, or other pairing of clients that could undermine treatment.Client Relationships Involving Substance UseSometimes clients meet in an IOT program and decide to use drugs or alcohol together. Others may be acquainted before entering treatment and continue a relationship that includes substance use. Options for the counselor include the following: Reassess the readiness of clients for treatment and recovery. Develop a written contract for abstinence, and have clients sign it. Refer clients to separate treatment programs. Provide individual therapy for one client until the other client graduates from the program.Socializing Between Staff and ClientsThe therapeutic relationship between an IOT counselor and a client is built on caring, trust, and genuine interest in the recovery of the client. These three elements form a basic building block of the treatment alliance. To safeguard the therapeutic dyad and maintain the quality of the treatment environment, IOT programs typically prohibit staff-client activities such as socializing and doing favors. Program consequences for violations of these rules of professional conduct should be clear and applied consistently to all program staff, from administrators to support personnel. Consequences may vary, based on the circumstances, and can include supervisory reprimand and counseling, oral or written warnings, probation, and dismissal. In some cases, the counselor who violates prohibitions must be reported to his or her licensing or certification board. The Client Is My Neighbor The IOT counselor recognizes a new client in the waiting room as her neighbor. The neighbor is surprised to see the counselor. Counselor response.The counselor asks to speak privately to the neighbor in her office. The counselor acknowledges the social relationship that exists between them and states that she will not be involved in any way with the neighbor’s treatment. The counselor also explains confidentiality regulations and indicates that the neighbor is in charge of how they relate to each other outside the treatment setting. The counselor also discloses the relationship to his or her supervisor to ensure that the counselor is not involved, even tangentially, in the client’s case. Counselor Observes the Client Using Substances in the Community Residents in a small, rural community occasionally enjoy dancing at the local nightspot. One evening an IOT counselor observes a client drinking at the bar. Counselor response.The counselor leaves the establishment as soon as possible and does not acknowledge the client. Subsequently, in the treatment setting, the counselor meets with the client one on one. The counselor states the facts of the incident, expresses concern about the possible relapse, reminds the client of the agreement not to use substances, and, using motivational interviewing techniques, asks the client to determine how to handle the return to drinking. Counselors With Dual RolesMany IOT counselors are also members of mutual-help programs and must maintain appropriate boundaries between these two roles. For example, it would not be appropriate for an IOT counselor to become a client’s sponsor. A counselor also might meet an IOT program client by chance at a mutual-help meeting, particularly in a small community. Counselors should avoid attending meetings that current or former clients attend. When this is not possible, an IOT counselor should avoid sharing his or her personal issues at that meeting. If a counselor in this situation needs to talk, he or she should take someone aside after the meeting or call his or her sponsor. Some cities have “counselor only” meetings that are not listed in directories. The mutual-help program’s intergroup office or other counselors are good resources for locating such meetings.Go to:Appendix 7-A. Instruments for Assessing Relapse PotentialClinicians have access to several instruments that help clients identify situations that pose high risks of relapse and understand their personal relapse triggers. Most instruments are not under copyright and can be used free of charge. More information about these tools, including information on obtaining copies and links to downloadable versions, can be found at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s Web sitewww.niaaa.nih.govby entering “Alcoholism Treatment Assessment Instruments” into the site’s search engine.Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale (AASE)AASE evaluates a client’s confidence in the ability to abstain from drinking in 20 situations that present common drinking cues. The instrument comprises 40 items that gauge a client’s risk of relapse on four scales: when the client is experiencing Negative emotions (e.g., depression, frustration) Feelings of well-being (e.g., celebrating, on vacation) Physical pain (e.g., headache, fatigue) Cravings (e.g., testing willpower, experimenting with one drink)AASE is a paper-and-pencil instrument that can be administered and scored in 20 minutes. No training is required to use it. It can be used to evaluate clients admitted to an IOT program, to guide treatment, or to design individualized relapse prevention strategies. A user-friendly version of AASE can be found atwww.adai.washington.edu/instruments/pdf/AASE.pdf.Alcohol Effects Questionnaire (AEQ)AEQ assesses the positive and negative effects that clients expect alcohol to have. Based on their beliefs about alcohol, clients respond “agree” or “disagree” to 40 statements. AEQ yields scores in eight different categories that describe the expected effects of alcohol: general positive feelings, social and physical pleasure, sexual enhancement, power and aggression, social expressiveness, relaxation and tension reduction, cognitive and physical impairment, and unconcern. Administration and scoring of the pencil-and-paper AEQ take 10 minutes, and no special training is required. Although AEQ has been used largely as a research instrument, it can be used therapeutically to assess the effects a client desires to achieve by drinking and to initiate discussions about alternative methods of attaining those effects. The AEQ has proved especially helpful with college students who use alcohol.Alcohol-Specific Role Play Test (ASRPT)ASRPT uses role playing to gauge client responses to 10 different situations that pose a threat of relapse. Clients listen to taped prompts and then act out their responses, which are videotaped for scoring purposes. Five of the situations involve clients playing out an interaction with another person (e.g., a scenario in which a business contact asks the person in recovery to complete a deal over drinks at a local bar); five require clients to act out their responses to an internal conflict (e.g., a scenario in which the person in recovery has been working in the yard all day and suddenly thinks that a cold beer sounds good). The ASRPT can be administered in 20 minutes; male and female role-play partners and a videotape technician are necessary. Training is required to give the test, and trained judges must score it.Situational Confidence Questionnaire (SCQ)SCQ assesses a client’s confidence in the ability to cope with eight types of high-risk drinking situations. For each of the SCQ’s 39 items, clients indicate on a 6-point scale (ranging from “not at all confident” to “very confident”) how they feel about their ability to resist the urge to drink. SCQ is available in paper-and-pencil and computerized versions and can be self-administered in 8 minutes. (Scoring for the paper-and-pencil version takes 5 minutes; the computerized version is scored as soon as the questionnaire is completed.) Required minimal training is available from a user’s guide that can be purchased with SCQ.


Part 1: Personal Identity Collage  Part 2: A-B-C Dimensions of Personal IdentityThe images above  are a reflection of who I am.  For “A” Dimension, the picture of the 27 represents my age, I am 27 years old. I am a female that why I have a lady with a girl power tattoo. I am from Mexican decent and instead of using a picture of a taco, I used a picture of a “concha” which is a type of Mexican bread. My primary language is Spanish, but I also speak English. The photo with two boys talking represent the both languages I speak. For “B” Dimension, I am currently a student at Grand Canyon University. I am going for my teaching degree. Although I am still in the process on becoming a teacher, I am a long term sub for 3rd grade. This will be my second year. One of my major hobbies is anything handmade. I like to go online search for crafts that I can make. Lastly for “C” dimension, a historical moment for me was the time that I became a mom. I a mom to a boy. I like to keep myself informed of the best out there for babies. I breastfeed my son up until he was 6 months. It was significant for me because not a lot of young mothers do that. Another significant moment that I have had in my life is traveling. The pictures above are the places that I have traveled to. It has made an impact in my life because I have learned about different cultures. This past year, I was able to travel to Russia for the world cup. This was a dream of mine. The fact that I have been able to accomplish goals, it has been very satisfying. Part 3: Personal Identity: Effect on the ClassroomOur personal identity affects in everything we do, especially in our classroom. Some of the cons I see from my personal identity is that  I work with students who are Hispanic. Due to the school being located in a border town, there is not much variety. I would love for my students to see other cultures. This is important because no matter where they go, they will have to work with someone who will have different views than them.  A pro that I see in my personal identity is that I have traveled around the world. I have seen different cultures. When it comes to having a diverse classroom, student and teacher must know a little about each other  culture. We as educator must provide a safe learning environment for students. The best way to do this is by getting to know other cultures and costumes. If students get to know each other, they will built relationship with classmates. Also, they will be able to connect with the teacher. The building of relationship is important because it helps built that classroom environment. When there is a respectful and safe classroom, students will learn. Another con that I see on my personal identity is that I am a long term sub that is teaching 3rd grade. I am not a fully certified teacher. However, I am enrolled at a university. The pro is that the school district offers many professional development meetings. My students deserve a teacher who is highly qualified, this could definitely affect their learning. The advantage is that teachers are often evaluated and observed. Although teachers are moving away from Arizona, the district is providing training to its employees to provide best teaching practices.Priscilla,You did a nice job on your first assignment for the class. Below are my findings from your submission. Let me know if you need anything or have any questions. I am here for your success.Shelly1084 words in all for the entire assignmentPart 1: Personal Identity CollageCreate a collage that exemplifies the three dimensions of your personal identity through photographs, graphics, and images of artifacts based on the A-B-C Dimensions of Personal Identity. Do not include any photographs of yourself.Part 2: A-B-C Dimensions of Personal IdentityIn a 250-500 word rationale, discuss how your images exemplify the three dimensions of your personal identity that defends your choices for each dimension consistent with Arredondo’s theories and definitions. Part 3: Personal Identity: Effect on the ClassroomWrite a 250-500 word summary that discusses personal identity and the implications for a diverse classroom.  For example, based on your findings, how will your personal identity affect your classroom culture, expectations, relationships, verbal and non-verbal communication, class materials, and assignments? Include both challenges and opportunities.Use 3-4 scholarly resources to inform your assignment. 0 resources usedPrepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.No, this is not in correct APA format. Please check the templates in the Student Success Center. This assignment uses a rubric. Review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to Turnitin.4%Please submit all parts of this assignment as one submission to LoudCloud.

LuisMiguelValdez MagillsSurveyofAmericanLiterature

Brehm, J., (2006). Luis Miguel Valdez. Magill’s Survey of American Literature, 1-6. BiographyOne of the most influential Chicano playwrights of his time, Valdez created a drama dedicated to social progress and to the full exploration of Chicano identity.Luis Miguel Valdez was born on June 26, 1940, in Delano, California, the second of ten brothers and sisters. His mother and father were migrant farmworkers, and Luis began working in the fields at the age of six. Because his family traveled to the harvests in the San Joaquin Valley, Luis received little uninterrupted schooling.In an interview, Valdez discussed one significant, and ultimately fortunate, consequence of such a disruptive early life: His family had just finished a cotton harvest; the season had ended, the rains begun, but because their truck had broken down, the family had to stay put. Leaving school one day, Luis realized he had left behind his paper lunch bag, a precious commodity in 1946, given the paper shortages and the family’s poverty. When he returned to get it, however, he found his teacher had torn it up. She was using it to make papier-mâché animal masks for the school play. Luis was amazed by the transformation. Although he did not even know what a play was at the time, he decided to audition and was given the leading role as a monkey. The play was about Christmas in the jungle, and the following weeks of colorful preparation were exhilarating. A week before the show was to begin, however, his father got the truck fixed, and the family moved away. Valdez has said of the experience: “That left an unfillable gap, a vacuum I’ve been pouring myself into ever since.”The pang of that early disappointment sparked a fascination for the theater and a wealth of creative energy that was to bring Valdez remarkable success in the years ahead. Despite his intermittent schooling, he won a scholarship to San Jose State College in 1960. There he studied theater history and developed a lasting enthusiasm for classical Greek and Roman drama. His own work also began to take shape, and his first one-act play, The Theft, won a regional playwriting award. In 1965, he directed his first full-length play, The Shrunken Head of Pancho Villa, which audiences greeted warmly.After receiving a degree in English in 1964, Valdez spent several months traveling in Cuba before joining the San Francisco Mime Troupe. In 1965, he returned home to Delano and joined the newly formed United Farm Workers Union under the leadership of César Chávez. During this time, Valdez began fully to explore drama as a vehicle for social justice. He developed a form suitable for his migrant-worker audiences: a short skit, or acto, designed to inspire Chicanos to political action.These actos, often improvised on flatbed trucks for workers in the fields, proved so powerful as political weapons that Valdez’s life was threatened during the grape strike of 1967. Immensely popular with the workers, the actosaroused hostility in the growers, whose exploitative labor practices the plays satirized. Valdez has recalled being “beaten and kicked and jailed. . . . essentially for doing theater.” Still, he persisted, and the actosgained so much attention that the Teatro Campesino, or Farmworker’s Theater, toured the United States performing the works in 1967.From then on, Valdez’s work began to reach increasingly larger audiences. He left the fields late in 1967 for Del Rey, California, where he founded the Centro Campesino Cultural. Between 1969 and 1980, the troupe toured Europe four times and won an Obie Award. Despite such acclaim Valdez remained true to his Chicano, migrant-worker roots. Moving the troupe to Fresno, California, in 1969, Valdez founded an annual Chicano theater festival and began teaching at Fresno State College. As its audience grew, the troupe became more technically sophisticated but continued its efforts to “put the tools of the artist into the hands of the humblest, the working people.” The troupe moved in 1971 to rural San Juan Bautista, from which it toured widely among college campuses, while remaining deeply involved with the concerns of its own community.Having spent his entire career well outside mainstream, commercial theater, Valdez decided in 1978 to reach for a still larger audience. The result was Zoot Suit, a Broadway-style dance musical about the Sleepy Lagoon murder trial and the riots that followed in Los Angeles in 1943. Though still quite political, the play succeeds in being genuinely entertaining, particularly in its film adaptation. Like Zoot Suit, Bandido! (1981) and “I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges!” (1986) both reach for more general audiences and explore the Chicano struggle for identity against the limiting stereotypes imposed by an Anglicized history and American media. Such plays, as well as the successful 1987 film La Bamba, which Valdez wrote and directed, speak not only for Chicanos but also to white audiences, forcing them to reexamine their preconceptions about who Chicanos really are. These works also testify to Valdez’s extraordinary journey from migrant farmworker to one of the most vital Chicano voices in American drama.AnalysisFrom the earliest and simplest actos to the complex sophistication of “I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges!” nearly three decades later, Valdez’s plays have displayed a remarkable consistency of theme and purpose. Certainly, his work has evolved in scope, depth, and technique, but his basic objectives have remained constant: to expose social injustice, to satirize the oppressors, and to dramatize, in all of its fullness and variety, the struggle to achieve a viable Chicano identity.Born into a family of migrant farmworkers, Valdez knew firsthand the effects of oppression and exploitation. It was therefore quite natural that his first short plays would deal with the struggles of the farmworkers to unionize. These early actos were improvised using a unique collaborative method: Valdez would simply ask striking workers to show what had happened to them during the day. Employing masks or crude signs to indicate different characters — workers, scabs, growers, and so forth — the strikers, under Valdez’s direction, produced skits of engaging immediacy, broad humor, and a pointed political message. Their purpose was to raise consciousness, deflate the opposition’s authority, and point to a solution. Yet the plays were quite entertaining as well, often transforming and releasing the workers’ immediate feelings of fear and frustration through comedy and withering satire.Though some of the actos, such as Vietnam campesino (1970), can seem too bluntly didactic, Valdez learned much from them about making theater a vehicle for inspiring social action. He also sensed, eventually, the need to ground the Chicano experience in something more enduring than immediate political struggle. He returned to the ancient wellsprings of Aztec and Mayan culture to provide such a groundwork for the contemporary Chicano identity.In his introduction to Aztlan: An Anthology of Mexican American Literature(1972), Valdez frames the problem of Chicano marginalization explicitly:His birthright to speak as Man has been forcibly stripped from him. To his conqueror he is patently sub-human, uncivilized, or culturally deprived. The poet in him flounders in a morass of lies and distortions about his conquered people. He loses his identity with mankind, and self-consciously struggles to regain his one-to-one relationship with humanexistence. It is a long way back. . . . Such is the condition of the Chicano.That “long way back” took Valdez to pre-Columbian Mexico. What he found there were the achievements of Aztec and Mayan civilization, their astonishing developments in medicine, art, poetry, hygiene, urban planning, and religion, all of which he compares favorably to their European counterparts of the time. To combat the degradation of centuries of Anglo racism, of being seen as “foreigners in the continent of their birth,” Valdez wants to reconnect Chicanos to an ancient, proud, and venerable culture. Chicanos must, in his view, revive this connection and rethink their history if they are to maintain an identity in Anglo society.Valdez attempts this reconnection in a variety of ways. In Bernabé(1970), he creates a character, the village lunatic, who physically and metaphorically marries La Tierra (the Earth) and thus reestablishes the Mayan reverence for it. In Zoot Suit and Bandido!, Valdez reexamines history from the Chicano and Mexican perspective. Thus Tiburcio Vasquez, whom history had portrayed as a mere bandit working the California countryside from 1850 to 1875, becomes in Bandido! a revolutionary bent on political rebellion. Zoot Suit retrieves for the American conscience an overlooked period of intense racism culminating in the Sleepy Lagoon murder trial and the riots that followed. Both plays try not only to set the record straight but also to discover a source of pride for Chicanos in a history that has been unjustly debased.The consequence of Chicanos being cut off from the life-giving power of their history and culture is brilliantly dramatized in “I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges!,” in which Valdez explores the deeply problematic nature of assimilation into Anglo culture. In their desire to fit in with middle-class America, the members of the Villa family find themselves silenced and marginalized. Bit-part actors who rarely receive speaking roles, Buddy and Connie Villa have achieved a comfortable success, but their only connection with their own culture is the stereotyped Mexicans they portray on film. Their son, who enrolled in Harvard Law School at age sixteen, represents the possibility for the epitome of Anglo success. Yet he rebels against this assimilation and drops out of school, only to discover just how rigid the limitations are for Chicanos who reject an Anglo identity.Stylistically, Valdez is clearly not a realist, though some of his plays — those, for example, depicting actual historical events — employ elements of realism. In all of his plays, however, Valdez takes pains (often in the manner of Bertolt Brecht) to ensure that his audiences never forget that they are watching a play. He does not want to create the illusion of reality or to manipulate the audience into emotional identification with the characters. Plays within plays, characters who speak directly to the audience, radical shifts in time, and many other devices all serve to disrupt the illusion of reality and focus the audience’s attention on the artifice before them. Such strategies serve Valdez’s purposes well, for he wants audiences to maintain the necessary distance to reflect on the problems that his plays present and to relate them to the world outside the theater. Often the plays are open-ended or have multiple endings, and in this way, too, the audience must actively engage the play and resolve it for themselves. These methods do not provide a comfortable or easy theatrical experience, but the rewards of thinking hard about Valdez’s plays are indeed worth the effort.Las dos caras del patroncito First produced: 1965 (first published, 1971)Type of work: PlayThe boss trades places with one of his farmworkers and discovers how exploited they are.Las dos caras del patroncito (the two faces of the little boss) typifies, in many ways, Valdez’s early actos. The piece grew out of a collaborative improvisation during the grape strike of 1965 and dramatized the immediate and intense feelings of its audience. Like all the actos, it is brief, direct, didactic, intending not only to express the workers’ anger and urge them to join the union but also to satirize the growers and reveal their injustice. The play succeeds brilliantly by enacting a total reversal of what Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche termed the master/slave relationship.The play begins with an undocumented Mexican worker being visited by his patroncito, or “little boss,” who appears wearing a pig mask and smoking a cigar. Initially, both play their assumed roles of intimidating master and cowering slave to perfection. Soon, though, the patroncito waxes poetic over his Mexicans. Seeing them “barreling down the freeway” makes his “heart feel good; hands on their sombreros, hair flying in the wind, bouncing along happy as babies.” “I sure do love my Mexicans,” he says. The patroncito reveals a typical condescension, romanticizing the migrant workers’ lives and regarding them essentially as children. When the farmworker responds by putting his arm around him, however, the patroncito says; “I love ’em about ten feet away from me.”Their conversation takes a peculiar turn as the patroncito verbally coerces the farmworker into agreeing that the workers have it easy, with their “free housing” (labor-camp shacks), “free transportation” (unsafe trucks), and “free food” (beans and tortillas). The boss asserts that he himself suffers all the anxiety that comes from owning a Lincoln Continental, an expensive ranch house, and a wife with expensive tastes. At one point, he asks the farmworker, “Ever write out a check for $12,000?” The audience of migrant workers struggling to raise their wages to two dollars an hour would have felt the irony of such a question; the agony of writing out such a check is not something they would experience anytime soon, given their exploited condition.Yet the patroncito actually envies the farmworkers’ “freedom” and wishes to trade places. After some coaxing, the farmworker agrees, and the patroncitogives him his pig mask, whereupon the power relations between them are reversed. The farmworker now gives the boss a taste of his own medicine. He insults him and proceeds to claim his land, his house, his car, and his wife. The patroncito soon realizes that the game has gone too far. He does not want to live in the rat-infested shacks he so generously provides for his workers, or ride in his death-trap trucks, or work for such low wages.By the play’s end, the farmworker has so thoroughly abused his patroncito, calling him a “spic,” “greaseball,” and “commie bastard” — all the slurs the workers endured — that the patroncito calls for help from union activist César Chávez and screams “huelga” (“strike”). Thus the play brings him full circle from callous owner to union supporter and suggests that if the oppressors could put themselves in the place of the oppressed, they would see their own injustice.Zoot Suit First produced: 1978 (first published, 1992)Type of work: PlayThe Sleepy Lagoon murder trial of 1943 shows young Chicanos to be the victims of prejudice.Zoot Suit, though perhaps Valdez’s most commercial play, retains the political spirit of the early actos and anticipates the struggle for Chicano identity of Valdez’s later works. Because it is a musical, with terrific song and dance throughout, it is his most conventionally entertaining play, but because it dramatizes an overlooked episode in American history that reveals a pervasive racism against Chicanos, it is also one of his most powerful and socially relevant plays.Set in Los Angeles in the early 1940’s, the play centers around the trial and wrongful murder conviction of Henry Reyna and three other Chicano gang members, or pachucos. Act 1 explores the trial and, through flashback, the violence that leads up to it; act 2 deals with the efforts to appeal the conviction and free the pachucos. Throughout the play, Valdez gives the action an added dimension through the use of two extraordinary devices. One is the mythic figure of El Pachuco. He is larger than life, the zoot-suiter par excellence, the embodiment of Chicano pride, machismo, and revolutionary defiance. He dominates the play, though he is seen only by Henry and the audience. Indeed, he may be understood as a layer of Henry’s personality externalized, a kind of alter ego who continually advises Henry and comments on, at times even controls, the play. The second device is El Pachuco’s counterpart and antagonist, The Press. In Zoot Suit, the news media functions as an actual character who symbolizes the racist hysteria of public opinion during World War II. Significantly, it is The Press, rather than a prosecutor, that tries and convicts Henry.This racist hysteria (“EXTRA! EXTRA!, ZOOT-SUITED GOONS OF SLEEPY LAGOON! . . . READ ALL ABOUT MEXICAN BABY GANGSTERS!”) provides a crucial context for understanding the play. As the United States fought Nazis abroad, it imprisoned Japanese Americans at home, denied African Americans basic human rights, and harassed Mexican Americans in Los Angeles. The irony of Henry’s being arrested on trumped-up charges the night before he is to report to the Navy to join the fight against racist Germany is cynically pointed out by El Pachuco, who says that “the mayor of L.A. has declared all-out war on Chicanos.” In this climate, racial stereotypes, media-inspired fear, and repressive forces unleashed by war are quite enough to convict the pachucos, even in the absence of any real evidence.The trial itself is a mockery, a foregone conclusion, and thus Henry finds himself at the mercy of forces he did not create and cannot control. Even those who try to help him — his lawyer, George, and Alice, a reporter from the Daily People’s World — earn Henry’s resentment, for they, too, seem to be controlling his fate. In this sense, El Pachuco represents a compensating fantasy. He is always in control and indeed is able to freeze the action of the play, speak directly to the audience, rerun dialogue, or skip ahead at will. He is a kind of director within the play, and however vulnerable the other young pachucosare, El Pachuco remains invincible. Even when he is tripped and beaten by Marines, he rises up undaunted, clad only in a loincloth, like an Aztec god.Henry Reyna and the other pachucos are vindicated in the end, winning their appeal and a provisional kind of freedom. Yet Valdez presents multiple endings to Henry’s life story. He does so to make the audience see that Henry’s character still exists, as do the forces of racism that torment him, and the defiant spirit and cultural pride that will not allow his will to be broken.“I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges!” First produced:1986 (first published, 1986)Type of work: PlayIn a rebellious attempt to create his own identity, a young Chicano finds himself trapped by stereotypes.“I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges!” is Valdez’s most complex, ambitious, and satisfying play. Satirical, comic, filled with puns and painful insight, the play explores the search for an authentic Chicano identity against the limiting stereotypes and restricted possibilities afforded Mexican Americans in the 1980’s United States.The play is set in Los Angeles in the home of Connie and Buddy Villa, middle-aged Chicano bit-part actors. The conflict is sparked by the unexpected return of Sonny, their son. Defying his parents’ dreams for him, Sonny quits Harvard University Law School and thus forfeits his chance at the kind of Anglo success his parents have not been able to achieve. His return home, with his Chinese American girlfriend, and his announced intention to become an actor, writer, producer, and director — “the newest superstar in Hollywood” and “the next Woody Allen” — creates a crisis in the family that the rest of the play tries to resolve. In a tempestuous family quarrel, Sonny derides his parents’ acting; they have made careers playing stereotyped nonspeaking parts as maids, gardeners, bandits, and prostitutes.He proclaims his desire to surpass them. “I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges!” then moves to a play within a play. Sonny films his parents and his girlfriend, Anita, but when his parents are called off to a Latino Actors Guild meeting, he decides to act in another way. He takes his father’s gun and holds up several fast-food restaurants. The climax of the play occurs when police and news crews arrive at the Villa home; a standoff ensues, replete with gunfire, bullhorns, and live coverage. The play then offers three completely different endings, with Sonny either killing himself, becoming a television director, or returning to Harvard, via spaceship, to finish his law degree.Valdez gives the play’s most compelling theme, the struggle against racial stereotypes to find a viable Chicano identity, a complex and layered treatment. Even the characters’ names — Buddy, Connie, and Sonny Villa — suggest a divided identity. “Villa” recalls the Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa, but their first names are all too typically Anglo. Their cultural frame of reference, moreover, is almost exclusively that of white films and film stars. Throughout the play, they compare themselves and one another to Otto Preminger, Woody Allen, James Bond, Marlon Brando, Al Pacino, and many others. Their understanding of themselves and their world seems to have been defined not by Chicano role models but by Hollywood film stars.Sonny alone recognizes this problem, and he rebels against it. He sees that his parents’ roles as “silent” actors signify their powerlessness, their marginalized stature in Hollywood, and the invisibility of Chicanos generally. Sonny also understands that by acting the film roles of Mexican stereotypes, his parents have achieved in their private existence nothing more than a “low rated situation comedy” and “a cheap imitation of Anglo life,” with a comfortable home, swimming pool, and all the other trappings of middle-class America. Sonny wants no part of it. Yet he knows how limited his options are:Here’s the main event: the indispensable illiterate cholo gang member-heroin-addict-born-to-lose-image, which I suppose could account for 99 percent of my future employment in TV land. Just look hostile, dumb, and potentially violent. Preferably with rape on the mind, know what I mean?Thus Sonny’s decision to leave Harvard and create his own films is an attempt to create and control his own identity, not as an imitation Anglo but as a Chicano. For all of his insight and ambition, however, Sonny feels trapped. When his parents abandon his home movie, titled Types in Stereo, Sonny decides to make his acting real. Yet he merely assumes another role, and a stereotypical one at that, of the Chicano bandit. He robs fast-food restaurants, symbols of the emptiness he sees in American life, and thus gives in to the pressures against which he had fought.The play’s multiple endings leave readers and audiences perplexed. Clearly, though, Valdez wants audiences to step back and reflect on the relationship between acting and reality and to consider the options open, or perhaps closed, to someone like Sonny. Ultimately, the play forces audiences to think deeply about their own stereotypes and to see, in all of its painful complexity, the damage such stereotypes can do.SummaryUnlike many of his contemporaries who prefer to explore psychological conflicts or the complexities of personal relationships, Valdez has devoted his work to dramatizing social problems. His plays, early and late, expose the injustice endured by Chicanos — not to elicit pity or to portray them as victims but to focus attention on the forces of oppression and to make Chicanos fully visible in American society. In plays that are satirical, unconventional, unpredictable, painful, and often hilarious, Valdez succeeds in abolishing the stereotypes and showing not only what Chicanos have suffered but also who they really are.Discussion Topics•Compare Luis Miguel Valdez’s use of history in Zoot Suit and Bandido!•What does “I Don’t Have to Show You No Stinking Badges!” say about American society’s view of Chicanos? What does it say about the effect of American popular culture on ordinary lives?•How do Valdez’s plays show the influence of the dramatic methods of Bertolt Brecht?•How does Zoot Suit continue and expand upon the themes of Valdez’s actos?•In Zoot Suit, how does El Pachuco embody Chicano pride?•Does Valdez’s film La Bamba look at Chicano culture differently than his plays?Essay by: John BrehmBibliographyBroyles-Gonzales, Yolanda. El Teatro Campesino: Theater in the Chicano Movement. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994. Study drawing on previously unexamined materials, such as production notes and interviews with former ensemble members, to demystify the roles Valdez and El Teatro Campesino played in the development of a Chicano theater aesthetic.Elam, Harry J., Jr. Taking It to the Streets: The Social Protest Theatre of Luis Valdez and Amiri Baraka. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001. Explores the political, cultural, and performative similarities between El Teatro Campesino and Baraka’s Black Revolutionary Theater. An intriguing examination of the political theater of these two marginalized groups, Chicanos and African Americans, and their shared aesthetic.Flores, Arturo C. El Teatro Campesino de Luis Valdez. Madrid: Editorial Pliegos, 1990. This five-chapter study examines the importance, gradual development, theoretical considerations, touring, and “return to identity,” and the “steps to commercialization (1975-1980)” represented by Zoot Suit. A strong study with a bibliography. In Spanish.Huerta, Jorge A. Chicano Theatre: Themes and Forms. Ypsilanti, Mich.: Bilingual Press, 1982. Well-written and-illustrated study that begins with Valdez’s experiences in Delano in 1965. It contains an excellent immediate description with dialogue of these first energies and is written in the present tense for immediacy and energy. Provides some discussion of the beginnings of the San Francisco mime troupe and strong description of the actos and their literary history in Europe.Huerta, Jorge A. “Labor Theatre, Street Theatre, and Community Theatre in the Barrio, 1965-1983.” In Hispanic Theatre in the United States, edited by Nicolas Kanellos. Houston: Arte Publico Press, 1984. Placed at the end of a longer study of Hispanic theater, this essay takes on more importance by indicating Valdez’s contribution in a continuum of history. Good on contemporaries of El Teatro Campesino; strong bibliography.Kanellos, Nicolas. Mexican American Theater: Legacy and Reality. Pittsburgh: Latin American Literary Review Press, 1987. Begins with an examination of Valdez’s transformation from director of El Teatro Campesino to the urban commercial playwright of Zoot Suit in 1978. Cites Valdez’s contribution to the “discernible period of proliferation and flourishing in Chicano theatres” from 1965 to 1976, then moves on to examine other offshoots of the impulse.Morales, Ed. “Shadowing Valdez.” American Theatre 9 (November, 1992): 14-19. Excellent essay on Valdez, his followers, his film plans, his shelved Frida Kahlo project, and later productions in and around Los Angeles, with production stills. Includes an essay entitled “Statement on Artistic Freedom” by Valdez, in which he defends his nontraditional casting.Orona-Cordova, Roberta. “Zoot Suit and the Pachuco Phenomenon: An Interview with Luis Valdez.” In Mexican American Theatre: Then and Now, edited by Nicolas Kanellos. Houston: Arte Publico Press, 1983. The opening of the film version of Zoot Suit in 1982 prompted this interview, in which Valdez reveals much about his motives for working, his view of Chicano literature and art, and his solutions to “the entrenched attitude” that will not allow Chicano participation in these industries. Much on Pachuquismo from an insider’s point of view.Pottlitzer, Joanne. Hispanic Theater in the United States and Puerto Rico: A Report to the Ford Foundation. New York: Ford Foundation, 1988. This volume provides a brief history to 1965 and discusses the Hispanic theater during the upheaval of the Vietnam War. Also examines the theater’s activities and budget and pays homage to the inspiration of El Teatro Campesino and Valdez. Supplemented by an appendix and survey data.Valdez, Luis Miguel. “Zoot Suit and the Pachuco Phenomenon: An Interview with Luis Valdez.” Interview by Roberta Orona-Cordova. In Mexican American Theatre: Then and Now, edited by Nicolas Kanellos. Houston: Arte Publico Press, 1983. The opening of the film version of Zoot Suit prompted this interview, in which Valdez reveals much about his motives for working, his view of Chicano literature and art, and his solutions to “the entrenched attitude” that will not allow Chicano participation in these industries.


Autism Spectrum Disorder: Diagnoses and Symptoms ManagementRaCapella UniversityCapstoneApril 2020AbstractDo Latino Children that get diagnosed for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) early between 18 to 24 months manage symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late after 24 months? This is the bases for the research study. The significance of the study is that it will examine cases of Latino children not only in the United States, but in Venezuela as well.  This data can be used to review diagnoses and determine if being diagnosed early with ASD leads to better symptoms management. Autism Spectrum Disorder is guided by cognitive and social psychological theories. These frameworks are empirically supported behavioral orientations. Prospective participants will be identified through community outreach efforts, and partnerships with clinics and autism network partners.  The scientific community will benefit from the research, as data related to the late diagnoses will be shared with necessary stakeholders. Keywords: Autism Spectrum disorder, early diagnoses, late diagnoses, Latino childrenTable of ContentsCHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………. 5Background of the Problem……………………………………………………………………………….. ..6Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………………………………. 8Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………………………………………………… 9Significance of the Study……………………………………………………………………………………. 10Research Questions…………………………………………………………………………………………… 10Definition of Terms……………………………………………………………………………………………. 11Research Design………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 12CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW…………………………………………………..…13Theoretical Orientation for the Study………………………………………………………………… 13Review of the Literature……………………………………………………………………………………. 14Synthesis of the Research Findings…………………………………………………………………….. 18Critique of Previous Research Methods……………………………………………………………… 20Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY……………………………………………………………22 Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………………………………………………. 22Research Question and Hypotheses……………………………………………………………………. 22Research Design………………………………………………………………………………………………… 23Target Population and Sample…………………………………………………………………………… 23Procedures………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 25Ethical Considerations………………………………………………………………………………………. 27CHAPTER 4. EXPECTED FINDINGS/RESULTS…………………………………………29CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………32Implications……………………………………………………………………………………………………. .. 32Methodological Strengths and Weaknesses………………………………………………………… 33Suggestions for Future Research……………………………………………………………………….. 34CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTIONResearch shows that Latino children are diagnosed late for ASD. The problem is to find out if children who are diagnosed between 18 and 24 months manage their symptoms better than children who were diagnosed late which is after 24 months.  Research from Moody et al., (2013) shows that Latino children are diagnosed with ASD after 24 months of age. Studies have shown that some Latino children are diagnosed for ASD at 53 months (Moody et al., 2013), which is well past the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines of diagnoses between 18 and 24 months (CDC, 2019).  In contrast, white children are screened and diagnosed for ASD before 24 months of age (Becerra, Von-Ehrenstein, Heck…Ritz, 2014). Research is needed to determine if Latino children who are diagnosed early within the recommended timeframes, manage their ASD symptoms better than children who are diagnosed late.Autism Spectrum Disorder is complex and there are still many unknowns regarding the disorder (Harris et al., 2019). Therefore, the themes surrounding ASD may vary.  Social learning theoretical frameworks have assisted in identifying ways to prevent ASD diagnosing disparities by studying the children and their surroundings (Penner et al., 2013). Ethical procedures will include making sure all participants have signed HIPAA consents and are explained the parameters of the study.  The standards will include adhering to the ethics code sections 8 and 9 from the American Psychological Association.  Autism Spectrum Disorder in Latino childrenremains significantly lower than that of White children (Moody, Harris, Zittleman, Nease, Jr., & Westfall, 2019).  Latinochildren are also diagnosed later than the recommended timeframes (Moody, et al., 2019).  ASD diagnoses may include a myriad of symptoms. This leads to questions regarding symptoms management and if children who are diagnosed early manage symptoms better than children who are diagnosed late. Screenings and diagnoses after 24 months are considered later than the norm (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017).
The later the child is diagnosed can lead to additional symptoms or more severe symptoms (Koegel, Koegel, Ashbaugh & Bradshaw, 2013).  Individuals with ASD often exhibit aggression, tantrums, and self-injury. These behaviors are often secondary symptoms that may develop if not addressed properly (Koegel, et al., 2013).This proposal will advance the psychology field by designing a study to examine early and late diagnoses, and to determine if children who are diagnosed early manage their symptoms better. The proposal will address what is currently known about ASD diagnoses in Latino children, what is known in children who are diagnosed early and how symptoms are managed in each group.  According to Amaral (2017; Moody, et al., 2019), some possible reasons for late diagnoses includes language barriers, mental health stigmas, and reduced health literacy.  The results of literature reviews, health record reviews and interviews will be essential to the comparative study. The study will review early and late diagnoses and determine if being diagnosed early; as opposed to being diagnosed late, leads to better symptoms management. The study is quantitative, as it gathers opinions from parents, mental health therapists and medical records reviews. This information is then turned into statistical data that can be tracked and trended.Background of the StudyBurnside, Wright and Poulin-Dubois, (2017) states that Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder. This disorder can cause deficits in a person’s personality and behavior. This relates directly to Latino children because when these children experience ASD symptoms, they may be deemed as disruptive or labeled to have a behavior problem (Moody, et al., 2019). Children who are diagnosed early may avoid many symptoms associated with ASD (Zuckerman, 2014). Many of these children are not yet diagnosed with ASD, so, there are often few supports available to assist in managing their symptoms.  ASD affects each child differently and may include a range of symptoms (Amaral, 2017).  If the child does not have the proper ASD diagnosis or has not been diagnosed yet. It is important to know the background of the disorder and how it directly relates to the population being studied.There is a large discrepancy in Latino populations receiving late diagnoses for autism (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017), as opposed to being diagnosed on time.  The timing of the diagnoses is an important factor, because this can determine the severity of the symptoms.  In addition, the longevity of undiagnosed or late ASD diagnoses may make the symptoms unmanageable.  So, it is very important to review how parents, school officials, physicians and other stakeholders manage the symptoms of each population.  This population refers to children who are diagnosed early and children who are diagnosed late. Latino parents expressed concern regarding their child’s developmental difficulties at 17 months; however, children were not were diagnosed until 36 months later (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017). Latino children are diagnosed on average at 53 months (CDC, 2020). This is much later than the CDC recommended timeframes of 18 to 24 months (CDC, 2020).As a researcher, it is important to compare the timeliness of the diagnoses and see if being diagnosed early leads to better management of ASD symptoms.  Early diagnoses have been linked to improved long-term developmental outcomes (Zuckerman et al., 2014), and late diagnoses could lead to severe behavioral problems. Once early diagnoses and late diagnoses are reviewed and symptoms managements is compared, steps can be taken to design additional studies, implement interventions, and develop outreach programs for these populations. The data obtained from the study will assist Latino parents in managing their child’s symptoms and locating resources for ASD.  This information will also help families make better decisions about their children’s health and could help to eliminate the stigmas around autism spectrum disorder in Latino communities. Statement of the ProblemManaging ASD symptoms may differ in children who are diagnosed early versus children who are diagnosed late.  Research support the fact that many Latino children are being diagnosed late for Autism Spectrum Disorder, (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017). A late diagnosis is an initial diagnosis after the recommended ASD screening of 18 months to 24 months (CDC, 2019).  Many Latino children are being diagnosed after 50 months of age (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017). As a precautionary measure, the CDC (2020) suggests that children who has a sibling with ASD, be evaluated each year; as they might have a higher propensity for autism (CDC, 2020). Research is needed to review cases where children of early diagnoses. This research will be pivotal in determining how symptoms were managed.The problem is that comparative data is needed to investigate whether the children who are diagnosed early with ASD manage their symptoms better than the children who are diagnosed late. Several factors have attributed to the late diagnoses, so it would be interesting to see if these late diagnoses cause a problem when trying to manage ASD symptoms. Research is needed to compare symptom management and the age of diagnoses among Latino children. Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila (2017) states that being diagnosed at a later age comes with additional symptoms. Some of these symptoms may include lower intelligence quotients, behavior and academic problems.  Additionally, Hispanic children are often subjected to substandard care (Chlebowski, Magana, Wright & Brookman-Frazee, 2018) after receiving an ASD diagnosis.  How these symptoms are managed depends on the severity of the symptoms and the support available for parents (Koegel et al., 2013).This proposal is necessary because more research is needed to determine if there is a difference in symptoms management based on when the child was diagnosed.  A carefully designed research study can ask the appropriate questions and obtain the necessary data to review symptoms management. Late diagnoses of ASD is an important issue because there are serious side effects when ASD is left untreated.  The longer the child is untreated, the longer they are unable to manage their symptoms and get the care they need (Martin, Sturge-Apple, Davies & Gutierrez, 2019).
Purpose of the StudyThe purpose of the study is to review early and late ASD diagnoses in Latino children and determine if children who are diagnosed early can manage their symptoms better than children who are diagnosed late. The problem deserves new research because the number of Latino children being diagnosed late with ASD continues to increase (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017); however, research is needed to determine if being diagnosed early lead to better management of symptoms.  The average age of Latino children at age of ASD diagnosis ranged from 53.03 months to 54.38 months (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017).  This is a major concern because these children are not receiving culturally tailored interventions (Matsuda, Brooks & Beeber, 2016).  This study will design a research study to review symptoms of children who have been diagnosed early and children who have diagnosed late.  There will be comparative research to determine if the children who were diagnosed early were able to manage their symptoms better than the children who were diagnosed late. Researchers must be able to capture the feelings and concerns of Latino parents and their views on autism. Significance of the StudyThe research will advance scientific knowledge because it will solicit opinions from Latino parents with autistic children.  Parents of the autistic children will be interviewed to discuss the age of their child at the age of diagnosis, and if they were able to manage their child’s symptoms. The study will include children who have been diagnosed early and late. The study will rely on numbers or statistical information, the study will also focus on medical record reviews, observations, case studies.  The study will add to the existing literature of ASD, as it will bring in new perspectives and examine symptoms management in depth. The inquiry is original as it will examine cases of Latino children in urban and rural areas.  The study will provide evidence-based rationale and best practice models for conducting the study. This study will also focus on the feelings, actions of parents, mental health workers and children with ASD. Interviewing these stakeholders will assist with determining which group were able to manage their symptoms better than the other.Research QuestionResearch question: Do Latino Children who get diagnosed for ASD early between 18 to 24 months manage symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late after 24 months?Null Hypothesis:  Latino children with ASD who are diagnosed early do not manage symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late.Hypothesis:  Latino children with ASD who are diagnosed early manage symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late.The underlying theme is that symptoms management is determined based on when the child was diagnosed.  Additional research is needed to determine if early diagnoses leads to better management of these symptoms. The research question will be answered by a carefully designed study. The study will include surveys, review of medical records, and reviews of previous research and case studies.  The data will be transferred to information by pulling out the relevant information related to the research study. Each section of the research question will be analyzed, thoroughly investigated and compared with best practice methods.Definition of TermsAutism Spectrum Disorder – Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior (National Institute of Mental Health, 2018).Early Diagnoses- Diagnoses within 18 to 24 months.Late Diagnoses- ASD diagnoses after 24 months. Latino –A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race (Aragones, Hayes, Chen, González, & Gany, 2014). Research DesignThis research design is quantitative. The research will be a descriptive research method. The study will use comparative data to determine which group manages symptoms the best. The design constructs will include case studies, medical record reviews, interviews and questionnaires. The research will be guided by approved psychology practices to ensure the validity of the study. The American Psychological Association’s Code of Ethics will be the outline for the research design and will be the guiding principles for assuring ethical research practices.  The codes that apply to this study will include Section 8 Research and Publication, and Section 9 Bases for Assessments (American Psychological Association, 2010). These sections cover multiple ethic codes for researchers and how to properly conduct research and administer informed consents.SummaryIt is important to know if the timing of diagnoses make a difference in the management of symptoms.  In addition, it is essential   to investigate whether being diagnosed early leads to better symptoms management. Knowing that a child is diagnosed late with ASD does not give the researcher any new information.  What this means regarding symptoms are the facts that needs to be addressed.  Research may determine if symptoms can be managed if they are diagnosed early, or the severity of the symptoms if the child is diagnosed late. It is also important to conduct solid research and design a research study that will be inclusive of the problem at hand.  The study must include previous research, quantitative surveys, feedback from parents, and review of health records.CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEWResearch has shown that Latino children are diagnosed late with autism spectrum disorder (Amaral, 2017). This may also lead to difficulty in these children managing their ASD symptoms. Reasons for ethnic variations are poorly understood. Research has been conducted to identify the number of children who are diagnosed early and late, and the age at which they are diagnosed.  The research does not show implicitly show the comparison of these groups and which ones manage symptoms the best, but there are various studies to show benefits of managing symptoms. This dilemma leaves a further gap for research. Further research is needed to specially address the reasons for late diagnoses.  (Zuckerman, Sinche, Mejia, Cobian, Becker & Nicolaidis, 2014).Autism affects children differently, so it is important for them to be diagnosed in a timely manner.  It is also important for them to manage their symptoms effectively. Delayed diagnoses could have a serious effect on children (CDC, 2020). The CDC (2020) suggests that children should be diagnosed for ASD between 18 and 24 months. A carefully designed study is needed to compare the management of symptoms for early and late diagnoses. It is also important to study this area because Latino children are not getting the resources and support that is needed in order to manage their symptoms (Moody, et al., 2019).Theoretical Orientation for the StudyAutism Spectrum Disorder is guided by cognitive and social psychological theories. These frameworks are empirically supported behavioral orientations. They are supported by the need to research origins of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors (Penner, et. al, 2013). An empirically supported autism theory is the Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBI; Schreibman et al., 2015). In the NDBI, children are supported in their natural settings, which may include educational or home environments.  The NDBI teach the children developmental skills and strive to improve relationships between the child and the therapist (Schreibman et al., 2015). In addition, the social psychological framework uses societal factors to determine why there are racial disparities (Penner, et. al, 2013). Albert Bandura developed a theory called the Social Learning Theory.  He wanted to show how children learn behavior from their parents (Martin, Sturge-Apple, Davies & Gutierrez, 2019), and how that behavior could change based on the mental state of the child. These frameworks have also been connected to health disparities in certain populations.  Social psychologists look at relevant concerns and how they contribute to autism spectrum disorder (Bandawe, 2010).Review of the LiteratureIn the early 1960s, scientists and physicians believed that children with ASD were unlikely to respond to treatment (Schreibman et al., 2015).  This led to further research by Charles Ferster and Merian DeMyer on autism and its effects on children (Schreibman et al., 2015). Autism has since become one of the fastest growing cognitive disorders in the United States, and affects about one in 59 children (Moody, et al. 2019). Autism was first classified as a disorder by Kanner and Asperger, who described these symptoms as atypical behaviors (Ousley & Cermak, 2014). Research shows that early diagnosis is associated with improved long-term developmental and family outcomes (Zuckerman et al., 2014). There needs to be a mechanism to compare the outcomes of early diagnoses and late diagnoses.  This comparison would focus on how the parents responded to their child’s symptoms and if they were able to manage them effectively. One dominant theme in autism research is heterogeneity (Rudacille, 2010).  Heterogeneity refers to the etiology and diversity of the disorder (Georgiades, Szatmari & Boyle, 2013).  Some of these symptoms include cognitive, emotional, and social functioning that are manifested differently across subgroups of children (Georgiades, Szatmari & Boyle, 2013).Harris et al., (2019) collected data electronically through data capture tools. Participants were given multiple choice surveys and quantitative assessments.  They were asked to rank their answers using a measurable scale of one to five.  Data was also collected from pediatric hospital clinics and from parents of children with autism.  Cases were identified through prescreening processes and parental consultations (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017).  Data was collected by survey technicians who discarded useless surveys, checked for errors and coded the data into groups.Other methods used in literature reviews were purposive sampling. Montiel-Nava, Chacin and Gonzalez (2017) prescreened participants using clinical data and chart reviews.  The researchers conducted a study of Latino children and their parents.  They set up an assessment for parents, who then completed a questionnaire based on feelings surroundings autism.  The parents were also asked the age of their child at diagnoses and step they took to manage their children’s symptoms. The assessment was then coded and formulated into usable quantitative data.  Focus groups were conducted in English and Spanish (Zuckerman et al., 2013). The groups reviewed late diagnoses and standards for ASD.Children were recruited based on their ethnicity and their ASD diagnoses.  In research it is important to maintain diversity and ethical procedures to ensure the authenticity of the study. Excluding diversity in research could impede the ability to generalize study results (UCSF, 2020), and may prevent certain populations from receiving much needed research. Although all of participants were Latino, there were difference Hispanic populations within the groups.  The groups included individuals of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Venezuelan and Guatemalan races. Research assistants reviewed data from ASD clinics and studies (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017).  The strength of these methods was that there was a lot of data that showed benefits of early diagnoses and late diagnoses. Some children were diagnosed during school age and physicians were able to give a more accurate diagnoses, as opposed to early diagnoses where the parents relayed symptoms to the physician (Koegel et al, 2013).  However, a major weakness is that factors for late diagnoses varied. The research included several Latino populations and took into consideration, cultural and economic differences. The limitations of these methods were that the research did not explicitly compare early versus late diagnoses in percentages. Another limitation is that the researchers (Harris, et al., 2019; Moody et al., 2019) stated that many Latino children were not identified by ethnicity, which could hinder the data.  For example, in Venezuela, the children are all classified as Latino, and they are not separated into subgroups (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez-Avila, 2017). A more intensive study would be needed if a study based on race is requested by the scientific community.When conducting autism research and reviewing the way symptoms are managed, it is important to have reliable resources. This information can add significant knowledge to the base of psychology. These articles help identify what is known and understood about ASD and what is yet to be known in this area.  The current knowledge includes ASD numbers among Latino children but does not give the reasons for the late diagnoses.The research into reviewing and comparing ASD symptoms management shows that there benefits to being diagnosed early (Zuckerman, 2014). Children who are diagnosed early between 18 and 24 months can avoid long-term ASD symptoms (Zuckerman, 2014). Identifying the way symptoms are managed could be a great educational resource in the Latino community. This could also persuade Latino parents to seek assistance for behavioral or other concerns in their children. There is a gap in research, as to the reasons for the late diagnoses. Harris et al., (2019) shows that possible factors may include lack of access to healthcare services, autism related stigmas and a lack of bilingual clinicians.The research question has been answered because Latino children who are diagnosed early are able to manage their symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late. Although there is limited research on this population (Amaral, 2017), rigorous approaches have been taken to improve on the evidence from the literature. The study will make a meaningful contribution to current literature as it will review early and late diagnoses. The study will decide is early diagnoses leads to better symptoms management.  This correlates directly to the hypothesis, that Latino children who are diagnosed early manage ASD symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late.There are concerns that late diagnoses are not as prevalent as reported (Montiel-Nava, Chacin & Gonzalez, 2017).  Opponents feel that although Latino children are diagnosed later than non-Latino children, the numbers vary too widely for comparison.  Some studies report diagnoses at 24 months, while other studies show that Latino children are diagnosed after 53 months. Despite the discrepancies, the fact remains that effective management of symptoms are not often presented. If researchers can compare symptoms management of early versus late diagnoses, there is a possibility that late diagnoses may be curtailed (Moody et al., 2019).Synthesis of the Research FindingsAfter reviewing the research, there is a need for a detailed plan to address the gaps in research.  A common theme of autism spectrum disorder focuses on late diagnoses in Latino children; however, a comparison between how the symptoms are managed needs to be identified. Montiel-Nava, Chacin and Gonzalez-Avila (2017) focuses on the age of diagnoses among Latino children in Venezuela and America.  The researchers show that children experience severe symptoms when they are diagnosed late.  Parents stated that it was difficult to manage symptoms because they were unsure of what to do (Montiel-Nava, Chacin and Gonzalez-Avila, 2017).  Furthermore, parents tried to manage behavioral concerns but did not have adequate support or skills to do so. These symptoms may include severe behavior and academic problems.  This number was especially high for Latino children (Moody, et al., 2019).  Children who were diagnosed early were able to receive academic and behavioral supports.  Furthermore, research has shown that intensive early intervention can make a big difference in the outcomes for people with ASD (Diagnosing and Managing ASD, 2020).  When the child was diagnosed early, the parents were able to request supports.  Some of these supports include Applied Behavioral Analysis (ABA) therapy for their child (Amaral, 2017).  Having an ASD diagnosis early on, gave parents the ability to request treatment and behavioral therapists for their child.  Therefore, they were able to manage symptoms with the support of therapists and treatment plans.Research showed that when children are diagnosed earlier, they can manage symptoms better (Zuckerman, 2014). This is because parents can get the assistance that they need to help with behavioral and academic concerns. This does not mean that children who are diagnosed late are unable to manage their symptoms.  All symptoms can be managed with appropriate therapy, treatment plans and medications as needed (Diagnosing and Managing ASD, 2020). However, this study focused on which group early versus late, manages their symptoms the best.Harris et al., (2019) reviewed the child when the parent was first concerned about their child’s symptoms, and the age when the child was diagnosed.  Parents in both countries tried to manage their children’s symptoms even without an ASD diagnoses. The children in America and in Venezuela experienced similar diagnosing delays.  Investigators wanted to find the common factors between these ASD diagnosing delays, as the children were in different countries.  They decided to look at the Latino groups and study the populations individually.  Harris et al., (2019) discovered that Latino populations may have many subgroups within their population. According to Campinha-Bacote (2003), other forms of cultural diversity includes religious affiliation, language, physical size, gender, sexual orientation, age, disability and more. In order to ensure individual variation and maintain diversity. The study must note characters and traits that are specific to that group and find ways to incorporate the findings into the research study.
 There were different Latino groups represented within the studies, and the researchers took care to ensure they were following ethical practices.  It is important to review several sources before relying solely on one research study.  They can use the information from this study, in conjunction with their own research to see how parents, therapists and other stakeholders manage ASD symptoms.  Parents may be hesitant to report behavior symptoms and management.  Montiel-Nava, Chacin and Gonzalez-Avila, (2017), showed that in some Latino populations, behavior problems were associated with poor parenting skills. This fact made parents hesitant to seek help (Montiel-Nava, Chacin and Gonzalez-Avila, 2017). Harris et al., (2019) reviewed the early and late ASD diagnoses in detail and compiled data. They reviewed school-based assessments and the diagnoses by school psychologists (Harris, et al., 2019).  This is important to stakeholders who base their research on the study data.  Another consideration in this study is that the school psychologists self-reported many of the results for this study.  The study showed that school psychologists discussed that symptoms are managed better if they are caught earlier (Harris et al., 2019).  School psychologists can recommend treatment plans for school aged children which assists with managing symptoms. The study results were coded into usable data. Moody et al, (2019) reviewed ASD in Latino communities and the age when the child was diagnosed. The primary goal of the article was to present evidence-based practices and empirical data to support the research.  The researchers implemented a bootcamp to address health disparities among Latino children and how to prevent late diagnoses of ASD.  The authors researched a program called The Appreciative Inquiry/Bootcamp Translation (AI/BCT), which is a method of community engagement and participation (Moody et al., 2019).  They encouraged children and parents with ASD to attend and complete surveys related to ASD age of diagnosis.This program used methods to create outreach and awareness within the Latino communities.  This program can be beneficial to investigators, because these are non-traditional methods. Investigators and stakeholders can use this data develop new evidence-based practices.  The researchers stated that AI/BCT may reduce the late diagnoses in ASD (Moody, et al., 2019); however, it will also assist investigators with determining the causes of late diagnosis.Critique of Previous Research MethodsPrevious ASD research methods have traditionally focused on white children (Amaral, 2017).  The research was in-depth analysis and often started while the child was 18 months. The research on Latino children was not quite as in-depth and often lacked in complexity and detail (Penner et. al, 2013).  While reviewing previous research methods there was a clear pattern that developed. The research methods for Latino children included parental assessments, surveys, reviewing clinical charts and some observational methods. SummaryIt is important to conduct an extensive literature review when trying to obtain knowledge about a broad subject.  In regards to Autism Spectrum Disorder, early and late diagnoses, literature reviews show that there are still knowledge gaps.  There are also areas of research that needs to be performed in order to effectively compare the way symptoms are managed. The literature was able to provide a detailed synopis of how symtoms are managed in early ASD diagnoses and late ASD diagnoses. CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGYPurpose of the StudyThe purpose of this quantitative research study is to review and compare early and late diagnoses in Latino children. The result is to determine which group of children were able to manage their symptoms the best. The purpose is an attempt to understand if early diagnoses leads to better management of ASD symptoms in this population. The methodology used are surveys, record reviews and purposive sampling. The significance of the study is that it may establish a relationship or discover the reasons for the late diagnoses. The study will use reliable and validated data that is free of bias.  Research Question and HypothesesHypothesis testing is an important activity of empirical research (Banerjee, Chitnis, Jadhav, Bhawalkar, & Chaudhury, 2009). There is a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis.  The research question and hypothesis are as follow:  Research question: Do Latino Children who get diagnosed for ASD early between 18 to 24 months manage symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late after 24 months?Null Hypothesis:  Latino children with ASD who are diagnosed early do not manage symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late.Hypothesis:  Latino children with ASD who are diagnosed early manage symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late.The independent variable is the Latino children. The dependent variable will be the timing of the ASD diagnosis. The null hypothesis states that there is no association between the predictor and outcome variables in the population (Banerjee et al., 2009). The alternative hypothesis specifies the direction of the association between the predictor and outcome variables (Banerjee et al., 2009). The research shows that there is correlation between early diagnoses and better outcomes for management of symptoms.Research Design      This quantitative study will use a descriptive research method design. The independent variable will be the autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. The constructs will include Latino children who were diagnosed with ASD between 18 and 24 months and Latino children who were diagnosed with ASD after 24 months. The dependent variable will be age of the child at their initial diagnosis. The research will review quantitative data to find a possible cause for the late diagnoses.  Prospective participants will be identified by implementing community events and targeted specific populations.  All participants will be required to sign a consent form which allows for the review of protected health information; additional sampling procedures are outlined below.Target Population and SampleThe target population is Latino children between the ages of two and seven years of age. The study is targeting these children who have an active ASD diagnoses. The children’s’ cases will be reviewed to identify how their ASD symptoms were managed. The design approach will be a descriptive research method. The type of design will be a survey method research.  In this type of research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires.For the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly (Hale, 2018). Additional details and procedures in obtaining the steps for obtaining the target population are identified in the subsequent paragraphs.The target population is Latino children who have an ASD diagnosis. Community outreach events will be held and targeted to parents of children with ASD.  Flyers will be posted throughout the community, schools, clinics and autism treatment centers.  Participants who respond will be screened and required to sign a consent.  The consent will ask for permission in obtaining the medical records and health information of the child.  After obtaining consents, an investigative review will be conducted among local hospital, autism centers and clinics in predominately Latino communities.   This will include a meeting with hospital officials and therapists in order to identify prospective participants. Participants would be included in the study if they have been diagnosed with ASD.  They will be divided into two groups.  The groups would be ASD diagnoses between 18 and 24 months, and ASD diagnoses after 24 months.  Children would not be included solely based on ethnicity; they must meet the qualifications in order to be considered. The children would be qualified based on prescreening data obtained from community outreach programs. After a signed consent is signed by the parent, the child’s health records would be reviewed to see if they qualify for the research study. Participants would be excluded if they have other cognitive disorders such as Asperger’s or ADHD.  The study is looking at a single factor, and do not want to address multiple factors.  Participants will be recruited from clinics and organizations specializing in autism therapy.  Researchers will receive the clinical records and work with behavioral therapists, pediatricians and parents to determine possible candidates.  These medical records will be reviewed later to identify any documented symptoms and how they were managed.Purposive sampling will be used to ensure the target population is obtained.  Purposive sampling is a non-probability sample that is selected based on characteristics of a population and the objective of the study (Crossman, 2020).  This sampling is preferred as researchers can tailor the study to a specific population.  Flyers can be made in English and Spanish to attract Latino participants.  In addition, heavy populated Latino clinics and schools to obtain prospective participants.ProceduresProspective participants will be identified through medical record review and through autism network partners. At each community outreach session, demographic information will be collected from prospective participants.  Parents will be asked for their name, address and telephone number.  They will also be asked for their child’s age at diagnosis and asked if they would return for a follow-up meeting.  The follow up meeting will be a time for parents to ask questions, hear more about the study and sign health information consent forms.  Protected health information (PHI) includes all individually identifiable health information, including demographic data, medical histories and test results (HIPAA Journal, 2018). The participants will be informed of the usage of this data and given the opportunity to decline signing the consent.  If a participate declines to sign the consent, they will no longer be eligible to participate in the study.Participants will be sent letters to participate in Spanish and in English.  Participants will also be contacted via telephone.  Spanish language translators will be available to assist parents with communication concerns.  The researchers will take extra care to ensure native Spanish speakers are available.  This is important because a study by Konkel (2015) found that participants are more likely to participate in a study when the researcher is someone who looks like them or can communicate with them intheir ownlanguage.There will be case studies, medical records reviews, with signed consents and questionnaires to design the study.  The questionnaires will be related to the age of initial ASD diagnoses for the children.  During the interviews, parents will also be asked if they were able to manage their children’s ASD symptoms.  They might include factors as to why they were unable to manage them, but the study is primarily focusing on if the symptoms were managed.give their reasons as to why they feel that their child was diagnosed late.  The data from these research studies will be collected by technicians.  They will review the questionnaires and code the information accordingly.  The participants’ parents will be able to drop off their paper surveys at designated drop off locations, such as their children’s doctor office or an identify community center or autism treatment center.  The researchers will also provide electronic surveys for participants.  The data will be reviewed for completeness before coding.  The technicians will work in collaboration with the researchers to ensure all paper surveys are completed, medical record consent forms are signed, and that all information is present. The data collection process will be collected for a two-month period.  This timeframe will give the researchers time to ensure all information is reviewed and entered the study database.  Technicians will be able to contact participants for further information, or to complete missing items.  When analyzing data, the data must be reliable and valid.  Reliability in research means how consistently or dependably does a measurement scale measure what it is supposed to be measuring (Bannigan & Watson, 2009). The study has to be free of errors to the best of the researchers’ ability. For example, in this study researchers must be sure to include only the data that is reported on the questionnaire.  Researchers cannot assume by speaking with the parents that they meant to check a certain response on the questionaire.  They have to make sure the data is reliable and can be substantiated when reviewed by other researchers.Validity is concerned with the mean and interpretation of a scale (Bannigan & Watson, 2009). This is important in an autism related study, because there is no medical test or gold standard for detecting autism (Amaral, 2017). The construct validity would be used in this study.  It helps when there is no way of directly testing the relationship between the measurement scale and the underlying concept (Bannigan & Watson, 2009). The construct validity can validate a test if the researcher can show a strong relationship between the variables. Ethical ConsiderationsIt is important to have a solid recruitment strategy in place that is free from bias and unethical procedures. Rogerson, Gottlieb, Handelsman, Knapp and Younggren (2011) states that being knowledgeable of rules and regulations can prevent ethical errors. Some experts believe that fear of exploitation, based on unethical practices, may make minority communities distrustful to participate in research studies (Konkel, 2015). Researchers must take steps to ensure they are following ethical procedures.  This includes providing excessive incentives, using deceptive measures and obtaining the appropriate consents for participants.  The American Psychological Association provides recommendations and ethics codes for researchers.  The relevant sections for this study are sections 8 and 9.  These sections are Research and Publication, and Bases for Assessments (American Psychological Association, 2010). These sections govern the ethical considerations for researchers and how to obtain consents.  Section 8.06 Offering Inducements for Research Participation, states that reasonable efforts must be made to avoid offering excessive or inappropriate financial or other inducements for research participation (APA, 2010). This does not mean that researchers cannot offer incentives, but they must be careful that the incentives are not being used to coerce someone to participate.  Researchers must be sure to use transparent recruitment methods.  Section 8.07 Deception in Research is the guiding ethical code for transparency.  Deception should not be included in research, unless the study is investigating deception. Section 8.07 states that studies involving deception should not be conducted unless it has been determined that the use of deceptive techniques is justified by the study’s significant criteria (CDC, 2019). Deceptive methods could void the authenticity of a research study and in the scientific community.When working with human participants it is essential to have consents in place.  Researchers must have consents from participants or their legal representatives in order to participate in the study.  Sections 9.0 – 9.03 covers ethic codes Assessments, Bases for Assessments, Use of Assessments and Informed Consents in Assessments.  These sections are vital to the survey because participants must be aware of how their data will be used; they also must consent to the research study.  Researchers must make sure that each participant has signed a written consent or have indicated their agreeance if they are unable to write.  This will keep the ethical components of the research.CHAPTER 4. EXPECTED FINDINGS/RESULTSThis chapter presents findings from primary research and literature review.  The findings are divided into two sections which are: what is already known and what the research expects to find.  The purpose of this study was to find out if Latino children who receive an early ASD diagnosis manage their symptoms better than Latino children who receive a late ASD diagnosis. Some of the findings were expected, while some were not expected.  The expected results are that conclusive information will be presented to show that either early diagnosis helps children manage symptoms better, or that the diagnosing time does not matter. What is known is that Latino children are diagnosed with ASD on average at 53 months of age (Amaral, 2017), which is past the CDC recommended timeframe of 18 to 24 months (CDC, 2009). What is often unknown are the symptoms management of children who are diagnosed within the recommended timeframes.  In addition, it is important to review the symptoms of ASD and determine if early diagnoses help children to manage their symptoms, as opposed to receiving a late diagnosis.  The population studied were Latino children in America and Venezuela.  The children were between two and seven years of age.  The children lived in rural and urban populations and came from single family and two-parent homes.  Parents who participated in the interviews were 93% female, with an average age of 40 years. All parents self-identified as Latinx; 86% were fluent in Spanish and 66% reported that Spanish was their preferred language (Chlebowski et al., 2018).When reviewing early diagnoses, it is important to see how symptoms are managed.  Adams et al., (2019) states that the earlier children receive treatment, the better their prognosis. Latino parents who received an ASD diagnoses between 18 and 24 months reported that they were able to manage their child’s symptoms (Lopez, Magana, Morales & Iland, 2019).  They were also able to manage the symptoms as the child got older.  They contributed this ability to the supports they received from community programs and initiatives.  Additionally, research conducted by Lopez, et al., (2019), showed that an organization called Parents Taking Action (PTA) assisted parents to obtain early diagnoses. The program was described as a culturally tailored psychoeducation program designed to address disparities for Latinx children with ASD and their families. Parents received ABA therapy, which included a behavioral plan written by a Board-Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA), a behavior technician that visited the child’s home regularly and implemented the behavior plans. These parents reported that their child’s symptoms improved and were manageable with the skills that learned from the ABA program. If autism is left untreated for long periods of time it could make symptoms worse (Harris et al., 2019). Parents who had children diagnosed after 24 months, and closer to 53 months state that they had difficulty managing their children’s symptoms (Chaidez, Hansen & Hertz-Picciotti, 2012). The main reason was due to their children’s autism being more severe (Chaidez, Hansen & Hertz-Picciotti, 2012). Many parents cited lack of knowledge as a reason they were unable to manage their children’s symptoms, as they simply did not know what to do (Blanche-Imperatore, Diaz, Barretoo, & Cermak, 2015).  When they finally received an ASD diagnoses, they were often confused and hesitant to accept the diagnoses (Blanche-Imperatore et al., 2015).  Although the research sample is small, it confirms that hypothesis that Latino children who are diagnosed early manage their symptoms better than Latino children who are diagnosed late.  Although the reasons are many it is important to look at what is known, what has been discovered and how future research can be effective.  The information from the research can be used to design programs and implement evidence-based practices to assist Latino parents with managing their child’s symptoms.CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSIONImplicationsThe main objective of the current study is to discover what if children who are diagnosed with ASD early manage their symptoms better than children who are diagnosed late. The study’s target population is Latino children, ages three to seven years of age and their parents. Research shows that many Latino children are diagnosed after 24 months with ASD (Amaral, 2017), this is considered a late diagnosed.  Prior knowledge is that ASD diagnoses should be take place when the child is between 18 to 24 months of age. There are Latino children who are diagnosed early as well. It is interesting to see how each group manage their symptoms and if one group manages better than the other.There are several implications of the study. Although not explicitly stated, there are many reasons why Latino children’s symptoms are managed differently. Symptoms may be managed differently based on the parents’ knowledge of ASD or the resources that are available to them. Research shows that it is common for behavior problems to be associated with poor parenting skills (Montiel-Nava, Chacin and Gonzalez-Avila, 2017), which could lead to parents becoming overwhelmed with their child’s behavior. This can potentially discourage parents from seeking assistance with their child.The literature review showed that major themes in autism spectrum disorder are governed by social psychology theories.  The Social Learning Theory developed by Bandura showed how children learned behavior from their parents (Martin, Sturge-Apple, Davies & Gutierrez, 2019). This is important because some of the older children did not want to get tested for autism (Moody et al., 2019).  They might have felt that having an ASD diagnoses attached to them could hinder their social status or cause embarrassment (Zuckerman et al., 2014).The implications for all parties involved in the study are high. The scientific community along with other stakeholders such as school officials and medical professionals will benefit from this study. Future researchers will be able to use the study results to design appropriate educational programs and interventions for Latino children. School officials can work with medical professionals to ensure children are diagnosed in a timely manner, and that the children receive appropriate support for their ASD diagnoses. Autism screening can be offered at the child’s school, which can assist with accessibility issues.All parties will ensure that the highest ethical standards are followed. Everyone will take specific measures to ensure that interventions, evidence-based practices and support plans are created and followed in ethical manners. Because if ethic codes are not followed, they could have a serious effect on the study and follow-up procedures. Unethical practices can impact a person’s mental and physical health, including their levels of stress, anxiety, depression, and blood pressure (Tsahuridu, 2016).Methodological Strengths and WeaknessesThe design approach is quantitative. There are no direct observations of children and their environments.  The data involves questionnaires, medical record reviews and interviews. The target population are Latino parents of ASD children who have been diagnosed after 24 months.  This methodology is best for this study because the purpose is to gather information to answer the research problem. The parents’ feelings and experiences are important in this study, as the information will be converted to quantifiable data.  The information from parents can also be analyzed and reviewed to discover the many ways that ASD symptoms are managed.The strength of using a quantitative design approach is that findings can be generalized. This means that if the study is designed well, then the sample will be representative of the population (University of Southern Denmark, n.d.).  Other strengths of this methodology are that descriptive research methods can be easy to analyze, consistent and reliable. A weakness of this approach is that when using quantitative methods, the data may not be as robust. Although interviews are performed, it may be difficult to capture the participants’ feelings or answer the “why” questions, if the study is not properly designed.Suggestions for Future ResearchIn order to advance the knowledge base more research is needed to identify additional ways in how ASD symptoms are managed, in early and late diagnoses. Researcher want to know if economic or social levels affect the way ASD symptoms are managed (Adams, et al., 2019). More data is needed from Latino parents in order to have larger sample sizes.  Small sample sizes may not be representative of views of Latinx parents from other geographic locations (Harris et al., 2019). Additional information that is vital is if the parents are receiving assistance from the federal government.  This is important because it could change the way the parent responds to the survey.  According to Harris et al, (2019) parents receiving services through publicly funded mental health programs may be influenced by the context on which the treatment was received. Identifying this information in the screening process would be helpful, as research questions could be designed to capture these individual and their feelings towards their current health program. Results from the current study can be reviewed and used as a learning tool for future research. Bishop-Fitzpatrick and Kind (2017) stated that this research can lead to development of interventions and prevention efforts that maximize health and increase quality of life. Issues such as health literacy programs can assist parents in managing their child’s symptoms.The aspects that can be improved includes research of the geographic areas of the population that was studied.  The present study included primarily low-income Latino families.  Although the study was in the United States and Venezuela, the participant population was similar.  It would be interesting to conduct research among Latino families in wealthy populations with middle to high incomes. The studies included primarily Latino mothers in who were younger, less educated (Chaidez, Hansen & Hertz-Picciotti, 2012), this could also lead to disparities in symptoms management. This would be good comparative research to see if the early diagnoses and symptoms management still is best in this population.ReferencesAdams, J.B., Edelson, M.E., Grandin, T., Rimland, B., & Johnson, J. (2019). Advice for parents: Evidence-based treatment during early intervention. Autism Research Institute. https://www.autism.org/advice-for-parents/Amaral D. G. (2017). Examining the Causes of Autism. Cerebrum: the Dana forum on brain science, 2017, cer-01-17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5501015/Aragones, A., Hayes, S. L., Chen, M. H., González, J., & Gany, F. M. (2014). Characterization of the Hispanic or Latino population in health research: a systematic review.Journal of immigrant and minority health,16(3), 429–439. doi:10.1007/s10903-013-9773-0  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4518558/Autism Spectrum Disorder. (2018).  National Institute of Mental Health. https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/autism-spectrum-disorders-asd/index.shtmlBandawe C. (2010). A brief history of social psychology and its contribution to health in Malawi.Malawi medical journal: the journal of Medical Association of Malawi,22(2), 34–37. doi:10.4314/mmj.v22i2.58788Banerjee, A., Chitnis, U. B., Jadhav, S. L., Bhawalkar, J. S., & Chaudhury, S. (2009). Hypothesis testing, type I and type II errors.Industrial psychiatry journal,18(2), 127–131. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-6748.62274Bannigan, K., Watson, R. (2009). Reliability and validity in a nutshell. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 18(23), 3237-3243. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.02939.xhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2009.02939.xBecerra, T.A., Von-Ehrestein, O.S., Heck, J.E., Olsen, J., Arah, O.A., Jeste, S.S., Rodrigues, M., Ritz, B. (2014).  Pediatrics. 134(1). doi:10.1542/peds.2013-3928. https://www.ncbi.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4067639/#!po=59.3333Bishop-Fitzpatrick, L., & Kind, A. (2017). A Scoping Review of Health Disparities in Autism Spectrum Disorder.Journal of autism and developmental disorders,47(11), 3380–3391. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3251-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5693721/Blanche, E. I., Diaz, J., Barretto, T., & Cermak, S. A. (2015). Caregiving experiences of Latino families with children with autism spectrum disorder. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69, 6905185010. http://dx.doi.org/10.5014/ ajot.2015.017848Burnside, K., Wright, K., & Poulin-Dubois, D. (2017). Social motivation and implicit theory of mind in children with autism spectrum disorder.Autism research: official journal of the International Society for Autism Research,10(11), 1834–1844. doi:10.1002/aur.1836. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5772680/Campinha-Bacote, J., (2003). Many faces: Addressing diversity in health care. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 8(1), 1-11. http://nursingworld.org/ojin/topic20/tpc20_2.htmChaidez, V., Hansen, R. L., & Hertz-Picciotto, I. (2012). Autism spectrum disorders in Hispanics and non-Hispanics.Autism: the international journal of research and practice,16(4), 381–397. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361311434787Chlebowski, C., Magaña, S., Wright, B., & Brookman-Frazee, L. (2018). Implementing an intervention to address challenging behaviors for autism spectrum disorder in publicly funded mental health services: Therapist and parent perceptions of delivery with Latinx families. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 24(4), 552–563. https://doi-org.library.capella.edu/10.1037/cdp0000215Crossman, A. (2020). Understanding purposive sampling: An overview of the method and its applications. Thoughtco. https://www.thoughtco.com/purposive-sampling-3026727Diagnosing and Managing Autism Spectrum Disorder. (2020). American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/autismDiversity in research participation: Why it’s important. University of California, San Francisco. https://recruit.ucsf.edu/diversity-research-participation-why-its-importantEthical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. (2010). American Psychological Association. https://www.apa.org/ethics/code/Fisher, C. B. (2017). Decoding the ethics code: A practical guide for psychologists (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. https://courseroomc.capella.edu/bbcswebdav/institution/PSY-FP/PSY-FP7543/180700/Course_Files/cf_Fisher’s_ethical_decision-making_model.html  Georgiades, S., Szatmari, P., & Boyle, M. (2013). Importance of studying heterogeneity in autism. Neuropsychiatry. 3(2), 123–125. http://www.jneuropsychiatry.org/peer-review/importance-of-studying-heterogeneity-in-autism-neuropsychiatry.pdfHale, J. (2018). 3 Basic types of descriptive research methods. https://psychcentral.com/blog/the-3-basic-types-of-descriptive-research-methods/Harris, B., McClain, M. B., Haverkamp, C. R., Cruz, R. A., Benallie, K. J., & Benney, C. M. (2019). School-based assessment of autism spectrum disorder among culturally and linguistically diverse children.Professional Psychology: Research and Practice,50(5), 323–332. https://doi-org.library.capella.edu/10.1037/pro0000256Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Ashbaugh, K., & Bradshaw, J. (2013).  The importance of early identification and intervention for children with or at risk for autism spectrum disorders. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(1). https://doi.org/10.3109/17549507.2013.861511https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/citedby/10.3109/17549507.2013.861511?scroll=top&needAccess=trueKonkel L. (2015). Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Research Studies: The Challenge of Creating More Diverse Cohorts.Environmental health perspectives,123(12), A297–A302. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.123-A297. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4670264/Lopez, K., Magaña, S., Morales, M., & Iland, E. (2019): Parents taking action: Reducing disparities through a culturally informed intervention for Latinx parents of children with autism, Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, DOI: 10.1080/15313204.2019.1570890 https://www.autismspeaks.org/sites/default/files/2019%20PTA%20Journal%20of%20ethic%20and%20cultural%20diversity%20in%20SW.pdfMagana, S., Lopez, S., Aguinaga, A., Morton, H. (2013).
Access to diagnosis and treatment services among Latino children with autism spectrum disorders. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. 51(3), 141-153. https://doi.org/10.1352/1934-9556-51.3.141 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/247770261_Access_to_Diagnosis_and_Treatment_Services_Among_Latino_Children_With_Autism_Spectrum_DisordersMartin, M. J., Sturge-Apple, M. L., Davies, P. T., & Gutierrez, G. (2019). Attachment behavior and hostility as explanatory factors linking parent–adolescent conflict and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 33(5), 586–596. https://doi-org.library.capella.edu/10.1037/fam0000529Mental Health Services Provider Information. (n.d.).  Baylor College of Medicine. https://www.bcm.edu/pdf/e_mentalhealth_release9.12.05.pdfMontiel-Nava, C., Chacin, J. A., & Gonzalez-Avila, Z. (2017). Age of diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder in Latino children: The case of Venezuelan children.Autism,21(5), 573–580.  https://journals-sagepub-com.library.capella.edu/doi/10.1177/1362361317701267Moody, E. J., Harris, B., Zittleman, L., Nease, D. E., Jr., & Westfall, J. M. (2019). It’s time for a change! The appreciative inquiry/bootcamp translation to address disparities in the Latino community with autism spectrum disorders. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 25(1), 113–122. https://doi-org.library.capella.edu/10.1037/cdp0000242Ousley, O., & Cermak, T. (2014). Autism Spectrum Disorder: Defining Dimensions and Subgroups.Current developmental disorders reports,1(1), 20–28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40474-013-0003-1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4111262/Penner, L. A., Hagiwara, N., Eggly, S., Gaertner, S. L., Albrecht, T. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (2013). Racial Healthcare Disparities: A Social Psychological Analysis.European review of social psychology,24(1), 70–122. doi:10.1080/10463283.2013.840973. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4151477/Piven, J., Elison, J. T., & Zylka, M. J. (2017). Toward a conceptual framework for early brain and behavior development in autism.Molecular psychiatry,22(10), 1385–1394. doi:10.1038/mp.2017.131Rogerson, M. D., Gottlieb, M. C., Handelsman, M. M., Knapp, S., & Younggren, J. (2011). Nonrational processes in ethical decision making.American Psychologist,66(7), 614–623. https://doi-org.library.capella.edu/10.1037/a0025215Rudacille, D. (2010).  Common themes link etiology, treatment in autism. Spectrum News. https://www.spectrumnews.org/news/common-themes-link-etiology-treatment-in-autism/Schreibman, L., Dawson, G., Stahmer, A. C., Landa, R., Rogers, S. J., McGee, G. G., … Halladay, A. (2015). Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions: Empirically Validated Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder.Journal of autism and developmental disorders,45(8), 2411–2428. doi:10.1007/s10803-015-2407-8Screening and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. (2019). Center for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/screening.htmlStigma, Discrimination and Mental Illness. (2009).  http://www.health.wa.gov.au/docreg/Education/Population/Health_Problems/Mental_Illness/Mentalhealth_stigma_fact.pdfStrengths and Limitations. (n.d.). University of Southern Denmark. http://betterthesis.dk/research-methods/lesson-1different-approaches-to-research/strengths-and-limitationsTsahuridu, E. (2016). How unethical behaviour can harm our health. In the Black. https://www.intheblack.com/articles/2016/09/01/how-unethical-behaviour-can-harm-our-healthUnderrepresented minority. (n.d.).  Penn State. https://agsci.psu.edu/diversity/awareness/definitionsWhat is an intervention. (n.d.). https://health.mo.gov/data/interventionmica/index_4.htmlWhat is protective health information? (2018).  HIPAA Journal. https://www.hipaajournal.com/what-is-protected-health-information/Zuckerman, K. E., Sinche, B., Cobian, M., Cervantes, M., Mejia, A., Becker, T., & Nicolaidis, C. (2014). Conceptualization of autism in the Latino community and its relationship with early diagnosis.Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP,35(8), 522–532. https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0000000000000091 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4180801/Zuckerman, K. E., Sinche, B., Mejia, A., Cobian, M., Becker, T., & Nicolaidis, C. (2014). Latino parents’ perspectives on barriers to autism diagnosis.Academic pediatrics,14(3), 301–308. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2013.12.004. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4006363/


Formal SummaryThe ability to effectively summarize information into a more concise and readable form is a highly valued skill. Good summaries are valuable because they keep busy readers informed without demanding more time than necessary to get the information they need.How to write a summary:— Skim the text to get a general idea.— Carefully read the original text. Highlight important information or make notes in the margins (annotate) for every paragraph. If there are repeated words/phrases, underline them. They usually carry important information. Make sure you understand the passage and the author’s purpose.— If there is an explicit thesis statement, underline it. If the passage does not have an explicit thesis, write the main idea of the passage in your own words.— Write down the main idea of each paragraph in a single sentence using your own words.— Write down the key supporting points for the main ideas only if necessary. Imagine someone who has not read the original text. Will s/he be able to understand your summary? — Go through the process again, making necessary changes.— Start putting the sentences together.Important points to remember:Include the author’s name and title of the work in the first sentence of your summary.• The first sentence: Author + title of article + purpose + main idea (the AUTHOR’S idea, not yours)E.g. In “The Reason College Costs More than You Think”, Jon Marcus reports that a major reason why college educations are so expensive is the amount of time  students stay in college.• Include the author’s credentials, if you have that information when you first mention the author’s name:E.g. In “Always Living in Spanish,” Spanish professor Marjorie Agostin describes her need to connect to her childhood by writing in Spanish.Next, include only the most important supporting ideas. Summaries are only about 25% of the original!• Do NOT include specific details.E.g. for the article “The reason College Costs More than You Think” mentioned above, a good example of the summary would be the following:In “The Reason College Costs More than You Think”, Jon Marcus reports that a major reason why college educations are so expensive is the amount of time students stay in college. Although almost all first-year students and their families assume that earning a bachelor’s degree will take four years, the reality is that more than half of all students take longer, with many taking six or more. This delay happens for many reasons, including students changing majors, having to take developmental courses, taking fewer courses per term than they could have, and being unable to register for required courses. As a result, their expenses are much greater – financial aid seldom covers a fifth or sixth year, so students must borrow money to finish – and the additional time they spend in college is time they aren’t working, leading to significant losses in wages. Don’t distort the author’s ideas.  Don’t include your own opinions or feelings.  Use logic and transitions to connect the ideas of the summary to make the paragraph cohesive.Use your own words.  Use quotations only when absolutely necessary. If you use quotations, cite.Cite the summary under Works Cited.Use Reporting Verbs: (Choose the reporting verb that makes sense for your reading passage)agree    complain     emphasize   note     seeanalyzeconcede      explain       observeshowargue   conclude     find     offer    speculateask       consider      focus   point out     stateassert   contend      grant    proposesuggestassume declare give     refute   support            believe demonstrate 
illustrate     report   supposeclaim    deny    imply   reveal   thinkcomment    describe      insist    say       theorizeconfirmdiscuss maintain     writeFor the length of your reading passages, your summary will usually be one paragraph. For longer summaries, periodically remind the reader that you are, in fact, summarizing another author.  To do this, use a summary reminder phrase like the ones listed below: The author goes on to say that … Bradley also states/maintains/argues that … The article further states that … Leki concludes that … The author further argues that …

Onet Spanish

Visit the ONET Online portal to select the Human Resources Manager position description and review all the information offered. Develop a detailed outline with the most relevant aspects that you consider the position. 250 words minimum. Use Languages Spanish.https://www.onetonline.org/18/05/202010humanresource-management

History 8ADiscussion of Lecture/Reading 14

Discussion Question1) Post a discussion question of your own, and tell the class why you want to talk about it.Rules for discussion1) Post an original comment responding to the discussion question, utilizing the readings in your response. There must be at least two citations from the readings to receive credit for discussion.This post must be at least 200 words.Lecture 14Alright, now we get down to it. So far, in leading up to this discussion about Independence throughout much of Latin America, we have been talking about all the ways in which the path to independence was complicated. First there were tensions betweencriollosand the Spanish Crown, the Bourbon Reforms, the Caroline Reforms, and then the larger context of the Enlightenment and all of the social change that was happening all over the world (notably France and Haiti) in the 1790s and into the early 1800s. We also read about the ways in which people in Spain resisted the installment of a French leader and created not only their own leadership group (the central junta), but their own constitution as well! So while Napoleon took on the Spanish Crown, the people in Spain were clearly saying,(so I’m a big Kevin Hart fan…anyway, back to work!)When talking about the central junta and the constitution that they wrote, it is important to keep in mind that initially, it was designed as a form of self-government to keep things going while they waited for Ferdinand to come back and did their best to ignore French rule. But along the way, some people started to take seriously the idea of self-government. Others wanted the old monarchy back (Ferdinand), and still others were looking towards a combination of the two (a constitutional monarchy). Ferdinand answered this when he returned:Of course, this is 1814, and by then, at least a fledgling independence movement had started in Mexico, though without the support of the American elite (wealthycriollos,at least to start), and would eventually be led by Jose Morelos, until he was executed. But you will notice that if you look at the timeline at the beginning of your chapter for this week, 1818 was the earliest successful declaration of independence (Chile, after defeating the royalists that same year).But initially, as your text points out, the fighting that occurred in Spanish America was not necessarily between loyalists and insurrectionists. Instead, the fighting was most often over “regional control, or for loot” (p. 360). Moreover, even when the fighting eventually turned into a pitched battle between insurgents and loyalists (the royal army), the people who were fighting were not necessarily “homegrown,” that is to say that the place in which they fought was not always where they were from. Irish and English adventurers, for example, fought for Bolivar between 1816 and 1825, and colonialists would fight in regions pretty far afield from where their homes were (p. 360-361). Sure, this lowered desertion rates, but it also meant that a lot more people died of disease, due to the change in climate and temporary living conditions that were often unsanitary (p.361).The fighting continued all throughout South America and Mexico (Brazil escaped the overt fighting; their battles were much more political), but the military battles were only a part of the dramatic changes that were happening: there were also political battles being fought, on very different fronts. Despite the shifts in control in South America between royalists and insurgents (rebels has taken the viceregal capital, and large areas of both New Granada and Venezuela had come under their control), the balance of power for a long time was still with the royalists. Sure, for five years after the restoration of Ferdinand (1814-1819) the insurgents made some strategic gains here and there, but they had yet to confront the full force of the imperial state. But something happened on January 1, 1820, which would change everything: Ferdinand VII accepted the Constitution of Cadiz.How did this happen? well, on January 1, 1820, an army of some 14,000 men, which had been assembled at Cadiz for the express purpose of reconquering insurgent territories of the River Plate (Río de la Plata) suddenly mutinied. Most garrisons (forts)in Spain joined thepronunciamiento, or revolt, and Ferdinand VII, his army having turned against him, was forced to renounce absolutism and accept the Cadiz constitution of 1812.Why did the army revolt? The immediate cause had less to do with the liberal convictions (support for the Cadiz constitution) than with discontent over pay, and plans to reduce the size of the armed forces. The consequences of this were huge, though, because the existence of the Constitution of Cadiz provided an alternative source of political legitimacy– something that people could lean on; even if they weren’t “liberal,” they could still be against the absolute monarchy and have a framework for a legitimate government.The truth is that after Napoleon’s intervention in Spain it was going to be impossible for the Spanish Crown to reconstruct its monopoly of legitimacy and power. And with this loss of total legitimacy on the Peninsula, their legitimacy in America would soon follow.People from all different walks of life fought in the wars for Independence, and they fought on various sides. Some might have been hardcore royalists, others might have been “enlightened” folks seeking independence from Spain, and still others might have fought for their localcaudillo, or strongman (a strong, local/regional political figure). Some people fought for loot and land, while other people fought for political ideals. The path to victory, or independence, however, was not a result of the strong will of Americans to be free; many things had to fall into place (or out of place!) for independence to finally come to fruition.But with independence, now they had to govern, and this would prove a difficult task, one that would discourage and depress even Simon Bolívar. On December 17, 1830,Bolívar died of tuberculosis on his way to self-imposed exile in Europe. He had become a disillusioned man; shortly before he died he made his most famous observation on the colonies he had helped to emancipate: “America is ungovernable. Those who have served the revolution have plowed the sea.”*So what happens next? Do the new countries of Latin America survive? What turbulence is coming their way in the wake of independence?*Letter to General Juan Jose Flores, 9 November 1830, inSimón Bolívar: Obras Completas,ed. Vincent Lecuna, 2nd ed. (Havana: Editorial Lex, 1950), vol. 3, p. 501.17/05/20205history

Span 102 taller 2

Contesta en tus propias palabras las siguientes pregunta.1- Que idiomas influencias los cognados en español?2- Que estrategias seguirá para evitar el empleo de los falsos cognados?16/05/202010foreignlanguages-spanish

History Essay

How did the indigenous people of Latin America react to Iberians? How did they adapt to Iberian culture (that is, how did indigenous cultures and societies change during the colonial period)? How did they resist Spanish and Portuguese rule? How did the responses and experiences of sedentary, semi-sedentary, and non-sedentary indigenous people differ during the colonial period, and how were they the same (if at all)? Did indigenous people and their cultures die out during the colonial period, as popular belief suggests? Please address the colonial period as a whole from the eve of the conquest to the end of the colonial period. Please also do not just focus on sedentary Inca and Aztec societies; take into account the various different other Native peoples of colonial Latin America.You must cite at least one primary source (historical document),likethe excerpts fromVictors and Vanquished or thetext book Colonial Latin America: A Documentary History(by Mills, Taylor, and Graham). You must cite two other sources as well. The paper should be 5 – 7 pp., have an intro and conclusion,and citations, witha workscited or references page.14/05/202030history


Utilice la Biblioteca Virtual, el Internet y otros recursos académicos para investigar sobre:1. La importancia de mejorar la pronunciación y enriquecer el vocabulario2. El refinamiento de las destrezas de investigación3. La importancia del bilingüismo en la vida profesional. Un parrafo para cada punto14/05/20208foreignlanguages-spanish

Essay in Spanish

Write a three-page essay on leadership, different types, and their importance to a health manager.Be sure to write according to APA, include citations and references. Avoid plagiarism. Use the Spanish Language.15/05/202015humanresource-management

“34 Pages essay on George Orwell&#x27

s Homage to Catalonia”How does Orwell – as an outsider – navigate the ideas and realities of war in Spain? Does his perspective provide any unique insights into the character of the Spanish Civil War? And finally why, according to Orwell, does fascism triumph?pdf file of the book and prompt is attached30/01/202025history

Spanish help2;” You have been chosen to be the guide of an exchange student from Costa Rica Before the student arrives in the US

he has asked you to give him some tips about schools in our country. Using 10 different commands create a presentation in which you give him tips for being successful in US schools. Your presentation should include 5 affirmative and 5 negative commands in the tъ form. Examples: Study many hours Don’t sleep in class ” etc. &nbsp01/01/20204foreignlanguages-spanish”

Spanish composition

After you read the story beginning, write your own ending!Story……Slide 1Escucha lo que le pasó a mi amigo Juan.El viernes pasado jugó un juego de baloncesto en la escuela contra el mejor equipo de la liga.Slide 2Cuando él recibió la pelota que le pasó un compañerode juego, se le resbaló y le pegó en la nariz.Slide 3El se cayó al suelo y los compañeros se agruparon para ver que pasó. El entrenador vio la sangre en la nariz y dijo:“¡Llamen a 911!”Llegó la ambulancia y Juan no quiso ir…Slide 4¿Cómo termina la historia?01/01/20205foreignlanguages-spanish

Spanish mylab

1. umb.edublackboardmylabto donote: there are some speaking questions you could ignore itonly to do writing part and multiple chooses\private message me i ll give you user ID and passcode07/12/201915foreignlanguages-spanish

Midterm on Spanish democracy and media

CHECK FILE(MIDTERM) FOR INSTRUCTIONSlinks to movie:Waste Land :https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Albatross :https://vimeo.com/264508490daughter of the lake (part1):https://drive.google.com/file/d/18N0xO9xm_n9hRS2AfXlow_4KEUmACkcs/view?usp=sharingdaughter of the lake (part 2):https://drive.google.com/file/d/1Vr8vTMxuNiP6_FamZeCzKwmdE6AQZpuR/view?usp=sharingThe Island and the men:https://vimeo.com/210037490 (press cc for english subtitle)13/05/202040english

HelenaMariaViramontes MagillsSurveyofAmericanLiterature

Peck, D., (2006). Helena Maria Viramontes. Magill’s Survey of American Literature, 1-5. BiographyViramontes is one of the most important Latina writers to emerge at the end of the twentieth century, a short-story writer and novelist who addresses some of the most significant American issues, particularly for Latinos.Helena Maria Viramontes was born in East Los Angeles, California, on February 26, 1954, one of six daughters and three sons born to a construction worker and a homemaker. After graduation from Garfield High School, Viramontes earned her B.A. degree in English literature at Immaculate Heart College, also in Los Angeles, where she was one of only five Latinas in her class, graduating in 1975. She enrolled in the Master of Fine Arts Creative Writing Program at the University of California at Irvine in 1981 but left and completed her M.F.A. requirements after the publication of her first collection of short fiction, The Moths, and Other Stories, in 1985. In 1989, she received a National Endowment for the Arts fellowship which allowed her to attend a workshop given by the famed Columbian writer Gabriel Garcia Márquez at the Sundance Institute in Utah. Viramontes has not been a prolific author, but she has published consistently over her career. In 1988, with Maria Herrera-Sobek, she coedited Chicana Creativity and Criticism: Charting New Frontiers in American Literature (second edition, 1996), a collection of both creative work (including Viramontes’s short story “Miss Clairol”) and criticism inspired by a literary conference held at U.C. Irvine; in 1995, the two writers edited a similar collection titled Chicana (W)rites: On Word and Film. In 1995, she published her short novel Under the Feet of Jesusand in 2007, a second novel Their Dogs Came with Them, about the brutality of the Spanish conquest of the Americas. By the early twenty-first century, she had been a visiting professor at a number of universities but lived in Ithaca, New York, with her husband, the well-known environmental biologist Eloy Rodriguez, and their children. She also serves on the faculty at Cornell University, where she teaches creative writing. Her stories have appeared in a number of periodicals and anthologies, and she has won numerous awards, including the John Dos Passos Prize for Literature in 1996. As her fiction grapples with contemporary social issues, Viramontes herself has gotten involved in a number of cultural and educational projects, including as literary editor of XhistmeArte in the early 1980’s; cofounder of the nonprofit group Latino Writers and Filmmakers, Inc.; and coordinator for the Latino Writers Association.AnalysisIn most of her fiction, Viramontes focuses on the struggles of Latina characters within the family, their culture, and the larger society. All of these institutions can be seen as oppressive, usually retarding the growth of the central characters. In “The Moths,” for example, it is the family unit from which the young protagonist must break free; in “The Cariboo Café,” it is poverty, racism, and abusive governmental policies; and in Under the Feet of Jesus, it is economic, familial, and social injustices in the Central Valley of California. Viramontes’s stories, in short, communicate the overwhelming trials that Latina mothers, wives, and daughters face as they attempt to grow up, raise families, and discover their own identities, but her dual focus is always on the cultural and social values by which these women attempt to live as well. The narrative technique in these fictions is not always easy to follow, and the writing can be dense with poetic imagery. Viramontes uses shifting points of view, and it is sometimes difficult to reconstruct the temporal sequence of actions within the rapid changes in narration (as in “Cariboo Café”), but characters define themselves by their speech and thought in vivid and revealing ways (not only Latina protagonists such as Estrella in Under the Feet of Jesus, but Anglo characters such as the café owner in “Cariboo Café” as well), and in language that is often personal and poetic. Viramontes’s focus on the larger social and cultural context that her characters inhabit resembles the viewpoint of many contemporary Latina writers: Viramontes’s “Miss Clairol,” for instance, is a harsh indictment of consumer culture and its underpinning of the American Dream for Latinos and it reminds readers of stories by Sandra Cisneros, such as her often-anthologized “Barbie-Q.” As with most Latina writers (including poets like Cherrie Moraga and Lorna Dee Cervantes), Viramontes is never far from the social reality that Mexican Americans and other immigrant cultures have experienced in the twentieth century — not only the economic injustices, but also the discrimination and prejudice that often follow. On the other hand, her young women characters are capable of spiritual acts which carry her fiction to another, often mystical level. Her fiction has created a unique voice in American literature.“The Cariboo Café” First published: 1985 (collected in The Moths, and Other Stories, 1985)Type of work: Short storyIllegal immigrants and other disoriented characters collide violently in a city diner.“The Cariboo Café” is a powerful short work that is representative of many of Viramontes’s fictional concerns and techniques. The story is complicated by a shifting point of view, which moves from past to present without explanation, and readers may have some difficulty following the plot initially. However, this technique is exactly what Viramontes wants the reader to feel in order to experience the kind of displacement and alienation that her characters share. The first section of the three-part story is told from somewhere within six-year-old Sonya, who is supposed to be taking care of her younger brother, Macky, after she comes home from school. Sonya has lost the key to her apartment, however, and does not notice the loss until after she picks up Macky from Mrs. Avila, who watches him during the day. Sonya and her brother are immigrants, both their parents work to support the family in this adopted country, and the story portrays powerfully the dangers of this new life. Sonya decides to walk back to Mrs. Avila’s to wait for her parents to return, but she only knows the route the other way, and she and her brother are easily lost in the garment district of Los Angeles. When the police stop a man on the street, Sonya and Macky — following their parents’ iron rule — run and hide and are further lost in “a maze of alleys and dead ends, the long abandoned warehouses shadowing any light.” Across some railroad tracks, Sonya sees “the zero-zero place” and drags Macky toward it.Part 2 of the story moves to the perspective of the owner of the Cariboo Café where the story’s action will take place, a run-down diner whose sign has been reduced to “the double zero” of its original name, a symbol which comes to stand for all the losses in the story. The café owner describes himself as “honest” and “fair,” but readers hear the anger and bitterness in his voice. Like all the characters in this story, he is oppressed by the conditions of his life and blames the outcasts and misfits, the “scum” around him, with whom he shares more than he admits.Beneath this recital of his woes, readers learn what has happened in his café. A woman has brought the two children into the place for something to eat. (Readers assume that the three met outside in the interstice between the first two parts of the story.) The owner does not like the watchful Sonya, but he is immediately attracted to her brother, whom he dubs “Short Order,” and he brings hamburgers for them all. He later learns from the television news that the children have been reported missing by their parents, but he does nothing except drink beer and fall asleep. The owner had a son himself, “JoJo,” who was killed fifteen years before in Vietnam, and thus his attraction to Macky. A drug addict overdoses in the café bathroom the next morning, and the police swarm in — further reason, the owner explains, why he never told them about the woman and the missing children. A few hours later, three other illegal immigrants run into the café to hide from the immigration authorities in the bathroom, but the police find them. After they are arrested, the woman and the two children return to the café, and part 2 ends.The last third of the story is narrated from several shifting perspectives. The first part comes from within the old woman who, it turns out, is herself an illegal alien from Central America who has come to the United States because her young son was taken by the military authorities. Part 3 is, if anything, murkier than the first two parts, because this narrator has become unhinged by recent events in her life and moves between past and present with no transitions. She clearly confuses Macky with her five-year-old son Geraldo (the same way, ironically, that the café owner confuses the boy with his dead son JoJo). She has left El Salvador because, “Without Geraldo, this is not my home; the earth beneath it, not my country,” and now she sees Macky as a returned Geraldo. She takes the children back to her hotel room, bathes Macky, and watches both children sleep.With no break (except a new paragraph), the narrative shifts back to the consciousness of the café owner. He cannot believe how the three have cleaned themselves up this morning, but he takes their orders and goes into the kitchen to prepare the meal. There, suddenly, “For the first time since JoJo’s death, he’s crying” — in anger for his son, for his wife Nell who apparently left after JoJo was killed, even for the old woman who is going to bring more trouble on him. “Children gotta be with their parents, family gotta be together, he thinks.” At this point, he apparently calls the police.Again with no noticeable break, the story shifts back to the deranged woman as two black-and-white police cruisers pull up to the café, and officers enter, guns drawn. She grabs Macky, thinking that she is reenacting the terror in her home country when Geraldo was taken. She throws hot coffee on the police, but the story ends when she hears “something crunching like broken glass against my forehead and I am blinded by the liquid darkness.” Still, she will not release Macky/Geraldo’s hand; “you see, I’ll never let go. Because we are going home. My son and I.” Evidence in the beginning of part 2 indicates that she has been shot and killed.The story has been anthologized often, including in one of the most popular college literary surveys titled The Heath Anthology of American Literature, and for good reason, as the story not only raises a number of relevant social issues but at the same time is representative of the concerns of many Latinos living in the United States. U.S. authorities are seen as threatening collaborators with those in Central America, immigration becomes a dangerous choice, and all the characters are victims of exploitation and oppression. Sonya and the old woman are the focus here, but even the male characters — Macky, the café owner, the drug user — share the oppression and alienation.“The Moths” First published: 1985 (collected in The Moths, and Other Stories, 1985)Type of work: Short storyA young Latina finds her own identity as she nurses her dying grandmother and holds her in the bathtub as the soul escapes.“The Moths,” the story that would become the title work in Viramontes’s first collection of short fiction, is even more representative of her central concerns and develops more deeply her feminist themes. Again two women play central roles: an older woman and her fourteen-year-old granddaughter. The technique of the story is less complex than “The Cariboo Café,” for the girl is the narrator throughout the short piece, and the structure of her story is fairly straightforward. However, the story is full of rich sensory detail (of sight, sound, smell, and touch), as well as the magic realism that infuses so much of Latin American fiction and that influences so many Latino and other writers.Essentially this is a coming-of-age story, of a young girl who, in rebellion against her own patriarchal family, seeks comfort in the company of her grandmother and, in easing the grandmother through death, finds her own spiritual core. It is clear from the opening of the story that the girl is different, not “pretty or nice,” she admits, nor even “respectful.” She clashes with her family often, especially with the older sisters who try to bully her, and with a father who tries to make her fit a conventional mold, as by attending church. Her grandmother has requested her help, however, as the girl says in the story’s first sentence, for Abuelita is dying. Traditional religion is no solace here: The girl goes into a local chapel but only feels “alone” there; in her Abuelita’s house, by contrast, she feels “safe and guarded and not alone. Like God was supposed to make you feel.” The girl’s mother is hardly able to cope with her mother’s imminent death, but the narrator rises to become the caretaker, bathing Abuelita and holding her hand for hours. When her grandmother dies, the girl cleans her body and then, in a mystical ritual of ablution, undresses herself and carries the naked body of the grandmother into a full bathtub and holds her. “There, there, Abuelita, I said, cradling her . . . .” At this point in the last paragraph of the story, the Magical Realism takes over:Then the moths came. Small gray ones that came from her soul and out through her mouth fluttering to light . . . . The bathroom was filled with moths, and for the first time in a long time I cried, rocking us, crying for her, for me, for Amá, the sobs emerging from the depths of anguish, the misery of feeling half-born. . . .She is “half-born” but she is in the process of giving birth to herself through her devotion to her Abuelita. In a powerful and complex poetic metaphor (for the bath is also a kind of baptism), Viramontes has imagined the emergence of this young girl through her grandmother’s death (as the moths emerge from Abuelita). It is a spiritual image which defies translation, but beneath the image, readers can sense Michaelangelo’s “Pieta,” the statue of the Virgin Mary holding the dead body of Christ, another image of death and transfiguration. (Viramontes has acknowledged the influence of W. Eugene Smith’s famous 1972 Lifemagazine photograph, “Tomoko in the Bath,” of a Japanese woman holding her child deformed by industrial poisoning.) Viramontes’s fiction is ripe with this kind of religious imagery. The girl and her grandmother have created a separate, alternative, and sacred family based on love, and Viramontes draws on Christian iconography to confirm it. In contrast to her own home (where her father abuses the women), the girl finds her true self here.Under the Feet of Jesus First published: 1995Type of work: NovelA young girl holds her fragmented and exploited family of migrant farmworkers family together after one of them is sickened by pesticides.Under the Feet of Jesus is a novella telling a powerful story about California’s migrant farmworkers. Viramontes has dedicated this work to her parents, who met while picking cotton, and to the memory of César Chávez, the revered leader of the United Farm Workers. The work centers on Estrella, a thirteen-year-old girl traveling with her family from job to job in California’s central San Joaquin Valley. Estrella’s father has abandoned the family of five children, and her mother is pregnant again by the seventy-three-year-old Perfecto Flores, who drives them to their new job in his aging car but dreams of getting away himself. The family moves into a dilapidated house near an aging barn, works picking grapes, and befriends two cousins, Alejo and Gumecindo. Estrella and Alejo have an immediate attraction, and the novella’s drama builds when Alejo is sprayed by pesticides one night while he and Gumecindo are stealing apples from a nearby orchard to sell. Alarmed by his worsening illness, the family drives him to a clinic, where a nurse takes their money, only to direct them to a nearby hospital. Knowing they need their money for gas, Estrella takes a crowbar from the car and shatters the nurse’s glass-topped desk. It is Estrella’s symbolic rite of passage; the nurse gives back their money, and Estrella and her family drive Alejo to the hospital. Estrella comes out of the hospital entrance to her waiting family, and Viramontes underlines the religious imagery she employs throughout the novella: “she stepped forward and the glass doors split open before her as if obeying her command. . . . Estrella parted the doors like a sea of glass and walked through . . . .”When they return to their camp, Estrella climbs onto the roof of the old barn, and, in a continuation of this rich religious imagery, the shingles feel like “the serpent under the feet of Jesus” and Estrella stands on the roof “as immobile as an angel standing on the verge of faith.” In this symbolism that Viramontes has taken from Christian iconography, Estrella has gained the strength, not to save Alejo, perhaps, but to hold her family together. She has become a star, like her name, and a savior.Readers may be reminded here of another Latino coming-of-age classic, Rudolfo Anaya’s Bless Me, Ultima (1972), and there are a number of similarities, including the mixed use of religious and folk images. Under the Feet of Jesus is even closer in subject and sympathy to John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath(1939), however. Estrella’s migrant farm family, Viramontes assures readers — as Steinbeck did with the migrant Joads a half century earlier in the same region — has its spiritual figures and power in spite of what society does to it, how it is pummeled and poisoned. Estrella’s growth to young adulthood at the end of the novella, like much of the symbolism in Steinbeck’s work (both books end in barns, for example), gives a power to the migrant family and its transformative potential. “If we don’t take care of each other, who would take care of us?” her mother asks earlier. “We have to look out for our own.”SummaryIn the last decades of the twentieth century, Helena Maria Viramontes became one of a handful of Latina writers to voice the concerns of a growing Latino population. Her fiction deals with issues such as immigration and farm labor, but her particular focus is on the women in the Latino family and the ways in which they find their identity in spite of the oppressive institutions they inhabit. Viramontes, in short, is recognizable for the ways she merges her feminism with ethnic consciousness.Her stories are not always easy to follow, but her language is poetic and powerful, and her message is unmistakable. In a Long Beach, California, Women Writers Conference in 1984, Viramontes read aloud the story she had just completed writing, “The Cariboo Café.” She felt foolish because she could not stop crying as she read it, she later said, but when she finished she looked up and everyone in the room was crying as well.Discussion Topics•What is the role that institutions, such as government, church, and family, play in the fiction of Helena Maria Viramontes?•How do protagonists find their identity in the stories of Viramontes — through traditional assimilation into these institutions or through resistance and rebellion?•What is coming-of-age like for Viramontes’s young protagonists?•What role does gender play in these stories? Social class? Ethnicity?•What characterizes the structure and style of Viramontes’s stories?Essay by: David PeckBibliographyCarbonell, Ana Maria. “From Llarona to Gritona: Coatlicue in Feminist Tales by Viramontes and Cisneros.” MELUS 24 (Summer, 1999): 53-74. Analyzes the representations of the Mexican goddess Coatlicue and the folkloric figure of the wailing ghost La Llarona in the works of Mexican American women writers Viramontes and Sandra Cisneros.Green, Carol Hurd, and Mary Grimley Mason. American Women Writers. New York: Continuum, 1994, 463-465. The editors provide a brief biographical sketch as well as an analysis of the short stories in Moths. They emphasize the portrayal of Chicana women with their strengths and weaknesses as they struggle with the restrictions placed on them because they are women. They note that many of the characters pay a price for rebelling against traditional values.Moore, Deborah Owen. “La Llarona Dines at the Cariboo Cafe: Structure and Legend in the Works of Helena Maria Viramontes.” Studies in Short Fiction35 (Summer, 1998): 277-286. Contrasts the distant and close-up narrative perspectives in Viramontes’s work.Richards, Judith. “Chicano Creativity and Criticism: New Frontiers in American Literature.” College Literature 25 (Spring, 1998): 182. In this review of the anthology edited by Viramontes and Maria Herrera-Sobek, Richards argues that the book provides a good starting place for those who want to evaluate the Chicana literary movement. Points to the emergence of urban working-class women as protagonists, the frequent use of child and adolescent narrators, and autobiographical formats that focus on unresolved issues as characteristics of Chicana literature.Saldivar-Hull, Sonia. “Helena Maria Viramontes.” Dictionary of Literary Biography. Chicano Writers series. Detroit: Gale Research, 1992. Summarizes and analyzes several stories from Moths, stressing the cultural and religious traditions that restrict women’s lives. Discusses the patriarchal privileges that the father assumes in the story when he shouts at his daughter “‘Tu eres mujer’” (you are a woman) in order to control her. Calls “Snapshots” a “scathing critique of the politics of housework” and refers to the divorced Olga as “an alienated laborer whose value has decreased.”Swyt, Wendy. “Hungry Women: Borderlands Mythos in Two Stories by Helena Maria Viramontes.” MELUS 23 (Summer, 1998): 189-201. Discusses the short stories “The Broken Web” and “Cariboo Cafe.”Yarbo-Bejarano, Yvonne. Introduction to “The Moths and Other Stories.” Houston, Tex.: Arte Público Press, 1995. Discusses Viramontes’s portrayal of women characters who struggle against the restrictions placed on them by the Chicano culture, the church, and the men in these women’s lives. Provides a brief analysis of each story in the collection, showing that the stories deal with problems Chicana women face at various stages of their lives. Notes that, although Viramontes addresses the problems of racial prejudice and economic struggles, the emphasis is on the cultural and social values that shape these women and suggests that most of stories involve the conflict between the female character and the man who represents an oppressive authority figure.


ICOMPOSITION IIProf. Martin HyattWRITER RESEARCH QUESTIONSAuthor: Ernest Hemingway What is the most famous work/works of the writer?- From Whom the Bell Tolls: This was his greatest novel. This novel was about his experiences as a journalist during the Spanish Civil War. Hemingway incorporated a mix of themes as he wrote about war, honor, and romance.- The Old Man and the Sea: This was the last novel that Hemingway published. This novel depicts the story of a man who struggles at sea for many days but ends with a catch that not only lasted three days but earned him a huge prize. This novel is known to have multiple meanings with themes that involve pride, glory, and honor. Hemingway won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1953 with this novel. This novel also contributed to his Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954.- The Garden of Eden: This novel unfortunately was not completed and was published 25 years after Hemingway’s death. This novel was about gender roles and the struggles dealt within a newly-wed couple.- Farewell to Arms: This was Hemingway’s third novel. This novel was about a 16th century poet during the First World War. In this novel some of the events can be compared to Hemingway’s experiences in war and being in love.- The Sun Also Rises: This novel is what helped Hemingway get publicly seen as a famous writer. This novel is set after the First World War and is about the struggling relationship between a couple who are in love but the war has caused them to be apart.2. Who were the writer’s contemporaries?Ernest Hemingway’s contemporaries were F. Scott Fitzgerald (American author), Pablo Picasso (Spanish sculptor, painter), Gertrude Stein (American writer), Salvador Dali (Spanish surrealist painter), and John Dos Passos (American author).3. What are some of the things that made the writer’s style unique?What makes Ernest Hemingway’s writing style unique is that it is short and direct. With his training and career as a journalist, his simple style followed the “short and to the point” ideal with minimal adjectives. He liked the idea of using short sentences because they did not discourage the reader from continuing to read. Along with this simple style, his writing also involved simple language.4. Why was this writer considered to be important?Ernest Hemingway is considered to be important because he was one of the most influential writers that ever lived. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954. He wrote his stories based on his experiences during World War I, the Spanish Civil War and World War II.5. Did the writer’s geographical background influence their work?Hemingway’s work was heavily influenced by his personal experiences during the First World War in Europe. In his writing, he talks about his experiences and injuries during his time in the Italian army. He also was influenced by his trips to Paris.6. Did the writer’s cultural background influence their work? (i.e. race, politics, religion, sexuality, etc.)Ernest Hemingway did not speak about his cultural background in his writing nor is it seen that his cultural background influenced the writing of his novels. Hemingway was mostly influenced by his experiences with his career as a journalist, the places he visited, and his love life.7. Was this writer part of any particular ‘movement’ in literature? (i.e. modernism, romanticism, minimalism)Ernest Hemingway was one of the most influential writers of the twentieth century. In France he was considered a modernist because of his style. He wrote the essentials that needed to be on paper, leaving the reader to their imagination and their own interpretation. The reader cannot see beneath the lines, they need to read and re-read the story to discover the layers of meaning. He makes the reader work by not expressing everything, instead the reader has to go into the writer’s mind to attempt to understand what his intentions are.8. Who was the writer influenced by?Ernest Hemingway was influenced by his experiences as a journalist during the First World War. Several of his books depict personal experiences from the war that involve newspaper writing, injuries, and his romance with a Red Cross nurse. Hemingway’s fellow writer friends that were called “The Lost Generation” also influenced his writing. One of the men from the group, Gregorio Fuentes, was his long-time friend that often went fishing with him. Fuentes influenced the novelOld Man and the Sea.Section #9BRAINSTORMING:In order to come up with a strong research question, please fill in the blanks, then come up with a research question that will become your thesis.I want to know why his experiences in the war influenced many of his novels.I want to know how they were able to publish his uncompleted novel after his death.I want to know what encouraged him to transfer his writing styles as a journalist to become a novelist.Research Question/ ThesisIn what ways did Ernest Hemingway’s journalistic experiences influence his writing which in turn impacted future writers?Ernest Hemingway’s journalistic experiences influenced his writing which in turn impacted future writers and still does to this day.


Academic Research Article CritiqueName: Jose HernandezInstituion: Miami Dade College Date: 04/22/2020Introduction “Analyze the Text”I chose to review the article “Experiences of Intimate Partner and Neighborhood Violence and Their Association With Mental Health in Pregnant Women”. In this study the author examines the “crime and violence, bothintimate partner and neighborhood-wide, as well as cumulative effects ofboth types of violence predicted adverse mental health outcomes in a cohortof New Orleans pregnant women.” (Barcelona de Mendoza, Harville, Savage, & Giarratano. 2018, p. 941). Three-hundred-and-ninety-eight women were analyzed berween the ages of 18 and 45 and had at least three visits with their prenatal care providers. The participants were provided informed consent in their preferred languages which included being interviewed fully by bilingual and bicultural data collectors. They also completed questionairs relevant to the study. The exposures of interest were intimate partner violence and neighborhood violence, data for these interest was collected via survey, questions contained material from theCenters for Disease Control and Prevention’s Pregnancy Risk AssessmentMonitoring System (PRAMS) questionnaire (2009). The outcome of the study was depression, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. A screening tool called The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to determine “probable” or “likely” depression in the participants, probable depression was scored with a 12 or higher. Pregnancy-specific anxiety was screened with the Revised Prenatal Distress Questionnaireand was representedwith a high score of less than 17 at the top quintile to identify the women with thehighest prenatal anxiety. A posttraumatic check list was provided with questions inquiring about symptoms related to stressful experiences in order to determine PTSD, symptoms of PTSD were represented at 50. English and Spanish versions of each survey were provided, and all instruments used were revised for discrepancies by fully bilingual reviewers. It appears that the mixed method approach was used in order to conduct this study as the data collected was collected in the participants settings and variables had been measured on instruments and numbers used for analyzation. Objective evidence obtained from the authors efforts are that the study population was mostly unmarried African-American women with low income and were at 31 weeks of pregnancy. Most of the women reported that they felt their neighborhoods were safer or the same as the year prior. About a third of the women stated that they were dissatisfied with the protection of police in their neighborhoods. Around twelve percent of the women reported on intimate partner violence. Women with higher odds of probable depression seemed to have had physical violence along with women who had high emotional intimate partner violence. These same women also had higher odds of PTSD. Intimate partner violence was found to be associated with higher odds of probable depression and PTSD. Physical domestic violence was found to be associated with high odds of pregnancy-specific anxiety. Neighborhood crime and safety was also found to benotably associated with probable depression and PTSD. There were increased odds of probabledepression and PTSD with intimate partner violence and neighborhood crime. Intimate partner violence was linked to adverse mental health in pregnancy along with exposure to neighborhood violence. This research provided factual information that had already been founded in previous studies. Evaluate the TextThe objective of this study is plainly stated at the end of the introduction, “The purpose ofthis analysis was to examine how perceptions of crime and violence, bothintimate partner and neighborhood-wide, as well as cumulative effects ofboth types of violence predicted adverse mental health outcomes in a cohortof New Orleans pregnant women.” (Barcelona de Mendoza, Harville, Savage, &Giarratano. 2018, p. 941). The title of the paper I also believe plainly states the subject of the research. The statement of purpose in the abstract slightly differs from the statement of purpose in the introduction. The abstracts statement of purpose is as follows, “This study providesadditional evidence that cumulative exposure to violence is associated withpoorer mental health in pregnant women.” (Barcelona de Mendoza, Harville, Savage, &Giarratano. 2018, p. 939). After analyzing the sequence of statements in the introduction I feel that the information does not lead coherently to the purpose of the study. There seems to be some veering off about the disaster of Hurricane Katrina, however this study is supposed to be about exposure to violence from intimate partner and neighborhood-wide crime. The methods in this study appear to valid for studying the issue and have been used in previous research for similar if not the same studies. This particular study seems to have been duplicated from another already as information has been taken from other similar studies. The sample selection was taken from pregnant women all with the appropriate variables which I believe makes the information adequate. Again, I am unsure about the relevancy of the disaster from Hurricane Katrina in the purpose of this study. The information provided in regards to this matter does not belong, in my opinion, as it is not pertinent to the rest of the information provided. The titles and legends presented in the diagrams seems to accurately describe the content, headings and labels also appear to be accurate. The data appears to be organized for comparison and interpretation and the tables as a whole seems to be self explanatory. The text of this study appears to complement the data from the tables presented, calculations and presentation of data appears to be accurate. There is a note which states “Percentages may not sum to 100 due to missing data.” (Barcelona de Mendoza, Harville, Savage, &Giarratano. 2018, p. 946), after checking the percentages in this table I’ve noticed that this is indeed accurate. The tables appear to show what the researcher intended which is the mental health effect on pregnant women exposed to intimate partner violence and neighborhood crime.ConclusionOther researchers viewed the significance of the research reported by these authors accurate and relevant to their studies. The research provided in this article did not lead to any new questions, or new ways of using existing knowledge, it was however cited in six other articles. These other researchers subsequently supported theobservations and interpretations of these authors. I, personally, cannot say that the research made a significant contribution to human knowledge as most of the information has already been provided from other research. ReferencesBarcelona de Mendoza, V., Harville, E. W., Savage, J., &Giarratano, G. (2018). Experiences of intimate partner and neighborhood violence and their association with mental health in pregnant women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 33(6), 938-959. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260515613346Bloom, B. E., Alcalá, H. E., &Delva, J. (2018). Early life adversity, use of specialist care and unmet specialist care need among children. Journal of Child Health Care. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367493518807830Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2018).  Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (5th ed.). Retrieved from https://content.ashford.eduUniversity of Guelph: Library. (n.d.). Using a scientific journal article to write a critical review (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Retrieved from http://www.lib.uoguelph.ca/get-assistance/writing/specific-types-papers/using-scientific-journal-article-write-critical-reviewMahboubeh, H., Abbas, E., &Nourissadat, K. (2018). Persian translation of the Pregnancy Experience Scale (PES) –Brief version: Confirmatory factor analysis. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Abbas_Ebadi/publication/325229249_Persian_translation_of_the_Pregnancy_Experience_Scale_PES-Brief_Version_Confirmatory_Factor_Analysis/links/5aff2514a6fdccf9e4f4632c/Persian-translation-of-the-Pregnancy-Experience-Scale-PES-Brief-Version-Confirmatory-Factor-Analysis.pdf


Choose one of the following scenarios which illustrate a variety of incidents that have occurred on a university campus.Imagine that you are a residence hall counselor on campus, and the student described in the incident has come to you to ask for advice.What sort of advice would you give to the student?Explain why your advice represents the best course of action for the student to follow.Click here to download and access the Racial Oppression Scenarios.See rubric for specific grading criteria.Scenario 1: Jessica Jessica is a 22-year-old Mexican American who moved from Illinois to attend college in California. Lately, she has noticed that the majority of her Hispanic classmates are able to speak both English and Spanish fluently, and most speak Spanish to each other in her Chicano studies class and socially. Jessica’s parents spoke Spanish at home but did not insist on their children becoming bilingual. For this reason, Jessica understands Spanish when it is spoken to her, but she does not speak it fluently. Jessica has found that she feels more comfortable and relaxed in classes where most of her classmates are white rather than in her Chicano studies class, where she does not share the experiences of the other Hispanic students. This realization has upset her, and she has come to you for advice. Scenario 2: Jim  is an 18-year-old white student living away from home for the first time. He and his girlfriend were hanging out at the park when they noticed a car pull into the empty parking lot. No one got out of the car for nearly an hour, and it was getting dark. Jim and his girlfriend had planned to stay a while longer, but the car made them feel nervous. As they left the park, they passed nearby the car, and Jim knocked on the window to see if the occupants needed any help. As the window rolled down, Jim noticed that the men were black. He said, “Hey, what’s up? What are you guys doing here?” One of the men was insulted, became angry, and stated that they had every right to be in the parking lot. He claimed that Jim was racially profiling them. He has gone to the campus mediation center to report the incident and is demanding that Jim formally apologize. Jim is very upset because he feels he is being unfairly called a racist.Scenario #3: Anthony Anthony is a 20-year-old Chinese American student who recently transferred to your university from the community college in his hometown. He met with his advisor earlier today to discuss his schedule. As he was leaving the office, his advisor said, in a friendly and jovial manner, “The restaurant on First Street has the best wonton soup in town!” The more Anthony thought about this, the more upset he has become.Reflection Essay Grading RubricGrid ViewList View Meets Expectations Approaches Expectations Does Not Meet Expectations Depth of Reflection Points Range:20.8(32.00%)- 26(40.00%) Essay demonstrates an in-depth reflection on and application of the concepts presented in the course materials. Examples are clear and detailed, and interpretations are insightful and well supported. Points Range:15.6(24.00%)- 20.54(31.60%) Essay demonstrates a general reflection on and application of the concepts presented in the course materials. Appropriate examples may not be provided, and interpretations may not be supported. Points Range:0(0.00%)- 15.34(23.60%) Essay lacks reflection on or application of the concepts presented in the course materials. Examples and interpretations are missing or unsupported. Evidence and Practice Points Range:20.8(32.00%)- 26(40.00%) Essay shows strong evidence of the synthesis of the ideas presented and insights gained. Points Range:15.6(24.00%)- 20.54(31.60%) Essay shows some evidence of the synthesis of the ideas presented and insights gained. Points Range:0(0.00%)- 15.34(23.60%) Essay shows no evidence of the synthesis of the ideas presented or insights gained. Structure Points Range:5.2(8.00%)- 6.5(10.00%) Essay is of appropriate length, and writing is clear, concise, and well organized with excellent sentence and paragraph construction. Thoughts are expressed in a coherent and logical manner. Points Range:3.9(6.00%)- 5.135(7.90%) Essay may not be of appropriate length, and writing may not be well organized with good sentence and paragraph construction. Points Range:0(0.00%)- 3.835(5.90%) Essay is not of appropriate length. Writing is unclear and disorganized. Thoughts ramble and make little sense. Mechanics and APA Style Points Range:5.2(8.00%)- 6.5(10.00%) The assignment consistently follows current APA Style and is free from errors in formatting, citation, and references. No grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. All sources are cited and referenced correctly. Points Range:3.9(6.00%)- 5.135(7.90%) The assignment consistently follows current APA Style with only isolated and inconsistent mistakes and/or has a few grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. Most sources are cited and referenced correctly. Points Range:0(0.00%)- 3.835(5.90%) No attempt to follow APA Style is indicated. Sources are not used and/or there is no reference page. Mechanical errors significantly interfere with the readability of the paper. Name:Reflection Essay Grading Rubric


Dolce Mamma BakeryCezar AlmeidaSouthern States University BU501 Financial AccountingInstructor: Will Taylor 10/23/2019 Executive SummaryConsidering the fact that I was born into a family that always liked to cook. I grew up watching and learning from my mother and my grandmother’s making delight in the kitchen. The specialty of my grandmother was to bake cakes and sweets, while my mother was making salty foods. By coincidence I’m married to a woman who loves to cook, she likes to bake cakes, breads, sweets, and also, she makes sweets to sell on demand on holiday season such as Thanksgiving, Christmas and Easter. So, after a lot of talk with my wife about opening a company, we decided to open a small bakery. The name of bakery will be DOLCE MAMMA.Dolce Mamma will provide the best qualities and variety of fresh bakes, cakes, sweets, beverages and homemade juices. Our bakery will be located at San Diego-CA, specifically in the Pacific Beach region, where it has the largest number of Brazilians who miss a good Brazilian bakery, and also, they can bring their American friends to taste the taste of Brazilian cuisine.
 Our bakery will be opened to public to all ages, and social classes, mainly for people who enjoy a fresh baked.  I love the bakery nameIntroduction Dolce Mamma aims to manufacture and market breads and sweets of the most varied types, and can be savored in the store, for the comfort of its customers as well as the option of take home.The company intends to supply its products for restaurants, parties, weddings, ceremonials, hotels and clients in general.One of the secrets for the differential in the market thus obtaining a good result of the business is the creativity, a healthy environment in which people can enjoy and savor with tranquility one of the most varied types of sweets produced by the company, working with innovative recipes, with the taste of Brazil and the great service that Dolce Mamma offers.      Mission Statement Assisting our customers with quality products, developing new products and ensuring company growth and performance and customer satisfaction.Vision statement Being solution in products of qualities development and guarantee of the products to offer, growing with efficiency and creativity of the company to offer healthy food and with the flavor of Brazil.SWOT ANALYSIS DOLCE MAMMA Please do not provide bullet points in your final paper without providing explanations as to what the points mean and how they provide advantages or disadvantages associated with the bullet points.STRENGHTSUnique taste, relax place, good environment, good network of friends and customers.Good educated and experienced employees in the bakery field.Have good and fresh bakedWEAKNESS I do not know any supplies, culture, new brand.New in the market PricingOPPORTUNITIES: We are the first one, big growth in catered events market.Expansion of the product range Growing in the bakery market THREATS: Cost, new competitor, established business and business closing.Economic downturn It is a good idea to perform a SWOT analysis and the opportunities and threats should be based on what the industry leaders in your market are doing.  Who are the most successful bakeries operating in San Diego now?  What are they doing well and what are they struggling with.DEMOGRAPHICS Dolce Mamma will be located in Pacific Beach, San Diego. (as the locals call for it) Pacific Beach is favorite spot for college students, young and adults that like enjoying the party atmosphere. Also is an area known for having many bar and restaurants very close to the beach. P.B. comes alive at night, too, with the glow of bonfires and the electricity of the region’s many clubs. Pacific Beach has a large population of Brazilians because it is a good area for surfing.   Pacific Beach demographics profile Statistic Pacific Beach San Diego California Population 31,770 1,374,812 38,654,206 Population density (sq mi) 7,552 4,233 232 Median age 33.4 34.2 36.0 Male/Female ratio 1.1:1 1.0:1 1.0:1 Married (15yrs & older) n/a 48% 52% Families w/ Kids under 18 36% 45% 46% Speak English n/a 59% 56% Speak Spanish n/a 23% 29% Competitors Starbucks The competitors from our bakery will be a big company that is already in the market for long time in the Market it is Starbucks. In 1971, back then they were a roaster and retailer of whole bean and ground coffee, tea and spice with a single store in Seattle’s Pike Place Market. Today, they are privileged to connect with millions of customers every day with exceptional products and more than 30.000 retail stores in 80 markets.  Is Starbucks really a director competitor for a bakery?  I don’t believe Starbucks core competency is baked goods.  I believe it is coffee.The link below you can find all the accounting information from Starbucks such as income statement, balance sheet and cash flow statement. https://www.macrotrends.net/stocks/charts/SBUX/starbucks/income-statement.Bakery 85℃The other competitor will be the Bakery 85℃. This bakery in 2003, the founder of 85°C Bakery Cafe, Mr. Cheng-Hsueh Wu visited a cafe in a 5-star hotel. While enjoying gourmet pastries and drinks, he realized that the prices were set way too high for people to enjoy on a whim. From that moment, Mr. Wu has envisioned a cafe that provides premium coffee, bread, and cake at affordable prices. Thus the 85°C Bakery Cafe journey begins, today, 85°C has over 1,000 locations worldwide. In 2008, the first U.S. store opened in Irvine, CA. The location quickly became an overnight sensation, with over 5,000 Yelp reviews and lines out the door. Featured on TIME, CNN, NPR, and Travel Channel, 85°C Bakery Cafe has become a culinary phenomenon and a new cafe experience for all.  Revenue from Bakery 85℃In 2016, 67% of the chain’s revenue came from china, while 18% came from Taiwan. In 2013, the average US store generated more than US$700,00 in monthly sales, seven times more than average store in china.  Great job choosing this company and now I would look for another one just like this!Costs and ExpenseStartup Costs Equipment $ 46.000.00 Material $ 4.500.00 Rent $ 2.000.00 Website $ 5.000.00 Signage, Stationary, etc. $ 1.000.00 Consultation $ 1.000.00 Supplies $ 1.000.00 Business license $ 1.000.00 Cash Reserve $ 5.000.00 Total: $66.5000.00Where are you locating this financial information?  Where can you provide resource information to support that these are cost that will be associated with starting a bakery.Operational Monthly Costs Rent $ 2.500.00 Gas and Electrics $ 1.000.00 Water $ 1.000.00 Food Supplies $ 1.000.00 Other Supplies (office, cleaning) $ 200.00 Employees $ 2.000.00 Insurance $ 500.00 Marketing $ 200.00 Phone $ 100.00 Maintenance $ 200.00 Total: 8.700.00Income (First Year) Sales per Customer $ 10.00 (approximated) Sales Per Day (average 20 customer a day) $ 200.00 Catering per Week $ 1.000.00 Total a month                                           $10.000.00                        Income (Second Year) Sales per Customer $ 10.00 (approximated) Sales per Day (average 30 customer a day)  $ 300.00 Catering per week $ 1.000.00  Total a month                                         $ 13.000.00Income (Third year) Sales per Customer $ 10.000 Sales per Day (average 30 customer a day) $ 300.00 Catering per week $ 1000.00 Total a month                                                      $ 13.000.00Please put a little less financial information and more written information about your company and the products you will be offering.  Focus on why your bakery will be able to be successful in San Diego with the large number of bakeries currently located in the city. You had four pages of charts which means you had like three pages of written documentation.  That will not be enough for your final paper.  You will also need between 8 to 10 citations or references to support your market research.  You will need this information to further support why you are entering into a particular market.21 out of 30.ReferencesPacific Beach Demographics, (2019). Retrieved fromhttps://www.point2homes.com/US/Neighborhood/CA/San-Diego/Pacific-Beach-Demographics.htmlStarbucks Income Statement 2005-2019: SBUX. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.macrotrends.net/stocks/charts/SBUX/starbucks/income-statement.our menu. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.85cbakerycafe.com/.


The Aztecs: Barbarians, or Brilliant?Submitted byJohn NonomenEl Centro CollegeClass 1301, Section 52245, Winter Term 2016Total Word Count: 2252The term “Aztec” refers to the American Indian empire that dominated central Mexico (also known as Mesoamerica) when Hernán Cortés arrived on the shores of the Yucatán peninsula in 1519. Whenever we hear the term “Aztec” many people usually imagine a culture that was extremely violent and militaristic, a culture full of human sacrifice and cannibalism. The idea of the Aztecs as cannibals, savages, and generally uncivilized peoples has its origins with the conquest of the Aztecs by Cortés and Spanish colonists in the sixteenth century, who used such allegations as justifications for conquest and colonization. But a careful examination of Aztec history and society reveals another side to their civilization. Their accomplishments in mathematics, together with their techniques for measuring time and surveying land use, as well as their interest in astrology, enriches our understanding of Aztec society. They were far more sophisticated than a simple “civilized/uncivilized” binary opposite, even by modern standards. Thus, the central tenet of this essay is that the Aztecs were more than barbarians and in fact were quite sophisticated, especially in the areas of mathematics, their techniques for measuring time and surveying land use, and because of their interest in astrology (Cartwright, 2014, http://www.ancient.eu/Aztec_Civilization/; Bernal, 1963, pp 10-11).The Aztecs, according to their own legends, pinpoint their origin to the place called “Aztlan”which is located in northern Mexico or the modern-day American Southwest. Many of their own origin stories reference supernatural realms and locations that anthropologist are still trying to locate in geographic terms. In the twelfth century CE before they rose to dominance in central Mexico, the Aztecs lived on the margins of civilized Mesoamerica (central Mexico). By the thirteenth century the Aztecs had embarked on a period of wandering and settled in the Valley of Mexico. Later on, they continually fought with the small city-states which also resulted in shifting alliances. Afterwards, they took refuge on small islands in Lake Texcoco in the Valley of Mexico. In 1325 they founded the town of Tenochtitlán (modern-day Mexico City). The story of how the Aztec empire rose to dominance in the Valley of Mexico during the 1300s is filled with intrigue, violence, and bloodshed (Knight, 2002, pp 132-134; Bernal, 1963, pp 12-15).After the fall of the Toltec empire, which dominated the Valley of Mexico, the region’s politics were overshadowed by the external neighboring powers and their successor states. “By the thirteenth century, the Chichimec [Aztec] migrants were establishing new territories in the valley.” The dominant power in the Valley was the Tepanecas based out of the city-state of Azcapotzalco. In their migration the Aztecs had gradually transitioned from being nomadic hunters and gathers to learning how to farm corn. Throughout their journey south to the Valley of Mexico, which they had taken via Coatepec and Tula, they periodically paused to farm. They also became familiar with the rudiments of Mesoamerican civilization such as military politics and human sacrifice. Additionally, during their journey south the Aztecs had developed a strong belief in a Toltec deity named Huitzilopochtli, who eventually became the top-ranking deity in their pantheon (Knight, 2002, pp 132-134; Bernal, 1963, pp 16-18).When the Aztecs were newly arrived in the Valley of Mexico, they occupied a low position in regional politics and prestige. As their number increased, they eventually established themselves through military skill. Later on, in 1319, they were attacked by the Tepanecas because the Tepanecas were engaged in the struggle to dominate the valley and they disdained outsiders. As a result the Aztecs moved to the rocky, snake infested island of Tizzapan on Lake Texcoco (where today stands the central campus of UNAM, Mexico’s national university system). On the island the Aztecs survived by eating snakes. Little by little the Aztecs on Tizzapan began building homes, temples, and other structures out of rocks and soil. They also began serving as mercenaries in the wars between city-states in the Valley (Knight, 2002, pp 137-138).One colorful story related by the Aztecs tells how their war-like nature set them apart from the other, agricultural groups inhabiting the Valley. After helping the city-state of Culhucan win several important victories, the Culhua ruler named Achitometl offered his beautiful daughter to the Aztecs as a marriage gift. The Aztecs priests flayed her and used her skin to drape an Aztec priest. This resulted in a war between the two groups. According to the Aztecs, Huitzilopochtli spoke to the Aztec priests in visions and dreams, advising, “Go from here calmly and cautiously.” Again, they resumed their travels. In another part of the Valley their priests had another vision. Here, they beheld Huitzilopochtili’s prophecy signaling the place to build a permanent settlement: an eagle perched on a cactus, devouring a snake. On this spot the Aztecs began building Tenochtitlan, which would became a city on the lake and later the Aztec capital and location of Aztec advances in mathematics, time measurement, and religion (Knight, 2002, pp 137-139; Bernal, 1963 pp 18-20).The mathematical accomplishment of the Aztecs is concerned with their number system and their notation of area. Unlike today’s mathematics, “they followed a vigesimal system.” In that system, their counting was based on the units of twenty, and they also used subsets of units of five. We can also observe this in the Nahuatl number where the word for “six” actually means “five plus one.” Additionally, to refer to large number such as 400 (20×20), they called it tzontliwhich means hair or growth of garden herbs. Likewise, for 8000 (20x20x20), they referred it as xiquipilli or bag of cocao beans. Furthermore, their vigesimal system used number words for numbers. For example, One-Ce, Two-Ome, Three-Ei or Yei, Four- Macuilli and so forth. Additionally, “the Aztec’s notation system was different than the present [western] notation system.” We write the numbers in the horizontal fashion whereas the Aztecs wrote in the vertical fashion. The value of that symbol was determined by the location of the number in that vertical stack or fashion (Van Tuerenhout, 2005, pp 225-226).An Aztec manuscript titled the Matricula de Tributos in Spanish (the counting of tribute), which details the taxes and other tribute collected from neighboring city-states in the sixteenth century, provides examples of this different notation system. For example, a dot represented one, a representation of flag represented ‘twenty’, and a rough symbol of feather represented ‘400’ and so forth. The Matricula de Tributos also shows symbol used to refer to area. They used to draw picture of mantle to represent area. Sometimes, they also added another set of symbol to it which represented the size of mantle. For example, they put two finger on the top to signal that the size of mantle requested is twice. Those fingers represented two brazas which was a measurement of distance and its metric equivalence is still unknown. Two colonial-era documents (i.e., written after 1519), the Codice de Santa Maria Asunción and the Codex Vergara, relate that “the standard unit of measurement was called Quahuitl which is approximately equivalent to 2.5m.” They used dots and the lines to represent the width and length of the fields in Quahuitl. A dot was considered to be valued as “20” and a line was considered “1.” Archeologists and modern scholars, working with the notion of Quahuitl, have found that the Aztecs used a quantity similar to our hectare (Van Tuerenhout, 2005, pp 226-227).The Aztecs, who relied on the complex system of measurement to calculate celestial data, also used these data to structure their daily lives. As a result they had a sophisticated calendar system. The Aztec calendar consists of two cycles. One cycle consisted of 260 days which they called Tonalpohualli. The other consisted of 365 days and was called Xihuitl. The term Tonalpohualli meant “counting of the days.” This calendar was comprised of 260 days obtained by combining 13-day names with 20-day signs. Some of the examples of the 20-day signs in this calendar were Cipactli (alligator), Ehecatl (Wind), Calli (House), Cuetzapalin (Lizard) and so forth. The major purpose of the Tonalpohualli calendar was to organize festivals for their patron deities. Other Mesoamerican civilization used aspects of the Tonalpohualli calendar. Unlike the Tonalpohualli calendar, the “Xihuitl consisted of 365 days.” It was made up of 18 units, and each unit contained 20 days in them. The Aztecs added extra 5 days to complete 365 days, and those five days were called as nemontemi. In our calendar, we refer to specific years by assigning numbers to them. However, the Aztecs identified their calendar years by the day name on which they began. The months were named in the honor of gods and the each month were associated with belief system such as when to start war, when to sow crops, when to harvest them and so forth. The examples of Aztec months are Atlcahualo (sacrifice of children for rain), Tlacaxipeualitzili (slaves and war captives were sacrificed), Tozoztontli (children were sacrificed), Huei Tozoztli (self-sacrifice to impress goddess of corn) and so forth (Van Tuerenhout, 2005, pp 227-228).Moreover, there was one more calendar known as Xiuhmolpilli, which combined the previous two calendars and consisted of a 52-year period. “This calendar was the combination of Tonalpohualli and Xihuitl, and was integrated to a much larger cycle of 52 years.” In this calendar, the dates were identified by their signed codes. These signed codes were based on the codes used in the previous shorter calendars. The combination codes were designed in such a way that they repeated themselves after every 52 years. From this calendar, we can learn that the Aztecs had planning and schedule for 52 years, similar to the planning based on 100-year periods used in western societies (i.e., the century). The Aztecs believed that unless they celebrated the passing of the 52 with great ceremony and pomp, creation would be placed in jeopardy. The Aztecs had a complex system of religious beliefs that combined celestial calculations with belief in omens (Van Tuerenhout, 2005, p 229; Bernal, 1963, 25-26).Though not scientific in their approach to it, the Aztecs were fascinated with astrology and celestial phenomena. They had a complex understanding of events in the night sky. They went to great lengths to interpret celestial phenomena and weave their understanding of it into significant events affecting Aztec society. According Mexican scholar Leon Miguel-Portilla, in the years leading up to the conquest of Mexico by Spaniards, “there were eight bad omens as described in the original text of Nahuatl of Sahagún’s native informants.” Bernardino de Sahagún was a Spanish priest who trained Aztec scribes to write in Spanish after the conquest. Many of these scribes also wrote in Nahuatl. According to the Nahuatl texts, “the first bad omen appeared in the sky ten years before the Spaniards first came to the valley.” The text mentions that there was “flaming ears of corn” or fiery signals in the sky which seemed to bleed fire. In the fourth omen fire streamed through the sky while the sun was still shining, flashing along the horizon after sunset to where the sun rises. Though they did not understand these celestial events the Aztecs linked inexplicable phenomena to important, historical events affecting their society. This demonstrated the Aztecs’ interest in linking the various complicated components of the everyday world they inhabited, before and after the Spanish conquest in the early sixteenth century (Leon Portilla, 1992, pp 1-4; Bernal, 1963, pp125-126).Considering the Aztecs traditional rule of human sacrifice, we can conclude that their civilization had violent and “barbarous” aspects, according to our present standards. This conclusion is supported by archaeologist Carla M. Sinopoli’s article, in which Sinopoli states that the Aztec empire had a “vast number of human sacrifice in their culture.” Whenever we hear the term “Aztec” many people usually imagine a culture that was extremely violent and militaristic, a culture full of human sacrifice and cannibalism. Instead of a strict “civilized/uncivilized” dichotomy, however, we can appreciate their history and culture which led to intellectual accomplishments in mathematics, techniques for measuring time and surveying land use, and their interest in astrology. These areas demonstrate that the Aztecs were more than barbarians or savages. Who today would argue that nations, such as the United States, China, England, France, and Russia, are not sophisticated, simply because they have enormous military potential? Together these countries have enough nuclear weapons to destroy all life on earth, yet few people would argue that as a result they are uncivilized nations. On the contrary most people would argue these nations lead the world in technological and scientific accomplishments. Similarly, it’s possible to argue that the Aztecs were not only barbarous and violent, according to our standards. They also had many sophisticated intellectual accomplishments, even by our standards (Sinopoli, 1994, pp 159-80).BibliographyBernal, Igancio. (1963). Mexico before Cortez: art, history, and legend.Garden City, New York: Doubleday.In text reference: (Bernal, 1963)Cartwright, Mark. (2014). Aztec civilization. Retrieved from the Ancient History Encyclopedia website: http://www.ancient.eu/Aztec_Civilization/In text reference: (Cartwright, 2014)Knight, Alan. (2002). Mexico: from the beginning to the Spanish conquest. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.In text reference: (Knight, 2002)Leon Portilla, Miguel (Ed.). (1992). The broken spears: the Aztec account of the conquest of Mexico. Translated by Lysander Kemp. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.In text reference: (Leon Portilla, 1992)Sinpoli, Carla M. (1994). The archaeology of empires. Annual review of anthropology, 23 (1), 159-180.In text reference: (Sinopoli, 1994)Van Tuerenhout, Dirk R. The Aztecs: new perspectives. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.In text reference: (Van Tuerenhout, 2015)


Brandi Wyrick3123 Linden Avenue Bakersfield CA 93305(661) 748-5920│ jojojo9.bc@gmail.comCERTIFICATED TEACHER K – 5 Lesson PlanningClassroom ManagementCurriculum DevelopmentChild DevelopmentDifferentiated InstructionEducational LeadershipEDUCATIONBachelor of Arts in Early Childhood Education                            April 2020Ashford University – San Diego, CA                Relevant Coursework: ECD 310 Exceptional Learning and Inclusion, ECE 101 Introduction to Early Childhood Education, ECE 214 Nutrition & Health of Children & Families, ECD 315 Curriculum Planning and Design for Early Learners, ECE 312 Administration of Early Childhood Education Programs, ECE 313 Collaboration with Parents & Community, ECE 315 Language Development in Young Children, ECE 332 Child Development, ECE 335 Children’s Literature, ECE 405 Children & Families in a Diverse Society, EDU 100 Issues in Education, PED 212 Foundation of Movement & Motor Activities, SOC 312 Child, Family & SocietyAssociate of Arts in Liberal Studies                                      April 2008Bakersfield College – Bakersfield, CA            Relevant Coursework: CHDV B36 Develop Appropriate Curriculum, EDUC B24 Early Field Exper/Teachers, HLED B1 Principles of Health Education, NUTR B10 Elementary Nutrition, SPAN B1A Elementary Spanish, SPCH B1 Speech CommunicationEXPERIENCEProgram Assistant / Reading Intervention                                                 November 2016- PresentGreenfield Union School District- Bakersfield, CA Run reading groups and centers with Kindergarten, first, second, and third gradeIncrease reading skills in the areas of reading fluency, blending, comprehension, phonetics, diagraphs, blendsLearn how to effectively teach skills to children and management of student groupsSecretary                                                                                         February 2009 – January 2013CA Reding- Bakersfield, CACalled contracted companies to retrieve their copier and print count usagesHandled filing and phone calls at front deskDigitally entered copier and print usage into the databaseCOMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT PTA Treasurer & President                                                                   July 2015 – June 2019Parent Teacher Association- Bakersfield, CA Boost Parent, teacher, Student, and community involvement through school events and activities, Boost Parent and community engagement through school events and workshops


HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF ANTI-SEMITISMAnti-Semitism:”opposition to, prejudice or discrimination against or intolerance of Jews & Jewish culture”  1. St. John Chrysostom (347-407). “It is because you killed Christ…you shed the precious blood that there is now no restoration, no mercy anymore, and no defense.”2. Jews in the Christian Roman Empire after 389 C.E. (a) a visible minority with different customs (kosher food, circumcision, etc.), (b) forbidden on pain of death to make converts, (c) characterized as rejecters of Christianity and Christ killers.3. Anti-Christianity in the Talmud: In three passages, the rabbis make scurrilous, uninformed comments about Jesus: that he was a sorcerer, a seducer, a bastard and his mother a prostitute.  4. The Crusades: 10,000 Jews murdered in Germany in 1096 on eve of First Crusade—“Who kills a Jew has all his sins forgiven” (crusader saying). 5. Well poisoning: during “Black Death”/Bubonic Plague (1347-51) in Europe Jews were accused of poisoning wells; 12,000 were executed in Mainz, Germany and many elsewhere.  [Iran is claiming that Israel & Jews caused COVID-19]6. Dissenting Christian Voices: Peter Abelard (1079-1142) & Nicolaus of Cusa (1401-64) who admired & respected the Jewish people. 7. Blood Libel: between 1144 and 1911, there were numerous instances of the charge that Jews kidnapped Christian children to make matzah (unleavened bread) for Passover.  Chaucer records one such alleged murder in his Canterbury Tales.8. Expulsions: England (1290), France (1306 & 1392), Hungary (1349-60), numerous German locales (1300-1500), Spain (1492, Portugal (1496), & Italy (1497).  9. Spanish Inquisition (1481-1808): the fanatical attempt to discover Jewish so-called marranos/pigs who had ostensibly converted to Christianity. Method use of the rack, water boarding and other means of torture.10. Establishment of the Ghetto by Pope Paul IV in 1555. 11. Luther’s anti-Semitism: after being conciliatory towards Jews in his early, post-Reformation years, L. gradually grew frustrated with their refusal to consider conversion and urged his followers to “burn their synagogues, destroy their houses, confiscate copies of the Talmud and prayer books…and expel them from the land forever.” 12.  Dreyfus Affair (1894-1899): French Jewish army officer falsely accused and twice convicted of treason despite overwhelming evidence that he was innocent. Finally exonerated thanks to esteemed author Emile Zola. 13. Holocaust (1933-45: “Not all the victims were Jews, but all the Jews were victims” (E. Wiesel). Theological (Christian) anti-Semitism laid the ground work for the racist, pagan Jew hatred and annihilation that Hitler perpetrated. 14. The birth of a modern Jewish state in 1948 has fueled a new kind of Anti-Semitism—Arab/Muslim hatred of “Zionists” (which they try to distinguish from hatred of all Jews). It has sparked: (a) a revival of the Blood Libel (b) denial that Jews ever had a homeland in ancient Israel/Judea & Samaria (c) religiously justified terrorism (d) promotion of the so-called Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions movement (BDS) throughout the world (e) Holocaust denial, esp. in Iran (f) equating Zionism with racism. 2018: 1,879 anti-Semitic acts in USA

Understanding the Mask of the Spaniards and the Mask of Martin Guirre

As part of the wanting to let the people know the things left unknown, there are several points that have to be cleared and furthered stretched from the long story which was translated several times, having English as the sixth one. The first point that can be derived from the long and different narratives of places visited and devastated by the Spaniards is the point saying that the repetitive tortures and stories of killings, butcheries and burnings which lasted for many years appear like a culture that runs in the blood of the Spaniards. Except for Queen Isabel who according to the author as a kind heart and should be blessed by heaven, the rest of the greedy Spanish people is a full version of evil masked with the purpose of spreading Christianity and heaven’s blessing for the people.Understanding this blood of terror that reached and proliferated from America to the New Kingdom of Granada, we get to know the possible emergence of terror not just in the future but in the present globalized world. More than that, it is also significant to express the ‘otherness’ of the Indians in their own country. Aside from losing their right for decisions concerning their lives and politics in their own land, they also lost the real path and direction to where they wanted themselves to be because of the fear of meeting death in the hands of the executioners.The message here as we underscore this point is that we can never tell how it all ended or if at this point in time it is still happening. We usually mind our own lives and only take notice of history in class or during tests. But the evil, the pain and the picture of butcheries stay unknowingly. Time moves like things that change but some things just evolve through time. The repetition of events and ways, means and processes of killings and snatching of children from the breast of their mothers only give a hint to all of us that things can be repeated at any cost and at any time.

The Struggle for Mastery of Europe

The first Italian War, 1494-98, was caused by Ludovico Sforza of Milan, seeking an ally against the Republic of Venice. He found an ally, Charles VIII of France, and convinced him to invade Italy. In 1494, Ferdinand I of Naples died, and thus Charles VIII invaded Italy, starting at the peninsula with 25,000 men. From there onwards the French took Italy unopposed — until their taking of Naples, which provoked a reaction, and thus the League of Venice was formed against them, cutting off Charles’ army from France. In the Battle of Fornovo, Charles was forced to withdraw back to France, and Ludovico, having betrayed France in Fornovo, retained his throne, only until 1499, when Louis XII of France (Charles’ successor) invaded Lombardy and seized Milan. By 1500, just a year after, Louis XIII of France and Ferdinand I of Spain agreed to become abettors, and thus, started marching south from Milan. By 1502, French and Spanish forces had seized control of the kingdom. However, disagreements arose about the terms of partition, and this led to a war between Louis and Ferdinand. By 1503, Louis having been defeated at the Battle of Cerignola, and Battle of Garigliano was forced to withdraw from Naples, and is now left under the control of the Spanish viceroy, General Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba.Meanwhile, Pope Julius II, being concerned with expanding the territory of the Republic of Venice, that the League of Cambrai was formed in 1508. This was the agreement of France, the Papacy, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire to restrain the Venetians. By 1509, the League destroyed most of the Venetian Army, but it failed to capture Padua. The Pope, now seeing France as a greater threat, left the League and joined arms with Venice. For the following year, the Veneto-Papal alliance was repeatedly defeated, so the Pope proclaimed a Holy League against the French, which rapidly grew to include England, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire.The French, having their leader Gaston de Foix killed in 1512, was forced to withdraw from Italy by the Swiss who invaded Milan, and reinstated Maximilian Sforza to the ducal throne. The Holy League was powerful, yet only until the death of Julius, who, when he died, left the league with no effective leadership. Then, Charles, I of Spain was elevated to Holy Roman Emperor, causing a fit with Francis I (Louis’ successor), who wanted that position.

Ontology Concept

It is evidently clear from the discussion that ontology concept discusses the existence of cabbages and apples. For example, Douglas Adams uses his Madagascar experiences to explain how the concept of evolution. Further, ontology focuses on why the above categories exist. Specifically, ontology delves into the reasons why dogs, cats, humans and other animals were placed into our material world. Next, the study of ontology includes determining the significant purpose of the existence of vegetables, fruits, and other plants. Answering the first ontology topic, the person’s describing the physical features and actions shows the existence of the dog, cat, human or other animals. Hearing an animal that barks definitely shows the dog exists. Seeing the animal’s long hair Seeing an animal that has two arms, two legs and speaks Spanish shows a human exists. Seeing an animal gallop indicates the existence of the horse. Next, ontology zeroes in on the reasons for the existence of the above living things. Observing the dog will show that the dog exists to ward off the cat’s intrusion into the dog owner’s home. Likewise, the dog exists to safeguard the dog owner’s car from trespassing thieves. Observing the cat in its own free environment shows the cat exists to eat rats and mice. Eating the rats and mice reduces the pests’ population. With lesser population, people are assured of lesser rodent attacks. Delving into ontology’s existence topic, authentic thinker Albert Camus espoused the philosophical concept of Existentialism. Existentialism states that each individual uses his or her existence or experiences as the basis for generating the individual’s own philosophies, values, and concepts. People use their preferred philosophies, values, and concepts to add meaning to their existence. Further, different individuals go through different paths add meaning to their lives. A hungry individual can generate meaning in his life. First, the individual observes how another person cooks food. Next, the individual uses the observation to cook the individual’s food.

HumanAnimal Relationships in The Horses Tale by Mark Twain

Various chapters in the book illustrate different forms and aspects of human-animal interrelationships.The chapter starts by Soldier boy introducing himself as the favorite horse for Buffalo Bill (Cody) and boasts about his pedigree, strength, and speed as a stout horse. Soldier boy is at Fort Paxton just after arriving from a 40-day scouting expedition. Everyone at the fort is awaiting the arrival of the orphaned niece of its commander, Brigadier General Thomas Alison (Mark 10).A strong bond exists between Buffalo Bull and his horse, Soldier Boy. As the horse narrates he, was Bill’s favorite. While in scouting missions, they rode together for several miles. The horse even acknowledges that Buffalo taught him how to drag wounded soldiers out of the line of fire. The relationship between Soldier Boy and Bill was both companionship and friendship.The Spanish sister-in-law of the general’s deceased brother, Mercedes, writes to Alison from France. She explains that Catherine’s parents wanted her to go him because he is in bad health and is also about to retire. In the writing, Mercedes explains that Cathy has a good mind and is good-hearted. She also explains that Cathy has a sense of justice and loves animals.Humans can develop a strong love towards animals. As Mercedes writes, Cathy loves animals to the extent that she refers to them as her worship. She says that Cathy shows little cruelty and oppression towards animals. Showing no form of cruelty and oppression to animals is the best relationship people should have with animals. The author uses Cathy to communicate to his audience of the importance of showing care and kindness towards animals.In chapter three, General Alison informs his mother in San Bernardino, California, of the arrival of Cathy. Cathy has conquered everyone including both the soldiers and Indians with her good heart and winning ways.

Pricing Strategy ChurroZ

Cost includes the cost of goods manufactured, which includes raw materials, processing, labor, etc. and the cost of goods sold that includes the operating expenses. The operating expenses and initial investment would be covered under the assigned budget. Mostly, businesses that are entering into a market try to set a price that covers their cost while helping them earn a reasonable amount of profit. Hence, the pricing methodology is pretty simple, they add a markup to the total cost of the product. There are several pricing options available based on which we can decide the price of an item of ChurroZ Pricing Strategies A product can be priced according to several strategies. A business should decide on a pricing strategy based on its marketing strategy, as well as the market it is moving into. We are discussing the following two pricing strategies here: Price Skimming – Using this strategy, a business charges a relatively high price for a short period of time exploiting newness of the product. The main target of the strategy is to ‘skim off’ customers who are willing to pay a high price for getting the product sooner. The prices are reduced as the demand goes down. This strategy is effective for extremely innovative products or for products being introduced to a market so that they can take advantage of customer involvement and attraction towards the product. ChurroZ are Spanish donuts and they are being introduced in New Zealand on a cart for customers on the go. As the product is being introduced in the market, the business could think about utilizing Price Skimming as a strategy because it is a relatively new product for the New Zealand market and customers would be interested in trying it. Later, they bring the prices down if the demand falls or the competition increases. Penetration Pricing – In this pricing strategy, a business sets a relatively low price to enter a market to attract maximum customers and induce trials. The objective of the strategy is to make the customers switch from their existing brands due to the lower pricing. The target is to increase market share, sales volume. This strategy is not suitable for ChurroZ as it is a new product and there is very little or no competition currently in the market. Various Price Allocation Techniques Cost plus pricing – this technique is the most commonly used and popular with manufacturers. It involved adding up all the costs associated with the manufacturing of a single item and then adding up a desired profit to find the price. This is a fairly simple and transparent technique and it involved minimum complexity. It is most suitable for business startups or if entering a new market. Competitive Pricing – Another strategy of pricing is to price your product based on the prices of the competitors. However, this strategy is a risky one as it can back fire if it induces a price competition among businesses. Hence, business should only compete with others of their own size and strength. This strategy is not suitable for startups as they would looking to stabilize themselves and understand the market and their customers and blend in accordingly. Demand Based Pricing – Demand based pricing is the method in which an analysis of consumer response to a range of prices reveals the highest acceptable price. This is a relatively new method that relies on research and time. A company before deciding on a price and launch the

African American history 16001877

The events that shaped African American history and converted the blacks from being slave to free people were forced transportation of black people for slave trade,American Revolution,the Great Awakening,the very famous war of 1812 and the civil war.Slave trade is the first incident that shows the deprivation of Black population of their basic human rights as blacks were transported to other lands for labour purposes Second in line is the event of Great Awakening, which helped people to recognize their existence according to their religion, as Great Awakening resulted in unity of Americans and Christianity faith. Third important event is the American Revolution that started in 1775 as clash between the Great Britain and the thirteen British colonies in America. During American Revolution, blacks wanted their rights and human treatment from Americans. British unwillingness to sign the commercial agreement, British support to Indians on American frontiers and failure of British army to withdraw from American territories were the causes of irritation for Americans due to which, the war of 1812 was there. Civil War is the last important event that helped the blacks in gaining freedom as at the end of civil war, formal identity was given to black people as Americans. AFRICAN AMERICAN HISTORY (1600-1877) African American history revolves around arrival of African American or black American ethnic groups in US. Migration of black people from Carrabin and transportation of slaves in 16th century changed the history of the region. Five very influential events took place from 1600 to 1877. The events that shaped African American history and converted the blacks from being slave to free people were forced transportation of black people for slave trade, American Revolution, the Great Awakening, the very famous war of 1812 and the civil war. Slave trade leads the other events in the African American history. In 1619, first slave was brought to Jamestown as a servant. This event opened the doors for bringing non-Christian black people as servants in the US. Number of slaves rose to 25000 in 1700 in American colonies1. Next in order was Great Awakening, known as watershed period in American life. Great Awakening swept the colonies by having greater social and religious effects on the people’s life. Period of 1730-1740 is known as revivalism period that spread throughout in American colonies2. Individual spiritual experiences got importance over the routine church proceedings. After the period of Great Awakening, the next mega event in African American history is American Revolution. It began in 1775 due to conflict between Great Britain and thirteen colonies. After the end of revolution in 1783, another mega event is the war of 1812. War was fought between America and Great Britain from 1812 to 1815 but peace treaty for ending the war was signed in 1814. Than the reconstruction period started in which black people were granted American citizenship with full rights. Mid eighteenth century saw a big shift in American policies towards black and black people also shifted to south for living the lives as per their own wishes3. The impact of all the events on African American history 1600-1877 shall be discussed in detail in this paper. Great emphasis shall be laid on the war of 1812, because of events taking place during this period. Spanish and Portuguese settlers brought Africans with them in the new world. About 2,75,000 Africans were brought to south and north America at the start of 16th century. First African slave was brought to Jamestown in1619. More Africans were then brought to those areas having good land for cultivation but labour was short. Many slaves used to die during transportation due to inadequate food and medical treatment. Earlier the differences in treating European and African slaves were almost negligible but soon they started differentiating whites from black people in 27th century. Virginia

Colonial America’s Most Wanted

This research will begin with the statement that slaves had a tendency to run away from their masters if they got a chance. In order to recapture escaped slaves, their masters would advertise details relating to the slave in highly descriptive forms so that they slaves could be captured and returned. The bounty for the slaves depended on the distance from their master’s property and how much the master valued a particular slave. Similarly, people who captured slaves would also advertise to return slaves to their owners in order to get rewarded. The runaway slave advertisements were often very descriptive. These details can be utilised to surmise historical facts from these advertisements. Various compilations of these advertisements exist but perhaps the most famous one are those compiled from various Virginia newspapers during the 18th and 19th centuries. Subtle differences exist between runaway slave advertisements from various regions and periods as well as from various newspapers. These differences can be used to elucidate differing attitudes and functions of slaves and slave owners around the United States. Evidence is referenced here and comparisons have been drawn in order to highlight regional variations in slavery and servitude in colonial America. After going through a number of advertisements for runaway slaves, the first thing to notice is that slaves could be other than African American too. There are references to native Indian, partially Spanish and other ethnic slaves who had escaped too. (Radford University) Reference may be made here to an advertisement in The Boston Newsletter dated July 23rd, 1716 for an Indian named Min. Similarly, another advertisement from The New York Gazette dated to October 2nd, 1749 concerns a Spanish Mulatto fellow named George. However, another thing to notice is the fact that slaves with ethnicities other than African American are more distinctly available in the coastal strips of the United States. Furthermore, other than regularly captured and sold out slaves from African jungles, certain slaves were previously free men. The previous advertisement for the Spanish man declares that he was previously a privateer. (Radford University) Again the slaves found in the south and Middle America regions were distinctly slaves for generations and were African American in ethnicity. These free men turned slaves are more distinctly noticeable in coastal American states especially New York and Boston that served as major harbours. Demographic differences also exist in the usage of slaves from state to state. While the plantation owners used slaves largely for tending to the crop and other such affairs, the slaves in the more urbanised backgrounds were house hold helpers. The slaves who helped out on farms were diverse in terms of their professions. While it is believed that most slaves on plantations were merely farm labourers, but slaves were employed elsewhere as well. There are advertisements for black smiths, chimney sweepers, wood workers, shoe makers etc. One such example is of an advertisement placed in The New York Gazette on September 25th, 1749 relating a runaway slave who is a chimney sweeper. Another similar example comes from an advertisement in The American Weekly Mercury on October 16th, 1729 where a runaway slave with the name of Mulato John is declared to be a Shipwright by Trade. In comparison, most runaway slave advertisements from the urban centres were for house workers. (Radford University) In terms of gender, most of the household slaves were young females. Most advertisements point to this fact. On such advertisement from The New York Gazette from November 13th, 1732 is about a slave girl named Sarah aged 24 years working in a home. Another advertiseme

Linguistics Examine the idea that adult second langauage learners of English are capable of retaining the collocations to whi

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………4 Thesis Statement………………………………………………………………………………….4 Methodology………………………………………………………………………………………4 Preliminary Results and Discussion……………………………………………………………….5 Study Implications…………………………………………………………………………………7 Work Plan…………………………………………………………………………………………7 References…………………………………………………………………………………………9 INTRODUCTION Formulaic language has been playing a key role in second language teaching. A beginning learner utilizes more idiomatic English expressions focused on daily communication templates. Alison Wray’s (2002) definition of a formulaic sequence of words has been the most popular one: Formulaic Sequence is a sequence, continuous or discontinuous, of words or other elements which is, or appears to be, prefabricated: that is stored and retrieved whole from memory at the time of use, rather than being subject to generation or analysis by the language grammar (Wray, 2002, p. 9). Wray claims that the adult learner primarily is more focused on individual words and is concentrated on a non-formulaic approach to language learning (Lewis, 2000a. b). This thesis is devoted to identification of an ability of adult language learners to retain information about what words appear together in their input of adj+noun pairs, verb+noun pairs, and or noun+noun pairs. It is supposed that any drawbacks in non-natives’ knowledge of collocation associations between words is caused by an inadequate input. THESIS STATEMENT The fluency-oriented repetition of individual sentence contexts has an impact on collocation learning for L2 learners, and thus participants will primarily notice and remember chunks of words in their input through an organized testing process using the adj-noun, verb-noun, and noun-noun pairs placed in a sentence. METHODOLGY A general selection criterion was a key trigger for my further research. Theoretical background is based on relevant academic articles, academic texts, and books. The participants were asked to undergo a short training session in which they were exposed to a number of target adjective-noun, verb-noun, and noun-noun combinations embedded in sentences called a naming phase. Sentences were presented to participants on a computer screen in a random order. The participants were asked to say the noun aloud if they recognized it. The respondents are Spanish speaking Americans. All the participants are enrolled in one or two of the ESL programs for a L2 learner of English within their city’s community base. They are all lower level income participants, with lower level educational backgrounds. PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Of the adjective+noun, verb+ noun, and noun+noun word pairs, the nouns were recognized more reliably when they followed the verb with which it was paired. These collocations were easily

Argumentative Should Marijuana be Legalized

Marijuana is used widely in many parts of the world and people prefer it as it is more natural form of drug. However, the usage of Marijuana is not legalized in many developed and developing countries. Even though marijuana is a natural drug, its threatening impact on people’s health has made it a drug to be avoided in all cases.(Thesis) Marijuana is a drug which is smoked and also consumed as a tea and also along with food items. This drug is banned by the government from usage as it has great potentiality for drug abusing. In developed country like USA, the Marijuana’s cultivation, selling and distribution is restricted due it‘s potential life threats. The government also found that this drug has no medicinal properties and hence cannot be legally allowed to be used by its citizens. However, there are many ancient records that suggest marijuana usage, since it is a drug which has the capability of rescuing a person from health ailments. But as the scientific and medical world denounces the usage of marijuana it is banned in most countries. History of Marijuana The history of Marijuana can be dated back to 2737 B.C. and the country which praised about its medicinal property was China. Marijuana is a drug which was used by ancient people to create euphoric experience in them. The use of marijuana historically moved from China to India and then to northern Africa. It was in the period of A.D. 500, that this drug got introduced in Europe. Generally speaking, the psychotic effect of marijuana was first recorded in the medical records of the Chinese emperor Sheng Nung. As per (Narconon International) The first direct reference to a cannabis product as a psychoactive agent dates from 2737 BC, in the writings of the Chinese emperor Shen Nung. The focus was on its powers as a medication for rheumatism, gout, malaria, and oddly enough, absent-mindedness. Apart from Chinese, the Muslim people also consumed it as an alternative recreational substance as the Quran prohibited the use of Alcohol consumption. It is through the Muslims, that this addictive drug arrived in North Africa and Persia. Even though, the marijuana was known for its intoxicating properties, more weight was given to its medicinal properties. However, it was in the 16th century that the Spanish introduced cannabis to the English land where it was later cultivated as an alternative for tobacco and for fiber. During the 20th century, the marijuana was only allowed to the show business world and the usage of marijuana among jazz musicians persuaded the music lovers to the use the drug extensively. However, the drug caused many health risks to its users. hence the government of many countries banned the drug for public’s safety. Marijuana has medicinal value and can be used moderately It is a known fact that, everything in the world has good and bad sides. In the same way, marijuana has some medicinal qualities which have been strongly illustrated by the people of ancient cultures. This hemp plant has been used vivaciously by ancient men to treat many health disorders according to the recorded ancient documents. In his book (Shohov 11)states that Scientific evidence verifies that marijuana has the following therapeutic effect. relief form nausea and increase appetite, reduction of intraocular(within the eye) pressure, reduction of muscle spasms and relief from chronic pain. In the same way marijuana also helps in treating the symptoms of cancer, multiple sclerosis and AIDS. Marijuana is found to be useful

Assessment Instrument for Assessing Autism

This suggests that a system for eliciting parental views should be built into any assessment tool for autism, and that extra language support for non-native speakers of Spanish or English should be provided to ensure that this group is not left behind. There is a wealth of knowledge that parents can contribute if a method can be found to elicit their views and record them in a consistent and comparable way. Parallel to the input of parents, there is the standard procedure of child development screening carried out at specified stages during health and educational interactions. The BRIGANCE Standard Diagnostic Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills (Glasgoe, 1999) was first devised in the 1970s and has been refined and extended since then to cover a wider age range and a more clearly defined set of criteria. In its present form, it is widely accepted as a good standard instrument which allows both effective local assessment and wider collation of results across the United States which can be used to build a picture of changes in the patterns of child development as they emerge. This test certainly does pick up significant numbers of cases for further investigation but it is not specifically designed to screen for autism. Parents and broad-based standard testing are therefore a crucial first line and very basic level of screening which are effective for the majority of children. A screening instrument in the UK for very young children around 18 months of age called the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers or simply CHAT has a series of yes/no questions. The questions in section one are general, such as does your child enjoy being swung, bounced on your knee and these are answered by the parent.

Different languages in the united states

Spanish is ranked second after English, among spoken languages of United States. French comes third, and after these million of Americans speakGerman, Italian, Chineese, Urdu, regularly.There are two counties, where Navaho speakers are in highest concentration and Yupik speakers in one out of total thirty-five. US English Foundation Inc. reported 322 languages are spoken in the United States. among that English is the most common language. There are more than two Billions English speakers. Among all Americans, 96% are well versed with English. If languages are arranged alphabetically it starts from Abnaki to Zuni, whereas in order English, Spanish, French, Chinese, German is the most common language of United States. In numbers, it is found. Eight languages have a speaker more in 1 Million, 13 languages have a speaker in 0.5 Million and around 38 languages have a speaker in 0.1 Million. Furthermore, only English and Spanish are the languages spoken by +1 percent of total American population. California is the state where 207 different languages are spoken, whereas 169, 163, 145, 138,135,134, 132,130, and 129 different languages are spoken in New York, Washington, Texas, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Florida, Illinois, New Jersey and Arizon respectively. Wyoming is the state where fewest languages are spoken in United States (Languages in America ). … Urdu, Punjabi, Gujratic, Hindi, Iranian, and Greek languages are also placed in this category. 3. Asian and pacific Island languages Chinese. Korean. Japanese. Vietnamese. Hmong. Khmer. Lao. Thai. and Tagalog is put in Asian and P Island languages. Furthermore, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam. Philippine, Polynesian, and Micronesian are also placed in this division. 4. Others All other languages named above are grouped in this category.Uralic languages (such as Hungarian), the Semitic languages (Arabic, Hebrew, etc.), languages of Africa, and N North, South and Central America, etc. are placed in this class. English, Spanish, French, German, Chinese, etc. is the most common immigrant language in the United States. English is the most common language of the United States. However, it is not the official language, instead of many recommendations of making English its native language.American English is the title given to the diversity of English spoken in the United States. and when it amalgamates with the Canadian English it makes up the group of languages known as North American English. Spanish is the second most spoken language in United States, because of rapid growth in their population, especially in the United States.United Statesis consideredas thefifth largest population where Spanish is spoken. In all, 2,725 of the 3,141 counties (86.8 percent) in the United States had English and Spanish as their first and second most common languages – 2,690 with English first and Spanish second and 35 with Spanish first and English second. Frequency of Germany spoken is alternative to Spanish in the United States. It is the

A Study of Two American Indian Societies

The Shoshone relied on small game, fish, and dug for roots for subsistence, hunting, gathering, and foraging for food. http://www.fourdir.com/western_shoshoni.htmHunter-gatherer societies are usually mobile or nomadic, being dependent on their natural environment to provide sufficient resources in order to sustain themselves. The resources available in a geographic area depend on local climatic and seasonal conditions, forcing such societies to keep moving. It is thus that the Western Shoshone lived in a large area around the arid Great Basin and Great Plains, spread out over present-day California, Nevada, and Utah. Also known as The Snake, the Shoshone is related to the Paiutes, Comanches, and Utes with whom they share many language characteristics.The other society selected for the study is the Apalachee, a tribal Native American society of northern Florida. The Apalachee were farmers who developed a mature agricultural economy and grew Indian corn, beans, pumpkins, squash, and vegetables. They also developed pottery skills and the works of pottery were traded far away. Commerce with Native Americans outside Florida brought copper, iron ore, and seeds of maize in exchange for Florida freshwater pearls, conch shells, and fish bones. They spoke their own language of Muskogean9 origin. The Apalachees lived in permanent villages and built ceremonial mounds.The Shoshone shared a common period of existence with the Apalachee, towards the end of the Mississippian era. Though geographically separated, the period when they coexisted has been reliably confirmed from early Spanish and other European records consisting of first-hand accounts by many explorers, priests, and colonists. http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/education/guides/Inquiry_Boxes_FL_Native_People_North-Part3.pdfThe Western Shoshone occupied their Great Basin homeland as hunter-gatherers in minimum bands of about ten individuals. The bands moved across the land utilizing resources.

Exploring a Communicative Event in Saudi Lingua Culture

In teaching aid, communication is necessary particularly when teaching people of different native languages. Event can appear in many forms. For example, real events demonstrated when a message passes through electronic media such as films or media houses. There is a set of theories analyzing communication events exist. The most essential method of communication is conversation. Human beings, therefore, communicate to share information and expand their social relationships (Seindlhofer, 2005, p.54). Most of the influential and active discussions take place through conversations. Simple talks both official and non-official and education related take place through chatting. If a CE involves two parties not knowing each other, that is strangers, there is no engagement (Seindlhofer, 2005, p.54). The success of any communication depends on understanding between the parties involved. Understanding of each other leads to an interaction between the involved parties. This essay focuses on English language as a communication tool. CE refers to An exchange with obvious boundaries in a typically-occurring situation, where the participants have a clear role relationship (Saville-Troike, 1989, p.107). For a language teacher to succeed, he needs be careful with the way he delivers information to his students. Successful teachers recommend thorough observations of local speakers because they engage in varying CE in order to understand each other (Saville-Troike, 1989, p.107). The teacher should have the ability to give CE models after first learning the native speakers’ language (Saville-Troike, 1989, p.107). For effective language teaching, the teacher needs to have the skill to know and speak other languages. Lingua franca as a language This refers to a communication tool used by a group of people from different native origins to communicate. Lingua Francas form the third mode of communication language from the original languages of the communicating sides (Helena, 2011). Studies show that a lingua franca language may turn to be the common language if it widely spreads in an area. A good example of a lingua franca language is pidgin. Pidgin combines different vocabularies of native languages (Helena, 2011). The only distinction between lingua franca and pidgin is that members of the same native language do not speak pidgin but instead speak their native language. Pidgin does not have any original speakers. Modern Lingua Francas In the current society, global communication has succeeded due to development of lingua francas. There are a number of recognized communication languages in different regions. For example, the official languages recognized by United Nations (UN) include Arabic, Chinese, English, Spanish and French. (Fernandez-Cardenas Silveyra-De La Garza, 2010). This shows how lingua franca languages have developed to international recognition. Several developments of pidgin are evident as regular contacts between different people broaden. However, most of the pidgins lack verbs, articles and nouns, their use has spread since they encourage communication between parties. Components of Communication Event (CE) In order to further, explore communication events, Saville-Troike 1989, p. 107 explained the components of CE. Some of these components include the event type, the setting and purpose of the events. Other components are function setting of different happenings, appearance and key participants. Manner in this case refers to message form and content. Guidelines include

Men with Guns A Latin American Film

Men with Guns: A Latin American FilmMen with Guns is regarded as one of the most renowned Latin American political films. The film was produced in 1997 having been directed and written in Spanish by John Sayles. Short in Mexico, the film is set in an unnamed Latin American country. It is a depiction of the atrocities committed at a time of war. The plot of the film is very captivating and emotional at the same time especially in the selection of its characters where it can be presumed that Sayles’ main intention was to demonstrate lack of a common means of communication. For instance, there are American tourists, and four other Spanish speaking native with one of them being a mute young woman.The film is centered on one philanthropic professional doctor known as Dr. Fuentes, whose idea of improving the quality of life through science and technology stirs him to volunteer to teach some young men and women. These trainees were then disbursed throughout the country to help treat people. However, one day when Dr. Fuentes visits his trainees to assess their progress, he is met by a shocking encounter where he finds most villages in even more worse situations including his trainees. This is a result of constant harassment and torture as well as killing by the men with guns from the government’s as well as the militia groups, who are blaming the nurses of treating their adversaries. Through the doctor’s long journey, he comes across a number of people from whom viewers learn the extent of the dehumanizing events caused by the men with guns. It is also horrible that in times of war, the society is forced to choose between lies and truth as well as right or wrong, with those opting to choose the truth or what is right being subjected to torture as revealed by the Conejo the young boy who served in the army.In particular, one cannot help but to sympathize with the young Graciela, who was raped by the soldiers and has since remained mute. The film vividly presents the possible outcomes of a civil war including the killing of health service providers as well as young children by the same army that is supposed to protect its people. One admirable aspect of the movie is the fact that by not naming a particular country or time, Sayles seems to be asking the viewers to consider how this tale ramifies beyond one country and continent. Moreover, it also questions how men with guns, in the name of revolutionary armies have wiped out indigenous communities. However, for some viewers, the film may fail to achieve its intended purpose of explaining the situation during the war as it sometimes tend to be rather complex in terms of unfolding of events. As a whole, the Men with Guns stands out as one of the touching Latin American films worth watching.Works Cited

The Concept of the Auteur in the Context of PostWar European Cinema

However, there is one particular development on post-war filmmaking in Europe that has caught the attention of the researcher, and this is the concept of auteur. In fact, many popular European filmmakers are actually categorized by scholars of film studies as an example of an auteur, and one of the most famous is the Spanish director and filmmaker Pedro Almodovar, the director of the films Matador, Hable con Ella, and Volver (‘Pedro Almodovar n. p.).In this case, this paper would then try to describe the concept of the auteur, especially on its importance on the development of post-war European films. In order to achieve this, the researcher would try to look into the basic definition of the auteur, as well as how it came about. After this part, the researcher would then try to describe the concept of the auteur, especially in the context of post-war European cinema, from the films of the Spanish director Almodovar. The researcher would try to focus on the different themes that can be found in the works of Almodovar, in order to explain why the auteur is now an important part of contemporary European cinema.In order to explain the importance of the concept of the auteur in European cinema, it is important first to define this concept, especially in the context of post-war filmmaking in Europe. In this case, what then is the auteur? The word auteur is actually a French word, and when taken literally this word actually means the author (auteur n. p.). In this case, the concept of the auteur may actually refer to the author of the filmmaker itself. However, who is treated as the author of a film, and what is its significance in film studies/film criticism as a concept?According to film scholars, the concept of the auteur actually refers to the original idea of the French filmmaker François Truffaut (1932-1984), who in his manifesto The Policy of Auteurs, declared that Cinema as art made by a film artist and not by a writer.

The Collapse of the Mayan Empire The Unraveling of the Truth

In 1521, when the Spanish conquerors started the invasion of Mexico and Central America, they pacified the collapsing vestiges of the Mayan civilization that can be traced back as far as 2000 B.C. The Mayan civilization designed chains of independent cities. some were peopled by 50,000 inhabitants, but obviously related merely through insignificant discrepancies of a generally understood language, trade and commerce. Their deities were identical. their edifices were comparable. their writing system the same. The Mayan civilization was an empire in all its aspects. it was a civilization with sovereigns and priests who had grasped on mathematics, engineering and astronomy, sustained by an agricultural structure that is peasant-based (Adams 1956).Nevertheless, the Mayas are popular because of the mystery regarding the fall of their civilization. There were a number of assumptions or theories that were formulated. One of the theories is warfare. the impression that the Mayas were tranquil and peaceful inhabitants disappeared prematurely in the explorations. Paintings illustrate warriors and narrations carved on walls that recount ancient conflicts and battles. Determined archaeologists discovered ruins of fortified and equipped cities. Tulum was enclosed by towering walls on the side facing the land, and by steep cliffs on the coastal zone (Cowgil 1956). Other excavations have unveiled cities that had been fortified swiftly after preliminary construction. temples were battered down to obtain building materials. However, specialists and scholars are troubled whether warfare was as far-reaching and catastrophic as to have been able to wipe out an entire civilization. Even though cities were subjugated, there was no massive destruction of edifices as has in olden times taken place in major defeats (Toner 2003). Evidently, the Mayas simply abandoned their territory and the jungle took advantage.There is no

Legalization Of Marijuana In America

Lately, discussion and push for legalization of the drug by pro-marijuana activists have intensified to an extent of triggering serious political interests. This has manifested through the recent comment by President Barrack Obama that marijuana is just like cigarette and alcohol with a promise that Federal government will not interfere with marijuana laws established by individual states. Moreover, governors and state legislatures have publicly commented alongside declaring their positions as far the discussion about the legalization of the drug is concerned.Apart from the initial introduction of marijuana in America in 1545 by Spanish, marijuana laws began to exist as early as the 1920s. Michael and Renee (2003) attribute the widespread popularity of marijuana in the 1920s to the prohibitive laws established during the Prohibition Era. The era saw the outlaw of alcoholic drinks and people had to resort to marijuana that came from the widespread hemp plant. The laws restricted the use of recreational marijuana to the jazz musicians who only took the drug when in dance clubs entertaining people.According to Pfeifer (2011), between 1850 and 1942, the government of USA listed marijuana in Pharmacopeia and prescribed for conditions like nausea, labor pains and rheumatism. During the 1850s through to 1930s, marijuana gained popular use as an intoxicant. Another marijuana law called Marijuana Tax Act came into force in 1937. The purpose of the law was to levy the tax of one dollar on all growers, importers, buyers, sellers, veterans, physicians and any person prescribing it, using commercially or possess it. Failure to adhere to the Act and handling o marijuana without tax stamp of the Treasury Department would attract a fine of up to $2000, five-year imprisonment or both (Michael Renee, 2003).

German history

Scholars have argued that if the rivalry would have continued then the idea of the unification of Germany would have been impossible to achieve. If Austria continued to be in the union it would have been impossible for the unification of German to be a reality and therefore the only way to achieve unification was simply the elimination of Austria from the union through compulsion (Merkl 33). When Otto Von Bismarck came into power he believed in the inevitable unification of German with Prussia as its leader. Therefore he went ahead with his plan and drove out Austria from interfering with the affairs of German. The reason behind his advocating for the unification of German was because through it Prussia would have a greater influence and power. Therefore Bismarck essentially used political strategies that were backed up by s strong military support that enabled the unification of German (Leonhard and Funk 47). In the Italian case, things were different. By the late 1700’s the Italian peninsula had been conquered severally by the French and Austria and hence had no sovereign government. It was ruled by Austria something that Italians did not like and began rebellions culminating in the 1848 revolution where the pope was forced out. Later he asked for help from the catholic powers in Europe who came to his rescue driving Garibaldi out of Rome. A series of wars ensured, realignments occurred and revolts were a norm leading to the unification of Italy in 1871. Basically the unification of Italy was based on popular rebellions against foreign rule (Collier 40-55). QUESTION TWO The concept of imperialism arose from Britain’s abuse of power in territories outside Europe as the country believed in consolidation and expansion of its empire. During the 19th century scholars began to view imperialism as the use of state power on foreign countries for the economic benefit of the home country. It should be noted that the idea behind expansion of empires is nationalistic. Imperialism can be seen to be highly related to economic growth as during this time most European powers had colonies in Africa that they used to enrich themselves and therefore this can be seen as an aspect of nationalism because the expansion into foreign territories was for the sole gain of the nation (Hobson 10). Good examples can be traced in the 19th century with German among the leading countries in terms of economic development after charismatic leadership in Berlin who instilled into citizens a sense of national pride. Also the French are seen as one of the most patriotic nations at any one period because of imperialism save for Napoleons rule (Sherman and Salisbury 453). Imperialism as an act was began by the Portuguese people during the early 16th century. They began the concept in South America before expanding to Africa. The Portuguese were followed immediately by the Spanish who are seen to have made a real attempt in North America and gradually expanded to South America. During the 18th century the Portuguese stopped its continued financial support of colonies in Africa leaving France, Belgium, England and the Dutch to continue with concept (Krieger and Crahan 194). QUESTION THREE The World War II would not have happened had the remnants of the World War 1 been addressed. Just before the World War II many issues had not been resolved and therefore they built up and contributed to World War II. A good example is the Amritsar Massacre of 1919. This

The Rebellious Tongues Silence as Social Control and Resistance

The Death of the Profane by Patricia Williams also explores the power of silence. Williams experiences the silencing of her personal experience of racial prejudice and discrimination. These authors interpret silence in diverse ways, although they generally agree that silence is a powerful means of cultural assimilation that no minority group should condone. Silence can be a mark of social control or resistance, and people refuse to accept silence through developing and using their own languages privately and publicly or insisting to preserve their native languages. these are actions that are empowering, because the oppressed expresses to the rest of the society that they exist and intend to survive with their racial identities fully intact. Silence is a mark of social control over disenfranchised members of society. Anzaldua remembers silence as a form of social control for women and minority groups. For instance, she grows up learning that people who talk too much are called gossipers and liars (Anzaldua 34). Well-bred girls also hold their tongues and are expected to not answer back (Anzaldua 34). She remembers so many bad words about women that are not applied to men, which emphasizes the repression of women’s wild tongues, a manifestation of gender inequality in patriarchal societies. In addition, Anzaldua criticizes how Chicano Spanish or Tex Mex is undermined by purists as a mutilation of Spanish (35). Purists want to silence the use of Chicano Spanish that bastardizes pure Spanish or English. Anzaldua defends Chicano Spanish as a border tongue, which has its roots from the Chicano’s need to identify [themselves] as a distinct people (Anzaldua 36). It has a life of its own, because it as an opportunity to fight their silence. The American society wants them to learn English and lose their accents, while the Spanish and Mexican societies do not want them to use their own variants of the Spanish language. Anzaldua stresses that Chicano Spanish is a reaction to all these forms of social control. It is a language that intends to be heard and to be written. Williams also believes that silence is a form of social control. She is disappointed with a law review that aims to edit out her racial identity. She calls it censorship, but the editor explains this omission as a matter of style (306). She shares similar concerns as Anzaldua’s, because they both do not want their racial identities to be removed from their experiences. Silence can be interpreted as a form of resistance too. While Anzaldua and Williams refuse to be silenced, Kingston possesses power through her own silence. Kingston depicts that she is silent, because she struggles with the process of learning a new language that is supposed to replace her Chinese language. Her mother even narrates to her that she has cut her tongue, so that the latter would not be tongue tied. She wants her daughter’s tongue to be able to move in any language (1). Her mother is saying that her daughter should be able to suppress her accent and learn English the way Americans speak it. But Kingston does not want this foreign American language. Her silence in her American classes acts as her psychological defiance for the new language and culture that aims to change her identity. Kingston narrates her three years of covering her school paintings with black paint. This can be

Internet Activity

Topic: Teacher: Internet Activity The first website that is selected for this paper is Argentina’s website, which displays the cultural values of the country. Argentina is located in South America. The name of the website is Argentina – Official Promotion Portal for Argentina. Its internet address is http://www.en.argentina.ar/. The website is quite interesting as it provides all the details of the country at one place. It gives details about tourism, culture, business and economy, sports, science and education and the country as a whole. The website informs about foods, language, religion, customs, traditions, and many other aspects of the country. The site is a full portal and while visiting the site, it seems that the visitor is witnessing the actual country with his own eyes. The entrant of the website can see different scenes of the country beautiful places, the books published by Argentinean writers, can participate in the blog, can check television clippings, can gain information about hotels and foods and much more. The second website that is selected is Germany’s website, which is indicative of cultural norms of the country. Germany is located in Central Europe. The name of the website is Germany Tourism – Travel, Holiday, Vacation. Its internet address is http://www.germany-tourism.de/. The site is interest gaining as it informs about various events taking place in Germany at different places, holiday spots and diverse places to visit. In addition, the site also gives information about heritage of Germany and its customs and traditions. The site is quite descriptive in its format as it allows every person to surf it according to his or her needs. It is for families, for young people and for disabled people, everyone interested to visit Germany can gain news about various tourist spots along with options to visit with full knowledge of events occurring at various places in Germany. People visiting the site can select their own language to view the website. The site is basically created for tourism purpose due to which, it highlights its cultural and traditional features such as its customary events, its castles, parks and gardens and news and information about all tourist places along with weather conditions at different places. The third selected website belongs to Italy, which is again informative in terms of Italian customs and way of life. Italy is located in Southern Europe. The name of the website is Italia Mia, a guide to Italy and Italian culture and its internet address is http://www.italiamia.com/. The website catches attention because of its attractive features that are music, social networking, cuisine, art, cinema, travelling, Italian products, literature, sports, education, magazines and newspapers and information about Italy as a whole. The website is quite informative and knowledge providing as it gives descriptive knowledge about the country and its culture along with all traditional aspects. It can be said that the website is an electronic microcosm of Italian culture and traditions as any outsider can gain knowledgeable information from this website about Italy. The entrants of the website can know about Italian life style, their fashions and customs by visiting this website. The visitors of the website can gain information about Italian hotels, tourist places, ancient cities with artistic background, food items, art and much more. The fourth and last selected website is of Spain, which is appealing and fascinating in terms of its information retrieval about Spain as a cultural land. Spain is located in Southwestern Europe. The name of the website is Spain-Info.com and its website internet address is http://www.spain-info.com/. The website is eye-catching because of its informative content that is about history, culture, life, travelling, tourist spots, beaches and map of the country. The history and cultural information of the country is the most attractive for the visitors of the website as they can gain knowledge about the country. This website can also be regarded as the electronic microcosm of Spanish culture and land. Anyone interested in the history, traditions and land of the country can visit this website. Pictorial representations of various historical and tourist places can also be seen on the website that is again an attention gaining aspect of the website. Various sports and cultural events are described on the website giving the visitor an idea about Spanish life. Works Cited Argentina – Official Promotion Portal for Argentina. Retrieved on 17th February 2011 from http://www.en.argentina.ar/ Germany Tourism – Travel, Holiday, Vacation. Retrieved on 17th February 2011 from http://www.italiamia.com/ Italia Mia, a guide to Italy and Italian culture. Retrieved on 17th February 2011 from http://www.spain-info.com/ Spain-Info.com. Retrieved on 17th February 2011 from http://www.germany-tourism.de/

Film Response West Side Story vs Zoot Suit A ComparisonContrast

In Zoot Suit, Luis Valdez takes us on a journey into the pachuco gang lifestyle that was popular in the barrios of Los Angeles in the 1940s. The film is based on real-life events in which Latinos were persecuted (Zoot Suit Riots and the Sleepy Lagoon murder trial). Thematically, both films explore urban and gang life, racial tensions, family ties, and gender roles. In this paper, the two films: will be compared and explored (as well as what are their similarities and differences). will be analyzed to determine to what extent the directors were successful in addressing real life concerns in telling their stories and why these stories are told. will be analyzed as to how the characters are portrayed (are they real men and women, stereotypes, or mythical figures?). and will be analyzed in terms of the ways how filmmakers employ theatrical and cinematic devices as well as the utilization of dance, music, incorporation of myth, and realism to help tell their stories. Comparison of West Side Story and Zoot Suit (Similarities and Differences) West Side Story was primarily based off the hit Broadway musical. The gist of the story is that two people—Tony and Maria—are from two different cultures, Polish and Spanish. Tony used to be a part of the gang the Jets, but isn’t anymore. However, they find love even in the midst of the gang rivalry. [W]hen Riff’s best friend (and former Jet) Tony and Bernardo’s younger sister Maria meet at a dance, no one can do anything to stop their love. Maria and Tony begin meeting in secret, planning to run away. Then the Sharks and Jets plan a rumble under the highway – whoever wins gains control of the streets. Maria sends Tony to stop it, hoping it can end the violence.1 Similarly, Zoot Suit dealt also with gang issues that plagued young Latinos, albeit: the setting was a little different (Los Angeles instead of New York). the movie was based on a play, not a musical. and that this movie did not focus centrally on a love story but more about being in the gang. Unfortunately, the gang talked about in the Zoot Suit movie were unlawfully arrested, with no evidence that a crime had ever been committed by anyone in the gang—at least not the crime to which people were interested in. A Mr. Jose Diaz had been murdered, and the ‘38th Street Gang’ was held responsible. Indeed, …Henry Leyvas and 24 members of the ‘38th Street Gang’…were arrested and charged with…murder [and there was] a public outcry for ‘justice’ and vengeance against the zoot suiters caused…a[n] [L.A.] roundup of over 600 people on [August 11th and 12th of 1942]. All were charged with [crimes].2 This was an act of racial discrimination. Those are the ways in which the two movies compare and contrast. III. Addressing Real-Life Concerns and Why These Stories Are Told Why these movies were made was to shed light upon discriminatory practices against Latinos. Latino directors who made breakthroughs in the early 1980s included Luis Valdez, whose [movie] Zoot Suit (1981)…offered an unsparing look at urban gangs, utilizing turf wars to explore issues of local and national belonging.3 The real-life concerns portrayed in both of these movies mainly included discrimination faced every day by Latinos—who are looked upon with mistrust in West Side Story. It is obvious that the gang which set off the Zoot Suit Riots definitely were discriminated against by the L.A. cops and for being charged with a murder that they most certainly probably didn’t even commit. The reason these types of stories are told are to show people how discrimination against Latinos does in fact exist and that it is not acceptable behavior. Just like the way African-Americans were discriminate

Iberia British Airways

Competition is getting stiff as a result of the growth of international business and it is difficult for small or medium organizations to survive long. Realization of above fact forced such organizations to agree with merger or acquisition deals offered by big organizations. British Airways and the Spanish airliner, Iberia recently signed a merger agreement. This paper analyses the above merger deal in detail. British Airways is the UK airliner headquartered at London. It was established in 1974. It was started under public sector initially and privatized in 1987. Both Boeing and Airbus aircrafts are used by British Airways for transporting passengers. In 2002, 38 millions of passengers traveled with British Airways with its fleet of 237 aircraft and it seems that even more will have the pleasant of travelling with the world’s favorite airline (British Airways Information). On the other hand, Iberia is the Spanish airliner based in Madrid, Spain. Iberia was founded in 1927. Its first name as Lineas Aeras de Espanan (Iberian Airlines). In 1944 it was came under the direct control of the Spanish government. However, it was again privatized in 2001. Mergers and acquisitions always result in mutual growth and benefits to both the offeror and the offeree. Berry (2009) has pointed out that Increased market share, lower cost of production, higher competitiveness, acquired research and development, knowhow and patents, financial leverage, improved profitability etc as some of the advantages M A (Berry, 2009). Gaughan, (2001) has pointed out that the combined power of the merged organizations would be more than that of the individual firms. In his opinion, the combination of two firms will yield a more valuable entity than the value of the sum totals of the individual entities. In other words, Value (A + B) gt. Value (A) + Value (B) according to Gaughan (Gaughan, 2001, p.5). In mathematics 1+1 =2, but in business 1+1 is more than 2. The major objectives of merger and acquisition are to increase the competitive power. Airline industry is facing stiff competition at present because of the introduction of globalization. Emirates Airlines, Lufthansa, Air France, Air India, Singapore Airlines, Malaysian Airlines, Gulf Air etc like big airliners are causing big challenges to the business prospects of British Airways and Iberia which forced them to engage in a merger deal. When two airliners compete in a market, they are knowingly or unknowingly destroying some of the opportunities of the other. If they merge together, the destructive elements will be completely disappeared and the constructive elements will be increased which will increase the competitive power very much. Cross border strategic alliances (CBSA) were motivated by the desire to speed entry into new markets, to develop and commercialize new products, to gain skills or to share costs (Sudarsanam, 2003, p.232). Sharma (2001) also expressed similar opinion. Accelerate product development,??Spread risk/share resources, ?Access to new markets, Expand customer base, Increased market presence, ?Provide added value to customers, ?Access knowledge and expertise outside of your company, Strengthen reputation

European Court of Justice Turner v Grovit and Harada

102500 Anti-suit injunction is defined as “an order of the court requiring the injunction defendant not to commence or to cease to pursue, or not to advance particular claims within, or to take steps to terminate or suspend court or arbitration proceedings in a foreign country”1. The definition of anti-suit injunction claims that under this legal framework, none of the defendants or plaintiffs can take the assistance to obtain undue advantages of a foreign legislation apart from the country wherein the dispute took place. It is usually observed in case of cross-border disputes that the litigants perceive that they can take the advantage by shifting the proceedings in their home country, with the expectation to obtain a favourable judgement to the case ruling2. In order to disregard this belief of the litigants, anti-suit injunction has been introduced3.Arguably, anti-suit injunctions are often regarded as interference to the disputes in foreign courts. Addressing this particular issue, the discussion henceforth will evaluate whether the considerable of anti-suit injunction as an act of interference by a foreign court is justifiable. Illustrative examples will also be sought from various cases, including the landmark case of Turner v Grovit (C-159/02) [2005] 1 AC 101 in order to strengthen the rationalization of the arguments in this essay. The case of Turner v Grovit, decided in April 2004, is considered one of the landmark cases in the European Court of Justice (ECJ), which apparent denotes the legislative implications of anti-suit injunctions to the principle of lis alibi pendens. This case became the basis for the explanation of anti-suit injunction as Turner, the plaintiff, was granted with anti-suit injunction, as a measure to restrict the application of the rule given in correspondence to the re-appeal of the defendant (i.e. Harald Ltd.) in the Spanish court4.&nbsp.

3 Describe the traditional definitions of health and illness of the White populations

1. List and describe three common problems in health care delivery. Various developed as well as developing countries often face several problems setbacks with regard to its health care delivery. These include: the cost and quality of health care services provided. effective delivery of health care. feasibility and validity of health care policies etc. Some such problems, which are faced by most countries across the globe, are discussed below:
– Locating affordable health care delivery centers:
Access to quality and cost-effective health care is often a tedious task. This is mainly because, more often than not, the health care centers are highly expensive and time consuming. This often tends to put the patients in need of immediate medical assistance, at a higher health risk. Furthermore, even though affordable health care providers are indeed located and identified, seeking self-referral for acute illnesses is another major problem. Most of the practitioners do not attend to patients on a self-referral in terms of securing an appointment with them, but instead are required to get one from ones family physician or alternatively seek initial assistance from some other general practitioner till a referral is received. This leads to wastage of time as well as money, which is both highly unacceptable setbacks in case of emergency medical care. The above mentioned hassles may not be bothersome to the economically well off individuals, however in case of an average citizen or a commoner, such setbacks play a huge role in influencing their decision and restricting their access to cheaper, better and effective health care.
Understanding / Comprehending the actions of physicians
It has been observed on various occasions that assessing the exact type of illness suffered can be tricky. The situation is much worse in case of an ordinary citizen who has very little or absolutely no knowledge regarding medicine or health care. In such a situation, comprehending the actions of the physicians or nurses, or the tests carried out on them, especially during complex physical examinations becomes all the more difficult. Most of the time the patients have no knowledge or information regarding the tests carried out on them, their significance, or outcome, and even if they ask for a detailed explanation, they are often provided with an answer which includes complex medical jargon, which is practically incomprehensible to the ordinary individual. This may put the patients under tremendous pressure, and lead to awkwardness and unease among them. The health care practitioners must be trained to deal with such situations and communicate with them in a better and comprehensible manner, in order to save them from the discomfort.
Providing accurate information to the patients
Recently the bill of rights has granted the patients the right to seek information regarding their health status from their practitioners, thus entrusting the medical examiners with the responsibility to disclose vital health related information to the patients as and when it is sought. Studies and statistics have revealed that the patients, more often than not, denied of this right. The health care providers often avoid disclosing health related information mostly due to the increasing complications, which might lead the patients to believe that the health care providers concerned are trying to deliberately withhold crucial information. This further causes a rift between the patients and the health care providers culminating into an unpleasant situation.
Issues related to Racism and Chauvinism within a health care setting
According to research and available statistics, a significant proportion of African Americans are reported to have suffered discrimination on all counts, i.e. personal, multi-item, as well as general, as compared to their white counterparts. Such discrimination based on ones race within the health care settings have a major impact on the quality of health care received by the patients and in shaping their perceptions towards health care services offered to them. Not only does such discrimination tends to add to health care disparities but also leads to a negative impact on the overall health care delivery system as a whole (Shavers &amp. Shavers, 2006).
2. Discuss the current health care problems and barriers of the Hispanic population
According to the U.S. National Institutes of Health, every racial or ethnic group is faced with specific health concerns which are unique to their race or ethnicity. These differences are mainly on account of factors such as genetics, their environment, access to health care as well as cultural factors (NIH, 2011). The Hispanic population is marked by significant heterogeneity especially owing to their unique sociopolitical and historical background. These subgroups have hence, highly varied patterns of health.
According to Center for Disease Control (CDC) the mortality among Hispanic Americans is as follows: Deaths per 100,000 population – 297.8, the leading causes of death among this population include: heart disease, cancer and accidents (unintentional injuries). the infant deaths per 1,000 of live births – 5.51 (CDC.gov, 2011).
The current health problems faced by them are described in the following tables:
Table 1: Leading causes of death among Hispanic or Latino Americans:
Source: National Center for Health Statistics (2007). Health, United States, 2007
Barriers faced by Hispanics:
One of the major barriers faced by the Hispanic population while accessing health care services is – language. Although the Hispanic groups account to a significant percentage among the minorities, the number of health care givers speaking Spanish is relatively low. This leads to a severe lack of effective health care services among people of belonging to this ethnicity. Poverty is another significant barrier experienced by this group while accessing health care. Problems in communicating the actual distress suffered by them due to lack of Spanish speaking health care professionals further add to their woes.
Shavers, V. L., Shavers, B. S., (2006). Racism and health inequity among Americans, Journal of National Medical Association. March 2006, 98 (3), Pp. 386-396
Spector, R. E., (2004). Cultural diversity in health &amp. illness, Prentice Hall Health Publication, Pp. 63-89
NIH.gov (2011). Hispanic-American Health [Online] Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/hispanicamericanhealth.html [Accessed: September 21, 2011]
Question 2:
CDC.gov (2011). Health of Hispanic or Latino Population [Online] Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/hispanic_health.htm [Accessed: September 20, 2011]

Problems in American Immigration

It is human nature not to remain ‘static’. rather they will always like to keep on moving from one place to another, even to uncharted territories. This form of immigration will sometimes happen legally and other times illegally, and also sometimes from the position of domination and other times from the position of weakness. Based on the above-mentioned mode of immigration only, the immigrants will receive a favorable reception or a negative reception. From time immemorial, the land of America has been receiving immigrants from all over the world from Europe, Africa to Asians. All who reached America have experienced any one or both the receptions and thereby imbibed more experiences. So, this paper will discuss how the immigrant Europeans, as well as the native and also the immigrant Non-Europeans, shared experiences, with the presence of Non-Europeans or Native Indians helping the Europeans like the Irish become “American”.
Even before the immigration of Puritans or Anglo-Europeans started, America has been receiving people from different ethnic groups or ‘nationalities’. That is, according to the author Ronald Takaki, a well known ethnic studies historian, America has been receiving immigrants from 1400’s after the expedition and the resultant discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. Actually, the Native Indians only inhabited America for over 1000 years, but this immigration of outsiders particularly Europeans downsized their population to a minority. That is after Columbus discovered the sea route to America, the Spanish are the first to arrive and they were living in America since 1400’s in what is today California.

Marketing ethics recycling

Young and olds, males and females can all do recycling. This may be a very simple way but the impact it presents is very profound. In the UK, there are various advocacies encouraging the people to practice recycling. Students and professionals alike share their efforts to participate in the country’s recycling campaign.
Accumulation of wastes has been a public concern as early as the pre-industrial period. Since waste was essentially organic, reusing was enough to eliminate household waste. Vegetable wastes were fed to livestock and timber was salvaged for shipbuilding. Because societies were not as dense, primary natural resources, such as the atmosphere and waterways, were far from threatened. Knossos, the Cretan capital, and Athens can afford to have various landfill sites because land did not have a very high premium. Though domesticated, reusing was essential as economies transformed from nomadic to agrarian, and it allowed farming innovations that provided wider opportunities for the farmers. When societies evolved during the medieval period, waste disposal became centralized. Spanish copper mines use scrap iron for cementation of copper and English courts granted privileges for collection of rags for papermaking. Nevertheless, recycling was geared towards the efficiency of cottage industries than protecting natural resources (Katz, 2002)..
During the Industrial Revolution, manufacturing mobilized the population from rural to urban areas. Recycling and proper waste management was needed because pollution was heavily concentrated in towns and cities, whose riverbanks were filled with residents while residential areas were cramped. Recycling, however, also had a more functional role as resources, both raw materials and by-products, had to be heavily maximized. More labour was needed for manpower in assembly lines and factories, as well as for sanitation systems (Pearson and Sayfang, 2001). In Britain, dog droppings were recycled as tanners to purify

Children’s book (in Spanish)

Tras pensar y pensar sobre las consecuencias que desatarían sus acciones en contra de los colonos españoles, pensó en cuáles serían los pasos que tomaría para que las personas que vivían allí sufriesen lo menos posible.
Esta decisión de pelear contra sus invasores (los españoles) no fue fácil ya que no sería una acción pacífica como la que Mahatma Gandhi, un gran líder de la India realizó contra Inglaterra en el siglo XX. Gandhi le propuso a su pueblo, una guerra pacífica contra los invasores de su país. Pelear contra Inglaterra (otro país colonizador) de forma pacífica no fue fácil pero lo logró. Esto fue un gran hecho en la historia ya que no hubo derrame de sangre.
Por el contrario, pelear contra los invasores (los españoles) de Venezuela y de los otros países cercanos de Sur América, quería decir, pelear a sangre fría, ya que los españoles no cedían su estadía de estar ahí. Los españoles querían a Venezuela y a otros países como más territorios en el nuevo continente de Sur América y bajo su poder.
En 1819, Bolívar formó un grupo llamado el Congreso de Angostura y fundó la Gran Colombia. Venezuela, Colombia, Panamá y Ecuador formaban parte de la Gran Colombia. Simón Bolívar logró independizar a Colombia, Venezuela, y Perú, aunque su mayor sueño era que Sur América fuese libre.
España estuvo en la Guerra de la Independencia española contra los franceses y hubo una liberación de las colonias en Sur América pero al abandonar los franceses a España, todo cambió para ser igual que antes. Los españoles siguieron con las conquistas de las colonias sur americanas que ya eran independientes. Volvieron las tropas, los barcos de guerra y el transporte, la artillería, las armas y las municiones. Como consecuencia hubo muchas muertes. Como consecuencia a los abusos, muertes y atropellos de parte de los españoles,

Critical Reading and Rhetorical Modes

Rhetorical Modes Rhetorical modes are used by most through which they try to communicate with the reader by the use of compositional techniques such as narration, description, classification and definition among others. In this book, the author used comparison and contrasts with the statement "my mouth is a mother lode” to compared her mouth being full of silver bits tickling into the basin, as the capability to communicate in multiple dialects to the real meaning of the statement that is a place rich in gold or silver.
Secondly, description as a mode has been used in trying to capture a vivid picture of the struggle and oppression such as rejection and even punishment. All this was because an attempt to express herself through different languages that were seen as "illegitimate." Notably, this is evident in the second excerpt when she explains, “my tongue keep pushing out the wads of cotton, and pushing back the drills and the long thin needles.”
Cause and effect is a mode that analyzes the connection between elements and finds a reason for their relationship. For instance, Chicano Spanish is because of the need for identity, means of communication and secrecy among the people had no known original language considered as the cause of the development of Chicano Spanish.
Moreover, the author in trying to categorize the different people with whom she shared different language when communicating with has used modes like classification. For example, with Mexican she will speak standard Mexican Spanish. When in her parents companion, she uses Chicano Texas Spanish. with Arizonans, she will use Chicano Spanish and English for California.
Lastly, the author in trying to explain the term “Anglicism” and “Pachuco” has used definition. Whereby, the author describes it as distorted English and a language of rebellion because it is against both Spanish and English. The language is made up of slang words from both English and Spanish. For example, churo means sure, Simon means yes.
Work Cited
Anzaldúa, Gloria. Borderlands: The New Mestiza La Frontera. San Francisco: Spinsters/Aunt Lute, 1987. Print.

Issues Related to Bilingual Education in the United States

As the report stresses the United States bilingualism means English and any other language such as Spanish that is used by the citizens. Again, it is documented that there are more than 300 languages being spoken in America. The schools in America have witnessed diversity in the past twenty five years. Educators are now experiencing a big challenge since majority of the students can no longer be predominantly speaking English. Immigrants like the Blacks, Asians, Hispanics and others are growing in population. This calls for adjustments in instructional programs to serve better these interest groups.
This paper declares that bilingual education in the United States is reported to have been contested and redesigned within varied historical, economic, social and political contexts. Also, language professionals argue that the changing political, economic and social forces have designed the nation’s responses to diversity in language. Language ideology in America has been shifting depending on historical events and the lack of a consistent language ideology which has propagated political resentments especially on treatment for the minority groups of the population. It is reported that long before European colonizers came to the North American continent with their own languages and culture, the land was occupied by indigenous languages. Despite the rich cultural and language diversity in ancient days, the United States had a vision of a common language.

Exporting Spanish Jamon to the UK and all over the world

In this case, the structure is commonly applied in small business entities that have a solitarypracticalgoal. For instance, a family owned restaurant that employs 6 personnel and only operates one branch. The structure is characterized by the topmost manager – usually the proprietor or largest shareholder – having little, if not lacking, confidence in the ability of lower level managers to perform their duties. the topmost manager is involved in all aspects of decision making. For that matter, the top level manager oversees all aspects of the business such that any work not done they end doing it(see figure 2). In essence, no business decision can be arrived at without the topmost manager’s direct input (Aquinas, 2008, pp. 190-192).
The wheel organization structure has a number of advantages and disadvantages. The advantages include: allows the topmost manager to develop a depth of skills for all the business functions – most business functions are practical in nature. promotes practical innovation and scale in the workplace, and lowers costs. and simplifies accountability since each personnel is aware of their responsibilities. On the other hand, the disadvantages include: the business functions could be counterproductive if they present diversemeasures and priorities. placing emphasis on the business functionsover the customers’ needs. and high probability of middle level managers functions breaking down since they are unclear about their role (Aquinas, 2008, p. 192. Pride, Hughes and Kapoor, 2011, p. 201).
The divisional organizational structure is organized around major programs undertaken by the company. In this case, the programs are defined as economic and customers’ distinct plans since the resources used by the different programs maybe different. For that matter, the structure could be organized around the customers or products. In addition, the structure places emphasis on division such that each division could be

European Law

(The Merchant Shipping Act 1988) went overboard because by some strange device the court said that Community law overrode it. That court (the European Court of Justice) does not have constitutional checks and balances to temper its power. What was tolerable in a few cases is not bearable on the scale it is happening now, and it will accelerate ….” – Baroness Thatcher, House of Lords Debates, June 1993.
Inter Alia, she also expressed her doubts regarding the competency and bona fides of the decisions taken by the ECJ. Her contention was that the ECJ pursues its single-minded objective of implementing a unitary European state without any respite or consideration for the interests of the member states1.
As an example, she cited the example of the overruling of the Merchant Shipping Act 1988, which was promulgated in order to restrain Spanish fishing vessels from appropriating a portion of the UK’s fishing quota under the common fisheries policy. Further, she stated that “That Act went overboard because by the same strange device the court said that Community law overrode it. Even though it was recent, we did not prevail. The court has also reinterpreted the derivative rights directive. It is busy reinterpreting so many things to give itself and the Community more powers at our expense2.”
Furthermore, she opined that the ECJ does not have any constitutional restrictions to control its power. The result has been that the ECJ is interfering with national laws in a major way. Further, the Maastricht Treaty has empowered in a major fashion.&nbsp.

Napolon III Emperor of the French

After an extremely unsuccessful coup in the 1830s, he was exiled from France by the then King Louis Philippe (he went in the U.S.A.). From then, until his return to France (for the revolutions of 1848), he became a well-published, and well-respected liberal (everything2.com, 2002).
Louis Napoleon spent his youth with his mother, Hortense de Beauharnais, in Switzerland and Germany and became a captain in the Swiss army. Animated by a mixture of liberalism and Bonapartism, he indulged (1830–31) in revolutionary activities in Italy. In 1836 he attempted a ludicrous military coup at Strasbourg and was exiled to the United States by the government of Louis Philippe. He managed to return to Switzerland, but French protests at his proximity finally caused him to depart (1838) for England. He was married to Empress Eugenie, a Spanish noble of Scottish and Spanish descent, Napoleon III had one son, Eugene Bonaparte.
In 1840 he again attempted a revolution, this time at Boulogne-sur-Mer for which he was tried and sentenced to life imprisonment. While under arrest in the fortress of Ham, Somme department, he wrote letters, pamphlets, and books, among them a mildly socialistic work on the extinction of pauperism. In 1846 he made an easy escape, walking out disguised as a laborer, and went to England (Fact Monster, 2000). Besides, many writers also wrote about Napoleon III. 1
After the somewhat disappointing revolutions of 1848, and as a result of the notorious Bloody June Days, France found itself under the rule of a republican government, cleverly named the Second Republic. Elections were held in 1849 to elect a president for France. The overwhelming victor was one, Louis Napoleon. Louis Napoleon, or Napoleon III, was the nephew of the famed Conqueror Napoleon Bonaparte. He possessed a relatively sagacious idea of how to rule France.

Cultural Interview of an Asian Woman In the Context of Mental Health Counseling

The cultural interview focuses on the norms, values, understandings, and taken-for-granted rules of behavior of a group or society. The objectives of this essay are twofold: (1) to learn how to conduct a cultural interview and (2) to explore the world as viewed by the respondent.
For this paper, an Asian woman, particularly a Filipina from the central part of the Philippines, was interviewed. She was asked about her personal and family background, views on predominant cultural values and beliefs, religious practices, and what she perceives as her practical perennial problem which she has been trying to solve.
The client prefers to be called Tina but her full name is Maria Christina Cordero. It is just my observation but the name alone has traces of Spanish heritage. She is 46 years old, married for 21 years to the same man, bore six children – all boys.
She narrated that she was born of a middle-class family with one brother and one sister. She was able to complete her undergraduate studies major in Business Administration from the top university in the Philippines (the University of the Philippines). She also took her masteral degree in business from the same university and had more than 10 year’s managerial experience with a rural bank.
She said that a woman in the Philippines takes a variety of roles: a daughter, sister, mother, employee, citizen, wife, and parishioner (although, according to her, not in that particular order). She said that she views her role as a mother her priority. Rearing six children, she revealed, is not an easy task. By this alone, she is a counselor, a mediator, a cook, a laundrywoman, a teacher, an advisor, a friend. Of all the roles,&nbsp.she said, motherhood is the most challenging but the most rewarding.

Struggles of a Native Writer to nonNatives

&nbsp.Another difficulty that a native writer faces while addressing nonnatives is that some native languages have outstanding differences in meanings. For example, it would cost a lot on the native writer’s side to ensure that the message passed through writing is properly understood by nonnative readers. An example is the use of articles in the Spanish language. Usually, the Spanish language introduces articles before nouns, but the English language does not give room for that. A writer writing to a person whose native language is Spanish will, therefore, be aware of the possible confusion that such a Spanish speaker may encounter.
A student whose native language is not English lacks the automatic realization of the way the English language depends on the order of words. The aim of word ordering in English helps in maintaining the intended meaning of a sentence. A native writer is, therefore, charged with the responsibility of ensuring that the nonnative reader gets the meaning of the sentence despite the structuring contrast.
The other challenge is that the intended reader may tend to stick to the provisions of the native language regarding the components of a correct sentence. Some native languages do not necessarily include the subject of a given sentence. Contrary, English has an explicit inclusion of the subject within a sentence. Consequently, the writer has to stick to the simple concept of subject-verb-object. Such simple writing technique will ensure that nonnative readers will not feel so much alienated from the provisions of their native languages since the contrasts are not significant.
Another difficulty is the issue of capitalization of nouns. Capitalization of nouns varies across languages. For example, a German native would capitalize all nouns. On the other hand, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, amongst other languages does not capitalize nationalities. A native writer must, thus, understand the context of the reader, in order to avoid poor formatting of nouns. The recommended way of capitalizing nouns in English does not mean that it is the universally accepted way across all languages. Failure to adhere to the native language would cause a significant contrast that may be regarded as a grammatical error.


This aspect of Spanglish is also properly discussed in the paper. Spanglish and its History Spanglish is one of the most common languages among the Hispanic Americans. It is nothing but a mixture of English and Spanish. According to Oxford English Dictionary, Spanglish can be described as “a type of Spanish contaminated by English words and forms of expression, spoken in Latin America” (Lipski, John M. “Is “Spanglish” the third language of the South?: truth and fantasy about U. S. Spanish”). The word ‘Spanglish’ was first used by Salvador Tio who was a Puerto Rican journalist. In 1952, Tio used this term in a newspaper article. Quite expectedly many consider him as the creator of this word. Some of the articles that were written by Tio in early days contained few Spanglish words which are humorous in nature. However, most of those words were not used later. As a result initially there was some confusion regarding legitimate examples of Spanglish. Apart from Tio there are experts like Nash and Fairclough who tried to gain insight into this language (Lipski, John M. “Is “Spanglish” the third language of the South?: truth and fantasy about U. S. Spanish”). At present, Spanglish is considered as one of common languages especially in the places like Los Angeles where a major section of the population is ‘Hispanic’. …
Some of the Spanglish sentences are found to be Spanish dominated whereas some are mostly English in nature. Over the last two decades, use of Spanglish has increased significantly with the increase in the number of people who are migrated from Latin American countries to United States. English has collided with Spanish on a regular basis in workplaces, retail stores and classrooms (Castro, Janice. &amp. Cook, Dan. “Language: Spanglish Spoken Here”). Such collisions between two of the most respected languages in the world has developed the growth track of Spanglish. The unique language is found to be very popular among the young people in United States. According to, Ilan Stavans who is an expert of Latino culture, Spanglish is a “jazzy and a very creative way of being Latino in the U.S. today” (Thomas, Jeffrey. “Spanglish Offers Stepping-Stone to English”). Stavans is a self-declared promoter and admirer of Spanglish who has defined the language as “the verbal encounter between Hispano and Anglo civilizations” (Lipski, John M. “Is “Spanglish” the third language of the South?: truth and fantasy about U. S. Spanish”). Spanglish and Media Globalization In America people who speak in Spanglish are those who have enough knowledge of Spanish but follow American culture. They use clipped and shorter phrases rather than using longer and graceful expressions. Such style is found to be very much suitable in America where ‘time is money’ (Castro, Janice. &amp. Cook, Dan. “Language: Spanglish Spoken Here”). Most importantly Spanglish speaking people in US are likely to have the spending power of almost 200 billion dollar. As a result, many companies are eager to make the best out of this huge market. It is found that

“The Hispanic Community in the USA AT&amp

T Business Transactions" Hispanics come from different countries they may not be aware of the differences and the similarities. The non-Hispanics are not aware of what these differences and similarities may be. This leads to misunderstandings while communicating with their customers in the USA and while placing international calls to the Spanish speaking countries and performing business transactions. AT&amp.T will be at an advantage point if you take the initiative to offer this holistic approach of teaching Spanish at your location while at the same time your personnel will be able to relate to the Hispanic community and Spanish speaking countries and learn about its idiosyncrasies. They will learn the Spanish language. They will learn the history of the different countries Hispanics come from. They will learn the idioms used in the different Spanish speaking countries. They will learn taboo words used in the different Spanish speaking countries. They will learn the customs from the different Spanish speaking countries. and, The will learn about the traditions from the different Spanish speaking countries. It is not only important to learn a language. Coca-Cola, Nestle, and Chevrolet-NOVA were all fiasco transactions when they were accomplishing their business transactions in Thailand, Africa, and Venezuela. This was due to, in: Coca-Cola´s case by a translation that did not take into consideration the cultural aspects. Nestle´s case by not taking into consideration the environment and customs. and, Chevrolet-NOVA´s case for not understanding the implications of the word NOVA (NoVa, will not work) in Spanish. These transactions flopped. AT&amp.T does not have to go through these motions. By contracting our language school to deliver this holistic proactive class will not only help travellers and non-travellers in delivering successful business accounts (for your international expansion of the business) but it will also help to satisfy the national Hispanic communities concerning customer satisfaction. Maximum of 7 students per class, 105 students. Materials: Business Spanish Text Book, Business Spanish Work Book, and Compact Disk will be $50.00/student. Classes will be held Monday through Friday before or after the workday. Programmed to start on March 5, 2007. What may be the drawbacks? The drawbacks may be that the employees may not want to take Spanish classes before or after their workday. The benefits are that by having your employees partake in a language program of this nature both AT&amp.T and the employees will benefit from it. The classes will be held at AT&amp.T´s location so that the employees will be at work. the classes will be paid by AT&amp.T (fringe benefit). the probabilities of losing accounts will be minimal. and, the cost/effectiveness for AT&amp.T will rise. I hope to meet with you at your earliest convenience to further discuss this proposal and to start immediately. AT&amp.T deserves it and your employees deserve it. Everyone will come out as a winner. AT&amp.T will see the bottom line in their financial statement and the investment will be paid off automatically. The employees will feel important because they have been considered to partake in one of AT&amp.T´s initiatives and feel part of the “family” and also receive fringe benefits while in a learning process with their colleagues. Part of the incentive for AT&amp.T is in the cost. The total amount for the students´ materials has already received a 20% discount and the class per student is $1336.00 for a six months period of a holistic approach of learning a Business Spanish course.

The United States influence Over Latin America and Asia

Why the United s increasingly exercised its influence over Latin America and Asia beginning in the 1890s The American imperialism arose after Americans had subdued the Amerindian population in 1890, which coincidentally marked the end of the frontier. As such, many thought that the United States required increasing its territory to curb the growing population, wealth and industrial capacity. This essay seeks to cite reasons for United State’s imperialist influence on Latin and Asian countries.
A theory of overproduction made many believe that the industry had overgrown to the extent of overproduction and less consumption causing unrest and violence. Acquisition of foreign market provided viable options to bail out the country. Alfred Mahan, a captain in the United States army was a proponent of expanding territories. He proposed power on the sea through navy naval bases at strategic regions in the world (Mooney 88). This promoted world domination including Pacific islands as main targets of this idea of expansion. This pushed the US to modernize its navy making it the fifth powerful navy in the world by 1898. Some saw it as the “white man’s burden”, (Mooney 88) to exploit resources of weaker nations. Theodore Roosevelt supported imperialist US strategies to survive in the world.
Gold discovery at the Venezuelan boundary led to a dispute with the British Guiana prompting President Cleveland to warn Britain against taking Venezuela. Britain rejected, triggering Cleveland to hint at war with Britain. Latin American nations appreciated the protection from US (Mooney 89).
Spain misrule affected Cuba’s industries prompting United States to offer mediation, but Spain rejected. Pressure from the United States led Spain to grant Cuba semi-autonomy, triggering Spanish population there to revolt. Safety fears for Americans in Cuba, President William McKinley, “sent the USS Maine to Havana in March 1898”, (Mooney 93) which exploded week later, killing its sailors. Americans blamed this act to Spain, but no direct evidence of foul play ever presented. Roosevelt, the then assistant secretary of the navy, offered a reward to the conviction of the perpetrators of that destruction. April, 1898, President McKinley requested use of the army to mediate between Spain and Cuba. Congress approved and through the Teller Amendment stated that the US wouldn’t subdue the island. Spain declared war on the US, marking the onset of the Spanish-American war. George Dewey’s offensive at Manila bay, ensured victory for the US. After three months, US took over Manila, assisted by Filipino troops, led by Emiliano Aguinaldo. Soon after, tension loomed, and Aguinaldo sought independence of Philippines, but neither U.S nor Spain recognized it.
The Teller Amendment didn’t protect Philippines making it vulnerable to imperialism. Its strategic positioning made it a gateway to Asia, especially China and Japan and they desired its raw materials (Mooney 93). Philippines became a protectorate triggering the Philippines-American war. President Roosevelt declared it on 4 July 1902 due to increased insurgencies from rebel Filipinos led by Aguinaldo. They used guerilla war tactics. It ended in1901 with capture of Aguinaldo. Restructuring of Philippines began, steered by a commission headed by William Taft and attaining full independence in 1946.
US aim at economic power triggered “Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine in 1904”, (Mooney 97) as a means of international policing. It justified interventions and use of US military during disputes for instance in Venezuela in 1902, and 1905 in Dominican Republic. The Platt Amendment enabled US to decide all Cuban treaties. It limited foreign influence and granted US a naval base at Guantanamo.
A need for a canal to connect Atlantic and Pacific Oceans since US had to protect Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Philippines and it’s marine. Roosevelt offered support to Panamian nationals who wanted independence from Columbia..US further prevented troops from Columbia from suppressing a Panamian revolt. Panama soon acquired independence and gladly allowed US to build and manage the Panama Canal (Mooney 97).
United States used a soft imperialism strategy widely to acquire power. “According to Roosevelt, American policy is to speak softly while carrying a big stick.”(Mooney 97). They lay more emphasis on economic dominance and acted as a bigger brother, gaining favour from these nations. Through all this, US grew its military to become a global superpower.
Work Cited
Mooney, Matthew. ‘American History.’ Research and Written Especially for SBCc History 100: Growth of American Civilization.(2001) : 78-97. Print.
Work Cited
Mooney, Matthew. American History.

Illegal Immigration

The 1965 Elimination and nationality act was probably the first effort to control illegal immigration into the US from Mexico (Skinner, 2006). From that date till present, many acts have been introduced in the US regarding immigrants. Some of these acts however (for example the Alien registration act of 1940 and the Immigration amnesty act of 1986), while being explicit in fines and penalties for illegal immigrants and those who employ them were also lenient in a way that these acts legalized a great number of illegal immigrants at that time. Such acts have indirectly encouraged illegal immigration instead of limiting it.
According to a study, cited in Huntington (2000), Mexicans constituted 62% of the total illegal immigrant population in the US in the year 1992. Other than Mexicans, illegal immigrants include Filipinos, Chinese, Hispanics and Spanish also. A research by Jordan, cited in Huntington (2000) concluded that without Mexican immigrants, the total immigration level in the US might have been almost equal to two thirds of what it has actually been.
Ritter (2006) has estimated that almost 11 million illegal immigrants live in the USA, and this number increases almost by a million each year. According to one estimate, the foreign born immigrant population has exceeded more than ten percent of the total population in seven census years i.e., from 1860 to 1930 (Huntington, 2000). These rates are alarming and suggest that America’s more than half population is immigrant.
Garibaldi (2006) has pointed out some issues raised due to illegal immigration. These include encouragement for others in illegal immigration, burden on the tax-paying population of America, injustice towards the legal immigrants, growth of the demand for cheap labor, fake documentations and paper fraud.
Similarly, Wagner (2001) has identified the problems related to illegal immigration as follows: economic issues,

The Great Inca Rebellion

The responsible elements behind this conquest are the age-old accepted notions of the various historians and archeologists. This documentary also holds horses, steel and germs, accountable for the invasion of the Spanish over the Incas. The documentation focuses mainly on the discoveries made by Guillermo Cook.
The common notion behind the Inca devastation was the mismatch of the regimes but yet this documentary focuses on some other latest theories and contentions regarding the great fall of the civilization. The historians and archeologists, believing in the new theory feel that the horses, steel, and germs were the beneficial points of the Spanish conquistadors but the major deciding factor for the conquest of the Spanish were the enlistment of some native tribes in the battle against the Incas.
The documentary is divided into two neat divisions and the major deviation from the chronicles occurs in the first half. The second half is more interesting than the previous one. The cemetery supports the existing belief of the historians yet it is not shown properly. The episode regarding the arrival of the Pizzaro also demands more historical pieces of evidence.
Every historical documentary deviates a bit from the chronicles and this documentary is also not an exception in this regard yet it is a worth watching the documentary as it opens up many more avenues of the age-old hidden and inquisitive controversies and contentions regarding the world’s greatest civilization – The Great Incas.

Painter Francisco de Goya

Francisco de Goya then moved to paint cartoon design for the royal tapestry factory in Madrid from 1775 to 1792, which was considered as the most important phase in de Goya’s artistic development. This exposure as a tapestry designer provided the experience for de Goya to paint genre paintings or paintings derived from everyday life. It made him a keen observer of everyday behaviour of people which served as the technical foundation for him to paint his later renowned works such as First of May which was a social commentary about peasant’s uprising against French occupation in Spain (www.franciscodegoya.net, 2014). He was also an avid follower of the works of Velazquez that influenced his looser and more spontaneous painting technique.
Later, Francisco de Goya explored his method by learning neoclassicism which was gaining popularity over the rococo style during his time. He then became a established portrait painter to the Spanish monarchy where he was elected to the Royal Academy of San Fernando in 1780, named as painter of the king 1786 and a court painter in 1789 (www.franciscodegoya.net, 2014). As a court painter, Goya was fashionable painter and high society portraitist. During the height of his success, De Goya was not only a fashionable court painter but also an advocate of justice and a staunch supporter for ending the war. He is considered as a social recorder of his countrymen’s struggle and travails whose style was associated with “anciens regimes” or the “first of the moderns” (Web Gallery of Art, nd).
Francisco de Goya’s The Third of May 1808 is his most known artwork. It featured a peasant being shot by a soldier in the middle of a night. It was intentionally painted with the face of the executioner kept to be anonymous to highlight the drama of innocent civilian that was about to be executed. In this particular work, the artistry was

Analysis of Gypsy perfomrance group

Their parents were Spanish Romani people who had fled from Catalonia during the time of the Spanish Civil War in the 1930’s. (BBC) However, an exception was Chico Bouchikhi who was of Moroccan and Algerian descent.&nbsp.(BBC) The group was quite famous for introducing audiences to a pop- oriented music the ‘Rumba Catalana’ that was distantly derived from the traditional Flamenco music but with pop influences. (BBC) Their music well suited social dances like the ‘Rumba’ and the ‘Salsa’ which became quite popular.
The band members were of Spanish Gipsy origin and their growing years were spent in making music while traversing the south of France and harvesting. Their roots were steeped firmly in Romany tradition. In their initial stages the group played at weddings and parties or just jammed on the streets of Cannes. They made use of South America’s rumba rhythm along with the flamenco guitars and introduced the world to the ‘Rumba Gitano’ with their classy debut titled ‘Bambolero’. (Official Home page, gipsykings.com) Thus they began their epic musical journey and there was no turning back for them. Though their lives have changed with their popularity, they still remain gypsies at heart. (Official Home page, gipsykings.com) The members hardly speak any English. They converse and sing in ‘Gitane’ which is a Gypsy dialect that involves both Spanish and French. The popularity of the group is driven by their upbeat and danceable music.
The Gipsy’s lead singer is Nicolas Reyes who is the son of the famous Flamenco singer Jose Reyes who during the 60’s and the 70’s sold millions of records after having joined forces with his friend Manitas de Plata. The duo contributed a great deal towards placing the ‘Flamenco’ on the map of international music. The Gipsy Kings comprise of two families of brothers.
On one hand, we have the Reyes family with Nicolas, Canut, Paul, Patchai, Andre, and on the other we have the

Les Demoiselles d’Avignon by Pablo Picasso

3 May Art Essay The art that I have chosen to analyze is Les Demoiselles d’Avignon by Pablo Picasso. This translates in English to ‘The Young Ladies of Avignon.’ The art technique is painting and the media used is oil paint on canvas. I chose this painting because of the elements of nude colored women and how they contrast with the bright background behind the subjects in the painting. The subject of the painting is five women who are believed to be prostitutes in Spain. It is believed to depict prostitutes within a Spanish brothel. The five women are all painted in very unique ways. They are all very surreal looking and painted in a non-realistic way.
The elements in art used for this Picasso painting are that it is abstract and appears to be a representation of the modern time frame. It is two-dimensional in space and it lacks any congruity because the figures are all very different. The faces all look different and two of the five women could be seen as wearing masks which almost look inspired by African art. The lines are very sharp and space has an interesting concept because it almost looks like a mosaic. Their anatomy is awkward as the figures are not proportionate like their arms might be significantly large while their head is small, especially in the figure second from the left. Their breasts lack uniformity and some of them do not even seem to have them. The title is all that gives away what Picasso was even painting. The painting lacks any unity or balance in terms of the style or principle of art of which the women are depicted and it looks like an experiment.

How to Make Spanish Speakers Feel Comfortable

1250 As an educator, my first and foremost priority would be to make Spanish speakers feel completely at home with the ways and means that are used in the imparting of education. This would enable them to understand where I am coming from and what kind of perspective is indeed needed for getting the point across in the most viable capacity. It would also pave the way for my future work manifestations as far as teaching regimes are concerned. Spanish speakers might encounter trouble at the hands of comprehending the message that is conveyed through the educational domains that are being instilled in them and hence it would be a point of advantage to take into consideration their grey areas and highlight the shortcomings for their own betterment in the long run.&nbsp.

Art and Its Context

A. The objects are not recognizable, which is typical of abstract art: they do not represent physical objects but emotions and impressions, sensory or otherwise. I prefer paintings of things I can recognize.

B. The style is neo-classical but later than Goya. If I cover the dagger with my finger, the painting suddenly changes and could be a placid, ordinary portrait of a beautiful young girl with no malevolence evident on her face.

C. I know that this is by controversial sculptor Daniel Edwards, who makes statements about social polemics such as alcoholism and public nursing of babies. Because of the black background, this is probably installed in an exhibition. It looks as if the clay is fresh and wet: so the idea has ‘just occurred’ to the artist – but the tiaras on both the dog and the woman, and her careful hairstyle suggest a long consideration of the subject, which at first looks beautiful, but is then confronting because of her position.

D. This is a chocolate box top. It is a pretty scene: very bland and without statement. It is photographically correct, and although there is a contrast between the church steeple in the background that is bathed in light and the dark shack in the foreground, there is a lack of meaning. Paintings without people such as this landscape can be hung quite high on a wall because they are not intimate.
E. This immediately says ‘Dali’ – the recognizable mustache makes it a portrait of that famous surrealist. But it is signed Merello, so it is by Jose Merello, the modern Spanish expressionist. But even if I did not know this, I would expect the painting to be hung in a colorful room full of other modern paintings. The various shapes, objects, and words around the figure make it interesting, making the viewer want to approach and inspect every detail.

Musical genius: Mozart’s Number 40
Mozart alternates very fast stretches with slow ones in this symphony. It makes you feel that the composer was in a furious hurry to put down the notes before someone interrupted his muse. His character is fully in the music, like the speech of a very precocious child: fast and furious, saying everything before the listener gets distracted by something else. It gave me thoughts of this young man in a white wig holding a quill and writing music notes on lined paper very fast. But then he slows down and starts to add complication and meditation. It is a very mixed piece, but very memorable. People remember it because of the repetitions: the main theme keeps coming back. It is easy to hum after hearing it because the repetitions are of only 3 – 5 notes before they get longer. The music suggests excitement and impulsiveness.

Debate arguing for homosexuals being allowed to adopt children

Ten reasons why homosexuals be allowed to adopt children Homosexuality neither means that homosexuals have mental disorder nor it is an indicator of being immoral. Homosexuals are as active and effective in everyday work as any other person. They perform all of the usual activities as studying, working, paying bills, etc. To become a parent, one does not has to qualify any specific test. On the other hand one has to be responsible and affectionate to be a good parent and homosexuals have equal possibility of having these qualities as that of heterosexuals. Hence, if homosexuals have the core qualities that a good parent should have then homosexuals should be allowed to adopt children.
2. Parenting cannot be confined to child’s biological parents. It has been shown by the reports of 2000 U.S. Census that a child under the age of 18 is growing up in 33 per cent of lesbians and 22 per cent of gay male couples.
3. At the moment 16.2 million children have lost both of their mother and father. Homosexuals can prove to be better parents than orphanages.
4. The kids having homosexuals have positive approach to life as compared to the kids from the shattered families. Earlier, the person pretends to be heterosexual but later on s/he could not carry on the relationship as a result of which their kid undergoes psychological traumas. To overcome homophobia it is better to let homosexuals marry and adopt kids.
5. Before adopting a kid, any person goes through the same procedure and gets approved only on the basis of their capability of taking caring of a kid. Homosexuals maintain their relationship as strongly as heterosexual couples. The environment of homes of heterosexual couples is as comfortable for a kid as it is at heterosexual couples.
6. Homosexuals have the advantage that the administration power is shared equally by two people. While heterosexuals usually face the problem of developing discipline in their kids, this responsibility is handled by homosexuals in a better manner.
7. If any homosexual couple wishes to adopt a child, it is unlawful in some places to discriminate them. While adoption of child by homosexuals is legal in twenty states in the Union and in Canada, North America is still apprehensive on this issue.
8. Those who are not able to conceive naturally or give birth to a kid naturally should be allowed to adopt a child.
9. In the homes of homosexuals children are more open minded.
10. The kids in the homes of homosexual couples grow in the environment where they have the right to speak. They have more confidence as compared to other kids.
Advocate.com. American psychological association says gay parents just good. n.d. Web 15 October 2012.
Associated Counselors and Therapists. http://www.beachpsych.com/pages/cc121.html. n.d. Web 15 October 2012.
Chang, Louise. Study same sex parents raise well adjusted kids (October 2012). Web 15 October 2012.
Chrisler, Jennifer. Why gay parents are good parents (June 24, 2010) Web 15 October 2012.
Futureofchildren.org.children/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=37&amp.articleid=108§ionid=699. n.d. Web 15 October 2012
jezebel.com. World slowly discovers that good parents are good parents gay or straight. n.d. Web 15 October 2012.
narth.com. Gay Parenting Does Affect Children Differently, Study Finds — Authors Believe Gay Parents Have "Some Advantages". n.d. Web 15 October 2012.
Pappas, Stephanie. Why Gay Parents May Be the Best Parents (15 January 2012). Web 15 October 2012.
stanford.edu. /news/2010/august/gay-study-083010 (August 2010). Web. 15 October 2012.
Typicallyspanish.com. Homosexual couples make ‘excellent’ parents according to Spanish study. n.d. Web 15 October 2012.

Feel just like a fish in water

Themes expressed by “The Old Man at the Bridge” story The of “The Old Man at the Bridge” addresses several themes in the story. According to Frenz, Ernest Hemingway who is the author of the short story was working as a volunteer in an ambulance unit for the Italian army. He later moved on to serve as a messenger and after retirement, Hemingway used the experience as a reporter in the war to write several stories and novels that capture several themes related to consequences of war (1).
To begin with, the story portrays a theme of gap or difference in age and thoughts between the old man and the narrator. The old man is depicted to have a different line of thought compared to the narrator. This is shown by how the old man responds to the questions asked by the narrator. When asked about where he comes from, the old man responds by saying that he comes from San Carlos and smiles after answering. This means that the man values where he comes from and the place is so dear to him that even remembering the place makes him happy. The smile by the old man captures the attention of the narrator because it was not normal to smile because of mentioning a name of a place.
On the same case, the narrator is amazed by the fact that the old man is the last person to leave the village because of the animals he takes care of. This is evident when the narrator asks the old man about the animals that made him to be the last person to leave the village despite the risk of being attacked by the armies. The narrator is surprised by the old man because of the attachment he placed on the animals left in the village. The fact that the old man is advised to leave the village by a major also signifies the difference in thoughts and perception between the old person and the narrator.
Theme of desperation is also addressed by the story. This shown when the narrator asks the old man to continue walking down the road to catch up with a truck heading to Barcelona and the old man instead thanks the narrator. In addition, the old man seems tired and cannot walk anymore because of his age. The old man seems more concerned with the fate of the animals than his own fate. This means that the old man had already despaired and was sure that he was not going to survive for a long time. The fact that the narrator tells us the old man tried to wake up but sunk back down also displays the level of desperation by the old man. In addition, the narrator tries to explain the fate of the animals to the old man to calm and encourage him to continue with the journey but the old man is not convinced and opts to remain at the bridge.
Further, the old man tells the narrator that he has no political stand and that he is old and cannot walk anymore after the twelve kilometer journey he had already made to the bridge. The fact that the narrator interrogates the old man to give him hope and later leaves him at the bridge is also a symbol of desperation. This is because the narrator has nothing else to help the old man with apart from convincing him that the animals will take care of themselves but still the old man was left worried about the goats at the village.
A theme of impending death is also demonstrated by the short story. This is shown by the conversation that the narrator ensues with the old man. The narrator is shown be nervous about the advent of the Fascist army and the aftermath of the war between the two groups. The narrator shows how much he is worried about the war by advising the old man to continue with his journey and should not stay for long at the bridge. This shows that the narrator is obviously sure that the old man will be killed by the Fascist army if found at the bridge.
The theme of impending death is also shown by the way the old man worries about the animals left in San Carlos village. The old man is worried that the animals will be affected by the warring groups. In the same instance, the narrator tries to comfort the old man that the animals will take care of themselves but the question of how the goats and cat will take care of themselves clearly demonstrates the theme of impending death. The old man is somehow convinced that the four pigeons can take care of themselves since they can fly. When the question about the fate of goats and cat arose, the old man replied by saying “Its better not to think about the others” (Hemingway 1). This means that the old man is sure that the goats and cat were going to die.
A theme of resignation and tough life is also captured in the story. The narrator introduces the old man as a person with “steel rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes” (Hemingway 1). This depicts the old man is a person undergoing a very tough life and has very little or nothing that can improve his life. In addition, the narrator starts a conversation with the old man on his way back from the enemy side. This means that the old had already resigned his ambition of going far from the enemy side. The fact that the old man is advised by a major to get out of the village and walks for twelve kilometers on foot demonstrates how life is tough and transportation means are not readily available. In addition, the narrator also passes via the bridge on foot and advices the old man to walk further in order to catch up with a truck heading to Barcelona. Resignation is also shown by the fact that the old man has no political affiliation despite the fact that politics affect his life.
In conclusion, Hemingway has addressed several themes that are related to effects of civil war. This narration also seems to be based on personal experience of Hemingway as a corresponded to the American Newspaper Alliance during the Spanish civil war as outlined by Benson and Jackson in their book titled ‘New Critical Approaches to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway’. Therefore, the short story “The Old Man at the Bridge” brings out a picture of societies in war prone regions.
Works Cited
Benson, Jackson J. New Critical Approaches to the Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. Durham: Duke University Press, 1990. Print
Frenz, H. “Ernest Hemingway – Biographical.” Norbel Lectures, Literature 1901-1967 (1969). Print.
Watson, William Braasch. "Old Man At The Bridge": The Making Of A Short Story." Hemingway Review 7.2 (1988): 152-165. Academic Search Premier. Web. 31 Mar. 2014

Interaction of Europeans and Amerindians

Interaction of Europeans and Amerindians
Charles C. Mann`s exceptional book, ‘1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created’ and Titu Cusi`s book, "History of How the Spaniards Arrived in Peru", challenge previous understandings of the interactions between Europeans and Amerindian peoples in the years following Columbus’ first landfall in America. The two books present a history of the interaction between Europeans and Asians during the sixteenth century.
Before the arrival of Columbus in the Caribbean, the term American Indian or Amerindian was used to refer to the indigenous people of America including the indigenous people of Canada. This was specifically used for people who lived in North America. This term was used to refer to a form of cultural homogeneity. Mann`s book looks at the formation of America in terms of economics of production (Mann 50). In fact, he uses candied fruits, gardens and nuts as essential aspects in his book, to show the effect of the arrival of Columbus. Mann says that the arrival of Columbus came with the introduction of new plants, germs, animals and people from other continents. This brought about mass population and economic gains because of labor availability and ways of production. He clearly captures the costs and benefits of globalization (Mann 56).
Titu Cusi`s book presents the vision of the vanquished, which brings up the fall of the INCA state. The book provides a historical narrative of the native Andeans in the Spanish colonial period. It traces the history of INCAs, the American people of Peru before Spaniards discovered America and before the arrival of Columbus (Yupangui and Julien 87).
The two books trace the history of America from the agricultural economic-base period. The two books show the interaction of Europeans and Amerindians as influenced by adventures and agriculture.
In conclusion, both Mann and Cusi emphasize on heroic adventures and agricultural explorations as the determinant factors of the interaction of the Europeans and Amerindians as opposed to slavery as believed by many people.
Works cited
Mann, Charles C. 1493: Uncovering the New World Columbus Created. New York: Knopf
Doubleday Publishing Group, 2011.print.
Yupangui, Titu cussi and Catherine J. Julien. History of how the Spaniards arrived in Peru.
Indiana: Hackett Publishing, 2006.print.

Bilingual and Multilingual Education is an Educational Program

The educational practice brought to halt the restrictive laws prohibiting instruction in languages other than English. In a diversified and a multilingual environment, many young children find themselves in a society where more than one language is used. These have influenced the interaction of people toward their children and their perspective toward other people’s children and teachers, doctors and other professional advice the parent of children growing up bilingually. But the ideas of some people about children growing up in a bilingual environment (i.e growing up with the second or the third language) is discouraging and have not in any way benefit these children and may have an adverse effect on them. Therefore, when a parent changes his or her job and it involves moving to a different part of the world, they feel overwhelmed over the issue of linguistic demand on them and their children.&nbsp.
In the western world there medical doctor and speech therapist that advise some parent to stop the young children growing up with more than one language and concentrate on one language acceptable in the environment. For example in the United State speech therapist often suggest that parent should stop using Spanish at home in favor of English and in Finland they may advise the parent to stop using English in favor of Dutch. The main reason for this advice is basically two, firstly they claim that bilingual or multilingual education can easily confuse the children and lead to a great problem in acquiring language and secondly they claim that the mother language will stand a better chance over another language.&nbsp.
Meanwhile, there is no scientific prove that bilingual education leads to any problem or disorder in language acquisition.

Culture is in the air

Culture is in the Air al Affiliation) American culture is diverse with almost all regions around the globe having influenced it. The United States of America population constitutes of immigrants, a majority being the English, who were colonizers of the country in the early 1600s (Zimmermann, 2015). The civilization of Africans, Asians, Latina and Native Americans molded the culture of the Americans. The term “melting pot” describes the United States because the cultural diversity has contributed individual unique flavors to the culture of the country. Different regions in the America have well-defined practices.
Jeans, cowboy hats, baseball caps, sneakers just to name a few, symbolize American style. The attires are a representation of the American people in light of culture. It is unusual to lack at least one of the named clothing items amongst a group of five people. The State of Texas’ individuals are famous for wearing cowboy hats and boots.
American cuisine is another physical representation of culture. Foods associated with the country are hotdogs, macaroni and cheese, hamburgers, meatloaf and potato chips. In addition, various cooking methods are rooted in a region in America. American Comfort food is cooking from the southern region while Tex-Mex is a combination of Mexican and Spanish cooking styles nonspecialist in Texas and South West (Zimmermann, 2015).
Americans practice a vast number of religions. Statistics from a poll recorded 83% of Americans as Christians while 13% confirmed to lack religion (Zimmermann, 2015). Judaism followed Christianity in its popularity as a religion with Muslims coming last with a percentage of 0.6 (Zimmermann, 2015). The diverse cultural contribution of the various societies to the American culture makes it distinctive because it is rich in a wide range of customs, objects, beliefs, ethics and more.
Zimmermann, A. (2015, January 15). American Culture: Traditions and Customs of the United States. Retrieved May 12, 2015, from http://www.livescience.com/28945-american-culture.html

Cubans in Miami

In addition to this, the Cuban community is characterized by the low fertility levels due to their demographic structure.
The reasons for their high social and economic status are first and foremost that women are in income generation activities more than the men. In addition, the Cuban was characterized by the presence of a strong ethnic closed society. Finally, the Cuban society was involved with post-revolutionary activities which helped them to fight for better living standards. The Cuban people are to have a strong cultural system. However, due to the differences and the way of life in the United of America, they have adjusted their values and beliefs and they have been to the American society. Several studies have suggested that about 1 million of the American population are of Cuban origin. More accurate data from the United States Bureau of Census conducted at about 1980 revealed that about 803,226 of the American population were associated with the Cuban descent, and this number of Cuban origin people is to have increased over the years (Lisandro129).
The immigration of Cubans to America has always been linked to economic situations and political events on the island. Before the American government helped in ending the Spanish rule on the island in 1899, the northern Cuban neighbor had played a considerable role in Cuba’s economic and political issues. As the involvement of the US government intensified during the 19th and 20th centuries, the United States of America had become a preferred place of settlement for Cuban emigrants who have succeeded to get powerful positions in the financial, intellectual and political landscapes in the United States (L. Glenn 31).
As statistics depict, the number of Cuban immigrants before 1885 was relatively low. However, about five years later, the number of Cuban immigrants to United States of America has more than tripled. New heights of immigration of Cubans were reached between 1897 and 1910 which is a

Ethnic Groups Claimed to Have Discovered the New World

People as diverse as the Phoenicians, the Scandinavians, the Irish, the Welsh, the Chinese, the Romans, the Greeks, the Celts, the Basques, the Ainu, the Egyptians,&nbsp.the Norse, the Arabs, the ancient powers of India, the Polynesians, and every other sea-faring culture before that most certainly got to North and South America were actually in the New World, in some cases, way before 1492.

Columbus is given credit probably because it was a well-communicated, planned and documented the voyage. These may not have been possible for the earlier explorers. There are not enough records that add substance to their claim and except the Phoenicians who documented their travels in useful inscriptions. very few left any written records for their efforts.

In 1872, on a plantation in Brazil, a stone, covered with strange carvings, was found in a field. The carvings were later identified as Phoenician writing, telling of a ship blown off course and landing in a strange, new land, some 2500 years earlier, after returning from a trip to the Middle East. The Phoenicians were well known as enthusiastic sailors and were one of the foremost to document their travels. They have been known to travel around the coast of Africa to the Arab lands. Also, historians agree that, in 1872, of Phoenician writing was not of a state to which the stone could have been a fake.

The term Phoenician refers to the inhabitants of the ancient cities of Tyre and Sidon and also included the Israelite tribes of Dan, Asher, and Zebulon who resided near these cities along the eastern Mediterranean shore. These people also traded frequently along the northern African and Spanish coasts as well as the British Isles and navigated the Straits of Gibraltar called the “Pillars of Hercules”. Diodorus of Sicily wrote, in the first century BCE, that the Phoenicians, while sailing along the west coast of Africa, were blown off course into the ocean by a "furious storm" and after many days being blown about, "arrived at the island and so they were the first to discover it." The only places, west of Europe that has navigable rivers are Cuba, Haiti and North and South America.

A History of Spain from the Earliest Times to the Death of Ferdinand the Catholic

It was in 1492 that Muslim rule was finally extinguished to its very last remnant in Granada (Ralph, 2008) at the peak of the Reconquista. It is clearly out of the direct influence of Judaism, Islamic and Christian rule from ancient times, that most of Spain’s present religion and language, and laws are based.
Spanish Jews were a prosperous community under Christian and Muslim rule in Spain before most of them were killed or expelled in 1492 in the process of forced conversion. This coincided with Christopher Columbus’ return from his exploration voyage to America. As Roman Catholicism took ground in the 1400s and 1500s, most Jews and Muslims were expelled from the empire. From this time through to the 16th and 17tth centuries saw Hispania develop into a global empire, and emerging as a world power until wars and other problems rocked it to a point that its status as a powerful empire diminished according to Ralph (2008).
In the early 19th century, French invaded Spain which triggered insurmountable chaos that finally resulted in independence movements that tore most of the empire apart leaving it unstable politically. Yet again, the country suffered during the 20th century, a devastating civil war which led to several years of economic and political stagnation mainly as a result of dictatorial leadership.
Spain and the United States have in many instances acted in opposition to each other. Some of these instances include the Spanish-American war of 1898, Spanish American Wars of Independence, World War One, World War Two, and during the indigenous struggles for self-rule of the Philippine Islands, Guam, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. Spain which was initially ruled by powerful Monarchs enjoyed great wealth as the empire initially grew during the era of discovery exploration and colonization.
American Hispanics believe their history can be traced to Cuba, Spain, Mexico, Puerto Rico and other Latin American countries where Spanish speaking people exist. In fact, their ancestors have believed toe be among the early settlers and explorers of the new world. It is widely believed that those people of Latino or Hispanic heritage have inhabited the territory that forms the current United States since the 1560s. The history of this group of people can be traced to prehistoric times and their culture and current traditions have been widely influenced by the interaction between the major religions. Christianity, Judaism and Islam, and past world events.

How to Tame a Wild Tongue by Gloria Anzaldua

How to Tame a Wild Tongue by Gloria Anzaldua
“How to Tame a Wild Tongue” is an essay by Gloria Anzaldua. She lays down the first half of the starting passage in a dentist’s workplace. Her selection of the setting intensifies the passage’s metaphorical force. Her work demonstrates that the process of writing itself helps individuals in coming to understand and articulte their sophistications of identity. Readers view Anzaldua’s narrator investigate the crossroads and details of manifold elements of her identiy. The dentist’s workplace is a place where people generally feel uncomfortable and tense because of the pain many people bear there. Similarly, Anzaldua felt uncomfortable and apprehensive in America because of the emitional pain from cultural denial. She starts her essay quite authoritaively. “We are going to have to control your tongue” (2947). The reality that the dentist does not provide her any pleasurable greeting, such as “hi, how are you doing”, speeds up the pace and exigency of the passage. Instead of saying, “I am going to have to control your tongue” to denote the dentist’s actions, the text instead affirms, “We are going to have to control your tongue” (2947). The choice to use plural first person, as oppossed of a singular first approach, divulges Anzaldua’s belief that the dentist was the only one trying to control her tongue. For the dentist, the narrator’s tongue is too rowdy and rebellious. It keeps getting in the way and the dentist affirms, “something must be done about it” (Anzaldua 2947). This introductory metaphor sets the stage for the scrutiny and opinion Anzaldua creates considering the significance of language, linguistic identity, and cultural identity. Starting with individual account and moving to an interrogative reference, Anzaldua constructs a crossbreed structure, which resonates with her examination of linguistic identity. In addition to creating a crossbreed text between different forms of written expression, Anzaldua’s work adds a level of crossbreed sophistication by concurrently shifting between manifold langauges in order to construct a strong, polemical declaration.
Next, the move to the poetic language and structure broadens the narrator’s ability to move between jerky discussions and forms of writing. Nevertheless, things are not rather so simple, as the narrator highlights in the two sentence-closing paragraph of the segment. “Even our own people, other Spanish speakes nos quieren poner candodas en la boca. They would hold us back with their bag of reglas de acedemia” Anzaldua (2948). Yet as the narrator attempts to construct a descriptive and evocative point of view asserting how silence might be surmounted. the text appears dissatisfied with resolving too effortlessly or sacrificing the sophistication of the quantum sorrounding languge use to one-dimensionalism or excessively positive, lines of thinking. Here, Anzaldua sets apart writing as both waiting and creating to develop the mode that we think about writing. Certainly, her passage works to explain one conception of writing followed immediately by its opposite. Another important lesson we learn is that writing is not just a means of doing or of communicating. however, it is mode of fluctuating between means of comprehending, creating meaning, and translating. This procedure of struggle thereby sophisticates the hold one way of writing, or its alternative.. On the other hand, Anzaldua in her text distinguishes between her cultural context of Western customs that are inclined towards separating art from application, structure from content, and male from female. In spite of the fact that texts explore and shape the links between reader and writer, the reader and the writer are not seperated with the text moving in just one direction
Work Cited
Anzaldua, Gloria. How to Tame A World Tongue, 1987. Web. 26 April. 2013. &lt. http://wolfweb.unr.edu/homepage/calabj/282/how%20to%20tame%20wild%20tongue.pdf&gt..


Chicago Police Department Suspect Descriptors During a manhunt for a suspect, it is important for the police to have a description of the suspect so as to know what to look for. This means that the police need an accurate description of all identifying features of the suspect. It is this kind of thinking that saw the Chicago Police Department develop a list of the possible descriptors that one needs to fill out while identifying a suspect.
Knowing where one is the time of the crime is of utmost importance. However, noticing things about the location involves more than just where you are. You need to note the direction in which the suspect fled, the mode of transportation he used, the make, color, and model of the vehicle he used as well as the license plates and an any other thing that may describe the vehicle like its condition (Portal.chicagopolice.org, 2014). It is important to observe if the suspect is armed and if so what type as well as the accomplices involved in the crime.
General description
This involves an outline of the suspect’s characteristics. First, note the sex of the suspect and the race or nationality if it is possible to identify. A complexion description is also necessary. The body size should come next. This consists of the suspect’s height and build. An estimate of the weight may also be included. The suspect’s age range should also be identified. Another important feature is the hair. This involves color, style, texture and length (Portal.chicagopolice.org, 2014). Also note the nature of the eyes in terms of color, shape, eyebrows and eyelashes. Physical peculiarities like limps, high pitched voice and accents need to be remembered.
Start with the general appearance of the suspect, whether, neat, sloppy, well-groomed or dirty. Then give a description of the pieces of clothing that he or she is wearing. This incorporates the color, length, accessories, design, patterns and style of everything that the suspect is wearing, from the hat, shirt, coat and trousers to the socks, shoes and jewelry (Portal.chicagopolice.org, 2014). If there are any oddities it is important to mention them.
Facial information
This covers everything on the face. It consists of.
Hair color, style, texture, hairline
Forehead height and skin texture
Nose shape both overall and for the nostrils
Eyes color, shape, eyebrow and eyelash heaviness as well as nature
Ear size and prominence
Cheek location whether high or low, wrinkles prominence, are they filled out or flesh sunken?
Chin shape and nature
Mouth description of the lips. thin, full level, turned up or down
Facial hair present- goatee, sideburns, clean shaven, unshaven, or mustache
Example suspect description
The mugging occurred at the union street train station at six o’clock in the evening. There was only one attacker armed with a knife. The suspect was a Hispanic male in his mid twenties, about six feet tall and weighed around 200 pounds. He had black hair that was straight and short with a receding hairline. He had large brown, bloodshot eyes with heavy eyebrows. His cheeks were deep set with a double chin that was covered by a two day beard. He spoke in a deep voice with a Spanish accent. He wore a black sweat shirt with large prints on the back, a pair of black sweat pants and red sneakers.
Portal.chicagopolice.org,. (2014). How to Describe a Suspect. Retrieved 25 September 2014, from https://portal.chicagopolice.org/portal/page/portal/ClearPath/Get%20Involved/Hotlines%20and%20CPD%20Contacts/How%20to%20Describe%20a%20Suspect

Biological Terrorism

Many laws are formulated internationally to curb the use of biological pathogens and toxic compounds as a biological weapon. But, such laws are not a hindrance to the terrorist as they employ calculated and well-refined methods that escape the eyes of authorities.

The use of biological agents in terrorism can find the place even in the old Roman civilization where human excretory substances were used against enemies. Dating back to the 184 BC in a battle fought on the ocean surface, a group of Hannibal planted mud vessels contained vipers at the base storage area of the enemy ship. “American Indians were given blankets that the British had contaminated with smallpox.” (Mergenhagen). In 1495 Spanish military officials mixed the blood of leprosy infected people with wine and served it to French people. In 1650 polish weaponry used spheres that contained saliva of dogs infected by the rabies virus. A well-documented case of bioterrorism of the 14th century is the use of Gram-negative bacteria Yersinia pestis that caused a well known Bubonic plague. It was used to generate fear and panic among the enemies and to remove people from their occupying areas.

The primary bioterrorism attack on America was master planned by a group of members of a religious organization. “The 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack was the food poisoning of the population in The Dalles, Oregon, United states through deliberate contamination of salad bars at ten local restaurants with salmonella enterica typhimurium. A leading group of followers of Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (now known as Osho) had hoped to incapacitate the voting population of the city so that their own candidates would win the 1984 Wasco county elections.” (1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack). The incident leads to about 750 people acquiring the disease caused by the bacterium, in which forty-five people required immediate medical attention due to worse health conditions. The incident did not&nbsp.report any death due to biological poisoning.&nbsp.

Y Tu Mama Tambien

While one, at first glance would dismiss this as similar to the overproduced run of the mill cinema that Hollywood repeats (Road Trip, Boat Trip, Euro Trip, Harold and Kumar, American Pie) that combines sex-obsessed teenagers going on random road journeys to fulfill hedonistic sexual pleasures helped along by excessive alcohol drinking, “Y Tu Mamá También” comes as ‘just ripped out of the soil’ fresh that sets the bar for this genre.Coming of age tales are made solely for pandering to pre-pubescent boys, teenagers and men who do not wish to challenge their mental faculties, contain gratuitous amounts of sex and crude humor and in this regard, Y Tu Mamá También is no exception. Demi-pornographic to the point that it contains some of the most sexually explicit scenes to be ever seen in a mainstream release including a double masturbation scene by the swimming pool and a fellatio scene performed by Luisa (played by Spanish veteran Marisa Verdu) on both lead duo Tenoch (Diego Lana) and Julio(Gael ‘Che Guerra’ Garcia Bernal ) simultaneously.

It thus follows that the mature woman is a sexist fantasy straight out of Penthouse and that the crude and monotonous dialogue seems expressly designed to cater to teenage audiences. This is where Alfonso Cuaron’s direction and Emmanuel Lubezki’s cinematography make the film transcend its genre roots and create an exhilarating adventure in narrative, eroticism and social commentary. In particular, I wish to show how the film cinematography reveals a main underlying theme: which is not the general consensus about the coming of age and the realization of adulthood but a social and political commentary about Mexico.Tenoch belongs to the upper class. is the son of the Secretary of State, Harvard Economist father and a bored and wealthy Mother who is occupied with spirituality. Julio belongs to the working lower middle class.&nbsp.The division by social class is mirrored by the ethnic divisions in the country. The largest ethnic group in Mexico (around 60%) is classified as mestizo or ‘mixed’.&nbsp.

Cross Culture Management at IKEA

The organisational culture followed at IKEA in Sweden was very different from the Spanish culture which was experienced to be more hierarchical, more rule-bound, and more aware of status than the Swedish culture. While the company appears to be very aware of the culture and even uses differences in cultures to its advantages as reflected by its advertising campaign for the British, it found itself in a bind when it tried to export its organisational culture to branch offices of the company in different countries.
As per the case study, The culture at IKEA is essentially Swedish in nature where decisions are made with the consensus of others, mistakes are a part of the learning process and creative approaches to problem-solving are rewarded. Red tape is frowned upon and status barriers are discouraged while managers like to work closely with co-workers. It is essentially a culture of equality when business cards do not carry titles and employees are supposed to work their way up the company without any formalized training. In fact, any education given to the employees is through discussion and explanations which explains the philosophy of IKEA. The company seeks employees with open minds, positive communication skills, a good work attitude more than it seeks employees who have degrees in sales and marketing.
This particular organisational culture came into direct conflict with the national culture of Germany where hierarchical systems are important and personal initiative is discouraged. Even something as simple as using the managers’ first name created issues and risk assessment procedures showed that the German employees functioned differently when it came to making choices from a set of given options. Similarly, informality in France was seen as a sign of weakness and indecision which was taken to mean that the employees could do whatever they wanted to.

The History of British Columbia

After the infestation and the effects of smallpox, the Island was not as busy at the beginning of the 19th century. However, there were still activities that shaped the present-day British Columbia. Before the turn of the century, many Europeans settled in the Island. The Spanish considered the Island to be under its territory because of its explorations in the region in the 16th century. When the Spanish heard of the arrival of the British into the Island, they took their ships creating the Nootka crisis. a crisis that almost led to war between Spain and Britain. After the crisis, the Spanish left Nootka Sound settlement. The influence of the Spanish in the Island came to an end in 1795 after the Nootka Convention. After the Spanish, left British Columbia European explorer merchants begun to get interested in the Island. Most of these merchants were British explorers and traders. Some of the notable people during this period were Simon Fraser, David Thompson and Sir Alexander Mackenzie (Recksten, 280). The three Britons were employees of Northwest Company and were looking for a river route to the Pacific. If found, this route was supposed to help their company expand its fur trade. The first to arrive was Mackenzie followed by Fraser. they were both unable to find routes that were fit for a trade. It was David Thomson who finally found a route to the Pacific that would be appropriate for trade.
During this period, explorers used to lay claim to trade routes that they had discovered. Despite having worked hard to find the route.

Analysis of Slavery and the Genesis of American Race Prejudice Article

Degler states that, “… the status of the Negro in the English colonies was worked out in a framework of discrimination. that from the outset, as far as the available evidence tells us, the negro was treated inferior to the white man’s servant of the free man” (Degler 52). Degler in this statement puts a halt to the discussion on what came first between slavery and discrimination and asserts that slavery evolved from the continued discrimination of the Negro by the white man, partly because there were no structures to protect Negros in America. Consequently, slavery evolved as a legal status and an epitome to discrimination. Degler seeks to differentiate the difference in the treatment of Negros in the Spanish and Portuguese Iberian region to that of the British. He explains that the major differences were that while the former had already fixed legal status to deal with the Negro even before they ventured into America, the same structures lacked in British territories. Secondly, Degler explains that “the discrimination against the negro antedated the legal status of slavery” (Degler 52). These were the main facts that differentiated British treatment of the Negros from the Spanish and the Portuguese.
Degler in his argument makes a clear statement that slavery in the North American region left a considerably different mark on the status of Negros compared to the South American region, which according to Degler explains the current cases of racism in America. Degler asserts that as Handlin asserted, before the seventeenth century, the term slavery was not in use. However, Degler is fast to clarify that the fact that the discriminatory name did not exist does not indicate there was similar treatment between the Negro and the freeman.&nbsp.

Egalite for all toussaint louverture and the haitian revolution summary

Topic: A documentary based on the Haitian revolution and the general who led the Haitian to a world free of slavery and led them against the cruel rulers describes beautifully how Toussaint Louverture raised the slogan of Egalite for all. Toussaint, more famously known as the George Washington of the black people was great leader, a man who fought against the for the rights of his people, was a threat to the white community but they all admired him for his loyalty to his people as well as his genius.
The documentary describes the last decade of the eighteenth century when the Haitian revolution started and calls it the most successful rebellion ever in the history of mankind. The movie describes the role of different leaders and men who fought in the period of 13 years to gain independence and among them the great Toussaint Louverture who led from the front this revolt and brought independence to his country and people.
The portrayal of the struggles of the Africans under the rule of French and Spanish as well as the Americans cannot get any better than this. Also, the facts from history are portrayed and described with precision in the movie which shows the hardwork of the movie makers and their struggle to collect specific information and data about the Haitian revolution. Saint Domingue was the French colony this revolt started from and spread across the many colonies. It was not until 1804 that the Haitians gained independence and changed the course of history. All these facts and stories are explained very precisely and beautifully in the movie. It is a documentary for history lovers. Those who have a slightest of interest in history or need to study Haitian revolution, this is a must watch since it takes us back to the time when all of this was happening and one feels like a part of it.

Interview about Developing Entrepreneurship

This interviewer will pose the questions asked and their responses in a narrative style. The interviewer will also give outsourcing information to give this interview a roundabout perspective.

Who is the manager? What is her position and what is the name of the company? She is the Sales and Project Manager at Tecnología Intercontinental, S.A. de C.V. (TICSA).

S/He (you) and the interviewee used microphones and speakers to talk and listen. The interviewee was contacted through a mutual friend and Engineer Spindola agreed to acquiesce to this entrepreneurship interview report. The mutual friend was present to introduce them and translate information using a two-way mode of communication, English/Spanish-Spanish/English, whenever it was needed. The mutual friend was also able to listen to Engineer Spindola´s conversation since the speakers were on and the engineer has a loud voice (as she identified herself).

What is the history of TICSA? TICSA started fifteen years ago. How did they start the business? It started by selling water pumps. Did they have a business plan? Since Engineer Spindola has only been at TICSA for a little over two years she does not know if the company started with a business plan. The original owner is still head of the company and he is from the United States of America.

When was TICSA founded? TICSA was founded in the late ’80s in Mexico City. What is the focus of TICSA? TICSA specializes in the design, construction, and start-up of wastewater treatment plants and process water treatment plants. How many people work for TICSA? TICSA is staffed with approximately 80 people, primarily engineers from six different nationalities. At the time Engineer Spindola remembered only four. What is their specialty? They are, generally speaking, based in four groups: Engineering, Construction, Sales and Technology, and Administration. What is the organizational structure?&nbsp.&nbsp.

Job Package Assignment

Bakery products, sandwiches, ice cream, yogurt and fruit, bistro boxes and breakfasts are also featured in selected branches. It has around 172,000 worldwide and (Mirror.co.uk, 2010)
A proud graduate of (degree) with enthusiasm and a drive to succeed. This optimism is complemented with diligence, patience, attention to detail and excellent interpersonal skills that can be an asset to any company. Skills include proficiency in common office equipment and computer software such as Microsoft Word, Excel, Access, Powerpoint and Outlook.
I recently learned about the position for Administrative Assistant, Global Quality &amp. Assurance and would like to be considered for this position. As your company requires an experience in office administration, I believe I am a strong candidate for the position.
I am aware that Starbucks conducts business both locally and overseas. Also, I know that the company prides itself in providing exceptional customer service to make the each visit satisfying. I feel that the administrative and customer relations skills I have acquired from my work experiences will allow me to become an asset for your company.
As you can see from my resume, I am adept in, among others, working independently, communicating in both oral and written form, delivering excellent customer service, working with a team and handing confidential information.
Google was formally started by Larry Page and Sergey Brin in September 1998 at a garage in Menlo Park, California. It was the “search engine of choice” in the Top 100 Web Sites for 1998. (Our, n.d.) In May 2000, Google was released in French, German, Italian, Swedish, Finnish, Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, Norwegian and Danish. In March 2004, Google moves into its home, “Googleplex”, with its 800+ employees. From being a search engine, Google has since provided an image search, a blog search, document storage, mobile access, online translator, alerts and more. It has

The Grand Inquisitor Rejects Jesus

The grand inquisitor is a poem by Ivan which he recites after the rebellion. It is a story of Jesus returning to earth during the Spanish inquisition. He as referred to him by Ivan performs miracles just like in the gospel and the people recognize him and adore him. He is later arrested by the inquisition leaders and sentenced to be burnt to death the following day. The Grand inquisitor then visits him and tells him that his return will interfere with the mission of the church and that the church no longer needs him (Fyodor 25).
The Grand inquisitor rejects Jesus based on the three temptations that Satan used to tempt Christ during the temptation of Christ. The temptations were turning stones into bread, casting himself from the temple and the angels of God would come and save him before getting to the ground and being given the authority and power to rule all the kingdoms of the earth (Fyodor 29). The inquisitor says that Jesus rejected all this in favor of freedom. He believes that the majority of humans cannot handle this freedom given to them and that giving human’s freedom to choose prevents them from redemption, hence living them to suffer.

Critical Response (SPANISH)

Argentina y Brasil en la Exposición Universal de París de 1889. Al cumplirse el primer centenario de la Revolución Francesa y el triunfo del gobiernorepublicano en Francia, se celebró la Exposición Universal de París de 1889 como una forma de promover los avances tecnológicos y científicos de las naciones participantes, así como sus avances de orden político, social y cultural. En este contexto, Argentina y Brasil prepararon sus pabellones de modo estratégico para mostrar al mundo una imagen representativa que atrajera la atención de trabajadores inmigrantes e inversionistas europeos. Al mismo tiempo intentaban presentar sus respectivos países como sinónimo de progreso a pesar de ser países latinoamericanos con escasas credenciales. Argentina gozaba de un gobierno republicano y Brasil ese mismo año cambiaría su gobierno monárquico en un gobierno republicano. Estos factores contribuyeron a que ambas naciones se mostraran entusiastas con presentar sus mejores imágenes ante el mundo en la Exposición Universal de París.
Fernández Bravo concluye su artículo sobre la participación de Argentina y Brasil en este evento internacional enfatizando que desde un punto de vista estos países fracasaron en mostrar una imagen favorable y desde otro punto de vista tuvieron éxito en otros aspectos. El autor citado resume su ensayo del siguiente modo:
Tanto en el pabellón brasilero como en el argentino, las mercancías funcionaron como actores de un espectáculo en el que se intentaron reflejar nuevas imágenes de la nación. En ninguno de los dos casos estos retratos parecen haber sido exitosos frente a la percepción europea, que siguió considerándolos países exóticos y todavía alejados de los estándares del progreso universal. Sin embargo, en su imagen doméstica las iconografías montadas en la Exposición Universal de 1889 parecen haber construido representaciones perdurables en la memoria colectiva: las de países ricos en materias primas y marcados por ellas, como una cifra de la naturaleza americana nacionalizada, finalmente sometida por los dispositivos estatales que la transformaron en objeto de consumo y también en un espectáculo. Un espectáculo poblado de mercancías pero todavía vacío del sujeto colectivo que los pabellones parecían querer imaginar: aquél que ayudaría a construir la inmigración europea, en la que veían un remedio para los problemas que aquejaban a sus naciones.
Por un lado, los pabellones de Argentina y Brasil presentaron principalmente productos agrícolas como sus principales bondades que les daban identidad como pueblos productores, pero aún así estas representaciones no fueron complementadas por otros símbolos de progreso como en el caso de los Estados Unidos, que presenté el gramófono inventado por Edison como un signo de innovación tecnológica. En el caso de Argentina, en su pabellón evitó hacer alusión a su pasado aborigen y colonial. En cuanto a Brasil, incluyó como muestra nacional su pasado aborigen, pero no hizo mucho énfasis en sus antecedentes coloniales. Ambos países se negaron a participar en la exposición como países representantes de una región limitada y siempre tuvieron la intención de mostrarse al mundo como naciones avanzadas con mucho potencial para el progreso. De este modo, ambas naciones buscaban ser atrayentes a inversionistas europeos que trajeran sus capitales a sus respectivos países para continuar el proceso progresista que ya se había iniciado en Argentina con el establecimiento de la república y en Brasil con sus grandes riquezas naturales y la abolición de la esclavitud el año anterior (1888).
De este modo, ambos países tuvieron un éxito relativo, moderado, en la Exposición Universal de París. De todas formas pudieron atraer capitales y mano de obra de Europa para consolidar sus economías a través del tiempo. Desde este punto de vista podemos concluir que el éxito moderado de estos países en la Exposición Universal se debió al modo en que escogieron representar sus respectivas naciones, especialmente como países productores de materia prima y como países en vías de un desarrollo político evidente a pesar de tener poco tiempo de historia como conglomerados étnicos bien definidos en cuanto a su identidad nacional.
Fuente Citada.
Fernández Bravo, Álvaro. (Sin fecha). Argentina y Brasil en la Exposición Universal de París de 1889. Universidad de San Andrés, Argentina. 20 de febrero, 2010. .

How did the relationship between individual and state change over the course of the twentieth century

History The Relationship between Individual and over the of the Twentieth Century The rift between the individual and the state before 1787 was well depicted in France. The feudal system had been present in Europe since the 8th century and was characterized by vassals being protected by Lords whom they had to serve in war. Due to various factors, the peasants lost faith in the feudal system and stopped supporting it. These factors included increase in taxes, a growing middle class that was excluded from political power and the wide acceptance of philosophies by reformists. After 1789, there were bids to improve the relationship between the leadership and the subjects such as the proclamation of liberty, equality and fraternity of the citizens. This was a philosophy held by John Locke in the 17th century. In the traditional governments, only the high class citizens were allowed into politics and this did not include women. The Montagnards took up leadership and implemented revolutionary economic and social policies that resulted in revolts and violent reactions from the citizens. In the 19th century, most nations across Europe, North America and Spanish America adopted liberalism which opposed traditional conservatism and promoted representative democracy and the rule of law in government.
Over the 19th and 20th centuries, there was a characteristic change in the ideologies of citizens that influenced their relationship with state. The French revolution was characterized by various liberal movements including the women’s march on Versailles which forced the royal court back in Paris. Before World War I, the European political scene was dominated by liberalism but this was slowly replaced by socialism in the early 20th century. The Soviet Union communism was based on Marxism–Leninism ideology which held that the policies of understanding social life were the prevalent truths since the party was enlightened. It denied the possibility of multiple truths.
Nazism was a form of socialism in the 20th century that was featured by theories of racial hierarchy, expansion of power and subjection to a single strong leader. The Nazis under Adolf Hitler aimed at eradicating social divisions to promote a strong homogenous society by expanding its territories at the expense of its neighbors. Like the most previous ideologies, Nazism excluded women from political involvement and classified them as children. It was against interracial interactions and trained young girls to avoid race defilement. In the book Under a Cruel Star by Kovály, the writer describes her trials as a Jew during the Communism and Nazism regimes. The Jews were persecuted and many lost their lives in the gas chambers like Kovály’s parents. Her friends were scared of helping her for fear of victimization after her communism-supporting husband was arrested and hanged.
Fascism was an economic system in the 1920s and 1930s that was capitalist in which the state dictated all aspects of the economy. A known architect of fascism is Benito Mussolini. No economic activity could be started without the consent of the government and excess earning were confiscated as taxes. Bolshevism was a movement mainly in Russia that was against capitalism and supported some forms of socialism and communism. It advocated for a united Europe.
After World War II, the social international, an organization that advocated for social democracy and democratic socialism denounced both capitalism and Bolshevik communism. Further advancement in ideologies improved the relationship between the people and the government. Women representation in government was featured and Locke’s ideology of liberty, equality and fraternity of all citizens regardless of age, sex and race was adopted all over the world.
Broué P., Birchall I., Weitz E. D., Archer J., The German Revolution, 1917-1923, Haymarket Books, 2006.
Michael Newman. Socialism: A Very Short Introduction. Cornwall, England, UK: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Woshinsky O. H., Explaining Politics: Culture, Institutions, and Political Behavior. Oxon, England, UK. New York, NY, USA: Routledge, 2008.

Spanish Conquest over Aztecs

SPANISH CONQUEST OVER THE AZTECS Spanish Conquest over Aztecs Aztec was an impressive .empire that operated inTenochtitlan, Mexico. The city of Tenochtitlan exhibited splendid resources like lakes, beautiful cities and good canals that were used for trade. Due to its superb features, Spanish rule in Cuba deployed spies under the leadership of Herna Cortes to investigate Mexico’s ways of life and capture Christian slaves who would work in the European farms (Aron 2005, 160).

Upon arrival in Mexico, Cortes Chief commander and his loyal troops changed their plans of captivating slaves to desire for conquering Mexico (Aron 2005, 160). The conquest war would not be possible without the approval of King Charles V of Spain. For this reason Cortes wrote to the King claiming that Aztecs were hypocrites and that the ruling authority of the empire was brutal to its people. Upon obtaining the king’s approval, Cortes identified and liaised with the native friends who were foes of the Aztecs.

Cortes and his troops gained support of Cempoalans and the Tlaxcalans who were natives of Mexico (Boyer 2010, 279). On arriving in Tenochtitlan city, the existing populace thought that the White Cortes was their Quetzalcoatlin god whom they waited to return (Palfrey 2008). As a result of the illusion, Montezuma, emperor of the Aztec welcomed Cortes and provided him with everything to satisfy his troops. It is due to the perceived trust that Cortes strategized his plans to concede the objectives of conquest.

Cortes first captured and imprisoned Montezuma thereby driving the Aztecs into fear thus admitting their submission to the Spaniards. The Spaniards also conducted massive massacre in a religious function that continued to freeze the Aztecs (Hassig 2006, 9). In 1521, Cortes and his troops gathered with Tlaxcalans and planned to deny the Aztecs food and water thereby resulting to starvation that led to death of many people (Aron 2005, 162). Cortes and his troops also took advantage of the outbreak of diseases like smallpox that weakened inhabitants of Tochtitlan thus easing seizure of the entire Aztec Empire.


Aron, P., 2005, Mysteries in history: from prehistory to the present, Santa Barbara, CA. ABC-CLIO Publishing.

Boyer, J., 2010, The Plaid Avengers World, 4th Ed, Kendall Hunt Publishing.

Hassig, R., 2006, Mexico and the Spanish conquest, 2nd Ed, Norman. University of Oklahoma Press

Palfrey, D., 2008, The Spanish Conquest (1519-1521), Retrieved October 16, 2011 from http://www.mexconnect.com/articles/1538-the-spanish-conquest-1519-

Architecture of Al Andalus

Al-Andalus architecture The influence of culture on the architectural design of cities and buildings around the world is evident in the relationship that exists between culture, religion and designing. For the case of Al-Andalus, it is evident that Islamic culture has shaped the designing process used in the process of building. A research conducted by Barnet reveals that the set of buildings during the 10th and 11th centuries conform to a group of the Andalusia architecture, which has a strong peculiarity and is closely related to the brick architecture (Barnet 45). Therefore, when addressing Al-Andalus architecture, it is vital to evaluate the various aspects and factors that shape the development of the buildings. The exposure to these buildings helped eliminate the previous prejudices, and valuing the art in respect to Islamic architecture, which is prevalent in Islamic countries and cities. The existence of an autonomous territory during the caliphate period called Ath-Thagr al-ala led to the use of the terms Thagr or Zagri to define the Islamic architecture in Aragon (Anderson and Rosser-Owen 73). The cultural manifestation of religion, nation and ethnic movement is expressed intensely in the city especially a strong sense of orientalism.
One of the major contributors to the change in the architecture is mobility of the Islamic culture. The mobility led to the realization of orientation and freedom. The developed of attraction led to the increase in travelers which brought about change as a result of new intellectual artist arriving in the city. The combination of the Islamic and the Spanish Islamic culture in Al-Andalusia is an indication of the existence of movement between the towns and the integration of the various forms of architecture in designing of houses in the area (Eaves 165). However, the Spanish Islamic architecture has not been clearly studied leading to serious challenges in the evaluation of the changes in the new designs. The presence of the Caliphal art with formal characteristics of the mosque-Aljama of Cordova indicates the existence of integration between different forms of culture and architecture (Eaves 167). During the 10th and 11th century, systemic use of masonry and elegant use of Caliphal fabric was common because many inhabitants used horse shoe arch or the lobeled arc in the design process.
However, the incorporation of the Granada kingdom into the Castile kingdom under the supervision of King Aragon Ferdinand led to the protection of all the Moslem building in Granada (Barnet 78). The approach led to the conservation of the buildings, and the result of integration is differences in design. The Nazari or Nasri Islamic art is remarkably different from the Caliphal art especially when analyzing the Granada art. Likewise, the Aragonesse Islamic architecture is defined by the unique, admired and preserved monument known as La Aljaferia (Eaves 100). This form of art lacks masonry, without the horseshoe arch, but they are substituted by rubble work, brick or Tapial. The monument depicts excessive orientalism especially in Moslem art analysis. Therefore, the architecture of the town was affected by the freedom of movement and alignment to Islamic religion. The architecture is marked by several features including the horseshoe arc.
Works Cited
Anderson, Glaire D. and Mariam Rosser-Owen, Revisiting Al-Andalus: Perspectives on the Material Culture of Islamic Iberia and Beyond. New york: BRILL, 2007. Print.
Barnet, Slyvan. A short Guide to writing about Art. Michigan: Pearson, 2008.
Eaves, Morris. The Counter-Arts Conspiracy: Art and Industry in the Age of Blake. Michigan: Cornell University Press, 1992.

The FrancoPrussian War

The other cause was that the French emperor Napoleon III wanted to regain French influence and prestige both France and internationally that have been lost during various diplomatic issues especially those experienced in the hands of Prussia during the Austro-Prussian war of 1866. Prussia had strong military as seen in the war with Austria, which constituted a big threat to French influence and dominance in Europe.
The initiating event that led to the war was the candidacy of Leopold who came from Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, to rule Spain after the Spanish revolution of 1868. Bismarck had persuaded Leopold to accept the candidacy. The French government was frightened and threatened by a possible alliance between Prussia and Spain. In addition, the French government threatened Prussia with war if Leopold did not withdraw his candidacy. The French ambassador in Prussia was sent to inform that the Prussian government had ordered Leopold to withdraw his candidacy but unfortunately Leopold could not be reached (Howard 49). The French government was not satisfied with the Prussian reaction and threatened to humiliate them even if it meant using war. The French government demanded an apology from Prussia and that wanted it to consent that Hohenzollern candidacy would not be renewed.
However, the King of Prussia did not accept the demand. Bismarck wrote and published a document in a way calculated to anger and aggravate the resentment of the Germans and French. Bismarck knew that this move would lead to war since he was aware that Prussia was well prepared for war. In addition, he relied on the psychological result of the French declaration of war to organize South German states to Prussia’s grounds, therefore attaining his final stage of unifying Germany.
The French declared war on Prussia in July 1870 and that the south German states in compliance and fulfillment of treaties with Prussia, joined Prussia to fight against France. During the war, the Germans mobilized more troops than the French which meant that France would eventually lose the war to German (Howard 53). The French lost the war to the Germans and signed the treaty of Frankfurt which provided that the French province of Lorraine and Alsace be given to German. More so, France was to pay war indemnity amounting to five billion gold francs. France was first freed in 1873 when all these obligations and debts were fully settled.

American Trade and Imperialism

ing this period, America started to influence the cultural, military, social, political, and economic nature of other nations that enabled America to expand its power and influence to foreign territories. Various factors led to the emergence and adoption of the American imperialism policy. These factors include the Spanish-American war where America sought the independence of Cuba by compelling Spain to withdraw from Cuba. The American need to annex Hawaii due to its immense natural resources and arable lands also fostered American imperialism. The American push for an Open Door trading policy in China that allowed America to have equal trading rights in China and the American quest to participate in international trade also led to American trade and imperialism. American imperialism led to various effects on America, its colonies, and other European nations. Such effects have been consistent and significant throughout the centuries. This paper addresses the political, economic, military, cultural, and social influence of American trade and imperialism on America and other foreign nations.
Since the early 1990s, the American economic interest had been superseding the American belief in democracy. Before the early 1990s, America had been opposing imperialism for many years. In simple terms, American imperialism relates to the political, economic, social, or cultural influence of the U.S on other foreign nations (Hobson 1). The influence emanating from this policy enabled America to participate in international trade and expand its power into powerless nations like Cuba. It is worth noting that the American need to become a dominant force in international trade and global affairs prompted America to disregard its democratic capitalism system of governance and focus on its economic interests (Hawkins 1). It is clear that the American imperialism began between 1870 and 1916 subject to distinct factors that equally led to the successful adoption of this policy. For

Editing a babysitting biography I wrote


Biography: I am Annalia Fortuna. My age is 24 years. Since childhood, I have had a special liking for the children. Being the elder sister, I have always taken good care of my younger siblings and have been a great helping hand for my mother. I have acquired the degree of Associate in Child Development (CDA). I am certified in CPR amp. FIRST AID. In the capacity of a certified CDA, I have worked as a Child Care Provider Assistant in a family day care center, where I babysat children for almost 7 years. I am currently doing my Associate Degree in Psychology, and will graduate in the winter of 2011. I am quite fluent in English and Spanish. I am an energetic, fun-loving, punctual, reliable and friendly lady who loves and enjoys working with kids and families. I have taken care of infants, toddlers and pre schoolers. I also have many available references. I used to charge $12-14 an hour depending upon the location in which the service was to be given. The test I have given as a babysitter comprises such activities as preparing, serving meals to the children in an appetizing way and feeding them, bathing and dressing some children while assisting the untrained children in taking bath and dressing up, changing the children’s diapers, planning activities for them and designing curriculums in accordance with the individualistic needs of different age groups. I am a born babysitter. It is not something I have adopted as a profession. It was meant to be like that since my nature has fundamentally been structured that way. I love my profession and am positive that I can take excellent care of children.


Verbo by Pablo Neruda Word Count: 500 (2 pages) I. Introduction 
 The poem that is analyzed is en d Verbo Word by Pablo Neruda. The theme and the subject of the poem is the use of language and words to convey meaning. Here, Verbo will be thoroughly critiqued with regard to the following elements: what type of poem it is. the paraphrases of stanzas. traits and examples or explanations. theme. evaluation. and personal reactions or comments.
II. Poem Type 

Verbo is, in every sense of the word, very much a lyric poem. It has certain qualities about it that reassure the reader what type of poem it is. For example, the way the stanzas are arranged in proper order—and the way that the words are so eloquently placed—all point to the fact that this was a lyrical poem by Pablo Neruda that was meant to be read aloud, simply by virtue of the fact that it flows off the tongue while it’s being read.
III. Paraphrases of Stanzas 

There are a relatively large amounts of stanzas in this poem, but they are all somewhat uniform in the sense that there seem to be a similar amount of words utilized in each standard. Of course, it is not perfectly measured, but one could tell that Neruda did this with some intention.
IV. Traits and Examples/Explanations
There is a lot of alliteration in this poem (in Spanish), and it seems that is where most of this poem’s charm comes from. The usage of metaphors is interesting, vivid, and alive. Rhythm and rhyme are also key to this poem, as most of the words on the end of each line rhyme to some extent—while the overall rhythm of the poem keeps one engaged and reading. The sounds are thrilling.
V. Theme
It is proposed that the theme of this poem has to do with the way language is used and how that can affect a person. This poem is a classic because it not only has an impressive usage of imagery, but the words in Spanish are so powerful and masterfully utilized that—even if one could not understand the Spanish language—the language itself would be provocative enough. 

VI. Evaluation 

This poem is exceptionally well thought-out and planned. Even if Neruda had written this from scratch, it still would have turned out to be a very effective poem. The element that is the strongest—at least, in the opinion of this writer—is the fact that Neruda ends the poem with a bang. Neruda talks about breaking virginal stone. Now, what that means exactly is unclear. However, it has somewhat of an esoteric connection and it seems that he was trying to penetrate a completely different level of consciousness using this language.
VII. Personal Reactions
Personally, this poem is somewhat offensive in the sense that the phrase ‘virginal stone’ is a bit of an unvarnished image, to which it is not quite comprehensible what Neruda was trying to do other than get peoples’ attention. However, it is still nonetheless a compelling visual image and something that makes Neruda great in terms of being a writer, because he was able to evoke that image.
VIII. Conclusion
This poem has been analyzed in all of its entirety, including the following elements: what type of poem it is. the paraphrases of stanzas. traits and examples or explanations. theme. evaluation. and personal reactions to the poem itself.

Works Cited
Meyer, Michael. The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature, 9th Ed. US:
Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2012. Pp. 23.

School Bullying in California

Running Head: SCHOOL BULLYING School Bullying (Date)
Even though there is no safe place from bullying there are some areas where bullying is worse. School bullying statistics show that about 77% of students are either bullied mentally or physically (GOV, 2009). It is estimated that 80% of adolescents are bullied during their school years, 90% of fourth to eighth graders as 15% of students bully regularly or are victims of bullying. If asked students uniformly expressed their desire that teachers intervene rather than ignore teasing and bullying (Barrows, 1998).
Current policy
Jigsaw Classroom
This is a cooperative learning technique with a three decade track record of reducing racial conflict and increasing positive education outcomes. In this strategy just like in the jigsaw puzzle, each student’s part is essential. For example, students in a history class are divided in to may be five groups and the task being to learn about World War 2. In one jigsaw group John can be responsible in researching about the rise to power of Adolf Hitler, May assigned to cover concentration Camps, Alex to cover Britain’s role in the war, Mike to research on the contribution of the Soviet Union. Eventually every student comes back to his jigsaw group and will try to present a well-organized report to the group. Thus if a member does not like the other he cannot do well on the test that follows (Barrows, 1998). This therefore encourages listening, engagement and empathy by giving everyone an essential part to play in the academic activity.
Policy Makers
Metro Center offers technical assistance that utilizes consultation methods which builds strong-client consultation relationtionship that result in sustained change and improvement. Thus district and school representatives take an active role in coming to understand and assess their own concerns rather than having to rely solely on the knowledge and skills outside experts.
The NYS Spanish Bilingual Education Technical Assistance center which is funded by the New York State office of Bilingual Education and Foreign Language studies has a goal to enhance the knowledge and competencies of parents, educators and community member implementation (Barrows, 1998).
Policy Options
Teaching specific skills and values: The policy should target areas identified as universally to students. Skill acquisition and publication should be addressed and their roles in academic and social adult role modeling. Holding Parent meetings: Involving parents is essential. Group discussion is necessary as it conveys what the students and parents are learning.
Pros and Cons
Teachers and Parents have been supporting these policies like holding parent meetings. This is because through the meetings both the parents and teachers get to know the causes of school bullying and as such make necessary recommendations. Students on the other hand are against some of the policies that have been put in place by the administration.
Relative Cost
Since the government wants every school to have anti-bullying policy the set standard is high. The relative cost continues to increase as the school needs to hire policy makers and those who implement them. The state government for example has paid a total of $800,000 to students over the last seven years (Sydney Morning Herald, 2011).
Implementation Issues
A research that was conducted by the Canadian government indicated that most of bullying activities go unnoticed by teachers. This pose a major challenge in schools as some of the policies will not be implemented either due to lack of knowledge or goodwill. Teachers should therefore be well informed of all tactics used by bullies in their acts against other students.
Bullying especially in primary school age children is recognized as an antecedent to more violent behavior in later grades. Action is therefore needed to end purposeful harassment, and bullying. The studies done on the issue of bullying in this country and abroad have contributed to a growing knowledge that underscores the seriousness of bullying in schools. Bullying is a form of harassment and anti-social behavior which cross-cuts geographic, racial and even socioeconomic segments of society. Children involved in bullying are at risk of long term, negative developmental outcomes which include both juvenile and adult criminal behavior. Therefore early intervention in homes, schools and community are the best ways of diverting children from this path.
Association of schools psychologists, N. (2009). Bullying Prevention and Intervention. Retrieved April 13, 2011, from http://www.nasponline.org/resources/principals/nassp_bullying.aspx
Barrows, D. (1998). Brave Enough To Be Kind . Retrieved April 14, 2011, from http://lincoln.midcoast.com/~wps/against/bullying.html
GOV. (2009). Bullying Statistics / Cyber Bullying Statistics / School Bullying Statistics. Retrieved April 13, 2011, from http://www.how-to-stop-bullying.com/bullyingstatistics.html
Sydney Morning Herald. (2011). Schhol bullying and injuries. Retrieved April 13, 2011, from http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/school-bullying-and-injuries-cost-state-millions-20100328-r55a.html

Pacific Islands Culture

Pacific Islands Culture Introduction The Pacific Ocean, covering one-thirds of the world’s surface has over 25,000 islands, but the term PacificIslands refers to the 7,500 islands in tropical and sub-tropical areas away from the Pacific Rim. Only a little more than 10% of these islands are populated. Lal amp. Fortune (2000, p.xv) state that the islands have a great diversity of cultures, and are of varying sizes and shapes, with complex histories of geological and natural evolution. The three main culturally differentiated groups of Pacific islands are: Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia. These groups of islands have both differences as well as commonalities based on culture, social structure, and historical experience.
Thesis Statement: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the heritage and cultural differences among various natives of the Pacific Islands.
Populations migrating from other regions such as Africa and Asia began colonizing the islands over 35,000 years ago. Over the millennia, there were numerous encounters of the settlers with the outside world. Of over 6.3 million currently living in the Pacific Islands, the majority of the population of around 84% live in Melanesia, only around 9% live in Polynesia and approximately 7% live in Micronesia (Eccleston et al, 1998).
Melanesia is related to the Greek words melas which means black and nesos (islands). it refers to the physical appearance of the indigenous inhabitants of Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji and Solomon Islands (Eccleston et al, 1998, p.249). Polynesia is related to the Greek word poly (many). It forms a triangular group of islands including Hawaii in the north, Aotearoa/ New Zealand in the south-west to Rapanul/ Easter Island in the south-east. The single culture in this unique triangle is reduced by the intrusion of colonialism. Indigenous Polynesians maintain effective sovereignty to some extent only in the inner islands, excluding the peripheral ones. Micronesia from micros (small) encompass the Northern Marianas in the north, Palau in the west, and Kiribati in the south-east. The smaller islands of Micronesia have societies similar to those in Polynesia. they are ruled by indigenous hereditary aristocracies both before and after contact with colonial powers (Eccleston et al, 1998, p.249). In comparison with Polynesia and Micronesia, in most of Melanesia with some exceptions like Fiji which is on the boundary, the societies are more egalitarian with equality among men. contrastingly however, gender inequalities are greater.
Originating from the Fujian province of southern China, seafaring people who spoke the Austronesian language, settled in the distant parts of Melanesia, all of Polynesia and all of Micronesia. Their influence is still evident in Micronesia, Polynesia, and coastal areas of Melanesia, where in past centuries Austronesians formed a relatively homogenous political economy, society, culture and linguistic community on these previously uninhabited islands (Eccleston et al, 1998, p.249). The languages of the Pacific Islands belong to two distinct families: Austronesian and Papuan. The former are genetically related being of a common origin, while not all of the 750 Papuan languages are genetically related. The Papuan languages belong to 60 different language families each with its common ancestral language (Lal amp. Fortune, 2000, p.64).
The first Christian missionaries to arrive from 1521 were the first to develop written systems for the languages of the Pacific Islands. Nearly 20% of the world’s languages are spoken in the Pacific Islands, with 1000 indigenous languages for a total population of under 10 million. Additionally, English is the predominant language. and both English and French are widely used as national languages and as the medium of education. Local vernaculars are also used as the language of education, especially in Polynesia which is unlike Melanesia in that it has only one vernacular per island state. While Easter Island has Spanish, various pidgin languages are used in the islands. specifically in Melanesia there are numerous vernacular languages. It is also noteworthy that there is extensive multilingualism in local vernacular languages throughout the region (Lal amp. Fortune, 2000, p.63). In the Micronesian states, alongside English are taught Micronesian languages for which practical orthographies were developed.
Among some traits common to all Pacific Islanders were household-based subsistence economies (Oliver, 1989, p.154), and ownership of land by kinsmen. Additionally, some unique multidimensional cultural features common to the islanders was their maritime accomplishments. Particulary Micronesia and Polynesia were highly skilled in building and operating boats, and devised information systems for navigating those boats hundreds of miles at sea. However, none of the populations of the Pacific Islands had successfully invented metallurgy, wheeled transport or written language.
Polynesia consisted of 20 or more societies of people speaking closely-related languages, had common cosmological beliefs and religious practices, and had similar social relationships, due to their relatively recent derivation from a single cultural source (Oliver, 1989, p.26). However, Polynesians had diverse modes of working for their subsistence, from fishing, dependence on one or two tree crops to cultivation of a wide variety of crops. In Micronesia, though several societies had similar cosmologies, social institutions and subsistence technologies, there were cultural differences in the western and southeastern ends. At the same time, in Melanesia, the hundreds of societies had great cultural diversity, but had large homogeneous groups in the huge scale of the group of islands.
This paper has highlighted the heritage and the cultural differences among various populations of the Pacific Islands. It is found that numerous cultural features are similar such as land ownership by kin-groups, skills in boat making and sailing, and social relationships to a great extent. However, the diversity of languages is unique. and there was a wide variety of subsistence technologies. Thus, the evidence indicates that the immense number of islands in Polynesia, Micronesia and Melanesia have great diversity as well as some similarities in their cultural aspects.
Eccleston, B., Dawson, M. amp. McNamara, D.J. (1998). The Asia-Pacific profile. New
York: Routledge.
Lal, B.V. amp. Fortune, K. (2000). The Pacific Islands: An encyclopedia. The United States
of America: University of Hawaii Press.
Oliver, D.L. (1989). Native cultures of the Pacific islands. The United States of America:
University of Hawaii Press.

Pacific Rim and French influence

French Influence in the Pacific Rim To understand the interrelatedness of our modern world, we trace the steps which brought us to our current stage.One example of bringing this understanding is a study of French influence in the Pacific Rim. Here, we trace its origins, review an event where third party international involvement occurred, and describe the resultant situation today.
The beginnings of western imperialism may be traced to the Mediterranean. The center of western civilization began with the Mediterranean world during the time known as the classical age. As the circle of this concept expanded, we date this connection to Asia with the voyages of Vasco De Gama in the 1500s. For a time there were different empires: Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, French, British, and the short-lived German and Italian empires in Africa and other regions. As such of the Southeast Asian Pacific Rim fell under the socio-political, economic influence of the French colonial power. In recent years, popular upheaval has sought to shake the chains of oppression.
One such example is that of Vietnam. From the colonial period, France colonized Vietnam. After World War II, the Vietnamese began resisting the French rule with help of Communism. As France was losing its grip on the nation, the United States stepped in to try and halt the tide of communist advance in the region. This failing on the part of the French and subsequent American involvement culminated in the Vietnam War of the 1960s. During the 1900s, many of the traditional colonies of the European expansion won their independence from the West in terms of self-governing autonomy. This trend continues.
The result of such changes in the Pacific Rim region is the south East Asian environment of today. To bring more political and economic strength, there has been recent progress towards the formation of an entity called the Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC). It represents the beginning of a regional community of countries to cooperate through integrated trade and cultural relations. Even though these countries have severed their colonial ties, they sometimes still feel the yoke of subjugation. To the anger of many of the Pacific Rim countries, France continues to use the region for nuclear testing. Grassroots movements against the dumping of hazardous wastes in the Pacific or the transshipment of wastes or of plutonium have risen against these policies. It seems that although these are sovereign nations, they must still battle imperialism in the form of protecting the environment.
Here, we studied French influence in the Pacific Rim to bring about a more global understanding of events and their relationship to the present. We traced the origins of French influence in the region, reviewed an event where third party international involvement occurred, and described the resultant situation today. We traced the steps which brought us to our current stage to bring a greater understanding to our current worldview.
Waddell, Eric. 1993. Review of France and the South Pacific: A Contemporary History, by Stephen Henningham. The Contemporary Pacific 5 (2): 472-74.

Company financial analysis/ valuantion and strategy Altadis (Tobacco)

Summary of the Strategy A closer look at the objectives of the company would suggest that it is focused on the development of its brands besides gaining international exposure. Currently, the extensive focus of the firm is on European market however, through strategic acquisition process, it has also been able to show its presence in the developing markets. With increasing competitive pressure in French and Spanish market, presence in emerging markets can offer significant benefits. In the wake of the stronger probability for growth in the emerging markets, relocating to such markets provide an added competitive advantage and offers diversification benefits.
It is critical to note however, that firm is expected to perform better against its competitors in the European market. This fact suggests that the firm has also created a focus strategy wherein it has been able to cater to the needs of a single market through better products. (QuickMBA). In some markets like France, firm may not be able to compete better because of higher external costs such as increased taxes as well as price hikes.
It is also important to note that the firm has been focused on buying back its shares suggesting that the firm is willing to reduce the impact of external stakeholders. Besides, this also suggests that the firm has been able to generate enough cash flows to ensure that it can execute its annual plan to buy-back 5% of the shares.
The overall strategy of the firm seems to be well balanced with focus on growth as well as improving the current markets.
However, with an increased awareness regarding health and potential health damage caused by smoking, the overall demand for the products of the firm may decline in future. Firm seem to have focused on developing and marketing just one product line however, in order to survive in the future and ensure that it can compete, it needs to develop or diversify on the product level also. Since firm has well developed markets, it would be easier for the firm to compete.
The economic value added as a valuation methodology ensures that value of the firm is measured in terms of its economic profit. (Steele). The overall idea is that shareholders should more than what they pay as cost for capital employed by the firm. In this case, it is however, interesting to note that the firm has been engaged into the buying back of its own shares therefore this approach may need to be adjusted on continuous basis in order to capture the changes taking place in the capital structure of the firm as a result of this policy.
The firm’s strategy seems to have an excellent fit between the economic value added methodology in the sense that this approach captures the firm’s economic viability on the holistic level. Since the objective of the firm is to maximize the shareholders’ value therefore return must take into consideration the impact of financing cost of capital in order to provide fair valuation for the firm.
QuickMBA. Porters Generic Strategies. 2011. 23 June 2011 .
Steele, Jeffrey. The Origins of EVA. 1998. 23 June 2011 .

Effects of El Nino in Asia

The warm current off the coast of South America appears after Christmas which led the Spanish sailors in Peru to call it El Nino. El Nino means little child in Spanish (WHO, 2000).
El Nino is caused when the winds that push the water get weaker. Due to the weaker winds, the warm water that has been accumulated in the west comes back towards the east. At the same time, sufficient cold water is not pulled up from the bottom. These two factors contribute to the warming up of the water and the growth of El Nino. The winds get weaker and the ocean gets warmer and the warmer ocean further makes the winds weaker. The process continues and the El Nino continues to grow (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 1997). The warming continues at an expected rate and continues for 12- 18 months. The change severely disturbs the aquatic life and the local bird population (Kovats et al. 2003). El Nino usually occurs every two to seven years (FAO, 1997).
Although the El Nino may be beneficial in some ways but is more commonly known to cause destruction to the crops, aquatic life, reduce water supply, increase forest fires and droughts. El Nino had caused intense drought in several countries in 1982-83 and in Asia in the 1990s (FAO, 1997). In the Asian region, El Nino has caused droughts, floods, fires, loss of approximately 500-600 thousand hectares of land, crops, and sunlight, environmental damage, human and animal loss of lives, economic loss and health concerns (National Drought Mitigation Center, 1997).
The 1997-98 flooding had caused severe problems in Asia including the displacement of the population. This is also due to the population growth and the concentration of the population in high-risk areas such as the coastal areas and the cities. People living in shanty places and mud houses with no defenses against extreme weather conditions are seriously affected by the heavy flooding and rainfall attributed to the El Nino.nbsp.