Organisational Culture and the Role of the Manager

Management practices influence the culture which underlies the organization’s identity, cohesiveness, and distinctive competence. while reciprocally the corporate culture impacts the role of the manager (Bass Riggio 2006). According to Schein (2004), organizational culture and leadership are two sides of the same coin. The processes of culture creation and management form the essential core of leadership. Organizational culture can be defined as a dynamic phenomenon that exists at all times, constantly enacted and created through mutual interactions, and shaped by structures, routines, rules, and norms that guide and limit behavior. Culture evolves from three sources: the beliefs, values, and assumptions of founders of organizations, the learning experiences of group members as their organization evolves, and new values, beliefs, and assumptions brought in by new members and leaders (Schein, 2004: 226).The key components of corporate culture are a set of values, perceptions, and assumptions on the procedures to be followed, decision-making norms, and overt behavior patterns such as information collection, idea presentation, evaluation, cooperation, loyalty to the organization, and enthusiasm (Vasu et al 1998). Organizational culture has a significant influence on the management’s and employees’ attitudes and behavior (Reigle 2001. Shepherd Kolb 1994. Chen et al 1998). Significantly, the culture now defines leadership or management. When the organization runs into adaptive difficulties, when some of its assumptions become invalid due to organizational environment changes, the management’s responsibility is to step out of the culture that created the leader and start evolutionary change processes that are more adaptive. Hence, the ultimate challenge and role of leadership is this ability to identify the limitations of one’s own culture and to evolve the culture adaptively (Schein 2004, p.2).To study the role of the manager, it is necessary to understand the different types of the corporate culture. Sarrio et al (2000) identified four types of organizational cultures: traditional/ hierarchical. profit-driven/ pursuing corporate goals. creative/ entrepreneurial and a networking/ consensus-seeking culture. With the gradual change over recent years, the role of present-day managers has become increasingly empowered, with more networking, consensus-seeking approach.

Leadership in Action

Leadership is very important and its applications impact all types of organization. The use of leadership can see the sporting industry, government, and in all industries of the private sector. The Greek civilization had a power structure depended on the leadership of the emperor. In the 20th century, great leaders such as Bill Gates, Warren Buffet, and Steve Jobs have achieved massive personal fortunes by leading their organizations. The success of organizations such as Microsoft was highly dependent on the control mechanism the managers establish to monitor the company. Lack of operating control can lead to disaster. In 2001 the Enron Corporation came down largely in part there was no control in place to prevent and detect the fraudulent activity of the top executives. A piece of legislation that helped improve the internal controls of the corporation was the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002.In the simulation leadership in Action, the player served the role of a chief operating officer. As a new member of the team, the COO has to find a way to connect with the different groups in order to create networking and alliance with the rest of the staff. The goal of the COO is to be able to influence the staff by exerting leadership. In the simulation, you will face the challenge of leading a group of unwilling employees to achieve aggressive targets (Leadership in Action Simulation, 2010). The company in the simulation is called Smith Falmouth. The company is dedicated to mail order network and teleshopping. The new COO does not have any influence on the staff. The person needs to earn the trust of the workers by performing networking.The simulation Leadership in Action deals with a group of employees that are unwilling to follow the company goals and targets. As the newly recently appointed COO my job is to win the employees over in order to be exerted.

Risks Involved in Investing into Stocks

Since stocks are considered as most volatile and risky investments, therefore, to make an investment into any stock requires considerable analysis and exploration of different factors which may have a direct or indirect impact on the stock prices. Since 2007, overall activity in the stock markets has been depressed due to different factors and currently, the markets are suffering due to the sovereign debt crisis in the EU zone. (Elliott). Despite such economic uncertainty and decline in economic activity, there are sectors which are booming and can provide one of the most lucrative investment avenues to the investors. Stocks like Facebook, semi-conductor industry stocks, as well as 3M, are some of the stocks which can provide real benefits to the investors at every level. It is also, however, important to note that personal risk and return preferences are always individual and remain as an individual decision. This paper will discuss the risks involved in the stocks such as Facebook, NXP and 3M, as well as will explore as to how the risks may emerge and how investors can actually invest into such stocks. Stocks Investment Before discussing the different stocks, it is important to provide a general introduction to the stock investment and how they can be approached from the investment point of view. Historically, the returns on the stocks, as well as bonds remained volatile. however, stocks have returned more over the period of time. It is also critical to note that the bonds are considered as safer investments because they hold the preference over the stocks and the bondholders are paid fixed interest income over the period of bond maturity. It becomes the obligation of the bond issuers to pay regular interest over the period of the bond and return the principal at the end. However, this is not the case with the stocks and the shareholders are not paid any principal at the end neither they are guaranteed that they will be paid regular dividends. These characteristics of the stocks, therefore, make them risky and investors can only invest in them if they believe and understand the overall risks involved. It is critical to note that stockholders, however, are given the ownership into the firms and they can also participate in the overall decision making for the firm (Siegel). The value, return and risks on the stocks, therefore, are relatively unique and different and need expertise and a certain degree of business acumen to decide as to whether to invest or not. Facebook Shares World is experiencing a new internet boom and internet websites are becoming one of the hottest investment avenues for investors. Different types of websites and services such as Facebook, Google, Zynga have been able to attract huge attention of the investors due to the sheer potential of growth involved in them. Recently Zynga, one of the leading makers of social games, launched its IPO and was successfully oversubscribed by the investors in the global markets (Raise and Randall). Such receptivity towards these types of stocks, therefore, suggests that the investors are ready to understand the risks involved in dot com companies and are also willing to assume them. Facebook Inc. is the leading social networking site with millions of active users who use Facebook every day. What is important to note, that the overall user base of the site is global and as such it has global exposure.

Ethnography and ethnographic report (ethnomusicology)

The reflection which is created in society is one which is based on several expressions that are associated with the culture. When looking at the context of rock music, it can be seen that there are specific associations with the trends of the music, as well as how the culture relates to the ideals of the music. The rock genre becomes a reflection of the social and cultural ideologies and identity of an individual. For collective groups, it is this genre that provides a sense of social worth to specific groups and provides an understanding of where one fits in with a specific identity. This piece of field work will examine the aspects of rock music and how it creates an identity for those that fit into a segment of society. The association with rock music is one which is expressed within various groups and interactive areas. The ability to create social worth is directly linked to the expression of rock music and the applications that are within society. Currently, youth have created global structures that create the identity as an institutional structure (Kjeldgaard, 2006). This means that there are several formations of generalized areas where youth meet to show the social worth and identity while moving through structures that don’t have the boundaries of locality. … se of the online region will show how rock music isn’t about locality among youth, but instead is creating a sense of global worth that is growing within the society. Results of Data The first rock artist which was considered was Dave Matthews, an international musician that continues to perform and release CDs for the youth crowd. A fan base for the band was considered, as well as a forum which was attached to the band. The most popular topics that were on this site included Dave Matthew tickets, an autographed poster by Dave and Leroi, performance discussions and a download of Crash Into Me, one of the most popular songs of the band (MFC, 2011). There was also an interview conducted with one of the top individuals who was interacting on the site, which included questions on why they were interested in the band. The first questions were based on the ability to perform by the band as well as the easy to remember tunes. However, after asking why the tunes could easily be remembered, the individual stated that there was a personal connection made with the themes of the song that related to their life. The second site considered was not based on the popular genres of rock, but instead moved into what is considered underground rock and indie rock. This is produced by artists which don’t have a record contract and which build their fan base through grass roots efforts in their community. The focus of this particular site is to show videos, performances and the live options of the bands so others can connect to them. The network also consists of spreading the name of the indie artists so they can receive assistance in gaining a stronger reputation on a global level (Underground Rock Music, 2011). To find the most relevant indie artists, the social networking

Market Research Report on printing industry

Print is used in business to create logo and advertisements to stand out in the market place. Companies often prefer their stationeries, be it business letters, pamphlets or catalogues to be customized and according to their requirements. This strategy of brand building is applied by all the companies. This is where the print industry enters the world of business related print products. In general market where print products are sold as leisure products, print industry has a strong hold. Products like Cards, customized stationeries, and craft products have given print industry a very distinct market to focus on. The print industry is also accredited for the production of lot of educational material. The print industry market is divided basically into three distinct market segments – Corporate sector, Gifts and Entertainment sector and educational sector. The print industry has witnessed gradual and steady growth, the demand for print products have increased considerably in the market. A lot of speculation had surrounded the print industry during the electronic media revolution. … Identification of a Small and Medium Sized Enterprise The European market alone has 132,000 functioning business houses involved in printing industry. This comprises of 85% of SMEs. These SMEs have less than twenty employees each yet they are able to rake 105 billion EUR as annual turnover. The global printing market is dominated by the European printing companies. Most of the printing companies depending on their size are involved in export. Globally the printing market is very much static and not very dynamic in its growth. Most of these companies operating in printing industry are Small and Medium enterprises run by Entrepreneurs. These entrepreneurs have creative bent and open a medium size businesses. However they do lack the expertise in operating the business aspect of the industry. Most of these companies have issues like resource sharing, creative differences and networking as major barriers towards growth. The SMEs also have to face fierce competition from players who are better established and are conglomerate in their operations. Finance becomes a huge criterion for these SMEs as expanding in new market especially in other countries requires a substantial capital. Internet and electronic media although has not been able to completely take over the print sector but does have some influence on the print industry. Thus, economy of scale and the fad of new media have made an impact on the growth of SMEs in print industry (Batgraphs, 2011, p.6) One of the most important aspects for the small and medium enterprises in the printing industry is the incorporation of recent technology in their operations. The introduction of advanced and improved tools in the area of printing has been very rapid.

How Managers Can Apply Their Interpersonal Informational and Decisional Roles to Influence the Performance of Their Organizatio

Leadership is the process of manipulating other people to achieve specified objectives or goals. From a business point of view, a manager is a person, who has been given the mandate to influence the employees of a given organization in order to achieve the organization goals. Therefore, leadership roles are to communicate ideas, motivating employees, and gaining their commitment, enthusiasm, and acceptance so that they can support and implement the organizational goals and objectives. A manager should be a person who can perform the following roles. 1. Interpersonal roles: Should be able to perform, symbolic and ceremonial skills. Should also be one who can direct and monitor the subordinates, through communication and counsel, and be one who can maintain links in information through mail, meetings, and phone calls. 2. Informational roles: Can seek and receives information by maintaining personal contact with stakeholders and scanning periodicals and reports, transmits the information to employees through reports, speeches and memos. 3. Decisional roles: An excellent manager is one who can come up with new ideas and delegate the idea responsibility to other persons. He should be one who can take the necessary action during crisis and disputes among his subordinates, a skilled negotiator who can represent his unit in budget, sales, purchases, and union contracts. Thematically, this paper seeks to show, by use of relevant case examples, how managers can influence successful performance of their organization through the application of the managerial skills discussed above. The three managerial roles will be discussed separately, in order to analyze each of them critically. Interpersonal roles Interpersonal skills are required, in order, for the manager to perform as a figurehead role in the organization, and this is considered to be a leading management function. An organization cannot succeed if the managers cannot direct and monitor their subordinates. In a case example. Intermatic Inc, a company located in spring Grove, Illinois was on the verge of bankruptcy. Jim miller, a former employee, was asked to return as president of the firm. He applied his interpersonal roles that enabled him to restructure the whole firm. he directed his staff and managed to bring the firm back from the edge of bankruptcy to its growth, profitability and survival (Lussier Achua, 2010). For a manager to have strong interpersonal skills he should be capable of performing the following roles. 1. The figurehead role: Any manager or leader in an organization is capable of performing this role. it includes the caring out of basic tasks such as, presiding at meetings, and signing important documents (Davis, 2006). 2. The leader role: This is the role that influences how most leaders perform all other roles, the tasks that are preformed in this role include tasks like. evaluation of employee performance, coaching and giving instructions, training and hiring new employees (Davis, 2006). 3. The liaison role: The liaison role is involved with the interacting and communicating with people outside the organization, and several tasks that include the developing of relationships, attending of professional meetings, maintaining contact with organizations and other people, and networking (Davis, 2006). Interpersonal skill is an individual’s capability to perform the above roles. In another case example, British airways hired a

Is digital evidence collected from a volatile source as valid as that collected from a static source

Evidence sources in the recent times has shifted from static source as one of the initial steps in evidence collection to adoption of digital source which is quickly driven by the ever changing dynamic computing environment. Evidence from volatile source can be referred to as data that provides a linkage that is significant between the victim and the perpetrator (Wang 2007). It can be gathered from anything that is criminally related such as such as theft of trade secrets, destruction of intellectual property and fraud to the usage of computer. Static source can be referred to as data preserved when the computer is turned off conserved on a computer hard drive or another medium as opposed to volatile source whose storage is in memory and gets lost when the computer is turned off. Introduction There are various ways of collecting digital evidence from the scene of crime. The most prevalent techniques are collecting digital evidence form volatile sources and collecting from static source. Data from volatile source might have key evidence. It is therefore vital that at the scene of crime, the computer remains on. Tools for data collection range from various software such as data recovery, file examination, internet protocol tracking, decryption, authentication and most notably backup. Other notable tools are needed when obtaining data such as hardware imaging tool where bit by bit of data is copied using a method known as a bit stream copy. Data backups are always considered first with a principal objective of retaining the original evidence. Scope Casey (2000) lays out the physical characteristics of digital source where he asserts that it cannot be kept in its original state easily since the computer system records data in binary form that is 0 and 1 where the copied data has user modifications making it difficult to recollect volatile source in its original status. Volatile source can easily be produced hence prone for it being modified or copied raising doubts on its source and integrity. The negative impact posed is the difficulty to deduce directly the relationship between evidence obtained and the suspects as posed to the highly efficient methods such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or fingerprints that is used for evidence authentication. A computer uses random access memory (RAM) to store volatile data by way of writing current processes in the form of a virtual clipboard for process usage and immediate reference. The information that may be of interest to the investigator include running processes, console executed commands, clear text passwords, unencrypted data, instant messages and the internet protocol addresses. There can be a scenario where an examination of a running system is required involving a computer during investigation. These can be enhanced using home networking technology which allows an investigator to have a small network to facilitate any investigative situation involving a computer. Volatile source data preservation and forensic examination analysis will surely be the way forward for many years to come for digital evidence collection. Investigators ability to collect crucial evidence at the crime of scene ought to be critical most importantly when they are provided crime scene collection skills so as to deal with the challenges and workload brought about by

Facebook Cyber Stalking

Many social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, twitter, Fraudster etc provides an interface, which links people from various parts of the world. Technology has provided a means through, which people are able to post their photographs and shares their views about life. The number of social network users keeps growing everyday. Social networks provide a cheap way of expressing ideas. The use of social network poses various challenges in the society (Chaulk Jones, 2011). Many people have often deal with ugly social situation following cyber stalking. This paper explores the factors that contribute to cyber stalking by focusing on use of media in networking. It further looks at the impending threats that it poses to social development. Media acts as a tool, which people use to disseminate information to the society. Social fabric depends on media use because any information that preaches hatred or peace would reach large audience when expressed in media. Technological development has contributed to creation of social networking sites. Cyber stalking is electronic method of harassing individuals using internet. Lamber Royakkers, a renowned professor of technology, argues that stalking is a mental violation (assault) where the perpetrator disruptively or unwontedly intrudes into the victim’s world aiming at infringing on the rights of the victim. Largely the perpetrator does not have any relationship with the victim. The method used in passing information influences the legal implication on the victims. In some cases, an individual may fail to identify the gravity of the information that he relays to the society. Before an individual describes a case as cyber stalking, one has to identify the legal authority and its description to cyber stalking. Each case of cyber stalking has its own magnitude to an individual, thus prompting different approach in each case of cyber stalking. Some identified cases of cyber stalking include. premeditation, malice, distress, repetition, obsession, without legitimate purpose, vendetta, harassment, personally directed and disregarded warning to stop (Chaulk Jones, 2011). The legal implication that various forms of stalking carry depends on the existing legislations in the society. For instance, malice has a different psychological impact to an individual compared to issuing of threats. Repetition of an event or various events in an individual life leads to internal mental movie or schemas (Tiffany et. al, 2008). An individual has the ability to develop schemas of any occurrence. For instance, relationship schemas occur when a person experiences romantic or parental relationship. These schemas develop because of the perception developed by an individual regarding life experience. Stalking on the other hand would influence individual schemas since it occurs without the consent of the perpetrated party. The society is experiencing various forms of stalking which have psychological effects to the victim. For instance, cyber stalking may promote threatening information to unsuspecting individual. This information would psychologically torture the victim due to the internal mental schemas that he or she develops (Tiffany, Yevdokiya Sandra, 2008). Proper functionality of an individual depends on schemas that one develops over a certain period. Fear occurs due to schemas that an individual develops. A research into the causative factors of cyber stalking argues that crime depends on numerous social factors, which include differential association (Karen, 2006). For instance criminal activities of significant others have an influence to the associated parties e.g. peers. On the other hand, differential costs or benefits of the crime are

The Use Of Social Networking Sites For Recruitment And Selection The Case Of Facebook And Victorstone Financial Company

The popularity of social networking sites is relatively higher amongst the young people. Because of this, many companies have decided to tap these social networking sites in order to recruit and select possible applicants or employees. Generally, the use of social networking sites is considered of paramount importance given the fact that the company can access young people who are computer literate. In the same manner, social networking sites attract them more than the advertisements displayed on the company’s website. However, various issues have been related to the use of social networking sites in the company’s recruitment and selection. Some were concerned as to the appropriateness of the use given the fact that social networking sites are not used for such purpose but rather, for meeting new friends. It is in this regard that this research aims to solicit the perceptions of young people regarding the tendency of companies to use Facebook for recruitment and selection and how this affects their use thereof…. These social networking sites then require its members to build a profile where the latter share pertinent information about them. Social networking sites are more popular to the young people than to the adults (Sharp 2009). The former make use of these sites in order to communicate their personality ideas. In fact, a number of studies have pointed out that the personalization of social networking sites can be likened to the manner by which the young people choose their clothes. Simply put, how the young people express themselves or how they want others to view them is evident in their Facebook or MySpace profiles. Nevertheless, there are other uses for social networking sites. Various researches have pointed out that market researchers have already tapped social networking sites in order to determine the purchase behaviour of the users thereof. Surprisingly, however, there are also companies now who conduct their recruitment and selection processes over the internet, through these social networking sites. Notwithstanding this, studies show that Facebook and other social networking sites continue to be used for factors such as: chatting with friends, posting and viewing pictures, staying in touch with friends, etc (Wellman and Haythornwaite 2002. Witte and Mannon 2010). This research focuses on the use of Facebook and Social networking sites as the recruitment and selection platforms of several companies. Later, in the literature review, it shall be revealed that a number of ethical issues are associated with this. For instance, profiles are constructed to meet new friends and to stay in touch with old ones are not suitable for the job-seeking applicant. Hence, his or her expression of him or

Annual Marketing Plan Nokia

It is evident from the study that the cell phone industry is becoming increasingly competitive as different competitors are coming up with newer products with the aim of taking more and more market share. The needs of the customers have also become sophisticated and now they are demanding better features. In the midst of all this, Nokia is constantly losing market share to rival companies. Apple, Google, HTC, and Samsung are all making inroads into the cell phone industry. These companies have challenged the market leadership of Nokia and in turn have reduced the sales of the company significantly. The situation demands that Nokia acts immediately if the company wants to remain active in the market for a long period. Analysts have suggested lower pricing as the main reason behind company’s low profits. Nokia, in the wake of all the new, had to lower prices in order to compete. This had a toll on the profits of the company. On the other hand Apple and Google are already shrinking the market by targeting the youth. The overall situation is developing to be disastrous for the company. Nokia was once the 5th most valuable brand of the world, but now it has plummeted to 79th. This is evidence of the declining situation of the company. Nokia has to invest in its marketing campaign vigorously in order to retain its position in the market. The problem is lower pricing and that can be solved by creating a brand value. Nokia has to create a sense of value for the customers and only then it can justify its higher prices. The product line of the company is the widest in the industry so the problem is not with the products. rather it is with the marketing strategy of the company. The main marketing objective must be to enhance the brand image of the company in the eyes of the users. The main concern for the company should be the emerging markets of Asia where population is growing. The younger population of Asian markets should be targeted by Nokia through marketing campaigns and features of different cell phones should be communicated to the youth. The main aim of the company should be to do away with price based competition with smaller brands. Pricing should be higher than smaller brands and lower than Apple and Google. This pricing can attract major chunk of the market and Nokia should attempt to cash in this market. The strategy of Nokia should be to provide value to the customers beyond lower pricing. People buy Apple even though it is highly priced just because they expect greater value in return. Nokia is also developing cell phones that are of superior quality but it is essential to communicate this to the customers. The company is currently lowering its prices in India as compared to the prices of similar models in other countries (Daga, 2007). Actually the strategy should be to create a sense of higher quality and then charge a premium for that superior quality from the customers. A total of change in company’s marketing dynamics is needed. Nokia should adopt a more youth oriented approach in its marketing campaigns. The company has very recently announced smart phones with Windows. The company is also changing its marketing appeal with more focus on the younger population (O’Reilly, 2011). Similar tactics should be used to gain more market share all around the world. Nokia should design similar specific campaigns for different models. Customers should know that Nokia is also a valuable brand like Apple and Google. The new Windows smart phones of Nokia are also not being sold for at least a couple of months outside United States (Velazco, 2011). This is a good step that will enable Nokia to focus on US markets. The company can also gain valuable customer insights before going to international markets. Nokia will have to invest heavily in its marketing campaigns. The products should be advertised heavily using social networking

Business environment challenges or trends that threaten the long run performance and survival of the company Develop a coheren

The businesses are also tasked with corporate social responsibility issues and the same time expected to observe business ethics in their daily operations. Facebook Company Case Analysis This company is situated in the United States and it serves over a billion clients in the internet, making it the largest social networking site. Its an internet corporation company that runs the social networking site whereby people express their views and communicate all over the work. By the year 2012, the company had over 4500 employees working on various capacities in the company. The main competitors of Facebook are MySpace, Twitter, LinkedIn, IGLOO, among other companies that offer internet social services (Strategic Management Insight, 2013). STEEPLE Analysis of Facebook SOCIAL TECHNOLOGICAL ECONOMICAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLITICAL LEGAL ETHICAL Lifestyle changes New inventions and development Economic growth Sustainable energy Trade polices Employment laws Reputation Career and leisure attitudes Industrial focus on technological effort Taxation Global warming International trade regulations Contract laws Business ethics Labour and social mobility Rate of technological transfer Competition Threats from natural causes Political stability Consumer protection Client confidentiality From the STEEPLE Analysis, the challenges facing Facebook range from social, technological, economical, environmental, political, legal, and ethical problems. The users and the governments have been expressing privacy concerns leading to legal suit against the company (Marketing Mix, 2013). The privacy issues have made most consumers to question the business ethics of the company resulting to reduced confidentiality. Facebook being the market leader in social networking services enjoys the benefits that come with economics of scale, but the company profits are also subjected to global economic performance. The lifestyle changes and social mobility of most users is also affecting the company since some begin to see Facebook as a social interaction site for the younger generation. Facebook pays tax from their businesses with rates changing from time to time thus largely consuming their profits. There is stiff competition from related companies like Twitter and MySpace who have launched aggressive campaigns and products to outshine Facebook. Facebook was a result of technological invention and others are also exploiting the same to come up with other related services that are likely to give Facebook a strong competition. Facebook being a company with global footing is vulnerable to problems with corporate social responsibility being a major concern facing most companies and Facebook is not exempted. All businesses are expected to practice business ethics in their daily operations to avoid conflicts and hence Facebook must abide by it. Competition is a major threat to all businesses as Facebook is facing competition from MySpace, Twitter, and LinkedIn. Challenges facing Facebook Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) The role of the business is critical in ensuring that the corporate social responsibility is well taken care of since businesses can only flourish when the communities around them and their ecosystems are well taken care of (Hart, 1995). There is growing recognition that everything we do has a positive or negative impact on

Technological device

After staying in college for three months, my parents sent me money to buy a cell phone. Unlike Gathman (42) who preferred a bilingual phone, I preferred a phone with internet access. I acquired a Nokia 2330 Classic model. This device increased my urge to use the internet. I deviated from searching for academic material to searching for famous quotes and biographies of famous people. From famous philosophers like Aristotle, Socrates to the greatest mafia such as Al-Capone I passed through their lives. This information was not much related to my field of study but I fancied searching for it. The quotes and biographies, I downloaded them, printed, and documented them. This was not only outside the lecture room. I could search for this information even during lectures if I found the lecturer to be boring. My colleagues found my character weird because at that time we were overburdened by assignments and less time was available for leisure. I had heard about Facebook several times even before I joined college and when I came to college I found it was very popular among the students. We were raised in a Christian family and my parents instilled in me strict Christian values. They had warned me against sites like Facebook over and over again. They told me that Facebook was a dating site that enhances moral degradation in the society. I heed to their advice and no matter how much my friends convinced me to join the network, I resisted the temptation. In fact, I commenced a campaign to discourage my friends from being on Facebook. I usually used to search for my friends on the internet and sent them messages requesting them to delete their Facebook accounts because it was an immoral site. One time a lecturer gave to one of our colleagues an assignment, we did not have a lecture that day so reaching all students in our class was an uphill task. The student decided to post the assignment on Facebook because making phone calls would have been costly for her. Information went round but I could not get it because I was not part of the Facebook community. The next day the assignment was due for submission yet I heard not heard about it. My friends blamed me for being rigid towards embracing the new technological paradigm. Since that day my thinking was transformed. was it for better or for worse? During the lunch hour, I disregarded my parents’ advice and went and opened a Facebook account. Even though I had opened the account, I was very cautious. I researched about social networking sites in depth. It was then that I came to learn that Facebook unlike dating sites offered a platform for people to make friends and share views and thoughts (Jain, Anand and Gupta 2). My whole attitude towards Facebook changed. I sent friend requests to my colleagues and friends. My friendship search did not stop at home. I crossed the borders and even searched for friends in other continents like Africa, Australia, and Europe. Sometimes I sent them messages in their in box and commented on their status. This site now provided me with information about lecture schedules, assignments, and meetings. I became so used to Facebook that most of my time was spent on Facebook. My passion for searching for quotes and biographies faced and was replaced with Facebook networking. The reason as to why I had resisted Facebook was now contradicted. I commenced

Leadership Style of Ray Noorda

The significant weakness that others see in Novell is Noorda’s inability to effectively delegate top-level responsibilities, as a result of selecting high-quality managers in the upper echelons of the company to replace Noorda was difficult.Cross-cultural management has been defined as the development of knowledge ad application about cultures in the practice of international management, where the people involved have different cultural identities. (Mead 2005:16). Ray Noorda had a global position and attitude, as detailed by his managers and he made this international outlook very clear to his employees, therefore the leadership style that was employed by Ray Noorda in the Novell Company reflects this international strategic aspect in every sphere of applications. The team of five specialists that he employed to develop a worldwide business model in the form of a software package, were constantly aware that Noorda wanted them to develop an application that would be compatible with most computer systems all over the world – he was primarily concerned with the international applications of every program, thereby revealing that his cross-cultural outlook and the practice of international management as opposed to a strictly regional management policy.This may be noted in the fact that Novell recognized early on that developing proprietary hardware pieces that would sit on a desktop restricted within a particular area was a trend that was on its way out. He realized that non-proprietary, clone-like products for the desktop was what was called for, because through this aspect the world would be tied together in some way. (Scannell, 1989). When Noorda first joined Novell, a proprietary networking product named Sharenet was available which was a box that had a 68000 based computer. Noorda used this as the basis to explore further how the box could be ported into other environments to makea server out of a PC.

Fin 630 Unit 5 Indivudual Project

Finance and Accounting Shanka Dauley 3/12 Question The Vernon’s product life-cycle theory suggests that products normally pass through a cycle with distinct phases. A product is pioneered in a developed country, which holds a monopoly as the only country able to produce and supply the product. The product is initially available only for the people of that country. Exportation of product to developed countries takes place when it becomes successful in the home market. As the product’s demand increases, the pioneering firms take production closer to the market. A good example of this theory is the relationship between China telecommunication manufacturing sector and foreign direct investment (Yan, 2011). Huawei Technology followed the product lifecycle in provision of networking and telecommunication services and equipment. Foreign direct investments mostly occur in the maturity and declining stages of the life cycle. The theory helps firms to settle on whether to manufacture locally or go abroad to make their products depending on the product lifecycle stage. The entry timing decision of a firm to a host country is dependent on the product’s age as well as the relative cost of production in different host countries. One of the strength of this theory is that it provides powerful tool for providing marketing and guidance approaches that are appropriate at various stages. It is an important tool for providing an insight into a common pattern of industry sales. Nevertheless, the theory fails to elucidate whether foreign direct investments are better than licensing or exporting to a third party to expand abroad. Its applicability has also been weakened by the increasingly complicated international system of production. Question 2 As defined by investopedia, Greenfield investment refers to a type of foreign direct investment (FDI) whereby a multinational establishes a new business enterprise in a foreign state through erecting new operation facilities from the ground up. Most multinationals also hire new employees in the foreign country hence creating new long-term jobs. On the contrary, the multinationals also opt to buy an existing firm in the host country via acquisitions. When extending operations to foreign countries, companies often prefer a Greenfield investment as opposed to an acquisition in cases where the foreign market is not difficult to penetrate. Greenfield investments are often multifaceted and potentially expensive however, they have the most capacity to bring about above average returns (Hitt, 2009). For a successful Greenfield operation, a company may be needed to have knowledge as well as expertise of the existing market by third parties, for instance, business partners, consultants, or competitors. This type of entry approach takes much time because of the need to establish new operations, distribution networks, as well as the need to learn and put into practice the best marketing strategies to outcompete the rivals in a new market (Bartett 2009). The setup of a Greenfield investment setup can bring in numerous government benefits like subsidies, incentives, and tax-breaks. The set up also creates access to new technology, raw materials, production efficiency, diversification, and the capacity to avoid regulatory or political hurdles. Host countries tend to resist cross-border acquisitions, instead of Greenfield investments because they view the latter as a means of putting up new production facilities as well as job opportunities. where cross-border acquisitions are seen as foreign takeover of local companies without creation of new job opportunities. Greenfield investments and cross-border acquisition by Chinese firms have had a positive impact on China through creation of technological spillover benefits and developing research and development capacity (Wang, 2009). They are perceived to provide a net escalation in capital stock with consequent connotations for regional business operations as well as employment. In particular, investing firms are assumed to expand the domestic industry output hence allowing increased exports and reduced imports. more production means new jobs especially for the industry (Brigham Ehrhardt, 2011). (Norback Persson, 2001). Cross border investments are not preferred because the foreign investor normally acquires an established local company and make it a subsidiary business within its global portfolio. The acquisition may be 100% of buying minority or majority stake. Greenfield investments add new supply to the market (Wang, 2009). Question 3 Political risk is incorporated into the capital budgeting process of foreign investment projects through regulating the capital costs upward and thus discounting the potential future cash flows at an elevated rate. On the other hand, firms can take off the political risk insurance premium from the projected cash flows and employ the standard capital costs, which is used in local capital budgeting. The cost of capital is the minimum return rate, which a venture has to generate (Feils Sabac, 2000). The cost of capital decides whether the foreign investment will decrease or increase the firm’s stock price. Increasing the cost of capital leads to higher tariffs (Hill, 2009). The net present value for the venture can be adjusted through increasing the level of capital. Chinese firms usually undertake the foreign project when the adjusted net present value is positive (Hill, 2005). They also form consortiums with other multinationals or joint ventures with local partners (Zhou, 2008). Question 4 Forward internalization occurs when multinationals holding intangible assets make foreign direct investments with the aim of using the assets on a wider extent and concurrently internalizing possible externality produced by the assets. Alternatively, backward internalization occur when multinational companies acquire foreign companies with the intention of accessing intangible assets in the foreign companies and simultaneously internalizing externalities the assets have generated. Chinese firms use both forward and backward processes to expand into new markets and thus enhance the pull and push internationalization factors for domestic companies (Zhou, 2008). Moreover, Chinese firms also attempt to explain and predict a firm behavior and choices in an international setting over time. Question 5 It is important to include currency exchange risk into the capital budgeting foreign investment process by using the forward market and international transfer prices. The foreign exchange rate risk happens from undertaking worldwide business dominated in currencies save for the domestic currency because of high instability in foreign exchange rates causing increased risks of gain or loss. Transfer pricing is one strategy for minimizing foreign exchange losses from currency fluctuations and useful in shifting the losses (Levi, 2009). Appropriate transfer price used by Chinese firms have a significant impact on the net exposure of the firms (Hill, 2005). Funds in weak currency countries are moved using transfer pricing. Forward market and options are also financial arrangements, which can be incorporated, in the capital budgeting process to eliminate or reduce exposure to risk. The forward market allows a company to exchange two currencies on a future date at an agreed rate, hence facilitating it to cover itself in case fluctuation occurs and facilitating the foreign investment to reduce risk of currency fluctuation from occurring (Brigham Ehrhardt, 2011). Options can also allow a firm to cover exposure over a longer period of about six months to one year. A forward market is important in reducing risks that arise from changes in exchange rate when exporting, borrowing, importing, and investing (Kevin, 2010). References Brigham, E., Ehrhardt, M. (2011). Financial management: theory and practice. 13ed. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. Feils, D., Sabac, F. (2000). The Impact of Political Risk on the Foreign Direct Investment Decision: a Capital Budgeting Analysis. Engineering Economist, 45 (2), 129-43. Bartett, C.A. (2009), Transnational Management:Text,Cases and Readings in Cross Border Management. 5th Ed., McGraw-Hill Higher Education Hill, C. (2005). International business. China: People’s University. Hitt, A. (2009), Strategic Management Competitiveness and Globalization, Nelson Education Ltd Investopedia. (2013). Greenfield Investments, Retrieved from Kevin, S. (2010). Commodity and financial derivatives. PHI Private Limited. Levi, M. (2009). International finance. 5ed. New York: Routledge. Norback, P., Persson, L. (2001). Investment Liberalisation- Who Benefits from Cross-Border Merger and Acquisitions? CEPR Discussion Paper n. 3166 Wang, A. (2009). The Choice of Market Entry Mode: Cross-Border MA or Greenfield Investment. International Journal of Business and Management, 4(5), 239-245 Yan, H. (2011). A comparison study of the Chinese Telecom Industry: the emerging and the declining ones from aspiration level, business development, learning and managing perspectives. Paper to be presented at the Dime-Druid Academy Winter Conference Zhou, L. (2008). Multinational firms and the theory of international trade. China: China Economic Publishing House.

Michael Porter 6 Forces

ma?la?inen, 2004). Entries divide the market amongst more sellers and decrease each company’s share. The technology industry attracts vast newcomers due to its appealing customer base and fast growth. However, the newcomers are threatened by the capital needed to venture into the industry due to the expensive start up infrastructure. More so, new entrants feel threatened by the existing brands especially in the line of networking service providers like Microsoft, given that the established brands posses firm customer base that is hard to overcome. Nevertheless, the other line of technology industry that produces technology devices and gadgets like the renowned Samsung Corporation could attract entrants who could chip in and invent products that exactly befits the customers taste. Competitive rivalry The technology industry is well known for its fast growth, competition and effectiveness, and this explains why new entrants do not survive because of the intense rivalry between the existing players. However, the competition from rivals depends on the field of specialization because other companies produce technology devices while others offer networking services. … er hand, the technology industries that produce technology gadgets or devices like Sony corporation faces stiff competition because other manufacturers are gradually inventing more efficient appliances. The field of device producing technology industry is extremely competitive due to its nature of its growth, which means that customers’ tastes and trends change fast, and the concerned industry has to frequently invent up-to-date devices to catch up the pace. hence, heightening the rivalry between the existing companies. Competitive substitute The products and services provided in a particular industry usually have the same substitutes elsewhere (Ha?ma?la?inen, 2004). This substitute products and services pose a threat because they limit the ability of a firm and their prices. The technology industry is exceptional in the fact that the competition varies in different companies that specializes in technology. For instance, the information technology service providers have no much threat from substitutes because customers rely on such technology to run their lives and businesses meaning that substituting this technology becomes almost impossible. For instance, Google has positioned itself towards long term success on the internet, and there is no foreseen substitute to beat the internet so far. On the other hand, other technology companies who specializes in manufacturing of technology devices faces stiff substitution competition. For instance, a computer manufacturing company like Dell could face substitution threats from other manufacturers who could offer more outstanding products. Therefore, substitution threats in the technology industry depend on the line of specialization. Supplier bargaining power Bargaining power is the ability to influence setting of prices

SelfManaged Teams

For example, in a company, there can be two or more functioning self-managed teams with each having a team leader (Cork 146). Members of the self-managed teams, like any other team should have characteristics that bring them together, these are such as. members should have a common goal, should have self esteem, and should also be open when it comes to communication. The members should also respect each other, be involved in conflict resolutions, and lastly, there should be a lot of tolerance and trust within the team (Belasen 149). 2. Types of self-Managed Teams There are two common types of self-managed teams. These are production or service teams and problem solving self- managed teams. Problem-solving self-managed teams. These are intended to identify problems and derive solutions that are initiated by employees and supported by management. These teams typically rely on mapping methods such as flow charts, to target processes for improvement (Belasen 150).They are able to achieve improvement using the following processes: a. Identifying the customers and their requirements. b. Defining the current process to meet the customer’s needs. c. … 3. Characteristics of Self-Managed Teams A self-managed being one of the many types of teams, has some characteristics that it shares with other types, but there are those that are peculiar to it only. The following are the characteristics of a self-managed team: In self-managed teams, decision making and formal power are transferred to the team. This means that the team is designed in a way that leadership roles and responsibilities are shared (Belasen 150). There is no external supervision. that is, the objectives are adopted internally. In this case, work is designed to give the team ownership (Belasen 150). Being like any other type of team, there is a high level of interdependence. The members of a self-managed team must work together so achieve the common goal they have (Belasen 150). Norms and coercive control replace rules and formal bureaucratic control. Accountability in self-managed teams is collective. So, if one member fails, he or she fails the whole team (Belasen 150). Members of the self-managed team are multiskilled. This enables them to handle all requirements and cover for absent members, without interfering with the performance of the team (Belasen 150). 4. The Advantages (Pros) of Self-Managed Teams in Business Effective communication among the employees in the business. Self-managed teams usually foster communication, because the members of the team share common goals and objectives, and thus networking among the members is very easy, consequently boosting the performance of a business (Pride, Hughes, and Kapoor 297). High production in the business. This is because the members are multi-skilled, thus enabling them to handle all requirements and also cover an absent member. With this, the business is

Social media vehicle Foursquare

Foursquare was a small website in the initial years of its launch. But they started experiencing huge rise in its growth rate ever since it changed its location model. As per the new model, it was available to check-in from anywhere in the world. Reasons for Growth/Decline The company started tasting immense success ever since the day they changed the primary technology base. The main reasons for the growth of Foursquare is the fast growing smart phone market and the growth of geo-location marketing. (Young, 2011) Also, Foursquare is one of the few players in this arena. The company recently bagged a $41 million deal from Silver Lake Waterman. The deal is more like a loan from Silver Lake. The company is trying to change from being a niche, location-based social network to something more pervasive and powerful. (Newyorker, 2013) Foursquare is in fact the third most popular mobile social application after Facebook and Twitter. With the new funding of $41 million dollar the company is going to invest strategically on its growth in the coming years. This will begin right from the recruitment of fresh sales and engineering talents into the company. Risk Factors While Foursquare has been a success story in the social networking space, the sustainability of its success is being questioned by many experts. The famous private company research firm Privco said that Foursquare will fail in 2013. The major reasons that it pointed are (1) The company missed the profit projects for several quarters, (2) Company has been unsuccessful in raising fresh round of equities, (3) Existing investors are not ready to infuse further capital, (4) Only 8 million out of the 20 million registered users actually use the application and (5) the company generate only $2 million in revenue though it is the fourth year of its existence. (Wallstreetoasis, 2013) The second and third point can be ruled out now as the company had already bagged out a good deal in April. But the number of active users and the revenue target is really a cause of concern for Foursquare in the coming days. The inactive users and poor revenue figures can bring down the valuation of Foursquare. Business Model Foursquare does have a good business model in place. The appropriate channelization of the elements of the model is what is required to insulate itself from the risk factors. Foursquare’s business model is to connect local businesses to its customers. The company is planning to use new platform called location layer in order to boost the location sketching. It provides ad spaces for the merchants to place their ad banners on the website. This can enable the merchants to have better reachability to the customers. The ads can also be customized based on the search results of the visitors. This business model can work well for Foursquare and can help them in boosting the revenues and valuation in the future. Future of the Business Though the company received funding, the future of the business is unclear. It is also very early to conclude what actions the company might take because the funding was received only in the mid April 2013. Another reason for this unclear situation is the fact that Foursquare is still a privately owned company and there is less obligation for it to disclose matters to the public. For Foursquare, expanding their location based application in the coming years is like the same way Google revolutionized web search. As of this month, almost 1,300,000 businesses and 33,000,000

Facebook and Twitter

The purpose of Twitter is almost similar to that of Facebook. The main purpose of twitter is simply to create and build relationships among people worldwide. Contents of Facebook include profile, friends, groups, photos, messages, events, subscriptions, and question polls whereas contents of Twitter are small textual messages, tweeting, friends, and followers. As Rosenblatt (2012) points out, as of June 2012, Facebook had more than 955 million active users while Twitter had over 500 million active users. Individuals get more fun in Facebook whereas Twitter is used for more professional matters. It seems that many well known people, politicians, celebrities, and professionals use Twitter whereas young people constitute Facebook’s major participant population. This paper will analyze various aspects of social networking sites Facebook and Twitter in detail. … Often, such sites are helpful for governments and other competitive authorities to know public opinion regarding a particular social issue. As there are millions of active users for these sites, people can easily find new friends. Through online social networks, people get an opportunity to share their life problems with their friends and receive suggestions in an effective way. hence, these sites tend to develop social system. However, online social networks may sometimes contribute to social disintegration and communal riots when people use these sites as a platform to spread their religious sensitive or other wounding thoughts. Furthermore, many studies point that social networking sites waste people’s time and reduce nation’s economic productivity. It is observed that online social networking sites have many negative effects on face-to-face interaction. Nowadays, people are increasingly using these websites to communicate with their friends and relatives. As these sites promote an effective way of communication, people are less likely to spend time for face to face interaction. Certainly, such a situation causes relationship-breaks and eventually people may fail to retain relationships. Basically, human is a social animal and he cannot keep social values unless he interacts with others. Researchers argue that face to face interaction can have a great influence on personality development. hence, over dominance of online social networks may adversely affect the society as a whole. Social networking sites have positive and negative influences on cultural values. These websites are very helpful for a society to spread its cultural values. It also provides people worldwide with a clear view

Cultural Literacies Assignment

Montgomery wondered if the ubiquitous and integrated nature of marketing in digital political engagement practices could serve to connate civic identity and brand identity during this key formative stage it is not Internet use per se, but patterns of use featuring the exchange of information that matters. We leave digital footprints that are ever present, highly informative about us as a digital user, and readily available to those seeking the information. As a result, are we entering an era where digital voyeurism becomes highly profitable? How are we to know, for example, the intent of each and every person making use of participatory media? There rightly is a lot of concern over cyber-bullies and cyber-predators. What about those individuals though that collect information about user interaction for commercial purposes? The concern is not big brother in that the government is highly unlikely to keep pace with, let alone move ahead of, ICT companies’ technological advances. He expressed greater concern about a host of digital little brothers. In this instance, what if I as a marketer cast a wide net on MySpace or Facebook by seeking ever wider and wider social networks and then using my access to individuals’ profiles to create a marketing profile of the digital you. Placing this in an offline context, how would you respond if after watching you go to your usual place of exercise 10 or 12 times I came to realize the brand of pants, shirts, socks, shoes and equipment you wore, what perfume or aftershave you liked, and how you did your hair (or not!), I started posting coupons or ads where you exercised? While creepy offline, it is becoming increasingly acceptable online. In one sense, up to this point Internet use has been characterized by anonymity, but it is also suggested that we need to consider our off-line selves as distinct from online or digital selves Besides uploading content, users also willingly and unknowingly provide important information about their profile and behavior to site owners and metadata aggregators. Before users can actually contribute uploads or comments to a site, they usually have to register with their name, email address and sometimes add more personal details such as gender, age, nationality or income. Their subsequent media behavior can be minutely traced by means of data bots. More importantly, all users of UGC sites unwittingly provide information because IP addresses the majority of which can be connected to a user’s name and address – can be mined and used without limit by platform owners. Permission to use metadata towards specific purposes is commonly regulated by a site’s service agreements (Terms of Use), which users are required to sign. Metadata can be mined for various purposes, from targeted advertising to interface optimization, but the bottom line is that users have no power over data distribution. 2) The societal role(s)/depictions of the users of this sit Online networking not only builds social, but also commercial, capacity. Marketers speak of recruiting evangelists by in?uencing members of each social network and turning them into brand breeders or brand advocates for products. Youth are offered incentives to incorporate brands into their user-generated content and

Cultural homogenization and the Internet

Since internet enables people of various cultural backgrounds to intermingle easily across the globe, it tends to form one uniform culture. Over a period of time, popular cultural artifacts supersede the individual cultures, unpopular artifacts disappear, and the cultures resemble each other more (par.3). Globalization, social media and internet can be perceived as the main reasons for cultural homogenization. By and large, the internet has a vast amount of information of anything, which a person can access from anywhere in the world. For e.g. A Mexican recipe is easily available to an Indian and vice versa. Cultural homogenization is unstoppable in this internet age. ICT gives a powerful impetus to this cultural homogenization (Fairweather Rogerson 1). Globalization grows in a very fast pace and so does the business, economy and the internet. Since people across all nations have access to the internet, at very cheap rates, they will indulge more frequently in activities such as social networking etc the resulting interaction will facilitate a blending of different cultures. Thus, a new global culture will evolve to replace smaller, individual cultures. … Exclusive insight about various cultures can be easily explored and shared via internet. Before the internet age, it was difficult to obtain information about other cultures unless through books or visiting that particular country. Cultural homogenization makes it possible for a person of one culture to like something of another culture and start to follow it. Cultural homogenization will continuously grow as the content about the cultures grows on the internet. Facebook, Twitter, MySpace and blogging sites make it easy to discuss, share and communicate among people of diverse cultures. Internet usage is dominant in both developed and developing countries. This serves as a way to spread cultural ideals. Since English is the universal language of the internet, information is easily comprehended by many cross cultural people. The use of internet by a large number of people has facilitated frequent interaction and the resultant cultural exchange. The Internet could be a harbinger to the ideals of democracy and human rights in places where these ideals are not appreciated by the authorities (Hongladarom 1998). Internet promotes cultural understanding by enabling people from different cultural background and identities under conditions that are conducive to cultural exchange (Brey 4). Besides, the internet also promotes cultural fragmentation by stimulating the formation of virtual communities and groups organized around specific interests, themes or cultural identities (6). Cultural homogenization is widely considered as a way to improve rather than deter independence, preservation of culture, and general economic conditions. Common culture paves

An It Executive Is Evaluating Financing Options For A New Project That Could Significantlyincrease Company


An IT executive is evaluating financing options for a new project that could significantly

increase company

profits each year if the new project is implemented.

The cost of capital for the project is 5%

Which internal rate of return (IRR) is needed to make the project worthwhile?

– 0%

– Less than 5%

– 5%

– More than 5%


Which financing strategy involves borrowing funds that must be repaid with interest?

– Reinvesting company profits

– Issuing shares of common stock

– Leasing necessary equipment

– Issuing corporate bonds


A company needs to purchase networking equipment every month to fulfill project

hardware requirements.

Which type of financing does it need?

– Trade credit

– Accounts receivable

– Inventory

– Bank loan


What is an advantage of short-term financing?

– Restrictive loan requirements

– Increased liquidity

– Multiyear repayment terms

– Lower interest rates


A company plans to expand into new sales territories and decides to obtain a long-term


What is an advantage of long-term financing?

– Lowers leverage by paying more interest

– Increases stockholder ownership

– The interest is tax deductible

– Creditors prefer companies with lower equity levels


Sociologydig_cba45 Module 3 Theory Deviance And Society Module 3 Assessment Attempt


Sociologydig_CBA45 Module 3: Theory, Deviance, and Society Module 3 Assessment – Attempt


1. Which of the following explains why the internet is an ideal site for promoting deviant behavior? Select all that apply. Select one or more: a. It is largely unregulated b. Information is privately hosted c. It requires deviant sites be blocked by paywalls d. Information can be posted and accessed anonymously

2. According to conflict theorists, why does the digital divide exist? Select one: a. The digital divide exists primarily because of differences in infrastructure networks in the U.S. South versus the U.S. Midwest b. The digital divide exists because those who have access are those who will help further society c. The digital divide exists because of power differentials that mean the internet is not equally available to everyone d. The digital divide exists because some individuals are inherently more capable of using the internet than others

3. Which of the following explains why the internet is an ideal site for promoting deviant behavior? Select all that apply. Select one or more: a. It is largely unregulated b. Information is privately hosted c. It requires deviant sites be blocked by paywalls d. Information can be posted and accessed anonymously

4. Which of the following would a conflict theorist explain as the cause of deviance at a workplace like Select one: a. Deviant behaviors at result from social or material inequalities in the workplace b. Deviant behaviors at result from the forcing of the label deviant upon groups or individuals c. Deviant behavior at results from the role deviance plays in ultimately constructing social cohesion among the non-deviant d. Deviant behavior at results from employees internalizing management’s conception of them as deviant

5. Which of the following terms best describes the rules, norms, and values that govern the internet? Select one: a. Virtual conduct b. Netiquette

c. Social cohesion d. Virtual responsibility

6. Conflict theory is ___ Select one: a. A critique of ideological progressivism b. A critique of structural functionalism c. A complimentary theory to structural functionalism d. A complimentary theory to ideological conservatism

7. Which of the following would a conflict theorist argue about why some individuals are labeled deviant? Select one: a. Some individuals are deviant because of mental disorders b. Some individuals are labeled deviant because of the specific acts they engage in c. Some individuals are labeled deviant because they are trying to maintain social cohesion d. Some individuals are labelled deviant because those in power have the resources to define these labels

8. What was the initial reason that managers made major changes to Select one: a. Employees had begun acting deviantly, and managers decided to address this b. The company experienced an exodus of qualified individuals c. The company was bought by a foreign corporation with must stricter policies d. The industry experienced a downturn and changes were needed to survive.

9. Employees in an organization might use social networking sites or browse the internet rather than completing their tasks. This is called: Select one: a. Cyber time theft b. Cyberloafing c. Production deviance d. Property deviance

10. Something considered deviant in one society might not be deviant in another society Select one: True False

11. Which of the following reasons for deviant behavior would a conflict theorists agree with? Select one: a. Groups will act deviantly in order to ultimately pursue widely shared goals or values b. Groups will act deviantly in order to assess where the boundaries lie between acceptable and unacceptable behavior c. Groups will act deviantly in order to change their circumstances, the social structure, or react to their oppressors d. Groups will act deviantly in order to challenge the moral boundaries of society

12. Which of the following have been shaped by the internet and technology? Select one: a. Crime b. Society c. Deviance d. All of the above

13. Which of the following are associated with an Integrated Perspective theory of technology? Select one or more: a. Technology development is associated with positivist and rational systems b. Technology involves the social construction of meaning, interaction, and historical progress c. Technology involves both social and technological optimization d. Technology development often comes from soft line determinism

14. Technology can also be used to reduce instances of deviance and crime Select one: True False

15. Which of the following best describes the relationship between deviance and conflict theory? Select one: a. Conflict theory has its roots in deviance. Conflict occurs when individuals are deviant b. Deviance and conflict represent the same theoretical concept c. Deviance has roots in conflict theory. Deviance often occurs because people resist social structures that constrain them. d. Deviance has its roots in structural functionalism, which is a type of conflict theory

16. Technology has only increased crime and deviance Select one: True False

17. Businesses with high levels of deviance from employees are likely to be successful. Select one: True False

18. Which of the following best describes how cell phones have helped police officers combat crime? Select one: a. Police have implemented elaborate tracking systems of trace suspected criminals’ cell phones b. Telecommunications companies are implementing tracking devices in cell phones purchased by those with criminal records c. Cell phones make it more difficult for criminals to evade police because many criminals are not adept at using them d. Crimes are more likely to be solved when individuals with cell phones can call them in in realtime

19. Which of the following is true about deviant behavior, according to Andria Hoplight Topia? Select one: a. Deviant behavior is sporadic in nature and rather than being committed continuously is often tied to particular organizational changes b. Deviant behavior is continuous in nature and rather than being committed sporadically is often tied to organizational policy more broadly c. Deviant behavior is more likely to be committed in the context of organization’s that remain stable, changing little over time d. Deviant behavior is more likely to be committed in smaller organizations than in larger organizations

20. Which of the following are consistent with a Decision-Making theory of technology? Select all that apply. Select one or more: a. Technology development is associated with positivist and rational systems b. Technology involves the social construction of meaning, interaction, and historical progress c. Technology development results from deterministic views of engineers d. Technology involves interpretive flexibility

21. Conflict theory might best be thought of as which type of theory? Select one: a. Micro-level theory b. Meso-level c. Individual-Level theory d. Macro-level theory

22. Which of the following is a recent real-world example of a contradictory response to deviant behavior online? Select one: a. The website Twitter removed pictures of nude female celebrities but did not remove leaked e-mails from a congressman’s office b. The website Reddit chose to remove leaked e-mails from the Sony hacking incident but did not remove leaked images of nude female celebrities c. The website Facebook removed leaked images of nude female celebrities but did not remove leaked e-mails from a congressman’s office d. The website removed leaked e-mails from a congressman’s office but did not remove leaked nude pictures of female celebrities

23. Why did employees at begin to commit deviant acts? Select all that apply.Select one or more: a. After a downturn in the industry, laid off half of its employees b. implemented mandatory, non compensated overtime for many employees c. The company closed down the kitchen to save money, meaning food was no longer available for employees d. reduced employees vacation time by half

24. Which of the following are ways that employees acted deviantly? Select all that apply. Select one or more:

a. Resisting mandatory meetings b. Taking long lunches and coffee breaks c. Stealing office supplies from the company d. Circumventing building security requirements

25. Which of the following best defines cyber law? Select one: a. Specific laws relating to corporate use of the internet b. Specific laws relating to underage individuals’ use of the internet c. Specific laws relating to the internet and computer offenses, especially fraud and copyright issues d. Specific laws relating to the provision and distribution of internet services by telecommunications corporations


Negative Ramifications on Children Exposed to ITC Programs

61500 A new facet of the Internet is socialization for the new generation (Pogue, 2008). Social networking websites have become a recent fad and children especially are extremely fascinated by it. It’s a great way to keep in touch with all your friends (old and new), and other networking purposes, however, there are many ways in which they can have a negative effect on the social well being and safety of a person. In the old days, socializing meant face to face contact or phone calls with your friends. This restricted one to a set of close friends. Later, the SMS-ing phenomenon came. Ease of text messaging allowed one to keep in touch with more people. Social networking on the Internet beat them all. All your old friends from school, college, camp, and various acquaintances are present in one place and you can keep in touch with all of them. The thought does seem amazing. what’s better than to have an online community of people you wanted to be in touch with but never got the time or resources to? The Internet made it much simpler. Many people argue that replacing a real-life community with an online community is making our social skills and relationships suffer. This is an entirely different debate altogether. However, the ease of finding and making friends is posing another threat to people especially children. On these websites and chatting software, exchange of information has become very easy. Your Facebook page may include all sorts of information ranging from your date of birth to email address, phone number etc. While security settings help you hide this information from strangers or people you don’t know, many children make accounts without being knowledgeable enough about the security settings and concerns.

Facebook Useful Website For People

This research paper focuses on describing Facebook, that is the biggest social online network in the world today. Facebook is basically a website on the internet which provides social networking service to the users. The social networking service helps one to be connected with one’s friends, relatives, well-wishers and the international community of Internet users. This paper also explaines the history of launching of the college project by Mark Zuckerberg and his friends, the popularity it quickly gained and a company that was established out of it.
In this research paper the first popularity of Facebook is described as 600 million active users in 2004, these days it’s more that 1.5 billion active users per day. As a social service, Facebook is one of the most creative platforms, that uses targeting advertisement, online games, videos, suggestions which are normally based on person’s googling history, his workplace, friends and his lifestyle.
But this research paper also describes the common thoughts about Facebook, that include some disadvantages of the website. For instance, one’s virtual presence hinders one from entering the real world of social service. If one is spending more time on these types of social networking sites, there exists the high possibility for wasting time that can be used for productive purposes.
In conclusion of this paper, main opinion is suggested: Facebook is a useful social networking website because it acts the role of an innovative mode of communication in the modern world.

About privacy and confidentiality in social applications

Legal frameworks and ethical standards of various nations protect the interests of the users of social applications such as search engines and wikis in regard to their privacy and confidentiality of personal information. This includes protection of user information from unauthorized access, use or sale of confidential data by hackers. The designers and administrators of social applications are therefore mandated to ensure that private data on users is treated with utmost confidentiality. Regardless of this, the privacy and confidentiality of user information has been infringed by being exposed to unintended or unauthorized parties and used for unintended purposes by system attackers. This essay gives a critical analysis and discussion of the privacy and confidentiality of data and information within social applications including blogs, social networking applications, blogs and wikis. The paper includes a comprehensive review of literature with an aim of giving a background analysis of the research on the topic. Past literature within journals, conference and workshop papers are analyzed including the methodologies used by the investigators on confidentiality and privacy within social applications. The proposed approach for an investigation into the privacy and confidentiality of data within social applications is also presented within this essay. The paper is based on the assumption that the breach of privacy and confidentiality of users is the greatest challenge that is facing social applications.
Surveys on privacy and confidentiality within social networking applications and text chats reveal that these two aspects are considered to be an ethical standard and the recognized around which the development, maintenance and use of social applications should be based (Belanger &amp. Crossler, 2011). Qualitative studies on legal frameworks and regulations on privacy and confidentiality reveal that these aspects are considered as one of

Society Science and Technology course (STS101)

The internet has changed the way of life of Saudi nationals with the launching of social networking sites like face book, twitter, and blogs
Today media is all around, but the profound impact which the computer and internet have on Saudi population is astounding. Information technology can be seen as corner stone of current world and it has revolutionized the communicating method of Saudi nationals. Technology has reached new heights and Saudi population’s indulgence with it has given ways to explore themselves and others. In her book (Turkle 1) writes that “Technology is seductive when what it offers meets our human vulnerabilities. As it turns out we are very vulnerable indeed”. The internet has made Saudi communities to be more interactive socially culturally and economically. Today internet makes it presence in homes, workplace, and schools which enhances its usability and potentiality as a social media platform.
The social networking medium of internet like face book, twitter, and blogs has not only influenced adults but also enormously changed the way of life of youngsters. Face book, being the most popular networking site has given the population of Saudi a golden opportunity to interact with the outside world without encountering any taboos. As per (Social bakers) “ Our social networking statistics show that Facebook penetration in Saudi Arabia is 22.95% compared to the countrys population and 52.48% in relation to number of Internet users. The total number of FB users in Saudi Arabia is reaching 5906220 and grew by more than 399720 in the last 6 months”. The people of Saudi have achieved a global platform to discuss their ideas and thoughts regionally and internationally. Twitter is one social networking site which has managed to hugely awaken the spirits of Saudi Arabians. In the same manner, blogs and other opportunity to present article have made the Saudi nationals more

Business Concepts The Role of the Information Technology Department and Difference between IT System and MIS System

The first role is the provision of technical supervision in the corporation, which does not only entail the supervision of the other IT specialists but also the information systems and the communications networks. The CIO also oversees the development and execution of an excellent customer service platform relative to the organization’s practices. He/she also liaises with management teams and organizational leaders on any IT-related alterations, advances or probable approaches to enhance communication. Additionally, still under communication, the CIO maintains the corporate network infrastructure for utter connectivity and remote access. Other roles of the CIO entail participation in vendor contract negotiations, assessing and anticipating technology projects, and establishing and directing strategic and tactical objectives, initiatives and practices in the IT department. Finally, the top-level management also requires the CIO to flourish in the identification of user needs and resolution of problems.
The core roles of the Information Department, relative to the name, entail dealing with most, if not all, of the organization’s information. The first significant role entails planning, where members in the department work with the Chief Information Officer in developing an IT approach supporting the corporate culture and objectives (Linton, 2015). The planning role of the department helps in building a resilient advantage over the rest of the competitors, which they achieve through customization of software and computer systems significant in meeting the needs of other organization’s departments.
Networking is also among the roles of the department as it is the backbone of efficient communication and collaboration between departments. The IT departments operations mostly relate to the organization networks and ways of making it more efficient.&nbsp.

Data Communication and Web 2 0

Data Communication and Web 2.0 Key components of data communication Data communication basically refers to data transmission from source to destination. It has five major components, which have been summarized in figure 1 below.
Figure 1: key components of a basic data communication system (Forouzan &amp. Fegan, 2007, p. 4)
This refers to the information to be communicated from the source to the destination, and can be a picture, text, a video or an audio file.
This is the source of information and refers to an electronic device used to send the message. In most cases, devices with computing capabilities are used to accomplish this task.
It refers to the device that receives the sender’s message1.
Transmission medium
It is a channel that facilitates message transmission from the source to destination. It can be a wired channel (Ethernet cables), or wireless (radio frequencies like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi).
It comprises of rules that authoritatively control the communication between the sender and the receiver.
The overall manner that data communication is used to reduce operating costs
Companies use data communication systems to efficiently and effectively communicate with relevant parties, including customers, vendors and partners. For instance, businesses can use Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) technology to save on their international calling costs because all calls via the internet are treated as local calls, regardless of their distances (Jacobs, 2013). Besides, VOIP support video conferencing, hence firms hold meetings from their respective locations without travelling and incurring the associated costs.
The use of web 2.0 to improve business operations
To start with, web 2.0 technologies refer to the second generation World Wide Web whose focus is to enable people to share information, collaborate, and interact online. A good example of this platform is twitter.
Firms can use web 2.0 platforms to easily distribute and market their products and services, and at the same time, invite and encourage customers’ feedback and participation in their product development (McKinsey &amp. Company, 2009). This can help them enhance the quality of their products to customers’ expectations and attain a competitive advantage over their competitors.
Firms can also use web 2.0 applications to gain access to external expertise that suit their immediate needs. Take an example of LinkedIn, whereby, a firm’s manager can access a particular person’s professional profile and evaluate his/her qualifications to see whether he/she can be of any value to his/her firm.
Forouzan, B. A., &amp. Fegan, S. C. (2007). Data Communications and Networking. Miami: Huga Media.
Jacobs, G. (2013, February 15). Ways VoIP phones can help businesses reduce communication costs. Retrieved from Shoretel:
McKinsey &amp. Company. (2009). How companies are benefiting from Web 2.0: McKinsey Global Survey results. Mexico City: McKinsey &amp. Company.

Social Network Analysis

If facebook were a country, it would have been the third densely populated country in the world. Security, settings, live chats and other features are distinct of facebook, which means this site is trying regularly to improve whatever it can offer to users. Analysts say that facebook’s IT engineering is complex and an engineering marvel for other IT engineers because of its many features. This is also one of the reasons why it can provide accommodate millions of users at the same time (Dashevsky, 2014).
Facebook can be accessed through an Internet browser, like Chrome or firefox. This enables quick and easy browsing for the millions of users. Through social networking sites, users are encouraged to access the Internet twenty-four hours, seven days a week. As stated, facebook has millions of users, and so a graphical representation can be expressed in millions of users but can be simplified in the following diagram.
The graphical representation above means that any user can be “friend,” or can “chat,” contact or access to any other user. Facebook has many features for user-friendly interaction. User 1 can be accessed by as many as he/she can for as long as permitted by fellow users. the same with the rest of the users, for as long as the other users are “friends” who want to communicate with the other users. “Friends” means a user has requested other user/s that he/she be added as friend in their accounts. Facebook friends can chat, freely communicate, exchange photographs, documents, and videos, or know what the other side is doing. Group chat is also one of the features. Inside one’s account or panel are ads from businesses. Organizations and businesses can register, or possess accounts and consumers can interact with the organizations or businesses. Individuals and organizations can feature their profiles so they can communicate with the consumers or the organizations’ stakeholders.
The central figure in the website structure is the

Critically evaluate the consequences of the consumers increased expectation that news should be free for content producers advertisers and consumers

Appurtenant to the digital revolution has been the radicalisation of communication modes, with the inception of chat rooms, email, instant messaging and blogs. In turn these novel communication modes have reshaped social interaction in the contemporary social framework within the continuous movement towards global homogenous cultural paradigms and international business networks (Volmer &amp. Precourt, 2008). Indeed, Volmer and Precourt (2008) refer to the comments of a 2007 interview with Nike vice president Trevor Edwards, who commented that “gone are the days of one shoe, one advertising campaign, Now you’ve got to engage consumers on every level” (In Vomer &amp. Precourt, 2008, p.2).
A prime example of one of these levels is the immediacy of the social network Twitter, which enables instantaneous connectivity with consumers. As such, Comm et al highlight that “businesses can harness the immediacy of Twitter to innovate and build relationships like never before” (2009, p.xiv). However, whilst the social networking phenomenon clearly enables businesses a much wider level of access to potential customers. the increase in networking and peer to peer information dissemination has led to an increased expectation that news and content should be free (Shimp, 2008. Gupta, 2009). Furthermore, the increase in consumer control has led to consumers wanting more information before purchasing and the availability of free information has led to an expectation of free content (Volmer &amp. Precourt, 2008).
Accordingly, the increased consumer control and expectation of certain content being free clearly impacts the traditional method of advertising and marketing as a result of changes in consumer expectation. For example, business leader and Squidoo creator Seth Godin refers to the fact that consumers are more likely to be

“Social Networking &amp

Security: Facebook" Facebook, Youtube, Myspace, Cyworld, Twitter, Orkut etc are some of the popular social networks currently operating all over the world with the help of internet. One of the major advantages of internet related communication channels is the wide reachability. No other communication media is capable of reaching the farthest corners of the earth like the internet.
According to Shih (2009), “right this moment at least 150000000 people are interacting with friends and talking about the brands on Facebook”(Shih, 2009, p.i). Data from Forrester Research (2007) showed that “about 2/3rds of all North American youths use social networks daily, and about 1/3rd of NA adults use it at least once a month” (What makes a Successful Marketing Campaign on Social Networks? 2008). The above statistics clearly underline the value and popularity of social networks in the current world. At the same time, social networks have raised many challenges also. Like many other revolutionary products or inventions, social networks are also facing security and misuse related problems.&nbsp.
Marshable (2010) has mentioned some facts about the history of Facebook, one of the most popular social networking sites, in his article Facebook – The Complete Biography. “Facebook was founded in 2004 by a former-Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg”. He has also pointed out that “Facebook and its idea spread across the college campus within months from launching and at present, it is the second largest social networking site, second only to my space as far as traffic is concerned” (Marshable, 2010).

Analyzing a Corporate Information System

The processed information is called as Output. The output is then reviewed and processed by the appropriate members of the organisation to evaluate and refine the input. This is called feedback.
In todays environment, information and technology have become a critical component of successful businesses and organisations (Avison, 2003). Most of the organisations are now relying upon the information systems in their day-to-day operations, management decisions and other business activities.
Information technology can improve the quality of health care by providing the new ways for the patient to access the heath related information at any time and at any place. By this chapter, we are taking the first step in increasing our understanding about IT, and how IT affects the health care industry (Glickman, 2007).
IT or Information technology is basically the use of computers and software to manage information in an organization (Schneider). In some companies it is referred to as Management Information system (MIS). The basic job of any IT department in an organization is to set up systems to process information, ensure data security, create information storage and retrieval mechanism and ensure error free flow of information to the relevant stakeholders.
Early use of IT was as simple as computing the totals of the sales done by a merchant in a day. However, with growth of technology companies have been using IT more rigorously for better accuracy and speed of an activity. The growth of IT in organizations started first with the use of computers and later went on to the use of communication systems. With the growth of networking, organizations strived to implement these so as to achieve maximum efficiencies. IT today is a vehicle for making substantial changes in organizations, markets and the economy (Lucas, 2001).
The basic purpose of any organization is to either manufacture a product or to provide a service to its

The Vice Chancellor Larking University

Majority of the PCs in the college use Microsoft Operating System although some of the computers are still running on Office 97. The college has achieved a milestone in networking all the computers although not all PCs have been networked there is increasing trend of networking them. With a population of about 3000 students, the University has been thinking of providing the laptop to the student the expense of which will be reduced from their fees. There has been increased pressure to make sure that the students accept the offer of the laptops because whether they accept them or not, they will still be charged in the school fees. This has been in line with the introduction of my Course system on the university website which is used by lecturers to post notes and exercises. There has also been declining number of student who is attending lecturer since they can download everything from the internet. How can the college achieve a competitive edge through the harmonization of the usage of the internet?
The aim of the university in introducing the use of computers has been to ensure that there is an efficient delivery of services. Therefore it has come upon with a strategy of ensuring the all the administrative staff and the lectures use the same minimum IT/IS platform which is Intel PCs with 1GB memory and running XP and Office 2003. The University also aims at connecting all of them to the internet and Outlook email service. In the evaluation, this is one of the most important strategies that the university can use in order to achieve maximum use of computer technology in the university.
If the university chose to sell the existing PCs and buying new ones, then the first step would be to find a way of storing the data based on the computers and then selling all of them. Then they would come up with a procurement procedure.


The key components of this proposal include the objectives, guiding principles, methodology of implementation, a technology strategic direction, goals, objectives, and a high level schedule to direct each step in the direction of the vision. Tasks will be updated and constantly monitored to ensure progress and accountability during implementation. Technology investments will be regulated appropriately to make certain that they are on course toward the achievement of Shiv LLC’S strategic vision and goals.
Shiv LLC is a manufacturer and distributor of solar panels for the consumer market. Presently, the company is operational in three cities: Los Angeles, Dallas, and Houston. Shiv LLC intends to expand their operations rapidly due to an escalating demand for solar panels.
A devoted “cloud computing” setting shall enable Shiv LLC to merge networking and processing services in a virtual environment. Such environment shall convey a high degree of availability, business continuity, and redundancy, while simultaneously enabling roughly all information to be controlled and availed both centrally and across networks.
iv. Data, information and applications shall be accessible via the cloud network. and consequently the company shall reduce its permanent electronic and data processing servers overseas, thereby decreasing environmental impact and operational cost. The network shall be in place as an inter-branch platform.
vii. Employees shall be able to attend to tasks from their home, while travelling, or while in meetings with stakeholders. All resources they have at their desks shall be accessible to them from any part of the globe, subject to stringent security requirements and processing limitations of where they are situated and what device they are carrying.
This technology proposal shall offer a well centralized and standardized technology infrastructure and timely delivery of

Strategy and Operations

The operational level deals with production and control, inventory management, material handling, equipment maintenance policies and inspection and quality control. Tactical level deals with plant layout, structuring, equipment selections and replacement and project management. Strategic level deals with fixation of location and size of the manufacturing plants, and also deals with the structure of networking and services and developing technology supply chains (MIT Sloan School of Management, 2010).
The operations function of any company moves in the direction on what the company’s business is all about. If the organization is into a manufacturing business, then it’s an operation that produces the products. If the organization is a service provider, then operations offers the services. Operations management involves managing various segments of operations (Krannert School of Management, 2010).
The operational management provides the manager with the tools and techniques in performing the operational, tactical and strategic levels of operations in the organization that produces goods and services.
Operations management is a vital part of business that deals with the production of goods and services and engages the accountability of certifying the business operations that are effective and efficient. It is the management of resources and the allocation of merchandise and services to consumers (Technology for Future, 2010).
This process is popularly used in garages, service shops, furniture restorer, printers that produce tickets for the local social event and includes numerous precision engineers such as specialist tool makers (Slack &amp. Et. Al., 2010).
In this process identical units are produced in a group called as batches. The units in one batch may differ significantly with the other batch. Each batch is different from other as the designs are different (Caplan, n.d.).
This process is

Achieving and Sustaining Growth at Lenovo

The Company has ranked behind only two companies – Hewlett Packard and Dell in profitability for 2006. However, customer perception of the Company does not appear good on certain issues such as installation, after sales service and availability of credit, based on a survey conducted as a part of this research effort. Lenovo must improve on these aspects, as well as build upon its success factors in order to sustain its current levels of growth.
Japan, the United States and Europe represented the majority of global production and sales of computers and related products during the 2000s. One division of the computer industry is Personal Computers – which are systems with inbred processing facilities embedded in one silicon chip, and these computers are primarily intended for single users. Personal computers first appeared in the 1970s with Apple II being introduced in 1977. IBM PCs became competitive in 1981. (Snapshot). The two major types of personal Computers are PC and Macs, which are Personal Computers manufactured by the Apple Company.
In the computer industry, Japan and the United States were the largest supercomputer manufacturers. Mainframe sales dropped in the 1980s and 1990s due to the development of client/server technology, with mid-range systems developing in the 1990s. With increasing sales, IBM and Hewlett Packard emerged as the major players and Hewlett Packard’s partnership with Intel has facilitated its growth in the marketplace (Snapshot).
With an increase in globalization, smaller, cheaper, standardized systems like PCs have been gaining popularity. In an effort to improve sales volumes and reduce costs, PC companies have been entering into networking arrangements with other companies to share research and development costs. One example is that of Microsoft and Intel that worked together to develop the Net-PC and NEC’s PC operations with Packard Bell, forming a new venture known as Packard Bell-NEC (Snapshot).&nbsp.&nbsp.

Security project planning

Bull Eye Model Bull Eye Model Affiliation In the past few years, we have seen massive developments and advancements in every area of information technology. Though these advancements of technology have brought a large number of advantages and opportunities for the business organizations as well as individuals however at the same time there have emerged serious security challenges. In this scenario, information security is process of developing and putting into practice security measures in an attempt to secure information and data. In addition, a business organization can also use a bull eye model in order to analyze the information security plan as well as its existing situation of the information security attempts with respect to a number of stages presented in the bull eye model. Basically, the bull eye model allows project teams especially the project planners to find out the status of their progress with respect to their information security efforts. It tells them in which areas they need to pay more attention and expand their information security efforts and potential. Additionally, the bull eye model depends on a process of determining the project plans in a series in the context of four layers, which include policies, networks, systems, and applications. These layers are illustrated in figure1. The figure1 shows how these layers are connected with each other (CQUniversity, 2009. Joshi, 2013).
Figure 1Bull Eye model, Image Source: (Joshi, 2013)
Bull’s eye model is based on four layers which are as follows (CQUniversity, 2009. Joshi, 2013):
Policies: This is the most outer layer in the bull’s-eye diagram. Basically, these policies are defined for all the other layers such as systems and applications installed on systems.
Networks: This layer deal with the threats from public networks that get together the company’s networking infrastructure.
Systems: This layer deals with all kinds of systems that can be used by the people. In this scenario, these systems can comprise computers used as servers, systems employed for process control and manufacturing systems and desktop computers.
Applications: These applications can comprise all the software applications installed on systems
In addition, the bull’s eye model can be utilized to assess the series of actions that need to be performed to put together elements of the information security plan into a project plan. There is a close relationship between all the layers and these layers can be associated with each other in the following ways (CQUniversity, 2009. Joshi, 2013):
Until an organization does not develop, communicate and implement an effective and useable information technology and information security policy, it should not spend further resources on additional controls.
Until an organization does not control and implement an effective network it must spend all resources to attain that goal.
Once an organization implements a policy and network controls, its deployment should concentrate on the process, information, and manufacturing systems of the firm.
Once it is ensured that there is an effective policy is prepared, systems are safe, networks are secure, an organization should pay attention to the evaluation and cure of the security of the firm’s applications installed on systems (CQUniversity, 2009. Joshi, 2013).
CQUniversity. (2009). COIT 13211 Information Security – Module 10. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from
Joshi, J. B. (2013). Information Security. Retrieved June 22, 2013, from

Action #3

Action Assignment #3 Send a letter/formal email to someone who has greatly impacted your life. Tell me about the nature of the relationship you have with this person and the form of correspondence you chose for the delivery. Include a segment of the text of the letter within this assignment.
Dear Father,
I hope you have been doing well. How is your health? I am enjoying my time here in the United States and everything is going on well. I cannot complain.
Father, I wanted you to know how much I appreciate you for everything that you have done for me. I know it was a struggle in the beginning to make it happen but it all became a reality. That is a sacrifice that I know I cannot give fully but I can at least give something back to you one day.
I appreciate the support and encouragement that you have given and shown to me throughout my studies and I am truly grateful for that. The University here is great and I am learning a great deal in my classes. Thank you for always being there for me, and I promise to do my best to make my life better and also help you back at home. That is what I pray for and i will make it happen for us. My regards to you father.
2. As a leader, what would it feel like to receive a letter like this from someone you have impacted? Why do you think it is important to share these kinds of words through written communication?
As a leader, if I was to receive this kind of letter I would be privileged and thankful to know that I helped someone to a point where they could be able to help themselves. I would be privileged to have impacted someone in their lives and to see them progress well.
Written communication is important because it has a touching and lasting impact for both parties. Written communication tends to be a primary source that someone can use to speak what is deeply rooted in their heart. It exposes what we feel to the receiving party.
From a professional perspective, written communication acts as a reference for the future. It also shows professionalism in the subject matter.
3. Create a concise (200-300 words) elevator/introduction statement that you can utilize in a variety of leadership situations (networking, interviews, etc.). Make sure to personalize your statement so that you connect most effectively with the individual you are networking with during that time. Remember, your elevator statement is a representation of your professional presence and "brand."

My name is Mram. I have a Bachelor of Arts degree in psychology. I have worked in an administrative position at the New Horizons educational institution. This position motivated me to want and accept a scholarship to study for my master’s degree in leadership at the University in the United States.
During my work period at New Horizon’s educational institution, I managed to gain a lot of hands on experience and practical leadership skills that improved my administrative leadership gear. At the same point in time I also managed to work extra hours just to ensure that my work outcome was top level with the stated organizational policies.
Regardless of all this involvement at the institution, I still had time for myself to improve on my people skills that have helped me communicate better with my colleagues.
I know and firmly believe that my study skills and experiences in my previous work environment have sharpened and prepared me and they will certainly catapult me to achieve my ultimate goal in the future of becoming the Director of Schools.
Finally, I am planning to make an impact in the institution that I will be a part of with the leadership and communication skills that I have gained in my previous experience. I have the motivation, potential and positive insight to make it work. All I need is a chance to prove my worth.

Looking for a Position in IT Field in a Dynamic Working Environment

Good at generic, common Office software applications (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access)
Good at basic computer Hardware and software skills.
English and Arabic Keyboarding: Typing speed in both: 35WPM
Punctual, loyal, trustworthy, Independent, and reliable.
Very ambitious and work hard to attain my goals.
Very good operating knowledge of Windows 95/98/2000/XP
Very good with Microsoft Office 97/2000/2003/2007/ XP
Extremely fast learner and grasp concepts immediately
Extremely adept at organizing and keeping tasks/logs/daily performance results.
Understand how systems work and how to improve and fix them
Professional Accomplishments
PC Support
Responsible for troubleshooting problems (hardware, software, network, etc)
Configuration of PCs, Servers, Scanners, LaserJet, Epson printers, Xerox printers.
Responsible for system support
Provide Remote Desktop support for outside branches.
Provide Zayed Port software support.
Taking care of shifting departments and offices from A to Z with troubleshooting any failures.
Help Desk Analyst
Responsible for answering calls from Zayed Port employees and solve their problems by accessing their PCs remotely using LANDesk, Configuration Manager Consol software or by guiding them step by step what to do to solve the problem If it’s not accessed remotely.
Good knowledge of the administrators works using Active Directory© (Creating new users on the domain, giving access to certain servers &amp. give user rights, privileges depending on each employee’s work &amp. create groups to join users to it).
I am a 24-hour call to troubleshoot any PC, network and server failures.
Familiar with Routers system (installation and troubleshooting in case of any hardware problem and simple faults of the software).
Exchange 2003 with Windows Server 2003 Active Directory
Network Support
Responsible for patching network cables from the floor box to the PC and from the patch panel to the switch in the communication cabinet, with testing the connection and troubleshoot problems happened because of network failure. Did an excellent job offering system support.
Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), Internet test score 105
International English Language Testing System (IELTS band 4.5)
International Computer Driving License (ICDL) Certification
CCNA 1, 2 Networking, Router, and Routing Basics
Mar 2001 – to present Zayed Port, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Arabic: Excellent, Mother Tongue.
English: V. Good

Social Networking Sites

Social Networking Sites – A Part of Our Daily Habit
Social networking sites have become a part of our daily habit. It becomes automatic for us to log-in every chance that we get to get connected to the worldwide web and to the member’s of our social network. It has turned into a one-stop communicating device that has diversified the way we communicate. Just when we thought cellular phones and texting was innovative, the advent of social networking sites to develop into multi-faceted websites that transcend the way we use the internet. None of these sites can boast more of this than the ever so popular It has developed into the most popular social networking site and has trampled and, its previously leading and seemingly impenetrable reputation for its precedent in the arena.
Facebook has transformed our internet usage and has made it almost impossible to log out. From a small college networking site developed by Harvard dropout Mark Zuckerberg, the multi-billion dollars worth company is continuously gaining momentum. The similarity between Zuckerberg and Microsoft head honcho Bill Gates makes for an interesting side note. And when software marketing giant Microsoft bought a mere 1.6% of Facebook, speculations ignited like wildfire. Already with its worth projected at billions but to no avail anything close to that of, the comparatively fledgling dot com has exploded in terms of its marketing side and money continued to pour in. With everything paying off, it seems that sky is the limit for this company (Hamilton, par. 3).
The undoable edge of Facebook is its integration of almost everything that you could want in a website and more. CEO Mark Zuckerberg counts on the influence of friends in the way that people make their decisions. It has incorporated the inclusion of enabling users to publish the most mundane facts and tidbits of their lives to the most significant in just seconds and with the simple clicking of a button. At no other point in our life have we become more aware of the activities of our friends than today. Commenting on their posts has also become so much easier and at no extra expense. Even the more seemingly irrelevant actions that include virtually ‘poking’ a friend, sending a ‘Starbucks drink,’ a ‘flower’ etc. all became possible through Facebook. It may not make sense but it cannot be denied that just the thought itself signified that the person cared enough to bother with it no matter how trivial the act seemed or whether or not it even made sense to us.
Of course we may have preferred it if there was an actual coffee that you could have shared with your friend but when the moment comes that the two of you had the time to meet face to face, it becomes apparent that there would be more things that you could talk about because you have been constantly bombarded and intrigued by the information they themselves have shared. Face time doesn’t necessarily need to be avoided but can be enhanced through your activities in Facebook. Even games become a matter of socializing and gauge your connectivity including your friend’s willingness to accept invitations and include you in his ‘neighbors’ list including helping you out with your task and giving you gifts and all the other activities you can each do for each other in games such as ‘Mafia Wars, ‘Café World,’ ‘Pet Society,’ ‘Farmville’ and so many other role playing games made available by the website. Not to mention other arcade games such as online ‘Poker,’ ‘Scrabble’ and even classic games like ‘Super Mario’ and ‘Pac Man.’
Getting connected has progressed into a state where it has become imperative to ensure that one is still ‘on the loop’ as a manner of saying. What’s even more interesting is that more and more people on the age group of 25 and above are joining the website (Davis, par.2). This proves that it is more than just a trend that the younger age groups, most especially the teenagers, as the most valid reason for its popularity. This goes to show that the social networking site was able catch the attention of a wider variety in members. So the rants that we may read are not only regarding school or teachers but also of bosses and company policies. Even the posting of relationship status becomes a thing of interest to people. With the selections to choose from that includes single, married, engaged, in a relationship, it’s complicated and even opting not to indicate it, this becomes a matter of scrutiny and gossip.
There is no doubt that Facebook has changed the way we communicate. It is more than just a choice it is an imperative, unless you want to be regarded as living under a rock. With the means of communication that we currently have, one can only presume what could be the next. But as it is that there had been those that preceded Facebook, no one can guarantee that the site will reign forever and with that perception, what could be next and how tremendous could the innovation be to create the migration of internet traffic. Suffice to say that the changes brought to our life have become tremendous. With the younger generations growing into the social networking phenomenon, more and more advancements are sure to be generated. For the mean time, we are more than content and even awestruck by what Facebook has brought into our lives and how it augmented internet consumption.

Davis, Lisa Selin. "Does Facebook Replace Face Time or Enhance It?" 18 January 2009. Time Magazine. 4 June 2010 .
Hamilton, Anita. "Is Facebook Overrated?" 27 November 2007. Time Magazine. 4 June 2010 .

What Effects Has Social Networking Had on Our Society

A man has always been a social animal and the oldest example for man to have company and live with someone goes back to the creation of Adam and Eve. This was the first example that man could not exist alone and needs some sort of recognition and contact with peers and members of his group. Although the concept of social networking is commonly understood by millions we will briefly discuss it as a refresher.
“Social networking is the grouping of individuals into specific groups, like small rural communities or a neighborhood subdivision, if you will This is a very general definition but covers the main idea of this term. Around us, we find many groups and different social activities that take place in form of college students, co-workers, friends, and even our families. These groups are also segregated by age and interests like sports or gaming etc. In recent years the internet has brought people from different walks of life together so that they can discuss and share their views and emotions on all kind of subject areas like professional alliances, gardening, golfing and&nbsp.developing friendships. As the recent concept of ‘online social networking’, the commonly used medium is websites. They are also known as “social sites”. They mainly function as a community of people who use the internet. Although they share topics and provide online interactions amongst people of different ages they do have some issues and threats associated with them. One of the most common threats of these networking sites is theft of data and the viruses that may be spread through their usage. The most prevalent danger though often involves online predators or individuals who claim to be someone that they are not. Nonetheless, people have various options and controls through which they can keep themselves safe from these threats. It has become such a common practice that someone who may not have an account on such a social network site is considered an ‘outcast’ of sorts.&nbsp.&nbsp.

The Role of Teamwork

The Value Of Teams The Value Of Teams I am currently managing a warehouse and I am working in a team that is recognized as a functional team. Functional teams are those teams in which there is a manager and the manager has several delegates who are assigned with the responsibility of carrying out a particular organization’s function (Pride, 2012, p.296). In my case my team comprises of me as a manager and subordinates who are responsible of managing the warehouse of the organization in which I work. We are assigned with the duty of ensuring that the stocks of the organization are up-to-date and are available at the right time at the right place.
2. There is a huge difference while team communication takes place compared to communication that takes place one-to-one. In team communication a single message has to be interpreted by more than one individual while in one-to-one communication there is only one receiver of the message. The sender of the message in team communication needs to ensure that his/her message is understood by all and in one-to-one communication the sender has to only ensure that the message is understood by one individual. In case of team based communication a message may not be directly communicated to the receiver and in one-to-one communication mostly face-to-face communication takes place.
3. One of the main benefit of team work is that division of labor takes place and parts of a task is divided amongst those who can complete that part in the best possible manner. Due to this there are lesser chances of wastage and mistake. Secondly, in team work different members come up with different ways of performing a task which help in identifying new and improved methods of accomplishing tasks. The disadvantage of team work is that conflict may arise between people from different groups and subgroups may be formed within the team that may indulge in negative political behavior.
4. The first stage of team development is forming stage in which team members are brought together but are not well acquainted with each other and do not have any idea about their tasks and roles. The second stage is storming stage in which there is immense conflict between team members and they tend to gain authority and challenge the authority of the team leader. The third stage is norming stage in which team members accept each other and even accepts the authority of the leader and in this stage their roles become clearer. The last stage is performing stage in which team members become focused on their roles and work towards the achievement of the team’s goal.
5. There are various skills that are useful for becoming a successful team leader and team member. One of these skills is communication skills which will help me as a warehouse manager in communicating the vision and objectives of the organization to the team members. Another necessary skill is the technical skill which will allow me to guide my team members when they face difficulty in doing their jobs. The third important skill is the interpersonal skill which will help me in resolving conflict and help me in understanding team members in a better manner.
6. Virtual teams are those teams in which the members of the teams do not work from a specific setting and are connected with each other through means of networking such as internet and telephone. In virtual teams, the team members are located in distinct areas and work from different areas at different points in time. While in conventional teams team members work in the same setting and work at the same time with each other. For example: people working as a virtual team may located in different parts of the globe and they may be working in different time zones.
Pride, W., Hughes, R., &amp. Kapoor, J. (2012).&nbsp.Business&nbsp.(1st ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

The Virtual Community by Rheingold

There are many examples of virtual communities that serve different purposes and target different segments. For instance, for independent contractors and consultants, is a key example of a virtual community that can be utilized to assist a distributed workforce. This community provides discussion platforms, online training, and other resource areas for assistance. Moreover, another example of a virtual community is, which specifically caters to African American society. It allows the Black minority to interact, by offering email, free personal pages, chat rooms, forums, news, instant messaging, and Internet telephony, as well as online events and special promotions. Furthermore, this community features online channels that cover a variety of topics, like career, health, money, politics, news, music, beauty, love, sex, and spirituality, etc.. it also has a ‘Black Expressions’ book club (McKay 2000, p.157).
Virtual communities go far and beyond to cover all segments, for example, for gaming and play station lovers, Sony’s Play Station Network (PSN) is a primary example, which keeps the players stay connected through online multiplayer games, tournaments, and competitions, PlayStation Store, and forums where users can create and share content with other members of the PSN. Users can even share text as well as audio and video messages with friends and family. This community also allows members to enjoy downloads on PlayStation Portable (PSP) and PlayStation 3 (PS3). Moreover, the network conducts different events, general discussions, and forum games, as well as music, videos, photos, comics, and network technical solutions, etc. (PlayStation Network Explained, 2010).
Virtual communities, besides serving other groups of people, do not miss out on kids’ interests. is an example of a virtual community for kids, where kids can make friends, play games, win prizes, design a home, shop, surf, and learn a lot. Kids can participate in discussion forums, post polls, share pictures and do a lot of stuff. Besides this, there are also health-related virtual communities. an example is the Le Club, which is a virtual community for women of all ages and backgrounds, focusing on their health and fitness. Members can participate in discussions, share personal stories, and seek health advice, etc. (, 2010).
Other social networking communities include Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter, which are the most common virtual communities at present.


This trend first came forth during the 1990s, when companies were trying to outsource non-core business tasks to specialist firms that cost less, which meant giving out a lot of information to smaller groups of contractors in different parts of the globe. It was like inviting outsiders into their company to help in finding innovations and solutions to current problems. This was a great fundamental change that spread among all companies, a business breakthrough made possible by Wikis. The Wiki platform has been one of the widely used Web 2.0 technologies. Wikis are web-based software that allow Internet users to edit data and other material (e.g. Wikipedia). So, the business model was named Wikinomics (Dawe, 2009).
According to Don Tapscott, an expert on business-strategy and a co-author of Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything, companies have realized that they have to connect to their customers and listen to what ideas they can offer. It means that companies have to interact with the outside world and gather ideas from the outside to use for new products or product improvement. This business breakthrough positions companies who are already using it in their strategies to face today’s changing economy with ease and gear themselves towards success (Dawe, 2009). With the time’s fast-paced global marketplace, successful collaboration is the answer to achieving a competitive advantage in the business field, and Cisco has through forward regarding mass collaboration.
Cisco is known to be the worldwide networking leader that changes the way people connect, communicate and collaborate with each other. It is a multinational corporation headquartered in San Jose, California. It manufactures switches, routers, and other networking and communications hardware both for business and home usage (St. James Press, 2000).
Cisco Systems was founded in 1984 by Len Bosack, Sandy Lerner, and Richard Trojano in

Operating System in Digital Machines

At the foundation of all system software, the operating system performs basic tasks such as controlling and allocating memory, prioritizing system requests, controlling input and output devices, facilitating networking, and managing files. It also may provide a graphical user interface for higher-level functions. For larger systems, an operating system has greater responsibilities and powers. In that case, it behaves like a traffic cop. the operating system makes sure that different programs and users running at the same time do not interface with each other. An operating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system. Operating systems typically have four major components: process management, Input/Output (I/O) device management, memory management, and file management. Various services performed by the operating systems in any computer (digital machine) are. process management, memory, management, disk and file systems, networking, security (internal and external), graphical user interfaces and device drivers.
Basically operating systems performed two types of roles in a digital machine. provide standard library (abstract resources of computer system) and resource coordinator (manager). The first things come here what is a resource. it is anything that is valuable to a system such as CPU, memory, disk, etc. The advantages of the standard library are. allow applications to reuse common facilities. make different devices look the same. and provide higher-level abstraction. As a resource coordinator operating systems provide the following advantages. Virtualizes resources so multiple users or applications can share, Protect applications from one another and Provide efficient and fair access to resources. Below is the roles of the operating system is discussed as an extended machine and a resource manager.

Effects of the Social Networking on the Web

The history of social network communication can be traced back to the periods when people made friends in the past few years through the making of pen pals whereby these people would maintain long term and long-distance relationships without actually having seen each other.
The recent developments in the online social network domain have created more room for the development of the capacity to communicate more easily with families and friends in far off distances and in different geographical locations on the earth’s surface. Despite all seeming advantages that have come with the use of social networks, recent researches in the domain show that the system has had negative challenges alongside the positive effects on the way people interact and relate with each other.&nbsp.
On a positive note, the network domain has made communication between various people in different regions of the world more effective and efficient. This has been made possible by the use of emails where people can send and receive mails online, besides, the mails can be sent using either a computer connected to the internet or just an intranet, mobile telephones, fax machines among others. Compared to the past, the use of internet sources to communicate among various people around the world has proved to be cheaper and reliable. It takes less than a minute to send an email, a short text on the phone or to fax somebody who is very far away from the other.
Beer argues that in the olden days before the invention of networking, sending and receiving simple messages was a rather hard task to complete especially when the distances involved were great. The messengers would take a number of days or even months to reach their destinations a factor that could lead to the loss or distortion of the messages before they reached the intended recipients. This problem has been solved by the oncoming of the networking process.

Social Networking

Social networking can be termed as an act of getting connected to and participating in a network of users connected virtually via a network.&nbsp.
Advantages of Social Networking:
Keeps individuals up-to-date with the latest happenings throughout the world.
Enables the spreading of information at incredibly fast speeds.
Enables users to get connected free of cost and in real-time environment irrespective of their physical locations.
Enables sharing of thoughts and ideas with individuals all over the world without having to get mobile physically.
Enables you to disguise yourself if you are concerned about your personal identity being revealed to external individuals.
It is addictive. Gets you glued to all the status updates of your friends without having the realization of the passing time and other valued tasks.
Lack of Anonymity. Youngsters who constitute the major part of the social networking users often get harassed as they share their personal data with unknown users online.
Effects of social networking on the society can well be quoted in the following words of Voytovich (n.d.):
Communication with anyone and anywhere in a much more timely fashion
Meet new people, make new friends
Join groups of the same interest
Increase of knowledge from communicating with other people
Builds self-esteem
The way for disabled to communicate
Purposeful loss of privacy
Very small control over information flow that may affect your privacy
The ability for someone to use the information about you that may have an effect on you
Increased movement of social interactions from the physical domain to the digital domain
Unprotected communication which may harm individuals” (Voytovich, n.d.)
The reference to the case:
The most interesting part of the case under consideration is that it is the latest cyber crime. A woman has been sentenced to two years in prison for selling counterfeit software. The software had a retail value of over $2 Million. It was sold by the fraudulent lady for more than $400,000. She would be subjected to three years of supervised freedom once her sentence of prison is over.
The case is interesting because it enlightens the steps being taken to safeguard intellectual property by the U.S. Government. In my opinion, it was a serious crime because it involved the stake of various software giants like Microsoft, Adobe, Intuit, Symantec etc. Any pardoning in such a case could’ve led to various subsequent similar attempts.

Process of (research) investigation of geodetic Engineering for the designing of high speed (train) main railway line

Geodetic Engineering for the Design of High Speed Train Geodetic Engineering for the Design of a High Speed Train To makea remarkable improvement in the transport sector, there is a need to keep networking places. This is to improve the movement from one place to another and make transport even cheaper. Since the world has been concentrating on construction of roads in most of their economic activities, reverting to construction of railway lines would be an improvement to the transport system (Fischinger, 2000). In most of the developed countries, many people have reverted to using rail as a form of transport. This is due to the development of the networking in these countries, especially in relation to railway transport. In many instances, high speed trains reconsidered cost effective as compared to road transport. This is partially due to the volume of the train, which carries a large number of people at a time. Similarly, trains do not encounter traffic as they have exceptional rail lines. Therefore, use of geodetic railway constitution is a positive approach towards improvement of the railway connection (Torge, 2001). Banking on this system would improve the railway transport to a high notch.
In making this a reality, transport engineers have to embark on various activities that are geared towards establishment of an affordable transport system. First, they have to engineer tracks, where the transport system will be based. These tracks are made through all the basic terminals. The issue of making terminals is to ease movement of the people from one place to another. Apparently, terminals are the places where people wait to board the transport system. Therefore, terminals that are centrally placed make it easier to access the transport system. This is followed by analyzing and designing all the models that are required in the transport system. This includes land, air and sea. This will ensure the transport system is not affected by these natural features. For instance, some railway tracks are drilled through mountains, tunnels and rocks (Sansò, 2006). This is an involving task which requires highly credentialed engineers. Therefore, engineers have to plan, design, and manage and operate the railway system at high standards while offering top notch services.
Geodetic engineers have a task in using technology to make an improvement in the railway system. They use various technologies to measure and develop inventory research on land and other resources to ensure each is not affected while constructing rails. However, many of these factors were not considered during the construction of railway lines. As such, many issues were cropping up as most of the tracks were not following the stipulated guidelines. To reduce the occurrence of such incidences, the European Terrestrial System stipulated guidelines, which should be used in railway construction. This was an approach that would give fresh rules that would improve the construction of railway lines. The specified requirements were elaborate and straight to the point, giving open views on railway construction (Woldman and Frick, 2000). The coordination of these guidelines was the way forward as it would improve the construction of railway lines, to last for a longer time. Similarly, the guidelines would ensure the rail lines would be used for a long time.
The European Terrestrial Reference System (ETRF 89) stated the various procedures that should be used in railway construction. First, they embarked on data structure, which was the initial part of the project. The data structure explained all the requirements that would be used in railway construction. The data structure included feasibility studies, research and gathered information about railway construction. Secondly, there was the standard interface. This meant that geodetic construction of rails would be graded to ensure the standards are met (Seeber, 2003). For instance, the distance between the two rail lines should be standardized in all the tracks. This would make it easier to construct rail lines throughout the intended area.
Fischinger, M. (2000). Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering on the doorstep of the millennium: on the occasion of its 80th anniversary. Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, 2000.
Sansò, F., &amp. Gil A. J. (2006). Geodetic Deformation Monitoring: From Geophysical to Engineering Roles : IAG Symposium Jae ́n, Spain, March 17-19 2005. Volume 131 of International Association of Geodesy Symposia. New York: Springer.
Seeber, G. (2003). Satellite Geodesy. London: Walter de Gruyter,
Torge, W. (2001). Geodesy. London: Walter de Gruyter.
Woldman, E. N., &amp., Frick J.P. (2000). Woldmans Engineering Alloys Materials data series. London: ASM International, 2000.

Dangers for a Society Depending on Computer Screens for Communication Rather Than FacetoFace Communication

Dangers for a Society Depending on Computer Screens for Communication Rather Than Face-to-Face Communication
Computer is considered as the most amazing invention of 20th century. With the passage of time, further innovations were made in the use of this technology, for example, internet, chatting on live messengers, use of web cameras and social networking sites. This all technological advancement brought about rapid changes in human life. With this technology, one can interact with thousands of people and share whatever he likes with a faster pace. Putting aside all the marvels of technology, it has also done a lot of damage to human life style. Lacking physical activities, laziness, obesity, reduction in social gatherings are the few setbacks given by this technology.
Introduction of Internet technology did miracles in enhancing the communication technology worldwide. There are various modes of communication that internet has allowed to its users such as usage of chat rooms, messengers, social networking websites e-mail accounts and much more. Now people can interact with one another much easily as compared to previous times. However, these modes of communication have created a problem that is, people like to interact with one another only through computer screens and face-to-face communication has decreased extensively due to which, the society has to face some social problems.
Tamyra Pierce (2009) in the article, “Social Anxiety and Technology: Face-to-face Communication versus Technological Communication among Teens” informs that there is social change in people’s correspondence with another. The teenagers regard interacting and communicating through computerized resources as much convenient and effective as compared to face-to-face communication. Due to this consideration, people are moving away from social gatherings and are becoming lazy. They are making themselves to lead a machine like life, which is really problematic for the development of society.
Due to communicating through computer screens in place of face-to-face communication, the physical activities of people are also reduced. This is a major social concern. Tanson (2003) informs that lack of physical activities because of internet usage causes obesity in adolescent people. People consider their computerized communication with one another as enough and try to stick to their computers in place of going out and meeting people in person. The outdoor activities are decreased due to which, the whole society is affected negatively. The use of internet for communication makes one socially deprived as due to internet usage extensively, only online communication is left and no face-to-face communication is possible. As a result, people face problems of isolation and loneliness that are a major concern for the society.
Overall, it can be said that at one hand, communication through technology has eased the life but on the other hand, it has deprived people of their outdoor activities. Reduction in social gatherings, laziness, obesity, lack in outdoor and physical activities and social deprivation are some of the dangers that can be there because of extensive communication through computer screens rather than face-to-face communication.
Works Cited
Pierce, Tamyra. Social anxiety and technology: Face-to-face communication versus technological communication among teens. Computers in Human Behavior 25 (6) (2009): 1367-1372.
Tanson, Wendy. Adolescent obesity largely caused& lack of physical activity, study finds. UNC School of Public Health, 2003. Accessed on 4th March 2010 from

Capstone Business Project

Interactive webinars and workshops would be invaluable. Thirdly, business networking would see the company targeting at least 25 percent of the market share. Furthermore, branding the company would turn the fortunes. Fourthly, through a strong recruiting process, the company aims at tapping experience marketing professional to add to the talent pool for the steady growth of the company. Finally, the company aims at quality sales through defining the target market.
To achieve these objectives, the company would draft a strategic plan. Understanding the market and potential opportunities would be analyzed using the SWOT analysis—S (strength), W (weakness), O (opportunities), T (threats). Besides, the goal-setting theory is invaluable. It defines the outcomes of a project through goals, effort, persistence, and cognition. Additionally, the company would invest in human resource strategy through having the right people in place, the right conglomeration of skills, right attitude and behavior by the employees and developing employees in the most productive way. Nonetheless, capital is an important factor in the success of any business. As Walker and Brown (2004) observe, through proper financial planning, financial lifestyle can be used to assess success of a business.
Walker, E., &amp. Brown, A. (2004 ). What Success Factors are Important to Small Business Owners? International Small Business Journal, 22 (6). 577-594. DOI: 10.1177/0266242604047411.

Do Ads Work on Social Networks

Many social media analysts say that even if the brand is not online, it will still be discussed there by the consumers. One popular example is about a video on YouTube by Dave Carroll about his eight-month struggle to get compensation from United Airlines for a damaged guitar. The video was viewed by 6.6 million people and it became a Public relations nightmare for the company as it reached the news on television as well.
The companies have now realized the need to change the conventional ways of pushing ads to consumers. Consumers are no more interested in seeing your ads. They would rather enjoy if they can interact with your brand.
Southwest Airlines, announced a 2-day fare sale through twitter last July instead of taking the paid-advertising route. This resulted in two days that generated the highest traffic to the airline’s website and two days which had the highest revenue in the airline industry.
While the article talks about some airlines that are actively engaging their customers on social media, there are many that think they don’t need it or do not find the time to do so.
(Unnikrishnan &amp. Robert, 2010)
There are a lot of ways through which you can use social media to advertise your brand. Some do it subtly by adding their banner ads to their websites or blogs, some engage the users in interactive discussions on their fan pages, while some upload their ads on YouTube for consumers to watch, some post viral videos and blogs over the internet. Andrea Ahles in her article ‘In the airline industry, social media marketing takes flight’ writes that companies are starting to move beyond open social-networking sites like Facebook or Twitter and creating their own brand communities. This gives them a chance to connect with their consumers directly and they advertise freely through their website. Miyuru, a social media consultant for airlines says that it is very important for airlines to market online. The customers are online most of the time, be it from their computers or mobiles.

Business Bazaar Proposal by Alfaraj Company

The event is titled “An Investor-Consumers Forum for a Cancer-free Abu Dhabi’’ and will be hosted in Zayeed cricket stadium in Abu Dhabi owing to its large parking area on the west and east side of the stadium and athletic lane. The event is supposed to portray Abu Dhabi especially, a western region as an investment hub while increasing awareness about breast cancer by running for cancer awareness.
The previous year’s occasion for Abu Dhabi Investor Consumers Forum/Exhibition drew in more than 500 investors both internationally and locally. The event was welcomed by the stakeholders and the sponsors which included the Fairmont Hotel, and Abu Dhabi distribution company (ADDC). Marketing of the event was done as an exhibition for entrepreneurial abilities and a forum for networking professionals, businesspersons and consumers alike. The event yielded much income from the purchase of wares by attendees.
We, therefore, extend our special invitation to Baynounah Institute to be the exclusive sponsor of this year’s event that will include women marathon to increase cancer awareness. It will represent a free investment workshop and women marathon for breast cancer awareness. This will come with additional rights to the sponsors like being included in the advertisements both print, oral and view as the main sponsor. It will also give Baynounah Institute a chance to strategically position its tent and get mentioned in by every usher during the event to any new visitor.
We are already working on increasing our social media presence as a way of doing publicity for the event. We have also designed banners bearing this year’s theme together with a portion we are locating to the name of the sponsor. Once we get a confirmation of the sponsorship, we will just place the institute’s name and print them in bulk. The same also applies to the print and television advertisements.

Best Practices inTraining and Development

Your full February 14, Summary The article discusses the implementation of best practices in employee training and development that guarantee the success of an organization. The article starts with a discussion of components of a successful employee learning experience, in which the first and foremost component is the implementation of a clear employee training and development program. The organization itself, the management, and the employees, all play important roles in employee training and development. Job description should be well crafted. Individual development plans must be laid in which employees should be given opportunities to learn from everyday activities. The individual development planning process includes self-assessment, assessment of current position and work environment of the employee, identification of development activities, and finally putting the development plan in action. Furthermore, the article talks about different cost-effective practices in training and development. These include on-the-job experience that involves committees, conferences and forums, critical incident notes, field trips, job aids, job expanding opportunities, job shadowing, learning alerts, peer-assisted learning, stretch assignments, and special projects. Other practices include coaching, mentoring, networking, and performance appraisal. Classroom training practices are also important, and these include courses, seminars and workshops. Off-the job training and development can be provided through courses offered by educational institutions, professional associations, reading groups, and self paced independent learning. In short, the article talks about some of the best practices in training and development of employees. If implemented correctly, these practices can prove to be very fruitful for the progress and productivity of the organization in the long run.

Works Cited Learning, Training &amp. Development. Community Foundation of Canada , 2014. Web. 14 Feb 2014. .

Use of ict

Positive ICT investments and policies are undoubtedly beneficial to HEIs, even if ICTs have not managed adequately to replace classroom-based instructing models. Generally, ICTs offer effective access for various target learners besides academically termed as vehicles meant for enhanced pedagogical experiences. This is especially to distance learners whose separation between them and their respective HEIs id due to space as well as time (Surry, Stefurak &amp. Gray, 2011, p.45). In most HEIs, some of the major ICT facilities used include,
Together with the ever-rampant utilization of ICTs in basic education, most students get to campus with higher hopes in terms of technology uses and corresponding pedagogies. The gaps that exist between higher educational practices and student social media abilities are likely to broaden unless respective administrators ensure educational practices that bring about adequate reforms. Generally, from a pedagogical outlook, network technology such as social media tools avails greater potentials for both collaborative and interactive learning. Tools that employ networking knowhow avail students with an open as well as an innovative development platform (Surry, Stefurak &amp. Gray, 2011). In addition, it also avails an opportunity for aiding collaborative and interactive ways of learning mainly for those having exceptional needs (Surry, Stefurak &amp. Gray, 2011, p.46).
The enhancement of a wireless knowhow such as mobile wireless expertise has ensured generation of a significant level of excitement among academicians and practitioners. Reason being, it leads to a shift in the academic environment from out-dated settings to mobile learning (m-learning) settings (Ehlers &amp. Schneckenberg, 2010, p.14). Certainly, augmenting numbers of HEIs provide courses using wireless technology (for example, m-learning) as an substitute to learning and teaching tools. However, despite such interests in

Social Learning Approach to Organizational Behaviour

The business model that the entrepreneur comes up with has to show the way he is to get the human resources to assist in meeting the identified goals and objectives (Stevenson&amp.Jarillo, 1990).&nbsp.He outlines the resources needed in fulfilling the need identified. The entrepreneur is often responsible for the success of the business identified and its failure as well. therefore, he has to plan on how to manage the business amidst all the problems and challenges in the immediate and external environment.
The entrepreneur often operates in some kind of an entrepreneurship ecosystem whereby he has to plan and develop tools that he can use to obtain additional funding and other resources needed in the achievement of the identified goals and objectives. For instance, he has to prepare his business plan in order to get assistance from the bank and other financial systems.
Entrepreneurship has caused the growth and development of small business initiatives to become large international ventures (Stevenson, 1997). This has led to the great success of these multinational corporations that have been aided by resourceful and able networking among the stakeholders involved and the investors (Stevenson &amp. Jarillo, 1990). During the course, one of the areas that interested me was the development of social capital. This is because, in the long term, it helps in achieving great internationalization in many business activities across countries of the world. This paper summarizes all that I have learned, showing the areas that have been of great interest to me.
Stevenson &amp. Zarillo (1990), have been effective in their research about the different ways in which people can start and manage business activities. According to this research, entrepreneurship is an important activity through which people can identify and exploit their diverse potential in solving various needs in the society and corporate world. In the same way, Stevenson (1997), outlines the six different dimensions on the subject of entrepreneurship.

Integrated Service Digital Network

Integrated Service Digital Network
Frame Relay
This is a telecommunication service, which is designed for cost- effective transmission of data. This data transmission is for alternating traffic amid local area networks (LAN) and amid endpoints in a Wide Area Network (WAN). It puts data in a changeable-size unit named a frame. Then it leaves some essential error rectification (data retransmission) to the endpoints that accelerate overall transmission of data (Dean, 2010).
Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN)
This is an original internet service of high-speed. It sparked the development of high-speed internet amid service givers in the 1990’s. Moreover, it revolutionized the use of the internet. Much similar to its precursor, the service of dial-up internet, ISDN uses a phone line. In addition, it put the standard for the telephone data service (Dean, 2010).
Cable Modem
It enables the hook up of the local cable TV line to a PC and receives data close to 1.5 Mbps. This device is addable to or can be integrated by a set-top box, which provides a TV set with Internet access channels. Commonly, they are provided as part of the service of cable access. Furthermore, they are not bought directly and set up by the subscriber (Sobh, Elleithy, &amp. Mahmood, 2010).
Other Network Transmissions
Other network transmissions include (Ec-Council, 2009):
Repeaters (Multiplexers and Concentrators)
Gateways and Bridges
Switches, Hubs, Wireless Access Points, and Routers
Network Adapters
Conventional Dial-up Modems
Satellite Modems
DSL Modems
ISDN Modems
As the Sr. System Administrator of Minnesota Consulting Group, I would recommend RFID (radio frequency identification), portable cell phones and handheld inventory scanners to Star Clothing. This is because the company can use RFID in reducing theft. Moreover, the company can also use handheld inventory scanners in the control of inventories. In addition, the portable cell phones are cost-effective ways of communications between different departments of Star Clothing.
Dean, T. (2010). Network+ guide to networks. Boston, Mass: Cengage Course Technology.
Ec-Council, (2009). Secure Network Infrastructures. Course Technology Ptr.
Sobh, T. M., Elleithy, K., &amp. Mahmood, A. (2010). Novel algorithms and techniques in telecommunications and networking. Dordrecht: Springer.

Four Arguments topics

Four Arguments Research topics Research Topic Social networking sites have become an indispensable part of modern life. Still, their use has been also related to a series of risks, including the exposure of private life to an unknown audience. The studies developed in this field lead to contradictory findings in regard to the actual necessity of social networking today. The introduction of limitations in the use of social networking sites may be necessary. Which would be the most appropriate strategies for managing the above problem and how the consent of the public for this initiative could be secured?
Research Topic 2
The strong turbulences in the global market, as a result of the recent financial crisis, have led many firms to change their HR strategies. Flexibility has become a key characteristic of job agreements. In regard to the workplace, flexibility can be related to different aspects of work, such as the duties incorporated in each role, the hours of work or the place of work. However, flexibility as an aspect of the workplace has been negatively criticized, especially when it threatens the rights of employees. The role of HR managers in managing flexibility in the workplace should be studied at the level that the expansion of conflicts across a business, as a result of too flexible job agreements, could harm the performance of business, either in the short or the long term.
Research Topic 3
The recession of 2008 has highly affected the global market. Businesses have tried to secure their position by introducing strategies for increasing their competitiveness. Various tools have been employed for promoting the competitiveness of businesses in different industries. However, not all these tools have performed as expected. In this context, confronting competitors would be a challenging task for firms of all sizes. On the other hand, the success of many businesses in markets worldwide shows that increasing competitiveness is feasible even under strong market pressures.
Research Topic 4
The effects of business activities on the environment have been extensively reviewed in the literature. It seems that business operations necessarily affect the environment but not at the lame level. firms with extensive supply chain and production networks are more likely to harm the environment, even if they have taken measures for promoting sustainability. On the other hand, MNs are difficult to be controlled, as of the mode and effects of their operations. At this point, the following question appears: why existing measures for protecting the environment from business operations have failed? In addition, are there tools or frameworks that can secure the elimination of accidents like the one in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010?

Chinese Media

In the endeavor to maintain their hold on the conventional media, the Chinese government has blocked the popular sites of facebook, twitter, and YouTube amongst other sites that are a platform for free expression. The Chinese people are left with the option of building their own sites that conform to the policies of their government. One of these sites is Sina Weibo. This site has been revolutionary since its inception in the year 2009. Much of its success is owed to the closure of Twitter, in China, around that year. In order to show the significance Weibo in the context of Chinese media freedom, this paper will analyze its role in reporting the high-speed train collision in Wuhan. Weibo has been instrumental in propagating social justice, as such. it has become a precipitate of government accountability that has been lacking in China.
Sina Weibo has registered approximately two hundred and fifty million users to date. Chinese Weibo has the largest following in comparison to any one of the global sites operating in the world at the moment. Owing to the large Chinese population, Sina Weibo is larger than the sum of all other sites combined. Out of this, ten percent are frequent users on a daily basis. Ten percent of two hundred and fifty million is quite a considerable figure. It has become a platform of discussion of the most contagious issues pertaining to China. Most of these, however, arise from social, political and cultural issues. This is contrary to the social sites in the west. Western sites are primarily social interaction enhancing mediums. This is exemplified by the interactions on Facebook. The power of Sina Weibo is sourced from its function as a major forum for hosting public opinion. Unlike Twitter which is mainly a social networking site, its counterpart Sina Weibo mainly focuses on public opinion of ongoing affairs. It achieves this by providing for its users a free opportunity to participate in public affairs. An avenue via which the public could voice out its concerns has been all but lacking.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Ecommerce and emarketing for Book Bunkers You are an emarketing and ecommerce consultant Mary and Joe Johnson the owners of Book Bunker have hired you to help them create a comprehensive plan to utilize social networking in their marketing and adv

The paper then moves on to the various providers of social networking services and covers such companies as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn among others, as well as how Book Bunker could benefit from these sites. Finally, the paper gives recommendations on the social media strategy that Book Bunker can institute to increase bookstore efficiency and increase their online presence.
The social media is made up of websites and online tools, which encourage individuals to interact with other people like journalists, brands, companies and businesses, as well as forming communities via the creation, sharing, and publishing of content. It is a two-way stream of communication, as compared to traditional media where publishing of a message is done via one-way communication to the masses, for instance newspapers, television, and radio. The social media is ever changing at a rapid rate and takes on different forms that include content communities like YouTube and Flickr, micro-blogs and blogs such as Twitter, social networking sites like MySpace and Facebook, and virtual worlds such as second life. This paper aims to provide information on the utilities of social media and web 2.0 to business, provide various sites that Book Bunker could use, and finally recommend a strategy for use by Book Bunker.
Companies and businesses utilize social media in different ways. They can use it for monitoring what is being said concerning the company and its brand on the social web sphere, for broadcasting news concerning the company, and also for connecting the company to its clients since it is a form of two way communication that allows the company to listen to its customers (Tuten, 2008). Social media also allows for networking with other companies for collaborative purposes, as well as allowing businesses to use it for interaction and servicing of its clients on an online forum that is customer service. Market research can also be carried out using social media after the company

Advance Career Development Strategies

There many ways a parole officer can create, maintain and enhance his professional network, some of the strategies for this purpose are enlisted below.
a) Join a professional organization or association to be a part of your professional community.
b) Keep close contact with your past, present and future clients t
c) Ensure an extensive use of technology, especially through social media and email.
d) Devise an action plan for the promotion of your professional contacts and a feedback mechanism.
e) Ensure active participation in social gatherings, ceremonies and welfare activities.
These activities are important because customer care can make a difference in a competitive environment and all of these activities show your concern and interest in prospective clients’ problems. The association not only provide a communal space and networking platform but it also keeps you updated on policy matters and legal issues of your interest along with several training programs that can give you an added advantage in the professional career.

Selling online

These websites are known as social sites. It is in fact an online community consisting of various kinds of internet users. The objectives and motives of each social networking websites are different from one another. The websites without any focus are often referred as “traditional”. At present, some of the most popular social networking websites are Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, Friendster and LinkedIn.
The first Social networking system appeared a decade ago. The evolution of social networking is rather fascinating because nothing over internet had evolved to excellence in such a short span of time as the social networking did. But social networking has clearly defined traces of its evolution. The initial motive of social networking over internet was to connect to old school friends or other childhood friends. Following such beginner networking sites, many other providers evolved with similar motives. Unlike the objective ten years before, social networks presently are a Wikipedia of objectives. because it is been put to various innovative uses by many. Some of the factors that have enabled the evolution of social networking are as follows:
Affordable internet: Affordable internet at home is one of the major factors that helped the growth of social networking websites. Over year’s internet have become more and more affordable even for a basic family. Less are the days where people sit for long hours in the internet café’s for browsing through their favorite websites. Most families have internet at their home. The average internet usage per person in 1996 was ½ hour per month while as of 2011 it is 27 hours per month. This figure could define the massive change that had happened in the domain.
High speed connection: Not only has internet become affordable over years but it has also become faster than before. As per reports, it took around 30 seconds for an internet page to load in 1996 while the

Security consultant

Network Risk Assessment Describe the purpose of a risk assessment, risk scope and identify critical areas for an assessment.
With the advent of computer networks and robust IT resources, the prevalence of malicious network activities such as hacking presents significant risks to the operational integrity of a company. A secured company network is that which has instituted a set of procedures to safeguard the fundamental networking infrastructure from misuse, disclosure of critical information, or simply access by unauthorized persons. Risk assessment is a proactive network security measure that serves to identify risks, threats, and vulnerabilities that could endanger the integrity of company’s operations. Secondly, this assessment forms the basis upon which these risks, threats, and vulnerabilities are prioritized in accordance with criticality. Remediation of the identified risks and vulnerabilities can then be effectively budgeted. Also, it is from this risk assessment that compliancy with new IT security laws and regulations can be achieved to avoid legal issues. Essentially, a properly conducted risk assessment offers a basis through which the company may roll out a set of procedures aimed at protecting company’s assets, which for this case include hardware, software, and critical information.
The scope describes what is covered and what is not covered in the assessment by identification of the needs to be protected, sensitivity of the information protected, and the extent of the protection. Defining the scope of network security assessment is important as it forms the basis of understanding the budget and level of security defined by the policies of the company. Understandably, the scope is a factor of criticality of information that a company has or seeks to protect from damage, manipulation, or malicious disclosure to the public. Areas covered include type of operating systems in used in the computers, access control permissions, port scanning, wireless leakage, firewall testing, intrusion detection testing, and service pack levels. A thorough assessment of these areas identifies the loopholes through which company’s critical information may be compromised. The aim is to proactively protect these areas from malicious attacks or access.
Select risk assessment methodology and give your rationale behind the one you chose.
OCTAVE (Operationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability Evaluation) is a commonly used methodology for strategic assessment and planning of network security risks. The OCTAVE methodology is a technique used to analyze a company’s information security requirements. OCTAVE Allegro is the latest development and is widely used by the CERT Division. While older versions, which are OCTAVE and OCTAVE-S, are in operation, OCTAVE Allegro is the most preferred for the following reasons:
First, OCTAVE Allegro is a self-directed approach in the sense that it allows small teams of a company’s human resource across business units and IT to collaborate in addressing the security needs of the company. Generally, a successful business risk assessment methodology should allow for maximum collaboration. Secondly, the approach is flexible as it can be tailored to the company’s specific risk environment, security and resiliency goals, and skill level. Lastly, the evolved nature of OCTAVE transforms a company to an operational risk-based perception of security and addresses technology in business setup. OCTAVE can be modified easily and, in conjunction with the aforementioned benefits, can be employed as the fundamental risk-assessment component or rather process for the rest of the other approaches.
Violino, B. (2010). IT risks assessment frameworks: real-world experience. Retrieved from:–real-world-experience.html

The Challenges and Opportunities of Social Media

Many contemporary businesses have social media as their main agenda. In spite of the growing popularity of social media among today’s business executives, not many have a firm understanding of the real meaning of social media.

Social media can be defined as a group of applications based on the Internet that dwells on the technological and ideological foundations of Web 2.0 and enables the development and sharing of the User Generated Content (UGC).

Social media applications can be categorized in a variety of ways and Youtube, Facebook, Wikipedia, and Second Life are some examples of social media applications.
Collaborative projects and blogs have the lowest score with respect to media richness and social presence.

The score of blogs is higher than that of collaborative projects with respect to self-presentation and self-disclosure.

UGC’s most democratic manifestation is collaborative projects.

Blogs provide business executives with the opportunity to keep the stakeholders updated on the latest advancements and offerings made by the company whereas the challenges associated with it include the ability of stakeholders to provide damaging information about the company.

Social networking sites provide the opportunity of conducting marketing research and creating brand communities, and can even be used as distribution channels.

Virtual game worlds are used for in-game advertising and communication campaigns.

Content can be created and sold over virtual social worlds in exchange for Linden Dollars.

To make the best use of social media, business executives should choose it carefully, decide whether making or buying it is better, create alignment between social media activities, plan media integration, and establish access controls for the stakeholders.

Relationships over social media can be fostered by being active, interesting, humble, unprofessional, and honest.

Networking Infrastructure

For instance, if a distributed denial of service threat attack a website, the traffic can be routed from the other available locations on a different network segment. Moreover, the MX record demonstrates where an email needs to be delivered. Furthermore, TXT records are utilized for holding any type of text.
The Domain Name System is focused around the idea of name determination that is a key capacity of TCP/IP systems. Such systems are utilizing IP addresses as a part of request to recognize the beginning and objective of system transmissions. An IP location figures out where a datagram is sent and is extraordinary for the particular system area. IP addresses that were focused around IP rendition four (Ipv4) were as a 32-bit number. However the accessible locations were constrained and inevitably we arrived at the point where the Ipv6 tending to framework focused around the utilization of a 128-bit number where the IP location was sent. It is clear that individuals are prone to think that it’s hard to recollect 32-bit and 128-bit addresses that are sensibly straight forward for machines to distinguish. It is important to secure a more compelling framework for clients to distinguish the location of a system area. This is carried out by utilizing more significant names as the ones that we have in regular sites (e.g. This is a decent case of how a client may recollect an imperative site. However a machine must have the capacity to change over this name to an IP address that will figure out where the objective of the expected correspondence lives.
Name determination is the term used to portray the change of the name utilized for a site or the Internet area to an IP address for that particular area. Each one time we enter the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for a World Wide Web address in a web program this is changing over into an IP

New Generation with Technologies

Effect of Technology on the Behavior of Teenagers and Children General Aim: To inform my audience of the negative effectof technology on teenage and child behavior.
Specific Aim: to bring the attention of my audience to the manner in which technology is slowly destroying good behavior in children of the current generation.
Central Idea: To draw my audience’s attention from the worldwide championed technological developments, and bring it to the damage technology is causing in the children and teenagers of this age.
I. In this age, the media puts a lot of focus on how advancements in technology make work easier, and every day experiences better.
A. DeLoatch says that children are constantly yearning to try out the newly introduced social networking site, electronic gadgets, and own the latest gaming device, 85% of which contain violence.
B. They seek personal pleasure through gaining recognition from peers with the new technology they own (Villani). Children do not play as much as they did 20 years ago, riding, and building forts.
II. Gaining recognition is becoming more important to children because they get numerous opinions on matters in everyday life.
A. When one has a problem, their first instinct is to post it on Facebook or tweet it and get people’s view on it. These issues include what to wear, what to watch, which school to go to, what career path to take, dating and sex.
B. Since societies differ on what is right or wrong (Nables), children may get the wrong advice from people they talk to on the internet.
III. Watching television only requires sitting down and taking in what one is seeing, and it requires no reaction.
A. Spending too much time watching television reduces the time children spend interacting with others (James Jay Dudley Luce Foundation).
B. Introvert children use it as an excuse not to go out and meet other people.
C. Television content also influences a child’s social life because they will try to emulate what they see in terms of dressing and behavior (Subrahmanyam, Kraut, and Greenfield).
IV. Approximately 85% of the country’s population own one electronic gadget.
A. Time spent with these gadgets reduces the time families interact.
B. Family time is vital to a child’s development and technology is taking this away, with studies showing that 1 out of every 10 parents spend very little time with their children. 30% of people under 45, and 10% of older people admitted to this.
C. One child specialist observed an incident where a mother could not get off working through her phone to listen to her son. Another mother had to put a surfing curfew on herself so she could focus on her children.
V. The internet offers access to numerous articles, books, reports, and academic documents.
A. They have all they need in the palm of their hands, and this mostly entails copying what they need from the internet and pasting it in their work (DeLoatch).
B. Learning institutions are constantly finding ways to ensure assignments done by students are original and personally inspired.
VI. Technology makes life very simple.
A. It takes a shorter time to do the laundry and dishes, clean the house, and mow the lawn, leaving children so much time to spare after helping in house chores.
B. Most of them use the time to “connect” with friends, watch television and play games, activities that require little physical energy (Connelly).
C. This lack of physical activity has led to an increase in weight related ailments like obesity, which has tripled in children over the last 25 years. Almost 26% of children between 2 and 17 years of age are considered overweight.
Works Cited
Connelly, Marjorie. "More Americans Sense a Downside to an Always Plugged-In Existence." The New York Times – Technology 6 June 2010. Newspaper Article.
DeLoatch, Pamela. The Four Negative Sides of Technology – Edudemic. 2 May 2015. 23 May 2015.
Nables, Reynoldsburg. Negative Effects of Technology on Society – Teen Ink. 13 September 2012. 23 May 2015.
Scelfo, Julie. "The Risks of Parenting while Plugged In." The New York Times – Home &amp. Garden 9 June 2010. Newspaper Article.
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri, et al. "The Impact of Home Computer Use on Childrens Activities and Development." The Future of Children – CHILDREN AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY, Vol. 10, No. 2 Fall/Winter 2000: 123-139. PDF.
The James Jay Dudley Luce Foundation. Technology Can Have Positive and Negative Impact on Social Interactions. 21 June 2010. 23 May 2015.
Villani, Susan. "Impact of Media on Children and Adolescents: A 10-Year Review of the Research." Journal of the American Academy of Child &amp. Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 40(4) (April, 2001): 392-401. PDF.

Enterprise Networking and Security

123000 1 Introduction It has been concluded by some experts that the year 2012 is considered to be the worst year in terms of computer network security breaches (Schirick 2012). Likewise, the year that has not even passed the half year mark, some of the foremost companies were sufferers of network security breaches resulting in massive losses (Schirick 2012). However, the news buzz only highlights Sony and Citibank to be victims of network security breaches, as these companies are popular among the public. The other sides of the picture highlights organizations of all sizes are affected by the consequences of network security breaches. Likewise, it can be concluded that network security risks are continuously evolving, modifying and growing at a rapid pace. Organizations normally install a firewall and even intrusion detection systems that triggers alerts of any suspicious activity, as these two components only covers the technical domain and not the human and physical domain. The current network scenario is utilizing a Virtual Private Connection that is connecting one or more sites. However, the VPN connection is also entitled to allow internet traffic on the same dedicated line from the Internet Service Provider. Moreover, the current network only utilizes a single firewall that is located at the main campus of the university. It concludes that the rest of the two remote sites are only protected via a simple Network address translation function that is incorporated in a DSL modem. Moreover, there are no advanced security appliances such as Intrusion detection systems for analyzing and monitoring any suspicious activity that may possibly become a threat to the University’s computer network. Moreover, there is no patch management for updating security patches in the workstations connected to the network. There are no indications of hardening servers for instance, email server, application server, centralized server and database server must be hardened and needs physical protection as well. 2 Security Vulnerabilities The current network security vulnerabilities will be accessed in three categories i.e. logical security, internal security and external security. As far as logical security is concerned, we can see that the fig 1.1 demonstrates a firewall, Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration (ISA) server and a domain controller with Microsoft Active Directory. The three categories for network vulnerabilities are categorized as below: 2.1 Logical Vulnerabilities The current logical controls for protecting information assets within the network are active Microsoft Active directory, ISA server and a Firewall. The Microsoft active directory is not primarily a security control, as it does not mitigate any risks associated with viruses, worms, Trojans, phishing, spam, denial of service attacks etc. however, it provides a secure administration of user profiles and File sharing features. File sharing threats are spreading on a rapid pace, as every now and then, new file sharing technologies are getting being developed and in demand. Controls will not only provide value from all network based services, but will also augment productivity for the organization in terms of revenue, customer loyalty and competitive advantage. Workgroup based environment is not centralized. For instance,

PLC Assignment 1

Wherever there is an enterprise or industry, you will find a PLC.
The PLC has seen dramatic evolution since the first PLC, the Modicon, was introduced by Bedford Associates in the late 1960s (Kuphaldt, 2003). Paralleling the evolution of larger data processing systems, Allen Bradley and General Electric introduced programmable units with terminal input in the 1970s (Morley, 2006). They are now available as stand alone units, flexible card driven modules, and rack mounted with standardized cards for large scale centralized control. The unitary style is a self enclosed, ruggedised unit that has all the circuitry necessary to operate independently. It is generally used near the machine it is controlling and is dedicated to a small number of tasks. Modular construction has the advantage of placing several control units into a single module which allows the units to share power supply and computing capabilities. Sharing support circuitry reduces the cost of the unit as well as allowing for expanded control capabilities. Rack mounted systems are used to provide centralized control of very large scale systems. With the circuitry on cards that are attached to a standardized bus, the rack mount system offers greater networking and communication possibilities. This allows PLCs to run lengthy programs and control complex automated systems.
In its most basic configuration the PLC reads a set of inputs, processes the inputs through a program, and makes a decision as to what output switching is required. The inputs are configured to sense the presence of a voltage, often 12VDC, but may be 5VDC or 115VAC. These inputs come from switches or relays on machines that may indicate level, position, or status of the equipment. A PLC can be used to stop a conveyor belt when an assembly machine is turned off. Sensors are widely used in process control to detect

Project Management Theory

People that studied specific professions such as law, accounting, medical would not fit the profile of union member and there weren’t any unions for these types of workers. In order to meet the social and professional needs of this segment of the workforce professional associations were created to serve them. The project management profession is no exception. The Project Management Institute (PMI) is the organization that serves project managers across the world.
The Project Management Institute was created in 1969. The organization has taken been very innovative and its overall reach and has been able to effectively expose the profession worldwide. The Institute has a membership of over 200,000 people from over 125 different countries (Pmi, 2007). Project management is a profession that attracts people from different specialization since within virtually every industry there are always projects that need guidance for successful completion. The PMI realized the needs of professionals from different industries and their assistance is guided towards helping profession in the financial services, aerospace, automobile, pharmaceutical, healthcare, construction, engineering, information technology, business management among many others. The institution has done a great job creating professional standards, conducting research and promoting the profession through certifications, networking and community involvement opportunities (Pmi, 2007).
The project management institute has accomplished great social initiatives throughout the community including outreach programs in developing nation such as Brazil. In Sao Paolo, Brazil the local PMI chapter developed a pilot program which offered project management classes to teenagers from low income families. The classes were designed to expose students to the basic principles of project management and to teach them how these principles can be applied to improve their everyday

Networking assignment

Paper Question What is HL7? HL7 is a standard for electronic data exchange that is used in the health care environments. Theaim of HL7 is to standardize the format and protocol for exchange of data in health care computer applications. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is responsible for writing and maintaining HL7 standards. HL7 consists of a set of communications rules referred to as protocol. Interface protocols specify the rules by which applications in the health care domain can exchange data in an orderly way. HL7 is also the name of the group that is responsible for publishing these standards.
The acronym "Level 7" refers to the uppermost level of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model of the International Standards Organization (ISO). Those developing HL7 primarily focus on this layer.
Question 2
Interface: Refers to a shared boundary between two related systems across which information flows or may flow. The interface may be designed to filter or modify data as it passes through.
Segment: It is a logical group of fields of data. Segments of a message can either be mandatory or optional. They may be allowed to occur once in a message or allowed to repeat. A segment is recognized by a three character unique code referred to as the segment ID.
Field: It is a string of characters, which is described by a single HL7 data type.
Question 3
HL7 Segments in the message.
MSH- Message Header Segment.
EVN- Event Type Segment
PID- Patient Identification Segment.
NK1-Next-Of-Kin Segment
ZPD-VA Specific Patient Information.
PV1- Patient Visit 1
PV2-Patient Visit 2
DG- Diagnosis
GT- Guarantor
ACC- Accident
Question 4
EVN- Event Type Segment
Question 5
PV1 and PV2
Implementation Guide for the Transmission of Laboratory based Reporting on Public Health Information using Version 2 of the Health Level Seven Standard Protocol, 2005, CDC.

Voice over Internet Protocol Security Vulnerabilities and Recommendations

Software controls try to prevent the exploitation of vulnerabilities but not all attacks can be contained by technical measures. Many vulnerabilities are due to “poorly designed implementations that can provide inroads to data networks. ‘Mistakes’ such as remaining undocumented open ports, extraneous services, etc. can be easily exploited, and denial of service attacks is the most significant specific threat to VoIP.

Computers and networks are an important part of the information systems of many organizations. We are dependent on computers and networks for the provision of services across all sectors of the economy. However, vulnerabilities exist in these information systems. Vulnerabilities in operating systems and application software can be exploited by cybercriminals. Social engineering provides an alternative method for attackers to gain access to information assets, through exploiting human vulnerabilities.

Open access and networking of computers increase risks and therefore require greater measures of security. Security is both a technical and social concern. It relates to the confidentiality of information, system integrity, authentication of users, personal safety of people and other social issues. Information security, software vulnerabilities, and social engineering will be briefly discussed followed by an in-depth exploration of vulnerabilities associated with the use of VoIP. Included are details of how vulnerabilities work, the consequences of an attack, and a look at possible controls. Recommendations are then offered that organizations can take to protect themselves.

Information that is confidential must not be accessible by unauthorized parties (Kinkus, 2002). And, there must also be protected against unauthorized changes, which is known as integrity. Unauthorized access is a leak of information that could be mildly embarrassing in the case of personal information to outright disastrous in the case of sensitive information. Hacking compromises both the confidentiality and integrity of information.&nbsp.

Richmond Events

There is also a need to outline the Richmond Events’ historical background in detail and its current operating strategies should also be examined. This includes identifying the sources of competitive advantage as well as its potential for better performance in the future and recommendations would be given in the study.

Richmond Events specifically deals with organising events through offering a platform whereby people from various cultural backgrounds representing their organisations discuss pertinent issues that often affect their different businesses. According to information obtained from its official website, the organisation is particularly concerned with providing a better way for buyers to meet sellers through face to face meetings coupled with high-quality conference programmes and networking opportunities.&nbsp.These forums take place on cruise ships and more recently on land-based venues and at exclusive locations which allow attendees, particularly senior decision-makers to focus on key business issues in a relaxed and distraction-free environment.&nbsp.The organisation is continually looking to build its panel with senior professionals from the UK business.

The main purpose and objective of the organisation is inclusion, awareness, education, cultural, destination marketing, development and change with the aim of highlighting social issues among business executives. The major strategy employed by Richmond Events is that of targeting business executives by giving them the platform hold conferences in a conducive environment where they also get the chance to meet their partners in business. The organisation’s culture is accommodative to a wide range of people from a diverse cultural background.

Likewise, this organisation operates in an environment where there are also competitors who may offer the same services. It is imperative to give a critical analysis of the organisation’s environment in order to get a clear understanding of its operations through an analysis of its internal and external environment.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Information Technology and Moral Philosophy

In the case of networks for the website, one of the things, which need to be addressed, is whether the website will comprise of an intranet, in this case for use within the university or one, which will cover a larger audience such as the whole world. In this case, the website ought to be developed in such a way that the whole world can be in a position to access information that is related to the university. At the same time, there ought to be elements within the website, which can serve to be of benefit to the individuals in the university. An example, in this case, can be the services such as those related to the library, which is only accessible to the individuals who are associated with the university such as current students and members of staff. The network also needs to be one which can support significant amounts of data due to the downloads and uploads of documents and content which will be conducted by the users.&nbsp.
The network hardware is another area, which ought to be taken into consideration. In this case, the hardware ought to be consistent with the current technology, which is implemented in the case of networking and websites. For example, the routers, which are used, ought to be in a position to support multiple computers or nodes without failure. At the same time, the computers that will be used have to be supportive of the present technology. The specifications on these computers have to be rather high due to the high amount of activities, which they will be undertaking. The processor and RAM, for example, have to be capable of supporting various programs and processes concurrently. If this is done, the university will minimize costs significantly especially those that are occasioned by frequent repair and maintenance of hardware.
On the part of the software, they ought to be those that support various activities that range from personal to business elements. This is something, which should start from the operating itself as the most basic software on the computer. At the same time, the software that will be implemented has to be rather easy for the users to use. If this is not the case, then the university may have a rather difficult time in carrying out its activities in the future because the employees are not conversant with the software. Still, on the case of software, the organization should be dynamic in its implementation of computer software for meeting the changing needs and expectations in the business operations.
Bynum, Terrell Ward (2008). Information Technology and Moral Philosophy, Cambridge University Press
Robertson, James (1st November 2005). 10 principles of effective information management. Step Two Designs (Web)
Vincent, Sabrina (April 13, 2010). Contemporary Key Issues for Information Systems Manager. Yahoo Networks (Web)

The Impact of Online Consumer Rating/Reviews on Consumer Behaviors and Purchase Decisions

Consumer ratings/reviews play a key role in everyone’s purchase decisions today. Organizations must spend time and resources in measuring its impact on the buying patterns to better reach their customers. The organizations and firms find it easy to design their marketing strategies if they understand what affects the consumer behavior or buying pattern. It includes understanding the psychology of consumers as to how they believe, identify rationale, and select between the available substitutes. “Firms must also consider how society influences consumer behavior. There are several factors in the environment that have an impact on consumer perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors” (Perner, pp.1-14, 2008). An understanding and management of these factors may assist marketing professionals in helping consumers to decide in favor of their brands.
More and more consumers now base their decisions on product- related-reviews available on the internet before they buy a product. “The percentage of customers who follow online reviews have exceeded those that follow newspaper or magazine reviews” (Ahuja, 2009). For this purpose, most people these days use social networking sites and involve themselves in comparison-shopping. Most online buyers indulge in social networking in form of reading and writing blogs and customer reviews. Thus, people who shop from e-malls are more likely to give their opinions online as compare to those who use the regular brick-and-mortar stores for shopping.
One distinct feature of online reviews is that the information is available in high volume as compare to that one can get from traditional offline sources. It also contains information from many sources that is both positive and negative as compare to only getting either positive or negative information from a single source at a time. Analysis has indicated that online reviews are found in various forms and differ in

4G/5G wireless networks

Skype has been the most successful service provider and studying it may provide insights into possible solutions. A model has been proposed for further research that is not only user centered, but can also benefit from some of Skype’s attributes such as ability to interact with NATs and firewalls seamlessly.
Video conferencing is rapidly gaining momentum and many end users are adopting this service. For instance, skype is the fastest growing audio conferencing service provider with its annual revenue exceeding $ 136 million (Huang, Chen, &amp. Huang, 2009). With the rapid growth and expansion witnessed in this industry, information technology experts are concerned with the impact of video calls, and the quality of experience under a variety of network conditions that are available to them. Skype offers its end users voice calls services, text messaging services, audio conferencing services, and instant messaging (Baset &amp. Schulzrine, 2006). Delivering delay sensitive voice data from one user to user effectively has been a multimedia networking problem. Voice data has a high data rate. Failures in networks for example, impairments in network capacity significantly affects the voice traffic data rates. The rapid increase in multimedia traffic seen over the internet presents a major hurdle in delivery of quality service to end users. In order to deliver quality service, voice data has to be sent using a high bit rate. Using a higher bit rate could however result in the waste of network resources. Using a higher bit rate mat also result in congestion within the network. the aim is to guarantee quality of experience (QoE) the end users receive is high. However, using high bit rates would result in network congestion which would in turn compromise end user QoE.
In order to address this problem, studies have been conducted on skype to establish how it manages to deliver to its end users a high

PLN revised

PERSONAL LEARNING NETWORK An infographic: this was created through http Reflection of the PLN APLN is a very important vessel for most profession and the same is mine as a part-time teacher and student, currently teaching, on part-time basis, at Landmark Christian School and the same time a student at Walden University. Through my personal learning network above I have managed to make healthy friendship, professional and religious relations and engaged in constructive mind opening engagements through sharing knowledge, experiences and other relevant information.
In the past years I used to teach at East Coweta High School. During my time at East Coweta High School I made connection with my former colleague with whom we still share through twitter, emails and messages on career related issues and on the state of the school since I left. To boost my depth in my career and general knowledge I am also subscribed to journals which includes. American Education Research journal, Electronic journal of e-learning and The Journal which help me keep in touch with trending issues in the world of educational technology (Richardson &amp. Mancabelli, 2011). As an upcoming education technologist, these platforms plays a very crucial role in sharpening ability of applying technology at my current place of work, Landmark Christian School. I also engage in social media for further information and through this platform follow authors like. Alan Januszeuski, Michael Molenda and Dr Darci Harland. To keep tabs with my peers I also involve myself in social media revelation through different media platforms, such as twitter, edmodo network, text messages, Diigo networking tools and emails.
At Landmark Christian School I am taken in as trained professional education technologist and thus falling in the vast area of Education. The educational technology has been effective at building my career through sharing of experiences, knowledge and information from various social backgrounds. With such advances in technology, one is able to learn that education technology alters on the outcome of both teaching and learning, and altering on processes of teaching and learning (Januszewski &amp. Molenda, 2007). Engaging in seminal arguments helps at underlying different experiences and after putting these experiences differently. Experiments with technology combined with different teaching and learning experiences are different from the traditional forms of learning and teaching (Siricharoen, 2013). The personal learning network (PLN) has been effective at necessitating on my studying experiences with the media and technology through understanding on the in-depth of their role in both learning and teaching. Through engaging in the social media PLN, I have been able to realize that ICT can have many benefits to the daily lives of people and the society as a whole.
Januszewski, A., &amp. Molenda, M. (2007). Educational technology: A definition with commentary (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Richardson, W., &amp. Mancabelli, R. (2011). Personal learning networks: Using the power of connections to transform education. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.
Siricharoen, W., V. (2013). Infographics: An Approach of Innovative Communication Tool for E-Entrepreneurship Marketing. International Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 4 (2) 54-71.

Assignment Rubric
Cover Page: 2 points
Student Self-Assessment
Cover Page includes
Assignment Title
Course Number and Name
Student Name and ID
Instructor Name
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2 points

0–2 points
Infographic: 13 points
Student Self-Assessment
A minimum of two scholars and/or thought leaders are included in your PLN.
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2 points

0–2 points
A minimum of two practitioners are included in your PLN
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2 points

0–2 points
At least one social media community is included in your PLN. If you are not a member of a social media community, list one you are considering joining.
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1 point

0–1 point
At least two professional organizations are listed where you can connect with other members of your profession.
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2 points

0–2 points
At least two professional conferences are listed where you connect with others in your profession.
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2 points

0–2 points
Two authors you regularly follow professionally or plan to follow are included in your PLN.
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2 points

0–2 points
Live hyperlinks are included for each element of your PLN.
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0 points

0–2 points
Infographic Mechanics: 6 points
Student Self-Assessment
A web-based template or tool was used to create the infographic
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2 points

0–2 points
The infographic was one page in length.
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2 points

0–2 points
A balanced use of graphics and text are used in the design.
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2 points

0–2 points
Reflection on Your PLN and the Field of Educational Technology: 18 points
Student Self-Assessment
The relevance and importance of each element of the infographic to your professional life is described in one paragraph. [NOTE: A scholarly paragraph is succinctly written with 3–7 sentences.]
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6 points

0–6 points
The main focus is explained for each organization, conference, publication, and social media outlet you selected in one paragraph.
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4 points

0–4 points
Your position on the name of the field of educational technology was well stated and supported. If you preferred a different name, you justified your position in one paragraph.
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6 points

0–6 points
Your reflection is written with proper grammar and punctuation.
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3 points

0–3 points
References: 6 points
Student Self-Assessment
References follow APA (6th edition) formatting.
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2 points

0–2 points
References to the course learning resources used for this assignment are included.
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2 points

0–2 points
References to the professional organizations included in your PLN are included.
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2 points

0–2 points
Paste This Rubric on Assignment: 4 points
Student Self-Assessment
You pasted your Rubric on the last page of your infographic and Reflection on a PLN assignment.
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2 points

0–2 points

You completed a self-assessment of your infographic and Reflection on a PLN using the rubric for this assignment.
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2 points

0–2 points

48 points

0–50 points

Using Collaboration Tools to Market Products

This is especially in the beauty industry where this study focuses to come up with an effective collaboration tool for a jewelry store. Collaboration tool product advocated in this presentation is “Yammer”, which will not only aid in serving clients as necessitated but also manage jewelry store’s human resource (Nash, 2011).
There are numerous collaborations tools, which corporations can use and attain their respective goals. However, in ascertaining collaboration tool that will work appropriately for a given corporation it entails meticulous research coupled with considering its respective goals. This is because the need to have an effective collaboration tool is to aid a given Corporation to attain its targets with ease. Some of the probable web-based collaboration tools for a jewelry store include,
Compared to other collaborative tools, Yammer emerges as the best option for jewelry store. This is because of its varied and essential features essential for reaching large pool of clients. It also enables effective management of human resource. Some of its essential functionalities include,
Yammer 2.0 version will enable Jewelry Store Heads to have direct conversations with their clients as well as interacting with employees (Markowitz, 2011). Hence, make it easy for its respective departments handle clientele’s complaints and suggestions with immediate thus improve their services. Technical department will set Yammer 2.0 and other recently incorporated versions such that varied departmental sections are in constant contact with each other, hence share information internally (Nash, 2011). Internal interaction with the aid of Yammer aims at improving social networking such that there is no wastage of both resources and time, which employees use while holding meetings (Sumner, 2011). Therefore, Jewelry store will be posting internal and urgent information to its employees who in turn will try to give their sentiments

Statistics for Management and Economics

There are three basic features that should be present in any theoretical framework. Discuss whether Jesse has included these.
• Creation of an inventory of variables relevant to the study.
Different variables have been created right from the introductory part. From the basis of being named at the abstract levels, the social networking sites, the online brand communities are the variables that do exist.
• Stating how the variables relate to each other
There are social networking sites related to online branding. Categorizations of the online brand communities as related variably to customer attraction and retention is also another secondary relationship that occurs in the piece of work.
• Theorizing the nature of relationships that exist based on previous research to indicate whether the relationship is positive or negative based on previous research
There has largely been a relationship between the development of social networks and the way it influences the spread of information to the different stakeholders. Based on the previous research, the writer has indicated that there is a positive relationship according to the given references between online marketing and customer loyalty.
• Clarified explanation as to why the relationship should exist
Customers, as stated in the literature, do participate in online branding and this helps them develop the knowledge of the product more than they would have done. Therefore there is a relationship clarified as to why the stated relationship should exist.
• Schematic diagram to clarify the observed continuity
This has been followed and the relationships are shown clearly where all the values identified to lead to the member’s satisfaction and eventual loyalty.
Conceptual models can be made by a collection of other approaches apart from the one used by Jesse. These are event-driven process chain, the Joint Application Development, the place/ transition Net and state transition modeling.

Economic Insights into Apple Inc and the Economic Trends in Nigeria

The company that I am going to focus on is Apple Inc. (Apple), it was incorporated on January 3, 1977, designs, manufactures and markets mobile communication and media services, personal computers, and portable digital music players, and sells a variety of related software, services, peripherals, networking solutions, and third-party digital content and applications. The company’s products and services include iPhone, Mac, iPod, Apple TV, and some other accessories.
It can be argued that Apple Inc. operates in an oligopoly type of market. This is because the company is characterized by a few producers in the market. And each producer has some control over the market. There is also a period where the company has faced intense price competition between rivals such as Android. There is also a lot of investment that has been put in research and development to speed up product and process innovation. Products of Apple Inc. fits perfectly to this description because there is the use of patented technologies such as digital rights management to protect Apple’s position. A lot of innovation is encouraged as it was with the case of release of the iPhone. Some of the company’s products have been involved with occasional price wars as the main suppliers compete for market share. The product of focus in this study will be an iPhone from Apple Inc.
Apple’s iPhone has high demand elasticity.&nbsp.It has a high demand as it is the latest technology with advanced phone features such as the camera and the internet. With the rise in globalization, many people are looking on avenues of connecting with the global world. The iPhone gives many people an opportunity to go digital through a phone. Considering the high price of the iPhone as compared to other phones in the market, a very small proportion of fall in prices will lead to a more than proportionate rise in demand for the iPhone.&nbsp.

Develop informal communication networks and roles in the workplace

Informal Workplace Communication al Affiliation) Communication is an essential part in the live of most individuals who strive to be successful. Communication involves transmitting information and ideas from one person to another. In addition, it involves transmitting emotions and knowledge and data. Tone of the voice, facial expression, and body language play a significant role in a workplace. Effective communication in the workplace enables organizations reach their set targets. It provides employees with information about their work and environment. Informal communication helps motivate employees to build trust with the job that they are performing (Curtis, 2009).
Informal communication is a workplace transmission of messages not official. Formal networks involve establishments formed to enable communication. A workplace system represents how communication flows in the institution. An informal network includes sharing of unofficial information through the workplace and social media (Drafke, 2009). Formal network communication entails communicating with other employees through official networks. Formal network in the organization reflects and shows the hierarchy of the management.
In the case scenario of Osaga Chemical Company, grapevine would represent a crucial part in the informal communication network in a workplace. Grapevine is a network that is unpredictable in its operations because employees control it (Fevre, Lewis, Robinson &amp. Jones, 2012). Grapevine Network is an informal network that employees use to communicate with each other. Management of an organization may use grapevine gain relevant information that will enable the organization reaches their target. As the individual in charge of implementing grapevine informal communication, there would be a proper communication channel.
Grapevine is an effective way of communication because it helps an organization manage their employees efficiently (Guffey &amp. Loewy, 2010). The system is useful in that the workers try to comprehend themselves. The managements of various organizations do not have consent of grapevines, and it makes it useful to get information. Grapevine is a network that is appropriate for the employees as a group. Employees get to connect and share their feelings without fear of judgments (Guffey &amp. Loewy, 2010).
Playing the role of a boundary spanner in a grapevine involves representing employees in the public. Boundary spanners develop external relationship with the employees of other companies to reach their set objectives (Walker, 2012). On the group, I play the role of a boundary spanner in an effort to establish the connection with the internal and external world. An effort of a company to reach out to the community members creates a beneficial relationship.
I played the same role in the each group because boundary spanner is an effective way of understanding employee communication. The system allows distribution of information to individuals while allowing communication between employees. Boundary spanning gives employees a chance to respond to one another. It permits a scenario where the organization gets feedback from its employees. On the contrary, it does not allow employees to access the information later.
I would like to play the role of gatekeeping of filtering the information to give out management. Gatekeeping reduces confusion among employees and enhances the relationship between individuals. Filtering of information allows the organization manages their employees effectively. Gatekeeping encourages networking of workers with their peers in order to reach the objectives of the company (Curtis, 2009). Formal communication may not be able to address all the areas in an organization. Informal communication creates a crucial culture in an institution for well-organized communication. It allows workers to avoid miscommunications, which can have devastating effects on a company.
Curtis, J. (2009). Managing sticky situations at work. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger/ABC-CLIO.
Drafke, M. (2009). The human side of organizations. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Fevre, R., Lewis, D., Robinson, A., &amp. Jones, T. (2012). Trouble at Work. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Guffey, M., &amp. Loewy, D. (2010). Essentials of business communication. Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning.
Walker, S. (2012). Employee Engagement and Communication Research. London: Kogan Page.

The Impact of Social Media on News

The world has experienced a change from the quintessential traditional modes of news reporting to a more social media-centric way. The transformation of social media has initiated driving the society, connecting people from all spheres of life together and giving the people a voice (Bakhurst, 2011). However, social media also raise a number of concerns such as ethical problems, lack of privacy, lack of anonymity, defamation, to name a few (Artwick, n.d).&nbsp.
Social network refers to a place or forum where people share information and communicate with one another. It connects people through interpersonal means such as interest, friendship, ideas, etc (Coyle &amp. Vaughn, 2008). As human are societal and need to require a relationship with other people, therefore, the importance of social networks cannot be denied (Coyle &amp. Vaughn, 2008, p. 13). Social media include mobile-based and web-based technologies such as podcast, social blogs, and weblogs besides magazines and other sources (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010).
According to Kaplan and Haenlein, there are six different types of social media: collaborative projects (e.g., Wikipedia), blogs and microblogs (e.g., Twitter), content communities (e.g., YouTube), social networking sites (e.g., Face book), virtual game worlds (e.g., World of Warcraft) and virtual social worlds (e.g., Second Life).
Social networking is still the fastest-growing active social media behavior online, this is followed by updating a micro-blog such as Twitter, which increased from 13% to 24%. There are over 2.8 billion social media profiles around the world, 70 million word press and 39 million tumbler blogs worldwide.&nbsp.According to Gartner, global social media revenue is forecasted to reach $14.9 billion in 2012 and double to reach $29.1 billion by the end of 2015. There are currently over 845 million active users on Face book, 465 on Twitter and 4 billion videos viewed globally every day on Youtube.&nbsp.

Past and Current Trends in Human Services

1250 Key among them include Best Practices, Evidence-Based Practices and Integrated Health Care (the State of Michigan, 2012). Best Practice entails a certain degree of agreement on research-based knowledge and a consultative process of using this knowledge in health care delivery. On the other hand, Evidence-Based Practice involves the application of the best-known research evidence when making healthcare-based decisions. Healthcare practitioners use patient preferences and clinical expertise alongside research evidence to provide quality health care (Lippincott, 2007). Integrated Health Care entails the control and delivery of health care services with a combination of curative and preventive services. In this instance, the patients receive care based on their needs over time and across various stages of the health system.The intended outcomes of the trends in Human Services are to ensure the effective delivery of human health services. For instance, EBP requires the researcher, client, and practitioner to work together to identify circumstances that benefit all parties involved. The approach provides surety that services and treatments, when offered as intended, will produce the most effective outcomes backed up by research. Such trends should be widely disseminated to benefit the greatest number of people. However, some of the unintended consequences are related to the costs incurred in the process. While it is expensive to get quality health care, it is mandatory also to save a life.With the changing trends in the Human Services, networking is essential for all the stakeholders involved. Networking among organizations at state, national and regional levels is essential in building resilience among Human Services providers and also to enable them cope with the fast-changing environment. Networking also provides a forum for information sharing among the various stakeholders. Such networks lead to an improved service delivery in the Human Service sector.

Impacts of technology

Technological Advancement: Is a good or bad thing to our society “There will come a time when it isnt Theyre spying on me through my phone anymore.Eventually, it will be My phone is spying on me”
Thomas Dick
"Just because something doesnt do what you planned it to do doesnt mean its useless."
Thomas Alva Edison
The advent of internet has brought about significant transformations in the field of information and communication technologies, thus drastically changing the pace and scope of societies at large. People today are highly dependent on various forms of technological tools and gadgets in their day to day activities. The impact of technology can be witnessed in almost every sphere of the society be it political, social, or commercial.
These transformational effects have only grown by leaps and bounds during the decade, courtesy of innovations in the field of technology, leading to emergence of new industries – thus ushering a new era populated by cyber citizens. The greatest impact of technology can be experienced in the way we communicate. The rise of social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, and video blogging sites such as YouTube etc., has made it possible for merging of cultures beyond people from across various continents and enabled a valuable and meaningful exchange of information. It has played a key role in promoting cultural tolerance and greater political participation, empowering the citizens in the process.
However despite the varied benefits offered by the information, entertainment and communication technologies, the perils of excessive dependence on such technologies are manifold. One of the greatest challenges faced by users in the digital world includes privacy issues and identity theft. Violation of privacy has been one of the most significant enduring social issues associated with digital and electronic information technologies, globally. The article ‘Is online social club, sharing is the point until it goes too far the authors have highlighted the downside of social networking sites, mostly surrounding privacy issues, mirroring the sentiments of millions of people of this virtual lounge, who feel threatened and vulnerable due to constant threats of being stalked and misuse of their private information (The Washington Post).
The key goal of social networking sites is to enable sharing of information and free and faster exchange of information across countries. The paradox however lies in the fact that contrary to the intended benefits of the social media there are increasing reports stating the contrary. The article “Does the Internet make as lonely?” discusses the potential effects of internet and technology on the society and the manner in which it has managed to alienate people. Social scientists have indicated a drastic rise in reports stating that as more and more people are logging online the communication between family members is drastically reduced leading to increased feelings of loneliness and depression (Frazen 428).
The paradox of social networking sites is further highlighted in the article "Isolated by the internet" where the author, Clifford Stoll discusses the contribution and significance of online groups and communities for obscure medical illnesses helping the patients in sharing their concerns and recommending solutions on one hand (392) and on the other hand adversely affects the communication skills and patterns of individuals (396).
The potential impact of technology has led to the development and innovation across various disciplines including information systems, human-computer interaction, communication studies, and the likes. Furthermore it has also been widely established through research that Information and Communication Technologies, have contributed immensely towards the economic growth of nations, by enhancing productivity and blurring the geographic boundaries between nations.
Information technologies have benefited the society by enabling the development of virtual organizations thus eliminating the space and time boundaries and enhancing the productivity and profitability of organizations. However it has also resulted in several setbacks. Organizations today are dependent on information more than ever before. The successful management of such vast amount of information and data defines their status in the highly competitive external environment. Since organizations in recent times have successfully managed to transcend the time and space boundaries they are now exposed to a highly dynamic and turbulent environment, over which they have hardly any control. The expansion of virtual organizations has widened the scope of business on one hand, and on the other it has increased its interdependence, thus resulting in increased uncertainty and ambiguity (Riemer and Klien 151).
On the other hand it has also led to serious negative consequences on the economy of developing economies. Technology has largely replaced humans with machines across countries. In a bid to compete on a global level such change is inevitable. However such changes powered by technology have increased the levels of unemployment in labor-intensive countries. Also, technology entails the hiring of highly skilled professionals to handle and operate the machinery, forcing organizations to provide adequate training to their staff and investing a significant part of their budgets to accommodate such demands.
Various forms of telecommunication and entertainment tools such as text-to-voice based TRS which uses the analog technology. voice carry over technology for the senior citizens with hearing disability. speech-to-text relay service for people with speech disabilities etc., among others have contributed immensely towards the well-being of people with disabilities. The contribution of enabling technologies in assisting people with various disabilities and providing them the opportunity to participate and co-exist with the mainstream society is undisputable. The rise in work from home jobs ensures increased employment opportunities for the disabled who otherwise would have found it difficult to commute to and from their workplaces.
The use of technology in the field of healthcare has drastically improved the provision of healthcare service delivery and improved the quality of life for the patients. In a study conducted by Powell et al (1073) to assess the contribution and impact of technology in assisting carers of people with dementia it was observed that the use of technology by carers was perceived as highly beneficial and helped them overcome key challenges including the costs. Technology, in the present times, has become an integral and inevitable part of healthcare delivery. It has been documented by researchers that the use of technology as a part of solution has enabled the carers to effectively manage patients in need of long-term care and those suffering from chronic illnesses. It was observed that technology greatly benefited the carers and enabling the patients to prolong their independence and promote their well-being in the process (1074). The use of digital technologies such as networked tele-care applications, social networking services, movement sensors, webcams and tracking devices has enabled the carers to access remote areas and monitor the progress and status of their patients anytime anywhere, thus overcoming the geographical boundaries (1074).
Medical technologies have given hope to millions of people across the globe including infertile couples, heart transplant, bone marrow transplant, etc., On the other hand, it has led to increased risk of negative consequences such as human cloning, abortions, the threat of development of biological weapons etc..
Technology has allowed for increase in sharing of inventions and innovations on the internet, thus making it available to all sections of populations across the globe. It has allowed for increased sharing of information thus educating and informing the global population in the process. Countries with advanced technology can now develop new innovative products and share and market them in other developing countries thus making the benefits of technology available to one and all. It has made sharing of art and literature online and accessible to almost anyone having access to internet connectivity.
However, there has been a rapid rise in cases involving violation of intellectual property rights, digital rights management as well as blatant plagiarism thus indicating the flip side of technology. The internet has indirectly assisted in the rise of illegal activities such as plagiarism, blatant copying and imitation of well-known brands (sale of counterfeit products), and violation of intellectual property rights thus resulting in the rise of a new era signified by the ‘death of the author’ where illegal activities such as theft of intellectual property over-ride the moral and ethical obligations.
Internet technologies have assisted in the development of user-centered approaches for addressing key issues. This has greatly benefited the teachers for overcoming the barriers encountered by them while imparting knowledge to students with special educational needs. It has been established through research that technology enables effective implementation of specially designed study plans to assist students with various learning disabilities such as attention deficit disorder. dyslexia. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder etc. The use of such technologies in special education classrooms has greatly influenced the field of teaching practice and brought about massive changes in the education sector. It has also enabled the teachers and parents to overcome the discriminatory treatment of such children and paved way for their assimilation into the mainstream educational settings (Williams 543).
Cyber bullying is one of the greatest evils of technology. It essentially acts as a platform for abuse and virtual aggression and has unintentionally encouraged acts of hostility. The internet enables complete anonymity to the perpetrators thus giving them a free hand in indulging in destructive behavior online and abusing their targets who are vulnerable to such acts. It has been widely substantiated by researchers that the key target of virtual bullies mostly comprises of young children who are active in the online world, via social networking sites. Furthermore cyber bullying is known to adversely affect and interfere with student learning, and the health and well-being of the students, often resulting in suicides (McCaw, Hemphill, and Myers 8).
Internet technologies have benefited the society in general but have played a key role in improving the quality of life for the disadvantaged and minority sections of the population, in particular. The rise in e-mentoring is one such example of technology whereby the use of online media was used to transform the roles of women in professions and propel their career development. The introduction of a boundary-less career is one of the most significant branches of technology, has assisted the career development of women by introducing novel and innovative work practices. Although the effectiveness and apparent benefits of such technology are under-researched the impact of the same is highly apparent as is evident from the large number of work-from-home jobs made available by prominent organizations.
Technology is widely hailed as one of the most significant tools for contributing to the social, environmental and healthcare fields and improving the quality of life worldwide. However various authors and researchers have pointed out the risks and challenges associated with the use of technology raising societal concerns. It has been argued that over-reliance on technology and technologically assisted tools would eventually result in repetition and hence de-skilling of work thus drastically affecting the skilled workers. Furthermore it is also argued that the blurring of boundaries due to technology and creation of cyberspace would pave way for increased cybercrimes mostly due to the fact that the cyber-world almost guarantees impunity (Malanowski &amp. Compano 22).
There have been widespread debates concerning the safety of individuals in this rapidly evolving cyber-world. These concerns range from the damage caused to the environment, to the safety of communities and peaceful co-existence of the nations (Plutzer, Maney, and OConnor 191). There were significant concerns regarding the contribution of technology in assisting the scientists in developing nuclear power and weapons of mass destruction (192). The use of technology has greatly influenced the development of destructive weapons and aided in promoting the development and use of strategic defense initiatives (193).
The use of internet technologies has contributed in bringing about significant changes in the entertainment industry by drastically changing its landscape and redefining the manner in which information was used and exchanged. It has enabled the international broadcasters and other media institutions to voice their opinions freely and reach communities located at far corners of the world. The scope of broadcasting was previously limited to passive transmission of information and news to the audience. However with the introduction of new interactive technologies and invention of tools such as webcasts, podcasts and video sharing websites, the scope of international broadcasting has changed and replaced the passive one-way rendering of messages. The re-defining of scope of international broadcasting has enabled the development of new marketing strategies such as cross-branding and facilitated the process of globalization in the process.
However the increased dependence on technology has completely commercialized the media marketplace, who are now increasingly using technology for sensationalizing the news, alarming the public in the process. Digital technology has enabled increased reporting and live coverage of sensational crime stories with extremely prejudicial and dramatic portrayal by the media. Recently a prominent news channel, FOX News aired footage of a man shooting himself while reporting news of a live car chase (The Washington Post) raising serious concerns regarding the ethical and moral aspects of news reporting in the digital age.
In an age where almost all aspects of our everyday lives are governed by and centered on technology, the love/hate relationship with technology is likely to continue. Technology as experienced in contemporary times can best be described as a double-edged sword. Its promises and perils are innumerable, improving and impoverishing human lives both at the same time. This paper on the good and the bad of technology helps in understanding the implications of technology on our everyday lives as well as on the society as a whole.
Works Cited:
Cavalier, Robert. "The impact of the internet on our moral lives". New York : SUNY Press
Frazen, Axel. "Does the Internet make us lonely?" European Sociological Review. Vol. 16 (4): p. 427-438
Malanowski, N., Compano, R. "Combining ICT and cognitive science: Opportunities and risks". Emerald Group Publishing, Vol. 9 (3): 18-29
McCaw, Donna., Hemphill, Leaunda., Myers, Jill. "Responding to cyber bullying: An action tool for school leaders". Thousand Oaks, California : Corwin Press.
Plutzer, Eric., Maney, Ardith., OConnor, Robert. "Ideology and elites perceptions of the safety of new technologies". American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 42 (1). 1998: 190-209
Powell, John., Gunn, Lee., Lowe, Pam., Sheehan, Bart., Griffiths, Frances., Clarke, Aileen. "New networked technologies and carers of people with dementia: An interview study". Ageing and Society Vol.30. 2010. Cambridge Unviversity Press: 1073-1088
Riemer, Kai., Klein, Stefan. "Is the V-form the next generation organization? An Analysis of challenges, pitfalls and remedies of ICT-enabled virtual organizations based on social capital theory". Journal of Information Technology, 23. 2008: 147-162
Stoll, Clifford. “Isolated by the Internet” Kennedy, and Kennedy, 392-398.
Williams, Peter. "Using information and communication technology with special needs students: The views of frontline professionals". Emerald Publishing Group. Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, Vol. 57 (6), 2005: 539-553
The Washington Post "In Online Social Club, Sharing Is the Point Until It Goes Too Far" 2006.

The Role of InternetEnabled Platforms for Entrepreneurial Firms

102500 The paper highlights the implications of using internet-based services as well as other technological means for managing information resources in the business. On the other hand, Lawson and Samson considered the enhancement of innovation capability of a firm and the approaches for doing the same in their paper Developing Innovation Capability in Organisations: A Dynamic Capabilities Approach. The paper argues the point that innovation management can be included within organisational capabilities. Sullivan and Weerawardena in Networking capability and international entrepreneurship: How networks function in Australian born global firms concentrated on the process of internationalization of small firms with the help of innovation and technological means. The factors driving the SMEs to expand their marketplace and the role of networking were the key themes of the paper. This paper helps in understanding the roles of entrepreneurs in a larger market and how they use their technological resources for driving results. Realizing Product-Market Advantage in High-Technology International New Ventures: The Mediating Role of Ambidextrous Innovation Hughes et al. (2010) analyzed the role of the ambidextrous innovation process in the strategic decision-making and performance of firms in relation to high-technological use. Apart from these resources, other journals used in the study also conform to the criteria of ABS. The researcher has ensured that all the sources are authentic and cited in other academic papers also.

The Use of PolicyBased Network Management

Policy-based Network Management or PBNM is the network management that is based on policy. The policy is the blend of regulations and services where these rules and regulations illustrate the conditions for resource access and management. A policy is appropriately described as a grouping of policy rules (Kenneth, 1998). Every policy rule is consists of a set of consequent set of events and conditions. The condition describes when the policy rule is can be implemented. Once, a policy rule is so started one or supplementary actions controlled by that policy rule may possibly then be executed. These events or actions are linked with either meeting or not meeting the set of conditions described in the policy rule (Mark, 1999).
The mission of managing information technology resources turned out to be more and more complex as managers have to take heterogeneous systems, dissimilar networking applications, and scattered applications into concern. As the number of resources to be administered raises the assignment of managing these devices and applications depends on several systems and dealer related matters. To avoid the operators from going down in too much point, the stage of pensiveness have need of to be raised in order to conceal system and network particulars. Strategies which are a follow-on from the objectives of management describe the preferred performance of distributed heterogeneous networks and systems, and state means to implement this conduct. The policy offers a way of identifying and dynamically altering management approach with no coding policy addicted to the implementation. Policy-based management has a lot of reimbursements of bringing steady, accurate, and understandable network systems. The profit of policy-based management will cultivate as network systems turn out to be extra intricate and offer additional services like QoS and security service (Westerinen et al, 2001).
This part of the paper will present different studies regarding Policy-based Network&nbsp.Management and its implementation.&nbsp.

Employee Improvement at Hotels Com

It is no more based on comparative prices but consumers look for the overall experience. Customers share views, opinions and suggestion through the social networking sites. The growth potential in the industry is tremendous despite strong competition. These challenges can be overcome by changing its strategy. needs to learn what the customers say about the company and its services. This information can help them in enhancing the customer experience and this information can be collected by linking to social networking sites.
Globalization has made the markets turbulent while the purchasing power in the hands of the people has increased. Technology has changed the way people live, work or search for information. The Internet has made information access quicker, cheaper and easier. The marketers and service providers also benefit as they are able to advertise and even sell their products and services through the internet. Internet today has become a new distribution channel while bringing the customers closer to them. The hospitality industry to has benefited immensely through the use of the internet. Quality service is a major challenge in this millennium. The airlines and the hoteliers are increasingly relying on the internet as a means to reach their products to the customers. At the click of the mouse, it is now possible to book an air seat or reserve a hotel room anywhere across the globe. According to an article by Bavik (2008), “internet creates a faster and better communication, which makes it easy to identify and to target a customer base”. Because of this convenient device companies should try to provide good service by the internet where people like to communicate. is an internet company offering 70,000 properties worldwide ranging from hotels to bed-and-breakfasts to condos to all-inclusive resorts.

INF Contemporary Problems in IT

An organization uses an efficient code of ethics for many purposes: although two important ones are: A code of ethics should 1) explain gray areas or queries employees have regarding organizational principles and opportunists and 2) assist in building confidence and dedication.
Codes of ethics are designed to increase ethical potential, Legitimize discussion regarding ethical matters, support ethical judgment, avoid bad behavior supply a foundation for enforcement, responsibility and accountability provisions (Akula, 2000).
One thing that differs for IT professionals, though, is the amount and variety of codes of conduct that the IT professional may refer to in his attempt to achieve the best ethical business solution in any morally ambiguous business computing situation. In conjunction with this difference is the lack of any real teeth to the IT professionals’ codes of ethics: the codal disciplinary provisions are only as binding as the codes are, and these codes are not legally binding. As the environment of commerce produces ever additional complex, especially in the development and provision of information technology, and more global, the need for one comprehensive code of ethics for IT professionals becomes even more advisable. With the advent of more than a few formal codes of ethics ready by various IT professionals’ relations, a more harmonized approach seems to be called for (Allmon, 1990).
Information technology has faced so many changes over the last decade. These changes include information distribution, ways of networking and so many other ways. At the same time, the people using computers have started to use the computer for computational purposes. The people who are attached to the information technology field would be agreed with the analogous advancement in ethical consciousness and thoughts about related issues. There is an obvious ethical space when we are going& deal with local, national, and worldwide issues.

Social Networking and Learning

The IT department at CPUT places communication at the core of teaching and learning for IT students in order to develop critical soft skills (Sylvester and Greenidge, 2010). Computer-mediated teaching and learning at the institution enhance communication which facilitates the development of cognitive skills of students (Alcock, 2009). The university resolved to this form of learning due to student under-preparedness, lack of student engagement in the classroom, link theory and practice, and to give students the necessary 21st-century skills (Greenhow, 2009). Instructors work with students in the classroom and students can access notes from the social sites. The young generation is more experienced in tactic knowledge sharing tools via the internet that they can apply in-class work (Warschauer, 2009). Recent studies indicate that about 79.31 percent of the IT students engaged in virtual learning find the system very convenient. This is due to the fact that social sites are accessible from different places both in the institution and at home (Knight and Rochon, 2012).
Over the past years, virtual learning has gained popularity among IT students due to its ease of use. The use of technology creates flexibility in the learning process and exposes students to different learning environments (Razmerita, Kircher and Sudzina, 2009). Social networks have increased the potential of e-learning as a mode of educational delivery. Learners have uninterrupted learning platforms that require minimum instructor supervision. Traditional learning methods depend on static learning environments such as classrooms, laboratories, teaching methods (Romm-Livermore and Setzekorn, 2009). This limits the flexibility of the learning process to include dynamic learning methods. The use of social networks among IT students enables them to be more creative and innovative within the technology sector (Lindberg and Olofsson, 2010). However, social media has some disadvantages when used as a learning platform (Dickson and Holley, 2010). Its efficiency and mobility require continuous accessibility of the internet in order to access learning materials. In most cases, social networking sites are utilized for leisure, and some students find it difficult to utilize the same platform for learning purposes. This reduces the efficiency and the extent to which this platform is an adequate source of knowledge (Wankel, 2010).
Learning about professionalism occurs through collaboration whereby peer groups are important sources of information and support for students. Professionalism begins in the undergraduate education stage for IT students. This entails developing work ethics, behavior, and attitude as well as accumulating knowledge (Dickson and Holley, 2010). Professionalism helps in the public and private aspects of identity and develops through interaction with others. Some IT students post unprofessional content on social networking sites, which is a negative reflection of their professionalism. However, social networking sites, media-sharing sites, wikis, and blogs provide an interaction arena where socialization and peer collaborations boost the development of professionalism (Kolek and Saunders, 2008). This helps form the professional identity of undergraduate students while still in college. Current studies indicate that over 90 percent of undergraduate students use social networking sites. Students utilize them mostly for peer interaction, but some of them exploit their educational potential. Peer groups among undergraduates are important sources of learning and social networks facilitate knowledge exchange (Dasgupta, 2010).
Social networking sites have been used in areas of computing and civil engineering according to Nicol et al. (2009). These sites are peer collaborations that provide a resource that can be utilized as a platform for enhancing knowledge acquisition. Students learn by consulting various sources and by sharing objectives through the virtual learning environment. Students connected through social sites can share web resources and links related to educational content. They also create an online space that engages students through reflections and assessments of internet resources. Students engage with these sites by posting content, commenting on posts, viewing posts, and sharing updated posts. Weblinks posted on social sites act as the main source of information to peer groups (Chan and Cmor, 2009). When peers come across good educational resources they post their links on the social sites. This makes it easy for other students to access the information, which would be otherwise hard to find.
Caruso and Salaway (2008) found that 49.7 percent of students in the U.S use social sites to communicate with peers about course-related topics. Ipsos MORI (2008) found that 37 percent of first-year undergraduate students in the UK use these sites to discuss coursework. Feature incorporated in social networking sites makes it possible to support the personalization of student-generated content. Facebook features encourage students to engage in creative social learning processes that extend beyond traditional learning processes and institutions. This increases the benefits accrued from wide and diverse sources of information (Greenhow, 2009). Students utilize opportunities provided by educational competitions available on social networking sites. Students in the IT and computing world have a wide range of application development competitions that expand their creativity. Facebook supports development competitions that are available to students all over the world. This provides IT students with a learning opportunity that is not available in the traditional learning environment (Alcock, 2009).

Research Article Review Paper (PAS)

This retrospective phenomenological study seeks to find the influence of PA on long-term psychological measures. A correlation between these domains and evidence of parental alienation will be drawn from evidence obtained through a survey.
The authors embarked to investigate the differences between those who reported an experience of PA and those who did not. The population of interest is composed of adult children who experienced divorce at childhood. The researchers seek to identify symptoms of parental alienation syndrome from the study subjects. In recruiting sample subject in the study, the researchers have used convenience sampling. Convenience sampling enables the recruitment of study subjects in a location where they are most likely to be found. This is because the sample the researcher is interested in may not be uniformly distributed in the general population.
The sampling thus is done by recruiting potential subjects from social networking websites and Listerv groups which have specialized in adult children of divorce. In adopting this sampling technique, the authors are aware that the population of interest is not evenly distributed in the general population and convenience sampling will ensure sample size is saturated making it reliable and representative of the population of interest. This is vital in transferring the findings to population of interest.
This correlation study seeks to investigate relations between various variables that are measures of effect of PA in adult childhood. It is possible that there may be no correlation, or there may be a positive or negative correlation. Two prominent research designs employed in correlation studies include naturalistic observation and survey method. Albeit, the former may have offered the best chance to the researchers to interact with research subjects in the field thereby providing them with rich information in

Role of Television in Stereotyping

One of the key reasons why television bears the blame is that women’s role and portrayal on television has remained constant although a few insignificant changes have been made. The reason for this is that one, the woman is depicted as an overly feminine object only capable of executing “female” roles in films, advertisements, and programs. For instance, men still play hero roles in most films, mostly protecting, saving, or tormenting women. Additionally, advertisements portray women as attractive objects used to market things by use of their sexual appeal.
The final evidence regarding the preservation of cultural stereotyping is racial segregation in films. There is still white domination in most films, with the people of colour playing mostly secondary roles, or being portrayed as inferior, unintelligent, criminals, or slaves. In short, an above average of television broadcasts places the white man above the black, or the black playing secondary to the white. One of the key examples is the film The Gods Must Be Crazy which portrayed a black man as being overly primitive.
The 21st century has brought with it digitalization which has in turn given birth to digital networks and communities. Unlike in real-life communities where contact, communication, conflicts and all other aspects of life are done face to face, the same is virtually executed on these digital communities. This, therefore, presents a twofold scenario when it comes to socializing. it can either foster or degrade it. Again, there is a danger in that owing to its virtual nature, digital networking is easy to manipulate thus give rise to virtual creations which may not exist in reality. What this means is that digital communities allow people to “write” themselves, meaning they can create multiple personalities of who they are not.

British Media

There is also a difference between quality and popular newspaper where the former projects international and national news but will have politically biased content while popular papers are consumed by readers who are minorly educated. Language and layout of the quality paper are precise whereas popular paper gives news in fancy layout and less authentic language. It could be said that the quality of journalism has increased due to the arrival of social media.

The diversity of news broadcasting also has increased with the incoming of social media. Moreover, users can research their news-related and also can broadcast through blogs and updates on social networking sites. However, it is sad that in my home country government does censor the press and regulate news which is broadcasted.

Impact of Technology on society

Lastly, health smart homes are utilized instead of separate medical facilities, resulting in significant cost savings. All these technologies are equipped with wireless communication devices that will deliver value, convenience, quality health care and a better life for the patients. Hence mobile computing devices enable and facilitate caregivers and health care cooperative roles instant access to patient information on a common platform or knowledge base regardless of geographical location.
Studies revealed that for improving the quality of health care, monitoring mechanisms must be efficient and effective. The effective monitoring mechanism will transfer information related to vital signs accurately and robustly, resulting in an instant transfer of medical information and response time from a caregiver or doctor. However, to make the monitoring mechanism effective, there is no solution so far except the integration of social networking sites empowered with mobile computing called as Mobile Health Monitoring (MHM) (Brahnam amp. Jain, ). After the integration, these systems have proven to be efficient and reliable, as they facilitate continuous connectivity of patient’s vital signs to the caregiver or doctors (Brahnam amp. Jain,). (Brahnam amp. Jain,) Magrabi along with other researchers has constructed a web based system that will be utilized for monitoring patients located at home and suffering from a disease called as cystic fibrosis. The system is fully equipped and works in a standard browser that becomes active whenever new data of a patient is transmitted. Moreover, the system also reviews patient medical history and sends reminders and suggestions via email to both the caregiver and the patient as well (Brahnam amp. Jain,). However, one problem is not addressed yet, i.e. absence of instant monitoring mechanism of the patient’s body, as it will be achievable by incorporating sensors attached to the body. In contrast, the mobile health

Company Sustainable Development

The sustainable business operations have greatly benefited the TMC to improve its competitive edge and strengthen its financial position. Toyota has been successful in making their customers aware of the company’s environmental sustainability efforts. The organization increasingly relies on sustainability reports and social networking sites to communicate its sustainability initiatives to the company stakeholders.
The emergence of globalization eliminated international trade barriers and thus intensified the cross-border flow of capital, labor, ideas, and cultures. Evidently, globalization and the resulted fast industrial expansion contributed to various issues like global warming, climate change, water pollution, and increased energy consumption, which in turn pose potential threats to the long-term sustainability of the environment today. There has also been a notable increase in the population growth over the last two decades, and that worsened the condition. Researchers indicate that world’s current non-conventional energy sources will be consumed out if people and organizations continue to consume the energy at the current rate. Therefore, it is necessary to limit the use of conventional energy sources, maintain water quality, and take other environmental actions to meet the needs of future generations. However, companies like Toyota have adopted the concept of sustainable development to drive environment-conscious growth and thereby enjoy wider market acceptance. TMC encourages and establishes innovative technologies to reduce the environmental impacts of its business operations and inspires local communities to support the company’s environmental efforts. In this context, it is relevant to explore how a company can pursue sustainable development in order to contribute to the competitive edge and financial position.

Impact of ICT on Every Aspect of Life


ICTs have connected the people together through social networking provided by mobile phones, personal computers and internet. People are able to help each other and even get married by means of this electronic means of interaction. Distance doesn’t matter since people are only a phone call away from each other. This way people travel more often for business or pleasure and still manage to stay connected at office or home. International trade has been increased with the help of information and communication technologies. This global trade includes goods and services being exchanged among different nations. Service industries which especially include public relations and public communication management have also experienced high growth in productivity and profitability by adopting ICTs (Sapprasert 2010). Call centers and software houses are the most successful examples of international trade taking place in terms of services. Thus, the developed countries get their required services at a very low rate while the developing and underdeveloped countries benefit from the foreign trade which brings earning opportunities and reduces poverty for them. The interdependency of different economies resulting through globalization has also brought challenges along with its benefits. such challenges include the current economic crisis worldwide, internet scams, etc.

Facebook Addictions

People socialize through facebook. They feel connected to the whole world on facebook. It is because of such a strategic design of facebook that hardly anyone would think of spending time on it as a waste of time. Facebook offers people an opportunity to search lost friends the easiest way. It has become more of a necessity than a fashion in the modern technological age and people have started to rely on it not only for casual gossips but also for important business information and business deals. If you have a business contact who requests to be your Facebook friend, you’re probably in good shape with that particular contact. (Treadaway and Smith, 2010).
Facebook, the popular networking site, has 350 million members worldwide who, collectively, spend 10 billion minutes there every day, checking in with friends, writing on people’s electronic walls, clicking through photos and generally keeping pace with the drift of their social world. (Hafner, 2009).
The addiction to Facebook is not normally viewed as an addiction although it contains all the aspects of addiction. Many lose themselves in it. They waste all their time on it because it interferes with their lives often times putting beside more important things such as good hygiene, paying bills. Children go to such limits that they even let it interfere with their work and school. People get so involved that when they do not have access or can not access Facebook they start to exhibit signs of withdrawal. The feeling arising as a result of such a withdrawal is not very different from that offered by social exclusion. Literature that refers to Facebook as an addiction is expanding beyond horizons. It is a psychophysiological disorder involving tolerance. withdrawal symptoms. affective disturbances. and interruption of social relationships. The most common one is Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD).


Wireless Networking, Broadband and WIKIs are all new terms brought about by the changes, and they add to peoples ability to communicate with each other on a global basis.
Internet connections connect us with any type of research we can imagine within seconds. We also have the ability to freely conduct business, get an education or network with others, via these connections.
…is the defining trend of the world. Its driven by clearly identifiable, political, economic and technological changes that have removed barriers of contact across national borders… (2004, p. 35).
In the last twenty years, people have gained many things through the use of technology. They have been exposed to advertisements touting beautiful women and men with expensive cars and lifestyles. Life was once simple. Women didnt try as hard to look like models and gender bending meant something different than it does now. Because of this, people are obsessed with body image. They can change every aspect of the body through a variety of methods. Plastic surgery is now routine, fat goes away with liposuction, silicone implants increase breast size. These treatments were once hidden by those who were doing it, but now its become common place.
Before technology, and up until the last few years, everyone wanted to look younger. This was emphasized through the media and created new diseases like anorexia and bulimia. However, as Baby Boomers age, they are more into looking good and showing their real selves. Although there is still a strong market for anti-aging products like wrinkle creams, the Dove Pro-age campaign created products, advertising and billboards geared towards real women and helped older women accept that though they were growing older, they werent ugly.
Sex has changed since the late 1980s when HIV/AIDS came into global importance. People all over the world had to talk about sex more openly and had to redefine how they did sex. Altman states, AIDS is both a


Metropolitan- area Ethernet also known as metro Ethernet refers to a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) which is based on Ethernet standards. Mainly, it’s used to connect subscribers to a larger service network. Also, this network can be used by businesses network administrators to connect offices to each other. This service is offered by a wide range of service providers including Comcast. This service is mainly preferred due to its advantages.
Metro Ethernet is easy to use. This service is provided over a widely available, well understanding and standard Ethernet interface. In this type of metropolitan Area Network, all networking equipment are virtually hosted and connected to the network using Ethernet. Thus using the Ethernet to interconnect such services makes it easier for network operations, administration, and management and provisioning. Comcast is using this advantage of Metro Ethernet to attract more customers in California and its environs. As a result, more subscribers are joining this service.
The Comcast metro network service is cost effective. Metro Service has characteristics that favor its cheap service. Metro Ethernet service has broad usage in all networking products. The inexpensiveness of the Ethernet interface makes it cheaper in all networking services. Secondly, the cost of equipment, service and operational is cheap. This makes Ethernet services to be cheaper. Comcast allows its subscribers to add bandwidth more incrementally. as a result each customer purchases the bandwidth according his / her use. Comcast has sub – divided its services into three classes. These classes offer different services at different bandwidth. These are premium, basic and priority. These services are offered in 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, and 10000 Gbps to Ethernet users and these interfaces and are available in an increment of 1Mbps to 10Gps.
The Ethernet service provided by Comcast has the following specifications. It has Ethernet user – to – network interface. This service facilitates provision of bidirectional, full duplex transmission of Ethernet frames using standard IEEE 802.3 Ethernet interface (Comcast, 2013). This service supports up to 100 UNIs.
Comcast manages its network by restricting traffic flow of a subscriber to the amount subscribed. In case the customer exceeds it’s the subscription rate, the traffic is discarded.
Works Cited
Comcast. (2013). Ethernet Network Service. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from Ethernet Network Service Technical Description: