Employee Benefits and Compensations in the USA and Canada

Or should it allow for differences between the two?Although management may wish to mirror what is currently provided to employees of the parent company, variations in culture, tax law, employment standards and benefit regulations often make a cookie-cutter approach not feasible. One key disadvantage is that the company may end up with a compensation and benefits system that is totally out of line with local competitive practices. For example, establishing a medical plan in the U.S. based on the customary Canadian norm of a C$25 deductible, where Americans expect a US$100 deductible or more would be very generous and go against the U.S. trend of increasing cost-containment mechanisms.Certain legal barriers exist that make it difficult or impractical to have employees on the foreign payroll included in a pension or profit-sharing plan established under the laws of the home jurisdiction, and competing for labor with companies in other countries also requires an adjustment to local compensation and benefit practices. For these reasons, Canadian companies with employees in the U.S. usually decide to institute compensation and benefit plans designed specifically to meet local laws and customs.Social and cultural attitudes have a large influence on compensation and benefit practices in the U.S. and Canada. Because of the different historical development of the two countries and the stronger European influence in Canada, the contrast in cultural environments has been likened to a Canadian mosaic versus an American melting pot – that is, diversity versus assimilation. Survey findings show that Canadian and U.S. workers have some very different workplace attitudes concerning management-employee relations. These differences are expected to soften among employees of companies with operations on both sides of the border.

Therapeutic Effect of Garlic

Ancient Egyptians seem to have been the first to cultivate this plant that played an important role in their culture. Egyptians worshipped garlic and placed garlic bulbs in the tomb of King Tutankhamen, Garlic was so highly-prized. it was even used as currency. In ancient Greece and Rome, garlic was used from repelling scorpions to treating dog bites and bladder infections to curing leprosy and asthma. (The History of Garlic: Natures Ancient Superfood). During World War II, garlic was placed in the wounds of soldiers to prevent infection as antibiotics were scarce. Nearly every culture has used garlic for health and longevity, from ancient Chinese to modern-day Americans.Garlic is one of the most extensively and intensively studied herbs in natural medicine at present. A large compilation of results from both clinical and laboratory studies highlight the protective value of garlic against diseases like heart disease, cancer, and infectious diseases. Much of the research is aimed at identifying the compounds responsible for the health-protective effects of garlic. Medical studies have shown that garlic can lower cholesterol, prevent dangerous blood clots, reduce blood pressure, prevent cancer, and protect against bacterial and fungal infections.Garlic contains more than 100 biologically useful chemicals, and are a rich source of allin, allicin, chromium, phosphorous, and sulfur-containing amino acids. Raw garlic has very little biological activity but when you crush, slice, cook or chew garlic cloves, the enzyme alliinase immediately converts alliin into allicin, which gives garlic its characteristic odor. The most active medicinal components of garlic are the sulfur-containing compounds, and the compound allicin is the major source of its antimicrobial action.Alliin in itself is an odorless sulfur-containing chemical derived from the amino acid cysteine.

Brain Death

‘Brain-death’ definition of human death has engendered several questions on what constitutes human life. Brain-death in this context refers to the cessation of brain activity and function as measured by specific tests (Blank, 193). In 1968, the ‘Harvard Criteria’ for brain-death was issued, which was centered on the lack of responses, movements, and reflexes. The unavoidable conjecture that this definition of brain-death was linked to the facilitation of organ transplants cast an aspersion on the ethics of this definition. The present standard accepted definition of death, according to the ‘Uniform Definition of Death Act,’ in 1981, encompasses the irreversible cessation of either cardiorespiratory functions or all brain functions. This whole-brain definition of death remains contentious because, in some cases, circulation and respiration, which are controlled by the brain stem, can continue while consciousness, which is controlled by the cerebral cortex, can be permanently lost. This has raised the issue of a cerebral death definition (Blank, 196), which equates human life with consciousness. Region-specific brain imaging techniques are of significance here. This definition directly impacts Persistent Vegetative State and Alzheimer’s patients. Advance directives and prior donor consent assume relevance in this context. Blank concludes by stating that the definition of death is the subject of public policy, with social, cultural, and religious ramifications and needs to be debated further.Brain death refers to the irreversible cessation of brain function. In 1968, a Harvard Medical School Committee formulated the ‘Harvard Criteria’ for defining brain deathwhich has become the accepted standard criteria in most of the developed world. The following were identified as the criteria for brain death: unreceptive or unresponsiveness, lack of spontaneous movement or breathing, and lack of reflexes.

Illegal Active Euthanasia

In this paper, I propose to put forward arguments about why I believe that active euthanasia should not be legalized. To do this I will look at countries where active euthanasia has been allowed and examine the dangers inherent in allowing the legalization of this practice. I will also examine individual cases where the patient or the family of the patient has attempted to persuade the court to allow active euthanasia including tracking such cases as Diane Pretty who took her case to the European Court of Human Rights and lost.The starting point for this discussion is to differentiate between active euthanasia and passive euthanasia. Active euthanasia involves a member of the medical profession from administering a medication that would bring about the early death of the patient. By contrast, passive euthanasia is where a member of the medical profession stops the treatment of the patient. This could be by removing feeding tubes so that the patient starves to death or by the removal of ventilation equipment that assists the patient in breathing thereby causing the patient to die from lack of oxygen. The removal of essential drugs to combat infection could also be a form of passive euthanasia as the patient may die soon after the treatment is discontinued. The essential difference between the 2 forms of euthanasia is that with active euthanasia the doctor has to give the patient a form of treatment that will bring about their death whereas with passive euthanasia they are removing an element of the treatment that is sustaining life. The ethics behind the two is based on the principle that a patient is entitled to refuse treatment that might save or prolong their own life but they cannot insist on a treatment that will bring about their premature death.Having looked at the different forms of euthanasia discussed below are a number of reasons why I believe active euthanasia should remain illegal.

Public Relations Profile Feature

This educational program requires extensive schooling including rigorous coursework in medication and drug therapies as well as a period of pharmacy rounds where students are required to spend time in various medical environments like a retail pharmacy and hospital rotations which can include psychiatric rotations, labor and delivery rotations, operating room rotations and intensive care rotations. Upon completing pharmacy school, hopeful pharmacists must successfully take the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX). For more information on the NAPLEX complete with registration dates, test specifics and where to take the test, reference the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy at www.nabp.net/programs/examination/naplex/. After the completion of these schooling and the NAPLEX, students are transformed to licensed pharmacists. The following story introduces you to a hospital pharmacist as well as giving you some insight into her work day. As a hospital pharmacist for Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., Jennifer Plath spends her days ensuring that the patients staying at Mayo Clinic are receiving the best care possible in regard to the medications that are administered to them during their care. After completing a Doctorate of Pharmacy, Jennifer was hired at Mayo Clinic Rochester and began a career as a hospital pharmacist. Motivated by the desire to help others, Jennifer’s career covers all hospital aspects at Rochester Methodist such as processing medication orders from doctors for the floors as well as the intravenous therapy center (ITC). For more information on the pharmacy opportunities within Mayo Clinic, please consult this link http://www.mayoclinic.org/pharmacy-jobs-rst/areas.html. With these responsibilities, Jennifer monitors the course of care each patient receives.

The Influence of Postgraduate Education on Clinical Decision

The intrinsic nature of this knowledge type has lead to an insufficiency in the documentation of the clinical experience. With Benner’s (1984) work, it has been suggested that a substantial portion remained hidden as tacit knowledge.Teaching the processes underlying clinical decision making has always proved difficult, not problematic. There have been numerous theoretical frameworks that have been designed to make the procedure more straightforward. however, these challenges seem to persist. The current paper intends to assess whether post-graduate education equips critical care nurses with the necessary competencies for undertaking more efficient patient management decisions.Majority of students experience difficulty in expressing and comprehending the decision-making process. Aggravating the problem further is the expectation that students will garner an understanding of the theories behind the concepts and be able to apply these in real-life contexts. In effect, if the student has not comprehended the concepts and fails to imbibe on the activities implemented in practice, much of the knowledge in decision-making processes will tend to stay vague and incomprehensible. Moreover, it is an implicit expectation that a nurse is adequately competent to be involved in diagnostic reasoning and treatment decisions in at least two areas – nursing and medicine (Carnevali, 1984).Nurses determine and resolve client issues in the nursing domain as well as being aware of, identifying and implementing treatment (under medical supervision) of client problems in the biomedical domain. Carnevali (1984) emphasizes the idea that by convention and training, nurses have been biased to direct problem solving chiefly and apparently towards the biomedical domain. This may have been the practice, but with the transition to holistic care and the dynamic mindset in health care, nurses make apt and gainful choices about whento direct their decision making and judgment to daily living as associated to health.

Women and Health

However, maybe due to the fact that they often compete with the opposite sex to be treated as equal, women of recent generations have neglected their well-being. Changed lifestyle has contributed a number of ailments to women that could affect their health during their childbearing years.There are prenatal screenings being offered to pregnant women to ensure the health and well-being of the child they are carrying. Also, couples are being offered screenings to know their so-called genetic compatibility or incompatibility to know the ratio of having a healthy and normal child. There would be instances that screenings would be disregarded by parents at some point and say that they would accept their child in whatever health condition they might be in whether at birth or at the course of their lives. What parents or future parents should consider is that, if they would not undergo screenings and their child would be suffering from a certain ailment, they as parents are disregarding the right of a child to grow up with a healthy body and be accepted in the society. One should accept that though as advanced and liberal the society might be there are still instances that physically and/or mentally challenged children suffer from discrimination almost their whole lifetime (South-Paul, et al., 2004. Karpin Savell, 2012).Another hindrance that might occur for prenatal screenings would be culture. There are aspects of the beliefs of ethnic groups and population where pregnancy or the child that is still in the womb is considered as sacred or should not be disturbed. This is an aspect which can be the topic of debates for years and decades, however, would still end up into nothingness. However, this should not be the case. There should be scholars from the medical field to address or enlighten these ethnic groups. Prenatal and even newborn screenings are not done to step on their traditions and cultures. these are done to ensure the future and well-being of the next generations and the generations to come after them.

Peter Singer

That first principle is that death and suffering as result of the shortage of shelter, food, and medical attention are bad. The other principle is that if it is in our power and ability to put to an end these bad things and suffering of the people from occurring, without sacrificing anything of equivalent moral significance, then we ought to honorably do it, as stated by. All these arguments put forward by Singer were to encourage most of the affluent countries to give more of their resources to the unfortunate that they are doing. This would help a great deal in dealing with some of the calamities such as famine and disaster.One of the counter-arguments presented by is the example of the drowning child, as it is only one person who can help out in that instance. In the case of disaster relief, there is a multitude of people who can help out. Replies to this by claiming that it does not matter morally to the question, how many people could help out, what matters is the ability of individuals to take up the moral obligation responsibility. Failure of anyone to act in a disastrous situation would be the failure of all. Thinking that others could help out, does not in any way, lessen the responsibility. If one person takes on the responsibility, the obligation of the others people lapse.One of the counter arguments is the example given about the child. The child is in need of help and what ponders is whether the child is the responsibility of the people around or other people around the globe? This is an indication of how the poor people around the globe are spatially distant and far away. Leaving the child without any help could lead to it drowning. however, in many scenarios donating to the relief agencies could help in the preventions of deaths occurring in the future.

Australian Market VisAVi Macro Environment Factors

The current case would be analyzed vis-à-vis macro-environment factors on their impact on the market strategy of the organizations in the new business dynamics.In the changing business scenario in Australia, the emergence of alternative medicine and more holistic healthcare modules have increasing become popular amongst the baby boomer genX. Disillusioned with the traditional medicines and healthcare, the people are moving towards alternative medicines and health therapies that are diverse and unique in their delivery of holistic care. The alternative health medicines can broadly be defined as a group of diversified medical and healthcare system and practices that use non-conventional methods of medicines. Ernst et al. have defined as ‘diagnosis, treatment and/or prevention which complements mainstream medicine by contributing to a common whole, by satisfying a demand not met by orthodoxy or by diversifying the conceptual frameworks of medicine’ (Ernst, 2004).The vast business opportunities in this emerging segment of the industry have also brought in new players from diverse areas of business, including new paradigms in leisure industry that has started catering to the wider well being of the customers, spiritual healers and alternative medicines like Naturopathy, Homeopathy, Kinesiology, Ayurveda etc. that are meeting the needs of people through innovative products and services.The Australian market is undergoing a major transformation with respect to its healthcare system and moving towards the unorthodox that is often not officially recognized for its efficacy and safe delivery of its products and services. Despite such major drawbacks, the flourishing of this new industry is seen as a major business opportunity by the regional and global business. The recent demographic changes and the transforming societal norms have to a great extent, made significant impact on the budding industry.

He Nurse’ Responsibility in the Prevention of Medication Errors

It is estimated that, at least one in ten inpatients have faced an incident of medication error, leading to severe injuries. Nurses have a very critical responsibility in the identification, reduction, and prevention of any foreseeable medical risks in hospital settings and other environment of medical care. To counter the increasing cases of medical errors, nurses and other practitioners should view every medical error as a complex system failure rather than an individual failure. As a result, effort towards the development of defenses to eradicate errors is more likely to advance patient safety rather than blaming individual responsibility. Medication errors entail preventable events (harm or death) caused by inappropriate medication or treatment procedures. Introduction The recent medical errors not only cost individual lives and health but also have a very extraneous financial burden that ranges from 21 billion to 37 billion dollars every year. Frequent medical errors lead to a reduction in the level of satisfaction and trust in nurses and the entire healthcare system by the society. Safety concerns among patients constitute the main cause for patients seeking alternative care. Health practitioners have the responsibility of complying with the five main rights to safe medication, right route, right patient, right drugs, and right time. As stated by Ball (2010), in 2010, there are between 78 000 to 120, 000 reported cases of deaths caused by preventable and unnecessary medical errors annually. Additionally, thousands of inpatients are affected by nonfatal medical errors. Medication errors also lead to psychological and physical errors among the affected patients. Nurses have an incredibly decisive role in reducing cases of medication errors. They have the responsibility of ensuring that other health professionals do not make unnecessary mistakes and that they too do not make obvious mistakes. Thesis Statement The main role of any health professional is to protect and improve patients’ health. Nurses have the key responsibility of reducing cases of medication errors in health sectors. They have the mandate of utilizing all the available resources, strategies, and mechanisms to mitigate increased deaths and harm caused by medication errors. The cooperation between all involved players in the health sector can record significant improvement in-patient health Owing to increased deaths and physical injury caused by nurses’ medication errors, nurses have come up with a variety of strategies and measures to counter the alarming death rate. At present, there are several suitable methods for reducing the impact of medication errors. For starter, drug selection is extremely crucial especially among vulnerable people in the society. Nurses should avoid ordering drugs on Beers Criteria for patients who are 65 years and above. The Beers Criteria points out the drugs that should be avoided by aged patients who have a specified medical condition. The use of trailing zero after decimal in a dosage is another core reason for medication error. For instance, it is possible for health practitioners to misinterpret 1.0g with 10 g in the situation where the decimal is not legible. According to the existing medication regulations, zero is

Ethics and Theories for Social Work

Giovanni has been hospitalized for the past two months and during the entire period he has persistently demonstrated an irritable and uncooperative behavior towards the hospital medical staff and insisting that he is fine and should be allowed to go home. His wife Mrs. Isabel Ramos has been visiting him daily at the rehabilitation center, but Giovanni has also been abusive towards her. The initial assessment would believe the stroke has affected Giovanni since he has developed some aggressive behavior that makes him difficult and at the same time uncooperative to his recovery process. Isabel is concerned with the situation and fears that she might not be in a position to efficiently care for her husband once he is discharged from the hospital.Social work in a hospital environment can be very beneficial and a natural ingredient for social work ethics, values, and skills. The social workers play a significant role in the direct intervention, and provision of indirect aid to the medical staff in comprehending the underlying reactions and behaviors of patients or clients and thus enabling them to respond professionally from a social work perspective.In the scenario of Giovanni Ramos, a social worker can provide crucial knowledge concerning human behavior, which can facilitate the comprehension and empathy that can lead to the making of more effective solutions to the challenges and problems faced when handling clients with illnesses. The social workers model can be imperative in this scenario to provide assistance to the rehabilitation staff by helping them to avoid making decisions or formulating solutions by enabling them to switch from the fix-it mode to the utilization of active listening skills to explore better and effective solutions for the client (Hill, R. 2005).It is imperative to note that people who suffer from stroke often can develop aggressive behavior resulting from the distress of the condition or brain damage suffered (Kilcullen, 2012).

Implementation of Advice from Challenging Stressful Thinking Chapter

One day my brother fell from his bicycle while showing some stunts in the street and when he came back to home, he was bleeding badly. After seeing him in this condition, my parents and other family members got stressed and tensed, but I remained calm.I was telling myself that such injuries are not to be worried and would get better with proper medical care. These are all parts of life. As per my experience and understanding, such injuries were common and naughty boys got those injuries, but also those injuries were curable leaving behind no marks. Therefore, there was nothing to get stressed.There are times when you consistently get upset about something that annoys you. You can’t really do much to change other people’s behavior, at least in the short run, yet you still allow these incidents to get underneath your skin over and over again. For each of the following common annoying situations, think of a way that you could talk to yourself inside your head so that you don’t feel additional stress by these situations. We are not talking about what you say or do on the outside, but rather what you say to yourself on the inside.Speaking loud on a cell phone in a public space is really annoying for the listeners. Whenever I have to tolerate such a situation, I just tell myself that there is some extra TV volume and remote is lost, so I just have to bear it as far as I am close. To control this stressful situation, I just have to control my mind and tell it that there is no stress at all.This is quite an annoying situation as I am much stressed when such happens. However, if I encounter such a situation, I tell myself to relax and think as if I am having a long drive to enjoy the weather. Although such thinking is not wholly successful, I tell myself to search for some enjoyment in stress.

Race and Place Why Race Matters

The people, who suffer from the injustice of racism, mostly suffer from lack of proper education, insufficient job opportunity leading to poverty and poor health condition. The superior group of people always enjoys social, political, and economic advantage more than the inferior group (Cotter, 2006, p.7) Racism being a global problem and having its impacts on education, economy and health in the United States, it would be worth doing a research on the concerned topic to understand the impacts occurring, thereby trying to analyze and recommend certain positive solutions to the prevailing problems. Context of the Problem Government of America has taken many measures to eradicate the racial inequality among the citizens of America. First attempt from the government was to defend the rights of the Black people. Supreme Court issued a law that the Blacks will have equal but separate principle of schools. Later with time the Blacks were granted the right to vote and this segregation of school according to the race was prohibited. In present days, due to the strict laws formed by the government, citizens of America are enjoying equal opportunities in their job front, education, and health. (Janda, Berry Goldman, 2008, pp.492-496) In United States, racism inequality was mostly seen in the three entities. The three entities were education, health, and economy. Inferior group of people often used to be victimized by their employer. Either the people were not hired for jobs or not given promotion, or were given harsh duties and environment for work or were sacked only on the basis of race. This hampers the economic growth of the inferior group thus forcing them to lead a miserable and poor life (Cotter, 2006 p.9). Education was another sector where inferior group faced lot of injustice. They were denied education especially higher studies due to racial differences. Many schools and colleges refused to admit them. There were also many schools which were divided according to facial color. Blacks and Negros were not allowed to study in the schools where white facial students went. Health is another domain where these people were denied proper care from illness. People of inferior race suffered mostly from kidney and heart diseases. They received less transplants and medical aid in compared to the other superior groups. (Byrd Clayton, 2001, p.7) Statement of the Problem Discrimination among people due to racism is a growing problem among the people of America. People face lot of injustice in the education, health, and economic field. A review of academic sources reveals that the existing problems of racism are due to the flexible government’s policies and judicial laws. Racism is likely to result into violence and agitations among the citizens of U.S. It will also hamper the social and economic growth of the country and destroy the peace and harmony among the people. Main Research Question and Sub- questions The purpose of this research is to determine why race matters. This is done by assessing the impact of racism in the United States. To establish the impact of racism in United States, it is important to seek answers of the following sub- questions. The sub- questions are: 1. What is the impact of rac

Educate parent attending accidebt emergency how to manage childs fever at home

Managing childhood fever, will aid reduce various parental complaints for fever and reduce the chances of children death or complications resulting from unmanaged fever. Ways of maintaining fever at home Parents determine their children fever via behavioral changes they mainly link to fever. Parents realize immunological advantageous impacts linked to fever and some belief that fever is harmful and causes brain damage and convulsion of febrile. Therefore, to prevent adverse effects of fever, parents must monitor body temperatures of their children, use antipyretics, ensure their children wear light clothing and wash them with cold water or tepid. When a baby has a bacterial or viral infection, it is obvious for him to develop a fever and the fever will not harm the child, (Douglas 23). Children under the age of six months should seek medical attention while older children may be treated at home. Nevertheless, they should be presented to the hospital for medical attention if the fever last over two days. Methods of taking a child’s temperature There are various ways of taking a child’s temperature at home, for instance, rectal, oral (mouth), under the armpit and in the ear (tympanic). The correct method depends on the age of the child. The parent should ensure that the measurements are accurate. For example, using rectal method is the most accurate way, but most children under the age of two do not like this method. Even though, using axillary method is not extremely precise, it may help parents to know whether their children have fever, (Berger, Ann, John and Roenn 41). Temperature management Conventional treatment Various over the counter medications can be administered to manage fever at home, for instance, acetaminophen, aspirin and ibuprofen. Parents should avoid aspirin use because aspirin may lead to adverse side effects, such as fatal Reye’s syndrome leading to inflammation of the brain and vomiting. Parents can manage their children’s fever by utilizing a cold sponge, and encouraging their children to take increased amounts of cold liquids like ice pops. It is healthy to give young children increased amounts of fluids contain electrolytes because fever quickly dehydrates them. The cold liquids aids cool the body and keep the baby hydrated. One can also use a fan. Always set the fan at minimal setting and direct it to have the air circulation around the child and avoid blowing the air directly to him, (Douglas 26). Additionally, reduce clothing layers so that the baby can lose increased eat easily through the skin. In addition, dress that baby in light clothing and let her stay indoors or under shade to reduce body temperature. Similarly, parents can manage fever in children by giving their children a lukewarm spongy bath. The body cools as the water evaporates from the skin, thus the body temperature lowers. For instance, if the body temperatures are too high, place a wet or damp piece of cloth on the forehead of a child as she rests. In addition, the parent should ensure that the child gets enough rest. Since fever is because of a potential infection, a child’s body requires plenty of rest or sleep to fight off the agent causing the infection. Experts agree also that having fever makes a child feel exhausted and achy. Therefore, during this period, parents should motivate the children to have plenty of rest

Technology and Patient Confidentiality

Nurses have moral and official responsibilities to uphold the discretion and privacy of customer wellbeing information obtained while giving nursing and health care. One of the methods that nurses use to sustain limits and put up nurse-client relations based on confidence and discretion is by respecting clients’ privileges around discretion and privacy. Canadian Nurses Association’s privacy legislation gives support and impacts the values to the nurses’ in relation to clients’ private health data and information. The legislation entails a summary of Canadian nursing principles in relation to discretion and privacy of individual health data and information. Individual health data and information is any information regarding clients that is spoken, recorded on paper or electronic form. This contains information gathered by nurses throughout the course of beneficial nurse-client relations. This type of information relates to the following: Physical and mental health, including family health account. Health care previously accorded to the patient. A strategy for service. Expenses or capability for health care. Contribution of body parts or information obtained from examining these body parts. An individual’s health number or the names of the client’s alternate decision-maker. Clients do not have to give their names for information to be categorized as private health information. Health care information is discovering if an individual can be acknowledged, or if it can be pooled with added data to recognize an individual. A staff record consisting of a note from a medical doctor acknowledging a nonappearance from their job is not recognized as private health information. On the other hand, a depiction of the employee’s symptoms and management that might be catered for by an occupational health nurse when giving health care is acknowledged as private health information. Client confidentiality in nursing. I believe that patient confidentiality is very important and for a long time I have always believed that each and every patient should have their own confidential information remaining confidential. This however becomes a very tough decision to make when the patient’s health is in danger and the confidential information is needed to ensure that they are safe. In this case however, it becomes very hard for the nurse to decide on the right action to take. In any case, the nurse should avoid making promises surrounding confidentiality at all costs. To win and sustain the client’s trust, the nurse ought to explain to him/her that such information as suicide plans cannot be kept secret because it poses threat to the client’s safety. (Guido 2013). The health sector is heading towards an incorporated, two-way approach to the provision of health care services. The field of nursing has sturdily advocated for such an approach. On the other hand, greater assimilation and cooperation may be needed to improve distribution of health care information if the different members of the health care team are to tread in safely and successfully. Confidentiality in health care details has the likelihood to slow down information distribution. Nurses are advised to notify the people in their concern that their health details will be shared with the health care panel for the reason of giving care successfully. This opinion appears to be hinged on the supposition that approval is not necessary for distributing information among members of the he

Management Of Pressure Ulcers Among Chronic Care Patients

Continued pressure on one part of the body may cause these pressure ulcers to manifest. and with continued neglect and without any medical and/or nursing intervention, these pressure ulcers can progress to their more serious stages. With adequate and appropriate nursing management, these pressure ulcers can however be prevented and treated. This paper shall discuss the various nursing management methods for pressure ulcers among the adult chronic care patients. This paper shall consider the risk factors for pressure ulcers and the different stages of the progression of this medical problem. It shall discuss the specific nursing management measures which can be applied in order to prevent the appearance and the progression of pressure ulcers among adult chronic care patients. This paper is being carried out in order to establish clear standards in the management of pressure ulcers. This topic was chosen because of this student’s current involvement with adult care practice, with much attention given to chronic care patients and the different issues they experience as long-term patients. Much attention needs to be given again to chronic care because these are domains of nursing practice which often calls for the most hours spent by nurses. Pressure ulcers in this paper shall be defined as a lesion caused by unrelieved pressure with damage to the underlying tissue (Mauk, 2009, p. 501). Adult chronic care patients shall refer to adult patients, aged 18 years and above suffering from chronic conditions (prolonged period of time). These chronic conditions are diseases or medical conditions which often persist for prolonged periods. they include conditions like paralysis, fracture, coma, cancer, osteoarthritis, and spinal injury. With these considerations, this paper aims to establish the different methods of managing pressure ulcers among elderly chronic care patients. Specifically, it shall discuss the different ways of preventing the appearance of pressure ulcers among patients at risk for pressure ulcers. A review of studies in relation to the current topic shall be undertaken in different databases including the library catalogues, research indices, the internet, and similar databases such as Medline, CINAHL, and the Royal College of Nursing. Library searches shall be carried out by using library catalogues and search databases. Books and journals, as well as news articles shall be reviewed with particular focus on the keywords: nursing management and pressure ulcers. Internet searches shall include database searches using keywords nursing management and pressure ulcers, pressure sores, and decubitus ulcers. Relevant materials shall be set aside for further review. Materials which shall be included in this review shall be studies published from January 2000 to January 2011. Those which discuss the nursing management of pressure ulcers or sores shall be considered for this research. The credibility of these authors as well as their publishers shall also be reviewed. Those which discuss pressure ulcers among the elderly shall also be included in this paper. These parameters shall help provide inclusion criteria for this study. Main body Pressure ulcers are serious medical issues involving vulnerable patients. According to the Ministry of Health or MOH (2001, p. 6), incidents of pressure ulcer register at a rate of 5% to 16% among in-patients. It is therefore important to prevent this condition in order to avoid its worsening and progression into deeper skin layers. These pressure ulcers are assessed and described at different stages. For the sake of

Preventive Service Mandate of Affordable Care Act Is it A Burden or Boon to the Health Care System

It is evidently clear from the discussion that the cliché Health is wealth rings true for people from all walks of life no matter what their circumstances are. There is a higher prevalence of chronic diseases in the United States than in any other developed country, and this has served as a motivation for American society’s overwhelming concern about health and fitness. This concern with health and fitness has fueled attempts to evaluate and modify lifestyles, as research has found that habits learned over the years can contribute to one’s present health status for better or worse. When taking into consideration health status, Americans must reflect on the need for both health care and health insurance. Even though technically health care access has not declined for most Americans over the last ten years, access still poses a problem for some segments of the population. This problem is due to the increasing number of the uninsured and under-insured, the rapidly rising cost of new technology and treatments, and a lack of emphasis on primary, preventive care. Of course, this lack of emphasis on primary care may be caused in part by the fact that fewer physicians are choosing primary care as an option, and those who do are often not locating their offices in rural or highly urbanized areas. Lack of emphasis on primary care is leading to increased numbers of individuals who are not receiving adequate primary care in rural and inner city areas. (Larkins, Gupta, Evans, Murray Preston, 2011). Along with access difficulties, the costs for purchasing insurance and providing care have been increasing even as overall income levels are dropping, which is helping fuel the present health crisis in the United States. Health care expenses in the United States are very high compared to other developed countries, but the quality of services is lower than in other developed countries (Stephens Ledlow, 2010). According to the Kaiser Family Foundation (2011), in the United States, the per capita health expenditure is increasing at a higher rate than in any other OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries, and the total health care expenditure reached 17 percent of the total GDP in 2008, yet the United States is far behind the OECD countries in terms of quality of care and life expectancy. The Kaiser Family Foundation estimated that the per capita health expenditure will reach $8,160 by 2018, which is very high compared to the other developed nations. This reflects the rising health care costs in the United States. (Source: Kaiser Family Foundation, 2011) The current health care system is mainly focusing on expensive technology and specialist services at the cost of preventive and primary care services, and this focus contributes to rising health care costs. Current reimbursement policies are providing incentives to specialty physicians for high cost interventions and undervaluing services offered by the primary care physicians. The federal government, health care organizations, and voluntary organizations are exploring different ways to shift insufficient health care funds into primary care through health care reform (Rushton, 2009). Health Care Reform History The idea of health care reform in the United States is an old one. Many presidents of the United States tried to introduce health care reform. Four major attempts in the past fifty years have been made to implement health care reform in United States. The first effort was made by Theodore Roosevelt in 1912. He supported the social insurance strategy to provide coverage for the old and unemployed. Franklin D. Roosevelt tried to incorporate the insurance system as part of the social security act. But there was a huge opposition from the American Medical Association, so he withdrew that proposal. Wilbur Cohen, an official in Roosevelt’


Nurse Rachett is an experienced intensive care nurse, therefore any decision she makes concerning the treatment offered in the intensive care unit is justified. However, Nurse Rachett is not a surgeon and could not make any decision concerning the operation and the breathing device without consultation from Dr. Kildare was not appropriate. The attempt to clear the breathing device while she was supposed to summon Dr. Kildare as directed is a medical negligence because Rameez ended up dead. Therefore there is a medical negligence on the part of Nurse Rachett. Rameez was forced through emergency to have surgery performed by Dr. Kildare. however, Rameez could expect the specialist surgeon’s degree of skill because Dr. Kildare was a specialist. In the intensive care, Nurse Rachett is mentioned as an experienced intensive care nurse. therefore Rameez expected and deserved an expert service. Rameez died out of the negligence of Nurse Rachett because she failed to summon Dr. Kildare, may be Rameez would have recovered if Dr. Kildare was summoned to clear the breathing device. Just like the motorists owe a duty of reasonable care to other road users, Lister N.H.S. hospital and its medical staff also owe to Rameez duty to care for his well being and safety. Breach of such duty may result into claims for succeeding damages. However, a difference exists between these two parties is that while majority of people, as a matter of common sense can decide on circumstances where motorists ride carelessly, most of medical treatments entail highly technical and specialized skills. For instance, the insertion of breathing device and decision to carry out an operation on Rameez required specialized and technical skills. If executors of Rameez decide to file a suit, then according to Tom (2005), a court of law will have to get more evidence from other medical specialists on the usual safeguards and correct procedures observed in specific medical treatments before making any decision on the damage caused as a result of negligence. Lister N.H.S. hospital was responsible for protecting Rameez from harm and to offer acceptable level of care. As Rameez’s executors, they are entitled to file a complaint if Rameez never received reasonable care and standards as this amounts to breach of duty of care owed to Rameez. Whenever there is breach to this duty of care, a medical negligence is usually committed by health professional. Doctors are responsible for ensuring that patient understands all risks associated with treatments so as they can provide an informed consent. Failure of which there is claim for medical negligence can be pursued. The case of Rameez amounts to medical negligence because Nurse Rachett failed to summon Dr. Kildare and hence did not provide reasonable care to Rameez which resulted into his death. According to Tom (2005), in order to claim this negligence in the part of a health professional (Dr. Kildare and Nurse Rachett), the plaintiff (Rameez) and his executors must prove the following: That duty to care was owed to the patient: legal duty for care exists any time health care provider or hospital takes care of the patient’s treatment. That duty to care was breached: the health professional failed to conform to and/ or provide acceptable standards of care That breach of duty for care caused harm or injury to the patient: the breach of duty for care is the proximate cause of injury or harm suffered by the patient That patient actually suffered a loss or damage: without

What Principles Values and Standards Medical Ethics Include

According to Harris (2001), health care ethics, or bioethics, is the most crucial ethics all over the world because it entails the lives of human beings. Medical ethics is a set of honourable principles, values and standards that give guidance to individuals in hours when choices or decisions have to be made about health care in medical facilities (Harris, 1985). It further incorporates the behaviour in line with the right ethics that govern a person’s behaviour particularly when it relates to the responsibility and individuals with a health care facility. Case Study, However, these situations are not always present in the medical care facilities especially when there is a moral conflict that is related to a patient and the physician concerned. One particular case is a situation where two patients are in dire need of medication. Gene uses a low-fat diet, exercises on a regular basis but has strong hereditary heart disease. He suffers a heart attack at the age of 44. On the other hand, Fred eats fast food and never takes exercise. He suffers a heart attack at the age of 44 (Seedhouse, 1988). Unfortunately, the Intensive Care Unit has one empty bed. Is it morally right for Gene to have priority over Fred? Consequentialism as a moral theory denotes that normative properties work only on the basis of consequences. A situation that is useful at various levels and assorted normative properties in relation to being right morally through actions is a situation that depends on the consequences of the act (Beauchamp and Childress, 2001). Hence, it is morally right for Gene to have priority over Fred because his heart attack is related to hereditary heart disease. Due to this, his condition is at more risk in terms of losing his life as compared to Fred who has acquired the disease from the lifestyle of taking in more fats in the body and the lack of exercises – a situation that has led to the accumulation of fats in the body leading to heart attack.

Todays Selection Processes are Impartial Rational And Effective

The procedures comprise of all the tasks which are deemed as significant in the selection process (Smith Robertson 1993). It must be understood here that the selection processes are very cumbersome at times because they involve a lot of thinking on the part of the selection committees within the workplace domains. They have to work towards the completion of tasks as well as solve the problems related to hiring the best individual for the said position. It is indeed a headache for some of the organizations in the time and age of today, and quite rightly so, due to a host of factors involved with the eventual recruitment process.Selection procedures include the different selection tools which are the interviews, the exams, the psychological and stress-related tests, medical exams, and so on. The manner in which these exams and interviews come about depends a great deal on the way the selection processes are aligned within the domain of the organization itself. It is important to understand that not every organization has a similar pattern of hiring individuals for different positions. These vary greatly in their undertakings, manners in which work gets done, and so on. Selection procedures require an immense thinking ideology on the part of the human resources as this department must have the eye to look for talent which can bring about a positive change within the organization (Nelson 1997). In fact, the human resources department has the most important role in the selection process because it has to forward the soundest individual to the top management for the sake of the interview, after he/she has cleared the exam and medical test. Hence the ideological basis of the human resources department is of utmost essence within the related scheme of selection processes that work to good effect in producing viable results in recruitment and selection domains. The selection processes work towards building the core competencies of the individuals as well as detailing them with regards to what is deemed as the most significant rationale for the organization with respect to these employees. It is pertinent to understand that these selection processes will bring in the much-touted results and there would not be any problems in the wake of hiring the right people for the right jobs.

Abuse of prescription of narcotics in primary care

Chronic non cancer pain in primary care and use of opioids (Nicholson Pasik, 2007).In the USA estimates suggest that 50 million people suffer from chronic non cancer pain, with 41% dissatisfied with the outcomes of their pain treatment. The frequent site at which these patients seek health care is from primary care. In the primary care environment prevalence of chronic non cancer pain ranges from 5% to 33% (Nicholson Pasik, 2007).3) Extent of opioid misuse in primary care and causes (Von Korff et al, 2011). True estimates of the extent to which prescription opioids are misused among primary care patients are not available, but the limited evidence from surveys conducted suggest that the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse in primary care could range from 4% to 26% (Von Korff et al, 2011)4) Primary care givers need to have adequate knowledge on preventing opioid misuse Salloum, 2010). Though the true prevalence of prescription opioid misuse remains elusive the indications of high abuse of prescription opioids raises the relevance of prevention practices at the point of misuse (Ruiz Strain, 2010).B.Establish a working definition of prescription opioid abuse and identification of the characteristics of prescription opioid abuse1) According to Friedman et al p, 454, NUPM in a wide perspective may be taken to mean the use of a scheduled prescription medication without the prescribing clinician’s knowledge (Friedman et al, 2009).2) Characteristics of abuse of prescription narcotics (Liebschutz et al, 2010)… ry care patients diagnosed with chronic pain and prescribed opioids shows that the characteristics for PDUD in such patients include cigarette smoking, high severity of pain, personal and family history of substance abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, and experience of a jail sentence (Liebschutz et al, 2010). 3) Caregiver knowledge and attitudes in the prescribing of narcotics for non cancer chronic pain (Srivatsava, 2007). Evidence coming from surveys conducted on care givers points to knowledge deficits in care givers and attitudinal issues acting as barriers to efficient management of pain. Quite often fear of addiction and misuse of prescribed narcotics is the basis of unsatisfactory management of pain (Srivatsava, 2007). 4) Patient perspective on prescribing of narcotics for non cancer chronic pain (Srivatsava, 2007). From the perspective of patients it is the care providers in the form of medical and nursing professionals that are knowledgeable on issues pertaining to employing narcotics in the treatment of pain, and they expect that these professionals provide them with the appropriate information on narcotics in the treatment of non cancer chronic pain, to make it a useful part in their treatment (Srivatsava, 2007). II Theoretical Considerations (Not done as no guidelines received and not mandatory for the annotated outline) III Review of Literature A literature review matrix has been generated for effectively developing the literature review. 15 peer reviewed primary research articles relevant to the topic of the dissertation were selected. The inclusion criterion was that these articles were published on or later than 2006. The rationale behind such an inclusion criteria was to make the literature deliver the currently relevant body of knowledge on the


It can exist in 3 separate forms in nature and numerous alloys have been formed with other metals which only serve to increase its uses. One area where titanium has been found to be of utmost importance is in the medical industry. Medical implants with titanium or titanium alloys incorporated in them have been developed and made use of in the past few decades. This paper will examine the use of titanium in medical implants and its properties that contribute to this success, in particular its property of being non corrosive. 2. General properties of titanium Titanium is a transition metal which is found in the earth’s crust (Balazic et al, 2007). It is the fourth most abundant metal on earth and is found all over the world in volcanic and alluvial deposits. While ores such as rutile and ilmeinite are plentiful, titanium reacts with nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen and is not easy to extract from its ore (Brunette et al, 2001). Extraction involves very expensive methods and a mere 5% of pure titanium is extracted from an ore usually (Brunette et al, 2001). The density of titanium is about half of that of steel though it is as strong as steel (Balazic et al, 2007). … Metals commonly used to make stable the alpha form include aluminum, tin and oxygen. The beta form can be stabilized using metals like chromium, iron or vanadium. Using mixtures of both of these stabilizers leads to the production of alpha+beta titanium alloys (Brunette et al, 2001). 3. Uses of titanium Titanium has uses in many different fields including aerospace, power generation, automotive, chemical and petrochemical, sporting goods, dental and medical applications (Rack and Qaz, 2006. Sibum, 2003. Wang, 1996 from Balazic et al, 2007). The commercial aspects of titanium were only exploited in the 1940s (Balazic et al, 2007). Starting in the 1960s, titanium was used as a material in medical implants (Balazic et al, 2007). Now, over a 1000 tonnes or 2.2 million pounds of titanium are used in implants all over the world every year (The Titanium Information Group, 2003). Titanium alloys have also been used in the medical industry and there are three main types of alloys which have been developed: alpha titanium alloys, beta titanium alloys and alpha+beta titanium alloys (Balazic et al, 2007). Of these, it is primarily beta alloys that are used in medical applications (Brunette et al, 2001) Some of the most common alloys that have been used include Titanium-Aluminum-Vanadium and Nickel-Titanium (Nitinol) (Balazic et al, 2007). Some of the main uses in implants are for bone or joint replacements, dental implants, maxillofacial and craniofacial uses, cardiovascular devices and external prostheses (The Titanium Information Group, 2003). It has also been used in medical fasteners and fixation devices (Brunette et al, 2001). 4. Desirable

A Literary Analysis on Fiesta 1980 by Junot Diaz

Papi and his wife Mami have three children, all of who are living together. Yunior is in adolescence stage of growth and development. Rafa, a boy, is the oldest while Madi is the youngest. Madi suffers from recurring motion sickness during a road trip. She does not have time to enjoy a ride in her father’s brand new Volkswagen van, which is green in color. None of the children exhibits comfort of the brand new car.At the onset, when their dad arrived home after work and in preparation to leave for the party, it was assumed that he had come from Puerto Rican, his second girlfriend. At this time, Yunior notes that had their father arrived and found them lounging in their underpants. he would have bitten them by kicking them for something that might not even be serious. He always makes them fear him by punishing his kids. This has always raised their levels of apprehension whenever their father is not around. Yuniors family have a lot of fear and anxiety because of Papi. It is important to note that fathers should not scare their children.The anxiety disorder in Yunior can be seen in the manner he reacts to his father because he treats them negatively. This is evident from the onset because we are brought to the understanding of the way he treats them with a commanding personality. None of the offspring is fond of their dad. Additionally, we do not see a good bond between the children and their own dad due to his poor parenting style.An anxiety disorder arises from parental psychological abuse. Anxiety disorder can also arise from physical mistreatment. The condition affects about 10 per cent of children. The author gives a representation as with the protagonist, who is still young, but displays several psychological disorders that arise from the abuse, especially from his father. Fathers should be protectors but not the ones abusing their children. The main prevalent syndrome in the likes of yuniors would be phobia. There is phobia towards Papi and the road trips. There is also a generalized anxiety disorder that arose due to fear. Additionally, there are instances of eating disorder that is attributed to yoniors’ sister poorly timed eating pattern.Phobia is a medical condition connected to unrealistic fear towards a certain individuals or a given situation. In this article, it is a prodigious reaction toward the trips as well as Papi since he does not relate well with his progeny. The road trip fear to Pueto’s home in their dad’s new car fails to excite yuniors feelings. Madai, Rafa and Yunior’s fear is displayed in very different ways, most probably because of the arrangement in their ages following the order they were born.Rafa, the eldest of the three, and appears to have persevered their dad’s brutality and now does his best to circumvent them. Every moment that Papi was going to slap Yunior, Rafa inched away from them. On the other hand, Yuniors younger sister, Madai, may not experience the physical brutality but undergoes the verbal meanness is also avoiding their fathers utterances. Whenever their father arrives, she becomes too afraid that she cannot even afford to look around. Yunior has always strived so had to win his fathers recognition even though he still has distress because of the physical abuse that might ensue. Yunior seizes any opportunity to speak about their father.Generalized Anxiety Disorder denotes to the disruption in a person’s brain and how it takes control of signals that identify danger and the way it initiates the steps to evade it. In some instances, the signaling mechanism fails to function the way it was intended to. hence an individual will still undergo the danger signals even without such danger. The overpowering anxiety results in emotional distress, as such, affecting schooling and their general relationships with their peers and fathers. Those suffering from the disorder may exhibit nausea and headaches. Infernal nervousness, as seen in Yuniors case, causes emotive distress. It also has a negative effect on ones schooling and other relationships. The apprehension is revealed when the father drops by at his other girlfriends place. The children realize their fathers actions and what he when he is out of work. Yunior gets torn between his love for his mother as well as the wrath that will befall him from his father. He falls ill, worsening his eating disorder. It is evident that several factors led to his motion sickness: nervousness and revealing the promiscuous nature of Papi.Avoidant restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is reported to be taking a high toll since the 1980s. ARFID also refers to picky eating. Clinically, it is a food repugnance arising from sensory qualities of food that trigger physiological responses. Papi believes that yuniors sickness in motion is a consequence of his eating prior to journey and forbids him from consuming any food before travelling. Out of control binge follows Yuniors vomiting episodes leading to starvation. Yunior believes that eating should be done secretly without his dad’s knowledge and should be done whenever there is a chance to do so. to him, it is no longer something that should be enjoyed as a family. It is clear that the child will have eating issues even when he grows to be an adult.Conclusively, it is evident that Yunior is still young and quite a susceptible main character through A Literary Analysis On Fiesta, 1980 by Junot Diaz Essay. Yunior has exhibited several symptoms that range from severe phobia and rising eating disorder. The symptoms can be attributed to their daddy’s physical and psychological mistreatment. Diaz utilize the first-person narrative in order to connect the reader with the central character, making admittance into the primary characters isolated thoughts. It is clear that the story is easily relatable to many people as they experience almost similar ventures in their daily lives. The emotions relating to empathy have been evoked in the way the author brings out the dad’s ramifications in his dysfunctional family, especially in the manner in which Yunior has been portrayed. The author also encourages the emotions associated with unison in the way the protagonist relates with his siblings.

Reasons For Illegal Use Of The Drugs

Drug abuse has become a common phenomenon in most societies in the world today. The governments, community programs, parents, and preventive institutions have raised concern over the increased use of illicit drugs due to addiction, and most NGOs have come up with merged programs to assist in controlling the drug abuse. Although people give much attention to drug abuse on illegal drugs depending with the legitimacy in their nationality, the abuse of prescription drugs on non-medical reasons have increased tremendously, especially in the developed nations than in the third world countries. It is a problem that has trapped both the young and the old people in addictions, which make them to compulsively seek the drugs, despite a good number of them being aware of the harmful effects they have on their mental and physical health. The blame seems to be passed on to the health and medical systems for the constant and unregulated supply, though honestly, individual users and their supporters admit to needing help to suppress the use. Narcotics, stimulants, and central nervous system depressants drug abuse have continuously increased in the USA, and so has been the risk of threatening the citizens’ lives.The rapid increase of prescription drug abuse is turning into an epidemic problem in the USA. it costs the nation and individuals in Medicare and insurers, not to mention the risk of deaths. In the USA, in a Senate drug caucus hearing, Senator Feinstein reported drug abuse problem to rank the second after marijuana drug abuse, with an increase of overdose deaths in the last decade, and the abuse has been linked to medical prescription and dispensation than other sources.

Critiquing Internet Sources on Homeless Veterans

The issue of the provision of housing for homeless vets is obviously important as one aspect of the US treatment of it’s returning vets. There is a short video with the blog containing an interview by Dr. Gupta with a homeless vet suffering from PTSD. This blog states that the VA campus was built in 1888 specifically to house vets but the resident vets were kicked out at the beginning of the Viet Nam war when the VA apparently decided to lease out the property to various businesses. CNN stated it tried to get the VA to comment on why they took the action they did but the VA refused citing the pending class action law suit by the veterans against it. CNN reports that even the VA figures indicate a high degree of homelessness and related PTSD and substance issues. It also states that President Obama has approved funding for some renovation of facilities but far short of what is needed. In fairness to the VA CNN reports the VA and Department of Housing provide rental subsidies but again far short of what is needed. Finally, CNN pointed out some discrepancy between the VA and their counsel concerning whether the VA is responsible to house homeless vets. I believe this detailed blog is credible, unbiased consistent with CNN’s standards of trying to examine all sides of an issue with as much information as possible Video This video shows an interview conducted by a lady from the Center for Capacity Building of the National Alliance to End Homelessness which I assume is a veterans’ lobby group with an official of the National Alliance itself describing a proposed 5% increase to the President’s 2013 budget with respect to ending veterans’ homelessness. The video states that the additional funding is intended not only to provide additional resources for facilities of temporary housing and health care services but also to ensure greater co-ordination with HUD subsidized rental programs so that independent living is encouraged as soon as possible and beds are freed up for more transitional patients. To me this indicates the government recognizes a legitimate need and wants to move in the right direction. However, I am skeptical this funding is sufficient to meet the VA lofty goal of ending homelessness by 2015. It seems to me that while the nation should certainly be grateful for the veterans’ service and recognize and trear their problems of PTSD and substance abuse, I think the key to ending veteran homelessness is to encourage them to becoming employable in the civilian sector as soon as possible. This could be done by offering free training in occupations where there are manpower shortages and educating employers regarding skills that are transferable from military service to their needs. If a veteran is encouraged to tale pride and become self reliant in civilian as well as military life I believe this will help his PTSD and substance abuse issues and therefore reduce homelessness. I would suggest some programs and funding to facilitate this aspect. Podcast This podcast is a radio report of a Stand Down for homeless vets in Atlanta. This is an annual event where vets can access free goods and services such as food, clothing, medical and legal aid services. The reporter interviewed a few servicemen a VA official expressing their gratitude for the event. It is certainly welcome and needed but there is no critical commentary about its’

Health care should be free

The government should provide a basic level of health care to all citizens and allow the affording to purchase quick, more efficient, or a higher quality service, though the quality of medical health services provided to the poor should be comparable to that available to the rich in any case. Countries in which the private health care has become the norm have a great number of citizens without insurance. Millions of people in the US either have no insurance or are underinsured because of a variety of reasons including lack of employment and poor economy. If the health care system is made free, people would not be denied the service just because they cannot pay for it. Everyone would have access to all kinds of medical services irrespective of the financial status. The government should establish a network of community health centers so that health care becomes accessible to all communities across the country (Zwegenthal et al, 2009, p. 4). Making the health care system free is a potential way of bringing the overall costs of the health care down. Countries that have a public health care system instead of one that is sponsored by the state usually spend a much larger amount of their gross national profit over providing the health care. As a result of this, the free market system places the need for increased expenditure on the administrative costs. This increases the insurance premiums and raises the costs for the expenses paid out of pocket for the medication after meeting the insurance deductible. One way to resolve this issue is by using co-insurance and deductibles, but these mechanisms require the imposition of restrictions to ensure the provision of health care to the financial strained. And since cost sharing can have an adverse effect on the health of the poor, these and certain other groups should be exempt from sharing the cost of care altogether (Harris and Manning, 2007, p. 80). Making health care free is an important way of reducing the cost of medical care since the competition would be eradicated under the single administration. Presently, because of the availability of a variety of health care plans, claims and procedures are often duplicated. Free health care system would save the time that is otherwise consumed in processing the claims, thus making the system more efficient. Free health care system can be administered more easily with lesser cost. The need for the employers to incur expenditures by providing their employees with insurance would be obviated. Placement of the health care system under the single administration would also obviate the need for contractual negotiations. It is noteworthy here that different free health care systems function differently. For example, the health care system in Canada is different from the health care system in the UK. Which out of a certain number of free health care systems are superior or inferior to the others is eventually determined by the consumers. The infant mortality rate of the US is high while the life span is shorter as compared to many countries around the world (Kongaika, 2013). This can partly be attributed to the fact that many Americans do not get the

How do the HRM practices at Great Wall fit together strategically

For starters we are informed that Great Wall organized itself functionally. This implies that the organization is then better placed to accurately define its recruitment, training, rewards and staff retention policies for each area of concentration. Also, using the functional divisions Great Wall is able to utilize a decision-focused approach which is based on the three decision making levels, namely operational, managerial and strategic. Recruitment We are informed that staff that was recruited was chosen based on their experience and interpersonal skills. Experience enables them to add value immediately to Great Wall and this is important for the organization as it seeks to rise to the pinnacle of Asian golf resorts. Furthermore, unlike their competitors Great Wall hired senior managers from Asia who had a better understanding of the culture and social practices of the Chinese target market. Training Great Wall knew that for the organization to raise its profile to world class it would have to invest in training its staff to meet those world class standards. From Exhibit 4 in the case we can see how Great Wall differentiated the training offered to its staff based on their level. There was the mandatory training required for all staff and additional training offered to staff that was at supervisory level and above. This is in line with the decision-focused approach to HRM. … Great Wall’s HR thus devised various informal and formal reward systems for managerial staff as well as rank and file employees. For example reward systems for rank and file employees included Employee of the Month which gave employees recognition as well as one month’s salary as financial reward. On the other hand, the best caddies would receive both monetary and non-monetary rewards for superior service and performance, with the monetary rewards being issued quarterly. Staff retention Another major challenge that Great Wall faced as an employer in China stemmed from the migrant nature of the workforce. Even though its staff turnover was lower than the industry average, it was still higher than Great Wall’s desired level. The company knew that its ability to retain staff that had long-standing relationships with members was a key competitive advantage thus it had to lower its staff turnover. With this goal in mind, the organization used a combination of incentive plans such as putting in place both formal and informal reward systems, trainings, comfortable housing, medical plans and so on. How do the HRM practices at Great Wall support Great Wall’s strategy? Corporate strategy is about what a company wants and how the company should go about to satisfy this want. To achieve its main goal the company employs a grand strategy. Grand strategies fall into three general categories which reflect what a company’s overall goal would be namely: growth, stability or retrenchment. From the context of the case Great Wall’s grand strategy was to grow. The organization aimed to achieve this growth through placing emphasis

Food Enterprise

That is used to describe in detailed steps, every move that needs establishment. These will help to get a clear guide on how to run the operation. French fries also called chips in some local terms, are the most liked food type by most Americans. It is affordable to the rich, young, old, or those living below the poverty line (Delton Tie green, 1988).Most people prefer the food when packed in case one is late for a meeting, or in a rush. Despite some medical teachings of the harm brought by these kinds of food, the society has not changed its view of the effects and had it that most people fall for it day in day out.Since we saw it wise to begin these restaurants, our primary target is the students in the London School of economics. It came to our awareness that most restaurants opened there do not sell these fast foods. We believe at our starting point at these, and we shall go viral so quickly. And we will capture all significant universities or base our centers in town.The business has attracted fresh graduates from catering schools. To begin, we have taken about s fifty personnel. Who we hope they will oversee the smooth running of the business. We hope to expand with time and get more personnel. The manager gets identified from one of the biggest hotels, and he is also under the primary trainees of the caterers. These in turn helps oversee the provision of quality, tasty fast foods (Covello Hazalgren, 2006).The business will begin in partnership with all our stakeholders, major banks, other restaurants, and society not forgetting the school at large. Our set standards and primary goal are to make sure ensure that each person who comes into the Asian Delicacies restaurant receives a sufficient amount of fries and sweets. Whereas, the immediate goal is to see everyone served regardless of age, sex, race, or color.These calls for respect for cultural diversity. With further explanations, the food industry is the most relied on.

Analysis of Forrest Gump

The rate at which movies are produced all over the world improved significantly in the 20th century. This took place due to various technological advancement that enabled a number of movies to be produced easily and more efficiently. Additionally, 20th century can be referred as a period of several issues in the world. There were issues of war, such as first and Second World War, cold war and several countries were in conflict during this period. This provided an opportunity for a number of movies to be cast based on a number of themes that were overriding in the 20th century. Consequently, Forrest Gump is not an exception as it had a reflection on American war with Vietnam in that took place in the last decades of 20th century. This paper seeks to focus on analysis of Forrest Gump. Forrest Gump was one of its own in the last decades of 20th century. This movie was cast in the last decade of 20th century specifically 1994. It has dramatic episode that make it thrilling to the audience. Its plot is based on a novel authored in 1986 synonymous to film title Forrest Gump. The film reinforces events that took part in the last half of the 20th century. The first incidence of this film took place in some states of United States such as Georgia, North, and South Carolina in late 1993. Several copies were sold worldwide upon its release on July 6, 1994. Several awards have been won due to its impact and warm reception in the society. The director of this movie was Robert Zemeckis and the movie was released in 1994 and gained international recognition. Forrest is telling his story to a stranger who was seated in the same place he was sitting. This movie talks of a man who was born with low capacity brain but successful in his lifetime achievements. His leg had a medical problem and he hated wearing leg braces. However, this did not deter him and he joins a football team at his school. Moreover, he joins the army and is part of Vietnamese war. In the war, he gets comrades such as Benjamin Buford Bubba (Mykelti Williamson) who always dreamt of owning a shrimping boat. Their combatant team was attacked and Bubba died in the attack while their commander (Lt.Dan Taylor) was severely injured and became incapacitated, as both legs were lost. Though forest was injured in the incident, it was not as severe as the others were. He gained recognition from President John F. Kennedy. While recovering from the minor injury he develops interest on ping-pong. He is also part of United States army team, this grant him a chance to meet President Nixon and a room was secured for him in the hotel. This gave him a chance to expose the Watergate scandal. Later he meets Lieutenant Dan who used to be his commander in Vietnam and he shares a thought with him about the intention of the shrimping business (Wineburg, et al 2007). Lt.Dan was skeptical about the idea but agreed to join Forrest as soon the business boomed. Forrest used money from the ping-pong to buy a shrimmping boat. The lieutenant also joined him. They become successful as soon as the disaster affected their challenger. Their company did well in future. Later he takes care of his mother while lieutenant took care of their business that became a huge empire. Jenny later visited him. He proposed to her and on refusal, he packed and left the house. However, jenny still went to his room where they consummated but she left the next day with a cab. Forrest then engages in a running spree for three years and had a considerable

Early Medical Practices in the Neolithic Period

The objectives are to conduct a visual survey and then a targeted analysis looking for narcotic or other chemical traces, and to interpret the remains holistically including any new evidence found. Literature review There is a very extensive literature on the burial practices of Neolithic peoples, (Thomas, 1999) and indeed excavations of burial sites, especially in Egypt but also across Europe and in the Americas provide the largest sources of human bone material for analysis. The form of deposition human remains is, however, not without its problems because the bones are subjected to various processes ranging from burning, to de-fleshing, selected preservation of only parts of the body, and mummification. Various kinds of positioning in different types of ground leave traces on the bones which add layers of complication to scientific analysis. Incomplete samples survive, with uneven distribution due to geological rather than historical variation, which makes it difficult to form a complete picture. There are some Neolithic bone samples which show evidence of healing, but it is not certain that this is a result of medical intervention. The large number of trephined skulls found in Europe in Neolithic deposits, and somewhat later also in Peru, is however, incontrovertible evidence of medical activity (Ackerknecht, 1968, p. 8). McKenzie (1936, p. 895) theorizes that the purpose of scraping a hole in the skull was to cure giddiness or epilepsy but it is unclear what evidence can be drawn to point to this conclusion, other than that no trauma is evident in the bones, which could otherwise explain the hole. The Peruvian examples do show evidence of… This study is a great example of an investigation into Neolithic Doctoring practices via visual and chemical analysis. The Neolithic period from between 4000 and 2000 BC is widely recognised as being pivotal in human history because it marks the time when large populations of people shifted from a nomadic, hunter-gatherer lifestyle to a more settled existence dependent on agriculture as a major food source. Evidence for this has been gathered from several centuries of work in the field of archaeology. Often, however, the human artifacts do not provide complete answers to exploratory research questions, and so holistic techniques from the field of anthropology can be used to make sense of supplement sparse findings. The aim of the study is to explore the evidence in Neolithic skeletal remains in order to illuminate medical practices of this period.The majority of the material available from the Neolithic period consists of skeletal remains, and some work has been done on dental evidence and diet (Lubell et al., 1994). A combination of thorough visual examination and modern GC-MS testing of the bone material for chemical elements offers a new angle on medical practices because it will reveal both healing processes at work, and any potential use of medicinal narcotics. These testing techniques have been used on organic residues of 958 British prehistoric pots to trace dairy material and a similar method applied to Neolithic bone may bring to light significant information on medical practices of that time.

Disability and Education

Inclusive education was formerly based on the principle that all should have the opportunity to learn together. This is not a universally recognized idea. But the subject is of active debate as it creates questions of a moral and educational nature. Moreover, there are practical concerns, particularly in developing countries with inadequate resources and teacher expertise. Disability in medical terms includes physical and mental impairments such as blindness, deafness, various other conditions that make it difficult or impossible to walk or to speak, mental illnesses, and such things as Down’s syndrome and epilepsy. It is unlucky that many disabled people face social exclusion or poverty as the result of the normal functional limitations caused by their ‘disabilities’. In a social understanding disability of people is not because of their impairments but as a result of the limitations imposed on them by attitudinal, social, cultural, economic, and environmental barriers to their involvement in society. This ‘social model’ of understanding points to the normality of impairment within any population. It is argued that having an impairment is not the main criterion but discrimination against and social exclusion because of impairment is what Disabling (Albert, 2005).All agree with the reality that education is a basic right for all children and also it makes it feasible to reduce poverty. Disabled people face various educational and employment challenges: The response of other people towards the disabled affected their belief in a negative way that their disability had reduced their educational opportunities. Major progress has been made towards equal access to education and attitudes towards the education of disabled people were also felt to have changed in recent times. But, few felt that education had been reduced through lack of personal support, poor physical access, or limited support to their needs (Molloy, D. et al 2003).There is a strong feeling that women and girls with disabilities neglected and discriminated against more comparing to their male disabled counterparts in the education arena.

Explain what proposition knowledge is and explain the JBT theory of propositional knowledge Be sure to explain why it seems th

Inserts His/her Inserts Inserts Grade Inserts Here (Day, Month, Year) PROPOSITION KNOWLEDGE AND JTB THEORY OF PROPOSITIONAL KNOWLEDGE Propositional knowledge is the knowledge about facts. Although there are different types of knowledge but propositional knowledge is based on facts. Propositional knowledge traditionally means belief of special kind. A belief that satisfies should satisfy the two conditions of what is believed is the truth and to justify what is believed is the truth. In other words, the knower should not only belief some knowledge to be true but he should provide justification of that belief. For example John and Brian apply for the same job and john believes that Brian will get the job and he has twenty bucks in his pocket. John is justified in believing that the one who will get the job has twenty bucks in his pocket, so it can be said that john is justified in believing the truth although he also has got twenty bucks in his pocket which he is does not know of. Another example is, for instance just meeting a person is not enough. One should have knowledge about the person. One should have details about that person. This kind of knowledge is known as Personal knowledge. Procedural knowledge also involves some kind of propositional knowledge. For instance, if you have knowledge of how to operate a computer then obviously you will know that by pressing a specific key what function will the computer perform. The Justified True Belief (JTB) theory was given by the famous Greek Philosopher, Plato. Plato was student of the great philosopher Socrates and was the teacher of Aristotle who was also a celebrated philosopher of his time. In Plato’s view, three elements, justification, truth and belief combine to form the definition of propositional knowledge. Generally, when we speak of belief it may also mean that a person may have a feeling that something may prove to be useful or successful for him or her. However, that might not be the case. Maybe it is not useful or unsuccessful, but since the person believes so, he or she will continue believing it. This definition does not apply to this theory. According to the theory, to have a belief in something actually means believing in any such content that is related to knowledge and understanding and is regarded as true. For instance if according to my proposition and belief, the sky is blue, then I will continue believing it even when the sky will be red. The theory suggests that a person’s belief may or may not be true. You may believe something, but it does not necessarily mean that it will be true. Speaking of truth it can be said that a belief is not a fact. Suppose a girl believes that a wooden bridge is safe for her to cross it and it will support her weight easily. However, when she actually crosses it, the bridge fails to take her weight and breaks. In this case the girl believed that the bridge she was crossing was safe, but it was not true. We cannot say that the girl knew that the bridge was safe. it can be taken only as an assumption because it is not fact. In his theory Plato has explained that knowledge in other words is justified true belief. He has explained the term justification by saying that not only is it necessary that you believe that a proposition that is given to you is true but it is also obligatory that you must put forward a justification which should be a genuine enough reason why you believe it to be true. A belief cannot turn into a known fact if it lacks justification. Let’s consider an example to understand the importance of justification in the JTB theory. Suppose there is a man who is severely ill and he firmly believes that even if does not take medical treatment, still he will recover from his illness and luckily he gets well and recovers. Here we will not say that the man knew that he will become alright, he just hoped and believed so, and this optimistic attitude of his made him recover without treatment. Thus, the three elements or components namely, belief, truth and justification are interdependent and inter-related. One cannot be imagined without the other. This idea of Plato which he presented in the form of a theory, suggesting that justified true belief is the real definition of knowledge was acknowledged by the people of his time and it was also accepted by them. The theory simply says that, when you have a belief in something and you are certain that it is true. you must use a justification or verification to prove its validity.

The Effect of Workplace Conflicts on Productivity

Labour is one of the crucial factors of production, providing the necessary link between the raw materials, other factors of production, and the final products, their distribution and delivery to the final consumer. In simple terms, labour, otherwise known as workforce, comprises of all the various players including employees, their employers, managers, self-employed people, and in a sense, the unemployed population capable of providing labour (Reddy, 2004: 27). Though different perspectives have been taken, the argument that conflict in the workplace, in any of its forms, is not an important barrier to productivity nor is it an interesting topic for economic theory can be challenged. In several dimensions, work place conflicts have become normalities and facts of life. Diversity of opinions, which results from increasing labour in a workplace setting has contributed to different goals and objectives, which conflict in one way or the other. It can be argued from theoretical perspective that though perceived negatively, conflicts in workplace are not at all times a negative thing. For as long as resolutions are effectively executed, chances of both personal and professional growth in the organization within which the conflicts exist can be promoted. However, management failure and evident reduced productivity have become the most common outcomes once an organization is faced by conflicts (Gramberg, 2006:68). Many of the factors that cause these conflicts are developed from within the organization. Through publications, several factors have been noted as the core contributors of workplace conflicts. For instance, poor wages by employees contributes immensely to these conflicts. Although workers have given their time and labor to contribute to the organizations’ progress, their efforts have not been reciprocated. As a result, they do not feel motivated. Though scholars believe that the result of reduced motivation is reduced output, which consequently reduce productivity (Maravelas, 2008:14), the magnitude of the reduced productivity is not in any way negligible hence considered a factor to reduced productivity. Another factor contributing to workplace conflicts and believed to lower productivity is poor working condition. Companies that have recorded continuous growth from time to time have evidenced excellent working conditions, which include insurance and medical cover for all workers. When this covers are provided, workers feel part of the company or organization and feel protected at the same time hence productivity increases through increased individual output (Maravelas, 2008:69). Within organizations, bullying has taken place where by some individuals are considered less than others are. This trend still occurs during making of decision affecting the organizations. Whereby theorists advocate that all workers are involved in the process of decision-making, this is not the case. Management makes all the decisions on behalf of other people in the organization, including the decisions that affect the employees. Such a state is a form of bullying hence workers feel that they have been considered inferior and as a result relax in their work hence due to conflicts that result as they fight for their rights. This eventually leads to reduced produc

Carbon Monoxide as a Chemical Hazard in the Workplace

Chemicals can be in solid, liquid, or gaseous state that can cause physical and health hazards for those involved in the production, storage, handling, and disposal of the materials. By-products are equally dangerous depending on the type and concentration of the chemical involved. Although the workers are informed about the dangers related to different chemicals, still accidents do take place. This is because people are generally either not aware of the dangers of different chemicals or are simply careless to read about them. Ignorance can cause fatalities which can be prevented if necessary precautions are taken. Carbon Monoxide (CO) is one such chemical that can lead a person to his death. My interest in this chemical grew at the time when I read about it in the local newspaper. Eight workers and four firemen at the Eglinton station were given medical aid due to exposure to Carbon monoxide. This was the first time I became aware of the danger of exposure to this chemical. The TTC Union expressed their concern about the long term health effects of carbon monoxide on the exposed workers.The Praxair Safety data sheet on Carbon monoxide (2004) gives us detailed information about the chemical. According to which Carbon monoxide is colorless and odorless and is formed when carbon in the fuel is not properly burned. It has been termed as an inorganic compound. Carbon monoxide is toxic and cannot be seen due to which it can lead a person to his death. It is, for this reason, it has been termed as a silent killer. On burning it produces a violet flame. It is soluble in alcohol and benzene and is slightly soluble in water. The boiling point of Carbon monoxide has been noted at – 190°C and the solidification point at -207° C. In liquid form the autoignition temperature of carbon monoxide is 1128° F and the specific gravity and the specific volume are 0.96716 and 13.8 cu ft/lb respectively. It does have an odor once it is mixed with some other gases.

End of Life Issues

Death is the most worrying factor as far as human generation is concerned because of the uncertainty after death. A person who nears the end of his life will often lead a stressful life since he doesn’t have much idea about what is going to happen at the next moment or thereafter. Though religion has offered him an eternal life after the death, because of the uncertainty in achieving it, even the preachers of religion will under immense stress when they approach the end of their mission on earth. Doctors especially the physician who treats such aged persons will often come across confusing situations. They may be forced to violate the codes of medical ethics for the sake of the patient’s well being. Effective advance care planning is important in providing good care at the end of life because it enhances a discussion of end-of-life issues between the patient, physician, and caregivers. The end of life issues such as advance directives: living will, durable power of attorney, and DNR is important in the current century in order to avoid the complicated issues one’s death can create. Ethical issues such as life-sustaining treatment must be adopted only with the proper consultation with the patient and the relatives. Keeping the patient central in all decision making, that is, respecting patient autonomy is essential to ethical care for dying patients. An advance directive is a kind of instructions a patient gives his doctor about the medical care he is looking for from the doctor or the hospital if the patient is unable to make any medical decisions. For example, the directives would describe what kind of care you want if you have an illness that you are unlikely to recover from, or if you are permanently unconscious. Advance directives usually tell your doctor that you don’t want certain kinds of treatment. However, they can also say that you want a certain treatment no matter, how ill you are.

Summary on ellis island

Mugisha Omary Ms. Chastity Holman Spring History 1302 Ellis Island With a large number of immigrants coming to the United s in search of work and to gain civil liberties, it became important for the US government to regulate the number of immigrants. Especially after World War I and World War II, large numbers of immigrants began passing through as war refugees. Ellis Island served this purpose. Elis Island opened for processing on January 1, 1892. During its time, millions of immigrants passed through its gates and into the United States. Many people who live in the United States today can trace at least someone in their lineage back to Elis Island. At this station, immigrants were required to submit to medical examination in which those that did not pass were sent back to their respective countries. Also, while they were there, it was required to give their information in order to be on record with the United States. Sometimes, due to the lack of interpreters and the different languages and dialects being spoken, when signing in the book names would be written on what they sounded like resulting in the change of the last name. Towards the end of Elis Island, the US government started restricting the number of immigrants coming through when both the Immigrant Quota Act of 1921 and the National Origins Act of 1924 was passed. Eventually, the facility was closed down. In 1976, Elis Island was turned into a tourist facility in which people interested in their family’s genealogy could trace their ancestry back to. It serves as a testimony to all those immigrants who braved the challenges to make it over here and how America was their opportunity for a new life. Bibliography Moreno, Barry. Ellis Island. Great Britain: Arcadia Publishing, 2003. 73-78. Print. Szucs, Loretto . Ellis Island: Tracing Your Family History Through America’s Gateway. 10th ed. Provo, UT: Ancestry Publishing, 2000. 2-10. Print.

Social class difference in Health and Healthcare

Despite rapid advances in medical and healthcare policies, social class differentials in healthcare provision continue to persist. Social class as a complex reflection of individual professional, educational, and employment characteristics is integrally linked to individual health and wellbeing. This social class belonging also affects and alters the system of healthcare delivery, making it available and accessible only for those, who experience few social difficulties. As a result, lower social classes operate in a vicious circle of vulnerabilities, which negatively influence their health status and, simultaneously, create barriers to accessing quality healthcare options. Understanding and outlining social class differences in health and healthcare is impossible without understanding what means to be healthy and what exactly social disparities in healthcare mean for the broader community. Generally, health incorporates the state of physical and psychological wellbeing.1 Consequentially, healthcare is defined as a complexity of profoundly interrelated factors which are not limited to medical care but also involve other aspects – financing, quality, resource allocation, and others.2 Health determinants can be proximate and distant. the latter affect the quality and efficiency of health care through a long and sophisticated causal chain.3 In this sense, social class disparities are among the most essential healthcare determinants. Social group health differences are considered to be the differences across subgroups of the population, which may be based on biological, social, economic or geographical characteristics.4 Despite numerous policies and policy solutions, social class remains a crucial factor of healthcare disparities in Britain and the rest of the world. The relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and care provision are extensively documented. It would be fair to say that the effects of SES on care are two-fold: on the one hand, SES always affects individual health and wellbeing. On the other hand, social class disparities in accessing and using even the basic healthcare services continue to persist. The former appear to be extremely stable over time, and even effective interventions on the main social risk factors of health and wellbeing fail to break this SES-health relationship.5 Notwithstanding the rapid advancement in social policies, individual social position (both absolute and relative) remains the most important variable of individual health and wellbeing.6 This social position justifies the validity of cross-social comparisons and groupings in the United Kingdom.7 It also makes the theory of health inequalities in light of socioeconomic class differences extremely legitimate. Individuals of lower socioeconomic position experience serious health difficulties and demonstrate higher rates of mortality/ morbidity.8 SES causes threshold effects on health, through poorer life conditions and malnutrition.9 In almost every single disease category, individuals lower in their SES experience higher rates of mortality and morbidity than their better-off counterparts.10 Not only do people of lower socioeconomic position suffer poorer health, but individuals at higher levels of SES always enjoy better health than those on the SES levels just below them.11 The question of how exactly SES affects individua

Critical analysis of a qualitative study

The clinical or medical impact that healthcare team members can derive from continued exposure to facial transplantation led to the study. The research problem relates to the fact that no conclusive research explores the personal, professional, and ethical experiences and perceptions of the healthcare team members who have participated in facial transplant procedures, whose attitudes and experiences may consequently influence patient care (Evans, 2013). Therefore, the study seeks to address this knowledge gap using an ethical approach. Notably, we should care about this study as it derives the knowledge on the experiences and perceptions of healthcare team members on caring for facial transplantation patients, using an ethical framework (Evans, 2013). The study established that facial transplantation required a different approach than the other organ transplants. Indeed, the study reckons that unlike other transplants, which take one direction, health care givers, and patients participating in facial transplantation need collectively intense physical, emotional, psychological, and spiritual care (Evans, 2013). The study established that clinical participants experience a high level of responsibility since they must do it perfectly. However, the study notes that most clinical participants were hesitant and uncertain about the success of facial transplantation due to the complexity of the process (Evans, 2013). Nevertheless, all participants in the study welcomed the moral obligation to transform the patients’ lives through facial transplantation and hence they had to develop confidence, teamwork, discipline, and perfection to succeed in this process. The study notes that healthcare team members involved in facial transplantation meet ethical, psychological, and clinical challenges, which they have to overcome for the process to succeed (Evans, 2013). The study establishes the financial burden and long-term effects that health members derived from facial transplantation. These findings relate to the clinical problem (Shanmugarajah et al, 2012). Purpose and Research Questions The purpose of the study is to explore the experiences of healthcare team member in caring for facial transplantation patients, using an ethical framework (Evans, 2013). The qualitative study had relevant research questions that it sought to answer. The research questions included: What were the experiences of the healthcare team members in caring for patients undergoing facial transplant surgery? What are some of the ethical, personal, and professional impacts that health caregivers derive from continued exposure to facial transplantation? How do healthcare team members meet ethical, psychological, and clinical challenges in facial transplantation? How did the ethical, personal, and professional experiences and perceptions by the healthcare team members affect patient care in facial transplantation? Notably, the research purpose and research questions had a correlation with the research problem. This is evident where the research purpose and research questions address the research problem by leading to a research that explores the personal, professional, and ethical experiences and perceptions of the healthcare team members who have participated in facial transplant procedures, whose attitudes and experiences may consequently influence patient care

Problems with the Health Care Reform Act

But, none of them have failed as spectacularly as his version has. The ObamaCare Act is so riddled with problems that the individual states are trying to reject its implementation and the Supreme Court has had to step into the problem. And that it seems, is where the main problem of ObamaCare lies. ObamaCare has practically prevented people from gaining access to proper medical care unless they have health insurance. In fact, the law mandates that each and every American citizen of good standing must carry health insurance in order to gain access to an emergency room. By dictating who can gain access to medical care and how that medical care can be accessed, the president has overstepped a number of legalities and human rights. By removing the freedom of the people to choose how they can access medical care, the president has violated our constitutional right to choose. Although health insurance is something that our society wishes could encompass one and all in coverage, mandating it for every person, regardless of whether they can afford to buy the service or not, is like signing their death sentence. Medical professionals themselves question the legality of the law: Mandating health insurance is not only questionable legally, it is also questionable medically. It sets up an unsustainable tautology that assumes willing participation on the part of doctors. But many of the doctors I know will drop out, even if their patients can’t. (Seigel, Marc M.D. , A Doctor’s Prognosis for ObamaCare — The Four Essential Problems With the Patient) The president’s health care act failed to take into consideration or perhaps refused to see the obvious, that healthcare is not cheap and technology is now allowing it to become more personalized and because of that, may or may not be covered by insurance companies who only make their money by rejecting prodecure coverage for their members whose medical needs cannot be covered on a group basis. This changes the slant of the law from health care coverage to health insurance instead. Our government seems to have forgotten that just because you are covered by health insurance, that does not mean that you are actually covered by health care. Even though we are mandated to buy health insurance under the law, we are not assured that all the medical consultations and testing that we might require will be covered at all under our health insurance coverage. On a related note, the law refused to acknowledge the fact that we have at least 24 percent of the American population are opted out of insurance coverage. They do not want to be covered, so why should the government force them to sign up? And that, is why the legality of this law is now being questioned before the U.S. Supreme Court. Instead of making medical coverage more affordabe, ObamaCare made insurance premiums shoot through the roof, a situation that insurance companies tried to make known during the hearings for the healthcare bill (The WellPoint Revelation: Private Insurance Premiums Could Triple Under ObamaCare). Obama’s supporters in the legislative house would not hear of it then and they refuse to hear more about it now that the law they forced upon the public is being rejected by more than a half percent of the population. In fact, a Rassmusen poll taken November 14 of this year indicates that: U.S. Voters shows that 55% at least somewhat favor repeal of the

Methadone Treatment

As a result, there have been many advances and research into the field of psychopharmacology. One of the widely used pharmaceutical treatments on people suffering from heroin addiction is a drug known as methadone. Heroin is a synthetic version of morphine. The opium poppy plant is the base from which it is synthesized. The compound of Heroin was first synthesized in 1874. After it was synthesized, it was marketed as a non-addictive morphine substitute and often used as a cough suppressant. It was originally marketed by Bayer. After reformation in the government in regards to drug administration and regulation, the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act was passed in 1914 which moved this drug for only recreational use. Eventually, it was moved to a Schedule I drug and made illegal. Characteristics of Schedule I drugs include the fact that there is a high likelihood of abuse and they provide very little medicinal purpose. The pharmacology of heroin is what makes it a very addictive substance. The typical paths of administration are either through snorting or through intravenous injection. The reason that heroin has such a quick effect on the body is because it is highly lipid soluble. It binds to specific opioid receptors which induce an effect of euphoria for the user. This is caused by an excess in the secretion of dopamine and the occupation of dopamine in these opioid receptors. These receptors are located throughout the body, but in particular in the brain and spinal cord. Drug dependence occurs when people have used heroin for such a long period of time that their body has been chemically changed and they can no longer function without the drug. As a result, the withdrawal symptoms can be extremely horrible and can include: depression, anxiety, nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, etc. One of the many commonly reported adverse side effects is the feeling of crawling on the skin, which leads to lesions and scars to form from users obsessive scratching. Fatality from withdrawal is not commonly observed with this type of addiction (US Department of, 2005). One of the most commonly used drugs in the treatment of heroin addiction is Methadone. It was first synthesized in 1937 in Germany. It works by occupying the opioid receptors in the body which is able to block the effects of dopamine in the body. This opioid agonist is also a glutamate inhibitor which helps prevent the excitatory action in the central nervous system. This allows the user to come off the heroin addiction much easier. The medication is taken orally once a day and typically has an effect of between 24 and 36 hours. While methadone moves to take the place of heroin in the addiction, it is able to block many of the more harmful effects of the addiction, but does not provide that high associated with heroin. The addiction, however, becomes the same with methadone, but can sometimes take more time to come off of (Broekhuysen, 2000). Even though it has been shown that methadone is an important component in the recovery process, there are many critics who believe that this is merely substituting one addiction for another. It is because there is large criticism regarding whether the addiction is being treated as a medical addiction. Like the idea of people selling prescription drugs illegally, many critics feel that if methadone is made too widely used, then it will become an abused drug in the trafficking industry due to

Emergency Control Center

Emergency Control Centre on its part cold is designed and established based on the jurisdiction or the functional specialty related to the whole organization. For instance, it could be organized in terms of regional or national emergency center or it could also be established under functions such as fire department or medical services.In principle, an Emergency Control Center is as good as the staff and the personnel who work in it. Thus, the designers of and establishers of the Emergency Control Center must ask critical questions regarding the staff and the personnel who will work in it (Stevenson and Sum 12). For instance, in rhetoric sense and aspect, it would be proper to consider the expertise of the work that would require to be discharged. If there is a fire emergency, it would be logical and fair that a person who is trained in handling fire machines and fire emergencies would be required to assist accordingly. Thus, depending on the type of the Emergency Control Center that would be established it would be prudent to consider the expertise and professional qualifications of the people who would work in it.Secondly, it would be proper to integrate training into the Emergency Control Center so as to increase the number of people who would be equipped with the knowledge and skills to act in case of an emergency. Some roles and duties are so critical and cut across all professions and it would be in good faith that they are taught to all people in the organization. A practical case and instance are the basics of first aid, how to handle a fire outbreak, issues around sexual harassment, discrimination amongst other issues that relate to the welfare of humanity. This could happen due to the fact in any organization or workplace, it may be impractical that all workers are trained in issues of emergency and contingency (Lee et al 319). However, there are some skills and expertise which are important to be left to the experts alone since some of these emergencies may be abrupt and accidental. In such cases of emergency, it may be prudent to apply the skills of the workers without waiting for the professionals.

Effectiveness of Tourism

However, different countries rely on different sources for generation of income. These sources vary from small basic household products to large-scale destructive missiles (weapons of mass destruction), from daily used dairy products to fashion and clothing accessories, from agricultural products to the latest high-tech gadgets, and from medical equipment to services related to hospitality. Hence, there are countless ways by which countries are earning their livelihoods and generating profit. Tourism is also one of the important ways adopted by many countries of the world, and as a result these countries are generating large amount of income. Tourism fulfills the basic human needs of rest and recreation and can give maximum fruits to countries in many ways (Smith, 1994). It is beneficial for countries that are already developed, and for countries that are willing to develop, tourism can play an effective role provided they have sights to offer to tourists (Octaviano, 2012). Tourism can play a vital role in raising the GDP of the countries. it can be fruitful in many ways for under-developed countries as these countries usually lack power and are looking for ways to shift their status from that of a third world country to that of a first world country (Urry, 2003). For instance, the role played by Philippines government in the promotion of tourism has worked for the country in a number of ways, and the tourism history of this country can be used as a road map for other under-developed states. Philippines did some structural adjustments with the help of World Bank in mid 70s (1973-1974) and initiated a program to endorse tourism. Moreover, different countries during the same tenure also made structural adjustment programs to promote tourism. They adopted variety of techniques: for instance, they attracted investors and transnational corporations that have in most cases the control over resorts, hotels and transportation. they helped programs funded by other countries, providing them with full government support to enable them to carry out their operations. and they took loans from various different sources in order to create an infrastructure for tourism expansion. The Philippines Tourism Strategy as a Role Model for Under-Developed Countries The Philippines tourism strategy can be considered as a classic example of what tourism has to offer to under-developed countries (The Philippines, n.d.). As it is believed, tourism in Philippines emerged due to major contributions by Marcos (dictator) in 1973 (Lumang, 2008), who had this vision of making Philippines a City of Man. Chasing that vision, he restlessly worked on engaging international hotels chains and other businesses to come and invest in the country in order to promote tourism. Marcos made relaxed and favorable policies for these foreign businesses so that their stay in the country could be prolonged. More than three decades have passed, and still tourism in Philippines is giving fruits and has matured in a number of ways. It has shown growth and is still following the same trend. Moreover, this trend is achieved because of the development plans, goals, policies

Loma Linda University Value

n view of the medical profession is not common, and it became important for me to choose schools that will not only provide me the skill to become a better nurse – I needed a school that supports my own view of how health services should be rendered. Any school could teach me to become competent in my career, but there are only very few schools that can help sustain the fire inside me. I know for a fact that there are nursing schools that bombard one with so much information that one can forget why they chose to become a nurse in the first place. I didn’t want this to happen to me. I knew Loma Linda University was the school for me when I read your mission statement which says, Loma Linda University…seeks to further the healing and teaching ministry of Jesus Christ to make man whole by: Educatingethicaland proficient Christian health professionals and scholars through instruction, example, and the pursuit of truth. Expandingknowledge throughresearchin the biological, behavioral, physical, and environmental sciences and applying this knowledge to health and disease. Providingcomprehensive, competent, and compassionate health care for the whole person through faculty, students, and alumni. To make man whole captivated me. It held so much meaning for me. How does one make another person whole? If I were to become a nurse, I needed to know the answer to this question because I knew that one can only whole when one is healthy enough to experience everything that life has to offer. By reading your mission statement, I felt that I found an ally in my belief that the medical profession is a sacred task. I knew that by working with professors and school staff who understood this, I can become, not only a great nurse, but also a great person… I am hoping that from the first few pages of this application, you can already get an idea of my thought process and beliefs. I tend to think deep about simple things because my father believed (and I share this too) that one should not waste time on unimportant things. Deep contemplation through meditation and prayer has enabled me to make difficult decisions and discard the unimportant and focus on the important only. For me, this is an important process, because it puts me in a close encounter with the divine, an intelligence that knows more than I will ever know in my lifetime. A spiritual experience, for me, is a conversation with my God, a tapping of the source, an expansion of awareness. Sometimes when I am deep in the experience, I ask questions about the role of man’s existence on earth and the inner workings of the universe.

Baby Products Store Communication Plan

Executive SummaryThis communication plan outlines the framework that Baby Products Store will use to re-introduce the business to surrounding towns and municipalities starting April 2009. The background of the business provides a brief overview of the business environment and the subsequent need for change. The introduction of the points of difference for the business highlighting the unique customer service policy and exclusive products offered in-store is the core of the communication objective and goal. Next, the plan provides the target audiences and how this selection works with the company’s core product range. With the established objective and goal, the key communication message is then framed within the two points of difference, and the proposed communication tools (including business website, monthly online newsletter, business brochure, magazine advertisement, and yellow pages advertising) and budget are presented. Lastly, pre-set measurements are included to track each communication tool.Table of contentDescription PageBackground 3Communication Objective 3Communication Goal 3Target Audiences 3Key Communication Message 3Communication Tools 4Budget 5Evaluation 5BackgroundBaby Products Store first opened its doors in the Westchester Mall in 1998 and was the first store in the neighborhood to provide premium baby products. In the next ten years, numerous stores with similar concepts have started in the surrounding area selling undercutting Baby Product Store’s business by offering products with a cheaper price ranges. To avoid price war within the area, Baby Products Store has made a decision not to lower prices, but to create a new selling point of offering specialized customer service and exclusive product offerings provided by loyal long-term suppliers.Communication ObjectiveThe objective for this communication plan is to re-introduce Baby Product Store to the surrounding towns and municipalities and highlight the unique customer service policy and exclusive products offered in-store.Communication GoalThe goal of this communication plan is to reach 50 unique customers using various communication channels. Because the objective of the plan is centered around the store’s surrounding towns and municipalities, a more targeted and personal communication approach will be adopted.Target AudiencesThe primary audiences for Baby Product Store are new mothers and parents of small infants and toddlers in the surrounding towns and municipalities. As the type of products offered in-store are suited towards parents with higher household incomes, it would also be preferable if the targeted mothers and parents are active online and have regular access to the internet and email connections so Baby Product Store is able to develop a long-term, more personal customer service offering to these audiences.Key Communication MessageThe key message for all communication materials will focus on two integral points of difference of the business: the unique customer service package and exclusive products offered in-store.Points of DifferenceDescriptionServices OfferedUnique Customer Service PackageTo provide customers with a customer service package that extends beyond retail selling. Complimentary tracking of infant or toddler’s growing-up progress and make recommendations on nutrition and medical services available in the surrounding towns and municipalities.Exclusive Product OfferingsTo provide customers with exclusive product offerings that cannot be found in retailers within the state.Monthly newsletters highlighting exclusive product offerings.Communication ToolsThe following are the communication tools that will be used to meet the communication objective and goals:ToolsDescriptionDistributionResponsible PartiesBusiness WebsiteTo highlight business points of difference.OnlineMark Smith (Marketing)Melanie Yur (IT)Monthly Online NewslettersEmail list to be provided by neighboring pediatricians other infant specialists.Online2,500 customersMark Smith (Marketing)Tim Dunn (Retail Sales)Business BrochureTo highlight business location, services offered, and selected product offerings.Selected towns and municipals and offices of pediatricians other infant specialists.5,000 brochuresMark Smith (Marketing)Jessice Wick (Design Agency)Magazine AdvertisementTo be featured in Baby and Me trade magazine.April 2009 issue5,000 circulation members/monthMark Smith (Marketing)Jessice Wick (Design Agency)Yellow PagesTo highlight location and services offered.April 2009 to Dec 2009Mark Smith (Marketing)BudgetDescriptionCost (USD$)Business Website1,500Monthly Online Newsletters (development cost only)500Business Brochure2,000Magazine Advertisement5,000Yellow Pages500Total Cost9,500EvaluationThe following measurements will be used for each communication tool:ToolsMeasurementBusiness Website100 page views per monthMonthly Online Newsletters2% response rate (or 50 customers)Business Brochure1% response rate (or 50 customers)Magazine Advertisement1% response rate (or 50 customers)Yellow Pages30 inquiries

Acute Renal Failure

This paper is going to examine the Gordon’s Functional health patterns as well as Myra Levine’s Model is relation to how acute renal failure affects the patient. A specific diet and treatment for renal failure will depend on the patient’s age, the severity and other medical conditions. Nutrition’s affect on renal failure has been studied extensively and published on scientific reports. For example, Dr. T. A’s Primer on Kidney Disease recommends a 0.8 to 1 g protein of body weight per kilogram each day of protein in chronic kidney disease. During dialysis, this can increases from 1.2 to 1.3 g/kg each day. Gordon’s Functional Health Patterns Marjorie Gordon developed functional health patterns to form a guideline when it comes to the establishment of a nursing data base that is comprehensive. She placed the patterns into different categories making it possible for a data collection process that is standardized and systematic (Dunn and Hood, 2009). These patterns have assisted nurses over the years in determining different human and health function aspects. a) Health Perception and Health Management. This category focuses on an individual’s perceived health level as well as well-being. … Here, the evaluation of local supplies adequacy takes place. c) Elimination. This area mainly concerns itself with excretory patterns experienced on the skin, bladder and bowel. Excretory issues like constipation, diarrhea, incontinence and urinary retention can be easily identified d) Activity and Exercise. Focused is directed to the daily living activities that need energy expenditure, and they include leisure activities and exercise. e) Sleep and Rest. The individual’s rest, sleep and relaxation practices are assessed. Sleep patterns that are dysfunctional, sleep deprivation responses and fatigue can be identified. f) Self-Perception and Self-Concept. The individual’s attitude towards themselves is the issue of concern and this includes body image, identity, and self-worth. The identification process in this case concerns itself with the self-esteem level and threats response to the individual self concept (Dunn, 2009). g) Roles and Relationships. The role played by an individual is the one being assessed as well as how the individual relates with others. h) Sexuality and Reproduction. Person satisfaction or in some cases dissatisfaction in relation to reproductive functions and sexuality patterns are to be assessed under this category. i) Coping and Stress Tolerance. The individual’s stress perception and the way he or she copes with stress are examined. j) Values and Belief. The belief and values of an individual are assessed and this includes the individual’s spiritual beliefs. Myra Levine’s Model In her model, Myra came up with four principles that were meant to serve nurses as a guide to promoting wholeness: 1. Conservation energy. The interventions by nurses have to be gauged on the individual capacity so as to give room for

Origanum Majorana Essential oil

Therefore some essential oils are used in order to fasten the overall recovery process of patients. Origanum Majorana Essential Oil is one of the them which is extracted from herbs. possessing relatively higher sedative, analgesic, anti-spasmodic, anti-fungal, anti-viral, expectorant, stimulant, disinfectant and calming effects (Marjoran, 2011). In this paper only one essential oil is discussed i.e. Origanum Majorana Oil with respect to the treatment of surgical ICU patients. Origanum Majorana is a Latin name for Marjoram which means ‘greater’ not because of some physical or chemical compositions but due to the ancient perception that the use of Origanum Majorana oil can increase lifespan of humans (Marjoram, 2012). This herb belongs to the family Lamiaceae. It has penetrating smell, slightly spicy taste and overall warm nature. Its chemical components include Thymol, Caryacrol, Pinenel, Camphor, Origanol, etc. The Origanum Majorana oil is extracted from its flowers. It is yellow in color and turns brown as it decomposes. It has some distinctive properties which makes it highly applicable for the treatment of surgical patients. These include (Marjoram, 2012): The oil has soothing and calming effect when consumed internally or when applied externally over the body. Its distinctive chemical composition helps in reducing stress. It provides relief to the muscle pain and throbbing. The oil has an ability to deal with the miseries of congestion and common cold. The warm and woody smell of the oil provides relaxation to human senses. Massage of Origanum Majorana releases pain during menstruation. It is also recommended for the treatment of insomnia as it regulates the functioning of nervous system. The oil is extensively used in body massage after sports. It provides warm effect to the body when used in hot bath. Description The Romans have categorized Origanum Majorana as the ‘herb of happiness’ and for the Greeks it was a key source of ‘joy to the mountains’ due to its sedative properties and an ability to reduce tension. Surgical patients experience tension before and after the surgery which is a natural phenomenon. However, the tension and emotional imbalance might lead to high blood pressure which can cause problems particularly during and after the surgery. Therefore it is the prime concern of medical professionals to reduce tension and mental stress of these patients. For this purpose several medicines and therapies are used. The application of Origanum Majorana essential oil

History and Evolution of Health Care Economics

Formation of these institutions has struck the government’s interest hence leading to regulation and control of the facilities. This has lead to growth of businesses such as insurance which benefit largely from health care facilities (Dranove, 2009). Managed care has also been implemented which has resulted to people having easy access to health care. Services such as Medicare have also seen to it that there is easy access to healthcare considering the fact that it has become really costly nowadays to access health care (Dranove, 2003). Dating to early 1900s, many did not see the need for insurance policies in health which rapidly changed as the population grew. In recent days, insurance has helped people who have incurred large bills to pay their bills and this is one of the major changes in health care that can be seen over the decades. This has been so because medical costs have recently been on the all time high and most people do not have enough funds to get the best medical care. Evolution of health care economics has reduced the risks involved during attention of patients, for example, during the early days those who were considered professionals such as midwives helped their patients at home with little or no care which increased the risk of both the baby and the mother. Serious diseases were not treated effectively because of norms and beliefs which lead to death due to pain. The government has built more facilities such as hospitals, which are equipped with qualified personnel and resources to help in attendance of patients lowering the risks involved. Improvement of equipments has been helpful in making sure that contraction of diseases between patients is avoided. In the early days, some complications such as a patient being in a coma were considered fatal or hard to treat but with the help of a life support machines, the rate of deaths of those badly injured has reduced in a big way. Invention of vaccines has helped spread and also prevent spread of diseases such as polio, chicken pox (Dranove, 2009). In the early days, barrenness was considered as incurable but due to technology, services such as tube fertilization has helped many. Compared to the early days where medicines were direct from either trees or herbs and were administered to a patient without proper caution, evolution in the health sector has brought better and easy to administer drugs as a result of technology. The trees and herbs used to create medicines have been improvised to introduce tablets, syrups and other forms of medicine. This makes it easier to identify and administer. Medicines are also easily transported hence are available in bulk in different health centers easing the work done by the health professionals. The use of internet by doctors to diagnose their patients online has helped reduce the population in the centers and also made easier to identify specific diseases with the help of x-rays and scanning machines. This has increased efficiency in service delivery. Formation of doctors’ union has also helped in improvement health facilities and inventions, for example, in 1900s the American Medical Associations brought in more doctors. Doctors come together and agree on more important matters such as which medicine and inventions is both useful, not harmful and economical to the patient and the American

The Safe Operation of Ships

The safety manuals and codes have been developed after years of research and feedback generated by shipping personnel over years of experience in facing different distress situations. Hence the crew should always be encouraged to follow the safety instructions and treat the code as a valuable piece of guidance. (The ISM Code, 2007)Therefore it is quite clear from the objectives that the human element is quite clearly addressed in the ISM code and guidelines have been prescribed to reduce operational risk. It is with these intentions that the Maritime Labour Convention of 2006 and the STCW 1978 were conducted and guidelines to avoid human risk were evolved.Since the Maritime labor Convention as a document covers a whole gamut of areas and stipulations, the primary areas of reference regarding reducing operational risk of seafarers shall be discussed here. This convention consists of a series of conventions which deal with the scope, rights, and responsibilities of seafarers.Title 3 deals with his accommodation and food that is provided onboard. Therefore Title 2 and Title 3 deal with the psychological aspect of the person as only an optimum amount of rest would ensure that he performs his watchkeeping duty diligently.Title 4 covers measures that the ship has adopted for accident prevention and medical care facilities on board in case of any injury. The ship should also be provided with efficient communication that could inform the land and have the injured person airlifted to the nearest medical facility. (Maritime Labour Convention, 2006) The regulation and code are then further arranged in a series of five titles. These areTitle 1- The minimum age of entry should be sixteen years. Night duty for people below 18years is banned. Night duty is also defined as one which begins before midnight and ends before 5 am. Work that may have an adverse effect on the health of an individual should be avoided if he is below 18 years.

The Role of the Social Workers

Some of these problems include unemployment, lack of job skill, inadequate housing, financial distress, serious illness or disability, substance abuse, unwanted pregnancy, marital problems or anti-social behavior among others (Kumar, 2004 p.1). The role of the social workers is to find effective and immediate solutions to these conflicts, which involve spousal or child abuse by offering consultation and counseling to their clients, and ensure that they undergo the services or treatments that ought to free them from complicated situations.In this given example, Jim is suffering from a mental disease of ‘schizophrenia’ and has placed his family, especially the young children in unhealthy living conditions. Jim’s medical condition is completely beyond his control and requires immediate attention. However, the drug dependency coupled with alcohol abuse and the service of penal punishment, are factors which are directly attributable to Jim’s own misconduct. Although his wife and children have supported him in spite of his difficult ordeals, the paramount consideration should always be geared towards the best interests of their minor children, aged 11 and 13.In order to appropriately address the problem of Jim’s children, the role of the social workers extends to effective child protection. Munro (2008, p.6) has concluded that Child protection workers have to make complex judgments and difficult decisions in conditions of limited knowledge, time pressures, high emotions, and conflicting values. Therefore, analytic and intuitive reason skills are best seen as continuum, not dichotomy. The centrality of and intuition needs to be acknowledged, but practice can be improved by developing professionals’ analytic skills. It is common knowledgethat child-protection work is impressed with the high level of emotions to ensure the well-being of the children and arouse strong emotional responses in most adults.

Open Adoption Records

Key words: information, agreement, consent. Should All Adoption Document Opened To Adopted Child Above 18? Every person above 18 years has a right to have access to information. However, this right should be restricted on special cases. It may require one to restrict information to an individual for the good of the person and those related to the person. Under section 3 of data protection act, one has a right to obtain a copy of any information withheld from him, by an organization. But provisions have been provided under section 5 of data protection act where the information to be provided may negatively affect the code of conduct and interest of an organization (Data protection commissioner, n.d). In this regard, this paper opposes the opening of all adoption records to adopted individual even though the individual may be above 18 years. The assertion is in regard to the following fact. the uncertainty of physiological effects that may be caused due to such revelations. A good example is the case where the biological parents choose to maintain anonymous identification. It would be of great importance to maintain the privacy of the parents. Otherwise not doing so, will not only hurt the credibility of the organization concerned and the biological parents’ right of privacy, but also may infringe negatively into the adopted parents’ relationship with the adopted child. The signed documents between the parents and the organization should be respected and their privacy maintained, and only opened to a third party under their consent, and if a situation forces (Adoption resources, 2013). Otherwise this may harm the firm’s credibility and the biological parents’ feelings, thus causing a negative impact. The second reason for my proposition is due to the fact that such revelations may cause a rift between the adopted parents and the child. This may be due to the fact that the child may have a conflict of interest between the biological and the adopted parents. In one way or the other, one party may have to suffer some kind of damages due to this revelation. It is better to avoid this entire situation by withholding such information so as not to hurt the young person’s emotions. It may be argued that such revelations are important to the health and medical conditions of the adopted kid, because some medical conditions are directly related to the biological family’s medical history. I agree that these conditions would easily be monitored if the biological family’s medical history was revealed to the adopted child. This fact, however, should not be the core reason for opening of all the adoption records to the adopted child. Such critical information should be given to the adopting parents who should reveal the history to the doctors without revealing the adopting documents to the child. Even in such circumstances, only safe information should be released. Individuals aged above 18 years have the right to get access their records (Yashwantrao Chavan Academy of Development Administration, 2006). However, if such information would have a negative impact on the person’s wellbeing as well as people around (i.e. would cause physiological problems and unwarranted anger), it would be better such individual is kept in the dark in regard to such scenarios. Despite the individual’s emotional maturity, such information may break the strength,

God’s excistance

The world as we know is full of evils which are rampant and this could not have come from the God that was acclaimed traditionally. Mill believed that though God existed, he was either limited in power or was not entirely benevolent. This means that he purposefully lets the evils that ail society to take place and rids them when he sees necessity or when one seeks intervention2. Emily is a victim of the evil that is rampant in the world. She is haunted and possessed by evil spirits which take control of her after she leaves home for college. The whole idea of God being entirely benevolent is fogged up by the fact that Emily is overcome by the forces which are beyond her control, which are the evil spirits after she chooses to discontinue her medication and rely entirely on her faith in God to help her overcome the evil spirits that taunt her. In the film, Emily is overcome by forces which she cannot control. The forces turn out to be evil spirits. She is initially advised to use medication so that she can overcome these evil spirits which seem to be slowly taking control of her. She starts speaking in quire tongues and getting in to a trance where she starts being destructive and her behaviors become shocking. When in the trance, she has a tendency of destroying religious symbols and artifacts, a proof that she is possessed by forces that oppose religion. The whole ordeal begins one night when Emily encounters a strange burning smell which comes from the hall-way in her dorm room. She decides to go and see what is burning and in the process, she notices that the door shuts itself and opens several times. She then goes back to her room and in what seems to be like hallucinations, she sees her jar of pencils move by itself and her bedclothes rolling themselves down. She then experiences a great weight which seems to be pulling her down and at the same time choking her.This prompts her to leave school and go back home. Both her and her parents are now convinced that she is possessed by demons and the only way that she can be helped is by performing an exorcism on her. The local parish priest, Father Moore, is called to perform the exorcism but unfortunately Emily does not make it out alive. Father Moore is arrested and charged with negligent homicide on Emily’s death. There are good reasons to suppose that Emily is sick and not possessed. After she encounters several more visions after her first, she is hospitalized and after tests, she is diagnosed with epilepsy. She is given medication to counter what is thought to be seizures but the anti-seizure medication is not of help to her. She still encounters her visions and bodily contortions which increase in severity. According to the doctor and the prosecution, Emily’s behaviors can be as a result of psychosis due to the visions that she encounters or epilepsy due to the severe bodily contortions. Another possible argument would be that Emily suffered from schizophrenia and is not demon possessed. For example, during her exorcism, Emily named 6 demons that had possessed her and this could be a logical base for arguing out that her condition was not spiritual but more of mental illness. The prosecution in the film actually puts up a solid case based on the medical proof that is being suggested. It is also possible for a viewer to argue out that God cannot exist amidst all this evil that is depicted in the


According to the United States Legal.com, abortion is an act defined as the ending of pregnancy by different methods which include surgical procedures, prior to the fetus of the female in question is able to sustain independent life. The legal definition of it not only seems clear on the ground of termination of life before it can sustain itself as an independent being but also points out that for it to be carried out there are other ways besides medical procedures. The state allows termination of pregnancy in the first trimester but has more legal complications and restrictions on the second and third trimester. In the third trimester of pregnancy, the state has the power to rule out abortion apart from the exception when the life of the mother is in danger (US Legal.com). The paper discusses the moral and legal perspective of abortions and highlights whether or not it should be a matter of state interference or only the individual should have the right to take the decision. The state intruding in the matters of abortion also reflects on another question that whether or not the state is taking a step too deep in the matter of an individual’s personal life.Abortion and the grounds on which females get their babies aborted have various reasons. It is an issue that is linked with various other topics including morality and politics not to mention religion, and so looking at it from a single point of view would not be sufficient enough to provide an answer. Understanding the debate from the start is necessary to gain enough background knowledge and know which side to support. The society we live in today is advancing at a rate that not every issue that was so easily swept under the rug can be done so now. Abortion, like many others, has a conservative and a liberal side as well.Conservative individuals who tend to be on the pro-life side tend to argue that a fertilized ovum is already a developed person with senses that every living individual has and demolishing its life is wrong in the moral as well as legal sense. Liberals or individuals who believe in pro-choice means that they encourage abortion if deemed necessary, argue on the basis of the fact that even infants are not fully developed persons, and so can be aborted,

Decision making module 6

The disease makes life quite difficult for the man as the disease makes him feel like ‘fighting for breath’. The disease is severely debilitating and over time, the man deteriorates. In such a condition, the best he could get was the best palliative care possible in a hospice, but that does not provide answers to some nagging questions. One of the most important questions has to do with ‘prolonging life or prolonging death.’ The importance of such a question comes to light when one realises that the patient under review here is suffering from a chronic respiratory illness which eventually took his life. However, as medical personnel and other care givers struggled to provide him with the best palliative care, his symptoms were also inadvertently prolonged. That creates a conflict of purpose in the mind of the physician: Am I prolonging life or death? The case also gives a good demonstration of the dilemma that families face when they are to cope with the painful choice of having to take care of a patient suffering from a terminal disease such as COPD, cancer and similar ones (Taylor, 2011). 2. Identify and discuss at least two legal considerations in the case While taking a look at this case, there are several legal issues that surfaced, and the most important or crucial ones are: -The question of ending life In countries such as New Zealand where euthanasia is expressly illegal, this is indeed a very tough issue. Therefore, the case of the patient approving or even thinking of euthanasia or any medically-assisted suicide does not come into the picture. End of life is a very crucial stage in our existence and when it is now burdened with a perennial disease such as COPD, as seen in this case, it all assumes even a more radical dimension, legal matters included. The status of illegality that has been conferred on euthanasia in New Zealand means that all the patients and the family have to rely on is the palliative care, which does not always give the best to the patients. This is a very important issue and has thrown up even more controversies, which have been settled with legislations in countries such as the Netherlands (Dowbiggin, 2007, p. 149). -Who determines the degree and extent of the advanced care plan/palliative care provided? Although the Advanced Care Plan (ACP) makes provision for the patient to choose those to make decisions on his or her behalf when incapacitated, this also has the possibility of raising some legal dust. This is particularly true of a case where the patient is either a homeless, stateless or even an immigrant person who does not have a next of kin who can be easily tracked or called to fill in the gap. This is not always an easy question to answer (Taylor, 2011). (Provide reference to legal documents, guidelines or other articles/texts that discuss legal issues in regards to end-of-life decisions). 3. Identify and discuss at least two ethical considerations in the case As hinted in the section above, there are legal and ethical issues that arise from the case of end-of-life patients. Those that have the highest significance in bioethics are: a) How proper is extending pain or postponing death? In this case, physicians narrated of how some patients with respiratory illnesses felt: the advanced

Illicit Drug Usage and the Law in Canada

This has prompted the Canadian government to join the United Nations and other like-minded countries in the war against drugs. Canada has instituted various legislations aimed at curbing this cropping vice. For instance, the Canadian government has established new prohibitionist drug laws with very harsh penalties. The social, economic and political effects that substance abuse has had on the entire Canadian society are self-evident. For instance, a substantial number of Canadians who succumb due to drug-related complications has soared. Direct health care costs have also increased to large extents. Besides, substance abuse cost Canadians billions of dollars annually. Furthermore, there is low productivity in Canada due to morbidity that has adversely affected the Canadian economy. According to Montigny (2011), drug- related crimes are the order of the day in Canada in that crime rate has tremendously heightened. Consequently, crime and law enforcement costs have been on the rise due to increases in use of illicit drugs. This has invoked the Canadian government to tighten up its belt in the fight against illicit drug and substance abuse. A number of Acts aimed at controlling these drugs have been instituted. A legal foundation for drug legislation in Canada was laid in the early twentieth century. This was precisely in 1908 when the Opium Act instituted the initial drug restrictions. The act also created prohibition toward various other medicines and restrictions on tobacco and alcohol usage. Later in 1911, the Opium and Drug Act of 1911 was enacted establishing further restrictions on cocaine and opiates (Roach, 2008). In the year 1923, the Act incorporated restrictions towards cannabis usage. These developments led to the ultimate enactment of the Opium and Narcotic Act 1929, which became a crux in the Canadian drug policy. This act was backed up by various international drug legislations instituted by specified conventions. They include the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 as well as the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971(Whitaker, 1970). The fight on illegal drug usage in Canada took a new dimension in the year 1969 when the Le Dain led Commission was mandated to look into the Non-medical use of drugs in Canada. The commission established that the number of Canadians convicted with life imprisonment and other personal barriers annually due to illegal drug possession and usage was on tremendous rise. More so, they discovered that the police used excessive force against drug offenders (Moore, 2007). Owing to these discoveries, there was need for gradual withdrawal from criminal sanctions against those found in possession and use of illegal drugs as well as less coercive alternatives to the application of criminal law on drug offenders. This witnessed the implementation of the Canada Drug Strategy of 1987 that was aimed at addressing the identified problems. A decade later, the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act of 1997 was enacted. This Act was specifically meant to address the Canadian drug situation disregarding what was transpiring in other countries around the world. This Act was soundly prohibitionist since it barred any activities related to illegal drugs. As such, the most outstanding federal statute dealing with illegal drugs in Canada is the Controlled Drugs and Substance Act of 1997 (CDSA). This statute is charged with the

Continuous Quality Care Surgical Site Infection

‘The Never Events’ are Preventable According to a press release dated 31 July 2008 from the CMS Office of Public Affairs (2008), the ‘never events’ are preventable medical errors that result in serious consequences for the patient. As a result, such events cause serious injury or death to the beneficiaries and unnecessary costs to the Medicare and Medicaid systems. According to CMS (2008), hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) are the conditions which were absent before admission and developed during the hospital stay. The benefit is that this step will make hospitals improve the reliability of care they provide to patients. What is Surgical Site Infection (SSI)? A surgical site infection (SSI) can be defined as the infection that occurs after surgery in the place where the surgery was conducted. It is estimated that nearly 1-3 patients out of every 100 patients who had surgery develop SSI. Surgical Site Infection takes place because during surgery, one of the body’s most important protective covering-the skin- is opened. As a result, pathogens from the patient’s body, environment, or surgical instruments easily enter the body through the incision made during the surgery and cause infection. Surgical Site Infections can be minor or serious. Sometimes, the infections go superficial covering only the skin, and sometimes, such infections become serious affecting organs and even implanted material, leading to serious illness and even death. The symptoms of surgical site infections include redness, pain, drainage of cloudy fluid, fever, and so on. In fact, the chances for surgical site infections increase if the patient has an existing health problem and if the surgical site is not properly cleaned. Thirdly, the longer the surgical procedure is, the higher the infection chances will be. Various Studies According to the information provided by COLLATAMPG (n. d.), nearly 40-60% of the present surgical site infections are preventable. Brown et al (2009) point out that not all surgical site infections are preventable. To illustrate, based on a study, the scholars prove that only 40-60% of the surgical site infections are preventable. Also, it is noted that timely prophylaxis is not linked to surgical site infection rates in orthopedic surgeries. In addition, providing antibiotics in time is not associated with the rate of surgical site infection. However, there is the observation that using the available techniques, it is not possible to reduce the incidence of surgical site infections to zero. To illustrate, Brown et al (2009) point out that 40-60% of the surgical site infections are preventable. Based on studies, the scholars point out that timely prophylaxis is not linked to reduced rates of surgical site infections in orthopedic surgeries. Similarly, timely antibiotics intake is not connected with surgical site infection rate. However, it was possible to reduce the vascular catheter-associated infections in adult patients by 56% when the ‘best available prevention techniques’ were used (Brown et al 2009). Similarly, Nichols and Florman (2001) look

Inherited disease and prenatal investigations

On the other hand, cystic fibrosis and sickle-cell anaemia are autosomal recessive which means that the diseases require two mutated copies of the specific gene to be inherited by the offspring, one each from either parent, in order to have the disease. Persons who inherit only one copy of a recessive mutation are carriers for the disease trait. The genetic or chromosomal abnormalities in the foetus can be identified through prenatal investigations in pregnant women. Amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (CVS) are two standard prenatal tests commonly performed during the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Generally, amniocentesis is done at 15-18 weeks’ gestation and CVS at 10-12 weeks’ gestation (Olney et al., 2001). Both are invasive screening procedures which are associated with risks to the foetus. Amniocentesis consists of removal of a small quantity of the amniotic fluid with the help of a hollow needle inserted into the uterus through the abdominal wall while CVS involves biopsy of the placental cells (ScienceDaily, 2006). The foetal cells thus obtained are further analysed for genetic abnormalities. 2. Briefly explain what Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is. What characteristic smell is associated with MSUD? Describe briefly why keto-acids are present in MSUD. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a branched-chain ketoaciduria, is a metabolism disorder caused by a gene defect (Haldeman-Englert, 2009). It is an autosomal recessive disease. Urine in this condition generally smells like maple syrup. As the primary defect in this disease lies in the genes related to the oxidative decarboxylation enzymes involved in the metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, and valine, there is an accumulation of the keto acids in the blood. The branched-chain keto acids (BCKA) accumulating in MSUD are ?-ketoisocaproic acid, ?-ketoisovaleric acid, and ?-keto-?-methylvaleric acid (Funchal et al., 2005). 3. Explain the terms: Maternal PKU Biopterin deficiency The term maternal phenylketonuria (PKU) refers to the teratogenic effects of PKU during pregnancy. It is a genetic condition in which the high levels of phenylalanine during pregnancy in women with PKU can increase the risk of mental retardation, low birth weight, and birth defects in the newborn (GDSP Medical Terminology Glossary, 2010). Biopterin deficiency or tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiency comprises of heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorders. BH4 is a the cofactor for phenylalanine-4-hydroxylase, tyrosine-3-hydroxylase, and tryptophan-5-hydroxylase. Hence, the deficiencies are characterised by an imbalance in phenylalanine homeostasis, brain biosynthesis of catecholamine and serotonin (Scheinfeld and Jones, 2010). Like PKU, BH4 deficiencies impair developmental function. Some of the variants of BH4 deficiencies may be detected with PKU screening tests. 4. What is aminiotic fluid, and what does it mean when it produces a high salt content? The amniotic fluid is a clear, watery fluid that is found in the amniotic cavity. It is made up of the fluid that filters out of the maternal blood through the amniotic epithelium into the amniotic cavity as well as foetal constituents including urine, and exudates from the skin, the umbilical cord, the lungs and the kidneys (Trofatter, Jr. 2008). The osmolality (which is a measure of the amount of

Animal form and function II

Module 6 John Doe is a 55-year-old male who suffers from high cholesterol. John is experiencing frequent chest pain, profuse sweating, dizziness, and shallow breathing. John later learns he had suffered an acute myocardial infarction. (a) What physiological response helped John to survive this heart attack? Heart is the most vital organ in the body. It is the muscular pump that supplies blood to every organ and tissue to sustain life. Its own blood supply is however critical to life. The adequate function of heart depends upon the balance between its own metabolic demand and the supply of blood. An imbalance in this predisposes the heart muscle to ischemia, which means reduced blood flow. The tissue death as a result of ischemia occurs because of two reasons, reduced oxygen supply and the decreased delivery of nutrients, both of which are brought in by the flow of blood though the heart muscle. The area deprived of blood supply is said to have suffered ischemic injury. The ischemic injury, if severe enough to cause the complete block of oxygen and nutrients causes death of the heart tissue, which is termed as Myocardial Infarction. Above 90% cases of myocardial infarction occur as a result of coronary artery blockage, thus the disease is also referred to as coronary artery disease. Most commonly myocardial infarction occurs from atherosclerotic plaques which block the blood supply to the heart. John survived the heart attack because of certain reasons. In many cases it is seen that the body is not able to respond the stress that it has been levied upon because of which the person dies but in the case of John it can be seen that he survived the attack. His physiological response was enhanced because of his age which have helped him to develop collateral channels. Collateral channels are the ones developed by the body which work only when the main arteries have been blocked. The atherosclerotic plaques may have forced open the collateral channels in the heart of John which helped him to normalize his blood level. The muscles which became ischemic because of the blood supply were able to grasp enough blood so that the heart could pump the blood to other tissues. One of the main physiological response which helped John to survive the attack was the reperfusion of the heart muscles which were involved in the infarction. It is also possible that the plaques were dissolved after their lysis with the help of platelets (Kumar et al 2005) (b) What role did the immune system play, if any? The immune system did possibly play a role in the survival of John. Myocardial infarction is influenced by the development of plaques along with vasospasm. After the heart attack the white blood cells moved into the area where the blood flow was restricted to form a thrombus. This thrombus thus stopped the blood from flowing to the cardiac muscles which must have destroyed them. The platelet aggregation would have been thus stopped by other white blood cells which would have helped in the lysis of the plaque (Guyton Hall 2011). (c) How has John’s blood flow been affected by his heart attack? After the heart attack John’s blood flow to the tissues has been decreased because of several reasons. The myocardial infarction must have left some effects on the heart of John because of which his cardiac muscles were destroyed. This destruction would lower the ventricular function which would thus cause the heart to function less than its normal. It is thus observed that the systemic circulation of John would be reduced in response to the heart attack (Ganong 2005. Kumar et al 2005).References Hall, J. E., Guyton, A. C. (2011).Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders/Elsevier. Kumar, V., Abbas, A. K., Fausto, N., Robbins, S. L., Cotran, R. S. (2005).Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. Ganong, W. F. (2005).Review of medical physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

Radiation Exposure from Chernobyl and Fukushima

In the case of Fukushima, an earthquake and tsunami struck the Fukushima Daiichi reactors and led to electricity loss on the site. This resulted in a momentary halt of the cooling of the fuel in the reactor cores. Hydrogen buildup in the three power plants led to an explosion. However, the amount of radiation released in Fukushima was less and could not compare to that of Chernobyl. The Japanese government explained that by reaching a cold shutdown condition, it showed stabilization of coolant temperature and the halt of further release of radiation from the site. Nonetheless, both accidents have health impact on the affected populations. however, the degree of the impact varies with the different radiation exposure levels in the two cases. According to (Elliott 89), the 2011 nuclear accident at Fukushima and the 1986 situation at Chernobyl are both rated 7 on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale, even though these happened differently. Chernobyl registered the most health effects as 28 reactor staff and emergency workers, who were highly exposed to radiation, succumbed to thermal and radiation burns after four months of the accident. By the end of 2004, 19 more were reported to have lost their lives. It is also widely believed that the incident caused about 4,000 cases of thyroid cancer. On the other hand, in Japan, no deaths have been linked to the radiation exposure. The difference in radiation release in the two cases is responsible for the varying impacts. For instance, Fukushima radiation release was almost10 percent of that from Chernobyl. At Chernobyl, the explosion of the reactor led to a fire that lasted for ten days. The explosion at Fukushima was due to Hydrogen buildup and did not involve the reactors themselves (Bortz 41). In the case of Fukushima, the magnitude of harm caused by radiation exposure is uncertain, since the event is still fresh, unlike Chernobyl, which occurred a quarter century ago. Since Chernobyl incidence occurred years back, it has given an opportunity for medical researchers to determine the health impact of the radiation exposure. However, there are also potential health effects, which will be presented by the Fukushima radiation exposure in the future. it is just a matter of time. Most concerns arising from radiation exposure mainly base on the risk posed to the broader public. During such radiation, people outside and close to the plants inhale air that is mixed with the radiation components. The major radioactive chemical elements, which are inhaled or enter the body through food consumption include, Iodine-131 and Cesium-137. Iodine-131 has a half-life of eight days and when inhaled, concentrates in the throat. On the other hand, Cesium-137has a half-life of thirty years and can enter the body through the consumption of food, which was grown in contaminated soil. Studies today show that, the main health effect of Chernobyl, is thyroid cancer in children, who were exposed. This is because of the ingestion of Iodine-131. Today, close to 6000 cases of thyroid cancer are attributed to Chernobyl reactor accident. Although Iodine’s radioactive decays quickly to untraceable levels, it is expected that cases of thyroid cancer will increase. This radiation exposure affected many children because Iodine is greatly absorbed and settles in the thyroid glands of children, who are still in the developmental stage. The emergency

The Calculation of the Federal NonRefundable Tax Credit

She was originally married but later on divorced due to domestic violence. She is a Canadian citizen who lives in Ontario province, Toronto city 2 vines Avenue. She is blessed with four children born in 1990, 1993, 1997 and 2001 respectively. As per now, the client does not pay the family caregiving amount.She earns a basic employment income of $100000 with the following deductions: $3000 for elected split-pension, $4000 for the annual union for professionals as he is in a union of accountants union and $8700 for her children expenses. She has credits such as $4468 for two children whom he doesn’t claim for the family caregiver, $8548 for other two children who claim for family caregiver and $5120 for CPP contribution through payment from box 16 and box 17 of all T4 slips, $891.12 for employment premiums. He, however, pays $1117 for being a Canadian employer, $2500 for public transit, $3000 for children fitness, $1500 for children’s arts, $3500 for home buyer’s, $5200 for medical expenses for herself and her children. The client has got two more types of income which is interest on bond and dividends.In the case study, the client earns a salary of $100000 in 2012 and was not a member of DPSP and RPP so he is entitled to contribute (18%*100000) = $18000 as contribution limit but he contributed $1500 to a spousal RRSP in 2013. His earned income is sufficient for maximum $24270 as the deduction in the year 2013. He will contribute and deduct up to $16500 in 2013 (18000+ {18000-1500}) the RRSP contribution is recorded in line 129Capital gains: in April 2013, the client owned 500MBF (1000 board) of wooden boards that lasted for more than a year. It had a depletion of $60 per MBF. She is a calendar year taxpayer. On January 1, 2013, the boards had a fair market value of $45 per MBF. She sold all of them in April. On her 2013 tax return, she elected to treat the cutting of timber as the exchange. We report the difference between client’s fair market value and her adjusted basis for depletion as a capital gain.

Arguments for Assisted Suicide

This becomes a less volatile terminology that can be discussed on terms that do not suggest sin, mental instability, and can call into question policies of illegality. A definition of voluntary euthanasia is that it takes place when a patient who is dying or who is in intolerable pain asks someone to help him or her to die to avoid any further suffering (Cleave, 2001, p. 22). Most cultures, including the Western culture, is very linguistically affected by how different terminologies are used to define a topic. However, the word euthanasia is more often associated with the act of putting down an animal, so therefore that term is also not sufficient for the discussion. Suicide and Culture The event in question concerns helping someone who for one reason or another has decided to end their life. The most basic reason for suicide, that an individual is miserable and decides to end a life that has become unbearable purely for reasons that are based upon how they feel within their life, is a type of suicide that cannot be socially supported in Western cultures. According to Barnes, Golden, and Peterson (2010), men complete suicide more often than women, Montana has a higher rate of suicide over New Jersey, and people in the Eastern European country of Belarus have a higher rate of suicide than the United States. China, on the other hand, has a much higher rate of completed suicide by women than men. Culture is highly relevant to the rate of suicide and more importantly, 60% of all suicides are attributed to depression. Attributing suicide to depression, however, is based upon theory rather than medical evaluation and is a culturally based… Once again, it is how the topic is discussed that frames the event, the language that is used in forming the concept that defines its presence within society. The association to depression, while a clinically evaluated disease, is still a disease that is assessed through a determination and is often undiagnosed previous to the event of suicide. Therefore, the cultural assessment of suicide is that it occurs because individuals have been influenced by a feeling of despair that is caused by mental illness, therefore it cannot have been a decision made through sound and evaluative thinking. This social evaluation of suicide has influenced the way in which the choice to end one’s life because of terminal illness has been assessed. Society has yet to acknowledge the benefits of assisted suicide when the decision has been made to end one’s own suffering, but the event of suicide is best done under the care of a medical professional, or a friend who helps to ease the burden of self inflicting the event of suicide. Finding a relatively painless way to die when life has become unbearable is not a right that has been given in the United States. Assisting someone else to die is considered murder and is a burden to anyone who agrees to provide that service. Dr. Jack KevorkianDr. Jack Kevorkian is the most renowned physician to support assisted suicide. His beliefs extended to anyone who desired to end their own life. One of the more famous quotes from this doctor was simply that dying is not a crime.

Legalizing Abortion

The abortion issue is multi-faceted and both sides of the issue provide credible, thought-provoking arguments. Only the individual can disseminate the information and make their own decision based on what they believe to be right but everyone should know both sides on equal terms so as to make the decision that is right for them. This paper presents the ‘right-to-life’ opinion regarding the abortion issue then follows with the ‘pro-choice’ argument from an ethical, moral and legal aspect. The arguments for and against are significant in a social context yet inconsequential because they will not decide whether or not abortions remain safe and lawful. The conclusion explains why legal abortions should remain the law of the land. Pro-Life The right to choose is the foundation upon which this country was built. Those who are pro-abortion trumpet this slogan while proclaiming a woman’s ‘God given right’ to make her own choices without government interference. There is little freedom of choice for women who are experiencing an unwanted pregnancy. The women themselves usually wish to bring their baby to full term. Other powerful influences in her life such as husbands/boyfriends, parents and friends are generally the forces that exact pressures on her to terminate the pregnancy. Eight out of 10 women surveyed after abortion said they would have given birth if they’d had support and encouragement from family and friends (Reardon, 2002). It’s the abortion that, in many cases, is unwanted by the woman, not the baby. Most often, the father of the child, not wishing to accept responsibility, may beg or even threaten a woman until she agrees to the abortion. In 95 percent of all cases the male partner played a central role in the decision (Zimmerman, 1977). This and other studies have illustrated clearly that most women decide against their own conscience. Legal abortion enables fathers to force their will on mothers. Some women resort to abortion in desperation because they fear continued abuse. That fear is substantiated as women who refuse to abort have been subjected to serious abuses which have escalated to murder if the women still persists in her refusal. Murder is the leading cause of death for pregnant women and for what other motive could there be? Sixty-four percent of women surveyed report being pressured by others into unwanted abortions (Reardon, 1992). Immediately following an abortion, the one(s) coercing the decision are relieved and seldom, if ever, give the inconvenient issue another thought. Women, on the other hand, suffer long afterwards, racked by overwhelming guilt and agonizing over their irreversible decision. This pain may last a lifetime as they are never able to forgive themselves (Elliot Institute, n.d.). Another myth espoused as fact is that the aborted fetus is no more than a cluster of cells, a bit of tissue unable to even feel pain. A developing embryo has a unique set of fingerprints as well as different genetic patterns than its mother. It is a human being unto itself. If one defines death as the stoppage of a heartbeat and murder as the forceful and intentional stopping of a heart then abortion is surely murder. If the existence of a heartbeat legally defined life, then almost all abortions would be illegal as the heart is formed by the 18th day in the womb. A British medical journal reported that when a pin is stuck into an eight-week-old fetus,

What It Really Takes to Become a Veterinarian

The job description of a veterinarian differs depending on whether the vet is a city vet, private vet, city vet or country vet or whether they work in another function altogether. Sometimes these roles overlap, such as in a small city with an outlying livestock zone. Generally, the veterinarian is established as a person who is in charge of the medical care and treatment of animals. Certainly, they do the kinds of things one might expect: immunize animals against disease, perform routine health inspections, perform surgeries and set broken bones, but they are not just the people who take care of the cats and dogs in the city. According to a description provided by the Career Information Center (Veterinarian, 2005), of the more than 57,000 veterinarians working in the United States, only about one-third treat small pets exclusively. Most of the vets that wish to specialize in small animals opt for private veterinary practice. The rest are reportedly employed by farms, ranches or zoos to work with large animals, with the federal government as meat and livestock inspectors, with pharmaceutical companies to help develop new medicines for animal illnesses and with universities in teaching and research positions.In 2003, the American Veterinary Medical Association (2003), who represents approximately 86 percent of all veterinarians, reported the demographics of veterinarians at that time was 1,784 workings exclusively with large animals. 33,658 exclusively working with small animals. 3,519 working in mixed practices with predominantly large animals. 5,855 working in mixed practices with mostly small animals. 827 workings exclusively with bovines. and 2,529 workings exclusively with equines. These 48,172 veterinarians represented approximately 69 percent of the AVMA’s total membership.

Assessment and care of a client with complex needs Mental Health nursing]

15). This involves a methodical evaluation of the social and health care requirements of an individual who has been brought to the ‘specialist mental health services’ (Forster, 2001, p. 15). An important component of the CPA is the assigning of a service provider who will work with the client and his/her family or caregivers to evaluate needs, create and carry out a care plan. In the CPA service provider task, the nurse is largely involved in locating an array of assessment needs, several of which could be outside the own knowledge or capability of the nurse. Besides the troubles brought about by mental disorders, numerous clients with serious and chronic mental disorders will be further impaired by ‘secondary impairment’ (Bartlett Sandland, 2007). This will lead to a kind of disability marked by difficulty carrying out daily tasks such as cooking, going to the grocery, using public transport, and so on. Professional assessments from service providers should be requested. In nursing theory and practice, bipolar disorder is classified as one of the most complex mental health disorders. The best nursing care takes place during the acute illness stage and remission (Suppes Dennehy, 2010). This paper presents a case study of the mental health condition of Ms. … She eventually became tardy. Her performance at work began to deteriorate. Ms. M herself admitted that she has difficulty concentrating at work. She also said that she feels lost and lonely at times. Her sleep patterns also became abnormal. She sleeps late but wakes up very early. But, interestingly, she began to show more enthusiasm and energy in the morning. Her sister reported that Ms. M became short-tempered all of a sudden and has been, for the first time, openly expressing her desire to become a model. Ms. M was diagnosed with depression and alcohol related problems. Ms. M’s mental health condition may be caused by genetics or environmental factors. A depressive episode may take place without any clear cause. It could be that something stressful in Ms. M’s immediate environment caused the sudden changes in her behaviour. it could be a stressful event at work or at home. A medical condition can also cause episodes of depression, such as brain tumour or stroke (Videbeck, 2010). According to Boyd (2008), use of substance and consumption of alcohol may also activate symptoms of depression. Case Analysis The symptoms of Ms. M are indicative of bipolar disorder. An individual episode of abnormal and chronic irritable mood. During Ms. M’s episodes of mood disorder, the following symptoms of bipolar disorder have continued: difficulty concentrating. more conversational than normal. excessive energy and enthusiasm. abnormal sleeping patterns. and increased confidence (e.g. desire to enter modeling). The mood disorder is quite serious to cause noticeable disruption in occupational performance or in personal relationships. The symptoms may be triggered by alcohol related problems. Because bipolar disorder often includes depressive and manic episodes, knowledge of

Wrist sprain of palmar ligamentshyperextension injury (Tennis)

The identification of this condition is involves elimination. To effectively identify this condition, medical practitioners must have to eliminate certain conditions such as ruptures or breakage of the bone, shocking and painful volatility, as well as ripping of tendons. Incidents of individuals having sprains involving ligaments of the wrist are widespread and in most times contributes to constant hurting or twinge in the wrist n instances where these cases are not dealt with immediately. This paper summarizes the anatomical structures involved, common mechanisms of injury, common symptoms, recommendations for modifications of general exercise, criteria for return to sport, future injury prevention, and rehabilitation through each stage of healing. namely inflammatory, proliferative, and maturation stages. Anatomical structures involved and common mechanism of injury According to Hammer (2005), the anatomical structures involved are the ligaments of the wrist. When playing tennis, an accidental fall may sometimes break or crack a muscle of the wrist. This sprain happens in a particular manner. Having an accidental fall while holding out your hand appears to compel the wrist to extend more than normal. In explaining the fall, Hertling and Kessler (2006) posits that Because the fall on the outstretched hand tends to force the wrist into hyperextension, the palmar radiolunate and palmar lunocapitate ligaments tend to be sprained (p. 417). Sometimes, a tennis player may fall and hit the back side of the hand. This compels the part between the hand and the arm to tremendous palmar flexion. Consequently, a wrench or injury of the tendons occurs. Common symptoms The major symptom of this injury is tremendous pain in the ligaments of the wrist. This pain is typically contained and limited to a region within the injury. It is however important to point out that the pain is experienced when the individual is playing tennis hence exercising the wrist. The act of putting the wrist into extensive exercise strains or gives pressure to the injured tendon. The wrist may also be inflamed a little bit and soft. Serious sprains may be accompanied by bruising and darkening of the skin at the injured region (Hewetson, Austin Gwynn-Brett, 2009). Modifications to general exercise There are certain activities that should be avoided while healing a sprain of the palmar ligament. An abrasion of the tendon may not necessarily be pressured tremendously by reflexive and flaccid movement of any part of the body. Therefore reflexive movements done carefully are recommended. Inclining frontward conveys and spreads the body weight all the way through every part of the arm and hand. This is not advisable in the process of healing as it replicates hurting or twinge (Souza, 2009). Exercising the joint in a manner that creates pressure on the tendons or muscles is not recommended in the process of healing. Controlled and restrictive support of the joint and tendon would be of significance in exercising twinge reprieve. Striking the injured region gently offer support and as well aids in decreasing hurting. On the other hand, action of movement that elevates the level of hurting should be scrutinized and studied as certain alterations and adjustments to these movements may lessen the level of hurting. Rubbing down the injured region increases movement from one end to another of the pressured tendon. In less serious sprains, pain and other indications of injury may lessen in about three days but more serious sprains may take months to heal (McKeag Moeller, 2007). Therefore, an exercise plan should be developed on

Critical evaluation of the role of case management in relation to the development of health and social policy in the UK

are policies that address almost all areas of human healthcare, and all age groups with different challenges, for example mental, psychological or physical issues. (Zairi Jarrar, 2001) These reforms aim at improving the already present services with a more personalized touch.The role of NHS has been pivotal in the formation of the current health care system. It is on the basis of this national system that the various other systems and formularies have developed. (Social Policy in the UK, 2005) And it is with this in mind that due credit must be given to the NHS for increasing its standards and modifying its policies year by year, with the results that now it focuses mainly on gaining maximum performances from its various sectors with reduced costs. It is an established fact that primary care curtails one of the least medical costs when applied correctly within a system or a country. This is in comparison to other health care systems such as the secondary, tertiary and the private health care. Increased teamwork and less hierarchy and beurocracy are the leading causes of successful health care delivery. (Zairi Jarrar, 2001) Amidst the good working of the NHS several flaws still remain. The main causes of these less than optimum performances in the NHS are due to complexity, heterogeneity, uncertainty and ambiguity within the system. By eliminating these factors, NHS will be able to provide a much improved health care system with fewer loopholes. (Zairi Jarrar, 2001)The introduction of Organizational Effectiveness Model in the NHS has been very helpful in identifying the key factors for achieving business excellence within health care. (Zairi Jarrar, 2001) This model is able to chart the effectiveness level of a business by appointing a score system. The potential of this model in improving research and expertise is endless.NHS has played an important role in the management of individuals with mental health issues, and has issued many

Ethical Considerations Project Brownfield v Daniel Freeman Marina Hospital

Additionally, the Catholic theologies also argue that in consequence of informing the rape victim about emergency contraception shall held the hospital and the physician correspondingly culpable for any undue action of the victim (Smugar, Spina, Merz, 2000). On the other hand, when considering the patient’s right to truth as well as freedom to select their healthcare preferences, the ethical and religious directives bind the Catholic hospitals in informing the rape victims when serving emergency contraception as a measure of pregnancy prophylaxis. In this context, the 26th directive of the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services (5th Edition) postulates that The free and informed consent of the person or the person’s surrogate is required for medical treatments and procedures, except in an emergency situation when consent cannot be obtained and there is no indication that the patient would refuse consent to the treatment. Under this particular directive, even though the Catholic hospitals can be deemed as not bound to obtain an informed consent from the patient when delivering emergency situations, a critical evaluation of the rule advocates that such actions shall only be justified where the patient deciphers or has no reason to decipher a refusal to the rendered treatment (United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, 2009). Thus, based on these ethical considerations, where the plaintiff in this case had a possibility to refuse emergency contraception, the Catholic hospital was bound to take her informed consent. Legal consideration regarding the issue Legal considerations in concern to the issue identified in the… The referred case study evidently symbolises the complexities arising from the intersection of religious influences and moral theology in emergency healthcare deliverance. It also highlights the effects of gaps persisting in the policies laid by the Catholic hospitals in concern to the treatment requirements of rape victims. Conclusively, with concern to the unevenness in the treatment policies of Catholic hospitals, it is recommendable that more transparency and adequacy is required in specifying the rules of rendering treatment facilities to rape victims, keeping the patient’s right to information and their interests among the top priority concerns. The ethical concepts and principles applied to the issue included the civil rights of a rape victim when obtaining emergency treatment facilities that imposed the risk of abortion along with the legitimate authority of the Catholic hospital in withdrawing from delivering adequate information to the patient (a rape victim) when attempting for pregnancy prophylaxis. Accordingly, the principles mentioned under the 5th amendment of the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops were also considered in this case, where utmost significance was given to the directives 26, 27 and 45 along with taking into account the other mentioned rules.

Anorexia as an Extreme Form of Mind and Body Dualism

The criteria for the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa include refusal to maintain minimal normal weight with bodyweight less than 85% of that expected for age and height, fear of becoming fat or gaining weight, disturbance in body weight and shape perceptions, absence of at least three normal non-drug induced consecutive menstrual cycles.The current International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) states that though the condition occurs most commonly in adolescent girls and young women, adolescent boys and young men may also be affected rarely, as well as children approaching puberty and older women up to menopause.In extreme cases, bizarre eating patterns can lead to life-threatening medical conditions, which require hospitalisation. Anorexia is thought to be due to a complex interplay between psychological, biological, and socio-cultural causes.Before the existence of the theory of dualism, it was considered that the mind and body were the same. This view was called monism, which proposes that behaviour is strictly a function of physical events.Typically, the physical events are associated with or are directly a function of brain activity. Boring (1950) suggested, The chief function of the brain is thought, perhaps, or consciousness. Hence, the behaviour could be considered a direct outcome primarily of brain activity.The doctrine of mind/body dualism was recognised since the time of Plato, but it was Rene Descartes (1596-1650) who reworked this concept of dualism into a form, which fitted to the times (Lowry et al., 1982). Philosophers subsequently referred this as Cartesian dualism. According to this theory, the mind and the body are two distinct entities.Descartes argues for his theory by saying that as he is a subject of conscious thought and experience, he thus, cannot be anything more than spatially extended matter. The mind cannot be material but must be non-material.

Choose two key social determinants and two interventions (upstream and downstream) and critically discuss the relationship of t

The Social Determinants of Health and their Importance in Public Health Work Social determinant of health entail conditions within the environments in which individuals are born, live, learn, work, play, and age that impacts on a broad range of health, quality of life outcomes and risks, and functioning. An understanding on the manner in which population impacts on place and the influence of place on health is essential, especially with regard to enhancing the health outcomes of the population (CSDH 2008, p.5). The World Health Organization highlights the following as being the most significant social determinants of health, namely: poverty (absolute poverty bear a significant impact on health status). economic inequality (as the gap between rich and poor broadens, health status declines). social status. stress (social and psychological circumstance can render continual anxiety, low self-esteem, insecurity, and social isolation, all of which profound effects on health). education and care in life. employment. social exclusion. social security. job security. and food security (Kuulasmaa et al. 2000, p.675). Some of the ways of enhancing the overall health for a large number of people in a manner that can be sustained overtime entail working to establish policies that constructively influence the socioeconomic conditions of the people, and those that alter the individuals’ behaviour. Improving the environment in which people live, learn, play, work, and age, possesses a significant impact on the creation of a healthier population, society, and workforce. Some of the emerging strategies to responding to social determinants of health entail utilization of Health Impact Assessments to review the proposed, and existing social policies and their potential impact on health (O’Flaherty and Capewell 2012, p.855). The other strategy entails the application of health in all policies strategy that introduces enhanced health for all and bridges the health gaps as objectives to be shared across all facets of the government. # 2 Social Determinants and their relationship with Coronary Heart Disease in the UK Cardiovascular disease is a prominent public health problem that contributes close to 30% to the annual global mortality, and 10% to the global disease burden. Evidence on social determinants and inequities linked to cardiovascular disease essentially from developed countries points out an inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular incidence and mortality. The Independent Inquiry into the inequalities in health in late 1990s cited widening of inequalities in mortality (WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health, World Health Organization 2008, p.117). Most recently, the publication titled Fair Society. Healthy Lives cited the persistence of inequalities across a broad range of health outcomes. Coronary heart diseases remain a good indicator of social inequalities within health due to behavioural, and medical risk factors associated with coronary heart disease are socially patterned (Lang et al. 2012, p.602). This mirrors the improvements that have been attained in risk factor profiles (especially with regard to reductions in smoking) and improvements in terms of treatment. Nevertheless, enhancements in the prevention or treatment can manifest at diverse

Needle Stick Injuries

Now a day the vaccination available is only for Hepatitis B, and no vaccination is available for Hepatitis C or HIV. This is the reason why all healthcare workers are required to have their Hepatitis B vaccination done prior to entering their healthcare professionals.For Hepatitis C, the treatment is available, but no vaccination. The treatment has good results if the disease is diagnosed at a relatively earlier stage. If a person comes with an advanced stage of Hepatitis C, the treatment does not show many good outcomes. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) also does not have any vaccine available, thus this disease is also hazardous if once it occurs. (HSE, 2010).PROCEDURES INVOLVING SHARPS:The needle stick injuries are most common during procedures like drawing a blood sample, giving an intravenous or intramuscular drug, or any other procedure which involves any needle or any other sharp object like hypodermic needles or scalpels etc.Another common exposure is while recapping the used needles. It is now recommended at all medial setups to immediately dispose of the used needles into the approved sharps containers which break the needle and only the plastic container of the syringe is left behind. Although the gloves are used during all the medical procedures, yet the needles or scalpels are sharp enough to pierce the glove and then the skin. (HSE, 2010).STUDY SHOWING THE INCIDENCE OF NEEDLESTICK INJURIES:Recently a study was conducted by the Health Protection Agency (HPA), which collected the data across 150 reporting centers. This study was based on the incidence of occupational exposure to the Blood Borne Viruses (BBV’s) among the healthcare workers. The results of this study showed the needle stick injuries the needle stick injuries to be the most common type of exposure to such viruses. Out of this 63 % were caused by the hollow bore needles. Out of these about 45% occurred among the nursing professionals and 37% among the medial professionals. Only about 2% of cases were reported amongst the ancillary staff, but most of them were those resulting from the inappropriately discarded needles in the garbage bags. (HSE, 2010).

What Do We Owe the Dying Strategies to Strengthen EndofLife Care

There are several ways to improve the services for the patients and make the treatment more cost effective. Introduction and Analysis Majority Americans die in hospitals in very critical conditions. It is believed that the more health facilities an ill person gets he is likely to recover from the sickness faster, but this is not the case with old age patients who are nearing the end of their life. With an intake of a lot of drugs their health worsens and it diminishes their quality of life during this period and also the quality of their death. National surveys reveal that about 80% of Americans die in hospitals or other institutions although the mainstream chooses to die at home. It is astonishing to know that one third of the Medicare spending which make up around 144 billion dollars is spent on patients who are nearing the end of their life. Also very few hospitals in America give palliative care to their patients which can help them to make a decision about the end of their life. There is a lack of proper end of life planning in America and many patients believe that they do not die a reverential death. Patients nearing the end of life have to face disturbing situations where they are required to make yes or no decisions around which their lives revolve. For example sometimes they are stuck in pressures from their family members, they have continuous persuasion from the doctors who are trained to make the patient hopeful and in this way can suggest heavy dosage of medicines as well. Moreover they have to decide upon how to maintain their life during their last days and should they opt out for severe medical treatments that might be very much painful for them. The modern health care system has huge costs and the amount of money spent on end of life treatment is very expensive. It becomes a burden for the old age patients. The SUPPORT study which is the biggest research project investigating end of life care treatment, disclosed that many people in stress of the expensive treatment, in pain and suffering and also because of loneliness. A U.S. Institute of Medicine‘s research revealed people have come to both fear a technologically over-treated and protracted death and dread the prospect of abandonment and untreated physical and emotional stress. Analysis and Application There are two main institutions that provide funds for end of life care treatment in America. One is Medicare which is a social insurance program for the old age citizens and disabled population. It is funded completely by the federal system and they collect money through general revenues, payroll taxes and from volunteers. It is the principal insurance service in the United States for more than 80% people who die. Facilities for patients towards the end of their life constitute 28% of Medicare expenditures. this number has remained stable for the past twenty years. The other is Medicaid which is the health care program by the state for the low income group. It includes parents, children, old age people and disabled people with low incomes. It is the chief institute funding for long term healthcare. There are private insurance companies as well but they facilitate the younger people with their health care benefits and the young population mostly stays healthy. Both Medicare and Medicaid play a major role in providing funds for end of life care treatment but they follow the traditional hospice benefit system. The services which

Poverty and Senior Citizens

The available statistics on poverty among the senior citizens points out a rather unimpressive situation in the American society, particularly among the senior citizens (Uche 23). This paper will discuss poverty and senior citizens in the United States. In particular, it will discuss why poverty among the senior citizens in the United States is so bad. It will also discuss how this situation happened and if it should have happened, and whether the government is to blame for this particular situation. Poverty among the senior citizens in the United States is so bad especially when compared to other countries such as Canada. A survey by the Employee Benefit Research Institute shows that poverty rates among the senior citizens aged between 65 and 74 years increased from 7.9 percent in 2005 to 9.4 percent in 2009 (Banerjee 11). The survey further points out that the increase in the poverty rate was even steeper among the senior citizens aged between 75 and 84 years over the same period. from 7.6 to 10.7 percent. The survey also found out that the oldest retirees are the people who are most likely to live in poverty with the estimates standing at 14.6 percent in 2009. Available data show that older Americans are falling into poverty as they age. … So, how did this very bad situation of poverty among senior citizens in the United States happen? Several studies have found out that the biggest driver of poverty among the senior citizens across the world and particularly in the United States is failing health (Rank and James 338). Most retirees tend to suffer acute health conditions such as heart problems, stroke, cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, arthritis, psychological problems, and lung diseases among others. Those who live below the poverty line tend to suffer more compared to those who live above the poverty line. The other biggest driver of poverty among senior citizens in the United States is the high medical costs (Uche 32). Medical expenditures for the senior citizens increase as they grow older. The rising medical expenses in the country have complicated this situation over the past decade. Many of them have to move to nursing homes, which are very expensive. Living in the nursing homes tends to affect the old people as they lose their assets and income very quickly because of diminished control (Banerjee 13). The increase in the number of senior citizens living in poverty in the United States has also been attributed to the reducing assets and income especially after retirement. Majority of the senior citizens spend down their retirement savings very fast, especially in the period of recessions (Uche 56). It has been found out that as people age, their personal pension and savings accounts are depleted. Besides, the rising poverty rate among this category of people has been attributed to the two economic recessions that happened in the last decade. It is expected that as the economy slows down poverty rates increases, and when the economy does better the poverty rates go down (Rank and

Doctorpatient Communication Is Of Utmost Importance But Being Culturally Sensitive Is Not Limited To Providing An


Doctor-patient communication is of utmost importance but being culturally sensitive is not limited to providing an

interpreter for patients who require one. Many aspects of communication are non-verbal, and culture plays a huge role in medical interactions. Everything from eye contact to whom to address in the exam room can be affected by patients’ cultural backgrounds. In some Jewish, Hindu or Islamic cultures, pork is not eaten. Since there are a number of medicines, such as insulin, that contain pork-based ingredients, there could be problems if a health care practitioner prescribes and/or administers such medicines to people of these cultures and beliefs.

What are some ways doctors and other medical practitioners may have formed these perceptions? Social Science

The Table Provided To You By Your Instructor Contains Calculations Of Several Key Ratios For A Fictitious Company


The table provided to you by your instructor contains calculations of several key ratios for a fictitious company,

Texanna Pharmaceutical Company, a maker of proprietary and prescription drugs.

Texanna is a small- to medium-sized publicly held pharmaceutical company. Approximately 80% of its sales has been in prescription drugs; the remaining 20% is in medical supplies over the counter.

Auditor’s calculations are used to ascertain potential risks in anticipation of an audit. Some of this data may indicate the need for other industry- or company-specific data. Many of the company’s drugs are patented and Bamatosis’ (a best seller) patent will expire in 2 years. Over the last five years, this drug alone has accounted for 20% of the company’s sales. The auditor’s evaluation is that the company’s trends this year should be similar to the trend over the last few years and won’t deviate very far from the industry norms.


Identify 4 financial reporting risks that you will address during the audit and discuss how you will address those risks.


Many Students Confuse Ethos With Research When It Is Actually (Select All That Apply)Speaker’S


Many students confuse ethos with research, when it is actually… (Select all that apply)


connection to topic

Source’s education

Source content

Speaker’s honesty

Speaker’s credibility

Question number 2

The tobacco industry should be required to pay 100 percent of the medical bills for individuals dying of smoking-related cancers.

Which type of claim is this statement?





Question number 3

The overall goal of a persuasive speech is for the audience to accept your __________ as the speaker.





Question number 4

What is ethos?

Ethos is establishing your credibility to your audience.

Ethos is playing to the emotions of your audience.

Ethos is playing to the brain of your audience.

Ethos is emotional appeals.

Question number 5

What is logos?

Logos is logical reasoning.

Logos is playing to the emotions of your audience.

Logos is playing to the brain of your audience.

Logos is showing your credibility as a speaker to your audience.


Question 1

Which of the following individuals


Question 1

Which of the following individuals

exhibits the highest level of Emotional Intelligence?

Question 7 options:


Joan realizes that she can overreact when her children challenge her authority. She is working to learn how to better manage her responses to them to be more effective.


Susan supervised a worker who had multiple family problems that affected the worker’s performance at work. The worker’s behavior disturbed other workers and significantly interfered with productivity. Susan discussed the situation with the worker, expressed concern and referred her to professionals who might be helpful to her, but also alerted the worker that such behavior was not acceptable and if it continued, the worker would lose her position at the company.


Margaret was very bright and hardworking. She had great command of the technical skills needed in her current position. She was justifiably proud of her ability and knowledge. But, several of her supervisees had complained that she frequently exploded in anger, even though she was very apologetic afterwards. Margaret refused to attend anger management workshops.


Both Joan and Susan

Question 2

Which of the situations below represents the best example of high Emotional Intelligence?

Question 8 options:


Mary, the company CEO, wanted the layoff process to be brief and efficient. She did not want workers in her company to be disturbed or worried in advance because that might interfere with their productivity. Consequently, she kept her decision making process under wraps. As a result, people were informed that they were being let go when they arrived at work, and were escorted from their offices that same day, never to return. Workers who remained were demoralized and lost trust in her.


John, a worker at a start-up solar energy company that had been highly praised by President Obama as an example of a successful company in the new alternative energy field, heard on the radio as he was driving to work that the company had gone bankrupt and had closed (based on a true incident).


Jim was a very compassionate person. He really felt bad when he realized that he would have to lay off some of the workers in his company. He just could not bring himself to tell them the hard facts. It was quite a surprise when the workers learned the serious financial troubles that the company was facing and that a number of them were being let go.


None of the above

Question 3

What is meant by Signature Strengths?

Question 9 options:

Talents and skills that an individual is born with.

Abilities that a person acquires through focused practice throughout life.

Strengths of character that are valued throughout the world.

Strengths of character that an individual demonstrates in a wide variety of settings and enjoys using.

All of the above

Question 4

In developing the Values in Action Assessment, researchers administered the VIA Assessment to the same group of people several different times. What was the primary purpose of this procedure?


Question above options:


They were looking at whether anyone complained about the difficulty of the Inventory(VIA Assessment).


They were trying to determine if the VIA Assessment was too long..


They were trying to determine the reliability of the instrument.


They were trying to determine the validity of the instrument.

Question 5

US Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor describes a childhood of relative poverty and the loss of her father at a young age. In addition, she had to cope with diabetes and with schooling in her second language of English. Yet, she persevered and succeeded. response best describes the factor most responsible for her success, despite the many difficulties she faced.

Question 11 options:

Successful Aging

Positive Thinking

Career Consolidation


Question 6

Which of the following people is sometimes mentioned as among those who could be considered precursors of Positive Psychology?

Question 12 options:








None of the above

Question 7

Which of the following is the best definition of the field of Positive psychology?

Question 13 options:


Positive psychology is the scientific study of beneficial thoughts and emotions and behavior, and of applying findings to bettering the lives of individuals and improving society.


Positive psychology encourages people to look on the bright side of things and feel good about themselves.


Positive psychology focuses on people’s best qualities and how they develop over a lifetime.


Positive psychology is devoted to promoting mental health and reducing the factors that make for dysfunction and disharmony.

Question 8

For an individual who is isolated from others, increasing social contacts is likely to increase level of happiness.

Question 14 options:

1) True2) False

Question 9

Which of the following is the most accurate statement?

Question 15 options:


Unlike IQ, Emotional Intelligence generally increases with age.


People are born with Emotional Intelligence. You have it—or, you don’t.


While Emotional Intelligence is very important in determining success in most professions, having a high IQ is the more significant determinant of success.


Women generally have more Emotional Intelligence than men do.

Question 10

Select terms that are considered Moral Virtues by Peterson (2004).

Question 16 options:





Question 11

Andrews and Withey (1976) identified three general components of subjective well-being. Which of the following is not one of those components?

Question 17 options:


Positive Affect


Negative affect


Life satisfaction judgments


Financial Security

Question 12

Which of the following presents the best example of a cognitive function?

Question 18 options:


A teenager thinks she cannot be successful in school.


A young boy feels safe when in his mother’s arms.


A husband and wife argue as to whether it is better to spend or save the bonus the husband just received at work.


None of the above


George is well known for his beautiful singing voice. It is one of his Signature Strengths.

Question 19 options:


Question 14

Rebecca Alexander, several years ago featured on the Today Show, has Usher’s Syndrome, which results in those who have the syndrome progressively going blind and deaf. In the interview, she says that despite significant loss of hearing and vision over the past years, she is happier now, than she was 15 years ago.

Based on what you have learned in our course up to now, what is the most accurate comment below.

Question 20 options:


She is truly an unusual and exceptional person to be actually happier now than she was pre-diagnosis.


She will probably get more depressed again, as her sight and vision worsen. Right now, she is in denial.


Like many other people who face significant challenges, she is finding a way to build a life of meaning and joy.


She probably somehow holds out hope that there will be a medical breakthrough and her condition will be cured. That hope pulls her through this terrible situation.

Question 15

According to Daniel Golem, which is an important aspect of Emotional Intelligence

Question 21 options:

Self Awareness


Self management

Social skill

All of the above

Question 16

Which is the best definition of Impact Bias?

Question 22 options:

Findings that a single unpleasant experience can negatively affect an individual’s perspective over a lifetime.

The belief that different outcomes to a situation will affect one’s future happiness far more than is likely to be the case.

The belief that repeated negative events have a negative affect on attitudes throughout life.

Research that suggests that one’s first significant relationship will have a strong impact on how one views future relationships.

Question 17

Gladwell’s research suggests that people differ with regard to what makes them happy.

Question 23 options:


Question 18

The VIA is

Question 24 options:


a classification of character strengths and virtues.


a classification of positive traits in human beings


expected to be applicable to all cultures and peoples.


All of the above

As far as positive psychology interventions go, the longest acting positive effect on happiness occurred for subjects who were asked to use their signature strengths in a new way, or for subjects who were asked to write down three good things that went well each day–in each case during an entire week.

Question 25 options:

1) True2) False

Social Science

Which Of The Following Management Principles Are Best Practice Related To Helping Your Client With Schizophrenia


Which of the following management principles are best practice related to helping your client with Schizophrenia

who is possibly having a relapse: (Select all that apply)

Listening to the patient’s relatives is the best way to catch relapse earlier and identify harmful components of the ward environment

Watchful waiting (also watch and wait or WAW) is an approach to a medical problem in which time is allowed to pass before medical intervention or therapy is used.

Start psychosocial interventions at the earliest opportunity

When new symptoms occur, consider unwanted drug effects

One-on-one therapy added to medications can reduce the incidence of relapse of Schizophrenic symptoms and improve outcomes.


While Medical Care Is Different Standard Economic Analysis Still Offers Much Useful Insight And Analytic


While medical care is different, standard economic analysis still offers much useful insight and analytic

structuring. On the demand side, for example, the human capital approach offers a way to move from the demand for health to the demand for medical care. On the supply side, we must account for the incentives and motives of not for profit suppliers in some cases. And in the demand for insurance, we must account for the effect of insurance on medical care use in a specific way. What does health economics study specifically? Some people say: Medical care is so special that normal economic forces don’t apply. Do you agree? Give your Comments and Examples.


This Is The Question And My Answer That I Gave It Was Turned Back To Me Needing Revision


This is the question and my answer that I gave. It was turned back to me needing revision.

An estimate of 2015 royalties from a patent on a new, untested medical diagnostic device that Dr. Fiddle bought last year from a colleague who invented but sold it because she is about to retire in Bermuda.

No. Should not be on the financial statement. The 2015 royalties are an estimate.

The accounting principal most applicable is:

Business Entity Principle (Accounting Entity) It’s similar to an appraisal and it does not affect revenue for 2013-2014. Non-Monitory Principle. It’s an estimate, there is no cash transaction for 2013-2014.

I was told that the Monitory Principle needed revision.

Financial Accounting

Mrs R An 87 Year Old Patient Has A Past History That Includes Coronary Artery Disease A Previous Stroke


Mrs. R., an 87- year- old patient, has a past history that includes coronary artery disease, a previous stroke,

and advanced Alzheimer’s disease. Ten days ago, Mrs. R. was hospitalized for aspiration pneumonia and has been ventilator dependent since being admitted to the intensive care unit in a small rural hospital. Family members visit daily and have repeatedly voiced their concern to the nursing staff about the continued ventilator support that Mrs. R. is receiving, most notably the fact that Mrs. R. would never have wanted such care. They also note that Mrs. R. has not recognized them in past months and that they plan to visit less in future days, but can be contacted should any change in Mrs. R.’ s condition occur. Her primary physician has practiced in this community for multiple years; he is well known for his reluctance to discontinue any type of life support for any patient. When questioned, Dr. G.’ s consistent response is, if this were his frail 92- year- old mother, he would prescribe the very same treatment for her. Dr. G. has now requested that the nurses talk to the family about moving Mrs. R. to a major medical center, where she can receive more advanced care, including vigorous rehabilitation and physical therapy, so that she may eventually return to a long- term nursing care facility.


How might the nurses in this scenario respond to the physician’s request? How would this scenario begin to cause moral distress among the nursing staff, and what are the positive actions that the nurses might begin to take to prevent moral distress? Apply the MORAL model to resolve the dilemma.


Shouldice Hospital

The data indicate that some former patients had been attending the event for over thirty years. The most interesting fact is that out of 100 patients who attend Shouldice hospital one is a doctor. Past data indicates that the large patient turns up at Shouldice hospital is attributed to the efficiency and effectiveness of its service delivery (Chase, Jacobs &amp. Aquilano, 2007). For example, the doctors employ superior techniques such as ambulation to ensure patients recover fist. There is the proper rapport between the nurses and the patient, this attracts patients to come back even after recovering. The management of Shouldice hospital has been faced by two options namely. whether to add one more operating to the hospital schedule or to add a second floor to the hospital by increasing bed capacity by 50%. Based on the Shouldice hospital data it can be observed that there are 5 major rooms for operation. The first room is utilized by a patient for recovery purposes, the second one is the laboratory where patients are tested blood and other samples are tested to determine the disease that they could be suffering (Schumpelick &amp. Fitzgibbons, 2007). There are other 6 rooms where patient’s health condition is examined. The data further indicates that the hospital had been having an average of ninety beds. This could only allow the doctors at Shouldice hospital to carry out 40 operations each day and an average of 7000 medical operations each year (Robert and Richard, 2012).
Therefore, adding one operation day could increase the hospital capacity by 20%. This means that the current hospital capacity will be optimally utilized, this indicates that per year the hospital will be able to serve 1500 patients. However, it might be assumed that increasing an extra working day (Saturday) without increasing doctor’s remuneration could make the quality of service to decline because some workers might feel de-motivated.&nbsp.

The Cloning of Human Beings Ethical Debate Throughout All Areas of Society

61500 Cloning is the creation of an embryo by the method of human somatic cell nuclear transfer. This procedure involves implanting DNA cells from an organism into an egg whose DNA nucleus has been removed then chemically treated so that the egg begins to behave as though fertilization has occurred. This results in the creation of embryonic growth of another organism that contains the complete genetic code of the original organism. Through this process, the cloning of mammals has resulted in, to date, hundreds of cloned organisms born. In some of these contexts, cloning refers to established technologies that have been part of agricultural practice for a very long time and currently form an important part of the foundations of modern biological research” (Nussbaum &amp. Sunstein, 1998, p. 1). Though this process has produced many live successes, it has proved considerably less likely to produce successful pregnancies than those conceived through sexual reproduction. In addition, the majority of cloned animals have experienced some type of birth defect. Replication of an organism’s DNA identity does not occur naturally within mammals. only plants produce offspring through replication from one generation to the next. “The prospect of such replication for humans has resulted in the most controversial debate about reproduction ever to be taken up in western civilization” (McGee, 2001). Research regarding the cloning of animals may supply data that will be useful in the biotechnological and medical sciences. Some of the goals of this research are: “to generate groups of genetically identical animals for research purposes. rapidly propagate desirable animal stocks. improve the efficiency of generating. propagating transgenic livestock. produce targeted genetic alterations in domestic animals and to pursue basic knowledge about cell differentiation” (Ward &amp. Nancarrow, 1995).

Governments Position Towards Legalization of Marijuana

82000 These positive attributes include medical value and recreational use. Most of the Americans who use marijuana do so because they have made deliberate and conscious decisions to use it. Facts show that most of these American prefer using marijuana as a way of relaxing (Morgan 27). They say that it serves them better than when they use alcohol. There are many others who use it as a way of relieving pain and spasticity. These are individuals who have tried the conventional medicines, but the modern medicines have not served them. Most of the users of marijuana say that they have made an observation that it has a low dependence liability and that it has got minimal side effects which are easy to manage (Kenworthy 29). therefore, it makes sense to make that drug legal (Varney 4). Those who use marijuana for a significant amount of time develop a tolerance for its side effects. In case some of these people fail to develop this tolerance, they opt to stop using the drug. Most of the Americans who use marijuana have a truly informed consent before making a decision to use the drug. This is because they consider that using marijuana has more benefits compared to the risks of using the same drug. Marijuana can support many vital government programs if it is taxed (Kenworthy 29). This is because the drug is extremely expensive, at the moment, for the American justice system. When the law enforcing agents arrest about 800,000 Americans per year because of either using or possessing the drug, they forego there are beneficial programs in order to do this (Turnlund 19). All these individuals are then taken to court, and it takes a lot of time before all these cases can be disposed. This is what it means to say that the use of marijuana is too expensive to the American justice system (Morgan 27). All these people cause the American jail to be clogged, and jail space is wasted.

Physician assisted suicide

2500 Physician Assisted Suicide Physician assisted suicide refers to a situation whereby a sick person’s life is intentionally terminated with the goal of relieving them of suffering (Diaconescu 474). The termination may be undertaken on request by the affected person. however controversy as to which point of sickness is it right to exercise euthanasia is still unsettled. Individual prefers that no patient contemplate suicide, but in the recent past there have been improvements to manage pain in patients, which has led to the reduction in the number of patients who seek assisted suicide. However, due to adverse illnesses patients experience severe suffering that cannot be cleared by palliative medicines that induce them to seek liberation in assisted suicide. therefore, physicians should be permitted to undertake assisted suicide. Psychological knowledge provides that under natural circumstances no human being would wish for termination of his living. Man naturally fears death and the prospects of facing death are almost intolerable even in the most dismal points of man’s living. However there comes a point when the reality dawns and death becomes inevitable. Under necessary considerations, euthanasia is not only a positive act but of great benefit to both the person in which the act is being undertaken and his relatives (Storch 754). Advances in the medical field can precisely predict the chances of one’s surviving a given condition. What would be the purpose of investing so much money to sustain one in a lifesaving machine. for instance, in a scenario where an individual is suffering serious injuries and doctors report indicates no chances of survival? Is death really a bad occurrence or rather a point that must be arrived at some point of living? If it is not a bad incidence and is still unavoidable why then deny an individual the right to choose when and how to die? Whether an individual is in situation to actively request for euthanasia or in a critical condition with minimal chances of survival, euthanasia come with much benefit than harms. Individuals should have explicit rights to die since death is a private affair and poses no harm to others. Legalizing euthanasia may help to free up scarce health resources. however the act should be embarked on after several conditions which if possible should involve active participation sick person or his close relatives. The considerations should be greatly guided by the doctor’s evaluation about the sick person’s chances of survival. Where an individual voluntarily offers himself for euthanasia, the right should be granted. This may serve to give the close family members a more positive perception of the individual’s death and be more psychologically prepared for its occurrence. Furthermore, denying one the right to die, may not necessarily prevent one from taking his life, if one is psychologically set to do so (Dowbiggin 94). The fact that some acts are prohibited by law does not stop individuals from perpetrating them such as suicide. Death should not be viewed as a bad occurrence because after all that this does not stop it from happening especially in critical life threatening scenarios. The choice to undertake euthanasia should embark from oneself or close members of the family. This will minimize the chances of the being abused for selfish and criminal intention. In scenarios where no unnecessary pressures is anticipated from the dependents, an individual’s right of how and when to die should be paramount. Therefore, human beings ought to be set free and relieved from unnecessary restraints such intense suffering that hinders them form enjoying their basic human right of life. However, despite the support on physician assisted suicide, suicide is against the law irrespective of whether in a sober state or assisted (Amin 506), and is not one of the healing ethics in medicine since it does not promote the sanctity of life. In the case where palliative care is appropriate, assisted suicide is unnecessary, this kind of practice usually damages physicians changing them from human needs and the practice leads to indiscriminate killing of patients who are disabled, weak amongst others. Nevertheless, with proper guidance euthanasia is more beneficial in situations where palliative medicines have failed and death is not an option to the patients. In conclusion, legalization of the physician assisted suicide would be better rather than ill-advised suicides that would reduce the incentive for suicide in patients. For those patients who face much suffering in their last days of illness they would be better assured of assistance that would reduce their pain. Life is one of the precious gifts and there is no person who would like to be part with it. Death may be a coincidence which is unanticipated in everyone’s life but if an individual deems it appropriate to influence when and how he faces it, his opinion stands better respected. Life is a purposeful existence characterized by a series of day to day activities and it is unfair to deny an individual who thinks he or she has accomplished his purpose of living an opportunity of how best he thinks he should end his life. Works Cited Amin, Yogi, and Anne-Marie Irwin. "Physician Assisted Suicide." British Journal Of Neuroscience Nursing 7.2 (2011): 506-507 Diaconescu, Amelia Mihaela. Euthanasia. Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice. Vol.4.2. 2012:474-483 Dowbiggin, Ian. A merciful end: the euthanasia movement in modern America. Oxford University Press. 2002. Print. Storch, Janet, L. "Editorial Comment." Nursing Ethics 18.6 (2011): 753-755


The author offers practical advices to enable women have a joyful sex life.
(1) “Twenty five percent of women have orgasmic dysfunction where they encounter difficulty to reach orgasm.” (p. 23). Recently, new developments in sexual medicine make headlines with a promise to increase orgasmic potential. Two procedures that include O-Shot and the new patent implant promise pleasurable results. Hopefully, this will enable a woman enjoy sex and reach orgasm more naturally.
(2) “The inability to orgasm stem from weakened pelvic floor muscles that occur with childbirth or after menopause.” (p. 31). Fixing the root cause will naturally solve orgasmic dysfunction without using needles or medication. Exercises and tones of the pelvic muscles can improve a woman’s sexual experience while providing targeted stimulation that will increase orgasm.
(3) “The O-Shot makes many claims concerning orgasm and sensation since it is an expensive procedure, invasive to run the risk of scar tissue or uncomfortable sensation.”(p. 43). The doctor proposes natural solutions such as Intensity and Replens to ensure comfort before sex.
(4) “There is a misconception that there is no alternative to loss of libido or sexual dysfunction since many doctors are not professionals in sexual health to offer latest solutions.”(p. 73) Assisted reproductive techniques can help people with fertility issues. Medical doctors can provide guidelines to improving libido since it is a psychological process.
(5) “Sixty-one percent of American adults turn to the internet for most of their intimate health information.” (p.97). A higher percentage of people resort to the internet for probable solutions as posted by others with similar problems. It is advisable to such people, especially Women with that problem, to consult their medical profession to provide them with the best solution.
(6) “Misinformation

Message Board posting

Message Board Posting Over the past few years, the transition to adulthood has been more stretched for younger generations in United States. Financial liberty and steady work with benefits is not common in youth today as it was for their parents’. This point to generational declines in conservative measures of any civic engagement: such as voting and party politics. Apparently, social change is a historical phenomenon that is created by collective decisions and actions of people, such as the choices that youth make about their own lives which is associated with the kind of society that they collectively construct (Weinstein, 120).
In respect to social change and the polity, there has been tremendous involvement of youths in goals that promote common good. For instance, they have shown interest in current affairs, environmental politics, volunteers work in their given communities and lifestyle politics. It is to this regard that although the United State society is said to be considerably pessimistic, a lot of people have a pressing will to turn around the society however, little it may be. This is because they have discovered that the government is not interested in the problems that are affecting its citizens (Wegener, 76).
Through this wave of social change, the youth have a strong desire to challenge the status quo that views them as setback rather than the response to their problems. In contrary to this the older adults tent to worry more about their families and their source of income. Certainly, people have continually reduced their participation in politics as it shows risk of losing making enemies, losing jobs or even sustaining physical injuries especially in political rallies. In essence people now prefer taking individual responsibility as compared to collective action especially when it comes to addressing social problems (Wegener, 74).
On the contrary, people of the United States have slowly accepted the fact that most of the problems they are experiencing are as a result of not been able to work collectively as a team. Collective action is necessary especially in a state like this, politically and socially. People must have the will take a stand for what they believe in order to have a changed society (Weinstein 124).
I have participated in several political demonstrations. However, a memorable is a demonstration that was held to push on the government to offer health insurance for all its citizens. The issue was principally on giving insurance covers to all citizens under the payment of the government itself to ensure a balanced and healthy state.
The goals of the political demonstration were three. First was to ensure that the secretary of state would receive the grievances and hand them over to the president. Second was to show that people were angered by the discrimination that had been rampant in the health sector to the point of doctors not treating people who had no medical covers. Third was to show that we were in solidarity as a people to what we believed were part of our rights.
Through this demonstration, the government was able to know what its citizens were going through, and a consensus was created to come up with a committee which would look at health insurance thoroughly and come up with a resolution. I intend to become a member of the human rights movement in future. This is because I want to live in a country where the rights of people are respected. Human rights are crucial in life.
Works cited:
Wegener, Bernd.et al. Social justice and political change: public opinion in capitalist and post-communist states, 1995. Print.
Weinstein, Jay. Social change. Lanham, Md.: Rowman &amp. Littlefield Publishers, 2010. Print.

Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

Link between Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Introduction The fattest country in Europe officially is the UK in which in every 15 is obese and in every 5 adults is overweight, and this is only the beginning. over the next two decades, the number of obese adults in the UK is expected to increase to 26 million people, thus showing a staggering increase of 73 per cent (“Diabetes and Obesity”). Experts sense the risk of an increase in the cases of type 2 diabetes, cancer, and heart disease by more than a million (Laurance).
Although there is subjectivity about the exact causes of diabetes, yet there are certain factors that increase an individual’s tendency to develop different kinds of diabetes mellitus. This particularly includes being obese or overweight for the type 2 diabetes.
Some Facts about the Link between Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes
The relationship of obesity with type 2 diabetes is well documented. Obesity accounts for 80 to 85 per cent of the risk of getting type 2 diabetes whereas according to the findings of the latest research, the tendency of obese people to suffer from type 2 diabetes is 80 times more compared to people having BMI lower than 22 (“Diabetes and Obesity”). Fat distribution in the body also affects an individual’s tendency to develop type 2 diabetes. People having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater are especially vulnerable to type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and a BMI of more than 25 has been found to account for up to 80 per cent of the type 2 diabetes’ new cases (“The obesity and”). Resistance to insulin stops the transferring of glucose into the cells from the blood in the body. There are three principle theories that explain the link between obesity and type 2 diabetes which are explained below:
1. Disruption of Fat Metabolism
The first theory is based on the assumption that metabolism is subject to great changes because of being overweight because more fat molecules are released into the blood. When these fat molecules find their way to the cells which react to insulin, such as the cells of liver and muscle, fat cells interfere with the functioning of these cells and reduce their ability to respond to insulin.
2. Increased Inflammatory Response
The second theory states that fat in the abdomen releases pro-inflammatory chemicals. The condition of having excess abdominal fat is called as abdominal obesity, and it is an especially high-risk obesity form. Release of pro-inflammatory chemicals can cause insulin resistance by disrupting the insulin responsive cells.
3. Inducement of Fault Inside Cells
The third theory holds that obesity can lead to prediabetes. It is believed by the scientists that in prediabetes, the level of fatty acids in the blood increases. Fatty acids thus enter the cells and affect the functioning of the power houses of the cells i.e. their mitochondria, thus leading to lack of functioning of the cells or their black-out.
In addition to these theories, latest research has also identified a strong link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. In spite of the fact that a major component of the immune system is the inflammatory response and it is also a very significant way of protecting and repairing the tissue after injuries or infection, this response might also be activated without the foreign pathogens in some metabolic dysfunction conditions. “Over the past several years, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) endocrinologist Barbara Kahn, MD, has developed a large body of research suggesting that a molecule called retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) plays a key role in the process” (“Critical Link Between”). Nobody showed the raised levels of RBP4 before the lab of Kahn till which, they were known for their function of transporting protein for the Vitamin A. Parallel consequences in the samples of human blood were found with additional work including the existing of high RBP4 levels in the insulin resistant obese people and low levels of RBP4 in the people with insulin sensitivity. In addition, people having genetic changes in RBP4 were at higher risk of developing diabetes because of high levels of protein in the blood (“Critical Link Between”).
How can the Risk of Diabetes Type 2 be Reduced?
In spite of the strong link between obesity and type 2 diabetes, the sensitivity of body to insulin can be greatly improved by reducing the body weight. even slight reduction in body weight can prove very beneficial in terms of body’s sensitivity to insulin. Reduction in body weight also reduces an individual’s risk of developing such metabolic and cardiovascular conditions as different kinds of cancer, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. NHS suggests that if the body weight is reduced by 5 per cent and the reduction in weight is ensued by regular exercise of moderate intensity, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes can be reduced by even more than 50 per cent (“Diabetes and Obesity”).
Obesity can quickly lead an individual to type 2 diabetes if the intervention with appropriate exercise and healthy diet is not made. People whose bodies store excess fat around the abdomen are particularly at risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes. Abdominal fat cells release chemicals that are pro-inflammatory, which in effect reduce the sensitivity of the body to the insulin. This occurs as a result of disruption of the insulin responsive cells’ function as well as the body’s tendency to respond to insulin. Insulin resistance is one of the most powerful driving factors for type 2 diabetes. Obesity induces changes in the metabolism of the body. These changes make the adipose tissue which is fat tissue release molecules of fat into the blood stream, which reduces insulin sensitivity by affecting the insulin responsive cells. Scientists also hold the opinion that obesity causes prediabetes which, as the name indicates, is a metabolic condition prior to diabetes which evolves into type 2 diabetes in almost every case. Despite the risks of developing type 2 diabetes posed by obesity, good news is that an individual’s tendency of developing type 2 diabetes can be reduced by losing weight.
Works Cited:
“Critical link between obesity, diabetes identified.” Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.
ScienceDaily. 6 March 2014. Web. 9 June 2014. .
“Diabetes and Obesity.” 2014. Web. 9 June 2014. .
Laurance, Jeremy. “UK fat alert: 26 million will be obese by 2030.” The Independent. 26 Aug.
2011. Web. 9 June 2014. .
“The obesity and type 2 diabetes connection.” Bupa. 2014. Web. 9 June 2014.

I Want To Live by Thom Jones

From the beginning of illness, Mrs. Wilson lives on medicines that relieve her of the crushing pains. Though the medication process often seems to be as painful as the growth of cancer, she takes it out of a strong desire to live.
The surprising turn of the story’s yield is that though she begins to grow hatred for the ritualistic painful process of medication, she cannot but take it since it allows her to be blessed with more scopes to live for few more hours. Indeed the medication process along its benefits and lacking resembles life itself. Mrs. Wilson feels that what one needs to live a life is his or her ‘will to live’, even though it exposes her to the next painful session of her illness and the medication process that is the metaphor of pain and sorrow in life. Before coming to her daughter’s house, she was gradually losing her “will to live”. Whereas in the hospital’s cancer care unit, the anguish of accepting death was continually rising, her “will to live” begins to grow. once she chooses to pass her terminal days. Mrs. Wilson’s shift from the hospital or clinic to her daughter’s house stands for her transport from the care of duty to the care of love. Even though the doctors and the nurses perform their duty well, they cannot fill up the gap, caused by the lack of a close relative at her bedside. Indeed the author shows that the nurses’ and doctors’ care is their duty, whereas her daughter’s and son-in-law’s care is their love.
From a medical perspective, it can be said that the care in his daughter’s house more holistic than any professional care in any clinic or medical. In this regard, Laughlin says, “The author depicts a more holistic model of caretaking here, integrating professional health care, knowledge from pharmacological and alternative medicines, and the value of relationships” (7). From a literary perspective, Mrs. Wilson’s near relatives’ presence during the terminal hours

International service

Section/# Credit Rating System: An Analysis As with many aspects of policy or economics, there are positive and negative externalities that exist with regard to the credit rating system that currently is exhibited. This particular analysis will focus upon the issue of credit rating and represent the reader with a discussion of some of the pros and cons of credit rating, how they operate, and the means by which they impact upon society. Furthermore, it will also engage a broader discussion of some of the relevant criticisms that credit agencies and credit ratings represent. Through such an interpretation, it is the hope of this particular student that the reader will gain a more informed understanding and appreciation for the way in which credit rating works and whether or not it is a useful and appreciable tool that should be considered as vital for the continued economic development of the world or whether or not it should be dismissed based upon its inherent shortcomings.
Firstly, in seeking to analyze the benefits of credit rating system, it should be noted that this particular system provides the individual with an incentive to pay their bills, and conduct their financial matters in a responsible manner. as a means of receiving the reward of gaining a higher credit score and having potential access to more readily available credit in the future. Furthermore, another tacit benefit that credit rating provides has to do with the level of discernment that it to financial institutions with regard to whether or not a particular loan or investment would be risky and should therefore be shunned.
However, beyond the strengths and potential benefits that the credit rating system can provide, it is also inherently prone to key weaknesses and shortcomings. For instance, at the point in time in which an individual loses employment or is unable to pay their bills, due to a medical emergency or some other unexpected events, the credit rating of the individual immediately plummets. Naturally, at the point in time in which the individual is most in need of immediate credit, the access to such credit is almost all but nonexistent. Furthermore, if an individual finds themselves with extremely low credit, the interest rates that they must pay will be convinced currently high. denoting the high level of risk that the borrower engenders to the financial institution question (Mattarocci 18). As can relatively be noted, the extraordinarily high interest rates that individuals with low credit scores must pay create something of a reciprocal process through which the ability to pay off a loan and continue to build once credit is greatly reduced. This cyclical nature is one of the key shortcomings that individuals who decry the current credit rating system going to as evidence of the fact that it should be abolished.
Finally, with respect to current criticism that can be made, relating to the financial collapse of 2007/2008, it must be stated that even though the credit system and credit scoring system is contingent upon the fact that even though this particular method of understanding and defining risk might be unfair and potentially unethical, a failure to adhere to such a system was what brought about the financial collapse of 2007/2008. due in part to the fact banks and other financial institutions no longer sought to consider credit scores as indicative of whether or not sub-prime mortgages should be given out in the first place.
Work Cited
Mattarocci, G.&nbsp.The independence of credit rating agencies : how business models and regulators interact. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press, 2014. Print.

Medical Report for Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis Middle-aged male patient presented with nausea, vomiting, and pain in the upper left-hand side of his abdomen. Patient d that the pain became worse after eating high-fat foods or when lying down. Upon discussion, patient admitted to a history of alcohol abuse, as well as elevated triglyceride levels (hypertriglyceridemia) and high cholesterol (hyperlipidemia). Patient has no history of autoimmune disorders, cystic fibrosis, or other genetic conditions. Upon physical examination, the patient was discovered to have a tender mass in his abdomen and a mild fever. Use of the stethoscope revealed an elevated heart and respiratory rate.
Findings suggested an acute case of pancreatitis, so the patient was sent for further testing. Laboratory tests showed elevated blood amylase, serum blood amylase, and urine amylase levels, as well as confirming the patients report of hyperlipidemia and hypertriglycerdemia. An abdominal CT scan returned positive results of an inflammation of the pancreas, and ERCP was used to conclusively confirm the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. The scan eliminated pancreas divisum as a cause for the condition. CT scan was inconclusive in determining if gallstones have formed as a result of the condition, so an endoscopic ultrasound or ERCP of the gallbladder will be performed.
Patient was admitted to in-patient care and given pain medication and an IV drip. Patient is to take no oral food or drink until the condition improves. If pain increases regardless, nasogastric suctioning is indicated to remove the contents of the stomach and further reduce pancreatic function. Furosemide was prescribed to reduce inflammation. azathioprine is not indicated in this case due to lack of evidence of autoimmune problems. Patients calcium levels should be monitored in case of the patient developing hypercalcemia as a result of the reduced pancreatic and liver function until the pancreatitis attack is resolved.
Prognosis is generally good in this case, as there appears to be no necrotic tissue on the pancreas and there is no evidence of hemmorhaging. However, case must be taken to watch for complications to include kidney failure, respiratory distress, fluid buildup or ascites, and pancreatic pseudocysts, abscesses, or further inflammation.
Patient has been warned to reduce alcohol consumption in the future to reduce the risk of recurrent attack, and to improve his diet to reduce his triglyceride and lipid levels. Repeated attacks increase the possibility of acute pancreatitis becoming chronic. Eventually, scarring of the pancreas can lead to damage in areas of the pancreas that produce insulin, leading to diabetes.

Development research skill

defined as the information that has been collected and studied for the first time and the secondary research can be explained as analyzing and interpreting the information collected in the primary research (Kirk and Miller, 2001).
The use or the application of the primary research is that it is important and applied for answering various queries and also questions and it includes surveys, questionnaire and interviews that is conducted with small groups and individuals. And the secondary research is used or applied for publishing the research reports in surveys, internet and library and it is also useful in preparing the reports of the governments, universities and also medical councils. The secondary research generally utilizes properly the information that are studied or researched by the researcher previously and it is easily available to the public (Wainer and Braun, 1988).
The intellectual ownership in relation or in consideration with the primary and the secondary research are the research that is conducted have some right which includes copyrights, trademarks, patents and also the trade secrets (Davies and Dodd, 2002).The intellectual ownership in context of the research can be explained by the fact that the research is required to be conducted in such a way that it maintains honesty, confidentiality, compliance with the various requirements and also disclosure of the various interest and also adhering the various relationship between the other researchers. Therefore in perspective of the study of the business management the intellectual ownership can be protected (Glesne and Peshkin, 1992).
Secondary research paper can be explained and described as the source for analyzing, interpreting, commenting, summarizing and evaluating the processes the information that is collected on the basis of the primary sources. The materials for conducting the secondary research is included for the publication of the articles in newspapers , journals and also

A personal military experience or Any personal experience

the neighborhood and I was always the commander of my group, the military was not just a dream but a lifestyle which reflected in my daily activities.
Dad has always wanted me to take over from him and become a good doctor, he bought medical toys like ambulances, syringes and first aid boxes but I used them in my military games with other kids which we called “war start”. It will really break dad’s heart if he gets to know that medicine is not my thing, he did everything to make sure I become a doctor. My mind was a whirlwind, thoughts flinging themselves across the barren wasteland of my brain, how will dad feel if I get to tell him this? I pondered, will he stop fending for me? Will he love me less?
I was totally imprisoned in my thoughts and the earlier I burst the bubble and break free the better it will be for me, after all dad always told me it’s better to be honest and bear the consequences than to be dishonest and reap from falsehood. I didn’t want to go to mum because she will summon a UN meeting with dad and such doesn’t usually end well. There must be an exit I said to myself, I logged in my facebook page and took a glance at my friend-list, I was astonished when I saw Martin in a military uniform on his profile picture and without hesitating I sent him a mail in which I explained my situation.
Martin was once my neighbor for four years. he was a shy isolated gentleman who liked playing with girls and barbie toys, we made fun of him and always called him “cheerleader” who knew he would man up? I felt disappointed in self and with some understandable jealously sprinkled around my frustration. &nbsp.I had a volcano of feelings and experiences bottled up inside me which was ready to let erupt but a sound popped up- it was Martins reply and it reads “Hey Man, calm down I assure you that everything will turn out well if only you will make up your mind and challenge yourself. My parents and almost everyone I knew objected my decision to

Read From Bibles to Drill Bits

From Bibles to Drill Bits Question The European Nations felt that the settlement in the Middle East after the war fuelled endemic conflict as opposed to bringing harmony and stability within the locality. The American government did not show any form of interest in Arabia because they believed that the region had minimal commercial importance since no significant development was evident.
Question 2
King Ibn Saud regarded the American missionaries as captivated evangelists. One thing that he was most interested in was obtaining effective medical care.
Question 3
Increased industrialization and manufacture of automobiles prompted the US to look elsewhere for overseas reservoirs due to increased demand for petroleum. Apparently, their main hope was the Middle East. However, they encountered several challenges such as difficulties in locating oil. The main challenge was numerous political obstacles in the region.
Question 4
An agreement between the American government and Ibn Saud stated that the US would offer Gold in exchange for drilling oil marked a turning point for America’s associations with the Middle East. This agreement resulted to long-term economic ties amid both nations
Question 5
The “Saudi oil and Saudi contracts” jointly permeated fresh vivacity into the American oil industry since America still suffered from the economic depression (Oren 283).
Question 6
The emergence of the Second World War jeopardized American investment in Arabia. The Saudi government favoured German ruthlessness to some extent.
Question 7
President Roosevelt denied financial assistance to Saudi Arabia because he believed that the country was corrupt and non-democratic, and this forced Ibn Saud to start feuds with the Americans.
Question 8
British withdrawal from committing itself to Palestine due to Arab antagonism dragged America into the “Arab-Jewish morass”.
Works Cited
Oren, Michael. “From Bibles to Drill Bits”. ND. Web. 4th July 2014.

Risk Management Position in Healthcare Designated Record Set HIPAA Privacy Laws

71750 The paper provides supporting work for the risk management plan as well as the counterarguments to it. In the end, the conclusion establishes the need for a risk management plan. The rights of the people seeking health care have been the subject of much debate over the past decades. One of the rights of the patients is to access their health information and to modify it if it is deemed to have any discrepancy. Several legislations have been passed to grant the patients their due rights and to protect the abuse of medical information and health records of the patients. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 was enacted by President Clinton. The Act has two aspects: it provides confidentiality to the records of the patients and prevents fraud and abuse and it makes sure that insurance and health care is portable. Health information refers to the information, either stored in any form or oral. it is given to a health care provider and is related to the past, present and future state of health of an individual. The Privacy rules and the Act regulate what information regarding the health of an individual can be used and disclosed. This information is known as the protected health information (PHI), and organizations which are liable to conform to the Privacy rules are called covered entities. The Designated Record Set (DRS) refers to the group of health records that have been maintained by the covered entities, including the medical and billing information of the patients, enrollment, claims adjudication, as well as the medical record management systems, used for health plans. Its utility is for decision making about individuals. All hospitals, clinics and other healthcare providers are required to comply with the HIPAA. Failing to do so can have dire consequences for the individuals involved.

Health Care Case Discussion

gh the doctor may ne incapacitated to save the life of some patients, such patients expect the medical practitioners to employ their professional aptitude wholly in their endeavor to safeguard the wellbeing of patients.
As such, it is in the interest of the physician to settle on resolving the challenges of the patient. Legal and professional code of conduct mandates the physician to settle on medication to administer to his or patients. Additionally, it is upon such physicians to administer the medication to patients, in their ultimate endeavor to alleviate the sufferings of such patients (Cohen, 2013). However, the professional and the legal codes of conducts allows for the patient’s autonomy. Patients have an entitlement to decide on their treatment modes and communicate with the physician, based on their physical and mental soundness. This ought to be in line with the health practitioners’ professional mode of treatment administration while following the preset professional and legal aspects of such treatments.
This should be in response to the best interests of the patients. As such, the physicians ought to investigate carefully the health challenges that the patient may be going through, and endeavor to alleviate the patients’ challenges. Ethical and professional misconduct in the medical field has serious devastating impacts to the subsistence of the patients, as well as the professional development of such physicians (Cohen, 2013). The physicians may also be compelled to undergo through numerous unwarranted legal challenges.
In the case involving Dr. Contadina and Joe, the physician appeared to have neglected the professional objectives by failing to examine carefully the health predicament that Joe was going through. It was evident that Joe had his total reliance on the doctor, and could not envisage any malice from Dr. Contadina. As such, Joe followed the instructions of the physician fully without questioning her procedure. In this case,

A response to the prompt

Others argue that it might be morally permissible to take lives in certain special cases. There is no agreement or consensus as to what is morally permissible and what is not when it comes to euthanasia.
In this paper the issue of euthanasia will be discussed while responding a prompt in which a baby is in considerable pain and has no hope of revival. Different options will be discussed and medical, ethical, legal, and psychological reasons for choosing an option will also be presented.
There are three options available for the doctor of Stephanie. The first option involves continuing her treatment without doing anything else. The second option involves slowly withdrawing treatment and ‘allowing’ her to die naturally. The second option is a perfect example of passive euthanasia. The third option is to act now and end the life of Stephanie in order to save her from the pain she is experiencing. Below each of the three options will be discussed.
The first option will lead to great pain to the patient without any hope of medical revival. But it cannot be ignored that there have been cases where medical evidence has been refuted. This is a safe option for a doctor as continuing the treatment will not break any medical laws or will be morally questionable. But the downside of this option is that the patient will go through immense pain for no good reason and her quality of life will not improve.
The second option finds a middle way between the two extreme options, but is still not immune from moral criticism. Some might argue that letting a patient die and taking a life might be morally indifferent (Rachels, 87). This makes the second option also complicated as many also argue against passive euthanasia. However, this option is legally permissible if the decision to stop the treatment is taken with the consent of the parents.
The third option is another extreme and calls for ending

“Improving MMCs Patient Satisfaction &amp

Health Care Quality through Spirituality Manchester Medical" Manchester Medical Center (MMC), an accredited health care provider of Joint Commission Accreditation of Health Care Organizations (JCAHCO), received a ranking of 75th percentile on the category “meeting emotional and spiritual needs of the patients”. This provided the impetus for the CEO to delve into the theories, concepts and practical applications of spirituality and spiritual care in conjunction with health care. There are strategic measures needed to improve the situation.
First and foremost, the identification of strengths and weaknesses of the present system is imperative to determine the courses of action to be undertaken. A formulation of a “spiritual care” committee is needed. This committee would review, evaluate, analysis, plan, implement, control and monitor the new health care system which would incorporate spiritual care. Strategies to be developed would always be concurrent with the requirements of JCAHCO, especially in the category of meeting emotional and spiritual needs of the patients.
Moreover, MMC should consider that their present and future staff requirements would be oriented to the new program and be qualified to handle various spiritual needs. Training is of utmost importance to ensure that the level of competence and knowledge to updated theories and concepts on spirituality are ingrained in MMC’s workforce. The success of this endeavor would only be possible with the joint efforts of all the staff, from the nurses, physicians, clergy and top management of MMC.

My Government Expectations

51250 Chinese communist government’s functions that I seek to introspect on what I expect from my government on a day-to-day basis as well as in posterity. Essentially, one of the most basic services is health care and insurance, in China there is a government health insurance system that is similar to America’s Medicare . As a citizen, I expect to access government funded health insurance, in China there are two systems the labor insurance schemes (LIS) and government employee insurance scheme1. Depending on where I am working, I can be assured of cover and access to public medical facilities at a highly subsidized cost. However, I must concede that it is not as straightforward on the ground as it is on paper. There is a huge disparity between the level of care provided in public and private hospitals. In some cases, I am well aware that people shun government hospitals because the care is more efficient in the private clinics. Nevertheless, that is to be expected and is often the case in many countries but at the very least, I can be assured that I will have access to effective even if not the best medical care should I need it. As far as education is concerned, every Chinese child is guaranteed nine years of compulsory education that is sponsored by the government. In the 80’s, due to the high population pressure, the government abolished the tax-funded higher education2, today for anyone to get these scholarships they have to compete for them on the basis of merit.

Hieronymus Bosch

This is very distinct from the period of Renaissance as people were never content with a certain amount of knowledge and power. Thus, in the painting, God is seen above everyone else, seeing how He is to judge each person according to his or her actions.
In the painting “The Flight &amp. Failure of St. Anthony”, one can see the many struggles one goes through and daily battle to choose the good. Here, the saying, “with great knowledge comes great responsibility”, isthe underlying message Bosch wanted to send.
Also, in the “Death of the Miser”, we can see that life on earth is somehow prolonged or extended by the use of medicine and medical advancements that eases one’s suffering of any illness. However, as death is inevitable and is a part of life, as humans were never meant to live forever, no technology can fathom mortality.
Indeed, all these three works of Bosch depicts the milieu of the Renaissance where people’s lives, actions, and beliefs are influenced by the power they recognize they have. This knowledge and power make it more trivial to choose the good despite the attractiveness of evil options around us. Moreover, these paintings just illustrate how people really longed for knowledge &amp. power during Medieval times, that being deprived of it made them want both so bad to the extent of compromising morality and goodness