e of globalization has generated intense debate among economists, attracting both strong supporters and opponents and although characteristics of current globalization are different from previous ones, but still by turning the pages of history, one can find similarities and learn from past experiences. Therefore, initially, the history of globalization with the focus on the last two waves is reviewed and analyzed. The opinion of various researchers has been presented and discussed. Throughout the next section and during the analysis of the impact of globalization, historical evidence is provided, and with referring to recent events various aspects of globalization are examined. The economic development, open-door policies, financial liberalization, sound institutions, the role of international financial intuitions, governance, and welfare policies have been briefly discussed and investigated.O’Neill (2004) argues that there is no argument that the levels of income and disparity and poverty are significant between advanced and emerging countries. O’Neill claims that from an enormous range of contributions to the literature on globalization, a consensus has been reached that overall globalization has brought more benefits than costs. that it has exacerbated inequalities both within and between countries because of sharply diverging experience at individual and country levels. and that it has increased economic and political insecurity even for those who have benefited in monetary terms from globalization. But they challenge making a causal link between changes in poverty and inequality with increased globalization, as the globalization process today has an impact far beyond its economic aspects, and is increasingly influenced by global health and environmental crises.O’Neill (2004) disagrees with the claims that globalization has increased global poverty and income inequality worsened over the last 40-50 years. He argues that if correct economic indicators are used, global income distribution has become more equal over the last twenty years although inequality increased slightly in the 1970s.
Despite the perception that Medieval Europe was a time of static oppression by the state, the church and the land-holding lords while the populace remained uneducated and barely managed to subsist (Power, 2006), there remains much truth to the idea that the period between the tenth and the 14th centuries were a time of significant change and development. The area within the boundaries of France had one of the most dynamic histories of diversity in the European Middle Ages, occupied as it was at first by native Europeans, then the Celts, then the Romans, then the Germans, and, in the last wave of migration, an influx of Scandinavians. The amazing thing about this history is the culture that the French forged from all these materials, eventually, with England, becoming the central culture in the larger process of the invention of Europe (Hooker, 1996). Historians generally date the European culture as starting its course of development in the late tenth century. The late tenth century marks the beginning of a new phase in European history since Latin Christendom ceased to be on the defensive against neighboring cultures and began to expand aggressively against them (Power, 2006: 5). In addition, the eleventh century was characterized by radical changes to settlement patterns, often through aristocratic direction, which transformed the social and economic structures of the countryside (Power, 2006: 22). An understanding of what happened in the tenth and eleventh centuries can begin to explain why and how this dynamic change started and how it helped to shape the future of the Western European nations.As the tenth century opened, society was split into three primary classes – the priests or monks, the farmers or peasants and the warriors. The beginning of France’s formation could be found in the efforts of Charlemagne, who was the first conqueror to unite much of central Europe under a single government in the early 800s. Carolus Magnus, however, did not have a working model of government over such a vast territory, so he improvised.
Britain’s external relation in this period has been quite interesting and people have conflicting views about the policies in this period. This period has also been of significance for historians because of the role of the Foreign Secretary in the making of British foreign policy.Secrecy has been a key characteristic of foreign policy in the late nineteenth century. A small number of ministers and officials have been known to play crucial roles in the formulation of foreign policy. Those were the times when the press had its limited presence and it was not considered an important driver in the policymaking. Also, public opinion about different issues related to the external relations of a country was not given any importance. Even among the government circles, a selected elite group made key decisions. Prime Ministers directly controlled the affairs of the Foreign Office.If we look at the background history of foreign policy in Britain then we get to know that Benjamin Disraeli from 1874 to 1878 intervened constantly in the affairs of his Foreign Secretary. During the 1902 to 1905 period, Arthur Balfour gave some respite in the direct intervention culture set by his predecessors but still kept a close eye on the developments in British foreign policy. Sir Edward Grey took the Foreign Office in 1906 and was given more independence in the foreign policy area. After Herbert Henry Asquith assumed office in 1908 Grey got even more freedom in the affairs of his department as other ministers and cabinet members got busy with their own domestic affairs. Foreign affairs got restricted to selected people. This scenario changed with the war in 1914 and foreign policy was criticized by all sundry. Different governments also started making comments about the way the foreign policy was being tackled. President Wilson of the United States became the biggest critic of covert ways of foreign policy dealings and demanded that the democratic process should be involved in the affairs.
‘Emotional intelligence’ (EI) is considered to be a new concept pointing towards a new means of controlling workers. This paper will discuss how effective is the concept of ‘emotional intelligence’ is increasingly being applied in all aspects of HRM.Sparrow (1999) describes two schools of thought on how managers should deal with issues. One group of people opine that issues should be dealt with rationally not allowing emotions to interfere with strategic decisions while another group acknowledges emotionality by considering the role of stress, levels of satisfaction, and trust. Of late, however, constructs like EI are gaining legitimacy. Research suggests that managers cannot avoid dealing with emotionality in today’s turbulent environment. As the information load is increasing, managers need to develop EI to be able to handle the situation effectively.The concept of EI was conceived by Mayer, DiPaolo, and Salovey in 1990 and since then many theorists have discussed the benefits to the organization by individuals who possess high levels of EI. There are broad claims that EI can be used as a driver of competitive advantage and enhanced profitability (Brown, 2005). EI has been defined as the intelligent use of emotions to help guide an individual’s behavior and thinking towards enhanced results. According to Armstrong, EI postulates that to be effective it is not enough to have a high IQ but also the capacity to recognize one’s own feelings and that of others, capacity to motivate one’s self, and the capacity to manage emotions in one’s self and in all relationships. It is the ability to perceive, access, and generate emotions to assist thoughts, to understand emotions, and effectively regulate them to promote emotional and intellectual growth. This is a nutshell that amounts to knowing your self.EI has a deep history as links between affectivity and intelligence, and between emotion and cognition have been explored by different authors.
North of Thessaly occurs another, different culture, the Macedonian in the Cyclades still another, the Cycladic on the Adriatic coast of Epirus explorations have found few remains that can be ascribed to the first half of the second millennium B.C.. Crete, of course, is the province of the Minoan culture.1Many amazing things were accomplished during this time. Not only did the Helladic period involve the establishment of agricultural communities in Greece, the first metalworking, and later the development of the Greek alphabet, but it played host to one of the greatest events in all of history: the Trojan War. The actual facts of this event are hard to pin down. We know that a big war happened on the present day site of Troy in the late Helladic period (probably around 1200 BCE2) thanks to excavation by the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann. In the late 19th century, Schliemann found many items at the site including valuables he called Priam’s Treasure and Helen’s Jewels.3 But the actual truth of what happened is lost in the recesses of time. What we have instead of cold hard facts are the poems of Homer—namely the Iliad and the Odyssey, both of which (especially the first) deal with the Trojan War. Homer himself was not an eyewitness account of the war, nor did he live in the Helladic period, but instead a few centuries after it. Nonetheless, the accounts of the great war that he composed make that period in history truly live.The Trojan war also marked a cultural renewal following a period of some centuries in the Middle Helladic period where cultural activity began to fall off, according to archaeologists. There are many possible reasons for this original drop.
Cocaine Epidemic in the USA in 1980sThe extent of psychostimulants use cyclically varies in contrast to the relatively constant level of opioids use. In the last century there were two periods of high popularity of cocaine. The last peak of its popularity can be traced in 1985 when the number of people who used this drug episodically reached 8.6 million people, while the number of those who used cocaine regularly reached 5.8 million. More than 23 million Americans used cocaine at least once in their life, but the number of those who kept using it was gradually decreasing to 2.9 million in 1988 and to 1.3 million in 1992. The middle of 1990s can be considered as the late phase of epidemic. Since 1991 the number of people who use cocaine very often (at lest every day) remains stable and amounts to 640000 people. Approximately 16% of people who used cocaine lost control and dependency occurred. That happened under the influence of many factors. Two important factors are the availability and the cost of the drug. Till 1980s cocaine hydrochloride used for intranasal and intravenous injection was the only available form of cocaine. Moreover, it was very expensive. Then cheaper alkaloids of cocaine, which could be used by means of inhalation, appeared. Moreover, they were available in many big cities just for $2-5 for dose. Due to this fact, cocaine became available even for children and teenagers. In general, men used drugs more often than women and for cocaine this correlation amounts to 2:1. However, the use of cheap alkaloids of cocaine was very widespread among young women and reaches the level that is characteristic for men. Due to this fact the popularity of use of cocaine among pregnant women was high. The third very important factor that influenced people was the fashion. It was fashionable and prestigious to use cocaine, it was very popular among rich and people blindly followed the stereotypes. Young people and teenagers were the most vulnerable. They were sure that in order to be considered cool, it is necessary to start using cocaine. Certainly, such stereotypes had many awful consequences (Demarest).The cocaine epidemic was depicted in many movies. Some of them were even forbidden due to the active propaganda of cocaine use. The movie Blow (2001) tells us the real story of a man who decided to become one of the first distributors of cocaine in the United States. He made many famous and rich people dependent of cocaine, his sharpness allowed him to avoid any conflicts with police. But everything comes to the end at last. The movie Scarface tells spectators about the history of cocaine use in the USA when it was brought by criminals from Cube. These movies shed the light on the hidden motives of drug barons who wanted to make a distinguished career making many people dependent on cocaine use that very often led to their death. Cocaine epidemic killed many people in the United States in 1980s. Works CitedDemarest, Michael. Cocaine: Middle Class High. Content.time.com, 1981 Web February 12, 2014
We are posed with the question that they are workers who are not employees. Who are these workers is the subject of the search of this paper. Any conclusion that will be arrived at will set the path clearer for decision-makers like management and government bureaucrats to respect the boundary created by the interpretation of labour laws.The statement would mean that workers constitute a bigger group than employees. Hence, we ask: what are those workers that are not employees? Separating workers from employees (Fossum, 505-507) is only proper because each group has different rights, privileges and obligations under the law.BECTU (or the Union) submitted an application to the CENTRAL ARBITRATION COMMITTEElt.www.cac.gov.uk/ – 6kgt. (CAC) sometime in March 2003 for the purpose of being recognised for collective bargaining (Fossum,312,313) by the BBC (or the Company) concerning the ‘wildlife cameramen/women engaged on freelance contracts by the BBC Natural History Unit. The CAC notified both parties notice of receipt of the application (Fossum, 149-151) about one week after the application by BECTU and invited a response to the application from the BBC. The Company submitted a response about one week after receipt of the notice.BBC responded stating that it did not know which individuals were included in the bargaining unit proposed by BECTU and that in the absence of such information it refused to comment on whether any of the individuals were workers for the purposes of TRADE UNION AND LABOUR RELATIONS (CONSOLIDATION) ACT of 1992 (hereinafter called ACT). It demanded the Union to identify the individuals included in the proposed bargaining unit and requested a preliminary hearing. The purpose of the hearing is to determine whether any of those individuals and if so how many, were workers for the purposes of the ACT.
In 1660, however, the monarchy was restored with Charles II and has retained an important constitutional role ever since. Since then, it continues to date, and debate goes on time to time regarding its relevance. The monarchy symbolizes conservative values and the status quo (David Starkey, 2006).The monarch dissolves parliament, appoints and dismisses prime ministers, assents to legislation, signs treaties, declares war, and appoints judges through the prime minister. Using this prerogative, a British prime minister can declare war without a debate in parliament. This implies that democracy can go well in integration with the monarchy in the UK. This history reveals that monarchy has brought remarkable positive changes in the society of the UK.Even though monarchy still commands respect from significant sections of the population, the percentage of supporters has been on a declining trend. In 1990, 75% of Britain’s population favored a monarch, which fell down to 44 % in 2000 and 34 % in 2001. There are some views, which support shifting the governance from monarchy to republic. Republicanism in the United Kingdom is a movement in the United Kingdom that seeks to remove the British monarchy and replace it with a republic that has a non-hereditary Head of state (Reginald Stanley Birch, 2004). This certainly opens debate over the relevance of monarchy at present.There is a clear cut gap in the governing style of monarchy and people’s aspirations in the modern age and hence the intelligentsia attacks the monarchy with a pincer movement (Theodore Dalrymple, 2002).Moreover, a modern democratic process has no need for a monarchy. An elected president should be the way forward, so anyone can aspire to be head of state rather than it being retained for a single-family. The same laws on tax should be applied to every UK citizen.
The novel portrays the hunt for personality and self-realization (Sten), the struggles that are related to race, those of African Americans as Sundquist claims, the self-transformation starting from lack of knowledge to knowledge (Ellison) the worth contained in one’s history and cultural legacy (O’Meally). (Anelli et al.2012) Similarly, in Ralph Ellison’s Invisible Man, we find a case of an African American story dealing with racism against African Americans in the USA. The protagonist, in this case – the speaker, stays anonymous throughout the narrative which allows him to present his life familiarities with a relative lack of involvement while also offering the reader a hint into his opinion on the actions that take place all through the narrative. Analysis The narrator is an adolescent African-American male from the excluded Deep South. He recalls about his youthful days when he had not yet known his identity or realized that he was an invisible man (Ellison, page 402) that he was an invisible man a black man whose individuality is unnoticed and complex to understand in the American society. The invisible man develops ethical, mental, and academic consciousness through a chain of encounters that test his suppositions about the humankind while at the same time he learns painful lessons (Anelli et al.2012). The action intensifies when, on his death bed, the narrator’s grandfather tells the family that the life of blacks who live in a far-off white America had been and was still full of battles and hostility. The narrator is in dilemma having considered his grandfather the most humble as it turns out he was a spy (Ellison, page 403). The strategies of agree on ’em to death as well as undermine ’em with grins (Ellison, page 413) are the instruments that allow the Negro to live on, in concentration approving invisibility until sightlessness slay white society. Therefore, Grandfather’s words create and prefigure cultural values, for instance, the racism and bias that the speaker will come across in a negative society as he finds his way through the communal mine grounds of America. Racism is blatant in the venue in which the narrator is invited to give a speech. When he arrives, he discovers that he is to provide part of the evening’s entertainment for a number of drunken white men as a competitor, together with nine of his classmates, in a blindfolded boxing match ahead of giving his speech. He attends the festival not knowing what stance he would take but later discovers that the comic action merely endeavors to highly oppress the blacks, lower their self-esteem, kindness and human rights in the complicated society. Everyone involved, including the audience, contributed to the racist ploy without exception. It comprised of an erotic dance by a nude light-colored female with a flag tattoo on her belly, which he and his classmates are forced to look at. After enduring these humiliating experiences, the narrator is finally permitted to give his speech.
In the third stage or the concrete operational stage which occurs between 7 to 11 years, important processes like decentering, reversibility, conservation, serialisation, classification and elimination of egocentrism occur. the last stage is the formal operational stage which commences at 11 years of age, during which time the child acquires the ability to think abstractly and also to draw conclusions from whatever information is available.According to Marcia, there are four stages of adolescent identity status of psychological identity development. The first stage is that of identity diffusion in which the adolescents have not made any commitments and have not experienced any crisis. They have little interest in ideological and occupational choices. In the identity foreclosure status, the adolescent makes a commitment, but do not experience a crisis. In the identity moratorium category, the adolescents are in the midst of a crisis, but their commitments are either vaguely defined or absent. In the identity achievement status, the adolescents have made a commitment and have undergone crisis too.Factors associated with eating disorders are environmental factors like family, friends and media, biological factors like abnormally low serotonin levels in the brain, abnormal hormonal levels and low cholecystokinin levels, developmental problems like adolescents difficulty in separating from over-controlling parents and traumatic factors. Factors associated with substance abuse are age, family history of substance abuse, friends and relatives, mental illness, chronic pain or disease, psycho-behavioural risk, childhood experiences and trauma. Factors associated with eating disorders are environmental factors like family, friends and media, biological factors like abnormally low serotonin levels in the brain, abnormal hormonal levels and low cholecystokinin levels, developmental problems like adolescent’s difficulty in separating from over-controlling parents and traumatic factors.
For users, the sight of alcohol elicits a sensation of a kind: the warmth, the vision, the clarity, the relief, and the general feel-good effect with a seemingly real fix that leaves the user in a perfect, anticipated high. Obscure to these lot is the fact that objects of abuse, often readily available in form of commonly grown plant products known for ages or interactive events, act through the extraordinary complex brain mechanism, fine-tuned with communication network of delicate, specialized neurons that basically govern thoughts, perceptions and/or emotions. Whether heroin, cocaine, whiskey or any other social activity such as gambling [deemed appealing for recreational use], all work progressively in amounts used. it takes a little more quantity to produce the same euphoric effect experienced previously, to which Blum et al. (1996) refers to as the Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS). This paper endeavors to delineate brain mechanism of addiction with explicit pass-over on the understanding of the anatomic, adaptive pathways involved in the pathological gamblers’ brain circuitry. Gambling and the Brain Reward Circuitry Adequate behavior demands a continuously coordinated approach to individual actions, particularly when engaged in activities with elements of risk. Behavior scholars have long resisted the notion that behaviors are occasionally conditioned by subjective experiences. Specifically, their description of the relationship between behavior and the external factors were often in external terms without due reference to internal biological processes. even though it does help a food-deprived animal such as man to classify food as a definite reward for his daily accomplishments. With their operant conditioning theory, two fundamental principles of behavior are engendered—reinforcement [either positively or negatively] and punishment [in the form of a deficit]. Reinforcement, in this sense, involves some form of stimulus events, which increases response rates either to receive a reward or prompts escape from the possibility of a stimulus being taken away. Punishment, on the other hand, does the exact opposite. suppressing a behavior. New, advanced neurobiological research, however, projects a different perspective, detailing scientific processes through which an augmented brain’s reward system may ultimately alter behavior. Research in this area indicates that repeated gambling just like the use of drugs such as cocaine, for example, changes the structural functioning of the brain specialized cells through adaptive pleasurable effects that lasts from days into years within the system, eventually spiraling into pervasive addiction. According to Blum et al. (2000), the insufficient feelings of satisfaction [craving] for most of the drugs/activities commonly abused results from a distortion in the brain reward cascade. a complex interaction of the dopaminergic and opioidergic neurotransmitters. Individuals born into families with a deep running history of addictions are highly susceptible to a deficient production and/or subsequent use of these neurotransmitters. Accordingly, prolonged exposure corrupts the functioning of these neurotransmitters by blocking them from reaching other brain receptors. There is no doubt that nutrition and breeding, the two crucial qualities of life on earth have been preserved over theages in the evolutionary calendar.
However, the cases of hemothorax and pneumothoraces have dominated the list of recent nursing care emergencies resulting chest injuries as observed by Mowery et al. (2011, p.513). As a senior nurse in the ortho/general surgical department, my healthcare team is bound to encounter such medical emergencies. On the other hand, it is of paramount importance to have relevant expertise in the aforementioned ortho/general surgery portfolio so as to keep an excellent edge in offering the required leadership and professionalism in nursing emergency care. For that reason, this module provides an ideal opportunity to learn and internalize the approved medical manoeuvres in the management of patients with chest drain that has caused pneumothorax. The knowledge will enhance my professional development, nursing competency, clinical exposure and personal confidence in handling similar chest drain cases in the future. This paper focuses on experiential reflection on the effective nursing care management of chest drain patient with pneumothorax with reference to the analytical application of Gibbs Model 1998 (Nicol 2012). Accordingly, the chronology of this reflection examines the details of the case, the resulting personal feeling about it and the professional sense drawn from such clinical experience. Objective application of this model enables the learner to acquire practical insights that will go a long way to improve the fidelity of the portfolio as well as her professional performance in the relevant medical department (Gibbs 1988. Oelofsen 2012, p.22). Case Summary The simulation hitherto involves a 50 year old male patient brought to the ortho/general surgery department with a stub wound on the right side of the chest. From clinical diagnosis, the patient developed chest drain from the stub penetration which has consequently caused pneumothorax. Based on the facts that the chest injury was penetrative with no medical history of spontaneous pneumothorax, this clinical emergency could be classified as open traumatic pneumothorax as reiterated by Sharma and Jindal (2008, p.35). This is the situation at hand for which the medical team seeks to apply the best line of care and treatment to stabilize the patient towards full recovery from traumatic pneumothorax. Reflective Nursing Care Management for Chest Drain Patient Description of what happened The patient presented at the hospital with chest injury sustained from an apparent stub wound. As such, pre-treatment nursing care management required rapid assessment of the situation to accurately diagnose the case and establish the magnitude of the
The Battle of Arnhem, known by its Allied codename of Operation ‘Market-Garden’, was the biggest airborne battle in the history, and the only attempt in the Second World War by the Allies to employ airborne troops in a strategic role in Europe. It was a battle of Army Groups numbering hundreds of thousands of men- 21st Army Group under Field Marshall Sir Bernard Montgomery in opposition to Army Group B under General Field Marshall Walther Model- but constantly its outcome hinged on the actions of small forces and individual battalions at critical points (Hercelode 2000, 61). Rather than a set-piece battle with a orderly beginning and end, it began on 17 September 1944 from a perplexed and daily changing pattern of events, and ended ten days later as the only major defeat of Montgomery’s career, and the only Allied defeat in the campaign in North-West Europe (Hercelode 2000, 62). The direct starting point of the Battle of Arnhem was actually Montgomery’s greatest victory, the Battle of Normandy. The annihilation of the original Army Group B in the Falaise Pocket in August 1944 at the end of the battle was a tragedy for Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich. Of 38 German divisions committed to Normandy, 25 were completely destroyed, with at least 240,000 men killed or wounded, and a further 200,000 taken prisoner. General Field Marshall Model, chosen on 18 August as both Commander-in-Chief West and commander of Army Group B, found himself organizing the disturbance of his shattered forces across northern France into Belgium and Holland (Hercelode 2000, 62).
Everyday life encompasses all social activities and relations including both codified and unofficial practices. Today, more than ever before, the practices and relations typically associated with everyday life like love, relationship, comradeship, and friendship, have become open, fluid, and dispersed across space and time via the Internet (Burkitt, 2004). As the world’s systems have increasingly transited from the factual to the virtual environment, online dating has defined new dimensions and techniques of relationship, and the society bears its fruits as well as consequences.People use social media for online dating in everyday life for a variety of causes and in different circumstances that lead them to different consequences. Social media feels like a suitable avenue for dating because people are in control of how much they can reveal about themselves. Unlike real-life situations, where people feel hesitant to approach one another and overtly ask for a relationship, online dating makes the participants feel more at ease making overt requests and suggestions because these are platforms established for the union of like-minded people specifically looking for relationship development. Nevertheless, there are many participants who use social media for online dating just for recreational purposes. These participants approach online dating as a pastime and enjoyable activity. Some people feel driven to use social media for online dating because they have a history of traumatic relationships in the past and thus feel too shy and hesitant to build real relationships in real life. In such circumstances, online dating provides a substitute for such relationships as such participants can engage virtually, psychologically, and emotionally in a romantic experience. The consequences of online dating in everyday life are, more often than not, unfavorable for the participants.
These qualities help the hero to go after a bigger achievement. The Medieval heroes Beowulf, Sir Gawain, and King Arthur are heroes for different reasons. Beowulf is brave but his purpose is dissimilar to that of Sir Gawain and King Arthur. Sir Gawain attaches greater importance to personal honor and gallantry. King Arthur, Sir Gawain’s uncle, is the perfect example of a king of the medieval period. The stories revolve around the basic heroic qualities of the heroes, helping or obstructing them in their journeys.Beowulf’s biggest quality is his bravery – to act instantly without thinking about the results. No doubt, he is a great warrior but his time period is different from the time of King Arthur or Sir Gawain. The boastful talk of his bravery sometimes seems unheroic when he tells Unferth I count it true that I had more courage, More strength in swimming than any other man (514-15 (41). Although what he is saying is true glorifying one’s own qualities can’t be seen positively. Beowolf is brave when he goes out to kill Grendel’s mother. he just donned his armor for battle, Heeded not the danger… (1328-29 60). He fights without his sword: On the might of his hand, as a man must do Who thinks to win in the welter of battle Enduring glory. he fears not death (1420-23 62). He wants glory by truthful means – fighting the menace of society. When we compare the bravery of Beowulf with King Arthur, there is a difference. King Arthur is expected to be brave because he is a king. Beowulf’s bravery needs a story to outline his rise and downfall later.The character of Sir Gawain represents honor – the most important virtue. He offers to participate in a fight with the Green Knight as he feels himself to be the weakest, the most wanting in wisdom…And my life, if lost, would be least missed, truly (354-5 295). King Arthur had earlier accepted the challenge to fight with the Green Knight but as his death would be destructive for the kingdom and the masses, Sir Gawain finds valor in accepting the challenge and tells King Arthur this affair is too foolish to fall you (358-295). T
It is also this roots that makes the term Indigenous Peoples, not just ambivalent, but highly paradoxical. Definition of Indigenous Peoples The term Indigenous Peoples has been a subject of much debate but mainstream understanding indicates that people who lived in an area before the conquerors arrive are indigenous. This understanding, however, is muddled with confusion. Indians, for example, were in Louisiana before the arrival of white Americans but ask any American and they would claim original ownership of the land. A further understanding would most likely present two concepts: 1) The First People pertains to the original settlers of a country or area. They are also often called ethnic group or aborigines. 2) Cultural Difference is also used as a major differentiating point between who is indigenous and who is not. Languages, religion or spiritual belief, and socio-economic structure define who is indigenous to the culture In a bid to have a universal understanding of indigenous peoples, a defition was developed by Jose Martinez Cobo in the Special Rapporteur on Discrimination against Indigenous Populations. This was, for a time, accepted internationally (Sanders 214): Indigenous populations are composed of the existing descendants of the peoples who inhabited the present territory of a country wholly or partially at the time when persons of a different culture or ethnic origin arrived there from other parts of the world, overcame them, by conquest, settlement or other means, reduced them to a non-dominant or colonial condition. who today live more in conformity with their particular social, economic and cultural customs and traditions than with the institutions of the country of which they now form part, under a state structure which incorporates mainly national, social and cultural characteristics of other segments of the population which are predominant. However, the definition resulted to many questions and challenged many political, cultural, and social beliefs. For one, the acceptance of the definition makes the identity of indigenous peoples dependent on the chronology of its social development. Next, classifying conquerors as people from other parts of the world effectively eliminates neighboring conquerors which may have been more prevalent before recorded history. The definition fundamentally assumed and solidified that the formation of identity, history and culture were dependent on when Europeans started colonizing different parts of the world. It was beyond simple. It was, in fact, unreasonable as it ignored the more organic formation of culture, history and identity that started hundreds, if not thousands of years before European colonizers. Essentially, the definition that was supposed to uphold the identity of a country was based on discrimination. So much, in fact, that even their definition had to be around the axis of the colonizers. Europeans had to arrive before the presence of culture is recognized. The definition may have been well-intentioned but the result only lead to further marginalization of people that should have never had to fight for their land. There is also the lack of framework on how culture, tradition and beliefs continue to persist even in the face of modernity and continuous strengthening of global hybrid community. What the definition did, though, is make provide a better and stronger mainstream understanding of the
Wedding customs vary widely across the many religions practiced by the people of America. Approximately 86 percent of all Americans profess to follow Christian traditions (Mordecai, 1999: 82). Despite this, there are several other cultures represented within this country’s population. These include Judaism, Buddhism, New Age, and Nondenominational followers. Even within the Christian ranks, there remains a wide variety of practices and traditions. This can be seen when one compares Greek Orthodox weddings to Quaker ceremonies for example. Peoples who tended to retain traditions were the Hindus, Jews, Muslims, Mennonites, and Quakers. Marriage customs of succeeding generations were increasingly influenced by the Christian majority for whom Western-style traditions were perpetuated by mass media (Mordecai, 1999: 82). Some of these religious ceremonies have remained relatively unchanged throughout the centuries. Other ceremonies have changed quite significantly or emerged as an altogether new form of celebration. As times changed, wedding ceremonies did not always include religious actions. Sometimes, they are secular events held within the courts and offices of the Justice of the Peace. In addition, changing laws have required changed approaches to a greater or lesser degree even within the churches. For example, greater women’s rights won in the early 1900s forced significant change. They required church ceremonies to begin recognizing the ability of the young woman to make her own decisions. This was because she became less the property of her family and husband and more of an autonomous being (Women’s History in America, 1995).Mainstream Christian weddings in America took their cues and traditions from those established in England. When the Puritans first arrived on American soil in the 1600s, they carried with them their own ideas.
History- Modern Latin America Argentina has a long history of struggles in which many of them contributed by politics. Its history of politics and culture is marred by regimes which instigated fear on the common man. The military as well as civilian elected governments were responsible for this sorrowful plight of poor Argentineans. Argentina’s tryst with terror linked ruling policies came to an end after its defeat in the Falklands war with Britain. Searching for life written by Rita Arditti presents the horrifying tale of struggle between the military juntas and its resistors who were branded as enemies of the state by the then rulers. It gives a spine chilling experience about disappearance of victims and resistance organized by their mothers and relatives in Argentina. The military rulers in the country followed the Nazis ideology or the doctrine of night and fog developed by Adolph Hitler. The doctrine of national security was the new name of brutal law used exclusively for secret kidnapping and detention and murder in the country. The rulers followed the strategy of doing all these acts secretly. The kidnapping was done without much publicity, and detention and subsequent killing were made at secret centers only known to the military. The families of the victims were terrorized through these acts and they feared of complaining because of the fact that complainants would be the next victims. Therefore there was a silence from the relatives of victims which otherwise made them in a situation to kill themselves. The vanishing created terror within the population, but without finding the bodies, no one could be blamed. Silence increased the atmosphere of terror as well as hopelessness. It placed a cruel burden on the families of the disappeared. Moreover they were made to feel in some sense responsible. It became one of the more subtle and complex mechanisms of torture for the relatives. To accept the death of family members they had to kill them themselves mentally. The military rulers thought that the children of subversives should not be given back to the victims, they have to be brought up as decent men therefore they should be separated from their parents and brought up in decent families. These were the children the grandmothers were searching for. The children who were born in more than 340 concentration camps where their pregnant mothers were either detained or killed as well as children who disappeared along with their detained parents. Hundreds of children were living with false identities and histories. To know about their children, the mothers and grandmothers organized marches every Thursdays at 3.30 pm. They were offering strict moral resistance against their targets. Irrespective of the pain and terror suffered during their lives, these women radiated irresistible and contagious positive energy. By the mid nineties, due to the valiant efforts of the mothers and grandmothers, many children were found and reunited with their original families. It is true that most of the grandmothers did not find their children, but to those who have been found was very special to them. They cherished on the pride and pleasure of their valiant struggle. The movement of the grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo is a tremendous example of moral struggle undertaken to replace mistaken policies of the governments. The struggle made by these women in Argentina beared fruits. The situation prevailing in Colombia now is somewhat same with Argentina of the 1970’s and 1980’s. There is a constant war between the good and bad. In between innocent people are either kidnapped or killed. The society in Colombia should take a leaf from the movement of grandmothers and implement in their society to prevent such acts thereby raising hopes for a bright future (Arditti). Work Cited: Arditti, Rita, Searching for life: The grandmothers of Plaza de Mayo. London: University of California press ltd. 1999.
Going further into the details of the two books, we find out the near miss (the comparisons and contrasts with each other) that are apparent for one and all to see and gain insight from. We now look at the two books and review them so that important stuff can be extracted from them and only the most common grounds are touched down upon for the sake of similarities and differences, as is the requirement for this paper.Spencer C Tucker has presented a very tactful investigation into the Vietnamese military history in this book. The concentration for the larger part has been on the French and the American wars which were fought in the 20th century. As for the writer himself, Spencer C Tucker was a US Army Captain and thus knew a lot about the scope of wars and the manner in which they are fought both on and off the battlegrounds. The book is very incisive as it has touched down on the facets related to a close examination of the military regimes which were present in the lengths and breadths of Vietnam.On the part of the book, the writer has made sure that a brief history is provided courtesy the nation itself and then there is the discussion related to its formation which took place in the third century BC. Nationalist rebellion has been credited as the single most significant aspect of Vietnam’s first thousand years ever since it came into being which it took from Chinese domination. He has treated the American war and singe handily focused on the relevant aspects related to the war itself which means that the analysis for the better half of this book has been on those wars itself, more than anything else. Thus the discussion stems out from what those wars were like, how they came into their own, and what were the consequences of having them in the first place. The military matters in this whole analysis are something that is spoken about at length and one wonders the extent to which Tucker has gone towards the provision of details as concerns to the wars.
What then were the odds of a black society infringing on a white society’s copyrights stand of winning a legal battle against the latter if the case was heard by an all- white jury? The answer to the question would obviously be very slim if any. Past Imperial Potentate Caesar Blake, Jr. and his Black Shriners fought such a battle and won. The win remains embalmed in the Masonic history and is celebrated every year as the Jubilee day. Freemasonry is one of the World’s largest and oldest men’s fraternity. The fraternity has its roots on the middle ages guilds established by stonemasons who constructed the great cathedrals and castles of medieval Europe. Modern Freemason fraternities use the traditions, tools and terminologies to symbolize building men’s. Though many claim that the group is secretive, the freemasons themselves dispute this and claim that even though they exhibit high levels of discipline, no society of their size could be secretive (Shriners). In the United States freemasons are in two distinctive societies based on their race. the White masons and the Black masons. The masons refer to themselves as Shriners. They claim to be a fraternity based on fun and fellowship and upholding the Masonic principles of relief, truth and brotherly love. The White Masonry society was established in 1872 with an aim of being a source of fun and to extend charitable actions through their activities. The fraternity these Masons established was referred to as the Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine and was exclusively for the Whites. In 1893 the Black Masons created their own Shrine society which they referred to as the Ancient Egyptian Arabic Order (AEAONMS) also referred to as Prince Hall Shrinedom. Both societies called their chapters temples. The term imperial potentate was used by both groups to refer to their leader. This paper suggests that the Rhetorical Skills of the Past Imperial Potentate Caesar Blake had a Big Role in Winning the Legal Tussle with the White Shriners. The paper also looks into the issue of administration of the Black Masonic Society and comes to the conclusion that the success of the same during the early 20th Century can also be partially attributed to the rhetorical skills of their leader ( Shriners home page). However, the paper is of the opinion that there were many other factors that led to the success of the Black Shriners. It is also imperative to consider the fact that other side of the legal battle had skilled orators too. The paper therefore concludes that rhetoric is not enough to win a cause. Action must support the rhetorical skills for any cause to succeed Historical background Jubilee Day Both Masonic groups coexisted harmoniously, in some cases in the same cities with each carrying its activities without the other’s interference for at least twenty years. However, the harmony between them broke with the White masons claiming that the Black masons had imitated their name, emblems, regalia and titles. The discontent within the White group culminated into a lawsuit in 1914 by a White Georgia Mason’s lodge which sought for orders to restrain the Black Masons from using the same. A similar lawsuit was raised in Arkansas. The matter reached the United States Supreme Court when a White Mason group in Houston sued
The Israeli Independence of 1948 was thus created and remains so today amidst continuous wars with the local Arabs or Palestinians.Pre-Israeli Independence – a history. Unlike Pakistan, almost half a century later, Israel faces persecution from national and international interests due to its continuous struggle for an independent Jewish state. Its history dates back to the times when the Romans expulsed the Zionists around the second century CE. The land was renamed Palestine due to the majority of the Jew’s enemies, Philistines, living there at that time. It was repopulated by the Arabs after the Muslim Caliphate recaptured the land from the Romans in the seventh century CE (wikipedia.org, 2006). The desire for an independent Jewish state remained of little significance until the nineteenth century which then also saw the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora.In Historical terms, the Jewish people have been expelled from Jerusalem and the Promised Land several times and the example of the Babylonian Captivity is the first instance of the Jews being expelled from their holy city. King Nebuchadnezzar is the first person in recorded history, known for removing the Jews from their settlements in present-day Israel and sending them to Babylon. Once King Cyrus of Persia had overthrown the long-standing authority of Nebuchadnezzar, the Jews returned to their homeland for the first time and began rebuilding their lives (Wikipedia, 2006). Ha’am further reports that:History teaches us that in the days of the Herodian house Palestine was indeed a Jewish State, but the national culture was despised and persecuted, and the ruling house did everything in its power to implant Roman culture in the country and frittered away the national resources in the building of heathen temples and amphitheaters and so forth (Ha’am, 1897, Pg. 1).Anti-Semitism is commonly said to be the cause that forced the Jews to seek out a separate homeland of their own.
It was believed that Cataline had gained the support of an army and that this army would do whatever was required to attain its goals. Two other politicians named Sallust and Cicero believed that they could foil this suspected plot. Cicero took an active role in this story and eventually had many of Cataline’s supporters executed and began a violent altercation that led to Cataline’s death. This story, however, contains more than just facts, as the events surrounding this conspiracy are shady. Some believe that Cicero embellished the circumstances in order to remove Cataline from his position within the community, while others believe that Cataline was guilty and that his punishment was just. Whether or not Cataline was guilty, however, is not of the most ultimate importance because Cicero acted in an unjust manner when punishing Cataline and his supporters for their suspected crimes and, therefore, should be looked at as a villain by history. Cicero had motives to desire that Cataline’s power taken away and he acted in an unethical manner during this conspiracy.The question of whether or not Sallust and Cicero were justified in their portrayal of Cataline is significant to this story because there are two very distinct possibilities of what happened. One possibility is that Cataline was, in fact, attempting to overthrow the Republic, which would mean that they were justified in their accusations and subsequent punishment. They could have had reason to believe that Cataline was up to no good because they found supplies in his house that could be used to start fires. Also, Sallust’s description of Cataline’s early devotion to wickedness and fondness for bloodshed closely resembles a comparable sketch of Cataline’s youth in Cicero (Sallust and Ramsey, 1984, P. 70). This shows that Sallust and Cicero already had issues with Cataline‘s behavior, giving them the motivation to see his power taken away.
When compared with Christianity that began less than two thousand years ago, the idea that Christianity is much young is supported. When one believes the standpoint in the New Testament that God’s plan lies in Christ for the whole creation, plus that God intends to converge as one, all things within Christ, both that are on earth and in Heaven, then Christianity turns again to be more recent (Paul, 1976). This is because the few centuries since the appearance of Christ are only infinitesimal portion of the total time that has passed since the planet, not to mention the whole earth, appeared (Paul, 1976). On the other hand, when human civilization is compared with Christianity, it is still young. Actually, civilization is said to have started about 12,000 ago, the final time of continental ice sheets retreat (Paul, 1976). This brings forward the notion that Christianity started its existence only a sixth or fifth of the precise civilized mankind’s span. Moreover, Christianity came into being lately in the mankind’s religious development. It might be something of the type that Paul meant when he announced that, in the completeness of time God forwarded His son. However, with the faiths that possessed a widespread and continue spreading geographically, Christianity is just subsequent to most recent to be born. Animism which seems to have many forms appears to have antedated the human civilization. On the other hand, polytheism which had so many followers is very old. Hinduism in its previous features antedates Christianity with more than one thousand years. Judaism, which sprang Christianity, is the oldest of the latter (Paul, 1976). Christianity came into being in the middle of the time when the chief mankind’s religions were coming into existence. Majority of those faiths were born in the 13th centuries between 650 B.C – A.D 650. The ones that survived Hinduism and Judaism started ahead of 650 B.C. At that moment, a religious ferment existed among civilized human beings that within a certain comparatively precise span brought many of the major sophisticated religions that have since formed the humanity (Paul, 1976). That took place but with small interactions of one another. The only exceptions are Islam and Christianity. The two were heavily Judaism indebted and Islam was being influenced by Christianity and Judaism. The Christianity youth being very important might also mean that it would be transient. The other chief religions have woken up, prospered, reached their top, and later plunged into a slow reduction or have altogether turned stationary (Paul, 1976). For instance, Hinduism has declined its extension today in comparison to 1500 years that have passed. Similarly, Buddhism has also not registered imperative benefits for the last five centuries. On the negative side, it has only gained several losses. On the one hand, Confucianism has also not gained a big geographical spread from the time it moved to Korea, Japan and Annam for the several centuries that have passed and is now splitting up (Paul, 1976). Islam has not suffered considerable territory surrender since the change of Iberian Peninsula into Christianity. That process was finished in about four centuries that have passed and in the current century has extended its boundaries forth in a number of areas, known as African South of Sahara. Interestingly, its progress has not been much
Logically, the debate about the roots and impacts of globalization are mostly confined within these subject matters: the foundation and thrusts behind economic globalization. the level to which market actor or state players are having power over socioeconomic growths. and market-driven restraints to liberal macroeconomic structures (Unay 2006). Possibly, in analyzing these concerns, scholars from various systematic fields have presented different descriptions. David Held (1999) summarises three general perspectives of globalization: the skeptics, the hyper globalists, and the transformationalists. The hyper globalists, composed of Marxists and neoliberals, put emphasis on the economic side of globalization. The hyperglobalist perspective argues that transformations in the global economy are launching a ‘new epoch of human history’ (Yu, Chow, Kao 2010, 143) wherein national boundaries have become outdated economic entities. In their opinion, globalization has given birth to a sole global market wherein multinational entities from various nations dynamically vie with one another. Simply put, hyper globalists argue that current globalization marks a new period wherein populations across the globe are ever more placed under the controls of the global marketplace (Held 1999). According to Westra (2010), neoliberal hyper globalists approve the increase in global prosperity and play down the reality of increasing inequality among and within individual countries, whilst Marxist hyper globalists criticize the widening of inequality.On the contrary, the skeptics believe that globalization is basically a myth that masks the truth of a global marketplace ever more fragmented into three main regional unions wherein territorial states continue to be highly dominant. They claim that current globalization is not radical or unknown since present-day interdependence is similar in extent to the latter part.
Use of ForceAn immediate situation, in this case, is dealt with using the required amount of force.Personal safety can be enhanced through proper planning, foreknowledge and awareness to prevent a person from becoming a victim of criminal acts or terrorism. Since security measures are not fooled proof individuals are required to be prepared to handle circumstance when there is an attack. Vehicle armour, body armour, gas masks and other protective equipment dramatically increases the chances of surviving a physical attack.The concept of the use of personal protection equipment is in vogue for thousands of years when man began the use of clubs and stones in combat. Armour has evolved during the various ages of human history (Katz Caspi 2003 p.99).The invention of gunpowder and its use as a propellant has forced the man to use armours to protect from such projectiles. Different kinds of armours are used to protest the user from a specific level of threat. Soft body armour is flexible protection equipment worn by police officers to protect the user from handgun bullets but does not protect a person from the high powered rifle. Hard armour is essential to protect a person from rifle shots but it cannot be worn for a longer duration due to its rigidity and weight. Further, hard armour cannot be worn as a covert under clothing. Hence, it is not recommended for executives requiring protective equipment to be used under a suit. A lightweight protective vest with a lower protection level with better flexibility and comfort is appropriate for these circumstances (Katz Caspi 2003 p.100).Soft body armour is available in several brands which can be used under a suit. Zylon shield is a new material that is flexible to develop concealable armour with good protection. Though there are many other materials to make concealable vests, they do not offer equal performance as given by Zylon shield.
However, it was only in 1970 that the magnetic strip was used on credit cards.A credit card falls under the category of plastic money. Here the card issuer, i.e. the bank, issues a card to the customer i.e. the cardholder. The issuer of the card provides its customer with a line of credit. The line of credit is the amount of credit a customer is eligible for to pay to merchants or even as a cash advance. A credit card differs from the normal debit/charge card in the sense that a credit card does not require a complete payment at the end of the month. Instead, it allows customers to ‘revolve’ the balance, by charging them with an interest instead. Several different card issuers provide these cards to the customers. A few of the well-known card issuers in the United States are: Capital One Credit Cards, Discover Cards, HSBC Bank Credit Card, American Express Cards, Chase, Advanta, Master Card, Bank of America, Citi Credit Cards, First Premier Cards, VISA, etc.With the increasing growth of credit cards in the current world, it is important to understand what credit cards are and how they work. This report focuses on understanding the basics of credit cards and the various aspects of credit cards, like the interest, benefits, eligibility criteria, etc.United States provides individuals with credit cards based entirely on the credit history of the individual. An individual with a positive history is most likely to receive a credit card. One of the biggest credits – checking company in the US is called EQUIFAX. This company provides for all details of the financial standing of individuals i.e. the repayments history, timeliness in paying bills, etc. Apart from a good credit history, it is also very important for individuals to have a social security number as this number acts as identification for all. Also, primary identification like the passport is needed.
The United States Bowl Championship Series is one area that is increasingly becoming notable for its agenda for money other than living up the original dream of breeding great future sports personalities. Ironically, the fracas with the Bowl Championship Series is so tactical that one needs special scrutiny to come to terms that the series has now become a money-making venture for some people. It is therefore the aim of this research paper to take up the task of the scrutiny to expose what is likely to be a future mayhem if not checked What is the Bowl Championship Series The Bowl Championship Series, commonly referred to as BSC is a five-game showcase of college football in the United States of America (BCS Official Website, 2010). The system is referred to as a five-game showcase because it is made of five different bowl games at five different venues among which various colleges battle for the ultimate of two top-rated teams in the series. These top two teams are honored by taking part in the National Championship Game and at the National Championship Games the two top-rated teams are made to play each other. … History of the Bowl Championship Series The Bowl Championship Series was born out of existing college based football competitions. According to Ours (2007), ‘The first intercollegiate football contest was played on November 6th, 1869, at New Brunswick, New Jersey.’ The system of competitions however kept changing from time to time. The new national bodies in charge of bowl kept coming in place to regulate and regularize the activities of college football. The current bowl game system was formed in 1902 in Pasadena, California and by 1906, there was the formation of the NCAA which oversaw the affairs of bowl games in the country (Billingsley, 2010). The involvement of various college football conferences started in the 1940s as by that time there was the existence of many bowl games across the country such as Cotton Bowl Classic, Orange Bowl and Sugar Bowl. The current college football games followed the system of playoffs as used by the NCCA to select yearly champions until 1998 when the Bowl Championship Series was introduced (Cummings, 2008). According to Cummings, The new system was necessitated ‘to avoid the controversy created by the 1997 split national championship’. Has the Bowl Championship Series failed on its aims? Controversies and Monetary Accusations. What is the Relevancy of Non-BCS Schools in the BCS System According to the official website of the Bowl Championship Series, it series was ‘designed to ensure that the two top-rated teams in the country meet in the national championship game, and to create exciting and competitive matchups among eight other highly regarded teams in four other bowl
Domestic policies of presidents Reagan, Bush, and Clinton Tannsjo states in his book that the Concise Oxford Dictionary defines conservatism as that attitude which is possessed by the person who wants to maintain existing institutions (3) when he comes into the government. According to Tannsjo, this attitude is the first step towards an adequate characterization of conservatism (3). Conservatism focuses on the economic autonomy and the measures to maintain a small government with guaranteed protection against terrorism. The concept of conservatism has seen some modification after the postwar era or since some decades, and this new concept has affected the meaning of political and public verve in the United States. Ronald Reagan, the 40th American president from 1981-1989, was a Republican politician and a conservative leader. The history of America shows that most of the conservative politicians belonged to the Republican Party. Reagan’s domestic policies focused on lowering down the federal regulation. He emphasized upon the importance and establishment of private enterprises and worked toward lowering the taxes. The aim behind tax cuts was to improve productivity with reduced government spending and investment in domestic field so that more should be spent on national defense and protection against violence. Although his conservative policies did face some difficulties in the form of recession in the beginning of his career, yet the economical infrastructural strengthened its roots afterwards. This way, we can say that Reagan’s domestic policies were a reflection of rise of conservatism in the American politics. Historians suggest that Reagan’s first presidential nomination was the largest surge in conservatism in American politics and that modern conservatism is only the by-product of Reagan’s conservative theories (Cooper, Kornberg and Mishler 83). A powerful conservative movement was waiting for George W. Bush when he became the 41st president of America in the late twentieth century, according to Farber (209). Bush himself proved to be an extraordinary conservative politician. He had not studied in conservative institutions. instead, he had a long list of personal experiences that made him a conservative leader. He also promoted, like Reagan, the tax-cutting policies and focused on pro-business with pro-wealth policies. He emphasized upon loosening federal regulation and promoting monopolization. Bush’s conservative ideological predispositions were much like those of Reagan’s, and were a blend of traditional conservatism and classic liberalism (Farmer 387). The independent institutional life proposed by Bush was an end-product of his compassionate conservative domestic policies, according to Ceaser and Busch (45).As for Clinton, he also worked upon establishing a smaller government thus focusing on the conservatism once again. Farber writes that Clinton announced in his 1996 State of the Union address that he had been successful in establishing a smaller, less bureaucratic government…that lives within its means (210). Clinton also thought of older conventional conservative structure of policies as preferable in enriching the common people so that fewer people received food stamps and welfare checks (Farber 210). The strength of the state government increased. This way, Clinton is said to have re-engineered the conservative political concept put forward by Reagan (Godwin). Hence, it is evident that the domestic policies of presidents Reagan, Bush, and Clinton reflect the rise of conservatism in American politics.Works CitedCeaser, James W., and Andrew Busch. The Perfect Tie: The True Story of the 2000 Presidential Election. USA: Rowman Littlefield, 2001. Cooper, Barry, Kornberg, Allan, and William Mishler. The Resurgence of Conservatism in Anglo-American Democracies. USA: Duke University Press, 1988.Farber, David R. The Rise and Fall of Modern American Conservatism: A Short History. USA: Princeton University Press, 2010. Farmer, Brian R. Conservatism and George W. Bush. American Conservatism: History, Theory and Practice. USA: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2005. Godwin, Jack. Clintonomics: How Bill Clinton Reengineered the Reagan Revolution. USA: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, 2009. Tannsjo, Torbjorn. What is Conservatism? Conservatism for Our Time. USA: Taylor Francis, 1990.
The developments in the field of HRM аre now well documented (see for exаmple, Schuler аnd Jаckson, 1995. Sisson аnd Storey, 2000). Nevertheless, the debаte on HRM issues continues even though its focus hаs chаnged over time. The mаin issue which occupied аcаdemics in the 1980s wаs the evolution of HRM. In this regаrd, the debаte wаs mаinly on the explorаtion of the sаlient аspects of the trаnsformаtion of personnel mаnаgement into HRM. Hаving done so, it moved on to issues pertаining to the incorporаtion of industriаl relаtions into HRM. then the integrаtion of HRM into business strаtegies, devolvement of HRM to line mаnаgers, аnd finаlly seeing HRM аs а source of competitive аdvаntаge for orgаnizаtions. Currently, there is аn ongoing debаte regаrding the contribution of HRM to а firm’s performаnce. With these developments, the nаture of Humаn Resource (HR) function hаs chаnged from being reаctive, prescriptive, аnd аdministrаtive to being proаctive, descriptive аnd executive).Some аuthors suggest thаt the history of HRM cаn be trаced to Englаnd, where mаsons, cаrpenters, leаther workers, аnd other crаftspeople orgаnized themselves into guilds (Jаckson аnd Schuler, 1995). Crаft guilds supervised quаlity аnd methods of production аnd regulаted conditions of employment for eаch occupаtion. The crаft guilds were controlled by the mаster crаfts worker, аnd the recruit entered аfter а period of trаining аs аn аpprentice. The history then goes to the аrrivаl of the Industriаl Revolution in the lаtter pаrt of the eighteenth century, which lаid the bаsis for а new аnd complex industriаl society. Аs eаrly аs the 1890s, in some compаnies, а few speciаlized personnel аctivities were grouped into lаrger depаrtments. The Civil Service Commission, estаblished by the Pendleton Аct of 1883, hаs hаd mаjor influence on the development of personnel or humаn resources mаnаgement in the United Stаtes.
He presented a perfect blend of allusions, repetition, and metaphors that negotiated for the push for equality in America. It acted as a restart button for America to see the equality in each one.The immense experience in public speaking saw Martin Lurther King Jr. choose the route of an emotional reach. The tone would evoke emotions to the crowd instead of a political rant. He was able to reach the core of patriotism by alluding to the self-revelation of equality in men for happiness, liberty, and life. America is an embodiment of freedom while symbolizing a new beginning in life. The American Dream was the epitome for all Americans in their quest for justice, liberty, and freedom.However, the realities painted a different picture for African Americans in their pursuit of happiness and the American Dream. The s was a reminder of the cornerstones that built this great nation. He was able to stress the importance of each one receiving their human rights. Despite the color of a person, underneath all, we are all the same. The representation of all the different races as humans, he was able to paint a picture of a vision for equality.The use of metaphors is evident in drawing a close relationship for the need for equality for all races. The use of metaphor applies to the relation of the civil rights of African Americans as a bad check, which bounces with insufficient funds. The situation blinds the people that the people in control of ensuring civil rights for all are blind. He agrees that America is where people come to search for opportunities in life.However, he agrees with the fact that people of color are subject to unjust laws. He refuses to be part of the system put in place by people who do not understand the pain of being undermined because of your skin color. Despite the gloom, he believes that there is light at the end of the tunnel. He envisions an America where every person is treated equally regardless of their race. The entire addressing by Martin Jr. is a call to action for people who see the unjust system in place. It is, therefore, up to the people to transform the system. With the unjust laws present in America, the speech acts as a motivation for Americans to show their freedom.The wordplay shows instances of repetition of certain phrases such as the iconic ‘I have a dream,’ and others. The speech by King is delivered with the use of bold statements while using repetition. Each instance of repetition builds upon the other while emphasizing it through the totality of the speech. You can feel the passion for the words by King as he flows ideas and patterns to evoke emotions from people. Kings addressing ends in a crescendo, which builds up slowly.If you want to see the change in the world, start by being the change first. Change in the world is not brought about by sitting around and wishing for one. It starts by people stepping up and airing their ideas and through. It involves taking on open discussions on topics that are affecting the current society.The actions of everybody advocating for change forms the entire basis for King in his memorable speech. There was no fear in the eyes of Martin Kings as he pushed for change in the ways he saw in America. Kings actions were to motivate others to step up and speak. The actions and words of Martin King Jr. were able to inspire a nation that marking a turn in the history of the nation. Long after King’s demise, his words still have a grave meaning in the current society. A rhetorical analysis of I Have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King Jr. shows that the message for equality continues to live on through people.
He never allowed his affluence overcome his work, decisions and judgement. He got carried away to the extent of agitation when his fervor met with resistance, thus far more inclined to companionship than to permanent detestation, he was known as a person stained by some of the unavoidable vices of a subjugator, yet no further wastage of blood. Stendhal found some grave faults with the character and he stated that, Napoleon was at crucial moments fatally soft-hearted, sentimental, full of illusion and thoroughly misguided (The Open University, 2004). In this regard Stendhal stated, Thirteen and a half years of success turned Alexander the Great into a kind of madman. Good fortune of exactly the same duration produced the same madness in Napoleon (The Open University, 2004). He was a character that remained unmoved to humanity. He has been compared with Caesar throughout the text and this fact would continue to diminish the fame of Alexander or Frederick the Great (The Open University, 2004). He was never referred to as a tyrant and as per Stendhal, Although violent and unrestrained in his fits of temper, he was neither cruel nor vindictive (The Open University, 2004). It has been rightly mentioned in the text that, Napoleon was steeped in classical history (The Open University, 2004). As an emperor he was innovative enough to find out ways to tackle situations. During the conclusion of the last century, Napoleon ruled the French throne and in due course the entire country stood against him claiming a constitutional and free rule. However Bonaparte utilized the idea of counter revolution to work for his own benefit that was intended at leaving nothing new in the state, as it were, except himself (The Open University, 2004). It can be said that Napoleon happened to be a proud ruler who was satisfied with his own achievements. He stated in his memoirs, From nothing I raised myself to be the most powerful monarch in the world (The Open University, 2004). Napoleon took part in several battles throughout the world which resulted in inundation of bloodshed however in none of the battles, except the combat in Spain, he attacked initially from his part. He kept on conquering places with the aim of inviting new changes within the entire European continent. He decided to transform the entire Europe into an enormous kingdom. This arrangement, if it was ever feasible, was his lone justification for not having reformed the regions that were dominated by him, and as he failed to convert them into backing for France, through the means of forcing them to follow the similar ethical route. The future generation will view this as a tactic of prevention of the battle from the neighboring regions where the conqueror had stretched out his empire. In his memoirs, Napoleon clearly stated that, I sincerely thought that the fate of France and Europe and my own destiny were permanently fixed (The Open University, 2004). This shows how much the king was attached to his kingdom. He even mentioned that,
21). Genocides have become more frequent over the time and a potential contributing factor to it is the advancement of technology (Kuper, 1983). The Uppsala University (2011) defines armed conflict in these words, An armed conflict is a contested incompatibility which concerns government and/or territory where the use of armed force between two parties, of which at least one is the government of a state, results in at least 25 battle-related deaths (Uppsala University, 2011). In light of this definition of armed conflict, genocide does not qualify as an armed conflict, since one of the two parties is armed in genocide but the second party is a victim. In a conflict, both of the two parties make use of force against each other in one way or another but in the genocide, the force is used by just one party against the other, and the other suffers because of a number of reasons that include but are not limited to the lack of force, lack of technical equipment, lack of skill and training in the use of equipment, and most importantly, lack of political support. Apart from cases of subaltern genocide, the defenders and deniers of some of history’s worst genocides often justify the killings on the grounds of legitimate defensive or retributory action against traitors and subversives (Jones, 2011, p. 50). Comparison of Genocide and Armed Conflict The difference between armed conflict and genocide is that in the former, it is at least two states that are fighting with each other whereas in the latter, a state fights with a nation. Genocidal regimes thrive on the very types of social categories that anthropologists analyze and deploy – peoples, cultures, ethnic groups, nations, religious groups (Hinton, 2002, p. 18). Thus, when people belonging to a certain community are victimized by another community particularly with the support of the government, the violence classifies as genocide. Genocide is an extreme method by which a polity eliminates ethnic conflict (Palmer, 1998). Genocide resembles armed conflict as a campaign and takes place in the context of armed conflict. However, there is a lot of difference between genocide and armed conflict: Genocide is the antithesis of the … doctrine (…) [which] holds that war is directed against sovereigns and armies, not against subjects and civilians. In its modern application in civilized society, the doctrine means that war is conducted against states and armed forces and not against populations. It required a long period of evolution in civilized society to mark the way from wars of extermination, which occurred in ancient times and in the Middle Ages, to the conception of wars as being essentially limited to activities against armies and states. (Lemkin, 2008, p. 80). From this statement, it can be inferred that defining the genocide as a form of violence different from armed conflict relies on the difference between an uncivilized and civilized warfare. Genocide can be distinguished from armed conflict only by understanding the difference between armies and civilians. Relationship between Armed Conflict and Genocide Genocide was initially identified in the war’s context. In the contemporary age, the terms war and armed conflict are used interchangeably. Although the military prefers to refer to it as the law of armed conflict
This earliest establishment however, faced relatively tough conditions because of the overall land quality around Sydney Cove area. The second fleet arrived in 1790 to offer much relief for the settlers of the first settlement and greatly increased the overall presence of Britain on Australian soil. The overall purpose of establishing the colonies in Australia was mostly based upon the fact that British lost most of its American colonies in war of Independence. As such there was an emphasis on founding the replacement colonies at other places in order to continue to fulfill the political and economic objectives of the British Government. Besides the country was also considered as suitable for the purpose of plantation while at the same time, this colony could also provide compensation to British Loyalist Americans. This paper will however, attempt to explore and analyze the overall negative and positive impact of the European Colonization in the South Easter Australian region. Colonialism- a general introduction Colonialism has a rich history as nations attempted to expand themselves beyond their physical borders by establishing colonies in other areas. Under this mechanism the indigenous population is either directly ruled or displaced to reduce the overall resistance to the power. England was one of the main countries which have established colonies across the whole globe to achieve different political as well as economic objectives. (Osterhammel 1997) One of the key impacts of the colonization of the territories was the systematic use and exploitation of these territories’ resources, markets as well as labor. As such due to these factors important socio-political and cultural changes took place in these areas which virtually eroded the original culture of these areas. It is important to note that the colonies which were established as a result of this were different in nature wherein nations either attempted to establish settler colonies, plantation colonies, dependencies as well as the trading posts. These were established in order to achieve larger socio-political objectives besides ensuring that the overall power of a nation remains a dominating factor in world politics. Countries like Australia and New Zealand were settler colonies established with a major aim of transporting large number of people from the parent countries to these host colonies. However, the inter-mingling of the different races created strong health related issues. In many instances almost half of the race died of the different diseases. Aborigines of the region mostly died either through conflict with the Europeans or out of the diseases. European Settlements in Australia The early evidence for the attempts made by Europeans to settle in Australia dates back to 1606 when Dutch attempted to occupy the land. They were the first to sail through to this land however, they were heavily confronted by the Aborigines therefore they had to leave without settling there. It was also because of this reason that Dutch only made one landing on the soil of Australia and did not attempted to settle there. During 1770, British tried for the first time to sail through the area and attempt to establish a proper base in the region. In 1770, Capitan James Cook sailed around this region and named it as New South Wales. Cook also claimed the land in the name of England while at the same time ignoring the Aborigines.
The nation’s survival to one of the most dreadful events in world history made America a powerful nation ever to influence the rest of the world up to this day. WWII is indeed a defining moment for a nation suffering from the agonies of the Great Depression (Kennedy xi). After the Second World War, the U.S. became the standard of power and economic prosperity. Until now, many nations want to establish diplomatic relations with the country in order to keep that connection with the world’s most influential nation. How the U.S. transformed itself to gaining this coveted position is being traced to its significant participation in the Second World War. In the beginning, the U.S. did not want to compromise anything just to prove something to the world. The American government was seriously dealing with the dilemmas of the Great Depression (Kennedy xi) and its own national problems. There was no intention to engage in an all out battle against Germany, Japan, or Italy if not due to the attacks made by the Japanese Military on the US Naval base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Therefore, the country was provoked to defend itself because it had a valid reason to resort to such a courageous action. However, instead of plotting revenge against Japan, the U.S. wanted to begin with defeating the cause of the problem, which is the then Nazi-dominated Europe (Wartime Strategy). Uncle Sam was more worried in regard to the possibility of the German scientists inventing weapons of mass destruction than the possible attacks of the Japanese Military (Wartime Strategy). Hence, it was a decision the U.S. had to make for the sake of its future and people. World War II ended after six years leaving the world with trauma. However, this ending marked the start of a renewed America, perhaps the momentum of monumental change for the once isolationist nation. Americans have realized the value of life, probably for the reason that they have seen the vast impact of the war on their country. Women began to realize how they may help the society by being part of the country’s workforce. This past event is one reason why the U.S is open minded in terms of sharing responsibilities between the male and female members of the household. Freedom is apparent because the Americans themselves recognize its importance by allowing the members of society to taking part in making their communities a better place to live. WWII has, therefore, changed the perception of the American Society regarding the equal roles of men and women. Thus, this change fueled the American society to becoming liberal in making crucial decisions that are necessary for their survival. Slavery in the United States was also one crucial part of its history. African Americans were then forced to become slaves to the White Americans, and were not given equal rights by the government. The ending of slavery was something that the African Americans had yearned many years ago alongside with the ending of extreme discrimination. African American longed for freedom, which was later on granted by the American government at the onset of WWII. Many Blacks were given the chance to serve in the army, which had in some ways lifted their status in society during the Second World War. In addition, WWII had, in some ways, diminished racial inequality in a place that is inhabited by varying ethnicities, like America. Even if they suffered from discrimination after their return from the war, opportunities for the African-Americans increased as legislations, such as the 1965 Civil Rights Act, as well as the Fair Housing Act of 1968, were enacted (Frazier and Tettey-Fio 85). Eventually, the enforcement of these Legislations enhanced the economic status of the Blacks, which led to
Another major turning point was the Depression and the Unemployment that occurred in the late 1920’s after the Great Depression. this period was characterized by extreme economic crises and high rates of unemployment. At this time several factories were shut down and many workers were laid off. Discussion 2 The two historical turning points discussed above led to several economic, social and political facets whose effects are still faced by the current American Society. To begin with, the rise of the social movements specifically the Labor Movements that were propagated by the Muckrakers who exposed the Corruption, poor working conditions and lack of respect to human rights that were experienced at working places. In this respect, various groups of activist were forced to take several actions geared to towards opposing the poor working conditions and the corruption at the work places. … ded with proper remunerations and proper working conditions. such labor laws are currently still practiced to promote proper working conditions and promote proper employee-employer relationships. The Second pertinent turning point in the history of the American Society in the progressive era through the Great depression was the unemployment and the depression that led to an extreme economic crises featured by closing of factories, over-production and high levels of unemployment. This also occurred in the early to the late 1920’s. the crash of the stock market in 1929 in the USA which caused a drastic reduction in economic growth of the nation. workers and farmers were also faced with conditions of low income. Several organizations such as the Robert La Follett’s and the Wisconsin made various attempts to formulate strategies to enable the society to enable the society to cope up with the deteriorating economy. however, their efforts were fruitless (Wisconsin University 2008). In the Mid 1930’s the then United States’ President Roosevelt formulated the New Deal policy and the unemployment bill that was developed by the Harold Groves as an economic model succeeded in improving the economic status. These models together with the current economic models have facilitated the relative stability in the current economic status in the American Society. Discussion 3 The late 1980’s through the 1920’s saw the rise of several women empowerment movements and social groups for instance: The Women Suffrage Movement, Women and Peace Movement, Legacy of Women in the Progressive and the Status of Women. All these groups were focused towards empowering women. the American Society during the progressive era was characterized by the perception that women were the Moral Guardian
In this direction, Oucho1 noticed that ‘the history of colonialism provides overwhelming evidence of how manipulation of more friendly people to conquer more stubborn people, through primitive expeditions of denial of basic social services to the latter, laid firm foundations for conflict-in-waiting, a time bomb which exploded when the colonial administration was succeeded by independent governments’. As a direct result of the above situation, in most cases those ethnic conflicts have appeared in post-colonial areas the ‘former colonial powers simplistically dismissed them as the result of tribalism, without bothering to trace their evolution, maturity and eventually their occurrence’2.Of course such a finding, cannot lead to the assumption that the inappropriate administrative initiatives of the former colonial powers are the exclusive causes of the problems that the post-colonial areas face today. However, it is a fact that there is a strong relationship between the actions of the former that cause the latter severe turbulences in their entire social and financial framework. In this paper, the intervention of European states and particularly of Britain in the East Africa region with a special reference to Kenya is the main issue under examination. At the next level, the role of Britain in the development of Kenya is being analyzed trying to evaluate the role of the former to the financial and social progress – if any – of the latter.Africa has been a continent that suffered – and still does – a lot from the imperialistic activities of foreign countries, especially the European ones. In this context, Cain et al.3 found that ‘during the first half of the nineteenth-century reform and development made disappointingly slow progress in Africa, as indeed elsewhere while the belief that unfree labor was incompatible with modern capitalism.
Findings Promotional activity drew the customers into large central premises, thus helping the department stores fend off competition. The authors found numerous distinct regional strategies of promotion that were shaped by differences in the consumer markets’ types that were served. The authors found significant convergence of policy among the stores as they primarily used the promotional activity in order to imprint a robust brand image of the institution in the consumers’ minds. The authors found that press advertising had a strong positive effect over the sales as well as the net margins contrary to the views of the buyers and executives of John Lewis. These can be interpreted as elasticities. The authors found a well-defined impact of the direct mail advertising on the net margins. Although considerable returns were found to specific media, yet regional variations were noticed in the investment in such media which is indicative of the fact that the returns to alternative media exhibit regional differences. The authors have identified a lot of diversity in the weightings of the activities among establishments and the existence of regional differences. Sustenance of a considerable proportion of the returns attained from a survey of the British department stores enables the quantification of these trends and evaluation of the promotional strategies’ and expenditures’ impact upon the performance of store. The researchers have found substantial returns to promotion and advertising, that showed considerable variation with regions following the patterns of urbanization and press readership. Criticism Certain objections can be made to the methodological approach adopted by the authors. The first objection is that advertising should ideally evaluate or… The author of the article, on which this annotation is based, made the research about factors, that determined British advertising’s golden age and the increase of national advertising expenditureIndustry-level research about the factors responsible for the expansion of advertising expenditure, links between the promotional media and press advertising, the varieties of strategies of advertising, and the returns to investment in the fields of promotion and advertising was scanty. That prompts the authors to elaborate on the subject in their own researchThis article has employed of a mix of both qualitative and quantitative archival data to study the methods of promotion of the department stores in interwar Britain, alterations in the promotional mix across the various kinds of store, and the reversion to activities of promotion.The interesting thing about this article is that it draws on archival evidence as well as a comprehensive dataset of the department store operating expenditures that evaluate the different strategies of publicity that are used by the department stores in Britain.Promotional activity drew the customers into large central premises, thus helping the department stores fend off competition. The authors have identified a lot of diversity in the weightings of the activities among establishments and the existence of regional differences.Certain objections can be made to the methodological approach adopted by the authors. However, the points of criticism have been considered by the authors and they have provided suitable justifications for them in the article
It was found that in spite of cultural influence from the West, kimchi is still an inseparable part of Korean lifestyle. Also, Korean people’s love for kimchi is not just limited to the craving of their palate, but has extended to their emotions, mind and core of their being. The research revealed that food is not only the source of nutrients and energy, but is also a source of emotional bonding with one’s family, culture and nation. Introduction Food is one of the most important aspects of human culture. One can understand the core of person’s culture through the food he eats as cultural identity is strongly symbolized in food (Kittler and Sucher 4). Hence, throughout the world, festivals specific to different cultures are celebrated by preparing different dishes. For example, American family prepares Turkey during Thanksgiving. However, the Italian American families combine an Italian dish of Raviolis with Turkeys and Mexican-Americans combine Mexican dish of Tamales with their Turkey (Kittler and Sucher 4). In this way, people follow their own food habits even if they are living in foreign countries. This is because human being learns to affiliate his cultural identity with food right from his childhood (Kittler and Sucher 4). People are emotionally bonded to their culture and their nation through food. Hence, this paper aims at understanding the essence of association between the cultural values and a particular favorite dish. The dish that this paper aims to research is the national favorite of Korean people, known as ‘kimchi.’ Kimchi is not just ‘food’ for Korean people, but it is a symbol of ancestral love, history, culture and family bonding. Hence, kimchi is known to contain not only the nutritional values, but also the spirit and essence of Koreans, and hence, is an inseparable part of Korean culture. History Kimchi is part of Korean people’s lives and culture since immemorial times. The historical references to early forms of kimchi can be traced back to year 681 CE, when kimchi was served as a part of great wedding feast held by king Shunmun, who ruled the country between 681 to 691CE (Gannon and Pillai 126). However, it is understood that kimchi was created by Koreans out of necessity due to environmental and social situations (Gannon and Pillai 126). Due to lack of natural resources, it was difficult for a small country like Korea to grow fresh vegetables during winter season (Gannon and Pillai 126). Moreover, growing vegetables was also more difficult because the winters are very long in Korea (Gannon and Pillai 126). Hence, the Korean families used to gather the vegetable resources for winter by spending weeks in harvesting crops during the fall season (Gannon and Pillai 127). To ensure the adequate provision of vegetables for the family in the winter season, Korean people used to pickle the vegetables in salt solution, with additional spices added for taste, in order to ferment the vegetables and preserve them for consumption during the winter (Gannon and Pillai 127). This process of fermentation ensured food for family for whole year and helped them from starving in the winter season (Gannon and Pillai 127). The fermented vegetables came to be known as ‘Kimchi’. However, in the ancient times, the kimchi was made only by immersing vegetables in salt solution (Korean Kimchi n.d.). People started adding spices to their kimchi from around 12th century (Korean Kimchi
The customer services of Intercontinental Hotels are reviewed in this study. reference is made specifically to the level at which customer services in the specific organization meet customer expectations. the issue of customer service excellence becomes therefore a key element of this study. Intercontinental Hotels are one of the seven brands of Intercontinental Group, an organization that operates in about 100 countries worldwide (Intercontinental Group 2012 About us). the group hosts about 153 million guests annually (Intercontinental Group 2012 About us). Intercontinental Hotels was first established in 1946 (Intercontinental Hotels and Resorts 2012 History). in the decades that followed the firm achieved significant growth becoming the major competitor in the hospitality industry worldwide. Intercontinental Hotels, like the other brands of the Group, has developed many initiatives in order to achieve a customers services excellence. still, there points of the firm’s strategies that should be improved so that customer expectations are fully met, a fact that would lead to the standardization of the firm’s customer services excellence.Intercontinental Hotels is a leading firm in the global hospitality industry. The firm highly emphasizes on the quality of its customer services. in fact, the high quality of the customer services is considered as the key advantage of the organization towards its rival. In 2010, the firm ranked first in Stevie Awards for Sales and Customer Service (The Stevie Awards for Sales and Customer Service 2010). The firm is based on a particular strategy for ensuring the high quality of its customer services: a variety of rewards is provided to the firm’s members, the Priority Club Rewards. also, the firm’s members have the chance to Book with Advantage, to identify and attend a meeting or event developed in the firm’s venues, or to make use of the firm’s Affiliate Programme (Intercontinental Hotels and Resorts 2012 Strategic priorities).
One dilemma in surrogacy is the determination of parenthood. Currently, family and parenthood are defined biologically instead of social terms. This brings an issue in when determining who the legal parents of the child are, mainly between the surrogate mother and the social or foster parents of the child. In some countries like Australia, the law identifies the surrogate mother of a child as its legal mother and any surrogate arrangements that transfer custody of the child to others is rendered void. This brings issues especially if the surrogate mother had offered the services as commercial surrogacy and later claims the child (Tuininga, 240). The issue of parenthood arises because of the fact that the commissioning parents consider themselves to be the real parents of the child because their chromosomes were used. The surrogate mother can also claim parenthood because their biological components were used. (Tuininga, 240). This is even more serious were gestation was absent in the commissioning mother and hence the surrogate mother has some genetic relationship with the child. Temana (1108) observes that surrogate mothers normally try to maintain close and intimate relationship with the social parents of the child and this could put those marriages at risk of breaking. Zimmerman (123) states that there is also a high tendency that surrogacy makes problems underlying a marriage to surface for example, it brings into light infertility problem in one of the couple. (Tuininga, 240)…. gate mothers normally try to maintain close and intimate relationship with the social parents of the child and this could put those marriages at risk of breaking. Zimmerman (123) states that there is also a high tendency that surrogacy makes problems underlying a marriage to surface for example, it brings into light infertility problem in one of the couple. Ragone (201) states that he commissioning parents go through a complicated process in order to adopt the child they wanted despite the fact that they could have paid heavily to have the child born and that one of them, mostly the father, could be the genetic father of the child. This is because in surrogacy, the father or both parents donate gametes that will be transferred clinically to the surrogate mother. Ironically, the law does not recognize them as the legal parents of the born child despite the fact that this child might not have any genetic relationship with the surrogate mother. One dilemma that emerges in surrogacy is that others do not accept it yet it is a healthy way of creating human life as compared to other methods like cloning. History In Australia, all forms of surrogacy were considered to be illegal and all states passed laws to make this a criminal offense. However, things have changed over the recent years. According to the Lawyers and Legal Services Australia (1), altruistic surrogacy has recently been legalized and this has been done in all Australia states, except for the state of Tasmania. However, commercial surrogacy is still considered by the law to be a criminal offense. These changes in the history of surrogacy in Australia were made possible by the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act 2008. This Act changed the legality of altruistic surrogacy from 1st January, 2010. In its part,
He attempted to affirm some of the mysteries of Christianity by giving explanations. He was operating from a starting point based on faith. To endorse his Christian dogma he adopted the platonic principles. Augustine believed that genuine insight does not solely come from a man’s brainpower but by divine intervention. One of the enigmas that Augustine spoke of was the notion of god and free will. He asserted that God is beyond time as he exists upon an eternal realm where time is meaningless. there is neither past nor future, just the eternal present. According to God this is his natural taste and he does not control our free will. Augustine further espoused that evil is a reflection of the absence of good in response as to why bad prevails if God who is perfected created this world. Today many agree on his concepts while quite a number are on the contrary. According, to men and women of faith, we all have the free will to embrace the light, and we can also choose to embrace darkness and swallow whatever comes with it and descend into an abyss of pain. According to Augustine sin is a terrible void and it is only through faith that we can be saved by God’s grace (Procopius 89). Procopius wrote a book on the ‘secret history which was only published after his death. He is the most important source of data about the reign of emperor Justinian and his wife Theodora.it is probable to assert that history is an achievement made possible by great women and men, this may be arguably true in the case of Justinian because it would never happened as it did were it not for the failures of Justinian. His ill-conceived western venture resulted to an absolute split between the westerners and eastern romans. He would later fail to reunite the Roman Empire as the previous leaders had attempted to do. His reign weakened the eastern empire and strengthened the Persians setting a war that would devastatingly weaken the eastern empire so much that Islamic spread was limited. Finally he overthrew the western Germanic governments that were trying to preserve as much of the roman imperial civilization as possible. Indirectly, this generally led to the rise of the medieval church (Augustn 17). The rule of St. Benedict is a foundation piece spirituality of the monastic people in the western world. It was founded in the middle ages for communities to adapt it. It is claimed that they were the main educators in Europe. The rule is about community living originally written for men who want to be monks. The rule is still a profound inspiration for today’s monastic movements. The rule establishes a culture that depicts life rooted in the gospel and in spiritual principles of charity where a monk is always ready to help as he may, humility. where a monk is said to be humble and finds joy and humor in his humility and that he shows humility to everyone he comes across with the head bent and eyes fixed on the ground he thinks of all the sins done and imagines his guilt before the presence of god., stability where he viewed working as a prayer. This gave much insight to the slaves during this period. He asserted that one’s body pays not only in the act of kneeling down at the alter but it’s also praying by working and sweating it out in the field to get your daily bread and faithfulness where a monk should remain true to himself and true to his maker because
Among them, Kurds constitute the prominent group as the world’s most numerous people without a homeland. Kurds’ sovereignty has been the bone of contention in the Middle East over several decades between various interest groups including Turks and Arabs and also Britain, France, and US all with their own oil interests over the Northern Iraq, the autonomous region of Kurds. Given below is the list of some relevant sources which could give extensive information on the issue. 1. Gunter, Michael M. KURDS: The state and kurds in turkey: The question of assimilation.The Middle East Journal,(2008) 62(2): 344-346. This article is a very good secondary source that closely reviews the findings of Metin Heper, a distinguished Turkish professor of politics who has recently joined the intellectual debate over the Kurdish issue in Turkey. According to Gunter (2008), the basic theme of Heper’s book is that the Turkish Republic has not sought to promote Turkish ethnic nationalism that would assimilate its ethnic Kurdish population. Heper also points out that the Turkish stance on the issue that is ignoring the distinctiveness of Kurds’ ethnicity has been deliberate. However, Gunter points some aspects that Heper omitted in his book. For instance, the fact that the Kurds came late to the idea of their Kurd-ish identity superseding their Ottoman and Islamic identity cannot be undermined. Gunter refers to Hakan Ozoglu who has documented this idea in his book Kurdish Notables and the ottoman State: Evolving Identities. Besides, Gunter identifies several other areas where Heper flawed. As the author points out, Heper simply maintains that Turkey has been convincing itself that it did not try to assimilate the Kurds forcefully but only ‘tried to prevent their de-acculturation’. Altogether, Gunter makes a critical evaluation of Heper’s findings on the Turkish position on Kurdish issues. Undoubtedly, the review helps one to reflect on the multiple facets of the debate over Kurds’ nationalism instead of simply agreeing with the arguments raised by authors like Heper. 2. Olson, Robert. KURDS: Kurdish notables and the ottoman state: Evolving identities, competing loyalties, and shifting boundaries.The Middle East Journal,(2004) 58(2): 305-307. Olson’s review of Ozoglu’s work KURDS: Kurdish Notables and the Ottoman State: Evolving Identities is unique for its detailed description on the nature and origin of the Kurdish nationalism. The writer closely analyses the process of the evolvement of the modern states in terms of socio-political context and the extent to which they have assimilated the concept of ethno-nationalism and cultural identity. The book actually maintains a very different opinion about the Kurdish movement as compared to the ones proposed by Heper. According to the book, there was no Kurdish protonationalism in the late 19th century and in the early 20th century up to the end of WWII. Olson’s review makes the concept of Ozoglu much easier for researchers as he analyses the author’s arguments chapter by chapter giving specific focus to the way Kurdish nationalism is addressed in them. 3. Romano, David. KURDS-kurdish politics in the middle east.The Middle East Journal,(2010) 64(2): 311-312. This is another brilliant book review by Romano on the great work of Entessar (2010) Kurdish Politics in the Middle East. The reviewer has highlighted the author’s ability to simplify the complex and unseen aspects of the Kurdish issue. The book has gone very deep into the actual problems of the population including the Kurdish history and politics other than giving
Rather, it is said that liberalism thrives on the wings of security rather than liberty and that if the people are guaranteed of their security, they can champion the possibility of liberalism.The second issue, on the other hand, happens to be a more tangible and practical phenomenon that happens to be with us as a people on a constant basis. This is the issue of natural disasters and how the country has often been taken unawares by the magnitude and breadth of these natural disasters. In the news item, there is a reflection on one of the major hurricanes that was recorded in the history of the United States and this was Hurricane Katrina. Generally, there are questions about the role that the security professional can play in risk mitigation associated with such natural disasters. Arguing that the mere identification of the disasters and the warning of citizens to stay off are not enough, detailed remarks are given on how the issue impacts security operations and how it can be handled well in future.On the issue of balance between liberty and security, there can be several implications drawn on the impact that it has on security operations, though this contemporary issue is highly academic. In the first place, the vivid realization that the very liberties and freedoms of the people rest with the degree of security they have implies that security operations hold, and is responsible for the fundamental protection of the practice of liberalism in the country. If this is so, then there is the need to equip the security forces, and for that matter the security professional with adequate contingency preparations that will ensure that they are able to give maximum protection to the liberties of the collective people of the country. By this, an advocacy for people-centered security operations is admonished.
According to the research findings, it can, therefore, be said that as one of the most significant conflicts in modern human history, the Cold War was marked by high expectations of conflict and violence, as well as continuous detailed planning and mobilization for war by the USSR, the US, and their respective allies. Over the course of the Cold War, hegemonic relations and alliances around the US and the USSR incorporated most of the free world with both countries occupying opposite and confrontational positions on most international issues. As a result, countries in the sphere of each hegemon were always in a state of military readiness and the risk of war was ever-present. Indeed, the most bloody post-WWII wars were fought by proxies of the USSR and the US, including the Korean War and the Vietnam War. With the end of the Cold War in 1991, however, global conflicts did not decline and, in fact, there were over 115 violent conflicts reported in the first ten years of the post-Cold War period. Gray states that while some aspects of war have changed since the end of the Cold War, the objective nature of war has remained unchanged even as the subjective nature of war has changed. Deutsch also notes that war has not dissipated with the fall of the Soviet Union, but has only changed in terms of strategy and symmetry. This paper aims to show that the end of the Cold War altered the security policy of the US by replacing a conventional military adversary with a more mobile and asymmetrical adversary. Newman broadly defines the Cold War as the relationship that developed between the USSR and the US following their joint triumph against Nazi Germany in WWII. The unique nature of this relationship came to dominate international affairs for almost five decades and led to several major crises like the Hungarian revolution, the Vietnam War, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Korean War, and the Soviet-Afghan War. Possibly the tensest issue was the proliferation of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction in preparation for eventual war.
However, the deployment of the change-fostering process improves the company’s ability to change and improves the level of change, both in the present and the future. The Toyota Motors company has employed crucial company and business changes, including the diversification of the company’s production at 26 countries – where the brands produced are differentiated. In effect, the company’s business outlook is highly innovative. This paper will diagnose the Toyota Company, so as to expose the needs for change, and then discuss a plan for organizational transformation, utilizing Kottler’s 8-step approach. Company Overview of Toyota Motors The Toyota Motor Corporation is a Japanese, global automaker. The company is headquartered at Aichi in Japan. As of 2010, the company had 300,734 employees, across its areas of operation. The Toyota Company was the third-largest automaker in 2011, in terms of the levels of production, after the Volkswagen group and General Motors (GM). The Toyota Motors Corporation ranks at eleventh position globally, in terms of the revenues realized. As of 2012, Toyota Motors reported that it had produced its 200-millionth unit (vehicle) during its history in auto making (Toyota Motors, 2013). The company was started by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937, after the production of the Type A engine during 1934 while still a department of the parent company, Toyota industries. The Toyota group owns the Scion brand, Daihatsu, Lexus and Hino Motors, together with other non-automaker companies. The company offers a wide range of vehicle models, ranging from mini cars to large trucks. The company’s global sales for its different auto companies totaled 6.78 million in 2003 (Toyota Motors, 2013). Diagnosis of need for Change at Toyota Motors Leading and causing change entails leading the people within a company, towards the realization of a specific modification in the affairs and the processes employed at the organization. The process of change can be exceptionally quick and straightforward. In this case, the change process can also be time consuming and immensely complex. These facts lead to the conclusion of Paton and McCalman (2000) that the managers of change at any organization should deploy the change process through the following chain of stages. Figure 1: The Change Process in an Organization by Paton and McCalman (2000) One area of change that can be identified for Toyota Motors draws from the company’s innovation to develop more eco-friendly and fuel-economical engine models. The innovation was a major success, as it placed the company among the top players in the auto making industry, in the areas of perceived sensitivity of fuel efficiency, increasing driving performance and in response to environmental responsibility demands (Tabuchi, 2009). The innovative car’s drive train system was launched by the company in 2004, and the company enjoyed the success of the technology for more than five years, but was not dynamic enough to employ the technology in the development of all their car models (Tabuchi, 2009). This successful area of technology points out the need to capitalize on the hybrid technology, throughout the production of all the vehicles produced by the company. However, that has not been the case. Therefore, this is one area of change that will improve the quality of the vehicles of the company. It will increase the
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA), Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) etc are some of the regional trade blocs formed to exploit the opportunities of globalization. This paper focuses more on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) to analyze the impacts of these trade blocs on globalization. Impacts of globalization on political and economic systems The history and formation of the trade bloc Since the mid-1980s there has been a profound change in the structure of the international economy due to the widespread growth and internal enhancement of regional trading blocs in all parts of the globe. The World Trade Organization (WTO), for example, notes that almost all of its 134 members are signatories to regional trade agreements with other countries. As of February 1999 the GATT/WTO has been notified of 184 regional trade agreements of which 109 are currently in effect. These regional trade groups, according to Fred Bergsten of the Institute for International Economics, account for approximately 60 percent of world trade. The United States, Mexico, and Canada created a free-trade area (NAFTA) that became effective in January 1994 (Reardon et al, 2002) NAFTA has proposals to expand the size of this trade bloc to the entire American continent. Same way, Agreement on South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) was formed on January 6, 2004 at Islamabad, Pakistan during the 12th SAARC summit. The members of this trade bloc are Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. The role that the countries involved in the trade bloc play in the global economy Regional trade blocs have the effect of lessening trade restrictions between members, while increasing or standardizing trade restrictions for non-members. In terms of worldwide trade, the net effect is arguable (Reardon et al, 2002). One of the major barriers in increasing trade activities between different countries before the entry of globalization was the governmental trade restrictions imposed by countries. Globalization has brought the concept of free trade between countries and many of the countries which implemented globalization started liberalize the governmental restrictions on trade activities between countries. American economy has the ability to affect the entire global economy. Any fluctuations taking place in American economy is watched with lot of concerns by other countries because of the increasing interdependence of global economy and the trade activities many of the global countries have with America. However, most of these liberalizations of trade rules between countries were taken place between countries which have warm relationships. Countries in the same region with political and economic problems between them have failed to liberalize trade rules. Such problems created more problems to other countries also in doing free trade activities. For example, India and Pakistan are enemy countries and their enmity created problems in signing an agreement between Iran and India in establishing a gas pipe line from Iran to India through Pakistan. However, the formation of SAFTA helped these enemy countries to assemble under one umbrella and currently the problems in establishing the gas line is going to be solved amicably. In short, countries started to realize that the
(Moorad Choudhry, 2004) Theoretically, credit derivatives make a new class of assets made to trade default risk on a range of maturity without a collateral constraint. However, the potential efficiency benefits of credit derivatives are being reduced by lack of liquidity globally, the repo market use in hedging and the lack of secondary markets. The pricing of these instruments is affected by factors such as the option to deliver the cheapest bond and liquidity. In addition, emanating from lack of arbitrage, the rate of repo and bond over libor spread can be utilizedd to price the default swap. (Romain G Ranciere, 2002) In relatively short time, the credit derivative markets have grown, becoming a key component of capital markets and embracing a wide range of participants. They form an important part of the corporate bond market used for hedging and speculative purposes. Credit derivatives are ‘over the counter’ (OTC) instruments and therefore, very flexible. they can be specifically made to suit individual needs and can be used for a wide range of applications. These OTC instruments have a number of advantages such as their ability to be tailor made to suit specific requirements, their ability to isolate the underlying loan or bond from certain aspects of credit risk and their ability to be used by the banks in business restructuring as they allow these banks to parcel out credit risk while retrieving assets on the balance sheet. The three most common credit derivative instruments are credit default swaps, total return swaps, and credit-linked notes. The credit derivatives market share in the corporate sector is estimated at 80 percent and is essentially made up of high yield fixed income market in developed economies. Ironically, the credit derivatives upon upcoming sovereign bonds form the remaining 20 percent. (Moorad choudhry, 2004) BRIEF HISTORY OF CREDIT DERIVATIVES. Although since 1975 credit instruments were operating, it is in the year 1996 that credit derivative markets really started. This came from financial institutions’ held concern about credit risk exposure regarding them. At that moment, the credit derivatives markets started being viewed as a compliment to the loan securitization markets. Quickly, the credit derivatives’ markets developed solely and simply became an important place to hedge as well as take credit risks on sovereign and corporate debts alike. During the crisis in Asia, from july of 1997, the emerging credit markets made a break in forward surge. The markets were slowed down by the absence of standardized documentation until 1999, when the International Swap and Derivatives Association (SDA) credit derivatives definitions were published, though. In year 1998, during which year the Russian nation bond defaults started. Credit derivatives markets were again triggered although some legal documentation problems were highlighted. However, the 1999 ISDA definitions reduced the causes of legal disputes. It is during that period of time that the year 1999 Ecuador-quasi voluntary bond exchange was put under recognition as a credit event. It is also at some time later that the investment markets agreed that the 2000 Argentina debt swap did not constitute a credit event. The Argentina turmoil of 2001
The rage between Achilles, the bravest of all, and Agamemnon, the powerful king among the Achaean allies prompted the Achilles to persuade her mother, Thetis, to intervene. She was an influential figure with the Zeus to bequeath the king of gods to inflict defeat and suffering on the Achaeans, so as to ruin Agamemnon. In this context, the comparison of the two is a reflection of the Persian wars, a time of incredible upheavals for the Greece (McDonald 90). The strife and standoff in between is a correspondence of city-states who fought against disheartening odds to preserve their autonomy and mortality. In affirming their mortality, the wars expose the expected tragedy as set along with striking lines. The quest of the two mothers (Attosa and Thetis) to grand their sons (Xerxes and Achilles) their rightful ego in the tumultuous year of the Persian invasion illustrates the evaluation. The events of Thetis to make Achilles immortal by holding him close to fire as an infant every night was to burn away the mortal parts as well as to rub him with ambrosia at the time (Philostrate et al 103). The acts of Attosa depict the return of bedraggled Xerxes to his royal court. This is the replica of Thetis. She inclines into consulting even gods for the sake of his son, Achilles. The mothers present dramatic acts in laying down a final coup to safe their status’ destiny. … The fact that each of these royal sons could only turn to their mothers to secure their political status beats the logic. Does it mean they could not reclaim their statuses? For example, the image of Persians as cowards is seen through the cowardly acting and melodramatic personality of Xerxes. An instance when he wails loud and tears his clothes is certain. There is also an indicative sign of the social and opinionated realities of the time. Much of the decision made by royal has less to do with what consequences will befall their people and this is what exactly the two sides extent to the immediate society they live. They present to one the certainties of the unknown knowledge of the Persians culture and customers. How these royal families operate is what has gone through many theatres of the time as highlighting a residual sense of fear that required some public exorcism of ridicule (McDonald 65). For example, there is an attempt to incorporate the Persian gods and customs. The depiction in the action of the mothers in deciding the destiny of their sons is that the gods were part of their reality. The standing fact is that Greeks did not know quite enough about the Persians rather than the grossly distorted caricatures of the time. This prompted unending discord to save each other’s autonomy and mortality (Philostrate et al 64). As history would reveal, the historical context stands to share that Persians, Greece had only met through war, and the danger of the strife is how it could not provide the basis for cultural exchange. This explains why the Persian nobles like Attosa and Thetis have to cry to Zeus. For example, Attosa offers libations to the dead ones and proprietary gifts to the gods in impression of Greek customs. At
It emerged as a city of opportunities and soon in the 1850s nearly 100,000 immigrants came to the city and by the year 1870 it had a population of 300,000.When Chicago became a city, the houses built were mostly made out of wood, there were close-knit wooden houses along the streets. The city only had one water station for the entire population that was constantly growing. Concerning the situation the city trustees expressed the need for a fire department, however, the city’s fire insurance remained haphazard and nearly 900 houses were wooden. Another destructive cause of the Chicago fires was their inexperienced and untrained firefighters working under the volunteer fire departments. In the year 1855, Chicago got its first fire alarm system and it divided the city into six districts, the first official fire department in the city was established in 1858. Between this period of 1858 and 1871 the city experience about 3,700 fires out of which eight were major ones. By the year 1871, Chicago had experienced great expansion and constituted of nearly 60, 000 building out of which 90% were made out of wood moreover. it had wooden streets, side-walks, the wooden industry in the center and the lumber yards that churned the fire (Cowan, 2001).The weather conditions had been quite rough too as there were only two and a half inches of rain in the city in the period from July 3 to October 9, 1871. On average the city experienced about two fires everyday which had been going on for the past year and there were 20 fires in the last week. The fire department was understaffed and it constantly complained about the inadequate equipment which included only 17 steamers and only four ladder and hooks (The Great Chicago Fire).On 8th October 1871, between 8:30 pm to 10:30 pm, Chicago was struck by the most devastating fire of the 19th century in the history of America.
f. How was the program initially funded? Have there been major changes in the funding of the program? g. What is the effect of the program on targeted population today? h. What is the effect of the establishment of this program on human services workers? The History, Background, and Issues of the Establishment of the Social Security Program a. What was the problem/s or needs that the program sought to address? Target population? According to Achenbuam (1986), Social Security Program had first started in the 1930s during the period of Great Depression where the old – aged citizens had experienced more than a half higher level of poverty rates. In this regard, the program was implemented as a form of social insurance to address the needs of the old – aged citizens of America through a creation of assistance and system of benefits to be given among the old – aged workers as well as their families (Kollman and Solomon – Fears, 2001). Benefits were given to the retirees and even the individuals who were laid off from their jobs (Achenbuam, 1986). In times of deaths, this program had provided a lump – sum benefit (Achenbuam, 1986). … ation (SSA) (2000) Frances Perkins, the Secretary of Labor who was the Chairwoman of Committee on Economic Security proposed and supported the establishment of the program. Other committee members who supported Social Security were the Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, Jr.. Secretary of Agriculture, Henry A. Wallace. Attorney General Homer S. Cummings. and Federal Emergency Relief Harry L. Hopkins (SSA, 2000). On the one hand, a senator from Oklahoma disagreed and questioned the said program (Altman, 2009). c. What were the arguments in FAVOR of the program and AGAINST the program? According to Achenbaum (1986), those in favor of the Social Security contended the advantages of the program. First, the needs of the old age in their retirement were addressed through benefits and assistance. It was seen as an encouragement for the retirement of the old – aged workers. This had created new job opportunities for the younger individuals. Thus, the unemployment rate would be lower. On the one hand, those who were in opposition to the program, particularly the Senator from Oklahoma argued that it was a form of socialism (Altman, 2009). Also, it was the case that it had excluded the minority groups including women. The minorities and women were not receiving unemployment insurance as well as the pensions given to the old – aged citizens (Mink, 1995). Social Security Act of 1935 was regarded to be discriminatory. d .What are significant dates in the establishment of the program and of major changes in the program?According to Social Security Administration (2004), as initiated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Committee on Economic Security (CES) was created in 1934. The task of this committee is to study the necessities of the old age. In this regard, CES
Therefore, this paper focuses on whether bank bailouts are good or bad to the economy. Focusing on the U.S government history of bank bailout, the Penn Central Railroad bank bailout in 1970 incurred $3.2 billion, while in 2008 the Trouble Asset Release Programme (TARP) emergency economic stabilization act made the government use $700 billion to bank bailout the banking sector from the mortgage crisis. Precisely, the bank bailouts were adopted as a way to save the economy from collapsing (Tully 2). The 2008 $700 billion Banks Bank bailout Analyzing the 2008 Trouble Asset Release Programme (TARP) emergency economic stabilization act, which saw $700 billion pumped to bank bailout the banking sector from the mortgage crisis was wrong(Rudebusch 272). The business owners had made a wrong choice in investing in the mortgages because they did not plan strategically for the future returns on their investment. Therefore, this implies that there is a high possibility of them failing to plan again, and the government stands a chance of losing the taxpayers’ money that it had invested in the business with expectation of getting good returns on interest (Graham 14). Clearly, the liquefied bank risks the bank bailout rescue plan. unless strong strategy plans and amendments are put in the business, which might not fail again. The executives of the banks are also the members of the treasury, and they stand to gain from the bank bailout. Possibly, it is their wrong decision that led to the company’s failure. In fact, the executive members and top management were meant to be punished instead of getting the rewards from the government. These are the same people who are the members of the treasury and the economic policy makers of the government. In fact, by bailing out the banking sector, the executive members reward themselves at the expense of tax payers. The government’s involvement in the bank bailout raises some disagreements on the prevailing free market economy systems that currently exist. Other stakeholders in the market raise issues why some sectors of economy are bailed out, while others are not. They see this as unfair practice because when they have financial downtime, they face it alone without any financial assistance from the government. Often, they find it hard to compete and survive in such an economic system. Like the national reserve, the government created a high liquidity with a financial policy plan that encourages people to access mortgages, which they could not initially afford. This has led to the fall of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which have negatively affected the economy (Rudebusch 246). The Federal Reserve Bank spent a lot of money, about $1.1 trillion on the financial institutions in exchange for the paper securities to inject into the banking system. And, the $700 billion Trouble Asset Release Programme (TARP) was added to the funds already circulated in the economy, five months before the Trouble Asset Release Programme (TARP). The $700 billion would be used on the paper worthless organizations with no possibility of good returns on the tax payers’ money. If the bank were to make money from the floated papers on the mortgage security, there would be no need for the government bank bailout. instead other enterprising institutions could have purchased those papers. But, it
There were also some social changes that were witnessed due to the movement. The strict and unbreakable rules that people struggled to live under were no longer there. Due to this, more freedom of expression and action resulted without restrictions. Daily life was transformed by the newly formed ideas. Women were now allowed to fight for their rights by the new ideology of feminist. this increased women’s social participation by a notable degree. Women could become business people aside from performing the usual house chores and taking care of the children. This brings us to the views of Laura Esquivel in her novel Like Water For Chocolate. The novel narrates a story of Tita, a young girl, who had been longing to marry Pedro, her only lover in her entire life. She could not achieve this because her mother was upholding a tradition of the family that the youngest daughter was supposed to take care of the mother and not marry. Tita could only express her grievances while cooking. Although the contemporary Mexico had accepted specific values of feminism as well as women’s agility, the country is still identified with male concepts dominating the society and the role of women. Through the application of the female language, Esquivel has significantly challenged the womanhood sentimental. She has taken the Mexican traditional way of looking at women and then turned it around the heads of the people. This has portrayed women by male characteristics predominantly and branded men a weaker sex. She demonstrates this in the manner in which the domesticity has managed to show that it is antithetical to homes. This does not matter whether it is merely… The history of feminism movement in Mexico The majority of women had the social and political commitments awakened. Even before the repression of the initial demonstration, some students already offered an opportunity of active participation to women in the social movement (Glenn 39). This paper seeks to discuss the feminist movement in Mexico and the nature of feminism in the novel Like Water For Chocolate by Laura Esquivel. The feminism grew stronger and started to spread. Government officials even made focus on the men who were in the movement and discounted the role that women played in the movement. The government made men their major target during the October 2, 1968, crackdown and left women behind. This was an opportunity for women to keep active the movement. There were various women who spearheaded the movement and gave women the opportunity to participate and keep the movement alive. Other feminists like Rosario Castellanos headed a domestic strike by women in the United States. Others like Carmen Landa gave practical examples of how the feminist movement could transform the lives of women. Mexican women have continued to fight in order to get their rights. They have done this to the extent that they assumed the roles of males, which resultantly led to their liberation. According to Laura Esquivel’s Like Water for Chocolate (1989), Mexico’s tradition demanded that Tita’s marriage was forbidden and that her responsibility was to take good care of her mother to her grave.
According to (A E television,2001) On September 11, 2001, at 8:45 a.m. on a clear Tuesday morning, an American Airlines Boeing 767 loaded with 20,000 gallons of jet fuel crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The terrorist attack was carried out by the Al – Qaeda militant head Osama bin Laden and it gave rise to harsh rivalry between America and Islamic radical group. Since then the most mind boggling historical event was the killing of Osama bin Laden by American militants. The radical leader who swayed American government and security of the nation was killed in a remote Pakistani residence. The terrorist leader was killed and submerged in the sea by the American government and this was a pivotal achievement for the American government. The terrorist attack on World Trade Centre was a moment of threat, danger and insecurity for America but with the killing of Osama bin laden, the country gained the confidence and approval of its citizen. Fear of attack The America in its history has never undergone such an attack where the nation lost many of its citizen and right of freedom to act or survive in a peaceful environment. The country was living in fear as the reality was frightening where anytime one could face death or injury without short notice. The smell of death was everywhere, people were scared to step out of house or attend work. They believed and were alerted that any unknown baggage or suspicious man could be a radical element which could denote bomb or explosive. Frankly speaking, America was a safe country and every citizen had the right to live in a peaceful environment. However, with this attack, the country was the least secure nation as the radical elements seared to destroy the nation at any cost. At the same time, the Islamic militants were rejoicing at their success of mutilating America. They believed the culture and strategy of America were to destroy other nation and Islam as the only true religion should abolish Christianity and their cultural practice. The Al – Qaeda which was formulated by Osama bin Laden for the protection of Muslims under attack by America grew to be a large organization which had branches worldwide. They trained suicide bombers and convinced them to fight for the religion. The rigorous religious practice and training give way to September 11 attack which gave joy and success to Osama led Al Qaeda group. According to (Baldor,2013) U.S. special operations forces who participated in the raid that killed Osama bin Laden were in uniform and wearing nametags during a CIA award ceremony attended by the writer of the film Zero Dark Thirty, a Pentagon inspector general’s report said Friday The politics of the event Everybody knows that America as a powerful nation want all countries at their feet. The country had been enemy to many developing nation s as they ruled according to their will and wants their counterparts at their subjugation. The country had a major hand in attacking Afghanis along with Russia. The Osama bin laden has many times confessed that this union of America with Russia has sparked vengeance in him against America. He declared that the Saudi chose him to be a representative to fight against atheist America and Russia. It is a fact that Russians and America as westerners wanted to destroy the solidarity and unity of the growing
Basically Christian understanding concerning the Trinity starts from the two elements, namely His essense and His acts, which are the way of functioning of the three Persons in the Trinity. Human beings thus far haven’t been able to have a frame of reference in order to explain the Mystery of Trinity and can never do that also. But only thing we can know is Logic cannot transcend divinity. If man’s knowledge is like a drop of water, then the knowledge of God would be like an ocean which transcends all limits. Thus we don’t have the eligibility, neither have we the capability to comprehend His mystery. His true entity no one can ever understand. Gregory of Nazianzen expresses God as, One God, One in diversity, diverse in Unity, wherein is a marvel (Second Theological Oration par. 1). We believe in His essence because we experience his energies. Rational bases even if are good, not always vital for stability of our faith. Still we have Scriptural resources, and historic theological literatures which definitely help us to grasp enough about the mystery of the Triune God. Only whatever is necessary for our finite understanding is revealed by God. In this paper, the writer would try to analyse how important the doctrine of Trinity is for the Christians, further looking through the historical development of the doctrine and the firmness of the doctrine in the minds of the Christians. IMPORTANCE OF THE DOCTRINE OF THE TRINITY: As we said at the outset, Christian faith balances upon the reality of God, His Triune existence. The doctrine elaborates the reality of God and explains the mysteries. It reveals God’s personality. It says that God is not simply a supernatural entity but He is a person with a personality. It brings into light the function of the Godhead in three streams- The Father, The Son, and The Holy Spirit, explaining their acts in history of humanity and the sole focus to redeem humanity from the clutches of sin and death. The Father, the first Person in the Godhead is the sender of the Son who came down to earth, sacrificing all the glory of the Heaven, to offer Himself as a vicarious sacrifice for the sins of the entire humanity. The Father reveals the grandeur of His love for humanity through His Son. The Son is the second Person in the Godhead Who alone was qualified to do the task. He finished His work of bringing redemption for man by defeating death and overpowering the effect of sin. Moreover He became an ideal for being obedient, which was the very mistake of Man that brought sin into the world. Holy Spirit is the third Person in the Godhead Who is the transformer of human heart by the planting of Christ into his/her life through penitence, making him/her return from sin. He guides a person in the spiritual journey in this life making the person more like Christ every day. Without the Holy Spirit, the redemption offered by Christ cannot be experienced fully. Redemption, therefore, in historic Christianity is initiated by the Father (Galatians 4:4), accomplished through the Son (1 Peter 3:18), and is applied by the Holy Spirit (Titus 3:5) (Samples par.3). Thus the whole process of redemption which is the core of God’s mission in this world is not feasible without the Trinity i.e. Father, Son and the Holy Spirit all together. Trinitarian concept of God also solves another problem. According to St. Augustine, only the God Who is united in His plural nature can be loving. Unless God is plural in Himself and is solitary, then the
Obstacles to the reform of the U.S. two-party system Obstacles to the reform of the U.S. two-party system While there have been some minor political parties, also referred to as third parties, in the history of the US, two distinct, competitive parties have exerted their dominance over the American party system. Starting with the Antifederalists and Federalists during the 1790s, the American party system has been characterized by two political parties, which have had the greatest chance of victory during national elections. As a matter of fact, since the Civil War, the American political scene has been dominated by two parties, the Republican and Democratic parties. According to Reichley (2000), as a result of the two-party system, all US presidents and nearly all Congressional members elected ever since the Civil War have been either Republicans or Democrats. While the two-party system has characterized US politics, it has not always symbolized the country’s politics. To some extent, the 19th century’s national two-party party system was the combination of one-party states. The statewide one party system started to decline in the 20th century, but Democrats sustained one-party supremacy in states in the Deep South until the 1960s and 1970s. Since the emergence of the two-party system, efforts to reform the system have been met with substantial obstacles (Reichley, 2000). The purpose of this paper is to examine the history of reforms to the two-party system, discussing the key obstacles that have impeded these reforms to date. On a few occasions, states have had three-party systems for brief periods. For instance, states such as Minnesota, North Dakota and Wisconsin integrated a political party from the Progressive movement into the party systems in the 1930s and 40s. During the 1990s and early 2000s, numerous third-party presidential candidates such as Ross Perot, Pat Buchanan from the Reform Party and the Green Party’s Ralph Nader challenged Republican and Democratic candidates with minimal success (Reichley, 2000). History indicates that reforms of the American two-party system have largely been unsuccessful as a result of the relative nonexistence of irreconcilable differences in the American electorate regarding fundamental economic, social and political institutions. In addition, reforms to the two-party system have largely been impeded by the lack of electoral rewards for minor parties, which play a role in the country’s party system. The tradition of plurality elections from one-member constituencies and that of one elected executive provide few chances of victory, as well as rewards, to parties unable to muster this plurality. Lowi (Lowi Romance, 1998) argues that the incapacity of existing parties to offer sufficient representation for the diverse country is one of the clearest obstacles to reforms of the two-party system. Romance (Lowi Romance, 1998) counters by poising that the two-party system is essential for the unification of a divided country and educates Americans regarding the compromises needed to sustain a democratic government. It is perceptions such as Romance’s that deter reforms of the two-party system as people have grown complacent to the system and consider it as essential for the sustenance of the American society. Byrne Edsall (1992) argue that the establishment of a three-party system in American politics was curtailed by the Republican revolution of the 1980s, which exemplified Republicans and Democrats as the only relevant parties in American politics. Social and political perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the two-party system have curtailed the achievement of reforms of the system. Since the two main parties. Republican and Democratic parties, have been associated with having different stances on issues affecting the society, people have not seen the need for additional parties since both perspectives regarding an issue are covered by the two parties. For instance, if one party endorses the increase of taxes and another decries it, people typically do not see the need for another party offering an alternative opinion. On the other hand, according to Piven Cloward (2000) another obstacle to the reforms of the two-party system is the fact that Americans typically take for granted that the American political system is a model of democracy, which would acknowledge any third party that arises. People have grown so accustomed to having two parties battling for national leadership that they do not appreciate the rights of other parties to join the political arena in seeking office and national leadership. In conclusion, the American political arena will continue to be characterized by two-party rule if the articulated obstacles are not tackled. Piven Cloward (2000) draw compelling parallels that reveal that neither of the two major parties has attempted to appeal to the welfare, as well as interests, of new registered parties. As a consequence, Americans have continued to shun the voting process thus giving power to the existing parties and subtracting from the welfare of newly registered parties. References Byrne, E. T., Edsall, M. D. (1992). Chain reaction: The impact of race, rights, and taxes on American politics. New York: Norton. Lowi, T. J., Romance J. (1998). A republic of parties? Debating the two-party system. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield. Piven, F. F., Cloward, R. A. (2000). Why Americans still don’t vote: and why politicians want it that way. Boston: Beacon Press. Reichley, A. J. (2000). The life of the parties: A history of American political parties. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield.
In Brave New World, where because of a lack of serious human relationships, such as family, the issues are traditionally discussed more deeply do not take place and instead, there develops a type of society that is socially stagnant. While in the current world, the individuals get to have a better understanding of the issues being discussed because of regular interaction, in Brave New World, the opposite turns out to be true because of the fact that human beings, during the future age, are not conditioned to act independently of each other. The events which are described in Brave New World, such as the establishment of a breeding program involving different castes of human beings, is not similar to those in 1984. This is because of the fact that in the latter, human beings while being dominated by a single party whose purpose is to have absolute control of the society, has not attempted to alter humans physically (McGiveron 28). The main procedure used in gaining the absolute control and devotion among human beings is through the rewriting in history so that it is in the favor of the ruling party’s policies and objectives. Because the sources of history in the state described in 1984, known as Oca, are either vague or scarce in content, it creates a situation where individuals get only a shallow understanding of the subject matter. In 1984, it is seen that because of the destruction of history, knowledge has become static, not being able to grow as it should. In both of these books, those people who possess knowledge or items that contain knowledge of the independent human nature of the past are completely ostracized from society or are put to death because of their perceived threat to the societal order. This makes it extremely difficult for knowledge to be transmitted and the lack of this knowledge has made the people in the societies described in the books disillusioned with life. This is especially true in Brave New World, where individuals have been conditioned by the ruling elite, to consume a drug known as soma, which is a hallucinogen used to ensure that they do not worry about their troubles.
The Prairies for William Cullen Emily Dickinson and Walt Whitman were the first people to radically deviate from the long British artistic traditions by introducing important subjects affecting humanity into their poems( Galoway 724). In fact they tackled even the darkest secrets of their day like sexuality through the poems. As such, they are considered the founders of a unique American poetic voice. William Cullen Bryant also followed the same trend in most of his poems. In his poem, The Prairies he dwelt in the themes that were very relevant to the events of his time rather than the traditions. This paper is going to look at the major issues that William Cullen dealt with in the poem that gives it a distinctive American poetic voice. To begin with, Bryant appreciates the beautiful scenery in America. He vividly describes an ideal appearance of the prairies and its environs. The persona talks of. The unshorn fields, boundless and beautiful, For which the speech of England has no name— The Prairies. I behold them for the first, And my heart swells, while the dilated sight (Bryant 2-5) He goes further to state that Man hath no part in all this glorious work:/The hand that built the firmament hath heaved (Bryant 24-25). This implies that Bryant can only attribute this beautiful scenery to God since no man could have had a hand in it. These descriptions of nature shows that the poet was conversant with his environment and was proud of it. The poem reveals the original potential of America. The persona talks of the great potential that was seen by the first settlers who came to America from Europe. America would be agriculturally productive hence farming would be profitable there. Their ambition was to exploit the potential to make America as great as Europe or even greater. The persona says: These are the gardens of the Desert, these The unshorn fields, boundless and beautiful, For which the speech of England has no name— The Prairies. I behold them for the first, And my heart swells, while the dilated sight Takes in the encircling vastness. Lo! they stretch In airy undulations, far away,( Bryant 1-7) This came at a time when all the lands in Europe were locked up by the wealthy kings and lords so that there was no land left for anyone. In America, there was still a lot of productive land lying untouched. Similarly, Bryant reviles how nature operates. Although generations have gone by, nature has withstood the test of time. Despite the changes taking place like the rise and fall of cities, the buildings that are constructed and break down and the emergence and loss of languages, the flowers, trees, wind sun and ocean have always remained. Yawns by my path. The gopher mines the ground Where stood their swarming cities. All is gone— All—save the piles of earth that hold their bones— The platforms where they worshipped unknown gods Myriads of insects, gaudy as the flowers They flutter over, gentle quadrupeds, And birds, that scarce have learned the fear of man, Are here, and sliding reptiles of the ground, Startlingly beautiful. The graceful deer ( Bryant 65-68. 107-111) The poet also emphasizes the fact that the wonders of nature never changes. Instead, they keep on repeating themselves. This is what the persona implies when he says. ….All at once/A fresher wind sweeps by, and breaks my dream/ And I am in the wilderness alone Justas there was wind at the beginning of the poem, the wind comes yet again to show the recurrence of the wonders in nature. In the poem, the poet also reveals the scramble for the land in America by different races. The Indians first displaced the mound builders who were occupying part of Illinois. When the White settlers came, they again displaced the Indians from the place. …. The red man came—/The roaming hunter tribes, warlike and fierce,/And the mound-builders vanished from the earth.(60-62) Fills them, or is withdrawn Fills them, or is withdrawn. The red man, too, Has left the blooming wilds he ranged so long, And, nearer to the Rocky Mountains, sought A wilder hunting-ground. The beaver builds No longer by these streams, but far away, On waters whose blue surface ne’er gave back The white man’s face- among Missouri’s springs, And pools whose issues swell the ( Bryant 91-98). The repeated displacement of powerful races may imply that no matter how strong a group is it may finally be brought to its knees. The Indians were strong in America but the Europeans managed to displace them. Going by the above themes sampled from William Cullen Bryant’s poem The Prairies it is clear that the poem has a distinctive American poetic voice. The poem does not dwell in traditions but it focuses on the various issues that were of concern in America when it was written and even some current issues. Some of these issues include struggle for liberation, racial issues and racial discrimination and the American dream. ort which are central to both America and her history. Works Cited Bryant, William ,C.THE PRAIRIES. 1832. 29 April, 2011. Galloway, Andrew . William Cullen Bryant’s American Antiquities: Medievalism, Miscegenation, and Race in The Prairies. American Literary History, 22( 4), Winter 2010, 724-751 William Cullen Bryant Examines Nature. 123HelpMe.com. 29 Apr 2011.
Over the last years, these signatures and marks have evolved to be recognized in laws world wide. The history of the origins of trademarks started with the circulation of goods .most marks have been traced by scientists to be from roman and Egypt ancient potters of religious products. The origin o trademarks came about as a result of competition among the artists. The demand for artistic goods lead to competition for the products and the artists had to encrypt their products for an identity. In the tenth century, the marks found in the goods were known as merchants’ mark which included symbols that increased the significance of symbols among merchants and traders. The merchants’ mark came to be known as the proprietary marks that were used as a source of identification of ownership. As the trade continued the traders sought to use marks on their products to distinguish their high quality goods from low quality goods. The used of trademarks were common with the guilds who of the middle age so as to maintain and retain customers by winning their trust. The consumers used the trademarks to distinguish between characteristics of goods such as weight and materials. Later in the middle age the use of merchants’ marks became compulsory or as an obligation for the traders. The obligation marks were used in the middle age to mark low quality of goods enforced by the guilds. These obligatory marks in the middle age were known as responsibility or police marks to identify low quality products. In the modern world, trademarks have evolved on a different of platform as distinction and identification evolves. The modern trade marks are as a result of the owners will to identify his products. Although ancient products found in Rome and Egypt had symbols, it is difficult to classify these marks as trademarks. Trademarks have evolved with the development of society trade of goods. The circulation of goods of trade by the society has necessitated the identification of goods by individual as the trade gets bigger and bigger. The need to protect properties belonging to individuals has seen the development of laws to protect property. The law of trade marks can be seen as the law for the protection of intellectual properties. Smith (1997) argues that the cost of trademarks is disclosed rarely. However in many occasions an estimate is given to trademarks. If an organization purchases trademark, the purchase price is the cost of the trademark. The prices of the trademark vary from one trademark to the next regarding the reputation of a name. The value of a trade name or trademark .a trademark comes into existence upon registration of the trademark. Before a trademark is registered a search must be conducted so as to know that the there is no other search by that name. The search costs must be paid in order to protect the rights of the trademarks. The search can also be important in maintaining the protection of the trademark from imitations or fraudulent use of the trademark. The search can be done by a professional who will charge about one thousand to two thousand dollars. One of the most relevant costs of a trademark includes the legal costs and registration costs used in the registration of the trademark. (Carmichael Graham, 2011). The registration of trademarks varies from gods and services. A filling fee has to be paid upon the application of registration of a trademark. For example to
1). For reinforcements to effectively work, it was emphasized that students need to be deprived of whatever tool is planned to be used by educators as reinforcers. The crucial role of deprivation was initially thought of implied in early reinforcement theories, but as Bourbon disclosed, if a child has all of the attention he or she needs or wants, then a teacher cannot use attention to reinforce the child’s behavior. No deprivation, no control of behavior. No control of behavior, no discipline program (Bourbon: Deprivation and Positive Reinforcers, 1997, par. 6). Positive reinforcement was, therefore, defined as a process in which a stimulus is presented following a particular behavior, thereby strengthening that behavior. The stimulus is referred to as a ‘reinforcer’ and is roughly synonymous with the word ‘reward’ (JRank Articles, 2012, par. 2). Simply put, positive reinforcement is a process that educators could implement in teaching students to act in a particular way and rewarding the students for manifesting correct behavior. On the other hand, negative reinforcements were described as a process that involves the removal or reduction of a negative or unwanted stimulus after a behavior occurs, thereby strengthening that behavior. … For example, students who are assessed to be sensitive to loud noises or instructional materials that could distract their attention could be provided with more conducive and accommodating learning environments, such as sitting them away from noisy areas, providing quiet learning spaces, and even providing some students with earphones which minimize noises and distractions and assist in focusing on the activities at hand. Plan for Students with Emotional Disabilities 1. Problem Behavior: Student A is identified to manifest passive-aggressive behavior by seeking attention and intermittently expressing anger indirectly through the use of manipulative behavior such as exhibiting cruelties, stubborn refusals to cooperate, being excessively loud with violent tendencies or exhibiting passive listening and being always out of the student’s seat. 2. Possible Explanations: Lack of support from members of the nuclear family. demographic profile (cultural background, income level, social support). history of abuse or violence. trauma from past events. academic failure. peer pressure. frustration. 3. Replacement Behavior: to appropriately deal with passive-aggressive behavior by: (1) asking assistance from a teacher or peer when he feels maladjusted behavior. (2) he will focus on clearly defined positive learning goals to assist in developing optimistic perception in life. 4. Goals: to apply positive reinforcement through (a) assessing the signs of passive-aggressive behavior together with Student A. (2) to recognize that positive behavior would be exhibited by cooperative learning, active listening and focused attention to learning activities. (3) to realize that there are support groups (teachers, peers) who she can tap in cases where maladjusted behavior tends to
From warring tribes to states, humans have always been placed in a situation where we are forced to compete. Sports have been increasingly organized and regulated from the time of the ancient Olympics up to the present century. Industrialization has brought increased leisure time to the citizens of developed and developing countries, leading to more time for citizens to attend and follow spectator sports, greater participation in athletic activities, and increased accessibility. The creation of sports activities is merely a means of allowing individuals to externalize their need for competition. This paper focuses on the competition, the social impact, and the economic value that sports have on society. Competition is at the very core of humanity. This is visible at various levels of the individual life style. Capitalism as an economic structure identifies the fact that resources are finite, and individuals must compete to accumulate as much as possible. While history has shown that other ideas on how the economy should function exist, the market place of ideas crowned capitalism the king. Beyond the economic infrastructure is the educational system. Students strive to be at the top of their class which is indicative of how competition penetrated the educational system. Competition seems to creative an incentive to become perfect. In terms of sports, individuals who compete on sports teams strive to perfect their skills in attempts to be the league leaders. Fans recognize this and rally behind individuals and teams that perform close to perfection. Fans seem to disassociate their identities from their normative lives and self identify with the team that they represent. Whether because of their hometown loyalty or because of a player, fans involve themselves in the competition and immediate choose sides. The ability to exercise choice within the sports community allows individuals to capitalize on their innate compulsion for competition. At the heart of the competition between fans is the loyalty to a certain team. This makes the competitive nature more volatile. This is due to the fact that some teams are better than others and fans continue to jump bandwagons. While each individual possesses the innate compulsion to compete, they have an even harder drive to be a winner. In fact, this lies at the heart of the competitive spirit. Success has been psychologically attached to winning. The more successful a team, the better their fans feel. Individuals tend to make emotional investments into sporting events, whereby the outcome typically draws an emotional reaction from the fan. Beyond the competitive nature of sporting events lies the social component. While some individuals feel the obsessive need to be competitive, others attend events and watch games because it involves a social component. When attending stadium events with tens of thousands of other individuals in attendance it makes the actual experience more involved for the individuals. These events typically involve drinking and cheering which makes a great time for the fans. As Jean Jacques Rousseau explains, man is a social animal. This means that individuals are inclined to involve themselves in activities that allow them to socialize with their peers. This means that sporting events provide the perfect context. While this does position individuals to collaborate with their peers in cheering for the team of their choice, this does not always turn out to be so
Cultural diversity is a fundamental component of the world. The different countries of the world exhibit cultures that vary across local, regional, national, and international borders. One of the most important days celebrated by many countries across the world is the Independence Day. Countries that were colonized and thereafter gained independence treasure the day they became nationalized. In this respect, the nationalization of the UAE forms the basis upon which the National Day is celebrated in the country (Gavin, 2009, p.94).The celebration of the National Day in the UAE is an annual event that takes place on December 2. The celebrations mostly extend December 3, with the constituent emirates undertaking different activities to mark this day. Schools organize and engage in cultural activities, people decorate their homes, cars and other properties, and the constituent emirates hoist the national flag (Blackwell, 2009, p.72). All these events showcase UAE’s culture at its best. For this reason, the National Day in the UAE captured my interest.My colleagues, friends, family, and relatives have had a positive interaction with the UAE in terms her culture, tradition, and religious beliefs. The colleagues I interviewed maintained that they have learned so much about Muslims and their religion. Those that had no close interaction with Muslims before have had that chance, allowing them to identify cultural differences between them and the UAE community. To my family, friends, and relatives, the interview provided a platform where everybody shared what he/she knows about the UAE community.My research into the UAE’s National Day shows that UAE is culturally rich. All the emirates that make up the UAE maintain a unique culture that best describes their livelihood before and after independence (Walker Butler, 2010, p.280). The nationalization of the UAE in the year 1971 marked the unification of all the seven emirates. This was followed by the development of culture, tradition, and religious beliefs that are unique to the UAE fraternity. The National Day unifies the entire UAE population into a celebration that marks a critical step in the nation’s history. Through this event, I am in a better position to understand why the UAE culture is the way it is. Moreover, my integration into the culture is characterized by an understanding of what is expected of me relative to the culture, tradition, and religion that UAE holds so dear and essential. One can identify with the event with or without necessarily being a UAE national.In conclusion, I feel that the UAE, just like any other nation, reserves the right to celebrate one of the most important days in the country’s history. This day brings together locals and foreigners, allowing foreign populations to share in the culture, tradition, and religious beliefs observed in the UAE. The National Day in the UAE is informative and an interesting experience, due to the fact that it highlights the over-the-years progress that the country has made since its nationalization and unification of the seven emirates.AppendixReference ListBlackwell, A. H. (2009). Independence Days, London: Infobase Publishing.Gavin, T. (2009). Frommer’s Dubai and Abu Dhabi Day by Day, London: John Wiley Sons.Walker, J. Butler, S. (2010). Oman, UAE Arabian Peninsula 3, London: Lonely Planet.
The recent election of Jorge Mario Cardinal Bergoglia in 2013 as Pope Francis brings to 266 the total number of popes in the history of the Catholic Church. Pope Francis has therefore, served for less than a year. Nonetheless, this paper focuses on the papacy of Pope Francis, including the challenges he has faced since he was elected, as well as those that he might face in future. This paper also addresses key issues that surround the aspect of papacy in the Catholic Church, including papal infallibility, among others. Like other leaders, the popes of the Catholic Church have been faced with a plethora of challenges. However, each pope has addressed the challenges in their own distinct manner. Likewise, Pope Francis has not been an exception. According to the International Bulletin of Missionary Research (2013), since his election as a pope, he has already encountered different challenges, and is expected to face more challenges in future. Some of these challenges emanate from the church, and the pope is expected to provide a redress for them. Nonetheless, governance is one of the major challenges, which the pope has faced, and will continue to face in the future. Pope Francis, being a leader, has to make important decisions as far as governance is concerned. For instance, he had to appoint his secretary of state. This is a senior position, which is regarded second after the pope. Therefore, appointing a secretary requires the pope to have experience in the Curia, be strong-willed, and exhibit aspects of reform. On the contrast, Pope Francis is considered to have less experience in the Curia, and exhibits more pastoral than managerial capabilities (International Bulletin of Missionary Research, 2013). In addition, Pope Francis has to deal with the practical problems of the Catholic Church. The Catholic Church is big in size, thus faces different challenges in the form of social and economic issues, and doctrinal issues, among others. For instance, the pope has to deal with all the financial affairs of the Vatican, including the finances that goes out and comes into the church. In addition, Pope Francis has to address issues in the church, such as homosexuality, divorce, the position of women in the church, and abortion, among others. On the aspect of homosexuality, Pope Francis’ recent remarks about homosexuality have elicited considerable controversy. Although Pope Francis argued against judging gay people, but instead welcoming them to the church, these sentiments were welcomed with criticisms from those people, who feel that homosexuality in society should be condemned (Montoya, 2013). Overall, Pope Francis being a spiritual leader and a symbol of church unity, also faces the challenge of ensuring the stability of the Catholic Church. This includes him reaching out to the large number of secular Catholics and maintaining the relevancy of the Catholic Church. Throughout history, the Catholic Church has been implicated with different controversies, most of which have persisted even today. First, there is the common Catholic contraception controversy. Since the Catholic Church is known to be prolife, this advocates for the ban on contraception and abortion. This stand of the Catholic Church therefore, continues to result in a collision between religion and public health. This also hampers
They take up residence in an upper room of the house, thought to be a nursery, with bars on the windows and old faded yellow wallpaper attached to the walls. This wallpaper plays a large role in the progression of the woman’s illness as she begins to see women creeping around inside it, trying to escape the oppression they, too, have experienced. In the end, the woman is completely insane, creeping around the walls herself after peeling the wallpaper off as high as she can reach, even creeping over her husband, who has fainted against the wall, to continue her progress unimpeded. The story, an exaggerated account of an event from Gilman’s own life, stands as a statement against the male oppression of women experienced throughout much of history, but particularly as it was still experienced in the late 19th century when this story was written. In many ways, the story represents the extreme manifestations of what Betty Friedan calls ‘the problem that has no name’ in her 1963 novel The Feminine Mystique in that the woman of the story suffers from the same general malaise experienced by the women described in Friedan’s novel. Although many advances have been made on the part of women to explore their dreams, ‘the problem that has no name’ discussed by Friedan and illustrated by Gilman remains an issue as women continue to find, in an overly busy life trying to fulfill the needs of the entire family, little time to identify, much less pursue, their dreams and goals.The general feeling Friedan identifies in the voices of her contemporaries in the 1950s compares nearly point by point with that impression expressed in Gilman’s Yellow Wallpaper. Friedan calls it a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning that women suffered in the middle of the twentieth century in the United States. Each suburban wife struggled with it alone (Friedan, 1963).
Just 14 years after the founding of our nation in 1790, many changes were already in the works, and America had already been one year under its first President, George Washington, who served as a general against the British in the Revolutionary War. During the second of his eight years in office, the Bill of Rights was drafted (in 1791), adding 10 Amendments to the U.S. Constitution ? which outlined the freedoms enjoyed by citizens, including the freedom of speech, the freedom of religion, and the right to bear arms (Nussbaum 2006). Also during this term, the rivaling Federalist and Republican political parties were formed – the former pressing for a strong central government and banking system with good ties to England, with the latter wanting an economy based in agriculture with weakening ties to Great Britain (Ibid.). After the turn of the century, America continued to want to expand its borders, and made the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, paying France $15 million for 800,000 square miles of land from Louisiana to Montana, doubling the nation’s size (Klose and Jones 1994, 130). … This was followed by the Missouri Compromise of 1820, where the existing southern slave states agreed with the northern free states that Missouri would become a slave state if Maine became a free state (Nussbaum 2006). Just three years later, a treaty devised by President James Monroe, known as the Monroe Doctrine, was reached between the U.S. and European nations, where both sides agreed not to interfere with each other’s (including Spain’s) colonizing interests, guaranteeing safety to all (Klose and Jones 1994, 154). However, all conflict was not avoided, as Mexico’s General Santa Anna Stormed the Alamo in Texas and defeated American Colonel William Travis in a two-week battle in 1836, but the long battle gave the U.S. time to eventually defeat Santa Anna’s army in another showdown to make Texas independent and later become the 28th state (Nussbaum 2006). As populations swelled in the eastern U.S., European Americans sought to displace the occupying Indians in Georgia, and 7,000 troops forced 15,000 Cherokees to Oklahoma under grueling conditions in 1838 – an exodus known as the Trail of Tears, where 4,000 Native Americans perished (Ibid.). America was growing, and there was not much that could get in the way. This expansionist frenzy would stop no time soon. A concept known as Manifest Destiny soon became the term used to spread the belief that it was America’s fate to occupy and claim land across the continent, from coast to coast, and many routes ? including the Oregon, California, Mormon, and Santa Fe Trails ? were traveled during this time to inhabit the far west (Baker 2006, 7). This expansion was not uncontested, however, as the Mexican-American War ending in 1848 resulted in a costly victory – in money and casualties – for the U.S., which
(Kagame and his RPF were said to be the ones who ended the genocide) Later on, Kagame is elected as President and has ruled the country since March of 2000. Gourevitch recently wrote that Kagame has come to be recognized by his adversaries and his admirers alike, as one of the most formidable political figures of our age (cjr.org). A detailed report from the British Broadcasting Corp. (BBC) regarding the events in the run-up and during the April to July of 1994 provided the scale of the genocide in a straightforward lead: Between April and June of 1994, an estimated 800,000 Rwandans were killed in the space of 100 days (news.bbc.co.uk). The genocide all started from the assassination of Habyarimana and other officials when the airplane they had boarded was shot down above Kigali airport on 6 April 1994 (new.bbc.co.uk). By Kagame’s account, dissident Hutus were behind the killing of Habyarimana just to give excuse for Hutus and state forces to purge the Tutsis out of Rwanda. but a French judge has blamed Kagame. It is clear that several factors had phenomenally laid the groundwork for the horrible genocide to happen. Aside from the shooting down of Habyarimana’s plane, cases of violence–specifically between Hutus and Tutsis which are the two races in Rwanda–replete the torrid history of Rwanda. Ethnic tension in Rwanda is nothing new. There have been always disagreements between the majority Hutus and minority Tutsis (news.bbc.co.uk). Way back in 1916, Belgian colonists considered the Tutsis as superior. Tutsis stood tall and had had enjoyed better jobs and educational opportunities (news.bbc.co.uk) than the Hutus. It is the Hutus’ ethnic hatred towards the Tutsis which added more fuel in burning genocide. In the midst of the Rwandan genocide was Paul Rusesabagina, 56. A hotel manager of the Millie Collines, a luxury hotel in capital Kigali, Rusesabagina has saved many Tutsis from the armed Hutus. His actions transformed him into being an unlikely hero (nationalgeograophic.com). His story was filmed and premiered in Hollywood on the December of 2004 as Hotel Rwanda. Hotel Rwanda has revealed the daily struggles of Rusesabagina just to keep many Tutsis safe in the luxury hotel. It revealed the corrupted and disordered local politics in Rwanda. It has also shown the cowed response of the United Nations’ peacekeeping force in handling the situation. It has also revealed many impoverished families who mired in hunger and poverty. Ultimately, it is a success story on the part of Rusesabagina that despite of all the intimidations he’s been through, he successfully saved his neighbors and loved ones from the genocide. The UN is pretty straightforward in its campaign against genocide. Under the UN Agreements on Human Rights, it is stipulated that the convention bans acts committed with the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group (hrweb.org). It also declared that genocide itself, conspiracy or incitement to commit genocide, attempts to commit or complicity in the commission of genocide all to be illegal (hrweb.org). It is clear that the true intent of the convention is to straighten the fact that genocide is illegal thus deserves
Who are we to blame? This paper also seeks the answer why genocide happened? What are the causes why this phenomenon happened? And what will happen in the future? Is there a possibility that another war will arise? These are just few of the questions we want to find the answers in this paper. This paper will contain three major topics which includes the causes of World War I and World War II, Genocide, and the views of humanity’s future. The Causes of World War I and World War II There are a lot of reasons of assumed to cause the Great War. The causes of World War I could be summed up with the acronym MAIN (Buckley, 2011). This stands for Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism and Nationalism. On the outside, it can be said that Nationalism was the main cause of the war. This sparked when the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated by the Black Hand. Another cause of the First World War was Imperialism wherein countries such as France and England had flourishing economies due to their expansion and control of foreign resources (Buckley, 2011). Alliances also caused part of the World War I. The two opposing alliances developed by Bismarckian diplomacy after the Franco-Prussian War. The international tension was significantly increased by the division of Europe into two armed camps. The arms race or Militarism was another cause of the Great War. … But it is very important knowing the clash between the Communist and Fascist. Same with the First World War, nationalism and militarism also caused an increase in weapons and tensions. The most important cause of all was the Treaty of Versailles which should keep long-term peace after World War I but instead it blamed the countries responsible for starting the war and made them pay harshly (Buckley, 2011). The depression of the countries around the world also led to this new war. But wars are not the only thing that we should prevent. There are other crimes against humanity that our world are facing. Genocide Genocide is defined as the intentional extermination of a specific ethnic, racial or religious group (McMorran, Schultz, 2003). Compared to war, genocide is recognized as the most offensive crime. This goes as low as neighbour against neighbour or even husband against wife. Unlike war, where the attack is general and the object is often to have power over of a geographical or political region, genocide assaults an individual’s identity, and the object is control or complete elimination of a group of people (McMorran, Schultz, 2003). The causes of genocide are frequently connected with history. The development of stereotyping which includes ethnic and cultural distinctions of a group-in and group-out thinking formed identity groups. In a lot of regions, members of identity groups develop conflict prevention methods but sometimes some group are convinced that many of its problems are fault of another group and that these problems can only be prevented if they will kill the members of this group. And genocide happens. The Future of Humanity Given the problems above, we don’t know what will
In the past, the main of role of trained dogs was that that of sentries or patrols. But in modern warfare, dogs had been used the most tactfully. Though in post modern warfare, dogs’ role has mostly been replaced by modern technology, they played a crucial role in the US Army during the Second World War (Blumenstock pars. 2). After the attack on Pearl Harbor Navy Base in December 7, 1941, the US Army led a campaign to inspire the pet-owners to donate their dogs to the army-training camps. The US Army named this campaign as Dogs for Defense. In order to inspire the owner, they further claimed that the dogs would be trained to be accustomed into civil life after the war. Indeed, it was the beginning of the dog-squad in the US military. Subsequently, martial dog training programs were adopted and, in the meantime, a number of dog-training centers were established to facilitate the programs around the country (MWD History, pars. 2). Some of the dog-training centers were Gulfport, Fort Carson, Rimini, San Carlos, Fort Washington, Fort Riley, Fort Belvoir, Fort Robinson, Nebraska Camp, Beltsville, etc. During the Second World War, the US Army used dog to perform a number of risky as well as routine jobs. According to the types of breed and performance, the dogs were to be sled dogs, sentry, scouts, mine-detecting dogs, wire-layer, pack-pullers, and messenger dogs. The military training of a dog used to take 8-12 week to be fully trained. By late 1944, the Army selected about seven breeds of dogs to receive the highest performances in war-fields. Among these breeds were German Shepherd, Doberman Pinscher, Collie, Belgian Sheep dog, Eskimo, Alaskan Malamute, Siberian Husky, etc. During the Second World War, the German Shepherd was the most preferred choice in the army because of its courage, strong sense of responsibility, keen nose, strength, adaptability and trainability. Doberman Pinscher was second to German Shepherd in terms of strength, nervous power, speed, sensing power, and tractability. Collie and Belgian Sheep dogs were mainly used as messengers for their loyalty, alertness, endurance and agility. Muscular and sturdy breeds were generally used for pack-pull and wire-laying jobs. Alaskan Malamute, Eskimo and Siberian Husky belonged to this group. Among these three breeds, Siberian Husky was the most desired type because of their speed and endurance. During the war, the US dog-squad’s performance was surprising (Blumenstock pars. 2-4). Due to their high sensibility, loyalty and alertness, the military dogs were the preferred options for the soldiers in many war fields. There were many fields where dogs were more skillful performers than the soldiers. During the WWII, the war-theater-wise performance of the US military dogs was great. The dogs showed great performances mainly in two theaters: the pacific theater and the European theater. In 1944, under the command of William W. Putney, the 3rd Marine War Dog Platoon played a crucial role in the liberation of Guam from the Japanese occupation. According to the MWD, approved and led by the US Congress, Twenty-five of Lieutenant Putney’s war dogs gave their lives in the liberation of Guam and were buried there in a War Dog Cemetery with name markers (MWD History, pars. 2). In the war-field of Guam, the Doberman Pincers breed showed a great performance in guarding and scouting along the frontline of the war. Evading the enemies’ eye, they successfully worked as messengers between the US camps. Several of the success stories are as following: In February 17, 1945, a war-dog called Bruce saved two wounded soldiers from the attack of three Japanese infantrymen. During the nocturnal
It is unavoidable that such a state of affairs will exist because no one has a monopoly of ideas and very few ideas are truly original. In most instances, later ideas build on earlier ideas, expound on them, extend their boundaries, and explicate further obscure concepts. However, many ideas are simple in the sense they are self-evident but still they require constant repetition in some cases because people have a disquieting tendency to take these ideas for granted. This is what the paper will discuss. it is about how democracy and freedom are all intertwined by a series of ideas expressed over a period of time and how these ideas are all brought together by their similarities and close connections. Each idea seems to build on a previous idea and this paper attempts to show how these are all interconnected to each other. History travels in a one-way deterministic street and analysis will reveal the connections. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s third inaugural speech on January 20, 1941 contained the four basic freedoms he deemed important and these freedoms were later found in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948. Both the article of Robert Kaplan and the second inaugural speech of Pres. Obama also relate to the two documents mentioned earlier, but not with each other. Discussion President Franklin Delano Roosevelt first came to power in 1933 during the height of the Great Depression. As a visionary president, he undertook massive reforms in government, big industry, and other sectors of American society to help steer it towards the so-called 3Rs which are relief for the poor masses and millions of jobless workers, quick recovery for the weakened economy in the shortest time possible using the government’s stimulus funds (the concept of Obama’s stimulus funds for the Great Recession came from FDR’s original idea to pump-prime the economy) and massive reforms needed in the financial system as a whole by strong government intervention to avert a similar catastrophic failure in the future. Roosevelt crafted these policies and passed them through Congress to achieve his aims for the 3Rs and called it the New Deal to sell it to the American electorate despite some opposition. Many of these government programs are still in place without many people knowing what these are. Key pieces of legislation in the New Deal era included laws for the creation of the Social Security System (SSS), Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) and the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) which is now the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and laws that guaranteed a minimum living wage and the maximum working hours for workers (Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938) and other social safety nets. Roosevelt got re-elected three more times and his term saw the outbreak of Second World War. Having seen the despair of the Great Depression, he is now confronted with the widespread desperation and devastation associated with a truly global war and he saw it fit to declare in his Third Inaugural address to specifically mention these four freedoms which he considered to be very vital to humankind in general. The Four Freedoms speech centered on the freedom of speech, of religion, from want, and lastly, from fear (Edsitement 1). The very first freedom he mentioned, freedom of
Other Baseball in AmericaIn 1940s, structured baseball sports remained culturally isolated for many years. Quite a substantial number of people in major league along with the black press campaigned against the racism being observed in the sport. Branch Ricky being one of them. He was concerned with the need for a structured sports culture in baseball for around 60 years and formed baseball’s farm system in the 1920s. Nevertheless, he remained worried because of the collective practice conducted by many of the then baseball sports groups of excluding African Americans. In the year 1942, he joined Brooklyn Dodgers and initiated a plan to transport a black player inside the team that would not only accelerate team’s performance but also deliver a socially aware message to the American society for its benefit. However, he was also skeptic that the inclusion of the black player, will need to be more than a brilliant athlete with strong mental strength to restrain from being provoked by the unfriendliness and foul languages that might otherwise raise disagreements imposing negative effects on the team’s sustainability. After exploring many players from Negro leagues, Branch Ricky decided to involve Jackie Robinson in the year 1945. Jackie was an African American baseball player, who was then playing with Kansas City Monarchs, an important group in the Negro Leagues (The Library of Congress, n.d.). In that time many economic and other multifaceted problems forced and entertained the racial segregation in baseball. For instance, a number of major league teams used to give their stadiums on rent to the Negro Teams only when their own team was on a long journey. thus, hindering cross-communication between the two groups. Consequently, if integration would have been conducted in the sport, the Negro teams would have lost their best players and the Negro League would face difficulties to carry on as a result many of Negro players losing their source of revenue. Moreover, with such practices, the stadium owners would lose their rental profits (The Library of Congress, n.d.). Notably, the existence of these political and economic obstacles increased complexities in the integration process. To avoid these hazards, Branch Ricky proposed Jackie to be a part of a major league in March, 1945. In August, 1945, they met at Brooklyn Dodger’s office where Jackie was informed that Ricky would be starting a new team named Brown Dodgers. Subsequently, Jackie agreed to sign the bond with Brooklyn’s Triple-A minor league farm club, the Montreal Royals. On October, 1945, Jackie formally signed the agreement. Very shortly other black players were also being signed under the indenture by Branch Ricky (Glasser, 2003). Ricky then broadcasted the news that Robinson had been signed for Montreal Royals. In reaction, the Negro team Monarchs blamed that Jackie had broken the Negro League Contract leading to numerous anticipatory objections against the integration (Sullivan, 2002). In reaction Branch Ricky demanded an assurance that no forma bond had been signed in between Jackie and Monarchs. Following Jackie’s clarification through a letter and he started to play with Montreal but not with the Dodger’s. thus, extending the duration of the integration to become valid. After completing 1946 as a successful year with Montreal on April, 1947, Jackie was finally promoted to Dodger’s. It was then that Jackie officially broke the color-line in baseball sports culture (Sullivan, 2001).ReferencesGlasser, I. (2003). Branch Ricky and Jackie Robinson Precursors of the Civil rights Movement. Retrieved from http://www.worldandi.com/newhome/public/2003/march/mtpub.aspSullivan, D.A. (2001). Middle Innings: A Documentary History of Baseball, 1900-1948. United States: U of Nebraska Press.Sullivan, D.A. (2002). Late Innings: A Documentary History of Baseball, 1945-1972. United States: U of Nebraska Press.The library of Congress, (n.d.) Breaking the Color Line: 1940 – 1946. Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/robinson/jr1940.html
Records of the Supreme Court lists her as the fourth female justice to have served in that capacity and one hundred and twelfth overall judge among all the judges that have served in the supreme court since its establishment (O’Connor, 2004). Kagan was appointed to the position to succeed an outgoing justice Paul Stevens. Sworn in by the leader of the court, Chief justice John Roberts, Kagan officially began her term on the seventh day of August in the year 2010 after confirmation by the Senate. In reference to her earlier academic and legal career, she has served as a legal clerk for justice Thurgood of the American Supreme Court and also for Judge Abner formerly of the United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia circuit in the Year 1987. In the year 1991, she worked as an assistant Professor in the department of Legal studies at the University of Chicago. She graduated to the level of an associate professor of law in the year 1995. Her first publication on law was an article review on law titled The first Amendment hate speech. This article mainly analyzed the consequences of the motive in government regulation of speech. She also reviewed Stephens Carter’s book in relation to judicial confirmation process (O’Connor, 2004). … She replaced James Buckley in the United States court of appeal district Of Columbia circuit after being nominated by President Clinton to the position (Holzer, 2012). After her stint at the white house, Kagan went back to academic roles once again serving as the dean in the department of law at the University of New Mexico. She is also credited to having transformed Harvard law school from a hostile student environment to student centered environment. At the beginning of President Obama’s regime, he made an announcement that he was going to nominate Kagan to the position of the solicitor general despite the fact that she had no prior records of having argued any case before the court. In the year 2009, the senate confirmed her nomination making her the first woman to hold that position in the history of the United States. In September the same year she made her first ever appearance before the Supreme Court. However, contentions arose in regard to the arguments she advanced in her capacity as the solicitor general. Cato institute and the first amendment centre disputed her arguments. Her nomination to the Supreme Court was a subject of great interest even before the election of President Obama to office. The media was rife with speculation of her potential nomination if a democrat president carried the day in the elections. This was because of her position as the Solicitor general which was seen to serve as a great leverage (Toobin, 2008). However, this was not to be as Obama had nominated Sonia Sotomayor to the Supreme Court. Following the announcement of Justice Paul Stevens on his intentions to retire, speculations emerged once again on the possibility of Kagan nomination to the Supreme Court. Kagan’s
I understand that every shield should represent rich message to people who view it. A heraldic shield represents the vigor and pride of an organization, military unit or any other professional institution. Symbols and their interpretation The first symbol on the shield is a lion and it is an animal known as the king of the jungle and is popularly known for its royal status. Here the shield is held by lion because it is depicting the strength and royalty one needs to imbibe in their personality to build a good future. The lion is always bold in its attitude and every person must have the eagerness to learn from the lion to be bold in every facet of life. The lion also portrays pride, protective nature and braveness. Seeing these qualities in the lion, I believe these qualities also represent myself The other animal which is holding the shield is a unicorn. First and foremost the white color of unicorn is a sign of chastity, purity and virginity. This gives a message to people that one need to be pure and virgin in thoughts. According to (Martin,2010) To encounter a Unicorn, a person must find a place of true love in their heart. Unicorns have many traits and characteristics, and they mean many things to different people. In mythology, the unicorn is a symbol of chivalry and it’s portrays the qualities of proud, untamable nature and unique status. Moreover the horn of unicorn resembles the weapon of Christ and one who has faith in Christianity. A unicorn also represents a girl’s virginity and hence a girl should always maintain her purity. Another beautiful symbol which is projected in the heraldic shield is the swan, a heavenly bird. A swan is a bird which is said to be heavenly and popular for its beauty and elegance. This elegant nature of the swan conveys the message to the people to be elegant and gracious. The swan spreads a symbolic message of love, grace and beauty to the people. A swan means beauty, attractiveness and romance. A swan gives an idea to the people that one should always try to remain beautiful. The swan has the strength of beautifying any environment it is in and this attribute of swan communicate to the people to remain calm and serene in any environment they are in. Another gracious bird which decorates the shield is peacock. Its a well-known fact that the peacock is the most beautiful bird on earth and it is known for its colorful and shiny feathers and dancing quality. When a peacock dances, everybody sways in the festive mood of the bird. As per (Augustine, 2012)The characteristics of a peacock are extravagant, making it easy to differentiate between him, his female counterpart and other types of birds. Here the peacock is symbolic of vanity and fanciness. It represents the core attributes of women, who are always craving vanity and glamour. When it comes to the charm of my heraldic shield, it is enhanced by the inclusion of rose. The rose is one of the most beautiful plants in whole of earth because of its beauty and mesmerizing fragrance. Throughout the human history, very few flowers had the luck to be in the hearts of people forever. The rose is often connected to romance, heart, love and passion. A rose symbolizes the passion and desire a man has towards his love interest. A rose is often connected with the beauty and charm of a female personality. Roses are well known for their heavenly fragrance and also for its devotional and passionate characteristics.
Response to Anti British Monarchy Question And whatever bla bla bla!! I must say that history isn’t your sweet cup of tea either. Since you are too well versed in economics and politics, have you ever compared royals to the president of the U.S alone who’s wasteful spending in inactions costs as hell of a lot more and has only brought debt crisis in the country. Who in the world would even like to know the name of British President? The traditional ceremonies performed by the royal family attract millions of people ever year. For your kind poor information, more than ?200 million are brought in UK by the Crown States alone. If you are too much concerned about the taxpayer’s money, less than a single pound per person is negligible amount to keep the traditions. And you will like UK to have a president. Oh! Come on, just give me a break. In the US, the president pays more than that for just senselessly breaking down the sovereignty of other nations. Any doubts? Ask Americans and I’m sure he’ll be happy to support the kingdom. Besides, this monarchy thing is the only way to keep the historic traditions and culture of UK alive. Political figures are going to change randomly but the royal family continues to serve as a symbol of national unity beyond political conflicts. I’m from London and no tourist has ever asked me about the monarchy. Ahem excuse me for a second while I giggle. Since you are an expert on all matters royal, would you please like to elaborate why London as a city sucks these days? You are absolutely wrong about the tourism industry. To put the record straight, no one even likes to visit London for shopping the undergarments. People from all over the world are crowded there for visiting the cultural heritage. And I bet you won’t be able to split royal family from so much acclaimed heritage. Okay, I have heard that you are very fond of a republican state. Well, Google it and tell me which republic fits upon the versatile angles of your dreams. I don’t recognize any nation in the whole world whose people are passing their everyday lives better than us. How in the hell is your dramatic republic planning to change the life of an ordinary man? You are talking about the royal family as if they are aliens who invaded our beloved country from outer space around 10,000 years BC. These are our own roots and seriously, try at least a little bit more to learn about the British history. If you like to support the abandoning of these priceless centuries old traditions, just go ahead. But at least don’t try to impose our narrow minded vision over the entire population. And yes, I forgot our statements about Prince Phillip. It was Prince Philip along with the queen who signed partnership with Sheikh Nahyan of the UAE. Royals wouldn’t have visited the Gulf even once if they were racists. Acting as heads of the state requires considerable dignity beyond your mental capacity. The British royal family is the goodwill ambassador of Britain to other nations. The charity work carried out by them is quite unmatchable globally. Moreover, they are taking off a hell lot of load from the premier in a number of state affairs. If the people of UK are in favor of anti-British monarchy, why their representatives in the parliament not protest unanimously and put an end to your frustrated state of mind. Where was Britain in active monarchy and where is it now? I think it’s just a matter of time and you will know very well about the role our beloved and elected representatives are going to play in the near future.
Ethics forms an integral part on the foundation of nursing. The profession has a distinguished history in the concern of the welfare of individuals who seek social justice. the vulnerable and injured. Apprehension is embodied towards the provision of required nursing care to the community and individuals. Nursing combines the alleviation of suffering, prevention of illness, promotion, protection and restoration of health. Nurses act to change the aspects of social structure that branch away from well-being and health. Individuals who aspire to study nursing are expected to adhere to the moral norm and ideals of the profession, and embrace these aspects as part of what make them nurses. The ethical tradition of the nursing profession is self reflective, distinct and enduring. The nurses have to follow a code of ethics that make explicit the values, primary goals and obligations of the profession. This paper analyzes my professional code from an ethical perspective through the identification of four ethical concepts. Introduction Nurses respect the dignity, rights and the worth of all humanity. This should be irrespective of the nature of the health problem. A person’s worth is not defined by sickness, disability, proximity to death or functional status. This respect should extend to all those who require the services of a nurse for health promotion or prevention, and for the restoration of health. … They actively assure and assess the appropriate and responsible use of interventions aimed at minimizing unwarranted treatment and patient suffering. The importance and acceptability of carefully considered decisions that regard the resuscitation status, withholding and withdrawal of life sustaining therapies, foregoing of medially provided hydration and nutrition. symptom management and advance directives are more evident (American Nurses Association, 2005). Patient autonomy (informed consent) The respect for human dignity requires that there be recognition of patient rights. The most important of this is the right to self-determination. This is also known as autonomy this is the philosophical basis for an informed consent in the health care profession. All patients have the legal right to be part of the medical decision. to be given complete and accurate understandable information in a manner that will facilitate the patient to make an informed decision, and to be assisted in the weighing of the benefits, available options and burdens in their treatment (American Nurses Association, 2005). They also have the right to be given support through the decision-making and treatment processes. Such support includes the opportunity to discuss the decisions with family members and other significant people. The patients should be involved in planning their own health care to the extent that they will be able to choose and participate in the treatment process (Fowler, 2008). Each nurse has an obligation to have the knowledge regarding moral and legal rights of all patients. The nurses must protect, preserve and support these interests when assessing the patient’s understanding of the medical information presented and the implications of these
Prof. Blue Clark
21 Sept. 2015
The Europeans Are Coming, and They Are Changing the World
There are countless events in history that are important, but what…US History
The ancient Roman Empire and the Imperial China do share many seminaries as much as
they might have their differences. The two ancient emperors have their differences in terms of…History
Surname 1 Name
Aristocrats during the early middle Ages considered themselves more as partners rather than the
subjects of their kings.
Defined: The matching-up of rock layers in different locations.
To piece together the geologic history of a large region. Similar rock characteristics: Same thickness, color, composition…Science
Running head: INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Industrial Revolution
Students Name 1 INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION 2 Industrial Revolution
In the 19th century, there were two driving forces towards…History
1920s with the aid of foreign loans andRunning head: NEW INDUSTRIES DEVELOPED IN GERMANY IN THE 1920S Institution:
Student Name: 1 NEW INDUSTRIES DEVELOPED IN GERMANY IN THE 1920S 2 The Great Depression
The next stride in a…History
Running head RELIGIOUS PHENOMENA 1 Social and Communal aspects of Religion Name
Affiliation RELIGIOUS PHENOMENA 2 Max Weber was among the first church historian to give the long history of the…Religious Studies
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BIO 102 Test.
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Asked by Blake E Palmer
Student at University of Tennessee
How are biodiversity patterns related to speciation
As of now scientists have named about 1.5 million species on Earth but estimate that 5
to 100 million species exist. Speciation plays a huge and urgent role in research now
due to the high amount of animals going extinct or becoming endangered. According to
the textbook speciation is defined as the evolution of two or more distinct species from
a single ancestral species. As species become known and more species are found our
biodiversity continues to grow, and it will continue to grow since there are so many
species that have not been named. Even though we have many unknown species were
are running into huge problems regarding the species we do have named. Due to
human made threats, many animals face extinction so we will have less species.
According to Roger K. Butlin, Jon R. Bridleand Dolph Schluter quot;It [speciation] can occur in
a single step, such as bypolyploidy, or it may occur by a gradual series of allelic
substitutions at multipleloci. It can happen as a by-product of adaptation to contrasting
niches orenvironments, or it can happen without any adaptation at all.quot; These forms of
speciation are impacting our biodiversity but in what ways?
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pgtDiscuss the differing views Anglos and Apaches had politically, socially, and economically. ***minimumRunning Head: ANALYSIS OF APACHES AND ANGLO CULTURES Analysis of Apaches and Anglo Cultures
Student’s Name Institution Date 1 ANALYSIS OF APACHES AND ANGLO CULTURES
ANALYSIS OF APACHES AND ANGLO…US History
Art and Protest in the 1800s Please respond to oneRunning head: THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER IN ENGLAND. The struggle for power in England
Institution of affiliation 1 THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER IN ENGLAND 2 King Edward, the Confessor, was born in…World History
Development in Islam in History .(include example)
3-impact of Islam in History
The Development and Impact of Islam Student’s Name Date Institution Affiliation Islam is monotheistic with a sacred book called the Qur’an, and a worshiped Prophet
Muhammad. It preached the…US History
DOUGLAS V GREEN 1 Augustus Caesar was the most famous emperor of Rome. Although his real name was
Octavian, the senate gave him the name Augustus as a honor for his great achievements. He
Running head: CRIMINAL JUSTICE 1 CRIMINAL JUSTICE
August 9, 2016 CRIMINAL JUSTICE 2
Introduction The project of examination in the field of…US History
TWOmostCouple of authentic marks disguise such a great amount of instability as ”early cutting edge
Europe.” Population can work in two approaches to clarify social and monetary change in
ahead of…US History
The things that struck me as unusual in Herodotus work of history is the basis of resemblance.
According to his definition of history, it is an event that happens once in a lifetime and can only
era in European history that followed the fall of the Roman Empire, lasting from about 500 to 1500 – alsoRUNNING HEAD: EUROPEAN HISTORY EUROPEAN HISTORY 1 RUNNING HEAD: EUROPEAN HISTORY The Rome city, extended between c. 100 BC- 400 AD was the largest city in the world. The
period in European…World History
Adolf Hitler’s faith in the estimation of autos originated before his progression to control over the
German country. In 1923, in spite of the fact that the Nazi Party battled for monetary assets,…History
Ash Fashions Company produces an outdoor jacket that sells for $126 with a
2. Cost-volume-profit analysis:
Ash Fashions Company produces an outdoor jacket that sells for $126 with a
variable cost per jacket of $90 and monthly fixed overheads of $118,800. Last month, Ash Fashions made a profit of $46,620. Required
(a) Calculate how many jackets Ash Fashions sold last month.
(b) Calculate the current breakeven point based on the last month’s cost structure.
(c) Ash Fashions is now planning operations for the remainder of this year. The sales manager is proposing to increase sales by reducing the selling price to $121 per jacket and spending an additional $14,000 per month on advertising. She estimates that sales volume would increase to 5,800 jackets per month.
(i) Calculate the breakeven point in unit and monthly profit based on the sales manager’s proposal.
(ii) Evaluate the sales manager’s proposal, taking into account the expected impact on profits and on the breakeven point. State any assumptions you need to make.
(d) If the managing director of Ash Fashions were to require that the future profits per month were 15% higher than last month’s profit. Calculate how many jackets have to be sold each month
(i) Assuming that the sales manager’s proposals were adopted.
(ii) Assuming that they were not (e.g., using the price and cost information from last month).
(iii) Comment on the results.
Fluff Industries operates in the IT industry, producing and selling computer and IT equipment. For most of its history, it has operated with a fairly authoritarian management style. This management style is reflected in the budget-setting process, whereby the accounting staff set budget targets in conjunction with the CEO, and budgets are presented to departmental managers as non-negotiable reports. Recently, there was a change of CEO, with the appointment of Ross White. White has embarked on a reorganisation aimed at a more decentralised decision-making structure. The budget-setting process is also to be conducted with a higher level of participation by departmental managers. Accounting staff have been instructed to work more closely with departmental managers on the setting of budget targets.
(a) Outline the advantages of the move to a more participative-style budget process.
(b) What is the likely impact of this change on accounting staff?
A 19-year-old client is brought to the emergency department because the client slashed both wrists. What is the
nurse’s first concern?
Stabilization of physical condition.
Determination of antecedent, causal factors relevant to the wrist slashing.
Reduction of anxiety.
Obtaining a detailed nursing history.
Read and answer the question.
Were the Sons of Liberty patriots or a mob? Explain.History
I just want a grammar and sentence structure is correction.
Article talks about the Social fighters who have fought for social changes that shaped the profession of social work that we see today. The fact that voices had been realized to be powerful have made profound impacted history; because people realized that to make a change information is key. Social workers, Pioneers and mutual aide has been an importance in the black race’s survival.
Black Social workers have shared the same societal issues of concerns as the community they serve, so they are aware of the struggles the people face (Carlton-LaNey pg311). I agree this was helpful because there was stronger support and passion to help someone who’s suffering in the communities the social worker(s) was placed. The word Community is huge concept in the profession because it signifies networking and unity to alleviate a social crisis.
Public awareness has always been given a big advantage to different issue. The Women’s Era and the Messenger were both critical to the work of national organizations (Carlton-LaNey pg312), these newspapers gave information to a public that needed to be empowered. It has always been said that information is power and the people who started these publications knew that it would help a lot of people regardless of the chances they would have to take.
Mutual aide is a key concept in the African American culture because they was alienated from the US social system (Carlton-LaNey 312). According to the article African Americans helping each other was the most effective method of ameliorating desperate social conditions in a racially segregated country (Carlton-LaNey pg312). Without the unified help of the race there would be no African Americans, or the preservation the culture.
Which statement describes the U.S. relationship with Iraq during the 1990s? (2 points)
a. The United States kept thousands of troops stationed in Iraq to maintain a stable government.
b. The United States gave Iraq a large amount of military aid to help the country fight against Iran.
c. The United States cut off diplomatic ties and trade relations with Iraq to protest its poor human-rights record.
d. The United States maintained economic sanctions against Iraq to prevent it from becoming a threat to peace in the region.
GALILEO 1 Galileo is the father of modern science and his contributions are greater than those of
Copernicus and Isaac Newton. Through his contributions, it is true that Galileo was not guessing….US History
Running head: THE SMOOT-HAWLEY 1 THE SMOOT-HAWLEY
October 31, 2016 THE SMOOT-HAWLEY 2
1. History Most would concur that the perfect most…Social Science
How to relate managerial hubris to ethical decision making and the overall impact on the business
During the 1920 Farrow’s Bank failure, Thomas Farrow had been evaluated as having been inflicted by managerial hubris at the time of the bank’s collapse in 1920. What level of pressures were associated with ethical decision making at Farrows Bank. Till what level the level of managerial hubris would have been decreased if Farrow Bank had a truly ethical business culture. Could this have affected the final outcome of Farrow Bank?
Source: Hollow, M. (2014). The 1920 farrow’s bank failure: A case of managerial hubris? Journal of Management History, 20(2), 164-178.
Que. 1. What will MIC 100 emphasize?
Ans. MIC 100 emphasizes on the basic introduction to the microbiology including its history,
pathogenicity and immunology in terms of host resistance and immune…Science
A historian’s job is to study the past. This means that a historian must think about the causes and effects of
historical events, as well as people’s reactions or interpretations of the events. For this task, you’ll need to think like a historian and research the causes or effects of a historical event. Focus your research on one of these two topics:
How did religion play a role as a cause of the American independence movement and subsequent Revolution? this is the topic i chose