The Causes and Effect of Tsunami

The second effect of a tsunami is the deadly push of the ocean wave that will destroy everything on its path. The energy accumulated by the movement of the ocean floors also creates a push on the ocean waves that strikes nearby shorelines. This push created by the ocean waves increases as the waves travel to the shoreline making it very powerful that it could destroy everything that would stand on its path. This travel from the epicenter to the shoreline makes the tsunami stronger albeit it is caused by the movement on the ocean floors. The massive waves that characterize tsunamis can be a wave train or a series of powerful waves that would race toward shorelines making its destructive nature exponential by the multiples of its waves (www. Its strength can literally wipe out a community on the shoreline that will strike. This includes human beings, animals, trees and even structures. A strong tsunami is so destructive that it can even damage structures that are designed to withstand strong waves. The third effect of the tsunami is a disease. After the water of the tsunami has ebbed, it will leave rotting bodies of living things it drowned and plenty of contaminated water that could potentially precipitate an epidemic in the affected area. The diseases that the tsunami aftermath will range from skin diseases to more lethal diseases such as malaria that could potentially make the entire community sick if the disease is not attended. Tsunamis are indeed very powerful forces of nature that are very destructive and frightening. Its aftermath can leave diseases to the community it affected that could potentially make everyone sick. Also, the amount of energy accumulated in the bottom of the ocean that drives the waves of tsunamis are so powerful it can destroy anything that stands on its path. The power of its waves is terrifying because it can kill people and other living things in multitudes. Not even strong structures can withstand the power of a tsunami because it can destroy such structures like as the case of Fukushima plant that was supposed to be protected by a tsunami wall.

Moseley Bog Nature Reserve

The reserve is also surrounded by human history as well as archaeology that includes clay pits, Joy’s Wood, Pond, and Victorian and Edwardian Garden. The wildlife reserve has been developed with the concept related to environment and ecosystem aspects from the 20th century. Over the years, the Urban Wildlife Group has emphasized wildlife movements with the intention of fulfilling the increasing need and desire of the public (The Wildlife Trust for Birmingham and the Black Country Limited, 2014).
The objective of this report is to identify the fact based on which environment history has a role in the management of wildlife reserves especially in Moseley Bog. In this regard, this particular report highlights the physical background of Moseley Bog nature reserve in terms of physical geography, geology and major environmental aspects of Moseley Bog. Apart from this, the study concentrates on the human history of the Moseley Bog and its archaeological features and chronological aspects. Moreover, the study recommends the role of the human management landscape on the basis of woodland and heathland. Additionally, the report reviews the viewpoint of academic writers regarding the current management plan of Moseley Bog nature reserve.
According to the report published by The Wildlife Trust for Birmingham and the Black Country Limited1 (2014), the government of Birmingham has concentrated on restoring Moseley Bog natural reserve as a sign of its heritage. Moreover, the report has described that Moseley Bog is a home for varied dry woodlands and species of birds. Apart from this, small animals can be also observed in the water mill (The Wildlife Trust for Birmingham and the Black Country Limited1, 2014. Aung &amp. et. al., 2004).
Moseley Bog has a certain natural location based on the culture and history of the dam.&nbsp.

Types of Erosion and Transportation of Materials by the River

Geography Erosion refers to the removal and wearing away of material from a wetted perimeter of a channel. Moving water uses its kinetic energy to erode surfaces. Erosion takes place through four processes. hydraulic, abrasion action, and attrition. An increase in velocity increases the operations of these processes and erosion occurs more effectively. There are three types of erosion that significantly affects the size of a river or stream. For instance, head ward erosion makes a river or stream longer. Vertical erosion on the other hand makes the river or stream channel deeper, while lateral erosion makes it wider. Erosion takes place hand in hand with transportation (Rodrigue, Comtois, and Slack: 132).
Transportation of materials in a stream or a river starts when water overcomes friction. Material that has been set loose through erosion is then transported along the stream. There are three main processes by which water in a stream or river transports material. suspension, traction and saltation, and solution (Rodrigue, Comtois, and Slack: 200). Suspension occurs when material composed of the finest particles such as silt and clay is lifted by the turbulence of water and transported away. Rivers that are more turbulent and fast-flowing carry more suspension. This explains why a stream or river gets muddy towards its mouth. The velocity of the water is greater here.
Traction and saltation occurs when larger particles are carried away. Saltation refers to when material such as gravel and pebbles that are too heavy to be carried away in suspension are bounced along by the water force. Traction on the other hand occurs when larger material like boulders is pushed and rolled along the river or stream bed by the force of the water. The third process, solution, occurs when materials such as minerals and dissolving rocks dissolve in the water and are carried along. This happens mostly in areas whose geology is limestone with water that is slightly acidic.
Stream capacity refers to the sum capacity of residue that a stream can move, transport, or carry. Water streams carry sediment. Different streams carry different amounts of sediment. This capacity depends on the velocity and volume of water that is being channeled. Stream competence on the other hand refers to the sedimentary particle size that a stream can move, transport, or carry (Gabler, Petersen, and Trapasso: 498). Again, each stream has its competency for the sedimentary particle size it can move by its velocity and volume. This competency changes with changes in velocity and stream volume. Such changes are caused by a variety of topography factors and seasonal flooding.
The difference between stream competence and stream capacity is that, while capacity gauges the quantity or amount of sentiment a river or stream can carry, competence gauges the size of sentiment particles (Gabler, Petersen, and Trapasso: 498). Sedimentary particles carried by streams include. boulder, pebble, rock, silt, sand, and clay. All these sediment particles vary in size. Normally, channelized rivers and streams are influence by gravitational force. The major factors that influence stream competence (size of sediment particle) and stream capacity (amount or quantity of sediment) is channel slope. Channel slope therefore, derives the measurements for stream gradient.
Work cited
Gabler Robert, Petersen James, and Trapasso L. Essentials of Physical Geography. New York: Cengage Learning. 2006. 231-600. Print.
Rodrigue Jean, Comtois Claude, and Slack Brian. The Geography of Transport Systems. New York: Cengage Learning. 2013. 1-400. Print.

How the Eruption of Thera Changed the World

Life in 1600 BC was wonderful on the island of Crete. By all accounts, the Minoans that inhabited the island enjoyed a high standard of living. Many of the problems that plagued civilizations on the mainland of Europe and Southwest Asia did not affect the Minoans. Their boarders were secure because they were the world’s most powerful navy to protect their island. Their soil was fertile and their climate mild, so food surpluses were easy to obtain. Political stability added to the strength of the Minoans. But with the eruption of a volcano on the island of Thera, all of this changed in an instant.
Volcanoes are powerful forces of nature. According to Ritter et al., volcanism is simply the manifestation of processes that occur in earth’s mantle on the surface of the earth (1). Rocks and minerals are liquefied into magma in earth’s mantle due to heat produced by extreme pressure. Weaknesses in the earth’s crust allow vents to form that allow magma to escape. This magma can emerge through the crust under the sea or on dry land. These vents will create three possible types of volcanic landforms. The type of landform is dictated by the mineral make-up of the magma that is expelled through the vent (2). Shield volcanoes, such as the Hawaiian Islands are made of magma that has low viscosity. It is mostly basalt and runs like water. Cone volcanoes are made of magma that is high in silica. The magma is sticky so it builds up making the steep sides of a cone shaped mountain. Similar to these are composite cones that are made of magma and ash. They are irregularly shaped volcanic mountains. A final landform created by volcanoes is called a caldera. This is a huge empty space in the volcanic mountain created by a massive eruption. This is a prominent feature that was created by the eruption of Thera.
The Greek island of Thera is located in the Mediterranean Sea just northeast of the island of Crete. The island is known in modern times as Santorini. The geologic shape and structure of the island is typical for volcanic islands in the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. The island was a mixture of ash and silica based materials with gentle slopes near the shoreline rising to an inland, conical peak. Thera had been slowly building for at least a million years. The current arrangement of the small islands of Santorini did not happen with just one eruption. As many as twelve eruptions over the past million years have made Santorini what it is today (3). The eruption that occurred around 1600 BC was, however, the largest of them all.
Very little is known about the timeline leading up to the massive eruption. It does appear that typical seismic and volcanic activity had warned the inhabitants of Thera. According to Burstein and Shek, there are some accounts that seem to indicate that all of the Minoans living on Thera left the island prior to the eruption (4). There is no conclusive evidence to show that the evacuations mentioned actually are referring to the Thera eruption.
Thera was quite possibly the greatest volcanic explosion ever (5). Other scientists estimate that is was in the top four. The affect on the culture of the Minoans was immediate and catastrophic. The first and most immediate affect on the Minoans and Crete was a massive tsunami. Scientists believe that the waves that hit Crete may have been 40 feet high and traveled at 200 miles per hour. These waves would have destroyed the powerful navy and merchant fleets of the Minoan civilization. Other ways the civilization was affected were not as immediate but were just as devastating. The aerosols emitted by the eruption of Thera changes the climate globally for many years. These aerosols acted as a filter for sunlight entering the atmosphere. As a result, the climate would have been cooler and wetter on Crete, leading to failed harvest for several years.
The demise of the Minoan civilization has long been a mystery to historians. Their Linear B script has not been translated as of yet. All historians know is that around 1600 BC their once thriving civilization began to rapidly decline. The aggressive Mycenaean’s from mainland Greece soon conquered them. The eruption of Thera appears to have played a key role in the decline of the Minoans. The massive eruption of Thera physically altered the present day island of Santorini. The large caldera flooded with seawater, creating a small archipelago instead of a single island. Some have even hypothesized that this massive eruption gave rise to the legend of Atlantis. Whether Thera is Atlantis or not may never be known, but what is indisputable is the fact that the eruption of Thera was among the most powerful in the history of the world. The eruption of the Thera volcano has given us the scarred islands of Santorini and clues about the demise of the Minoans.

Work Cited
1. Ritter, Dale F., R. Craig. Kochel, and Jerry R. Miller. Process Geomorphology. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown, 1995. Print.
2. Lutgens, Frederick K., and Edward J. Tarbuck. Essentials of Geology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1995. Print.
3. How Volcanoes Work-Eruption of Santorini. San Diego State University, Jan. 2010. Web. Feb. 2010. .
4. Burstein, Stanley Mayer., and Richard Hon-Chun. Shek. World History. Orlando: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. Print.
5. "How The Eruption of Thera Changed the World | LiveScience." LiveScience | Science, Technology, Health &amp. Environmental News. Web. 04 Mar. 2010. .

Trip to dinosaur ridge in colorado

Trip to Dinosaur Ridge in Colorado number Trip to Dinosaur Ridge in Colorado Introduction The dinosaur ridge is located in Morison Colorado. The ridge is located at 16831 West Alameda Parkway near the 6th avenue. The dinosaur ridge is a designated natural national landmark. It was discovered accidentally in the year 1937. During the duration of the trip were able to learn a lot about fossils and were also able to learn about dinosaurs and their existence about 150 million years ago.
We were able to walk through the tracks where these massive creatures known as dinosaurs once roamed. We were able to see dinosaur bones that have been fossilized in rocks. This was an amazing experience as were also able to touch the dinosaur bones. We were allowed to ask as many questions as we wanted and to our delight, our knowledgeable guide was able to answer all of our questions.
We were also able to learn how the footprints have been preserved for over 100 years. We also learnt about how layers of rocks are formed and different types of rocks that are found there. It was interesting to also learn about how palaeontologists are able to look for fossil evidence. This was at the backyard bone site.
The trip was very informative. It is interesting to know that this is where there is presence proving that dinosaurs once inhabited the earth. During the trip I learnt a lot about, fossils, dinosaurs, rock formation and geology. I am now able to understand some of the things that we have been learning in class.

Site Planning and Construction Method

For the construction of the art gallery these points were kept in mind while reaching the final design.
Considering these points and a few other, the most suitable design suggested is a RCC frame structure. The columns and beams both the storey will be at same positions but the position of the partition walls for both the storey will have different positions. The partition walls for all the rooms except the entrance hall and the lobby will be of brickwork while that of the entrance hall and lobby will be of hollow PCC blocks.
The location of the site dictates the orientation of the building. The building will face the Lower Ham Road while the lobby will be open at the south, the opening will face the south bank of Thames. The reduced level i.e. the plinth level of the building will be kept well above the boat house to facilitate the river view for the lobby.
The construction plan firstly involves the planning of the program. The gradual execution of projects and activities and the allocation of time and resources to different activities will be done by using planning aiding software i.e. MS Project. In order to avoid conflicts and problems proper constraints and deadlines will be applied to the activities regarding time and resources (procurement as well as human resource.
Excavation and Foundation: The excavation will be carried out using excavator while the geology of the site i.e. near the river requires deep foundations which will be done by drilling precast RCC piles
Super Structure: As stated in the brief the super structure will be a frame structure with brickwork partition walls for all the rooms except the entrance hall and lobby which will utilize hollow PCC blocks in partition walls
As shown in the plan of the ground floor, there’s a large window on the side of the lobby facing the river to facilitate the riverside view. The geometric staircase ensures lesser use of space but looks aesthetically good. The schedule of openings

Mining and use of Natural resouces

Mining and Use of Natural Resources The geology scope is large and important to the human beings lives on the planet. It is not easy to imagine a modern civilization that lacks the resource geological inputs such as gas, coal, metals, industrial minerals, and oil. The external and the internal earth geological processes are responsible for the current landforms such as the surface/subsurface water bodies and soil for agriculture. these are very important for the human lives (Husain, 2008).
Geology offers alertness to geological hazards such as floods, earthquakes, seawater intrusion and volcanoes. the awareness of these hazards has made the modern man life safe through the modification of the houses and other infrastructures (Husain, 2008). The possibility of an earthquake occurring is 100 percent and that means an earthquake can occur anytime and somewhere on the earth. Asserting that an earthquake will occur does not really mean that earthquake has been predicted (U.S. Geological Survey, 2009).
Presently, earthquake cannot be predicted but the statement may be true due to the fact that a number of earthquakes (in millions) occur each year, thus, their occurrence daily is in thousands (they are too minute to be located). Earthquake prediction is a possibility in the future. There is an ongoing research done by USGC and other state and federal agencies, private institutions and universities. The reality of earthquake prediction is possible some day in the future but this is only when the mechanisms of earthquake are fully exploited (U.S. Geological Survey, 2009).
Industrialization and urbanization are responsible for different types of surface/subsurface water pollution and wastes and it has become mandatory for the schools in the developing countries to offer geoscience education. The neglect of the subject at some level of education (especially at the junior level) has caused the lack of awareness about energy conservation, environmental protection, and the conservation of other geological raw materials (Husain, 2008).
With the help of the geology-based assessment methodology, it is estimated that there are about 53 (TCFG) trillion cubic feet of nonassociated natural gas in undiscovered and conventional accumulations and mean volumes of 896 million barrels of oil in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska and the adjacent State waters. this is according to the U.S. Geological Survey. The volume of undiscovered oil estimated by U.S. Geological Survey is lower than the one estimated in 2002 and this is due to the recent exploration drilling that showed reduced reservoir quality and a quick transition from oil to gas in Alpine sandstone (U.S. Geological Survey, 2010).
The main focus of exploration has been the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) and this has been influenced by the mid-1990s discovery of Alpine field (the United States’ largest onshore oil discovery for the last 25 years) (U.S. Geological Survey, 2010). Geology is very vital in discovering new natural resources such as in the case of Alaska. the explorations done in the mid-1990s led to the discovery of oil and gas in the Alpine fields.
Husain, V. (2008). Importance of geology education in schools of developing countries. Retrieved from
U.S. Geological Survey. (2009). 100% chance of an earthquake. Retrieved from
U.S. Geological Survey. (2010). 2010 updated assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). Retrieved from

Geology Volcanoes&amp

ke Assignment1

Prof: Volcanoes Volcanoes are points of weaknesses on the earth’s crust or outer skin, where gas as well as hot and melted rock from the inner parts of the earth can burst open to the surface or has done that before (Green 4). Volcanoes take various forms, shapes, and sizes, implying that some are steep sided and tall while others are simply cracks in the surface of the ground (McKay, What Are Volcanoes? 1). The first section of this definition implies that volcanoes can be mere openings on the crust of the planet that do not even have lava.
Where Volcanoes Occur
Although volcanoes appear to occur in every part of the world, they do not just erupt blindly, but in red triangles. They occur in clusters and linear chains all over the world. Regardless of few exceptions to this rule, most take place in lines that are curved, as opposed to circular ones. The two common patterns that they form called the ring of fire and the mid-ocean ridges (Oxlade 12).
Plate Tectonics
Plate tectonics explain the movement of plates around the earth but are different from continental drift. They elucidate why ocean basins are in existence. The earth’s crust, according to the theory of tectonics, occurs in two forms: continental crust and oceanic crust. The latter is rigid, dense, and brittle as opposed to continental crust. It breaks into separate slabs also known as plates (McKay, Plate Tectonic Settings 1). On the other hand, many rocks that have conjoined over billions of years or geologic time make the continental crust. They are less dense, and can deform or change much easier explaining their complication and uncertainties. Summing it all up, hot gases and material emanate from the mid-oceanic ridges while cool material goes down at subduction areas, and it is at the plate boundaries that volcanoes take place (McKay, Subduction Zones 1).
Week 2:
Reasons for Eruption
Volcanoes erupt as fresh magma from the center of the earth rises up through weak areas or zones and consequently reaching the crest of ridges to develop novel oceanic crust. This process referred to as seafloor spreading, took place many years ago, and it led to long mid-oceanic system of ridges (McKay, The Basics of Plate Tectonics 1).
Review of site
The website, blackboard learn, is a modernized platform that offers easy access, navigation, organization, and illustration of learning material. The site’s contents are well organized, and students can easily follow the direction of the course without supervision, assistance, or any trouble. What makes the educational portal even better is the systematic organization of classes into weeks, which offers an easier way of following through lectures and assignments. Further, the site enhances further learning by offering multimedia material such as pictures and videos, which are highly beneficial. Moreover, the getting started, syllabus, announcements, and discussion board tabs are beneficial in enhancing the learning experience.
The site has explained grey areas of geology, and I have learnt key things about volcanoes: what they are, how they occurred, why they occurred, and the forces behind the volcanoes. Initially, I used to think that volcanoes simply erupted anywhere provided molten lava was boiling underneath the surface waiting to come out. However, the site has disillusioned me, and I now know that there is a special mechanism that volcanoes followed, and that they exist in certain red regions across the globe.
Works Cited
Green, Jen. Volcanoes Around the World. The Rosen Publishing Group, 2009. Print.
McKay, Daniele. Plate Tectonic Settings. University of Oregon Blackboard. N. p., 2014. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
—. Subduction Zones. University of Oregon Blackboard. N. p., 2014. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
—. The Basics of Plate Tectonics. University of Oregon Blackboard. N. p., 2014. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
—. What Are Volcanoes? University of Oregon Blackboard. N. p., 2014. Web. 5 Apr. 2014.
Oxlade, Chris. Earthquakes amp. Volcanoes. Black Rabbit Books, 2004. Print.

The Environmental Impact Assessment Report on the Proposed New Library in Macquarie University

Descriptions should always take into consideration the nature as well as the geology of such a place. This should include the types of soil found in a place, the hydrology as well as the existing uses of such sites. This is of critical importance in deciding the ways in which the effects resulting from procession with such developmental projects may be averted. A good environmental assessment report should take into consideration the land use practices in a certain site where the proposed development is to take place (Petts, 2009, 52). In addition, a good environmental report should thoroughly describe the slope of the environment. Other than these, the structure of the environmental assessment report should majorly touch on issues relating to the predicted impacts that the proposed development project may have on the environment. These impacts should be categorized into various forms. These may include the short-term impacts as well as the long-term impacts that such a development will have. Such impacts may be classified with regards to the nature of entities affected (Perdicoulis et al, 2012, 35). For instance, a good structure of environmental assessment report should put into consideration as well as identify some of the short term and long term effects that the proposed development will have on the surrounding environment.
These may involve things like environmental degradation as well as modification. This is of critical importance in providing the best option for decision makers to effectively evaluate the project proposal before authorizing the initiation of the proposed developmental project (Lawrence, 2003, 25). The report should also describe the impacts that the proposed development will have in relation to the lives of human beings as well as animals living around the proposed developmental sites.