Since human resource management begins with recruitment and hiring, it is a good idea to first discuss the ethical issues associated with recruitment. The two central ethical issues for a company undergoing the recruitment and hiring process can be understood as the need to follow anti-discrimination practices and equal opportunity guidelines (Lockwood, 2005). Simply put, all candidates must be viewed and hired based on their strengths and weaknesses as applicants without giving any weight to their race, gender, age, physical abilities except in situations where such requirements are an intrinsic part of the job (Alleyne, 2005). As reported by Clarke (2005), a lot remains to be done in this particular field.Given that the nature of the job in a modern office often includes guidelines for inclusion and makes accessibility a mandatory requirement, there are very few exceptions to the ethical guidelines as well as the legal requirements which can be obtained by the company. Without exception, recruiters for the company should follow ethical principles and it should be assumed by them that the law applies in the fullest sense during the hiring process.Even before a person is hired, there are ethical requirements that must be followed in the selection and interview process which mainly deals with ensuring confidentiality and the privacy of all candidates seeking positions within the company. While making the application for the job, candidates may give out information that is considered to be private information in the eyes of the law and that must be kept secure by the company.Even things such as the candidates’ email addresses and telephone numbers may be required by ethical rules to be kept secure. It is probably a good idea for the company to speak with a legal consultant or obtain legal advice from individuals in the company who have had experience with recruitment procedures in the past. By having ethical recruitment and by showing the values of the company to prospective employees the company can begin the process of establishing its own values for the employees.
ul consideration to all the various pros and cons of the developing situations in the concerned areas of the public health care, has become the need of the hour. Healthcare organizations are facing multi-pronged problems that need to introduce some radical organizational changes to improve health delivery systems. Human resources in the health organizations of the UK has, therefore, become pivotal in improving and improvising the quality of healthcare delivery. So the question, ‘Is NHS implementing job evaluation in order to assist pay equity?’ becomes highly pertinent. Pay equity broadly defines the same wage across people belonging to different gender, race, culture, or disability for the same job description. The study is designed to evaluate the job criteria of people employed in the healthcare organization organizations and would make efforts to find if they assist pay equity.National Health Service is the largest healthcare organization of the government of United Kingdom that forms strategic alliances with local authorities to take initiatives in the various healthcare-related projects for the welfare of the people at large. A study of East Neasden had found that the main reasons for the problems of NHS were that it was not managed professionally and was guided primarily by the ‘consensus management’ between the different interest groups like administrative, clinical, para-medical, nursing and other such groups that facilitated the delivery of healthcare (Study, p1). The deteriorating quality in NHS hospitals has increasingly become a major concern. In the emerging challenges of the changing business equations, the healthcare industry needs highly skilled persons who are able to work under stressful conditions. There are several business aspects that impel HR strategies to move towards this new work environment in a flexible and versatile approach.
Only when these factors are understood and their impact realized can effective change be implemented in an attempt to counteract the corrosive long-term results not only for the individuals involved but for the greater society as well (Straus Gelles, 1990, p. 97).One of the most difficult factors to control contributing to the delinquency of minors is the effects suffered as a result of domestic violence. Incidences of domestic violence, a growing problem in the U.S., affect the emotional, cognitive, and behavioral development of children, produces disharmony in the family unit and instigates harmful lifetime problems for all concerned. Children of pre-adolescent age, unlike younger children, typically have a greater ability to verbalize negative sentiments. Victims within this age group, in addition to symptoms commonly associated with anxiety such as nightmares and sleeping and eating disorders, may exhibit low self-esteem. Pre-teens of abusive situations have an increased propensity for temper tantrums, are often involved in fighting, abusing animals and acting in threatening manners. This violent behavior mirrors what they see at home and is an attempt to gain attention. Teenagers of abusive house-holds are at much greater risk than those who are not to drop-out of school and abuse drugs. Research has suggested that a history of family violence is the most noteworthy reason that separates antisocial and ‘normal’ youths. According to a study report authored by Dr. Terence P. Thornberry, children with histories of violence in their families report a 24 percent increase in the level of violent behavior they participate in as compared with their peers living in non-violent homes. Other analyses of these data indicate that maltreatment is also a significant risk factor for official delinquency and other forms of self-reported delinquency. for the prevalence and frequency of delinquency. and for all these indicators when gender, race/ethnicity, family structure.
Contemporary research among biomedical experts and psychotherapists has been attempting to determine the exact cause of bipolar disorder. While no ultimate conclusions have been determined, studies have revealed a number of consistent results. Most research attests that bi-polar is oftentimes found in families, which logically implies a genetic basis for the disorder. Generally, it begins to take hold in individuals at different times, based on gender. The onset in males occurs most frequently in their early 20s, while in females it occurs much later – as late as the mid to their mid to upper thirties. Also differentiating the disorder along gender lines is the way it affects the patients, as in males the manic stage sets in first, whereas females first experience the depressive stage of the manic cycle. The lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder is approximately 0.5-1.5%. Sadly, not much more has been determined about the primary causes of the illness. While psychoanalysis and certain cognitive therapies investigate the patient for instances of past childhood experiences or social dysfunctions that might lead to onsets of the illness, no conclusive results have been developed. While Bipolar disorder may be a highly debilitating disease, there exist a number of treatment options. Treatment for the disorder before the 1970s was non-existent. Patients were often sent to psychiatric wards or in less severe instances instructed to merely cope with their disorder. Since the early 1970s, a number of treatment options have emerged that have progressively reshaped the therapeutic climate. While many of these treatments are medicinal treatments, there is a wide variety of options for patients suffering from Bi-polar symptoms.
Because advertisers are trying to gain the attention of their target consumer group, they work hard to depict the ideals of society. If young and slim is attractive, they will work that into their presentation in as many ways as they can. If macho and hard is the current fashion, this, too, will be reflected in the way a product is marketed. At the same time, by changing the way they combine different types of visual clues, these same media outlets can help to redefine a culture, to make it more tolerant of ecological issues, for example, or to change the way society views gender roles. A look back into the print advertisements of a long-successful, large company such as Coca-Cola reveals how advertising has both reflected and influenced the changing ideals concerning the definition of male and female during the past 30 years.The Coca-Cola ads of the 1970s reflected the country’s political instability with an almost overwhelming emphasis on reasserting the American ideals of the typical white middle-class suburban lifestyle. In its Look Up America campaign, the company portrayed these solid ideals in the choice of artistic styles as well as their choices in images displayed. A calendar widely distributed during this campaign utilized an artistic style that simplified the images to a basic color scheme with very little in the way of extraneous detail. The design features a realistic-seeming large bottle of Coca Cola centered on the page with the rest of the images remaining stylized. The calendar itself is tucked neatly down in the very lower-left corner while an inspiring poem balances it out on the right corner. The bottle seems to rest on this solid text area while it is surrounded by a variety of images that serve to celebrate the ideal American lifestyle. We see a man and a woman out with their bikes, the Golden Gate Bridge, the rolling hills, the snow-covered peaks, the mighty river, the soaring eagle, a pair of hikers enjoying the splendor and a group of people at a community picnic.
AnalysisThe experiment is interesting because not only do GVT members originate from different places but also rarely or never see each other in person (Kankanhalli, 2006) relying instead on interaction through various forms of communication technology.Whilst GVT can have many benefits for organizations, especially in terms of being able to provide continuous support to customers, savings from travel costs, and enhanced creativity, in practice, the diversity and dispersion pose several challenges. Knowing the nature of these challenges and potential conflict helps to better prepare for them so as to make the teamwork as effective as possible, which after all is the objective of collaborating in this manner. Thus the overall motivation for the research as far as our own organization is concerned is to learn what can either retain or strengthen team cohesion and minimize the potential for conflict to safeguard team performance. For the research and evaluation, the case study will be scrutinized to identify particular traits and other reasons for the conflict to support this learning. This insight can then be used to manage the causes and alleviate the negative outcomes of conflict (Kankanhalli, 2006). This includes the role and influence of technology, team and task characteristics, and how these can impact favorably on team performance.The following specific questions are posed in the case study, and the answers used to build an integrative model of conflict and performance in GVT, which can guide future empirical research efforts and provide practical suggestions on conflict management in GVT (Kankanhalli, 2006):Relationship (or affective) conflict: tension, friction, and personal issues such as mutual dislike, personality clashes, and annoyance, so characterized by intense negative emotions. Relationship conflict was apparent between American and Swedish members in team B.One of theparadigms that emerge from studying the problem is the promotion of team diversity with respect to values and demographics, as opposed to ensuring similarity amongst team members. Diversity may be of a functional nature due to differences in education, experience, and expertise, as in the case of team B, or relate to social differences such as age, gender, culture, and race.
The threshold level of stress as experienced by different people depends on the individual appraisal of the demands of their work. Such subjective appraisal of work demands is affected by a myriad of other factors that may not be work-related, for instance, socio-economic factors. Apart from these, there are other factors that may affect workers’ appraisal of demand include race, gender, age, geographic location, health, housing, number of children community work and family arrangements (Arnold, et al. 2010). Furthermore, there should be a consideration of specific psychological factors that include personal traits and experiences. Lastly, stress level depends on the worker’s interpretation of threatening demand and whether he or she believes that he or she can meet the demands of that particular job. Thus, all these psychological and social variables profoundly affect experiences of stress by different individuals. Subjective self-evaluations reported by an individual are valid just like objective data collected on an individual which includes aspects such as absenteeism and accidents.As the national association of mental health reported recently, the worker’s personality and coping strategy have direct perceptual or moderating effects on outcomes of stress. For instance, a socially isolating job will be more stressful to an extrovert while an introvert will find work that needs more social interaction to be stressful and difficult (Fincham, et al 2005) the coping skills that this person possesses. Thus, one job that is stressful to one worker is likely not to be stressful to another. That means that while putting across preventive measures on workplace stress. one should always consider the difference in perception of stress. Numerous strategies have to be devised to manage stressful situations for different workers depending on their personality and coping skills.
Name of Newborn ChildPicking the name of a newborn child is one of the most precious moments of life and one of the biggest starting events that parents go through. The name chosen has an effect upon the child’s personality throughout their life and is the child’s identification. Hence, parents and other relatives ponder over names thoroughly before choosing a suitable one. Parents consider factors such as names that sound good, names that are in fashion, names that are not common, or names that were the names of ancestors (Fergusson, pp. 15-16) .This paper will provide parents with a step-by-step guide on how to choose the name of a newborn child.1. Start PreparingIn the last few months of pregnancy, parents should start searching online and in baby books for possible names of their child. Usually, at this point in time, the gender of the child is known, hence names can be shortlisted accordingly. Pre select and shortlist the names that both of you prefer.2. Consider Certain FactorsDo not be stubborn when selecting possible names for your child and do not choose names on the name of your great great great grandfather who supposedly did many amazing things when he was living. You must consider that your child will be stamped with this name for his/her entire life. hence the name should be contemporary and must not be embarrassing for the child. 3. Find out the Meaning of the Name you Have Chosen:A name can have a lasting impact upon a child’s personality. hence, it is important to choose a name with a good meaning. Ensure that the name does not have any exceptionally embarrassing meaning in a few well-known languages. Also ensure that the name has a meaning or quality that you would like to see in your child. 4. Determine if it Sounds GoodEnsure that the name you have chosen sounds good with the child’s family name. It is acceptable to match the child’s name with your own and that of the child’s other siblings like some parents like all of their children’s names to begin with the same letter. However, do not make that the only important factor. Diversity is good, and if siblings have names that rhyme or sound alike, that is not an issue. The important thing is to consider a name that your child will feel comfortable with and appreciate all their life. Last but not the least, consult all your relatives and the child’s grandparents for possible suggestions. Look around you at names of other people that seem attractive to you. However, do not forget to consider the other mentioned factors before making the final selection. Although the saying says, What’s in a Name? names do tend to matter and should be chosen carefully (Cartel, 2012).Works CitedCartel, P. Five Factors to Consider When Naming Your Baby. EzineArticles.Com. Retrieved on January 29, 20122: http://ezinearticles.com/?Five-Factors-to-Consider-in-Naming-Your-Babyid=5432922Ferguson, R. Perfect Babies’ Names. Random House Books. 2007.
The first four stages of the life cycle. which include infancy, toddlerhood, early childhood/elementary, and adolescence. have much to do with figuring out the way the world works as well as achieving most of the individual’s physical growth. The second four, however, involve self-identification, figuring out ourselves both internally and externally as we continuously meet and overcome new life challenges. These stages, characterized by several general characteristics in physical, physiological, psychological, and social changes that the individual must meet and come to terms with, include Young Adulthood, Middle Adulthood, Late Adulthood, and Death, and Dying.Young Adulthood, typically characterized as occurring between the ages of 18 and 40, is usually more concerned with social and cognitive development than the physical development that dominated the earlier stages. The developmental tasks of this phase of life as defined by Robert Havighurst take on the form of determining and obtaining an occupation, marriage, having children, managing a home, and achieving social success through civic and other roles (Craig Baucum 2001). The importance placed on the attainment of these goals as well as the degree of attainment required varies greatly based on gender, culture, education, and economic level. As can be seen, by the types of tasks involved, there is a great deal of personality adjustment, definition, and the realization that must take place in order for the individual to learn to live with another, raise children together and take an active role in the greater community. According to Erikson, this stage is characterized by the question of intimacy or isolation as the individual determines whether they prefer the opposite sex or the same sex and how they react to this realization and whether they will be able to give and receive love and make long-term commitments to relationships (Craig Baucum 2001).
Correspondingly, as stated by Sarwoko et. al., (2013), entrepreneurial characteristics are determined with a person by his/her level of education, individual morals, age, work capabilities, moral support and professional support. Sorensen Chang (2006) also noted a similar perspective stating that entrepreneurial characteristics which determine the business success comprise psychological factors and educational factors. It is in this context that psychological factors which essentially constitute a successful entrepreneur comprise requirement of accomplishment, locus of control and personality traits. These factors are further noted to impose a direct impact on business performance. In a similar context, educational factor such as higher education is also believed to have a considerable impact on entrepreneurship as it reflects the capability of entrepreneurs or specific individuals in business in comparison to average people. Blackman (2003) had divided the characteristics of an entrepreneur into two types which can be identified as an attribute and attained the qualification. Attribute, in this context refers to the age, gender, religion and family background of the entrepreneur which are learnt to accumulatively create substantial effects on his/her characteristics. On the other hand, attained qualifications such as education and business experiences also have strong influences on entrepreneurial characteristics of an individual. The study of Shane et. al. (2003) described in this regard that establishment of entrepreneurial character is influenced by several external and internal aspects such as social and business environment, education level, individual values and work experiences among others. Furthermore, Islam et. al. (2011) noted that the characteristics of an entrepreneur can be referred to the demographic features, individual features, personality traits, entrepreneur alignments and entrepreneur willingness. Several types of research on entrepreneurship had found that demographic characteristics such as age, gender and socio-economic background accumulatively imposes considerable influence on entrepreneurial objectives, efforts, individual qualities and personality traits such as self-assurance and persistence, independence, innovativeness, risk-taking behaviour, reactiveness, aggressiveness and inspiration. Zacharakis et. al. (2000) also found that people with the age group from 25 to 44 years were mostly active in entrepreneurial activities. Majority of the successful entrepreneurs were also learnt to be somewhat younger in age. With respect to gender, it can be observed that women are usually less prospective to be a founder of a new enterprise, than men. In this regard, Zacharakis et. al. (2000) revealed that males pursue significantly higher entrepreneurial objective in comparison to females. The success of the business is classified into three categories which are individual characteristics of an entrepreneur, organisational characteristics and environmental nature. In this context, it can be stated that individual characteristics comprise attributes such as education, managerial experiences,industrial understanding and social abilities.
The first is recruitment and hiring since that is where human resource management begins in actuality. The second is the issue of personality profiling and profiling in general for law enforcement which is also an ethical issue. The third is the issue of reward and performance management which can be taken jointly since good performance in any organization has to be rewarded as a matter of course.Since human resource management begins with recruitment and hiring, the two central issues for a law enforcement agency undergoing a drive for recruitment and hiring process can be understood as the need to follow anti-discrimination practices and equal opportunity guidelines (Lockwood, 2005). Simply put, all candidates must be viewed and hired based on their strengths and weaknesses as applicants without giving any weight to their race, gender, age, physical abilities except in situations where such requirements are an intrinsic part of the job (Alleyne, 2005). As reported by Clarke (2005), a lot remains to be done in this particular field since law enforcement agencies, as well as other organizations, have been questioned on their ability to ensure good recruitment practices.Given that the nature of the job in modern law enforcement often includes guidelines for inclusion for officers who may have a disability and makes accessibility a mandatory requirement, there are very few exceptions to the ethical guidelines as well as the legal requirements which can be obtained by an agency. Without exception, recruiters for the law should follow ethical principles and it should be assumed by them that the ethical hiring rules apply in the fullest sense during the hiring process.Even before a person is hired, there are can be professional requirements which must be followed in the selection and interview process which mainly deal with ensuring confidentiality and the privacy of all candidates seeking positions with the agency.
They are taken through sessions dealing with issues that arise before and after marriage, such as insecurity in relationships. Many times, young couples opt for premarital counseling when their relationships are already damaged. It is a high time that people realize that premarital counseling should start immediately one gets into a serious relationship. This salvages many relationships because the partners get to be well equipped with the skills to deal with issues that arise in their relationships. Many couples today have the tendency of asking for quick solutions to their problems when they go for counseling. This tends to solve their current problem until the next one erupts and for this reason, it is a very wrong move. Young couples need to work on their relationships and salvage them from the start. Premarital counseling is an opportunity to explore the changes that are occurring in a relationship and setting good standards for a long and satisfying future. There is always an educational aspect in premarital counseling, where the couples learn the most important attribute in a relationship, which is communication skills (Foote, 2013). A couple is able to understand that the relationship they both yearn for is not the one they start with, but the one they build. This is because they are two unique persons from different backgrounds, who have come together so as to make their relationship work. A research conducted on Family Relations in the year 2003 reviewed 23 couples and found that premarital counseling was very important and effective (Ceren, 2008). According to Ceren, the couples that participated in premarital counseling reported significantly stronger marriages compared to those that did not participate (2008). Case Study of Steve and Nadia In premarital counseling, the couples learn about different issues that are very important in a relationship, such as sexuality. My case study is on a couple that is about to get married. that is, Steve and Nadia. They have dated for several years after meeting in college. They have been intimate with other partners before they dated. There are aspects of sexuality that the couple needs to know before they get married, such as arousal and response, intimacy, and contraception. When the topic of sexuality is mentioned, the first idea that comes into peoples’ minds is the physical act of sexual intercourse, but sexuality goes beyond engaging in sexual activity. In every human being, sexuality is part of the physical, emotional, intellectual, and social self. Sexuality affects the way a person thinks about himself or herself and how he or she relates to others. Sexuality is part of the entire life of a human being (The Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada, 2012). There are many factors that affect sexuality, for example, sexual orientation, gender, hormone levels, age among others. Sexual arousal and response start from the brain. that is, the human body responds to sexy thoughts or images, or even a feeling toward a partner. The feeling of arousal is then sent to the rest of the body, especially the genitals. For both men and women, the major component of arousal is increased blood flow to the genitals.
Intimate issues are approached diligently and therefore many people had experienced sexuality based on racial, gender difference and cultural perspectives. All these contribute to the views that sex as an activity was rejected but ironically taking place.2 The main deterrent for premarital sex in Antebellum US was the fear of women and girls getting pregnant. However, sexual desire always existed between the men and the women. This occurs regardless of social class, position, slave or not slave. At some point, control of casual sex was basically done by the families and the superiors in the society. In away, even these facilities were also under control by the superiors. However, premarital sex was totally not allowed for anybody. This is very concerning because it is the same people who are not allowing to have sex but they are in need of the same. However, the sexual taboo majorly applied to women in practice.3 This reflects gender bias in this issue of discussion. Men had many options as far as sex was concerned. They were enforcing the rules effectively. Unfair treatment and discrimination made Margaret Sanger who was born in 1883 fumed in search of reasonable means of birth control. Women were pressed and needed ways of having freedom by looking for birth control measures. The fear of getting pregnant was very high. The Comstock laws had put her under several arrest warrant. The pioneer woman nurse had to fly to Europe having built a strong backing from several friends and other associates to spearhead the need for birth control measures.4 Through persistence of this particular nurse, the court offered opportunity through other activists and birth control measures were ensured in Antebellum. Sexuality as away of exploitation was the only way that the women could fight for liberty. The men on the other hand were enjoying freedom on sexual matters. Birth control mechanisms for women were also ironically geared towards freedom in having sex just as men were doing. The limitation on right for women movement could be ended through this birth control move. This reflects much study on gender equality from endurance on sexual exploitation and deterring movement of women. In addition, it is claimed that the purpose of sexual intercourse and general meaning of marriage shapes most of the families in Antebellum. 5 It would be the right explanation why women were on the argumentative end when their rights were ignored. They had to champion it by themselves to achieve the hard found freedom. The question is that why were they championing on this freedom? More explanations from the book show that there was commercialization of sex. Women wanted to be like men and move around once they succeeded in birth control option they were geared towards. The author states, Women could now enjoy sex outside the marriage It is very ironical because through sex, they were exploited. Sexual repression stereotype in 1800’s impacted diverse public argument. All the professionals, including the doctors and religious leaders all had to contribute in the debate about sexual exploitation and experience in Antebellum. Sexual exploitation however called for reforms and internalization of values of middle class. These reforms included chastity, hard work and thrift. Many honest citizens were able to indulge in crimes, sinful activities and implicit sexual behaviors.
Save the children and youth movement-Raise awareness about human trafficking Save the children and youth is a movement in US and has an ongoing effort on gender based violence and raising public awareness about the plight of human trafficking victims in the rural communities. Plans are underway to organize campaigns every year. I intend to raise two national campaigns to raise awareness on human trafficking in communities as well as in schools, as the US is increasingly becoming a transits point for human traffickers. As an activist, I believe that the only important component in addressing human trafficking in schools is my massive involvement in massive awareness campaigns in order to prevent the trafficking of women and girls from our townships and rural communities. The key strategies in my plan consist of: Workshops Trainings and Public awareness campaigns Aims The aims of this campaign are to mobilize the communities and grass root social movements that combats slavery as well as human trafficking through community activism. My group has employed innovative solutions to every individual in fighting and linking violence against women and children with human trafficking in their own backyards across the country. … gn which I am intending to launch will have the name they too have a voice as women and children are trafficked for labor and sexual exploitations. There have been increased cases of domestic trafficking in US and more especially the young boys and girls are routinely trafficked from rural areas and taken to the urban areas where they are abused and exploited as domestic workers, they work in the fishing and mining industries, commercial agriculture not mentioning sexual exploitation. This rally invites local artists and schools in order to develop materials that address properly trafficking and applying it to the community and the local context (Nicalo 6). Posters, calendars, stickers, T-shits, brochures’ and caps shall also be distributed in all the major cities across the townships, and rural communities. Educational materials will also be developed in the local languages of the different communities and this will be done in order to foster a better comprehension of the subject matter within the different communities in the country. Some 10,000 minors in the United States are enslaved for labor, or even sexually abused with Florida been among the top three human trafficker’s destinations. You find that most of the victims go unnoticed by neighbors, teachers and even the police they encounter. Many families have lived in vain not knowing the whereabouts of their loved ones hence this is something which is traumatizing so much. We need to educate school districts, many activists and organizations have to come in to try and stop this growing menace in our country. As women activists’, we have to rise up and protect our children. My drive to becoming activists was fuelled by a story I read about one Allison Good, 32 years old. He was 5 years old the first
Mission, Vision, Values, and Ethics StatementsMission StatementTo provide opportunities for all humans to unburden, relieve and cast away their mental, emotional and psychological burdens, through the provision of humanitarian services that promotes the dignity of the downtrodden. The agency is guided by the need to give support, strengthen and empower all humans who may have been denied a dignified chance to life, regardless of the nature of their humanitarian needs and without due regard to their background, age, race, sex, religion, culture or sexual orientation. We at Humanitarian agency value human dignity and acknowledge the right of every human to live a dignified life, without being deterred by social or economic circumstances, that all humans may realize their destiny. Vision StatementThe agency will be the most accommodative, welcoming and friendly human services agency of our time, which will offer humanitarian services indiscriminately to all people who needs them most. Value StatementThis agency recognizes that achieving dignity for all humans requires embracing diversity. that all humans may have an opportunity to express themselves to the fullest, without being limited by their age, gender, religion, culture, status, background or sexual orientation. This agency commits to embracing inclusiveness of all humans and their diverse needs with dignity, respect and compassion. Ethical Statement The safety, privacy and dignity of our clients stands as the basis of our interaction with all people, whether potential clients or anyone else in need of human services assistance. While understanding that the motive behind any business is to earn profitability, the economic inadequacy of any human in need shall never stand in our way to offer the most deserved humanitarian services to all people, without discrimination on whatever basis. The human services standards provide that the privacy and confidentiality of all clients shall be observed at all times, while seeking informed consent from the client before engagement in the duty of a human services practitioner (NOHS, 2015). Therefore, this agency commits to respecting the rights of the clients to engage and disengage with the agency at any stage, and at will. Human service practitioners should recognize the vulnerability of clients in need for emotional, psychological or mental interventions, and desist from taking advantage of such vulnerabilities (Manning, 2003). Thus, this agency commits to treat every client with dignity, while desisting from engaging in any act that may cause or increase harm to the clients or exploit their vulnerable situation. The agency recognizes that human services practitioners should not impose their values, beliefs or social biases on their clients (Hugman, 2012). Thus, this human agency recognizes the diversity of values, cultures and beliefs of our clients, and commits to respect and honor the points of differences, in recognition of the freedom of conscious, values and beliefs for all humans. Driven by the need to offer humanitarian services to all those who are most deserving, this agency seeks to offer support, strengthen and empower its clients to overcome their vulnerability and make a positive stride towards living a respectable life, without feeling sorry or responsible for the mistakes of the past. ReferencesHugman, R. (2012). Culture, Values and Ethics in Social Work: Embracing Diversity. Routledge.Manning, S. S. (2003). Ethical leadership in human services: A multi-dimensional approach. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.National Organization for Human Services (NOHS) (2015). Ethical Standards for Human Service Professionals. Available at: http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/ethical-standards-for-hs-professionals
MEDIA THE TECHNOLOGY PARADIGM INTERNET VS PRINT The story of advent of Internet as the superior source of information is one which had a slow andcumbersome start in the mid of last century. It is no small distinction that technological advancements in supportive fields and better infrastructure have pushed the growth of internet media into separate dimension to make it an integral part of everyone’s lives irrespective of age, gender, nationality and creed. The power of information in any age is unequivocal as it can change the destiny of nations, form public opinion, propel invention and innovation among other things. There are many voices that hold on to the ubiquitous belief that the ephemeral nature of information in the modern times is only tangential to a singular aspect- source. The unchallenged power of plethora of books, journals and other sources of primary information are not in question here, rather the question lies in whether internet and the new media superstructure has overtaken the conventional modes of information as in case of print, radio and television with relation to speed of distribution and the scope of universal followership with one click. The need for better information served faster to the multitudes craving for better and more efficient modes of information distribution has been the propelling factor in the unchallenged reign of internet as a vital source of information, or mis-information as the case may be. The contentious issue facing the public at large is the possibility of internet replacing books, journals, even libraries in becoming the primary source of information. The net has also overtaken the traditional trusted source for news ie. TV. This was evident in the 9/11 attacks on World trade centre wherein there was a surge of ‘flash crowd’ on the net trying to get the information and details as they had no access to TV at their workplace. (NRC 2003) The last decade has been one filled with continuous innovation in field of net technology and the growth of use of net has lead to previously uncharted dimensions with the combining of net, mobile and computer technology to form a interlinked superstructure that dishes out news and information at a ‘same time’ basis. The only issue with this process of information sharing by the millions and billions of sources is creating a huge volume of mis-information as well. Books, journals and research papers are products of years, sometimes lifetimes of study by experts in their chosen field. There are several measures of reviews and cross-reviews to ensure that this information is accurate and trustworthy. Thus they serve as proper primary sources whereas the net has the disadvantage of having information twisted depending on the polarities of the sources that upload it. Accurate information needs to be gleaned from sources that are reputable and books, journals rate high on dependability scale. (Pam Hilts 2007) There are several oppositions to this theory, the most of it being that the internet has evolved to achieve a modern paradigm wherein good information can be extracted from proper sources as Government websites, news portals and other trustworthy sources. Google, the numero-uno in IT related services according to Fortune.com has pioneered several avenue to access authentic information via the ‘scholar’ and ‘books’ section wherein the information can be looked up from the millions of peer reviewed journals and books in its database. Thus the criticism of internet as an unreliable source is actually consequential on the human factor downloading the information as well as the sources they are using to get that information. The fact is in the end even internet users source their information from the books and journals albeit via the net medium. Thus this negates the theory that internet will replace the books as the main source of information, as here the origin and distribution of information stand on same pedestal, rather it is an inevitable truth that the future of information is going to depend on the dual pillars of virtual and actual sources of the same-internet and books. Works Cited Editors National Research Council The Internet under crisis conditions: learning from September 11 National Research Council (U.S.), 2003 Washington. Hilts Pam Internet vs. books for scholarly research on 10th Aug 2006(Retrieved on 28th April 2011) from http://www.helium.com/items/73910-internet-vs-books-for-scholarly-research
Studies showed that people who marry later in life tend to stay married than people who marry during their teens, although compatibility, education, and economic factors shape the stability of marriage for both groups. The ideal age of marriage is in the earlyto late twenties, although people who marry later can also have stable marriages. Teenage marriage has higher dissolution rates than older people who get married, although teenage childbirth is not strongly correlated with marital dissolution. Educational level, socio-economic status of women before and during the marriage, and perceptions of role consensus and quality of spouse role enactmentimpact marital stability, whether people marry early or not. Because compatibility is critical to marriage stability, marrying earlier is not always strongly correlated to higher marital dissolution, except when it interfered with educational and/or employment opportunities for women, since women are still the typical gender burdened with childcare and household responsibilities.The main hypothesis is that people, who marry later, specifically from they’re the early to late twenties, tend to have higher marriage stability than teenage marriages. Other mediating factors can exist to ensure the strength and duration of marriages for older people, such as race, religion, education, compatibility, and socio-economic conditions, but only the last three were emphasized.
As a child, I felt the perception that everyone was the same in terms of religion, race and class. Then, the difference among people never seemed significant to me. But with growth, I was exposed more and more to the society and that enabled me to understand the difference in lifestyles among people. Interaction with people gave me the perception of their identity. Firstly, gender was the first difference I noted among individuals. Gender is the most significant difference that a person can relate to and note the difference (Barnes, 2009). The issue of class and race was never significant since as children what brought together was the fact that we had common hobbies. As a child, I had an innocent perception which did not give me a chance of creating barriers depending on class and race. Additionally, factors defining one’s class and race were not significant. In my eyes, all people lived in one world and there was no difference between me and anyone else in it. Sexual identity was the main and major facts that I noticed about myself. Sexual identity shaped about 90 percent of my daily activities. On realizing my sexual identity, my sexual orientation also came along with it. This happened significantly during my teenage life when one is needed to choose friends and companions. Sexual identity comes along with physical change depending on your gender. Upon knowing my sexual identity and orientation I was able to know my strengths and weaknesses. It also made me realize what was expected of me in society. Professionally, my sexual identity does not play a much significant role since I believe in equality among all genders and sexual orientations. However, being a male or a female in a working station may determine the stipulation of activities you will be required to partake. When growing up I slowly understood about disability and ability which enabled me to choose activity preferences in my life and most importantly while choosing my profession. In understand disability I came to know reasons why some individuals could not perform specific tasks.
This paper is aimed to explicate the concept of looking-glass self in a brief manner, along with an example of this concept. Looking-glass Self Cooley proposes in his concept of looking-glass self that an individual develops his self by interpersonal interaction with other individuals in society and by perceptions of society which are considered as associated with him. The growth of the concept of one’s own self is shaped by the considerations of other people’s perception regarding certain individual. It is a significant human trait that individuals conform to their own considerations regarding other people’s perceptions for those individuals2. A person does not act in discordance with what other people consider him to act. Cooley describes society as it is the blending, coactions, interplay and interchange of mental selves. The looking-glass self is the depiction of this society which plays an essential role in the development of person’s self in accordance with the perceptions of society which has been shaped by the involvement of several people’s selves3. In the concept of looking-glass self Cooley has presented three essential components by which a person’s self has been developed. … Lastly, the person develops a self concept in the light of his appearance to others and the imagination of others’ thinking about his appearance in which a person can either develop a self feeling of pride or shame. In the light of imagined judgments about societal perception for one’s self results in the development of one’s self in any particular manner6. These three components of glass-looking self produce a self of any person which is acquired through social interactions. A person’s self and its appearance in the social structure are intrinsically dependent upon the self assessment of perceptions and judgments which that person conceives by an emphatic relationship with other people in society. A person conceives himself as he imagines how the world conceives him and act in accordance with that imagined judgment. This judgment shapes person’s self and self concept, and it is acquired through social interactions. Social interactions provide other’s perception regarding one’s appearance on the basis of which one develops his self, behavior and appearance7. Example A person gets inspired by comments which a peer collects from other people regarding any appearance trait which he posses. The inspired individual seeks to adopt that appearance trait to match the stature of public perception and he aims to conform to the criteria of public perception by acquiring certain traits and demonstrate in public. These traits are acquired due to the social interaction which develops a thought regarding other people’s perception about the individual’s self8. Another important aspect is, if an individual is told by his
icer must be able to combine the application, interview, and verification process with a knowledge of what ‘red flags’ to look for in each part of that process. The person responsible for hiring determines, to a large extent, the success of their employer. This fact is especially magnified for small businesses that may not have a capable replacement on staff. Until the void is filled by a capable applicant, the entire business suffers adverse effects.The person in charge of hiring is an important responsibility in any company but large corporations are able to absorb a few judgment errors in employee selection. An employer of hundreds or thousands has few positions that only one person could do. Small businesses and other various organizations may have, for example, five employees each with a specific function. An analogy is a musical band that would likely have to replace a very integral part of the group such as the drummer with a stranger. Almost 80 percent of U.S. businesses employ less than 10 people. A majority of businesses must make the right call when hiring another team member and they must do it quickly. I have learned through experience and by research that by following a few guidelines, the employer can at least increase their odds for finding the right match for the position (Sloan, 2006).Pre-employment screenings ascertain basic information required for every job applicant. This procedure facilitates a systematic and orderly process from the beginning. In this phase, the employer documents the applicant’s identification and job classification for general record-keeping purposes. Additionally, the applicant is classified as to their appropriateness for a particular position. Information is ascertained as to the applicant’s education, training, and other qualifications. These initial groupings expedite the process and facilitate an increased propensity for a justifiable hire. Generally speaking, it is illegal for an employer to inquire as to an applicant’s ethnicity or religion and not recommended even while engaged in a casual conversation at any time during the hiring process. Discrimination, as defined by law, is a broad issue also encompassing gender and disabilities.
Gail Godwin’s short story A Sorrowful Woman revolves around a woman who feels burdened by her everyday life of being a wife and a mother. She feels overwhelmed by the presence of her husband and child and gradually starts withdrawing from them and in the end becomes successful in her endeavor. The story ends with the death of the woman. Emily Grierson As a child Emily was manipulated by her strict and disciplined father who instilled in her the old south values. When she reached the age of marriage, her father rejected all her suitors apparently because he thought no man was eligible for her. Her upbringing thus isolated her from the residents of the town and she became totally dependent on her father. It was for this reason when her father died she refused to acknowledge his death for three days. After insistent requests by the townspeople she eventually broke down, and they buried her father quickly. Her first sign of setting herself free from the psychological bondage to her father was when she started dating Homer Barron who belonged to lower social status, knowing very well her father would never approve of Homer. But, when Homer informed her that he was not interested in marrying her she reverted to her secluded self. Life had become a standstill for her and it was then she decided to murder Homer. A year before she buys arsenic she comes out of her seclusion to keep company with Homer. His low social status indicated her willingness to break the norms of the South values. When Homer refused to marry she had the choice to continue living in the modern world and seek a new life partner for herself or seek psychological counseling. Instead she chose to murder Homer. To promote her behavioral pattern of rejecting the modern world she refused to pay tax bills of the new generation of tax leaders. Because her father did not allow her to befriend the young men of the town, her sexual growth did not happen in a normal manner. The climax of the story indicates that she is a necrophiliac which means she is sexually attracted to corpses. It emerges from the powerful urge to control others. Her father had a strong control over her, a characteristic that she displayed when she showed the same control over the dead body of her father for three days. Later on she transferred this control to Homer. For forty years she did not disclose the dead body of Homer and when at last it was discovered after her death it was revealed that she had developed the habit of sleeping with the skeletal remains of the corpse. Emily is presented as protector of Southern values and in doing so she isolated herself from the modern world. In the end the futility of clinging to old values is represented by the fact that in the final years of her life she found solace in the corpse of Homer which indicated a decaying ideal: For a long while we (townspeople) just stood there, looking down at the profound and fleshless grin. The body had apparently once lain in the attitude of an embrace, but now the long sleep that outlasts love, that conquers even the grimace of love, had cuckolded him….Then we noticed that in the second pillow was the indentation of a head. One of us lifted something from it, and leaning forward, that faint and invisible dust dry and acrid in the nostrils, we saw a long strand of iron-gray hair (Faulkner). A sorrowful woman Godwin’s story represents an ordinary woman with a husband, durable, receptive, gentle and a son tender golden three
Burger King Restaurants, the largest franchisee is paying $2.5 million in order to settle fed-eral claims of sexual harassment. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission says the agree-ment with Carrols Corp. covers 89 female employees around the country. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission alleged that Carrols employees subjected women in dozens of restaurants to unwanted touching, obscene comments, strip searches, exposure of genitalia, and rape. However, the Burger King Restaurants Company did not admit any wrongdoing and said in a statement that it settled the case to avoid litigation costs. This particular settlement required Burger King Restaurants to improve its ability to respond to harassment charges. Syracuse, N.Y.-based Carrols owns and op-erates more than 570 Burger King Restaurants in 13 states. Carrols was accused of sexual harass-ment and a widespread violation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. Burger King’s largest franchi-see–Carrols Restaurant Group Inc. agreed to a $2.5 million settlement with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) on Tuesday, this marked the end of a 14-year sexual harassment case in which Carrols was accused of widespread violation of Title VII of The Civil Rights Act. According to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the money will go to 88 former employees and one current employee, the remaining claimants out of 90,000 female em-ployees that the EEOC initially contacted to investigate Carrols’ alleged harassment. In spite of this, Carrols did not admit wrongdoing as a component of the settlement, and the CEO of the company, Daniel Accordino said in a statement: We unequivocally do not tolerate sexual harassment in our workplace. The company however did agree to augment its anti-harassment policies and increase training, and will be reporting to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) for two years. This story relate to ideas that we have discussed in the course concerning sexual harassment and human resources. According to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC, sexual harassment is a form of gender discrimination in violation of Title VII of Civil Rights Act 1964. In fact, by 1998, the Supreme Court of the United States made employers more liable for employee sexual harassment. Nevertheless, the Society for Human Resource Management has documented in their report that 62%of companies today offer programs on sexual harassment prevention training, and 97% have a written policy of sexual harassment (Crouch, 2009). In the case of the Burger King Restaurants, there were some inconsistencies as there was no clear sexual harassment policy written. Over 88 female employees reported sexual harassment and have been compensated due to laxity of the company to define a
At the same time, other researchers indicate that diet is fundamental to the development and maturity of children. In this case, therefore, the consumption rates and habits determine whether the child will be obese or a normal child. Blissett (2011, pp. 826) indicates that, it is imperative to make a note of the fact that, consumption habits and rates are recurrent in the subsequent adulthood years of the child. Though other factors like the media, school system have an effect on the eating habits, the role of the parent takes up the greatest percentage. This essay shall undertake an initiative to critically review the work of Montgomery, et al’s (2006, pp. 1149) by comparing and contrasting it with the works of other authors. The critique will highlight the similarity of various arguments in the text, as well as, the contrasts of the journal with others of the same topic. Additionally, the critique will attempt to highlight the most tangible evidence provided in the selected texts. 2.0. Evaluation/Synthesis According to Montgomery, et al’s (2006, pp. 1150), the feeding style of parents play a major role in determining the kind of feeding behavior of their children. … In this context, therefore, it is justified to argue that, parents are the major determinants of the dietary habits of their patients. In order to come up with tangible evidence on the notion of parents feeding styles and obese children, Montgomery, et al’s (2006, pp. 1149) conducted a survey using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) on a sample of 117 selected Scottish children. In this case, they aimed at finding out if gender implicates the weight of the child, weight status of children, feeding styles as well as, the normal intakes of energy by the sample children. The major aim of this article includes, conducting research on the changes that have taken place in the sample children since the commencement of the research, the implications of diet regulation and the weight of the children and finally the intake level of energies by the Scottish children. It is justified to argue that, this article is valid, in that, the research was confined on children of two age numbers. thus, it was extremely easy to collect and analyze the data collected. This journal also concurs with the thoughts of Powers, et al (2006, pp. 2026) who argue that the high rates of obesity amongst children have been related to the parent feeding styles and practices introduced on the children. From the results of Haycraft, Blissett, and Meyer’s (2011, pp. 647) research, eating behaviors of the children have a great correlation with the parenting style, in relation to the feeding practices. Sleddens, et al (2010, pp. 30) study also incorporated the use of Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire to assess the impacts of the feeding styles on children’s
This essay analyses Lang’s creation of two opposing worlds in Metropolis through the director’s theatrical and painterly treatment of the Metropolis’ society and camera movement and editing. The managers’ and workers’ worlds generally collided, because of conflicting interests that intersected prevailing class, technology, and gender issues, although the film’s ending suggested some form of resolution through mediation. Lang used stylised architecture, which has a layered structure that captures the class, age, and gender divisions in society. Each of the film’s shot progresses to another in a more vertical fashion than horizontal, which delineates the vertically-structured, capitalist social class system. The skyscrapers and its vertical divisions underscore the linkages among different sectors of society. The bottom layers serve to buttress the upper layers. More so, these layered buildings delineate the sharp division between the managerial and working class. The New Tower of Babel dominates the skyline and stands for the vertical social class structure (Lunning 2008, p.130). It serves as the control centre or the brain of the whole metropolis, while other infrastructures radiate from it (Lunning 2008, p.130). Its internal mechanisms also plunge further below towards the roots, where the workers live and work. The working class are further divided by gender and age, where the young workers are more visible than the older ones. The female aspect of labour is invisible in this film. Rotwang symbolises the dualism between the old and young and the female and male, as he lives in his old and cavernous laboratory. This laboratory represents his old age, which is tempered, or rather worsened, by his brilliance. His prosthetic hand represents the decay of humanity and the rise of technology and it is the same hand that lights Maria with an artificial light source (Roth 1978, p.344). The loss of his hand signifies the castration of the male because of his pursuit of the robot version of Hel, his loved one, and the castration of his humanity, because he became obsessed in producing technology to fill in the missing human connection in his life (Roth 1978, p.344). He is also old and he needed technology to sustain his life’s ambitions, unlike the young Maria and Freder who use their energy to achieve their missions in life. His laboratory is a labyrinth of his mind, the conscious logic. Still, Lang showed that no matter how genius Rotwang seems, his emotionality clouded his rationality, which resulted to his doom. The Metropolis is also geographically defined with a clear division between the upper and lower ground, as the urban space further allocated spaces for living, working, and recreation (Lunning 2008, p.130). The subterranean portion of the city houses the workers and their offspring, while the beautiful, panoramic, and technology-driven upper segment supports the managers and their brethren. Stoicea (2006) talked about the
In my household, food was never a focal part of the family structure that involved a collaborative dining session much like those often illustrated from typical 1950’s-variety family structures. Therefore, the quality and dimensions, especially those delivered psychologically, were never strongly reinforced through the process of cooking together and ultimately consuming together. The food selections in my household during my youth were rather generic, consisting of basic varieties of beef, chicken, and common household snacks. Because of this, eating often became a routine activity simply to satisfy hunger. Consumption was more of a ritualistic situation rather than the satisfaction of a psychological need that some people experience in the process of dining and preparing together as a family unit. It is because of this limited symbolism associated with food that I have developed my current dietary habits and this directly impacts how I have, in the past, viewed food as a lifestyle and cultural significance. However, this course has changed my view on eating, especially when considering the different cultural symbolism that food represents for many in and out of the United States. I have recently begun to realize that I have missed out on many of the important sociological dimensions that food and consumption can provide, along with the camaraderie that is often developed by discussing the importance of food. Rituals are often symbolic activities that reveal cultural values associated with a specific community of people and often produce social predictability as well as the creation of individual social identity (Leeds-Hurwitz, 61). I find myself disappointed, especially after learning about the different elements of food as having much cultural consequence, that I had not previously considered the social value that food can bring to enhancing lifestyle. Being part of the middle class social structure, the quality of high-dollar foods has usually been limited to visualization, through television cooking shows and other gourmet chef programs. Because of this, depth in terms of taste and experimentation has never been given much personal thought. Much, I believe now, is missing from daily lifestyle by not exploring the different dimensions of food. This can be attributed, with a minor sense of blame, to the family structure and their limited emotional diversity associated with consumption and food variety. Gender and race as associated with a non-diverse worldview on food are not generally applicable to my own values associated with food since it has only been recently that I have begun to reassess the quality and cultural togetherness that food consumption and discussion can bring in a social or family setting. Some companies trying to sell their food products attempt to get consumers interesting in powdered sauces and cake mixtures by introducing a degree of nostalgia into advertising. Slogans such as just like mom used to make are often used to gain more interest and bring forth a psychological response from buyers (Bugge, 22). Though these advertising efforts have never had any meaning for me in previous years, I now recognize that many people are attracted to the process of enjoying home cooking in a friendly and unified family atmosphere. I find a certain sense of remorse after considering the value of the home-cooked quality meal that people seem to prefer and wish that it had been a broader part of my childhood. Because of this new type of thinking associated with food, I find myself wanting to explore an entirely new dimension in relation to food, socialization with consumption, and also the preparation process. I have always measured my personal identity based on goal-attainment and
Teenagers all over the world face many problems as they grow up. Many people have suffered teenage problems and, therefore, understand too well the magnitude of the devastation caused by such problems. In fact, there are few parents across the globe who admit that parenting teenagers is rosy and for most of these parents, the experience is not consistent and thus fluctuates between being downright possible and difficult. In the current world, so many parents acknowledge that they have problem teenagers. In so many ways, teenage years may be the greatest experience for many parents. This is because it is the time they witness the results of their efforts of parenting as their children grow up into adult and prepare to take on life’s challenges in the modern world. However, it is acknowledged by many parents that controlling the activities of teenagers is not an easy task as this is the time drug abuse, late night parties, drinking, and peer influence are most prevalent. Boyfriends, girlfriends, and some many confusing arenas of sex, love and sexuality begins, and the teenagers often find themselves under intense psychological pressure. This is also the time in a teenager’s lives when they find themselves distressed by the direction their lives are taking. This is, therefore, the point in their lives when they require a lot of advice and guidance to help them shape their lives in the right way. This calls for the government and adults to ensure t hat teenagers are nurtured well. This paper will discuss why the government needs to put money on teenagers’ problems and the need for adults to provide these teenagers with hope. World Youth Report (189) notes that these days teenagers, regardless of the country of residence, social origin or gender, are subject to individual risks and meet new individual opportunities with some beneficial while others are disastrous. It notes that in most cases, youths tend to engage in illegal behaviors as they engage in drug abuse and addiction, and the infliction of violence against their peers. A survey by World Youth Report shows that apart from the US, rates of juvenile delinquency rose in 1990s (189). The report reveals that, in Western Europe, several arrests of juvenile delinquents and under-age criminals rose by an average of 50 percent between 1980s and 1990s. Juvenile crimes have also increased in Eastern Europe and other commonwealth countries. The report reveals that most of the juvenile delinquents are related to drug abuse and excessive consumption of alcohol (189). The report also suggests that, despite most programs and studies on juvenile delinquency, and focus on teenagers as offenders, the youths themselves fall victim to acts of delinquency. This, therefore, poses many threats in their lives. For instance, the report show that teenagers who are at risk of becoming delinquents in most cases lives in difficult situations (189). World Youth Report (200) argues that violence against youth violates their fundamental human rights. This calls for the government, individuals and institutions to commit their time, expertise, money and resources necessary to address this world problem. It is widely acknowledged that early intervention provides the best approach to juvenile delinquency prevention (Roucek 32). These measures prevent the youths from breaking the law. The government should, therefore, take up an initiative of providing money and setting up professional development programmes to provide legal alternatives to youth income generation. These include providing youths and adolescents with increased economic opportunities, education, professional training, new workplaces and some form of assistance in organizing business (world youth Report 201). This will help prevent the teenagers from getting involved in delinquent acts. The government should also provide money to be used in setting up educational centers focusing on youth educational programmes (Heilbrun, Goldstein, and Redding 124). This will help
Bambara has made the protagonist having the most developed character in the story through Sylvia, a young, poverty-stricken, black female whose kind is situated at a thought-provoking point. Indeed, she is a strong-willed girl, however, with further analysis on her character, I can say that Sylvia is a representation of the oppressed, subjugated and marginalized individuals. For Collins (128), women who are black happen to be located at a very interesting stance for the reason that they have the exceptional case of experiencing what she calls intersectionality, as they are situated in between the overpowering structures such as gender and race. Women are situated in a system of patriarchy which sees men to rule and be privileged in everything (Ticker 1197-1198). Women are the disadvantaged between the sexes who are always seen as the more helpless and more vulnerable beings compared to men. Women are judged as the weaker sex while men are the stronger ones. The experience of being an African-American girl is understood by Sylvia for she is one of them. Besides, Sylvia who belongs to the poor embodies the said class. Sylvia’s trip to midtown of New York City tells so much about her status as an impoverished young girl. She does not give the tip to the taxi driver just like what Miss Moore has said to her for she thinks she needs it much more than how much the driver needs it. She could not even afford any single stuff in the toy store which is certainly expensive and costs more…. Women are situated in a system of patriarchy which sees men to rule and be privileged in everything (Ticker 1197-1198). Women are the disadvantaged between the sexes who are always seen as the more helpless and more vulnerable beings compared to men. Women are judged as the weaker sex while men are the stronger ones. The experience of being an African-American girl is understood by Sylvia for she is one of them. Besides, Sylvia who belongs to the poor embodies the said class. Sylvia’s trip to midtown of New York City tells so much about her status as an impoverished young girl. She does not give the tip to the taxi driver just like what Miss Moore has said to her for she thinks she needs it much more than how much the driver needs it. She could not even afford any single stuff in the toy store which is certainly expensive and costs more than what the rest of the American-African community has allocated for their food consumption. Being in an economically deprived situation enables her to realize the things she does not possess. To be someone stricken by poverty is to be someone who suffers inequality. As well, her age of being young, I think that it signifies her subordination among those who are older than her. All these aspects of Sylvia’s character such as her gender, race, class and age, are affecting her identity in various degrees, which all contributes to her being dominated. These factors are intersecting together to contribute to her forms of oppression (Knudsen 61-76). The author, Bambara, has formulated the personality of Sylvia very profoundly for the readers to be able to see, think, and understand the position of someone who suffers from obvious oppression and inequality. On the one hand, another important aspect of Sylvia’s
On the other hand in stage two, this is where there is a more supportive culture, widened perception of work and family, and a well-planned or coordinated set of reactions. Finally, in the last stage, is where companies or workplace organizations start to encounter the status quo and putting their attention towards forming a real family-friendly culture and neighboring community (Poelmans, Caligiuri, 2008). Once an organization has put into practice one program or policy, the initial anxieties is unnecessary but instead, the firm has the prospective of widen its programs and carry on with the same for over a long period of time. The following figure illustrates the evolution and advancement work/family programs based on the research conducted by Family and Work Institute. The prospect of many business organizations or varied work places based on the quality of life for the employees’ families may rely entirely on how work and family engagements are solved. According to Crouter, Booth (2009) adequate focus to these issues will be significant for promoting growth and development of the businesses or any organization. STAGE ONE Coming up with a programmatic approach or response STEP TWO Constructing an integrated attitude STEP THREE Transforming the culture COMMITMENT Emerging though uncertain issue Family friendly work place as a human resource issue Work life a competitive Overcoming presumptions: Forming a family friendly workplace is not a business issue. Parity implies the same policy for all workers Family friendly work place is a woman’s affair Child care assistance implies forming on or near-site amenities. Attention on child care is widened to entail other work/ family aspects such as relocation and elder care. Programs and policies widened The aspects of family friendly workplace in the entire company are incorporated in such subjects as gender parity and diversity. There is a drive towards a life-cycle attitude, hence widening the idea of work-family to work/life Company concerns extends to world issues and concerns Constructing work-family policies is recognized as a continuous, vibrant and problem-solving procedure PROCESS Recognizing the problem Integrating the duties for work/family programs and policies Mainstreaming the matters Devoted individuals takes on the responsibility of making a business case for a firm to react to work-family matters Part or full time duty is assigned to an individual at higher rank usually manager, director or vice president Executing flexible leave and time policies and programs become central. Champion (s) persuades and convinces the firm’s management that ignoring the work/life programs comes with consequences such as workers may miss time and become less productive to the firm especially if the issues are related to family life such as child care are not met The place of work-family coordinator may be established, high rank commitment starts to show up Work-family policies and programs are recognized as a key to engaging and maintaining competent workers Varying the workplace to be more comfortable and flexible to the worker calls for organizational culture assumptions to be put into considerations. Work-family administration training is carried out or such training is incorporated into central management training programs Champion(s) illustrate variety of possible solutions if a task force is established to evaluate and determine the
These events greatly influenced the education sector, whereby there emerged greater disparities in enrollment and completion of both men and women in the education system (Rury, 2009, p39). These changes in education patterns of both men and women were greatly determined by the various demands that had been presented by previous economic depression and the Second World War that had just begun. Prior to 1940, education of women in the United States had been ongoing for a long period, recording gradual increase in the number of women enrolling in different levels of education. However, several trends characterized education of women in the United States the western countries. In United States, there was a great disparity in the racial composition of women pursuing education in various levels. Moreover, there was a remarkable difference between gender composition of the women and men, in various education stages of the education system. Another major difference in women education during 1940-50 was the type of training that they received in the educational institutions (Alexander and Bruce, 1974, p659). According to Pitts (1992, p93) United States has recorded high literacy levels since 1940 across different education levels. Both genders are increasingly completing high school and enrolling for tertiary education in colleges and universities. Before 1940 and the onset of Second World War, Appelbaum et al (2003, p61) noted that about 50% of Americans had completed at least eight years of schooling. The rate of education varied in different regions across the country with urban areas recording the highest literacy levels with an average of 8.7 years of formal schooling compared with the farming and non-farming rural residents. Education at the tertiary level was very low whereby only 5.7% of the urban dwellers had completed tertiary education compared with just 1.3% of residents in rural and farming communities (Appelbaum, et al, 2003, pp89-95). Comparing gender distribution of the educated in the United States before the war, the number of men across all educational levels exceeded that of women. Besides the higher enrollment of men in all levels of the education system, they also had higher rates of completing their respective studies at any given level compared to women. In addition, the educational access to education was not uniform across all races, whereby the majority races had better access to schooling compared to the African American, Hispanics and other minority groups (Bound, and Turner, 2002, p50). Traditionally, the role of women in society was limited to domestic work that entailed housekeeping and bringing up the children. Men were supposed to work on more demanding jobs in order to provide for their families. These gender-defined roles were reflected in education sector, whereby women pursued careers that were traditionally associated with feminism. These included careers in education, home economics, secretarial and clerical work in addition to catering and hospitality work. On other hand, men were involved in heavy and technical work in industries, such as steel plants, shipyards, lumber mills among other jobs that required skills (Rury, 2009, p48). This explains why very few women enrolled in education institution before 1940 in comparison to men. It was important for men to enroll in school in order to acquire skills that would enhance productivity in the work place. Buchmann et al(2006) noted the demand for skilled workers in the late 1930’s had began to increase, because the American economy was on a recovery path, following the devastating effects of the historical economic depression that had started a decade earlier. The outbreak of
The Importance of Mentorships for Career Advancement Many male executives do not choose to mentor young women because of their gender biases against female managers. These biases may be negative or positively framed. A negatively- framed stereotype is that women cannot become effective managers because they are too emotional and consider too many factors and people, so they cannot make brisk and logical management decisions. A positively-framed gender bias is that women cannot be managers because they are also homemakers, which means that they cannot provide the needed time and dedication to demanding management work (Foster). These biases are serious issues because they can become sources of gender/sex discrimination that will impede women’s potential for promotion and professional development. Two problems with lack of mentoring are non-promotion and poor social networks, both of which can be important in promotion decisions and individual professional development. Many executives are still men, so they have accumulated crucial knowledge and skills in doing their jobs. They are essential mentors to women who aspire to reach their positions someday. If these male executives do not want to mentor young women, they are denying the latter the chance to be groomed for executive positions, thereby contributing to gender discrimination and gender wage gap. In addition, male executives already have professional and non-professional social networks that may directly or indirectly contribute to the professional development and promotion of subordinates. Women who do not have access to male mentorship may lose access to these networks too, which can be essential in the politics of promotion and processes of individual professional development. Hence, male executives should not have biases against mentoring young women, in order to prevent gender discrimination and to increase women’s number in their ranks. Learning Activity #2Despite the increasing participation of women in advanced education and managerial and professional ranks, they are still under-represented at the top levels of management and in expatriate assignments. Why do you believe this is the case? Please explain. I believe that women are still under-represented at the top levels of management and in expatriate assignments because of social and personal reasons. Some of the strong social reasons are gender biases and companies that have gendered policies and practices. First, gender biases may exist for those who mentor or promote employees to management or expatriated position. These decision-makers believe that women, because of their gender, have limitations that render them inappropriate for top management or expatriated positions. Yochanan Altman and Susan Shortland show in their study that, during the 1990s, many companies saw women as unsuitable for expatriation because of their dual responsibilities or because of age or civil status (206). Sometimes, the host countries may be the ones biased against women too, such as when they do not think that women should be managers and work far away from home (Altman and Shortland 204). Apart from gender discrimination, some companies also include gender in selecting candidates for expatriation. Doing so can risk gender discrimination lawsuits, although some companies still conduct the practices because of various conditions (i.e. host country prefers male over female managers) (Lansing and Boonman). Some women sometimes also do not want to be expatriated or to be promoted to top management positions because of the demands of top management levels. They do not want to leave their families, especially their children, for expatriation assignments, for instance. Altman and Shortland showed in their study that many men do not move or relocate for their expatriated wives. In addition, some women do not want to sacrifice their family life for top management positions that tend to disrupt work-life balance. When companies have policies and practices that assert that top management must focus on workplace needs alone, these demands are not attractive to women who value family roles and responsibilities. Thus, these personal and social reasons are detriments to women from reaching management positions and gaining expatriation assignments. Works CitedAltman, Yochanan, and Susan Shortland. Women And International Assignments: Taking Stock- A 25-Year Review. Human Resource Management 47.2 (200): 199–216. Print.Foster, Dean. Gender Issues in the Global Workplace.Lansing, Paul, and Paulina Boonman. Selecting Candidates for Expatriation: Is It Unethical for Companies to Use Gender as a Factor? Employee Relations Law Journal 37.2 (2011): 2-15. Print.
This research paper gives a critical analysis and discussion of the key ethical, legal and diversity components in counseling in relation to a counseling case study of Beth M. The impact of the abilities of the counselor on the diversity and counseling process is also discussed in addition to self evaluation of personal abilities in practicing culturally compliant counseling. Components of Ethical, Legal and Diversity in Group Counseling Within group counseling, a counselor is mandated to respect the rights of the group members (Clinical Law Review, 2010). The adherence to these rights by the counselor includes his or her legal obligations of practice. Therefore the rights for orientation, informed consent and screening must be prioritized by the counselor during group counseling or therapy (Clinical Law Review, 2010). Orientation means that each and every member of the group regardless of the economic, social, political, cultural or racial orientation must be introduced to other group members and the group counseling program in general (Furr Barret, 2008). Furthermore, each and every member of the group must be screened by the counselor with a view of understanding the nature of the problem which warrants their decision to seek counseling. More importantly, counselors must acquire informed consent from every member of the group regardless of their age or gender. Furthermore, the ethics of group counseling mandates counselors to have undivided respect for the needs and rights of every member of the group in spite of their differences or diversity. More specifically, the counselor must recognize that the participation of the group members is voluntary. Therefore it would be against the legal and ethical practice of counseling to pressure or force members of the group to contribute into the discussion. Case study of Beth M The case of Beth M. presents a counseling scenario which reveals aspects of legal, ethical and diversity within a counseling session. The fact that Beth M is an American-Indian woman reflects the diversity which would be expressed in a group. This diversity includes gender, nationality, culture, age and ethnicity (Clinical Law Review, 2010). The social cultural diversity within a counseling group implicates on counseling session because the counselor must value the culture and beliefs of each client for effectiveness in his or her practice. The cultural implications in counseling also reflect that counselors must be able to include the values of each and every client into the therapy session. Ethical considerations in counseling must be nondiscriminatory in regards to the differences which exist among members of a group counseling session (Dandrea Heckman, 2008). Beth M. provides the counselor with private information about her drug problem. The ethics of practice in counseling mandates the counselors to keep the information of the clients confidential and treat such information as privileged. The ethics of professional practice in counseling also directs counselors to play their roles effectively (Weinrach Thomas, 2006). In the case of Beth M. the counselor failed to play the role of exploring the psychological risk that the patient had in relation to her suicidal tendencies. Legal implications would easily emanate from counseling and they include failure of a
Sophocles tragedy Antigone is among the three legendary Theban plays and was written prior to 441 BC. David Ives’ play Sure Thing was presented in 1988 and is a part of Ives collection of stories All in the Timing. Antigone is a classic drama dwelling along the predictable lines of tyrannical rule, injustice, lust for power and the aftereffects of divine intervention. However, through Antigone, the leading lady, Ismene, and Eurydice, Sophocles comprehensively depicts the status of women in ancient Greek society and the awkward division of gender roles. It is made clear from the very first scene that women were considered subordinate to males. Females were believed to be unequal, weak, indecisive and incapable beings. Creon’s mentioning of the fact that Wives that are vile, I love not for my son indicates that only docile and meek women were considered perfect for marriage (Sophocles 652). Ye Slaves! Our women henceforth must be kept is probably the best line of the play that truly depicts the mentality of males (Sophocles 660). Ismene and Eurydice represent the stereotypical female figures that are clearly afraid of the wrath of men who ruled them. They considered themselves subordinate to men and much weaker in strength and will power. For this we need remember, we were born Women. as such, not made to strive with men. And next, that they who reign surpass in strength, And we must bow to this, and worse than this. (Sophocles 72) The society in Sophocles’ era was plagued by such laws that defied women freedom to live, speech and free-will. These laws were devised by men but implemented in the name of God to oppress the women and to control them. One such law was that A woman shall not rule as Creon puts it in a straightforward manner (Sophocles 592). Antigone in her conversation with Creon mentions the arbitrary nature of the laws by calling them plain and unwritten laws of God and asserts that Zeus cannot create such laws that are without justice and traced only for all the sons of men (Sophocles 496). Women are not allowed to take decisions or have their say in any matter and this is why Antigone’s decision to bury her brother is deemed rebellious by Creon. Women who dared to voice their opinions were given such severe punishments that compelled them to shrink in fear (Sophocles 660). Eurydice’s suicide is an indication of the fact that either death or surrendering to the will of males was the only probable solution for women even if she was the queen like Eurydice or H?mon’s fiance Antigone. Women were also victimized beings and, as is clearly mentioned at several occasions in the play, torturing was one of the favored punishments that were considered feasible for opinionated women (Sophocles 620). Antigone stood against oppression and takes her own life in the end but this does not depict female subjugation but actually shows her rejection of detestable norms and regressive male approach. On the other hand, Sure Thing is a simple and lighthearted one-act comic play presented in Ives’ trademark humorous style of narration. Sure Thing comprehensively highlights the altered norms of gender roles in contemporary society. Betty and Bill share a similar equation where no one is deemed superior to the other.
While these episodes of amnesia continue for some time other forms of amnesia such as transient global amnesia occurs in spontaneous episodes. One such typical form of amnesia is childhood amnesia (or infantile amnesia). This paper will elaborate the various aspects of childhood amnesia using the current state of research on the issue. Childhood Amnesia Childhood amnesia may suggest that this form of amnesia afflicts children yet the opposite is true. Childhood amnesia affects an adult’s ability to recall certain memories typically memories formed between the age of two years to four years. Certain classifications of childhood amnesia also include the period up to ten years of age where memories are not entirely lost but a significant portion may be lost (Robinson-Riegler Robinson-Riegler, 2012, pp. 272–276). The onset of childhood amnesia tends to become stronger as time proceeds and older adults may be able to recall fewer memories than younger adults. In the case of infants various brain regions such as the hippocampus and the amygdale are just developing. This is especially true for infants aged in the first two years of their lives. Various systems such as those mentioned above are involved in memory storage but are yet not fully developed enough to retain memories (Richmond Nelson, 2007). Research has conclusively demonstrated that young children aged between three years and four years can remember events that occurred in this age bracket. However, the children’s ability to retain these memories tends to decrease significantly as they tend to get older (Clevelend Reese, 2008). Other research has shown that adults are able to recall events from the age of one year and before but these memories tend to blur out as the children grow older. The blurring out may be significant enough to erase out entire swathes of memory so that the adult is unable to recall any of these events at all (Tustin Hayne, 2010). The offset of childhood amnesia is typically defined as the age of the first memory and a typical value for it is three and a half years of age (Joseph, 2003). However, the age of first memory is not fixed to any value but rather it depends on various research factors such as memory retrieval methods where the first age of memory ranges between two years and five years of age (Multhaup Johnson, 2005). Similar variations in the first age of memory may occur when the ages of the respondents are varied (Tustin Hayne, 2010). Another unique method of defining the first age of memory is to use the distinction of personal memories versus public knowledge. In this method the respondent’s recollection is considered valid for the first age of memory when the respondent can recall minute personal events. This offset of first age of memory typically occurs approximately when the child is around four and a half years of age. It has been suggested that this may happen since the children’s development of knowledge about their own memory is much enhanced at this age rather than at previous ages (Jack Hayne, 2007). Certain differences tend to exist between the first memories when bifurcations such as gender or ethnicity are considered. In terms of gender, females tend to have first memories earlier than males. This difference has been attributed to the difference between the care doled out by mothers to daughters and sons. It has been
Therefore, reconstruction witnessed changes that were far-reaching in the political life of America, which included developing new laws and amending the constitution, which later altered both the federal system and what people defined as American citizen. Republican Party was brought to power in the Southern part of America thereby redefining government responsibilities. Origin of reconstruction in the US During reconstruction period, the greatest American Negros led in asserting themselves of African Americans’ development and enjoyment of equal rights (Le Blanc 2010, p.96). President sparked reconstruction plan in 1863 in the form of ten percent plan to be implemented by the congress. This plan had one-tenth of pre-war voters taking an oath in order to establish a state government in order to weaken Confederacy. The plan went into operation in several parts of the Union-occupied Confederacy although it did not achieve much support from the locals. Wade Davis Bill that was enforced in 1864 delayed plans of forming the Southern government and in place made many voters take loyalty oath. this bill on equality of the slaves accompanying Southern government into Union convinced some Republicans. Lincoln later expressed his views of the blacks, being intelligent and serving in the Union Army had the right to enjoy their right to vote. Reconstruction in the Presidency After the assassination of Lincoln, Andrew Johnson took the presidency and began to work on Presidential reconstruction by pardoning Southern whites while restoring their rights politically and assets except for the slaves. President Johnson outlined how the new state governments are going to be created, abolished slavery, implemented repudiation of secession, and abrogated the debts of Confederate. On the other hand, Confederacy enacted the law requiring all African Americans to sign labour contracts on a yearly basis hence limiting the economic options of the freed slaves, this law only did a reestablishment of plantation discipline. it was strongly resisted by African Americans. Senator Charles and Thaddeus Stevens who was a representative suggested establishing Southern government based on equity of the law. The Civil Acts Rights 1875 was to protect all Americans regardless of race and all would have access to public facilities (Smith and Wynn 2009, p.165). Moreover, the Congress did not seat all the elected representatives and senators, and in place passed the Civil rights bill and Freemen’s Bureau, which was to oversee transition of slaves to freemen. This bill gave a definition of an American Citizen as a person born in the US and has the right to enjoy equality before the law of the land. Johnson rejected this bill after several personal stubbornness, racists’ convictions and beliefs in states’ rights. The rejection of this bill created rapture between Johnson and the Congress making Civil rights Act to become law over presidential veto. Therefore, the government was able to guarantee Americans equity to all regardless of gender or colour. Radical Reconstruction in the US After the congress elections of 1866, the congress begun reconstruction afresh and by 1867, Reconstruction Act was enacted and through this act, the South was divided into five military districts, outlining how the governments will be enacted. All the former Confederate were readmitted in 1870 and almost all of them were under the control of Republican Party. During this time, the black
Regarding our main topic of focus, love is neither an abstract nor a concrete emotion or feeling. In our daily lives, we usually and constantly refer to the word love innumerable times simply because of our unfamiliarity with its meaning. In all those instances whereby we apply the term love, we mean different things though unawares. In most cases, however, we mean that the referee is something or someone that we desire and would profoundly prefer looking after or caring for. Everything can be a subject to loving by another both abstract and concrete. However, concrete things objects that have no emotions cannot love. The love of an individual towards someone or something therefore encompasses an extremely broad nature and has to be succinctly espoused. The study outlined below encompasses both the similarities and also the dissimilarities between the two philosophers in terms of what their views are regarding the critical issue of love (St Augustine 373). Plato derives his views and definitions for love from the evaluation of other peoples’ personal conveniences regarding love. This kind of love is referred to as common love, merely for sexual satisfaction. He defines heavenly love as a profound feeling or elated emotion that emanates from the soul and characterized by a no-conditional liking and passion between mostly a man and a man. This kind of love is made possible by a connection to the heavenly God. This love is deeply rooted beyond the soul and is indispensable. Common love is referred to as immoral and vulgar since it is aimed at satisfying the participants sexually over a short period of time. This love comes from the profound and strongly rooted physical attraction. This kind of love is not right and is not supported by the two philosophers. St. Augustine gives the same kind of types of love and expounds on the instances in almost a similar way as Plato (Sheffield et al 1). In both their assessments, they perceive the female gender as inferior to the men excluding the goddesses. This elicits a similarity between the two scholars’ views on the nature and types of love (St Augustine 373). Both Plato and Augustine come to terms that there is a greater version of love than the concrete and physically expressed love. This kind of love is enlightened and formless. Both men and women aim at receiving that enlightenment but in entirely diverse ways. Augustine slightly differs with Plato regarding the actions and activities inculcated in the love relationship. This is sexual contact between people who love each other. Plato argues that sexual intercourse is a path to achievement of the higher love that everyone aims to obtain and which brings about enlightenment. Augustine, on the other side argues that the action of sexual intercourse only brings about tradeoffs towards the achievement of such enlightenment to the higher reality. He perceives and strongly believes that expression of physical love is not a stepping stone but rather a barrier to attainment of spirituality. This is due to the fact that he had previously experienced situations regarding the same issue at hand. He considered romantic or common love as purely sacrilegious and non credible since he had actually gone through in his early ages. Plato argues that in the initial stage of love, the amans’
It is evidently clear from the discussion that workforce is the basis of success of any given organization. Much as there are other factors of production to consider in determining the likelihood of success of any organization or business entity, human capital is the most significant. This is because. no operations can become successful regardless of the capital input, unless they are well managed and implemented. Thus, the need for adopting a flexible human resource program that integrates diverse cultures and personalities within the operations of the organization is paramount. The encompassment a different people, from different backgrounds in religion, socio-cultural activities, education, and exposure ensures that the organization can uphold variant ideas, opinions, and judgments. These are the basis of development. Owing to the fact that teamwork is the basis for success of any given organization, diversity comes in handy. Where diversity is non-existent, the individuals involved cannot interact and share ideas and opinions freely. This means that there is low or no chance of devising new ways of doing things. It is through the free interaction of individuals and their teamwork attitude that creates avenues for innovations and inventions. Various methods can be adopted to enhance diversity climate in an organization. Education that entails equipping the management team with relevant and diverse training skills is one such method. This serves to ensure that the management team is better placed to adopt different individuals and incorporate them in their labor force. Such training enhances the management ability of ensuring every member of their team feels appreciated and equally important, not withstanding their differences in personalities, cultures, religious backgrounds e.t.c. The establishment, enforcement, and implementation of a set of code of ethics is yet another method. The basic step in achieving this is through the recruitment of individuals from different spheres of life. Exposure, through establishment of equity and accountability, as a core value of the organization is another method that applicable in enhancing the climate of diversity in an organization. This ensures that all the individuals are treated equally, regardless of their gender, origin, race, religion e.t.c. any group, committee or panel formed to undertake different tasks for the organization should be representative of the different personalities in that organization. Each group or individual should feel well represented in that formation. This goes a long way to enhancing respect and cooperation from all the individuals in the organization. There are three procedures followed to establish diversity climate at a work place. The first is the moderate open- minded change, where some basic rules are established in work place to foster teamwork, flexibility, and diversity. At this stage, the workers are promoted solely based on merit and performance. Such rules as those guiding promotions are established and implemented by the policy makers. However, the problem associated with this is that not all aspects of diversity are implementable through formal rules. The second procedure is the essential change stage, where the organization adapts measures beyond formal rules to guide the achievement of diversity in the organization. At this stage, even though two members of the same affiliation are better placed to be promoted based on their performance, an allowance for equity is created by promoting another individual of a different affiliation. The last procedure is the revolutionary change, where the short-run and the long-run needs of the organization come into play. Under this stage, the organization establishes equity and diversity in the short-run, while buying time to consolidate a system that will afford automatic flexibility and diversity
Sexual harassment could occur between people of the same sex or the opposite sex. It commonly takes a pattern of behavior, but it can also take the form of a single incidence to direct towards a group of persons or an individual. It is noteworthy that all employees. whether supervisors, peers, or subordinates should treat one another with respect, tolerance, sensitivity, and impartiality. They should avoid any behavior that may create a hostile environment or intimidation at the workplace. However, this is not the case in most of the workplaces as observed. Many types of behaviors fall under the same umbrella of sexual harassment. There are effective ways as outlined in the law to deal with sexual harassment. People consider sexual harassment as a natural practice based on pure sexual attraction (Petrocelli, and Barbara Kate, 3). A common say goes, Boys will be boys. They will always be attracted to women at all costs or any circumstance. Sexual harassment may result from the victim’s provocative dressing behavior, people stating, she was asking for it (Resnik 660). That statement is what most of the culprits say. They also believe that sexual harassment is justified because women are working in jobs traditionally held by men i.e. it is men’s work. women should not be there. The tradition that women should not have power still operates for some persons. In that, they believe that women should primarily be homemakers. In most cases, what follows is that there are no consequences for the harasser, no incentives to report sexual harassment (Baillien, Inge, and Hans 5). The victim receives blame while, in other cases, it is said that a work environment is permissive of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is also about economic motivations. Men have used it in maintaining their competitiveness in the workplace. Their aim in doing this is to preserve their most rewarding jobs as they brand women in such positions as incompetent and unsuitable for such positions.Sexual harassment is a dignity insult in the workplace. Some theories characterize sexual harassment as a violation of dignity. They aim at prohibiting harassing behavior towards all workers regardless of gender (Heather, Vanessa, and Deborah 4). In fact, some Western European countries address such issues as moral harassment,, workplace bullying or mobbing thus. they focus less on the issue as a gender dynamic and more on the question of rights for all workers. Sexual harassment refers to any interaction be it verbal, or physical, that causes displeasure. This interaction could be verbal abuse, jokes, or conversations about sex or sexual suggestions or explicit language about sex that offends another person. Pressure for sex e.g. one could be flirting, asking for sex, staring or brushing up against a person’s body, is an offensive behavior. It includes any physical contact that a person does not want like patting, pinching, hugging kissing or any unneeded touching (Baker 23). Showing any sexually explicit or degrading materials like posters, calendars, graffiti, or clothing with an offensive message is another conduct considered sexual harassment (Barickman, Barickman, and Paludi 133). Short message services (SMS) in mobile phones and emails or other communication tools that display offensive language is sexual harassment. A work-related event that is sexually oriented is a serious offense considered harassment.
Isolation is more prevalent in a capitalist society, and the novel shows that hope for the working and poor class is worthless, since they will never have a fair access to the sources of production. Capitalism produces social hierarchy, where those without land and other resources are found in the lowest rungs of the social ladder (Loftis 135). Levant shows that Lennie represents the reduction of humanity to idiocy (134) and this can be related to how capitalism forces people to be non-human beings. Because of the demand for efficiency and increasing profits, firms turn people into robots, whose function is to produce money for shareholders. People are treated as means to a profit-centered end, a nature of the grotesque inherent in capitalism (Railsback 53). The American dream is hopeless for the poor. Millichap argues that Of Mice and Men is an expression of the tragedy of struggling for the American dream (6). Ocampo highlights the cruelty present in Steinbeck’s novels, because they depict the reality of class oppression and the futility of escaping it (50). Owens focuses on the setting, because since the novel is set in a California valley, it portrays that the story as symbolic of the fallen world (145). Slim tells George: Ain’t many guys travel around together. He adds: I don’t know why. Maybe ever’body in the whole damn world is scared of each other (Steinbeck chapter 2, par. 179). The capitalist society has made people enemies instead of friends, because of the competition for labor and limited assets. Furthermore, George aims to have his own land, but his struggles are not enough for him to save money to buy land. He remains poor throughout the novel. In a patriarchal state, male relationships seek to dominate and to eliminate femininity and women characters, because they ironically want to save them, although in the long run, they only further isolate women from their dreams and hopes. The setting of the novel is essentially a man’s world (Ditsky 23), where women are seen and treated as either sexual objects (Broder 224) or nurturers. Violence is the key to survival. George says: I seen the guys that go around on the ranches alone. That ain’t no good. They don’t have no fun. After a long time they get mean. They get wantin’ to fight all the time (Steinbeck 3.17). Happiness is elusive to the poor and they tend to use violence to express their anxiety with their society. As a result, women cannot survive as equals with men, since they also suffer from their weakened gender. Curly’s wife is the temptress, who can be understood as a symbol of gender oppression. She cannot pursue her own needs, so she is sexualized and demonized to have some function in society. It reveals a misogynistic theme, although this can also be understood in light of the patriarchal culture that Steinbeck belongs to. Steinbeck wants to save women from men’s violence, but the effect demoralizes and weakens women, since they are not empowered to help themselves. Emery and Bloom use characterization, plot, and
Hooks (2010) has defined the self-concept as the sum total of knowledge and understanding of one’s self and the physical, psychological, and social attributes, which can be influenced by the individuals attitudes, habits, beliefs, and ideas as the components of the self-concept (Hooks, 2010). Culture plays an important role in the development of the self concept. It is a fact that people born in a good family or cultural background may exhibit may have an advantage over shaping their self-concept compared to others. For example, a child born in a wealthy American family may have a definite advantage over a child born in a poor African country, in developing their self-concept. Thus I can safely say that my cultural background has a tremendous influence on the development of my self-concept.Gender, age, race, etc can also affect the development of the self-concept. For example, in many cases, females listen actively to the opinions of males. In other words, females have a conception/misconception that males are more knowledgeable than them and their views and opinions are more valuable than theirs. Same way, children and youths actively listen to the opinions of elders. It is difficult to see an elder person listening actively to a younger person. Elders always have the life experiences more than the younger and their opinions always get respect in society. Thus age also can play a major role in self-concept development and listening behaviors. The race is the third segment which can affect listening and self-concept development. People coming from aristocratic families or races may develop a superiority feeling and they will try to inject their ideas over others even if it is rubbish. On the other hand, the views and opinions of people from the lower race or family background normally neglected by others even if it is meaningful.In order to mention the listening barriers I faced in the day of listening, I think I must give a brief idea about myself. In my own self-concept or assessment, I am a person with above-average skills in most of the areas of life.
Secondly, there is commonly a substantial distinction in classes between students who collect good marks and others who do not acquire reasonable grades. Those students who acquire low grades can be further categorized into two. One group belongs to those students who are efficient learners and understand concepts and theories which are being taught to them. Despite their efficient learning, their grades are not sufficient as compared to the other efficient learners. The other category of low grading students is consisting of those students who find it difficult to understand and reflect upon concepts and theories which are taught in class. This signifies two of most critical issues regarding the scope of education which include the role of assessment criteria and those factors which are affecting the learning capabilities of some students in a uniform environment. Regarding to these issues, the research questions for this study are: Why certain theories are emphasized in curriculums? How assessment and evaluation criteria contribute to the issue of good learning students having lower grades? What factors are causing the distinction among students regarding the understanding of taught concepts and theories in a uniform environment? Conducting research In order to accumulate the information regarding the research question, the assessment of previous literature is essential. Kolb, Alice Y. and Kolb, David A. Learning Styles and Learning Spaces: Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Academy of management learning education 4.2 (2005): 193-212. Print. In this article, authors are aimed draw a more enhanced implications for experiential learning. A framework of learning space has been introduced to the better understanding of the relationship between students’ learning styles and the learning environment of institution. It proposes that the concept of experiential learning must be applied of whole learning environment. The problem of students with learning and understanding the concept due to any major possible reason, like inequity in race, gender or class, can be addressed through this literature. It also deals with the alterations in the curriculum by which the learning of students is highly associated. Mezirow, Jack. A Critical Theory of Adult Learning and Education. Adult Education Quarterly 32.1 (1981): 3-24. Print. The author, in this article, illuminates the subjective perspectives of students in their learning processes in the light of Jurgen Habermas’s ideas. The intention and goals of learning and the accusition of learning process in the domain of academic learning of students play a sufficient role in the attainment of good grades. However, the research question regarding the assesment criteria also illuminates the institutional flaws in the description of certain criteria by which students can successfully acquire the information regarding the choice of learning process. Mezirow, Jack. Transformative Learning: Theory to Practice. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 1997.74 (1997): 5-12. Print. In this article, a transformative learning process has been proposed by the author in that the stress is upon critical thinking. The article presents that the thinking in order to learn must be comprised of autonomous and critical cognition instead of straight absorption of
Language, power and gender are highly related to each other. In order to understand the relationship between language, power and gender, let’s analyze their relationship with the other individually. Many scholars have commented on the relationship between language and the power people have on it. Writers have written many novels and stories on the issue the examples of which include Leslie Marmon Silko’s short story Lullaby, Shakespeare’s The Tragedy of King Richard II and The Tempest, Frederick Douglass’s Learning to Read and Write, and Gloria Anzaldua’s How to Tame a Wild Tongue. All of these works convey the same message that language and power are interrelated to each other and one cannot survive without the other.Patel states in his article that the way a person speaks or writes determines that person’s power in the world. Elaborating on this will give the whole idea how easy it is to define the social status of an individual while considering the language with which he defines himself.An analysis of languages spoken in different regions in the world shows that there are some languages which are recognized and spoken internationally, while there are other which are only spoken within a limited are like within a country. Even inside a country,there are many forms of that one language by which that country is known.This is a sad truth that for a country to progress in this competitive world and to eventually come in power,it is important to get acknowledged with the internationally known languages so as to facilitate the trade and business. Just getting acknowledged is not sufficient but to inculcate that language in the educational curricula is vital to raise the nation with an intense knowledge of that language so that the people of the country can read, write and speak that foreign language just like they easily go with their own mother tongue. This brings power. The relationship between power and gender raises questions like whether one gender is given advantage over the other so that one gendered is empowered and the other is left discriminated. The gender differences in many countries makes power stay stuck to only one gender like men are politically preferred to women. Similarly, there are gender discriminations at occupational workplaces due to which men are given chances to get better jobs and women are told to stay at home in front of the stove all day. Although women have made gains in the workplace, with more women working than in the past and women possessing approximately a third of all management positions (Colwill, as cited in Carli, 1999). Male children are also preferred to get higher education which later on offers them high paying jobs within and across the border. This reduces power for the female gender. The difference in social power between the two genders has given rise to the feminist theories which fought for the liberation of women so that they come out of their houses and stand on equal status as men to enjoy the different luxuries of life. Beeching (2004) affirms that the relationship between language and gender gives rise to man linguistic issues. According to her, Men’s and Women’s Talk have arguably been demonstrated to show differences at the phonetic, syntactic, lexical and discourse levels. Gender socialization affects the overall structure and use of a language. Language has defined the changing responsibilities and roles of the men and women in different walks of life, nationally and internationally. Simkins-Bullock and Wildman (1991, p. 149) have studied in their research the differences in gender in the use of a language and have come to the conclusion that there is much inconsistency among the scholars in agreeing whether or not the two genders use the same language differently. They state that scholars suggest that there are several ways in which the males and females make use of a language but other aspects should also be considered besides gender in
Many literary scholars agree that a comprehensive definition of masculinity should instead focus on the gendered relationships and processes in the society which men often under go at different times in their lives. Generally the difficulty to achieve a comprehensive definition of masculinity has been on going for several decades. For example in the Western ideas, a number of categories can be used to describe the modern masculinity. In this regard, some of the characteristics associated with masculinity in the Western context include status and success, confidence, toughness, self reliance, violence and aggression. In some literary works however, the term masculinity has largely been used to describe the dominant characteristics that have always prevailed in the society. For example, heroes and conquerors have always been associated with masculinity. Connell suggests the use of four main categories of defining masculine characteristics (13). These categories include hegemonic ideals, cultural glorification and complicit masculinity. According to this approach, men usually agree to undergo the processes and challenges of masculinity for a number of reasons such as to avoid being subordinated, to achieve the material and symbolic benefits that come with masculine roles and sometimes simply for the pleasure of it. Apart from the hegemonic definition of masculinity, another important approach is subordination view. In this framework, the definition of masculinity particularly focuses on dominance related to gender relations. For example violence and aggression as a characteristic of masculinity is associated with the struggle to dominate others while at the same time refuse to being dominated upon. Many scholars, however, concur that male roles and characteristics often change many times as men grow to become adults. Consequently in their diverse roles, men are often faced with diverse experiences that require them to develop their masculine norms and meet the expectations of the society. Contemporary definitions and view of masculinity Most of the contemporary definitions of masculinity have incorporated the belief in individual differences and individuality. In some societies, masculinity is still associated with aggression, taking risks, responsibility and other traits that define the ideal expectations of men in the society. Scholars have, however, taken an approach that defines masculinity in the context of the differences in the experiences of men and women in their relationships and other aspects of society. Despite the fact that such definitions may have a limited scope, they have generally been effective in the analysis of various aspects of culture. Although the roles associated with masculinity are often beneficial, sometimes men find masculine standards to be involving many risks. In almost all societies, masculinity has always been associated with unlimited power. The reality, however, is that masculine responsibilities are often characterized by conflicts, tensions and the need for self sacrifice. Consequently some scholars argue that defining masculinity in
Like a consumer who makes decisions on whether to buy a commodity or not in a given store, so is a health care consumer who can be influenced by advertisements and marketing. Health care consumers include patients in any hospital setting, a client in a mental health centre within any given community, or it can also be any person who is a member to any organization providing prepaid health care services and maintain (Ryan et al 2009:78). At any given time that a person decides to visit a health facility for any kind of health or medical attention, she or he makes the decision of doing so as a health care consumer. Through health care consumerism, the conservative government is deemed to have introduced monetary structures of Britain’s National Health Service (NHS) and Community Care Act both of which had their aims inclined to increasing competition as well as shift in NHS’ culture. This was in regard to concerns of minding patients as health care consumers and it involved shift from a culture that was established through decisions and preferences to a culture that was determined by health care users’ wishes and views. … e government introduced overall management in NHS in the year 1983 at various levels of service so as to research on the needs of patients alongside their views regarding quality of health care. Following these and other essential considerations, consumer driven health care has been on the rise based on the need to get health care consumers satisfied being that they form the basis of health care industry by purchasing health care services and products (Natalier and Willis 2008:407). This paper attempts to look into issues regarding the view that patients are consumers of health care services. Mechanisms for Consumerism in Health Care There are some mechanisms for consumerism in health care which have continually been exhibited in as much as health care consumerism has been embraced. One of the mechanisms is Patient Charter which is actually a document of the United Kingdom’s government with a layout of rights for NHS patients. This charter has been into force since its inception in the year 1992 through Conservative government but had been revised in the years 1995 and 1997. According to Adeoye and Bozic (2007:97), the charter sets out rights in service areas includinggeneral practice, hospital treatment, community treatment, ambulance, dental, optical, pharmaceutical and maternity. However, various stakeholders have criticized the charter for reasons widely ranging from not offering sufficient support to trans-gender patientsto increasing attacks on hospital staff. Amid the issues, the charter has been meant to be legally binding as far as health care consumerism is concerned. Another mechanism for health care consumerism is Choose and Book approach which has been applied since the year 2005. This is an electronic booking software system cum application
health care. The term neo-liberalism, however, is a term often used by the enemies of the term rather than by its friends . Although the term has started to be popular in 1989, the beginnings of neo-liberalist advocacies were much earlier. For Wacquant, neo-liberalization is also the penalization of poverty that is in contrast with the welfare advocates concern for lifting people out of poverty. Neo-liberalism is a development of classical liberalism that originated in seventeeth-century England. According to Abramovitz, liberalism held that the competitive pursuit of individual self-interest in a market free of government regulation would maximize personal and societal benefits. Abramovitz associated liberalism with Adam Smith whose views was expanded to mean that the market, rather than the state, should be the regulator of society. Meanwhile, liberal feminism accepts liberal political theory but argues that its practice excludes women. … and more equitable divorce laws, and against pregnancy discrimination, rape, incest, wife battering, and other features of family life that negatively affect women (Abramovitz, 1996, p. 22). Abramovitz (1996, p. 22) pointed out that in contrast with neoliberalism and liberalism, feminist liberalism has moved away from traditional liberal concepts. Great Depression of the 1930s and Welfare Programs In evaluating the US welfare policy, it is important to point out that the mainstream perspectives on US welfare policy are usually centered on class, state, and gender dimensions (Mink, 2001, p. 17). However, Mink (2001, p. 21) pointed out that there is a need for racism-centered perspective on U.S. welfare policy. In our rapid review of the US welfare policy, we try to factor to factor in the state, gender, class, and race dimensions of the US welfare policy. The severe depression of the 1930s made Federal action on welfare (US Social Security Administration, 2011, p. 2). According to the US Social Welfare Administration or SSA, beginning in 1932, the United States granted loans then grants for states to pay direct relief and work relief (p. 2). In 1934, President Franklin Roosevelt proposed to Congress to consider the recommendations of the Committee on Economic Security that he created that was instrumental for passage of and signing of the Social Security Act into a law on 14 August 1935 (US Social Security Administration, 2011, p. 2). The Social Security Act of August 1935 created an insurance program to meet the risks associated with ageing and unemployment (US Social Security Administration, 2011, p. 3). The 1935 law also provided federal grants to states in their old age assistance and assistance to the blind (US Social Security Administration, 2011, p. 3).
‘Irrational’ means the opposite of rational, which would mean it is not based on logical reasoning. Thus, anyone unwilling to focus on the truth as it could be defined in real, rational terms was considered irrational. This included such flights of fancy as believing in the supernatural, such as ghosts, as well as focusing on the superficial at the expense of the real. In the extreme gender divisions of the age, the terms rational and irrational were also often used to distinguish between the male mind (rational) and the female mind (irrational). Within this early modern period, two female writers, Katherine Mansfield and Virginia Woolf attempted to show that the differences between rational and irrational were not so easily defined or separated. In her short story The Garden Party, Mansfield attempts to illustrate through her character Laura how the irrational superficiality of her family gives rise to the rationality of the character incorrectly assessing their interrelationships with others in their community based upon the irrational feelings and impressions she gains during the day. Virginia Woolf attempts to blend elements of irrationality with elements of rationality to reveal a deeper truth within her very short story Haunted House. In both cases, the reader is presented with the impression that both rationality and irrationality are required in conjunction with each other as a means of reaching the fundamental truths of human existence.In The Garden Party, the main character Laura is seen as she helps her mother and sisters get ready for a garden party the family is throwing. In reality, it is Laura who prepares the house and grounds forthe party while her mother and sisters involve themselves completely in making themselves appear pretty. Laura’s mother tells her, I’m determined to leave everything to your children this year (Mansfield 59).
The suggests that women are not given ample opportunities to explore their multi-dimensional talents and values because they are left with the perception that they must constantly conform to mainstream values about women and gender roles. Moreover, women are also believed to compare their bodies with other women when building a model of the ideal self (Trampe, Stapel and Siero, 2007). This paper explores the unique perceptions of five women, of varying ages and demographics, regarding what it means to be a woman and the role of the woman in today’s American society.All of the research subjects maintained different economic backgrounds and family structures. It was important for this paper to identify the specific demographics in order to fully measure the research results based on responses.The women interviewed were exposed to the idea that many women consider life to be similar to that of a beauty pageant and to describe their perceptions on what this meant in society. All of the women unanimously understood the basic premise of the question and offered a tremendous volume of scenarios and connections to how they feel that women are portrayed in society, with the majority of their examples taking a negative connotation. This was evident by body language and obvious facial grimaces when touching on certain subjects. Clearly, this entire segment of interview subjects believed that women were constantly being judged by others to compare to some ideal social viewpoint of beauty which was unrealistic and largely unachievable. Even Subject Five, the grandmother, believed that older women were always being depicted with fresh faces and pearly white teeth (Personal Interview, 2009). Subject Five’s intention was to express that television commercial such as those for denture adhesives create an unrealistic picture of today’s active grandmothers, as bingo players and scorekeepers (Personal Interview, 2009).
Car ownership is the number of cars per 1 000 people and passenger cars refer to motor vehicles which are more than two-wheelers. It is used to measure the growth in passenger transport. Car ownership in any economy has several determinants which include income of the household, the gender of the household head, the costs of car ownership (having factored in import costs and duty), short term and long costs and use, the public transport system in terms of organization, fares and other socio-demographic characteristics of the households. Another important factor is the inclusion of government transport policy considerations, rate of infrastructure development and infrastructure maintenance policy. All these combined with GDP are important determinants of car ownership. Further, the data should be taken over a long period of time and not just within a year. For the research report to be valid and reliable, car ownership determinants including income of the household, the gender of the household head, the costs of car ownership-short term and long term costs, adequacy of the public transport system in terms of organization, fares and other socio-demographic characteristics of the households should have been considered. In this case, then, the model would have been. CARS = β0 + β1X1 + β2X2 + β3X3 + β4X4 + β5X5 +…+ βnXi Where βn are the coefficients of the explanatory variables while Xi is the explanatory variables (income of the household, the gender of the household head, the costs of car ownership-short term and long term costs, adequacy of the public transport system in terms of organization, fares and other socio-demographic characteristics of the households). Holding GDP constant, the model shows that car owners’ increases by 96 per 1000 while a constant 2000 US$ increase GDP leads to 11 more (more than 96) car ownership per 1000 persons. The coefficient for GDP is significant (β = 0.011, p = 0.001, plt.0.05). A model with car ownership as the dependent variable and GDP as the independent variable is significant. GDP explains car ownership at 77%. Holding transformed GDP constant, the model shows that car owners’ decreases by -2 cars per 1000 persons while a constant 2000 US$ increase GDP leads to 0.822*log (2000), 2.71 = 2 more car ownership per 1000 persons. The coefficient for GDP_Ln is significant (β = 0.822, p = 0.000, plt.0.05). Models with transformed car ownership as the dependent variable and transformed GDP as the independent variable is significant. Transformed GDP explains car ownership at 90.2%. In this case, the paper aimed at analyzing the relationship between car ownership and income in 15 different countries. The data was secondary and is internationally accepted in addition to being used by The World Bank (IBRD). Two models (CAR = 96.634 + 0.011GDP + up and Ln(CAR) = -2.272 + 0.822Ln (GDP) + up) were formulated from the data. One was based on the original data while the other was based on the transformed data. Further tests, shows that the data has an outlier, New Zealand. Omitting the values for the country and running regressions, linearity, normality of the residuals and serial correlations are eliminated. Running stem and leaf plots for the residuals and leverage values shows that the data is corrected by transforming using the natural log values (Dobson 1990. Alvesson and Skoldberg 2006. Alasuutari et al. 2008).
Anita Hill articulated that her primary intent for coming forward was to expose Clarence Thomas as a contradiction and a sexist, whose character, based on her personal dealing with him, did not warrant him to sit in judgment of pertinent and crucial issues which would ultimately impact the lives of every American. Ms. Hill felt that her testimony would serve as that all-important expose, which would preclude the U. S. Senate from making a huge mistake, which she and all other Americans would be relegated to endure throughout the tenure of Clarence Thomas as an associate justice on the U. S. Supreme Court. Yet, the Anita Hill-Clarence Thomas controversy had other long-term consequences beyond Justice Thomas’ life-term term of the Supreme Court. Foremost, national awareness about sexual harassment in the workplace heightened considerably(Hill-Thomas) For this paper, I will focus on how a newfound public awareness of gender discrimination, sexual harassment in the workplace, and the need for women to be in Congress have impacted the American Society as a result of the Anita Hill/ Clarence Thomas Hearings.Anita Hill and Clarence Thomas. One of which was that Thomas was tasked to head up the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission after the alleged infractions, and the EEOC was the very agency charged with monitoring the existence of sexual harassment, among other work-place inequalities.Prior to 1964, women in the workplace simply endured the offenses and the abuse to keep their jobs. Even after the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Title VII, which prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, natural origin, and sex, the Act did not mention sexual harassment either in the law or its legislative history. In 1974 in Barnes v. Train, 13 FEP cases 123 (D.D.C.), Ms. Barnes claimed that she was retaliated against because she rejected her bosses sexual advances. A trial court decided that the male supervisor, merely solicited his subordinate because he foundher attractive.
The term work-life balance has been in use for quite a long time and refers to the flexible working atmosphere provided to both parents and non-parents to keep a balance between their work and personal life. Work-life balance programs intend to provide new ways to work and life that give a flexible and satisfactory atmosphere to the workers (Zedeck and Mosier, 1990). To put it in the words of Pillinger (2001), work-life balance programs provide adjusting work patterns so that everyone, regardless of age, race or gender, can find a rhythm that enables them more easily to combine work and their other responsibilities and aspirations. In the words of a layman work-life balance program is defined as a perceived balance between work and the rest of the life (Guest, 2001).Also known as flexplace or telecommuting, the program allows the employees to work at home. At the same time the employee must keep his/her contact with his/her office through computers or virtual private networks.Work-life balance programs become a necessity when the overwhelming demands of work-life and personal life become incompatible. Such a situation makes it difficult for the workers to participate in their work-life and family life at the same time (Duxbury and Higgins, 2001). There has been a dramatic increase in the adult working women population in the United Kingdom who are in paid employment (Taylor, n.d.). Women, in particular, are in a great need for such kinds of programs as they perform multifold domestic duties along with their job at the workplace. In a survey, it was disclosed that approximately 48% of the women aged between 18-64 have the responsibility of taking care of dependent children and 80% of mothers look after the medical needs of their children. 44% of women believe that they are primarily responsible for the health insurance decisions of their families. More than one-fifth of the women having dependent children reported having no access to health facilities (Wyn and Ojeda, 2003).
[Your full December 5, Book Critique Sandra Cisnero, in her book The House on Mango Street, has described the feelings and emotional experiences of a young girl named Esperanza, who has moved with her family in a red, old house in the Mango Street. In this paper, I shall give a brief summary of the book, which will be followed by my personal reflection about the purpose of the story and the thematic background that the writer has pondered upon. Esperanza is disappointed with her new house in the Mango Street because she had a different picture of it in her mind before her parents moved here. She joins the Hispanic community in the Street. She feels ashamed of her poor background, and often times tries to hide the fact that she is poor. She experiences bad things when she is in puberty, being forced to kiss and being raped at two instances. Her friends are also victims of violence, at the hands of their fathers or husbands. Her mother warns her to stay away from men. She also has a bad picture of marriage in her mind, due to which she decides not to marry. She plans to leave the neighborhood and go to live on her own in a separate house. Some women try to convince her that she will never be able to refute her past, but she must come back if she leaves the neighborhood, to change the lives of other fellow girls who suffer at the hands of the male dominance. Having read this brief summary, the reader can easily comprehend that the writer is trying to covey a myriad of themes, some of which include identity formulation of the young girl. her dreams, hopes, plans. society and class. gender roles. feminism. and, familial bondage. One of the strong themes that I feel important to discuss here is gender roles. Esperanza is not at all happy about the gender roles assigned by the society to the female gender. She is in a constant struggle because she feels a rebellion against male dominance. She looked out the window her whole life, the way so many women sit their sadness on an elbow, writes Sandra (11). This depicts Esperanza’s sadness after she has had abusing experiences from her puberty. For example, when she is forced to kiss by an old man, and when a group of boys rape her- these instances initiate a kind of hatred and aggression against males. One of her friends, Alicia, is being abused by her father after her mother dies. Sally gets beaten up by her father. Minerva, who is a teenage mother of two, suffers from domestic violence. All these instances convince her that she is not going to be a victim at the hands of the males, which is why she decides to leave the neighborhood. Esperanza is a feminist in the story. She is against how men of the society confine women inside the boundaries of their homes. She acquires a sense of rebellion, power, and defiance against gender roles. The line: [Hips are] good for holding a baby when you’re cooking, Rachel says, turning the jump rope a little quicker. She has no imagination (Sandra 49) perfectly describes the traditional gender role of women. We know that gender roles are defined by society, and are not God given. Society has, unfortunately, confined females inside the boundaries of strict gender roles. For example, she states, The boys and girls live in separate worlds. The boys in their universe and we in ours. My brothers for example. They’ve got plenty to say to me and Nenny inside the house. But outside they can’t be seen talking to girls (Sandra 8). The Mango Street symbolizes the overall society, and Esperanza’s plan to have her own house symbolizes her desire to be independent and free from male oppression. This independence is a new source of power for her, because previously she thought beauty as the sole power that women can have against men. Her perception about beauty changes when she observes that many beautiful women she knows are suffering at the hands of men. Her rebellion expresses when she says, I have begun my own quiet war. Simple. Sure. I am the one who leaves the table like a man, without putting back the chair or picking up the plate (Sandra 89). I feel that Sandra has very effectively achieved her purpose of portraying the cruelty of our society in terms of gender roles. Sandra has tried to convey the message that women are the same as men, and they should be given liberty of spending their own lives as they want. I believe that Sandra has presented her message in a very lucid manner. Works Cited Cisneros, Sandra. The House on Mango Street. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2004.
All of these elements support the theme of the oppressive, terrorizing control that society imposes on women’s lives through gender roles and expectations.These works are both in short story form that maximizes quick-paced plots. De Maupassant tells the tale of a woman’s story of fall to disgrace. Mathilde is a vain woman who is trapped inside a society that values materialism and teaches girls to desire materialism over independence. De Maupassant’s story is centered on Mathilde’s dissatisfaction with her life after being married to another commoner like her, when she feels that she was born for every delicacy and every luxury (de Maupassant, 1907, para.3). Instead of relying on herself to attain the life that she feels she deserves, she pressures her husband to give her the life she desires. Kleine-Ahlbrandt (2004) focused on the social-class analysis of The Necklace, where he asserted that the story is about the price to be paid for crass materialism and false pride (p.2). He does not include gender analysis, however, which can connect Mathilde’s pride and shallowness to the pressures of gender expectations. Materialism and pride are argued as social products too, and, in the case of Mathilde, she also has a vain and materialistic personality because of the materialistic French culture she belongs to (Kleine-Ahlbrandt, 2004, p.2) that conditions women to value things over more important aspects of their lives, including freedom and independence. The short story form allows de Maupassant to capture a plot that depicts the effects of social norms on gender expectations. Chopin did not need to write a novel to also explore the plot of social terrorism in The Story of an Hour. Instead, Chopin developed a quick-paced plot to describe how a womancan change in an hour, from someone having a dull stare in her eyes (Chopin, 1894, para.8) because of being a slave to a man’s will to drinking in [the] very elixir of life (Chopin, 1894, para.18) because with her husband dead, she is free at last.
The images in the covers quite imply sexual messages, peculiar relationships, and gender. The following analyses look into how popular culture sources such as magazines represent issues on relationships. These sources feature salient commonalities. The substantial connection signal the inclination of the present times. In particular, literature such as Glamour, Hilary, and Cosmopolitan magazines focus on practicability, assertiveness, and open-mindedness as foundations of ideal intimacies. Therefore, a good number of popular culture sources embody sex, love, and romance through open, brazen, and mature characterizations that are likewise observed in other features of civilization. Discussion Glamour. One of the famous publications widely read by women is Glamour magazine. In fact, it has editions in other parts of the world such as Mexico, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Its issue regarding Sex and Love gives various tips on what men think, dating, relationships, sex, and breakups. Issues target the needs and interests connected to improving affections such as how to please men more. This entails being more active in exploring delicate body parts. For example, one article suggests that men like to be touched in certain sensitive areas such as the butt, neck, ear, feet, and nape (Gold, 10 Places to Try Touching Him Right Now). The directness of the subject reflects the empowerment of women when it comes to how they can be the source of pleasure in an intimate relationship. Seemingly, they are given authority and perhaps even the responsibility to adduce gratification in men. This kind of theme may affect readers to be more experimental, bold, and sensitive on how they touch their partners. Furthermore, another article recommends some standards when dating older men. Several of the dos are: to be mature, be oneself, and realize the fact that guys look better with age (Melms, The Dos and Don’ts of Dating an Older Man). The advices indicate the vulnerability of older men’s egos in a relationship. Hence, it encourages the public to view older partners in a more realistic and mature light. It does not always impose that if the partner is older, he is higher in stature relationship-wise. In a loving relationship, both should have a more or less fair ranking on how they treat each other. Another very thought-provoking classic is on the 7 things that a girl must feel comfortable doing when she is really in love with a guy. These are being able to show one’s anger toward him, letting him know how upset one is because of others, being able to lose control and cry, showing certain insecurities, looking scruffy, getting ill, and being affectionate to other people (Melms, Listen Up: It’s Not True Love Unless You’re Doing These 7 Things). Basically, the sign of true love is knowing and feeling that one can be accepted despite one’s weaknesses. It also implies that relationships should be a home of acceptance, warmth, and confidence. Hilary. Another periodical which proclaims itself to be North America’s first and most popular online women’s magazine is Hilary. Certainly, the publication uses amatory visual cues to evoke sex and romance. The topic is emphasized by the background picture which features a young woman in a suggestive pose. Wearing a revealing black top with matching black
With the development of many technologies, companies are benefiting from this strategy because they carry out due diligence to know the likely risk they are to encounter hence adapting to market segments. First, market segment helps organizations in reducing risk by knowing when, how and where to channel their products and services upon production (Kotler, 2003). It assists the organization to know when and how to market their products and serviced depending on their target markets. Secondly, segment marketing assists organizations in increasing marketing efficiency because it directs them to the target consumers, hence minimizing other wastages (Kotler, 2003). It allows organizations to produce or distribute goods and service according to a segments’ characteristics, which is very effective. In many cases, organizations make losses when they produce goods and offer services without knowing their target markets or audiences (Brown, 1996). Thirdly, market segmentation helps companies to study consumer behavior, which is useful in pre-focusing of sales volumes and in making recommendations (Kotler, 2003). Organizations that conduct market segmentation knows the seasons when their target consumers are active in buying. hence, they can use this information in planning their productions as well as in focusing the sales volume (Walston, Kimberly Burns, 1996). Market segmentation is divided into four levels, namely. geographic, demographic, psychographic and behavioral segmentation, and they serve different purposes depending on different factors (Kotler, 2003). Geographic segmentation is a strategy where a company or an organization sells its products and services in certain places in the world or in a defined boundary where it perceives to impact its marketing mix (Nobel Mokwa, 1999). Demographic segmentation is where an organization divides its market as per gender, age, income, and household income, as opposed to all consumers in the market (Nobel Mokwa, 1999). In this case, an organization becomes specific to the target gender, age, and income when entering a market.
When parents decide to use early years services they are determined to know how the provisions will help in keeping their children safe and promote their growth. The Early Years Foundation Stage (EFYS, 2008) is the structure that gives this assurance. Definitions of stages of growth in childhood come from many sources. Several theorists like Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, Lev Vygotsky and Erik Erikson, provided ways of understanding development, various researches done lately have provided important information concerning the nature of development. In addition, stages of childhood are defined culturally by social institutions, customs, laws that constitute a society. For example, while professionals and researchers define the period of early childhood as birth to eight years of age, others in the United States consider the age of five years, because it corresponds with entry into cultural activities of formal schooling. The EYFS mission is to assist young children at the age five with every matter and to ensure that the children stay healthy and safe. they should also enjoy and make achievements. Making positive contribution and gaining monetary well-being through: Providing balanced opportunity, anti-discriminatory activities and guaranteeing that every child is included in the children profile, and not disadvantaged by culture or religion, ethnicity, culture, family status, home language, disabilities or learning difficulties, ability or gender. The setting of standards for learning, care and development of young children should be experienced when they are attending a setting outside their family home and making sure that there is uniformity in progress in children. Increasing consistency and quality in the early year’s sector can be achieved through a global set of standards that applies to all setting. This can be achieved by ending the differences between learning and care in the available frameworks and offering the foundation for regulation regime and inspection. Creating structures for partnership through working collectively with parents and experts would determine the settings that children attend. Nevertheless, laying a protected foundation for future learning through development that is designed around the personal requirements and the interests of a child, using well-versed observational assessment is very vital in early foundation (Bowman Donavan and Susan, 2001). In context and legal responsibilities, the EYFS has played a crucial part in the ten-year childcare strategic choice for parents, which involves the best start for children and landmark childcare act 2006. The act gives a suitable framework for the delivery of EYFS and has taken together the other basics for strategy. the EYFS will be the centre for the delivery of new tasks aimed at reducing inequalities and improving results. Recently, there has been a significant improvement in the early years practice and standards, the EYFS developed this for practitioners to realize the continuity with the principle and approaches to Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage. Also, the birth to three matters foundation and the national standards for Less than 8 years Daycare and Child minding was a major concern. The EYFS has the mandate
Immigration occurs when the nationals of one country cross over to a foreign nation with a view to settle there permanently. this involves that they become nationals of the new territory that they are now part of however the process is tough because legally it is extremely tough to immigrate from one country to another. Immigrants may be both legal and illegal. some undergo the proper process of moving elsewhere however others might not have a home to live in and thus cross the border illegally in order to find a place to stay or escape from the lives that they have been leading in that country. Immigrants flee their countries because of the oppression and lack of opportunities that they are presented with. this is one of the main reasons as they might not be happy with the government or the ruling party and not being able to get anything substantial out of their lives. Thus they feel that in order for their families, children and future generations to lead a better lifestyle, they can start afresh in another country. There are various terms to describe the different kinds of immigrants. an economic immigrant is that which flees one country in search of a job opportunity somewhere – in order to make a livelihood and produce and give back to the society. A refugee on the other hand maybe an individual suffering a persecution and flees the country of his nationality in order to avoid that – he may do so due to the pressure on him and his family or the lack of financial resources to support himself and may feel that his family can live a better life somewhere else rather than die in the territory where they have been living. The definition of a refugee according to the Convention of the United Nations is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence. has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group or political opinion. and is unable or unwilling to avail himself/herself of the protection of that country, or to return there, for fear of persecution.In a different country, people are able to gain different perks from the manner in which the government has been existing there. They may adjust their lifestyles to a better form of government, gain access to education and health resources and in this fashion, lead a happier and more fulfilling life. Other reasons for immigration might be relocating families due to natural disasters, re-unifying with families living elsewhere, and political reasons or social reasons like poverty. According to immigration statistics, Eritrea, in Africa, has till date had a large outflow of refugees, almost 377,000 people with an inflow of only about 4,100 refugees into the country. The worst problem that immigrants face is not being able to settle their lives in the new country – even though they might have relocated to a better place, it is tough to find a job and emerge out of the socially deprived state of affairs, especially for an illegal immigrant. Even if the immigrants have the skill to work, they would have to produce proper documentation in order to be able to sign contracts and be part of legal proceedings in a proper workplace. However, since they are not able to produce these, they mostly tend to get into illegal forms of working like drug and human trafficking. they are used as servants in homes and paid meagre amounts of money, just enough to get them by with minimum food and shelter. Immigrants consist of both men and women and out of the two, the women face a much higher risk of not being able to survive especially as illegal immigrants. this is because of the gender disparity created between the two on a social and political level. Socially speaking, women immigrants may be sold to others as slaves or workers in people’s homes in order to earn their daily bread and thus are at the receiving end of improper treatment and even sexual abuse many a times. Men on the other hand, are better equipped to get jobs
In order to do this, there are a number of legislation that an organization should strive to adhere to as guidelines to ways of eliminating any discrimination or the sense of it within a company (Befort Budd, 2009). By following these legislations, a company is able to show it good will towards all members of the society in an effort to display its non-bias nature towards people from different backgrounds. Some of these legislations include: The Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA) This is a legislation that has been proposed in congress and will specifically deal with the discrimination in the hiring process based on the sexuality or gender of an individual by non religious civilian employers who have at least 15 workers at their disposal (Eleveld, 2007). The legislation protects these employers from denying an individual fair opportunity due to their sexual orientation (that is whether they are gay or lesbian) or because of their gender (that is because they are a man or a woman). The legislation hopes to protect all groups of people from discrimination in the work place by doing this and attempts to bring equality among individuals working in organizations. If this legislation is passed, gays and lesbians will no longer lose out to jobs due to their sexual orientation, but companies should not wait for its passing to get rid of such discrimination in the work place as doing so is the right thing to do. … This will motivate the workers to strive harder if they are aware that will not be subject to any discrimination in the end. A disadvantage with this legislation is that it only protects employees who are working in an organization with 15 or more people meaning those employed by small businesses are not protected by it and thus can still be subject to discrimination in the work place. This is not fair to those in small firms as they deserve the same protection that their colleagues in the larger organizations are receiving. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act This legislation prevents employers from using the genetic information they are able to acquire from an individual to base their decisions on hiring or firing them. This legislation was developed to ensure that individuals who may be suffering from genetic disorders/diseases are able to get a fair shot at employment as the rest of their compatriots and that their health complications would not come in the way of them getting a job (Tilcsik, 2011). The legislature was passed in 2008 and aims and restoring parity between all employees in the field after realizing that there was a chance that healthy individuals with no genetic problems were being given preference over their colleagues with genetic defects (Tilcsik, 2011). These defects did not necessarily affect the performance of the individual who was afflicted by it and thus such discrimination proved to be unfair to these types of employees. However, the legislature also has its advantages and disadvantages as well. In terms of advantages, it ensured that all individuals were given a fair chance and climbing up the professional ladder in their career no matter the complications that they may have been
Furthermore she has characterized the narrator in a way that does not necessarily permit the readers to detach themselves from the narrator’s self. Charlotte’s characterization is so effective that the essences of feminism, patriarchy, male domination, male chauvinism, women’s inferiority, subjugated and subordinate status, etc seem to have been distilled into the central two characters of the story, the narrator and her husband. Normally in a work of fiction one of the ways of characterizing a narrator is to let the reader view the intended character through other characters’ eye. But in Gilman’s story, the narrator is self-evident. In the story, the pronoun I refers to the narrator. This I, having no name, appears to be a universal and asexual one throughout the most part of the story. Indeed Charlotte puts much and her most valuable effort to characterize the speaking I of the story. While reading the story, any reader, male or female, would easily merge himself or herself with the narrator’s self. Charlotte has made this possible through the characterization of an apparently asexual narrator through the use of I that is both semantically and epistemologically asexual. Charlotte’s readers also go through the story almost asexually until they are reminded of the narrator’s gender several times through another counter-character John’s use of gendered pronouns, ‘her’. Indeed because of the apparent asexuality of the narrator’s character, even a male reader can easily perceive the trammeled situation and paranoia of the narrator. Indeed the I seems to be the manifestation of the narrator’s existence. But a close analysis will convince an astute reader to believe that the narrator never exists. Rather the story is a form of fantasy literature. The characterization of the narrator takes a fully new turn at the end of the story, when the narrator says, I’ve got out at last……in spite of you and Jane. And I’ve pulled off most of the paper, so you can’t put me back! (The Yellow Wallpaper) These lines show that the narrator has been able to detach herself from Jane, the traditional wifehood, which put a woman in a situation like the woman’s in the yellow wallpaper. Indeed through the progress of the story, the narrator began to assimilate herself with the imaginary woman in the wallpaper. Indeed through her technique of characterization, Charlotte purposefully forces the readers to ask who this narrator or the I is. Unexpectedly the answer is supposed to be that the narrator is the victim of social injustice and male chauvinism. Charlotte Gilman has manipulated some other literary elements and techniques to characterize both the narrator and her husband John. While she has manipulated ironies, situational and verbal, to portray the ironical and paradoxical aspects of patriarchy through the characterization of John, she has used the symbolism of the ‘yellow wallpaper’, John’s house, etc to characterize the narrator. The situational irony that tends to portray the narrator’s husband John is that he thinks of her as one who is feeble, biologically incapable and childish. But internally the protagonist of the story believes that she is capable of doing anything she likes. Being
Two of the most prominent filmmakers in Western cinema, John Ford and Sergio Leone, exhibit indirect desires to deviate from traditional gender stereotypes. This essay analyzes how two Western films, namely, Stagecoach and Once upon a Time in the West represent gender and masculinity, and how they embody traditional American society. Stagecoach by John Ford John Ford often elaborates the gender stereotypes of Western films. Disgraced women, like Dallas, are portrayed to be detached from the compassionate, encouraging, and nurturing ideals of family life, whereas wives and mothers usually endure the difficulties of life on the American frontier. They do so not as cultured, urbane Easterners, but as antagonistic women who surprise their men. The male protagonists of Ford also hold civilizing ideologies and exhibit gentleness. The most praiseworthy heroes of Ford also show decorum and dedication to domestic life not usually identified with the Western genre (Grant 10). Conforming to the sense of Victorian culture, masculinity in Ford’s films who grieve for loved ones and deceased wives exhibit a higher ability to value the living and to make a difference in the world (Pearson 23). Regardless of their gender, the characters of Ford usually confront the social, economic, and emotional outcomes of the absence of their family, but Stagecoach indicates that these effects can be especially damaging for a female. At some point in the stagecoach passage to Lordsburg, the town-whore Dallas marches in the moonlight. The Ringo Kid, played by John Wayne, goes after her. He tells her that Apache captures wanderers. I guess you don’t know how it feels to lose your own folks, (Studlar Bernstein 53) he tells her as he tries to explain the reason for his journey to Lordsburg. Dallas narrates how her parents died in a massacre in the Superstition Mountains (Studlar Bernstein 53). He answers, That’s tough, especially on a girl (Studlar Bernstein 53). The sexually naive Ringo, locked up for a long time, does not know that Dallas is a whore. In this particular scene, the viewers are given the chance to understand the sad acceptance reflected on Dallas’s statement (Grant 15): You have to live, no matter what happens. Dallas’s disclosures of the slaughter that killed her parents and denied her of a family inform the viewers of the situations that have pushed her into prostitution. Her reputation as a social recluse is shown in the beginning when she was carried away by the town’s Law and Order League. Along the voyage, she is silently avoided by other, more reputable travelers, as well as Mrs. Mallory, the wife of the soldier. Her anxiety, shame, and injured boldness show that she is sexually defiant due to economic need instead of personal liking. But situations also compel Dallas to carry out the task of a nurse for the child of Mrs. Mallory. It is the compassionate character of Dallas that strengthens Ringo’s romantic sentiment. Film scholars have correctly discerned that the shots of her [Dallas] cradling Lucy’s baby… are quite transgressive, since prostitutes are outside the family and the law (Cook 44). For Ringo, Dallas is the kind of girl a man wants to marry (Cook 44), and the movie bears out his assessment of her instead of society’s judgment. As is widely observed, Ford’s compassion is for outsiders, regardless of their gender, and Stagecoach is not the only Western movie of Ford to grant
The first depiction of human physiology is shown at this point. How the relationship of gender discrimination is shown. Viola thinks that if she will go in public as alone and abandoned female, people will exploit her situation and make her abuse sexually in any forms. She decides to falsify her identity and disguise herself as male and names herself with a new brand named Cesario. Her journey starts from the shore of Illyria. (Grosz Wendler, 2006) The facade of her new identify protects her and she makes her way into the town and gives herself in the service works of Orsino, who is the then duke of Illyria (Ray, 2007). The duke named Orsino falls in love with her, but she is mourning the death (apparent) of her twin brother Sebastian who was with her in the ship which was now wrecked. The domination of male gender is shown at this spot. The Duke makes many advances to exploit her sexually but she refuses every time. At one time when the duke got admittance to her chamber she got over whelmed by passionate infatuation and falls in love with her. The power of the Duke and political caliber also makes a role at this spot because Olivia was in search of a native environment. A great confusion is added to the scene when brother of Olivia, Sebastian arrives in Illyria. She was moved to the core to see her brother. Because they both were twins, now the race starts to hide the disguise and not to be exposed in the public. The main theme here is the power of gender in that time and how one can use the transgressions of sex in an environment (2010).The role of Orsino’s suit shows Olivia the real value of gender power and role of woman in a relationship. In response of the Duke’s exploitation, Instead of the desires she was not able to change the course of relationship into true love rather it was just the fulfillment of desires for some instance and then everything was faded away. But when in the society, among the general masses, she felt more strong and confident when she was in a disguise of Cesario because she felt that she can order and live a life of endowment. The gender discrimination went all along the play, and quest for acquaintance continued for Olivia between hr two versions (Shakespeare Snodgrass, 2008). The character of Cesario also gave many glimpse of gender differentiation in the society as being a man. Olivia reflected that when she is in disguise of man, she has more respect, impact on the society and as compared to the forged behavior of woman. (Azar, 2007) The disguise also gave her different approaches to evaluate different behavior of people around her and she saw that when she is the mistress in the dukes throne, she did not get chance to have a high impact on political issues because there was no love with her. The falsifying of a female character as a male character gives Olivia, both sides of picture to reflect the serious consequences and implications of being a female in a society. The court room and corridors of Duke’s politics could have been different if Olivia was a male in a sense to effect more on society but this case was different in the present situation depicted by William Sheakspeare, but because of the female gender backdrop, Olivia’s assertiveness is less provocative and more comic. Duke started to give her respect in some forms and this gave an idea to Olivia
This paper explores one social issue, namely female genital mutilation (FGM) in Malta, and focuses on how this infringes on human rights of women, as well as the policies, if any, that are adopted to address the issue in the country. This paper also culminates in various recommendations, based on policy, which can be utilised to combat the social issue. Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is also known as female circumcision of female genital cutting. This is a major concern for various international agencies, including World Health Organization (WHO) among others, since this oppressive practice is upheld by various regions of the world (UNICEF n.d). Nonetheless, the World Health Organization defines female genital mutilation as all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons (Against Violence Abuse, n.d, P.2). This practice is injurious to the genital organs of women, as is conducted for cultural and non-cultural reasons at the expense of the health, safety, well-being, and rights of women. Female Genital Mutilation is specific to each community that practises it. Therefore, different communities practise this in varying ways. The World Health Organization has developed a broad categorization of female genital mutilation, which involves the grouping of FGM into four different types, including Type I, Type II, Type III, and Type IV (Against Violence Abuse, n.d). Type I is also known as clitoridectomy, and involves the partial or total removal of the clitoris, including the prepuce. However, in some cases, the prepuce is not removed. Type II involves the removal of the clitoris together with part or whole of the labia minora. This is also referred to as excision. On the other hand, Type III involves the removal of most or part of the female genitalia. This form of FGM is also known as infibulation, and is considered the most severe form of all the forms of FGM. In this type of FGM, the vaginal entrance of a woman is stitched, and only a small allowance allowed for passing of urine and menstrual flow. Type IV according to WHO includes all the other procedures that are injurious to women’s genitalia, including piercing, scraping, incising, and pricking, among others, for reasons other than medical (Against Violence Abuse, n.d) According to Ouedraogo (2008), communities that practice Female Genital Mutilation do this for various reasons, which root from the culture. Kerubo (2010) also notes that since culture is broad and all-encompassing, the reasons for FGM in various communities are deeply entrenched in the political, social, and political structures of a community. Therefore, communities that practice FGM cite religious, health and hygiene, traditional, as well as gender-related reasons. With regard to religion, there is no known religion that prescribes female genital mutilation (UNICEF, n.d). However, Kerubo (2010) argues that some Muslim communities that practise FGM have made their women believe that this is a requirement for women in Islam, and in other communities, various perceived religious beliefs contribute to the upholding and continuation of FGM. Nonetheless, FGM is practised by communities that are affiliated to various religions, including Islam, Christianity, Jews, as well as Animists (UNICEF, n.d). Another reason for practising FGM by communities is that it confers identity to a woman
Many folk practices and folktales have been cataloged in the ethnographic encyclopedia and folkloric motifs as a standard guide. These works allow the historian to crosscheck critically the practices and customs that were documented in primary sources. Our area of focus is going to deal with blood and its relationship to the early modern European (Redwald 27). The blood and the bodily symbolism are not only going to reflect the individual and social beliefs but also be able to interpret as they have the values and concepts that can be used to understand how people’s identity is built in a given society that they belong to. Anthropology methodologies are normally concerned with people’s culture. we are going to deal with an anthropological study of magic, witchcraft, heresy, and mysticism commonly known as paganism. Paganism ranges in various ways of high magic (known as ceremonial magic). through witchcraft, these two have varying cosmologies and mythologies, but they have a common unifying belief in communication with other spirits and deities in other worlds. These are usually experienced in one’s consciousness (Matteoni 97). According to Sprenger and Institoris’ analysis about witchcraft to have an effect, there must be the witch, the devil and God’s permission to concur in all the mentioned things. So the definition of many late medieval icons about the devil is not easy as one cannot tell the extent to which the devil is present in people’s minds (James 70). According to Peter Burke, the definition of people in western culture existed from the opposed categories: the nobility for the commoners, the literate for the illiterate, the rich for the poor, and the clergy for the laity. Historiography witchcraft reflects the problem of which figure perception by different parts of society, and historians have taken into consideration the socio-economic problems and changes in religious tensions, early modern society, the perception of the witch figure, effect of reformation and its gender relations (Levack 74).
Research suggests that Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) people face health disparities linked to societal stigma, discrimination, and denial of their civil and human rights. The LGBT cannot access public health services because of lack of adequate insurance systems compared to the heterosexuals. In the matter of health care services, they lack competent providers who are adequately trained and equipped to deliver health services. Also, the LGBT are geographically isolated as the ones living in the rural areas do not get the same health care as the one living in major cities. The discrimination of the LGBT has caused a lot of mental and psychiatric disorders like suicide, substance abuse, homophobia, and transphobia.LGBT individuals experience a lot of violent behavior and ill-treatment. This has long-lasting effects on the individual and the community at large. The personal, relations and communal recognition of sexual difference and gender identity have an effect on the mental health and personal well-being of LGBT individuals. It is important to assess the health of the LGTB so as to reduce the rate of transmission of sexually related diseases and human immunodeficiency virus-HIV among others. It also helps to increase LGTB individual mental and physical well being. We can also add that it would help reduce the cost of healthcare to the LGBT people as the matters to do with insurance covers will be improved According to NYC Community Health Survey information, 28.3% of lesbian and gay populace in the illustration did not have the main care provider, compared to 17.4% of heterosexual people. It also helps the LGBT access health facilities because some of them like the lesbians complained of not being able to perform mammograms. It also betters the healthy relationship between the heterosexual and homosexual as more issues concerning LGBT awareness, and conditions will be solved. This is by allowing medical student access more LGTB patients to create a culturally competent care.
Thus, one viable interpretation, not necessarily the correct interpretation, of the disparities in wage based on gender, race, ethnicity or localities that may be observed in the United Kingdom is that the disparities are due to the differential productivity of labour resulting from differences in gender, race, ethnicity, locality or on how each social group would trade leisure for work. Lately, however, economics have recognized the role of institutional and social factors on how wage rates may differ across social groups based on gender, race, ethnicity, or locality. The institutional or social factors may be a result of discrimination, differential power parity, or political dominance. There is not much theorizing in this area of study by conventional economists and, in the literature, the discrimination, differential power parity, or political dominance is typically not articulated by a comprehensive or fundamental socio-economic theory but by empirical models using dummy variables that represent stratification by any one of the social variables like gender, race, ethnicity, or locality. … Demand and supply for skilled and unskilled labour before and after globalisation Source: Towers 2006, p. 6 At the same time, a phenomenon that is seen to be affecting how disparities are being affected by economic events is globalization. Towers (2006, p. 6), for instance, posited that with globalisation, the demand for skilled labour has shifted rightward while those for unskilled labour has shifted leftward. The rightward shift in the demand for skilled labour and the leftward shift in demand for unskilled labour are shown in Figure 1. The rightward and leftward shifts in the demand for skilled and unskilled labour, of course, is translated to higher real wage rates for skilled labour and lower real wage rates for unskilled labour. Based on Tower (2006, p. 6), therefore, it is also viable to argue that to the extent that skilled and unskilled labour has been associated with gender as well as gender dominance, exploitation, or the like, globalization can been seen as a variable that can exacerbate or moderate income inequality based on genders. Further, to the extent that opportunities or exposure to skills training and the like can differ across social groups, globalisation can also exacerbate or moderate income inequalities across races, ethnicity, and localities. Figure 2. Log wage differential between men and women in the United Kingdom 1978-1999 Source: Gosling and Limeux 2004, p. 280 The working assumption of the work of Gosling and Limeux (2004) is that there is wage disparity in the United Kingdom in favour of men. The log of differential shown in Figure 2, however, shows that wage rates of women are rising faster than the wage rates of men. Thus, Figure 2 suggests that with globalisation, women has been increasing their wage rates faster than the men’s
However, there is a lack of assistance and confidence among the men. As stipulated by Russell Sander’s essay on power/gender roles, women help each other and do not want to undertake their duties without seeking the ideas of their colleagues. Additionally, Russell Sanders argues that women views men as selfish creatures, since they are not focused on sharing their joy and privileges with women. Women determination and strong desire to succeed are vital aspects that, according to Russell Sanders, contribute to their perception that men enjoy more privileges. For example, college women want to share the power that their fathers once had. Despite the focus of women on becoming successful, gender disparities deterred them to get higher position at working place (Connell 19). Russell Sanders argues that most of the top managers are men who are served by female secretaries and female nurses. Despite the wide range of household chores that women undertake, in the last decades high number of cases that depicted women bullying was reported in many regions globally. In 2012, women have attained political, economic, social, as well as scientific progress that has made them to achieve equal status and equal rights. Political Progress One of the major aspects that have contributed to the success of women in the current political scene is the increment on the number of female legislators in various parliaments world wide. In this way, the issues that affect women are widely discussed, thus, reducing the brutality and discrimination that hindered their development in the last century. For example, in the Nordic region women form 42 per cent of the legislators in the lower house (Fenstermaker and West 57). Other regions that have increased women representation in the law making organs of the government include America, Europe and the OECD countries. One of the major implications of increased women representational quota according to IPU survey is that they act as parliamentary propellers of gender equality and development. As a result, there is freedom as a key indicator that is used by contemporary economists to measure the development of a country. Similarly, increased women participation in debates has resulted in improvement of women rights as compared to the last centuries when women rights attracted insignificant notice. Economic Progress The extensive campaign to curb gender discrimination in the work places and the adoption of affirmative action in the developed and developing countries has resulted in the increase of the number of female employees. Globally, more than 800 million women are engaged in economic activities. Through engaging in small enterprises, manufacturing and agricultural services women have significantly enhanced the GDP of many countries. This has caused respect from men and support from government and financial institutions. Even though the lack of adequate skills and access to financial resources is a major challenge affecting women in the developing countries, international community, including the UN, has initiated many forums that seek to improve the accessibility of financial resources for women. Canada is one of the regions that has implemented economic strategies to assist women to be economically productive. Through Canada International Development Agency, women organizations, such as Pakistan Mukhtara Mau, have benefited from various training programs on human rights and women economic empowerment. The strategies adopted by USAID in training women are other significant aspects that have contributed to women economic progress. For example, USAID has initiated trainings that are focused at meeting gender based targets in countries, such as Bangladesh, Kenya and Peru.
color:rgb(0,0,0)This week we examined the concept of1
Whistling as a woman
walks by. Message:
. quot;You don’t sound like a
You are a sex object.
That is, women’s…Sociology
How far should nurture go?
2)Should we use modern technology to eliminate bad genes
1) How far should nurture go?
2) Should we use modern technology to eliminate bad genes
that carry diseases?
3) What about choosing the baby’s gender? What about a man picking his best sperm to maximize his hereditary potential (e.g., tallest, fastest, smartest, most attractive baby that he can biologically produce)? (to be clear— I don’t mean society only selecting men with the best traits– I mean all men trying to get their own best sperm)
4) What will this do to our evolutionary process?
he table below is used throughout the quiz.
It contains three estimated regressions, which were computed in
2007 using data on employees. The data set used for the regressions consisted of information on over 10,000 full-time, full-year workers. Employees were surveyed on their earnings and whether they had graduated high school or not. The data set also contains information on the region of the country where the person lived (North / East / South / West), and the individual’s gender and age.
For the purposes of this quiz:
AHE = average hourly earnings
Graduated high school (X1) = binary variable (1 if the employee graduated high school, 0 if they did not)
Male (X2) = binary variable (1 if male, 0 if female)
Age (X3) = age in years
North (X4) = binary variable (1 if Region = North, 0 otherwise)
South (X5) = binary variable (1 if Region = South, 0 otherwise)
Review the description of the three governance models given below and the Getzels and Guba description of the
social systems model as outlined in the article by Bozkus, then do the following:
1. Of the three types of governance models, which seems to come closest to the social systems model? Explain your selection.
2. Explain how the internal influences of the faculty assembly and student power can affect decision-making in each governance model.
Module 1: Content: Description and Comparison of Governance Models
The Corporate/Bureaucratic Model: Like any large organization with multi-million dollar budgets employing hundreds of staff and serving thousands of clients, today’s institution of higher education (IHE) has to be organized to manage resources efficiently and to answer for its use of those scarce resources. The bureaucratic model of management provides a useful framework within which to achieve those objectives. The Weberian bureaucracy with its clear definition of roles, hierarchical lines of authority, well defined and channeled formal modes of communication, and emphasis on documented record keeping provides the IHE with the organizational system to achieve efficiency, economy and accountability in the implementation of its programs.
The Collegial/Shared Governance Model: American universities in the colonial times followed the faculty-controlled approach to university governance that they inherited from Europe. The colonists, however, tempered the control of the faculty with the appointment of external citizen boards to be the policy-making and supervisory units within the university. As the corporate model of the university extended its reach in the twentieth century, faculty share in the governance declined until the AAUP published its first Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities in 1920, emphasizing the importance of faculty involvement in personnel decisions, selection of administrators, preparation of the budget, and determination of educational policies. Refinements to the statement were introduced in subsequent years, culminating in the 1966 Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities. The document does not provide for a blueprint for the governance of higher education. Nor was the purpose of the statement to provide principles for relations with industry and government (though it establishes direction on the correction of existing weaknesses). Rather, it aimed to establish a shared vision for the internal governance of institutions.
American Association of University Professors (1966). Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities. Retrieved 2015-01-22
The Political Model: IHE’s are regarded as loosely-coupled organizations lacking the tight controls and supervisory functions of the true bureaucracy. This allows space for differing views on governance to be heard and debated. From these debates often come fragmentation among faculty and staff with interest groups competing for power. Decision-making power may lie along the lines of professional elites with senior and long-serving faculty members demanding a major voice in policy-making and in lower level administrative decisions. Decision-making with respect to curricular issues may generate fragmentation along ethnic or gender lines with particular faculty demanding inclusion of issues germane to their ethnicity or gender in the curriculum. More recently the power of students has been felt in decisions pertaining to employment of administrators and faculty, curriculum changes, enrollment and campus security.
Kıvanç Bozkuş, (2014)
Getzels and Guba (1957) define the administrative process as strongly related to social beha-
vior of individuals within organizations. They propose a social system theory for settings with
a hierarchy of relationships. Two components of their theory are institutions and individuals.
Each of them has two sub-components. Institutional roles and role expectations constitute the
nomothetic, and individual personality and need-dispositions constitute the idiographic
dimension of social behavior. The authors articulate characteristics of institutions and indi-
viduals. Institutions have purposes to meet specific ends, have people to achieve purposes,
have organizational structure which assign roles to people and makes rules to achieve
purposes, have norms that are represented as roles that impose specific behavior on individ-
uals, are sanction-bearing which means applying positive and negative sanctions to make
sure that norms are conformed. Roles prescribe the behavior of individuals. They refer to posi-
tional authority, complement each other, and adhere to role expectations defined by the institution.
Personality is a combination of need dispositions that direct a person to accomplish a desired end.
In short, Getzels and Guba (1957) define social behavior as a result of the interaction between
role and personality. The amounts of contributions of these two factors vary according to
persons and actions, but never only one of them rules the behavior. One can act according
to the role more than personality while another individual’s behavior is affected mostly by
personality. For the authors, the administration process in social systems is nothing but under-
standing why organizational behavior cannot be associated with only either role or personality.
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the current anthropological
All known societies are strongly patriarchal.
Some societies are matriarchal.
Although in some societies gender equality generally prevails, most societies are
Although males dominate to a degree in some societies, most societies are basically
Seeking to understand and evaluate the main rights and obligations of spouses in an Islamic marriage, the following aims to provide a thorough, yet critical overview of an important issue. With an emphasis on the important obligations facing both men and women as they pertain to marriage, this critical essay will utilize the research of Amina Wadud-Muhsin, in her groundbreaking piece Qur’an and Women, to understand the ways in which gender is framed through an Islamic lens. Following this, an overview of the issues studied will conclude with a critical overview of the important rights and obligations of spouses within Islam. The following section turns more thoroughly to the main rights and obligations with the institution of marriage within Islam (Chaudhry, 2001).
Developed through the teachings of the late Prophet Mohammad and framed within the social context in which the doctrine developed, Islam has prescribed roles for both men and women within the Islamic faith. Islam invites all the Muslims to follow Islamic teachings in all spheres of their life for the deliverance of humanity. The Qu’ran is the sacred text of all Muslims which is revealed to Prophet Muhammad. Islamic teachings are best understood through both the Qu’ran and Hadith. Allah says in the Qu’ran, "And He does not speak out of caprice. It is not but a revelation revealed, taught him by one terrible in power. (Chapter-53: verses-3 to 5). Islam proclaims to do everything fi-sabilillah (for the sake of God). Islam also orders Muslims to visit and take care of sick persons. Furthermore, the relationship between husband and wife is seen as one of the most important social bonds which exist in society (Esposito, 2008).
An Islamic marriage begins with the nikah, which is the matrimonial contract between husband and wife. The marriage can only be said to be Islamically sound if the prerequisites of nikah are fulfilled and entered into without duress.
Differences in “race, skin, gender, religious beliefs, national origin, disability or age” are the most common causes of discrimination in various settings including the workplaces (Pakroo, 2008, p. 118). Rates of complaints on instances where inequalities are felt between an employer and an employee, or between two employees, have fairly increased despite the laws prohibiting such acts and protecting the rights of the workers.
Because there seems to be an impending conflict, it is only right to meet with both parties and inform them about the law, their right, as well as their limitation. Special arrangements shall be made to meet only the “possible and reasonable” demands of both parties as long as their work requirements and their productivity will not be affected (Pakroo, 2008, p. 119). The parties, too, cautioned of discriminating anyone who does not share the same faith as they do. and instead, they should practice their faith within the bounds of existing laws by preventing illegal harassment such as “severe insults or threats… meant to harass or intimidate an employee on the basis of religion” to avoid legal actions as well as to promote harmony within the workplace (FindLaw, n.d.). .
In the name of equal treatment, wise investments are not made in the area of designing gender-specific programs for incarcerated women. Mental health issues are encountered more by women prisoners than men. Anxiety and depression is much more common among female prisoners and they also tend to seek out psychiatric help more frequently than male prisoners. Many female prisoners have very serious issues to deal with like rape by correction officers and motherhood behind bars. With the rate of women being incarcerated on a rise in the US, there is a very serious issue to address which is related to babies. It is due to issues like these that modification is required in the prison policies for women. Following discussion in this research paper is meant to reinforce this claim that “female prisoners essentially need gender-specific support programs because of different mental and physical nature of female body.”
There is no inequality in the way men and women are incarcerated. They are sent to prison alike, but no attention is paid to negative outcomes of this equal treatment (Crank 304). This is because prison systems around the world have been designed in accordance with the needs of men as male prison population has always been in majority. However, the number of female prisoners is steadily increasing in the US. This is why prison regimes designed for the male population are not suitable for women because they simply do not hold the potential to attend to their needs. They also stand in direct conflict with “international standards of justice” (Crank 305). Women are psychologically and physically different from men and require a different kind of atmosphere for safeguarded living. Women prisoners also more frequently have a history of sexual or physical abuse due to which they require different kind of treatment. There are many incarcerated women
They also include false beliefs that certain societies use in order to give justifications to certain social institutions. Additionally they could be some sort of invented stories or ideas and concepts since they are about imaginary things or fictitious events and persons. Gendering on the other hand can be understood as socially defining certain sets of norms that are behavior related within certain cultures and are considered appropriate to a given sex. They include attitudes, personality traits, and actions related to particular sex in a society. Therefore gender differs in behavior and personality in accordance to the societal and cultural factors. Gendering myths is therefore deciding the gender roles of the characters depicted in the mythical tales based on the society and culture that the myth seeks to explain. This paper therefore seeks to discuss how: the mythic world has defined roles for men and women based on how the given societies and cultures deemed appropriate.
The mythic world has defined roles for men and women based on how the given societies and cultures deemed appropriate. (Ferranti, 17 -21) outlines: in the ancient Greek women are depicted by many of the mythical stories as having strong feminine power which were mysterious and un-understood by men. Women gave life to people in this ancient age when the mystery of birth was just beyond man’s conception. The process of fertility, conception and birth were barely understood by the society. Consequently, males are depicted to so anxious about this mysterious feminine power to give life. Thus women were meant to raise and guard children. The roles that women played in the mythic stories are depicted as ladies of marriage and guardians of children, they thus were expected to give birth, raise and guard children. Similarly the myth of ancient Egyptian goddess, Isis talks of the same role that women played in giving life from what was in existent as will be
92250 It is evidently clear from the discussion that the servitude of African-Americans at the hands of white masters is an infamous chapter in the annals of American history but an episode which deserves wider scrutiny. . Although American slavery was abolished more than one hundred and fifty years ago, the legacy of slavery continues to have important ramifications on the lives of African-Americans today. Accordingly, African-Americans have lower-life expectancies than their white counterparts and the insidious legacy of slavery has continued health ramifications. Unequal access to healthcare is a contemporary problem with broad ramifications. In the United States, health insurance coverage ensures that there is financial means by which basic health care can be accessed. Individual comprehensive health insurance plans depend on an individuals’ age, level of employment, residency, and race/ethnicity. Studies have shown that African-Americans do not receive the same care even if they have the same government-funded insurance as their white counterparts, such as Medicare. For example, in a study conducted by the Brown and Harvard Medical Schools, researchers found that there were significant racial disparities within Medicare plans. In addition, they found that the quality of care was a factor concerning race and ethnicity among Medicare beneficiaries. This suggests that in addition to access to care, quality of care is different among ethnic groups. To this extent, racial difference in coverage may influence health disparities and inequities within the healthcare system. Medicare is a federal government funded insurance program for disabled young adults, persons above the age of 65, and those with permanent disabilities who become eligible for Social Security. A racial difference in coverage among Medicare beneficiaries has also been found to influence difference in supplemental care. . In a study by the Kaiser Family Foundation, it was discovered that 18% of African-Americans, 11% of Hispanic/Latinos and 11% of white Medicare beneficiaries lacked supplemental coverage that was necessary for additional services that were not provided by Medicare.
Employment laws differ in a global environment in a number of ways. These differences are usually evident in terms of employment, severance policies, consideration for employment, employment litigation, human rights, compensation, discharge, and statutory protection among others (Honeyball, 2008).
A good example of a country whose employment laws are different from those of the US is Canada. For example, in Canada, employers must provide employees with at least pay in lieu of statutory notice of termination, whereas, in the US, employment is ‘at will’ and a notice of termination to an employee is only required if a contract was signed. Another difference in employment laws in the US and Canada is seen from the human rights perspective. Both Canada and the USA prohibit discrimination in employment on grounds such as religion, ethnic origin, gender, and color among others. When it comes to disability, discrimination is also prohibited in both countries, and employers are required to make necessary accommodations for workers with disabilities. However, in Canada, employers face tougher conditions than in the US since they are required to accommodate drug addicts and alcoholics. These two conditions are recognized as disabilities by Canadian employment laws, and they require accommodation (Honeyball, 2008).
There is no valid reason for these differences. All employees and employers should be equally protected by the law. regardless of the region, they are located. It does not make sense to protect employers or employees in one area against something, and totally disregard the same thing in another area. Therefore, I do not agree with these differences. The main reason for this is because these differences create an unnecessary rift. For example, why would employers in Canada be required to accommodate drug addicts and alcoholics? It simply does not make sense because such people have made decisions to abuse drugs and alcohol on their own. The employers should not be forced to accommodate them. This should be the case in all regions (Honeyball, 2008).
Weiner demonstrates a charismatic and relationship-motivated leadership approach.Indeed, a New York Times article announcing Weiner’s resignation notes that some of his colleagues described him as, “a publicity seeker unwilling to put in the hard work needed to pass serious legislation” (Hernandez, 2011). This is seemingly indicative of an individual that is task-averse. To an extent then the action’s Weiner took may be thematically indicative of his situational approach to other aspects of his career.
One also considers if Weiner’s gender may have contributed to his increased scrutiny. Such a consideration has long been a question in prominent sex cases where an older woman engages in consensual relations with a minor. While Weiner’s situation is clearly different, it seems that to an extent the logic could be applied to this situation. In Weiner’s situation, the nature of him sending photos of a sexual nature to a woman seemingly is indicative of an abuse of power on his part. The nature of such an act is more pronounced when emerging from a male because of both masculine physicalities, as well as the social connotations.
While Weiner’s personal responsibility is a prominent element of his leadership failure, it’s also necessary to consider Weiner’s institutional position as Congressman. Clearly, the scandal gained media attention for Weiner’s position as a member of the House of Representatives. One considers that prior to the scandal Anthony Weiner had gained a reputation for bombastic and sensational speeches.
Morrison’s Tar Baby shows, however, that laws are not enough to end postcolonial social conflicts. The novel’s setting is the 1970s and intersected the Caribbean, New York City, and Florida. Jadine “Jade” Childs met Son, an uneducated African American man. Their lives intertwined and clashed, until their final divergence, where both Son and Jade challenged the social institutions that curtailed their individualistic interests. This paper takes a sociological approach in analyzing the novel. Tar Baby demonstrates that postcolonialism is more or less like colonialism with pervading traditional racial and gender attitudes, although several blacks, such as the Childs, have developed an acute sense of self-importance and independence. Social structures changed since postcolonial times, but also remained poisoned with racism and sexism, while new forms of social conflicts attacked individualist yearnings. The novel establishes class structures, where racial lines divide the upper white class from the black working class, while the blacks are further divided between those who relish the past and wanted to hold on to it and those who commanded new power even over lower social class blacks. Grewal analyzes the social conflicts in Tar Baby. He stresses: “…Tar Baby depicts the struggle over cultural definitions and identifications in a postmodern world” (204). …
She has no friends outside their home, however, and when she wanted to be closer to Ondine, Valerian opposed it. Valerian represents the continuation of white supremacy through racial prejudice. Despite the low treatment of blacks, Sydney and his wife have amassed power inside the Street household. It can be seen from how Sydney speaks with Valerian that he has come far from his slavery roots. For instance, Sydney tells Valerian that croissants are supposed to crumble when eaten, since the latter complains that it is flaky: “Croissant [sic] supposed to be flaky. That’s as short a dough [sic] as you can make” (Morrison 301). Arrogance and tenderness both tinge his language and interaction with his white master. Sydney also values his work, which indicates his self-importance. He explains to Valerian why he cannot wear slippers, even when he has bunions: “I know my work. I’m a first-rate butler and I can’t be first-rate in slippers” (Morrison 340). He knows that he is a first-rate worker, and even better than other household helpers with lower and less clear roles and responsibilities in the house. Postcolonial oppression evolves and remains. It remains when whites look down on blacks, while it changes, as blacks look down on whites and other blacks who are different from who they are. Valerian, however, can no longer hold on to the Childs, because they are not his slaves. When Margaret talks about the possibility that they will open their retail shop and leave him, they broach the subject of allegiance, or in plainer terms, a slave’s loyalty to his white master. She says to Valerian: “And they will do the same for you. God knows they will. You couldn’t pry them out of here.
It has been widely known that all of those given parameters contain provoking issues that affect the whole society throughout history. There is no excuse for all forms of societies around the world have one or more of those problems. Each problem has its own topics of debates among the societal members.
The pros and the antis regarding specific issues take their stance by proving the other side as wrong. They present details to support their claims and arguments are sometimes placed in a book form where they show all of the details. They explain those arguments as much as they can and share those with other people. Though that may be the case, some books do not side with any argument as they try to objectively study, analyze and present the issues and the probable solutions from both sides.
As mentioned above, those issues are very important to solve though they already exist for decades. One of those is the issue of sex and gender and how the society views it. As a topic, it is a broad and controversial concept with many issues deep within. The concept is not restricted to the view on the sex as an act pertaining intercourse but also includes genital health, pregnancy, gender orientation, gender equality, and many more. They are all important topics to be discussed since everybody is affected by one or the other.
In the paper, three books are presented and are reviewed critically regarding the various issues in gender and sexuality in various settings. Each book tackles the different issue which is important to be disseminated to everyone to prevent oppression and negative effects. After looking deep into the issues, possible solutions are made and further studies can be done to strengthen the understanding and establish the solid answers to existing societal problems.
The first book is entitled Fixing Men: Sex, Birth Control, and AIDS in Mexico written by Michael Gutmann based on the research he made in Oaxaca. He revealed some unfamiliar facts mixed with new findings regarding the role of men in reproduction as AIDS has become rampant. . .
123000 Child soldiers often experience and are exposed to unthinkable brutality. Publicised experiences of children in war involve witnessing, or even, participating in brutal killings, maiming, and torturing. being coerced to take part in sexual acts. being severely mutilated or beaten. having to raid and raze down houses. and losing loved ones (Honwana, 2011). The personal experiences of child soldiers are determined by the nature of their participation in armed conflict. Most children are coerced to become soldiers, whilst others join with different objectives. For instance, child soldiers from Sierra Leone have admitted that they enjoy the stimulation of combat and experiencing the unique camaraderie and unity that emerge within the group. Others, who had even become leaders at a very young age, admitted that they get pleasure from leading, using skills in war, and being admired and revered by their comrades (Honwana, 2011). In Sierra Leone, countless youngsters sought membership in RUF because it offered education, instruction, and guidance that the government had failed to provide (Wessells, 2006). Current studies show that the roles of child soldiers differ in relation to circumstances and gender. In Sierra Leone, girls are usually recruited or forced to become the sex slaves of rebel forces. Failure or refusal to satisfy the needs for sex can result in inhumane punishment, and, at times, death. But in certain instances, some women have been given leadership positions (Gates &. Reich, 2010).
One of the most commonly abused substances in the world, today, is alcohol. It all starts with one sip then it progresses to full blown addiction. Alcohol is easily available although the relevant authorities try to control it, people still manage to find a way around the system. Alcohol affects people differently and this is because of a few factors. They include the mental and emotional health of the drinker, the age, gender, the drinking rate and the level of tolerance towards alcohol. The individual`s history with alcohol is also an important factor in determining the rate of drinker`s addiction.
Short-term effects of alcohol are also referred to as temporary effects. These effects wear off after some time after the individual has stopped drinking. The drinking time ranges from a few hours to a few days. Short-term effects of alcohol include blackouts. These are memory lapses whereby the drinkers cannot comprehend or recall what happened while under the influence. Other factors include impaired judgments, distortion to the hearing and vision senses, drowsiness, and headaches. Vomiting, diarrhea, difficulties in breathing, slurred speech and lastly unconsciousness (Bennett, 2005). Sometimes these short-term effects lead to death due to participating in some stupid behaviors like driving while drunk.
Long-term effects occur after a long, drawn out abuse of alcohol. The time span for these effects is drinking for many years. This over abuse of alcohol usually has some serious effects or consequences and has terrible results. Some of the long-term effects of alcohol include bowel and breast cancer, sexual and reproductive health complications, cirrhosis and liver failure, nerve damage, family and social problems and brain injuries caused by poor decisions made while drunk. An individual may also cause heart and chest complications and this may lead to serious complications such as hypertension, stroke or heart attacks (Maisto, 2011). Heavy drinkers may also suffer from legal and financial problems from poor performances at the office caused by alcohol addiction. The most serious effect either long-term or short-term is death. Drunken individuals tend to make stupid decisions that ultimately might cost them their lives.
My views on alcohol are biased in that alcohol consumption is a good business and is taken in times of joy and sadness. I would advocate for responsible drinking. This means taking and not exceeding an individual`s alcohol limit. Responsible drinking is taking care of yourself by not over drinking then drive a car. I would also urge such individuals to hire a taxi or bring along a friend who does not take alcohol and make sure they reach their respective homes in one piece.
Alcohol withdrawal is a critical and severe situation that happens when an individual who has been consuming alcohol heavily for weeks or even years, drastically stops or reduces the rate of alcohol consumption. Effects from alcohol withdrawal include anxiety and may escalate to severe complications such as seizures and death. Since the body of a heavy drinker has adapted to the large quantities of alcohol, withdrawal symptoms come and worsen rapidly, and if medical attention is not sought immediately, then the results could be catastrophic. The alcohol addicts should be committed to a rehabilitation facility to overcome their urges. Rehabilitation takes time, so they should be patient and resist the temptation of consuming alcohol for it could lead to death. They need affection and counseling and engage in activities that improve on their mental and overall health. Examples of such activities include sports, yoga and reading.
Bennett, T., Holloway, K., &. Dawson Books. (2005). Understanding drugs, alcohol and crime. Maidenhead: Open University Press
Maisto, S, A., Galizio, M., &. Connors, G. J. (2011). Drug use and abuse. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
Reading Response and Discuss Question Summary Luckett, 1944 explores the current trends in production and studies of films in relation to cultural, social, and audience reception. Luckett investigates Fantasia release in advent of explaining the social and cultural factors interplay in successful interpretation and reception of a masterpiece film within the market (Luckett 228). She emphasizes on the vitality of understanding audience interpretation and expectations during publicity of films in an advent to make them masterpiece (Luckett 214). It is imperative to understand that film reception studies remains extremely authoritative in establishing interpretive strategies for increasing audience acceptance and influencing their view of a masterpiece film.
In exploring cultural construction of masterpiece films, Luckett critically evaluated Fantasia during its original release and reissues by examining the film’s publicity, reviews, and marketing. According to Luckett’s analysis, the film produced by Disney starred mainly due to its open publicity in road shows, use of modern technology including home theater appliances, and its receptions based on culture. For instance, based on application of new technologies, Disney decided to help the audience construct a home culture by establishing home theatre systems and video libraries as opposed to watching films in cinema theatres (Luckett 233). It is indispensable to note that the technique increased sales (Luckett 231).
There exists an imperative culture and social context behind acceptance of a new film by audience. Reception studies remains authoritative in understanding particular social and historical aspects associated with audience interpretation and consequent response to a film. In publication and review of a film, it is domineering for a production company to establish public culture in relation to their interpretation and understanding of films. Representing audience interests in relation to gender questions, culture, and social expectations is imperative in construction a public culture that would assist in making a film masterpiece. Therefore, does publicity and review of a film inherently a film affect its consequent audience reception?.
Luckett, Moya. "Cultural Construction of Disneys Masterpiece." Disney Discourse: Producing the Magic Kingdom. Ed. Erick Smoodin. New York: Routledge, 1994. 214-236.
It was a title of respect and admiration that female Viragos acquired. Shakespeare in his characterization of Lady Macbeth in Macbeth and Goneril in King Lear has played upon the very nature of the term ‘Virago’. He has not only associated the word with the gender transgression but also has used it to uphold the norms of misogyny prevalent in his times. He concentrates on the masculine aggression of his ‘femme fatal’ to infer that Virago indeed is not excellent or heroic, but is the very cause of the social anxiety. This anxiety finds its roots in the origin of Viragos sustained by the violation of the cultural norms. Some critics like Shapiro regard Shakespeare’s characterization of the Viragos as a feminist move. although I am more inclined to agree with Irene Dash (1997) that “Shakespeare manipulated the notion of Virago for he wrote for the male entertainment” (1). Indeed it would be historically incorrect to regard him as a feminist. Nevertheless, with his deep sensitivity of human character Shakespeare brilliantly portrays the condition of women within the patriarchal society as depicted in the characterization of Lady Macbeth and Goneril.
Both these ‘femme fatal’ show masculine aggressiveness as required by a powerful female Virago. however, their limit lies in their feminine position within the male dominated society. Shakespeare seems to portray the social anxiety caused by this ‘femme fatal’ by focusing upon the intelligence of his women characters. In the characterization of Lady Macbeth, we have an archetypal ‘femme fatal’ who manipulates her husband with remarkable effectiveness. She is guided by no uncertainties like her husband and shows a remarkable strength of will. Like a Machiavellian character, she works through the position of her husband. Her first glimpse defines her character – she is seen plotting the death of Duncan by cajoling her
Looking at the assumption that may be no difference across the whole group under the study that is the post graduate, undergraduate, high schools and primary on social google is looked into. The results according table 2, there is no difference in google social across the difference levels of education in Tabke 2 and 3
On the hypothesis that there are a mean differences in the google adult variable. According to the results on table four, male seem to slightly spend more time per week on the internet than female. With male spending about n=17.03 while female spending about n=16.92 per week.
Looking at the hypothesis that there are mean differences in on gender and google academic according to table 5 which shows that there s indeed a mean difference. With gender at n=1.462 and google academic n=77.938. This is a clear sign that indeed there is gender difference and the difference levels of education. With the highest being reported to be post graduate at n=18 and the both high school and undergraduate at n=16. This clearly shows that there is a higher difference among the post graduate than the other levels of education in internet access.
The type of search engine and information category has effect on internet access has affected different levels of education. With the post graduate and undergraduate highly affected and least affected are primary schools. There is a significant difference in the means of postgraduate, High school, and primary school on google academic. However, there is no difference in the means of undergraduate and postgraduate and also between primary school and High school on google
Department stores have since made major adjustments in their services to be able to accommo the needs of various cultures. Indeed, America is heavily known for being a melting pot of different nationalities that make up a great portion of everyday consumers. Each nationality has a peculiarity and preference different from that of the others, and it is the duty of department stores nowadays to consider such factors carefully. The department store industry and us at Saks Fifth Avenue have been doing so for many years now—shifting and shifting along the needs of various customers. We take into consideration the race these customers belong to, their religion, their gender, and their consequent practices.
Cultural differences certainly hinder the completion of a job. Indeed it would have been easier if all clients are American natives or immigrants who grew up in an American culture and lifestyle, because they would have little complaints. However, with the world market integrating and globalization taking its toll, America now experiences a multicultural society filled with diverse individuals who often complain about racist services and the culturally unfriendly goods on display. Among the biggest challenges to department stores, including our store here in Saks Fifth Avenue is the Muslim culture. While other religions and races tend to adapt, their culture and faith do not. For instance, Muslims always have problems with department stores which do not honor the credit system they adhere to. Followers of Islam are governed by the Shariah Law, under which they are prohibited from incurring any debt with interest. There are now Shariah-compliant credit card services headquartered at the Middle East, Persian Gulf and Southeast Asia, and powered by Visa and MasterCard. Unfortunately, some department stores still insist on the usual credit card practice in the purchase of items (O’Neill).
By far, one of the most complicated experiences with Muslims buying at Saks concerns female Muslim customers, who are often met with wardrobe difficulties. Muslim women prefer Western-style clothes and scarves consistent with the dictates of their faith—conservative, modest, and all-encompassing (“Resources for”). They usually complain about the daring fashion, shake their heads, and, after practically scrutinizing all the clothing items in sight, with the attendant trailing behind, would decide to leave the store premises without buying anything. This often leaves a bad taste in the mouth of the management and staff for not only is there a lot of energy expended, but the store has also failed to earn. I can sympathize with their sentiments since I myself am an American-raised Spaniard and occasionally yearn for anything with a trace of my homeland. Luckily, although such instances are not uncommon here in Saks, we continue to innovate on our product scope to fulfill every Muslim woman’s apparel needs. As a result, our list of female Muslim customers keeps growing, and some regularly visit and invite their female friends to shop for clothes, shoes, bags, jewelry or gifts at Saks. Oftentimes, they also bring their families along, increasing not just the shop’s income, but also the sense of accomplishment among the staff and management. The wardrobe consulting service in particular has been availed of by most female followers of Islam, who seek for ways to complement their faith with fashion. Our most conservative offers are from the Maison Martin Margiela and clothes from this collection are frequently suggested to female Muslim clients (Saks Fifth Avenue).
In sum, what Saks Fifth Avenue department store hopes to achieve is by giving the utmost customer satisfaction without making distinctions as to religion, nationality, gender, age, or body size. To some extent, such a goal has already been achieved and proven through the example of Muslim women and their clothing dilemma. Knowing how much America has become a melting pot of different races, all industries, and not just us in the department stores, must put culture at the heart of their services. More than accommodating their basic needs, it is the duty of industries to respect them for who they are and for what they believe in.
O’Neill, Barbara. “Cultural Differences in Handling Credit.” Extension.org. Extension, 8 Dec. 2009. Web. 2 Aug. 2010.
“Resources for Islamic Clothing for Women.” Families.com. Families, n.d. Web. 2 Aug. 2010. .
Saks Fifth Avenue. Saks Women’s Apparel, n.d. Web. 2 Aug. 2010. .
Womens Lives: Multicultural perspectives Women have been the most vulnerable gender because they are treated unequally compared to males who enjoy most of the privileges in the society. Since the time immemorial, women have not been taking an active role in the social development or playing a central role in the society. however, this is changing following the latest developments. Women have started to find space to air their voice and perform assigned roles. This has made them compete fairly with male counterparts and beat them in some cases.
Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions, Seneca Falls, was a blessing to women because it leveled the playing ground and came with many opportunities. This was also important because it expanded their expression space and could be heard outside the kitchen. Women started to enjoy equal rights just as male and competed for job opportunities. Hence, one can conclude that the position and perception of women have changed, and they are on the right path to acquiring equal status since they are really struggling to bring equality.
Despite the prolonged struggle for equal treatment, the article, Who is your mother? Red Roots of White Feminism notes that different women from various parts have a responsibility since the experience is not the same. India is one of the nations, which sabotages women’s efforts to bring social change. Hence, there is a need to develop parameters that can deal with it and ensure women have an equal platform for expression. Hence, women are on the right track, and their initiative will bear fruit.
Kirk, Gwyn, Okazawa-Rey Margo. Women’s Lives: Multicultural Perspectives. (6th Ed).
McGraw-Hill Education, 2012.
Gender Norms in the Twilight Series This article is a book review of the Twilight Series books and its underlying theme of gender conformity, which is reinforced via traditional concepts of femininity and masculinity. The series has passive and weak women who need protection from violent and strong men, including the lead female’s mother who is erratic and harebrained and, therefore, needs a husband to take care of her (Hayes-Smith 78). Moreover, the article also identifies how the series shows women as competitors, while also mentioning that men treat women as property to act out their dominance, including fighting for the affection of women where the latter has no say in the matter. In addition, victimisation of women in the series is not seen as a problem as long as the partners are intimate with one another. Indeed, the article claims that some of the actions in the series should be considered sexual assault but, because the characters are intimate, violence against the female is not objectionable. Finally, the article also notes how the series suggests that women accept subordination as long as they are in love, concluding that the gender norms reflected in the series are harmful to young women (Hayes-Smith 79).
This article connects to the sociological concept of gender construction, which allows society to organise its lives in predictable and consistent ways, specifically by prescribing the ease of interaction and behaviour with people from other genders. When such a normative behaviour becomes rigidly defined as proposed by the article, the individual’s freedom is compromised (Ore 29). This is specifically so where the rigid definitions lead to development of stereotypes, in which negative traits such as insecurity and submission can be used to justify discrimination against members of a specific gender. In this case, the article connects to stereotyping of women in the gender concept, which also relates to sexism or the belief that males are superior to the status of females. Females have less prestige and less power, which connects to the article’s assertion that the female characters in the book are subservient to men. Furthermore, this sexism as identified in the article is perpetuated by male-dominated, patriarchy systems and social structures that cause oppression of women (Lober &. Farrell 34). In such social structures, gender roles are structured by a specific script for females and another for males, which is supported by the article.
The reason why this article was selected is because gender representations in popular culture have become one of the most discussed issues for culture critics, especially for feminist commentators. There was nothing surprising about the argument provided by this article. especially since its discussion on gender roles and patriarchy have been discussed at length in the last 20 years. However, on some level, this article does not consider the fascination that young girls and women seem to hold for romance, which, in my opinion, is not merely a social construct. Indeed, despite all the indoctrination that the article claims the Twilight Series is perpetuating, it is important to note that most women still believe that human nature is inherently gendered as I also do. This is the reason why the Twilight Series has been so popular with young girls and women. because it reflects this gendered sensibility. Therefore, although the article contends that the series is perpetuating traditional notions of gender, the fact that there are so many females who adore the traditional gendered relationships and roles in the Twilight Series shows that females are able to separate fact and fiction. In any case, this is a story about vampires and claims that females may not know the different could be construed as stereotyping them as well.
Hayes-Smith, Rebecca. "Gender Norms in the Twilight Series." Contexts. 10.2 (2011): 78-79. Print.
Lorber, Judith, &. Farrell, Susan A. The Social Construction of Gender. Newbury Park, Calif: Sage Publications, 2011. Print
Ore, Tracy E. The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality. Boston, Mass: McGraw-Hill, 2013. Print
Homosexuality: nature or nurture? Scientist Young and colleagues have found mated pairs of female Laysan albatross in Oahu Hawaii. Same-sex pairs engaged in mutual preening and protecting their mates, often remaining together for long periods of time. For instance, a female couple on a nearby island has been together for 19 years.
This indicates that homosexuality does occur in wild populations of animals, as well as within human populations. This creates ripples in the conventional debates on homosexuality. Is it correct to claim that homosexuality is unnatural if it is occurring in nature? Groups have long debated whether sexual preference is biological or is influenced by environment, and the repercussions this may have for homosexual law and culture in today’s society. In the gay marriage legalization debate, the media used the same sex bonded pairs of albatross (Zuk and Bailey, 658).
Sexual interaction between individuals of the same sex has been noted in populations of dolphins, sheep and monkeys. But first, it is essential to define what constitutes homosexual behavior. The female-female pairs of albatross were not seen to engage in sexual activities. However, this does not mean that a quick roll in the nest did not occur. This makes one wonder whether relationships between same-sex pairs, without copulation, still class as homosexuality.
Lack of the male species may have caused the same sex pairing among the albatross population. The preference of commitment over multiple partners then allows this same-sex behavior to persist over time. If a female pairs with another female, one or both may reproduce with a male, thereby increasing their chance of reproductive success in a pair rather than alone. This is known as co-operative breeding, where non-related adults help rear the young. However, this lacks the normal reproductive competition often seen between members of the same-sex. This form of co-operative reproductive challenges the ideas of the evolution of sexual reproductive strategies and orientation. Despite a possible increase in reproductive success in same-sex pairing than alone, these females are still in a dilemma. This is because the reproductive success of female-female pairs was less than that of female-male pairings.
Homosexuality in nature may have previously been over-looked. Female and male Laysan albatross are not physically distinguishable. This is a commonality in many seabird species. Consequently, scientists had to determine gender through genetic tests (Zuk and Bailey, 659). This is thoroughly resource consuming considering genetic technology is only beginning to emerging commercially. As a result, female-female pairing may have been previously mistaken for female-male pairing. More intricate and thorough search of homosexuality in nature, which makes use of new and emerging technologies in genetics, may lead to further findings of homosexuality behavior.
Note that homosexuality in wild populations seems to occur to a much lesser degree as compared to those in captivity. This leads scientists to question the purpose of same-sex interaction in terms of the evolution of a species. However, in captivity, there were other different-sex pairing alternatives available.
The proportion of female-female pairing to different-sex pairing in the Oahu albatross population is higher than recordings for any other bird species. Female-female pairing occurred at 31% of the 125 Laysan albatross nests observed. Further study into the population of albatross inhabiting the island of Oahu may provide answers to questions that this initial study poses.
The biological differences between the brain activity of gay and straight human beings has also been studied, the continuation of which is now supported by the findings of this study by Young and colleagues. These findings initiate further study and discussion into the nature of homosexuality and population ecology, and the implications this research may have for future debates on the place of homosexuality in human society.
Zuk, Marlene and Bailey, Nathan. “Birds Gone Wild: Same sex parenting in albatross.” The Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23.12 (2008): 658-660.
92250 This research will begin with the definition of domestic violence in a broad-based context or in a limited context. The term “domestic” refers to the types of relationships, as in a heterosexual relationship. According to the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, domestic violence is the willful intimidation, physical assault, battery, sexual assault, and/or other abusive behavior perpetrated by an intimate partner against another…Violence against women is often accompanied by emotionally abusive and controlling behavior…that results in physical injury, psychological trauma, and sometimes death… Additionally, domestic violence affects women regardless of their age, socio-economic status, religion, ethnic and educational backgrounds. The United Nations, through its Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, defines domestic violence as any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life. This definition recognizes the fact that domestic violence is a crucial social mechanism that forces women into a subordinate position. Additionally, this definition takes into account the physical and psychological harm towards women, whether done in private or public life. The definition also encompasses three areas: violence within the family. violence within the general community, and violence committed or intentionally overlooked by the State. The UNICEF further recognizes that domestic violence encompasses violence committed by intimate partners and other family members as manifested through any of the following: physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, and economic abuse. Physical abuse refers to acts such as slapping, choking, beating and murder, among others. It also refers to traditional practices that endanger women’s health and well-being such as genital mutilation and wife inheritance. Physical abuse may lead to death. The Washington state defines domestic violence as “physical harm, bodily injury, assault, or the inflicting of fear of imminent physical harm, bodily injury or assault, between family or household members”.
The company will provide the customers with an excellent environment so that they can complete purchasing free from disturbance or interruption. The company maintains broad mission of establishing a friendly, comfortable and accessible environment carrying thousands of big and small items for the customers belonging to divergent racial, ethnic, religious, age and gender groups so that the individuals can make buying for themselves, their spouses, parents, children, and friends. Hence, JD’s Way of Life would serve as an incredibly dazzling, lavish and luxurious point for the public to visit or request an order through the internet or over the phone to buy the items for personal, domestic or business purposes.
Furthermore, the company would establish a market research department within its setup in order to have a permanent eye on the transformations and developments being made in the corporate sector at local, national and international scales. It will prove imperatively beneficial and advantageous with respect to revising the corporate policies of the company in the same lines as the changes will be taking place in the entire corporate sector. As a result, the company will appear to be the trend-setter in healthcare products, body items, fashion and design, professional tools and techniques and other items of daily use. The company will offer its services 24/7, and the customers would be able to place orders any time according to their convenience and requirement.
Establishment of the strategic board for caring, safeguarding and promoting the core values of the customers belonging to different groups and communities is also included in the business plans of JD’s Way of Life. The company aims to provide extra benefits to its permanent customers by offering discount packages on some specific number of visits as well as on making some particular range of purchasing. .
The study will also examine whether or not the enforcement of some particular state interventions articulated for catering to historically racially oppressed populations serves as another form of oppression. Hence, the research will attempt to examine and answer all of the above-mentioned questions related to racial prejudice and discriminations have been in vogue for the last four centuries.
Social stratification is rightly regarded to be a universal phenomenon, where the individuals belonging to diverse regions of the world look divided into different categories including clans, castes, creeds, communities, tribes, groups, nations and societies (Ember &. Ember, 2003, p. 413). The ethnic, racial, regional and religious backgrounds, as well as social statuses, economic positions, gender, physical appearance, skin color, age-group and sexual orientation serve as the most important indicators of the division of people into groups and communities (Kerbo, 2003, p. 26). As a result, societies and cultures segregate the individuals on the above-described traits and characteristics and enter into interaction with them on the foundations of the same. Root has cited Chao, who explicitly declares ethno-racial discrimination as the original sin (1994, p.5). Despite the very reality that man does not have any authority with regards to deciding and determining his caste, tribe, physical appearance, gender and skin color. human societies pay due heed to these traits that look determining the place of the individuals within a social establishment. Financial position is certainly one of the most significant indicators of one’s status in society (Oliver &. Shapiro, pp.35-6). It is predominantly the case with the racial background and skin color of the individuals, which have been the moot points as well as one of the most influential sources of segregation for the last few centuries
20 February Character Analysis of Paul D in Toni Morrison’s “Beloved” “Beloved” (1987), written by Toni Morrison is a post Civil War novel, which has won the coveted Pulitzer Prize and is also a critically acclaimed work, inspired by the true life of “Margaret Garner, an escaped slave” (Elbert 38). It tells the story of Sethe, a slave woman, who kills her daughter, Beloved, to put her in a place where she would be safe from the masters. Paul D, a fellow slave with her in Sweet Home, the plantation in Kentucky where they work, is another prominent character in the novel. Paul is the person who instills hope in Sethe who is haunted by her past. Though kind and optimistic, Paul D remains concerned with his masculinity and this causes him to act in certain specific ways throughout the novel.
Morrison uses Paul D’s concern with his masculinity to subtly allude to the attitude of the male members of the African American community and their expectations of how females need to act. The author portrays Paul as a character, who really loves and cares for Sethe. However, while he feels “proud of her” on the one hand, he becomes “annoyed by her” on the other when he realizes that she did not need either her husband or Paul to go through her delivery (Morrison 4). His annoyance derives from his concern for his masculinity due to which he believes that Sethe must depend on him or her husband for the delivery.
Paul D’s masculinity can be seen as a dominating trait in him even in the scene when he first arrives at Sethe’s home after several years and she starts cooking for him and he says “Don’t go to any trouble on my account” (7). This dialog manifests his concern and love for Sethe on the one hand and he is prepared to quit a meal lest he gives any trouble to the woman for whom he cares a lot. However, on the other hand, it transpires that his reaction to her invitation also stems from his concern for his masculinity due to which the idea of a female taking a trouble for a male like him does not appeal to him.
More significantly, in the context of the story’s theme, it can be seen that the storyline basically relies on Paul D’s knowledge of his masculinity. He is a person who has always known his value as a “laborer who could make profit on a farm” (120). Thus, he takes pride in his own strength and the ability to work. This, perhaps, is the power that imbibes in him the quest for freedom, which ultimately culminates into the attempted escape. In addition, he nourishes a desire in him to save Sethe from her problems and also drives out the evil from her life. His sense of purpose in protecting the person he cares for also derives from his feelings about the importance of his masculinity which motivates him to shelter the woman he loves.
Thus, overall, the concern of Paul D over his masculinity is the most significant factor that acts as the motivation for this character. Right from the beginning of the story, this trait in him makes him act in certain ways that decides the storyline of the novel. His love and caring for Sethe, his desire to protect her and finally live her a life, all derive from the fact that he honors his masculinity and takes it upon him as his duty to care for the women he loves.
Elbert, Monika M. Toni Morrison’s Beloved (1987): Maternal Possibilities, Sisterly Bonding. Women in Literature: Reading through the Lens of Gender. Fisher, Jerilyn &. Silber, Ellen S (ed). 2003. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Web. Morrison, Toni. Beloved. 1987. London: Vintage Classics. Print.
The topic of sexual harassment helps people understand the reality in workplaces where many individuals face challenges from their coworkers. Sexual harassment is a problem that can face individual of any gender either male or female. By discussing the many cases where sexual harassment has been reported, individuals get knowledge on how to deal with those situations if they happen to them. The topic also helps workers get to know the legal steps to take and also the consequences of such conduct.
According to the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, sexual harassment refers to the unlawful sexual advances that unreasonably affect the performance of the individual in the workplace. The unlawful sexual advances also create a hostile, intimidating and offensive environment. Sexual harassment in the workplace may include inappropriate touching and sexual jokes and comments. Posting sexual messages targeting particular individuals in workplaces adds up to sexual harassment. There are usually two types of sexual harassments that include quid pro quo and hostile work environment. Quid pro quo occurs when a person in authority such as management or supervisory level applies sexual harassment on workers to offer them job favors such as promotions or pay rise. Such harassments may include demanding for kisses from the subordinates and sex in the offices. The individuals, who are at a capacity to hire, fire or even promote the employees usually, demand their juniors sexually to cooperate all they either are fired or miss an opportunity of promotion. On the other hand, hostile work environment refers to the unwelcome and unlawful sexual conduct by employees and other individuals in workplaces. Such behavior may include inappropriate touching, sexual comments, sexual jokes and focusing on those employees who agree to give into sexual activities (“Sexual
How Does Gender Affect Overall Job Satisfaction? The Case of the American Intellectual Union How Does Gender Affect Overall Job Satisfaction?
The Case of the American Intellectual Union
This paper attempts to discover the connection between overall job satisfaction and gender by utilizing the survey data conducted on the population of the American Intellectual Union. Job satisfaction is an important subject of study because of it can affect both the employee and the organization in the long run (Castillo &. Cano, 2004, p. 65). In a research by Nazim Ali (2005) said, “Dissatisfied employees create many problems for their organization inspite of solving it problems” (p. 239). In the educational sectors, dissatisfied employees may exhibit behaviors that can lead to poor results or they may engage in counterproductive activities such as theft, poor service, sabotage of equipment and many others. Dissatisfied employees also report higher tendencies for stress and depression, as well as high turnover intention which often leads to actual turnover. It is important for an organization to understand the various factors that can lead to employee satisfaction (or dissatisfaction) because these have the potential to adversely affect the smooth operation of the organization if they are not managed appropriately. In Ali’s study, it was found that job satisfaction was inversely correlated with turnover intention – low job satisfaction led to high turnover intention (Ali, 2005, p. 249).
Is there a difference in the overall job satisfaction (OJS) among men and women who are members of the American Intellectual Union? This is the main question that this paper hopes to answer. The sample for this study is composed mostly by males (74%). Standard deviation cannot be computed for gender since this data is nominal. Respondents were asked to rate their overall job satisfaction through the scale of 1 (least satisfied) to 7 (most satisfied). Table 1 below shows the OJS score provided by males and females.
Average OJS for the entire sample was computed at 5.172 which is relatively high in the scale. Overall standard deviation is at 0.979582 which means that the variation in the scores for overall job satisfaction is small.
However, it is important to note that females registered a higher average overall job satisfaction at 5.27 compared to males (5.14). Standard deviation of OJS scores among males is at 0.97 while variation in the OJS scores in females was computed at 1.20. While both standard deviation scores are low, females registered higher variation possibly due to less sample size.
The results of this study is not conclusive because data was limited. Moreover, to determine the connection between gender and overall job satisfaction scores, it is important to run other statistical procedures such as the chi square test or other test for correlation. By using charts, it was easy to see that most female respondents provided higher OJS scores, but that there were too few of them, hence, one cannot generalize the results of this study to cover the entire population.
Ali, N. (2005). Factors affecting overall job satisfaction and turnover intention. Journal of Managerial Sciences, 2(2), 239-250.
Castillo, J. X., &. Cano, J. (2004). Factors explaining job satisfaction among faculty. Journal of Agricultural Education, 45(3), 65-74.
Topic: How my work experience changed me as a person. I had a rather sheltered childhood. A lot of other kids were allowed to go about doing things by themselves, things that my parents often did not let me do. Our community was also quite narrow-minded in terms of gender roles. As a girl child, I led a far more closed, inward-looking life than boys my age. But my somewhat restricted upbringing did not stop me from yearning for more exposure to the world. I grew up looking forward to knowing more about life, meeting new people, experiencing newer things. And this is precisely how working for the pharmaceutical industry helped me blossom and become a better-rounded person.
I joined the job as a volunteer in […]. As I was eager to meet new people, I welcomed the job as a positive influence in my life. While some of my co-workers complained about their work hours and wages, I was just too glad and grateful to mind these minor hiccups. Working gave me a sense of independence. As an employed person I had more responsibility, I could take greater initiative and in an individual capacity, rather than a member of my family or community, as was the case before. There is an immense sense of self-worth and satisfaction that comes with being entrusted with work and I took too this responsibility with a lot of seriousness.
Apart from my feelings of self-worth, which improved greatly because of my work, the job benefitted me in other ways. I was suddenly meeting people of all ages and backgrounds who were either suffering themselves or who had family members who were in pain. This exposure to the greater human condition allowed to me to feel for and extend compassion to people who were different from me. I believe that this exposure at my job was crucial in making me the more broad-minded person that I am today.
From a practical perspective, working in something as complex as the pharmaceutical industry helped me understand how big corporations and the professional world worked. The job knowledge I gained in the specific field of pharmaceuticals was not the only thing I learned. I grew more aware about how various organisations and authorities worked in our society.
This led to a redefining of my ethics. Earlier, I was not very aware of the ills of the pharmaceutical industry, or any other industry in fact. However, because of my insider’s position, I could now see the various drawbacks of big corporations and the frequent malpractices that harmed common individuals. My complete faith in hospitals, the government, and a greater moral order in general were questioned. In fact, following an incident at my workplace which led to a patient I had got to know personally losing in a lawsuit against my employer, I was greatly disillusioned. However, thanks to the advice and common sense of my mother and a few senior colleagues, I began to get over it. Although the trust I placed in institutions before was shaken somewhat, I still see the experience as a positive one. Questioning things around us is an important part of growing up, even if it involves some degree of disillusionment.
I believe my volunteering experience in the pharmaceutical industry has also helped me become more professional. Any jobs I take up in the future, I will now be able to fulfil with a greater degree of professionalism. This experience has taught me to be impartial and practice greater detachment. In becoming an independent, self-reliant adult, I believe my volunteering job has helped a great deal.
This is because, the unemployment of women does not only affect the individual women who are unemployed, but the future generations, since women bear the big burden in the upbringing of children and when they cannot be able to bring them up well due to poverty and other social constraints, there is no doubt that such children will turn out to be a disaster for the society in the future. Nevertheless, the unemployment for women has continued to be a major impediment to the advancement of equality in the society. The income inequality between the rich and the poor continues to increase, despite the measures that have been put in place to address poverty and unemployment in the society (Krugman, n.p.). Despite the seemingly advancement in narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor in the 1920s in America, the situation has now changed, and the gap between the rich and the poor is now wider than ever. However, at the center of the social inequality, is the concept of women unemployment, which leaves women to take care of domestic chores, a scenario faced by a high population of women, summarized well by Diaz in the statement “She didn’t have a regular job outside of caring for us five kids” (Diaz, n.p.). In this respect, it is conclusive to argue that women unemployment is in the core of social inequality in the society.
Gender discrimination is a social evil that has seen all manner of legislations, campaigns and advocacy targeting to empower women so they can be in the same position as men, when it comes to issues of accessing education, employment, political positions and any other social roles that were traditionally the preserve of men. However, all these attempts have not made the situation any better, since even though women can now access education and employment like men do. there is one major issue that acts as an impediment to the total liberation of women. family responsibilities (Woolf, n.p). Additionally, even
Proponents of child adoption by gay couples say that children adopted by gay couples display development similar to other children. This is not true. Children lack the presence, love, affection, and presence of the parent of the non-existent gender throughout the developmental process. If it is a male gay couple, the child is denied the love of a mother. If it is a female gay couple, the child is denied the affection and guidance of a father. This creates voids and grey areas in the child’s mind about the roles and responsibilities of the non-existent parent, and this subjectivity of concepts affects the child’s relationships with friends in the childhood, and with spouse and children in the adulthood.
Proponents of child adoption by gay couples say that children adopted by gay couples can live a normal social life. This is very untrue. Gay couples promote gay culture. Gay culture is essentially a subculture adopted by a particular community within the society, whereas the larger part of the society comprises heterosexual couples, many of which condemn homosexuality to the extent of abhorrence. In such a conservative society, being part of a gay family may be extremely traumatic and inconvenient for the children. The children given to gay couples are at huge risk of violence, mockery, and bullying. Children raised in such families are made fun of and their views of their parents’ questionable sexual orientation are readily asked. Repeated occurrence of this encounter may yield life-long negative consequences for the children. These children are made to feel different and isolated from the larger population of children which live in the nuclear family systems.
Proponents of child adoption by gay couples say that gay couples can take care of the adopted children like their own children. The fact is that the children are
Functionalism and Conflict Theory
Wilma’s behavior with her family may be a result of functionalism as well as conflict theory. There are many aspects to structural functionalism and it has developed into an explanation that is used by many people even today. An example of functionalism at work is if a person has a way of thinking or behaviors that are false or negative, the functionalist can help them become a better person by countering these assumptions with positive and helpful ones. “Structural functionalism views society as a functionally integrated system that holds an equilibrium, while conflict theory emphasizes a disintegration of society, stating that there is a conflict of interest in all organizations and at all times, as society is subject to change” (Yin, 2003). The societal balance suggested by the influx of positive thinking on Wilma’s situation can be seen from a psychological or sociological perspective as being basically functionalist. This theory assumes that while the above is useful, it will not succeed unless healthy concepts are socially constructed and the environmental factors are reinforcing. Functionalism is a very positive viewpoint.
Conflict theory, as the above quote suggests, looks at Wilma’s situation from a more negative perspective, in terms of what her and her family’s struggles can tell us about social class, oppression, and unique issues facing aboriginals in Australia. From a conflict perspective focusing on Wilma’s race or gender, for example, scholarship may
focus on the patriarchal norms that are carried out by traditional family structures in
terms of male dominance and female submission, and this also affects the concept of marriage as it is seen as a relationship that mirrors this type of societal relation at the same time that it also seems to transcend it. This is an ideal that Wilma often comes close to in the case, but never really achieves, and the results are relatively tragic to her as the world she has tried to reverse, reverses on her when she is cornered. But in the end, it is all about class and socio-economic status from a conflict theory perspective. Socio-economic status is also seen by conflict theorists as being passed on from one generation to another in terms of wealth and privilege, or the lack thereof, within a family structure that is seen as a space of economic restriction that also works to keep advantaged groups in the same place from generation to generation. This is seen through Wilma’s constant struggles to meet the most basic needs for her family, such as healthcare and housing. From the perspective of society which values the imposition of a theoretical structure of patriarchal control, this makes conflict theory very important to look at, though, in terms of how it may motivate Wilma.
I think that conflict theory perspectives would be most helpful to Wilma and her family. “It is because people who are in dominant positions want to maintain their status quo while those who are in subordinate positions want to seek change. Under this situation, there is a conflict of interest between these two groups of people in every association” (Yin, 2003). In Wilma’s current situation, she is frustrated and angry without being empowered. I think that the positive nature of functionalism wouldn’t really appeal to her because of her anger. I think that Wilma and her family would be more empowered to act and advocate on their own for social change, and organize, through conflict theory. This would supplant Wilma’s desire to run away from the problem, with a desire to confront it.
Yin, Y (2003). Functionalism and conflict theory.
61500  .It will be guided by the following research questions: What were the stereotypes associated with women in the Canadian Labor market and how did these influence allocation of duties as well as remuneration? How did gender roles, i.e. motherhood duties, affect women in the labor industry and what were attitudes of employers and other males employees towards women? Was there feminization of certain duties?Lastly, what were the efforts taken to improve working conditions for women in the Canadian set-up?According to Graham (1997), men and women in the 19th and the 20th century were exposed to different types of work-related activities, especially in cases where physical strength was not an imperative factor. Graham asserts that in the Canadian context, the essence of working was also associated with a reflection of gender identification. That is, social values such as cultural dimensions were basically used to create and maintain the essence of being a male or a female. Graham described this scenario as the sexual division of labor and posits that. to some extent, it facilitated economic development.The essence of gender stereotyping in the Canadian Labor market in the early and the late 1900’s can be traced back as early as 1660’s. During this period, groups of women, basically viewed as social outcasts were sent from France to Quebec by the then government. These women, inter-married with other settlers and gave birth at a rapid rate, approximately 30% higher than French women left back in the country, a factor attributed to proper nutrition and health (Bakker, 1996). However, gender stereotyping in relation to work, began during this time with women in Quebec associated with certain simple and light domestic activities i.e.
The a sampling technique was adopted. It included 38 participants including 18 community pharmacists, 10 hospitals and 10 others (containing primary care trusts, senior management positions, and academia). The pharmacists were chosen from a variety of geographical locations, different ages, gender, experiences, employment statuses, and ethnicities.
The participants were selected via a snowballing process. It begins with contacts of the project team and was taken forward through referrals both from participants and associated institutional gatekeepers.
The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The principles of grounded theory informed the analytical process. The analytical process involved the summarising, categorizing and linking of a significant collection of data (open coding) which was then merged into larger sets (axial codes).
A process was run of constant comparision was used within and across interviews and both open and axial codes were revised frequently. The paper presented data analysis followed by a discussion. steps that were taken to ensure the validity and reliability of the work. The first nine transcripts were read and analyzed by all the authors. The emerging analysis was presented to the pharmacy audience and feedback was taken to rives. The data was corrected and refined according to analytical categories.
To understand the values of pharmacy practitioners it is important for the data to come directly or indirectly from the pharmacists. The method used is a purposive sampling so that the .pharmacists interviewed reflects something that is indicative of the variety of roles and persons practised by them within the UK.
pecting that women will go out of the labor force during and after pregnancy, bosses are hesitant to give women the best training possible, which can simply be explained by the cost and benefit analysis.
The intermittent attendance of women in the labor force would mean less return for the employer for every training and additional knowledge that it has given a female employee. The lack of training on the part of the women explains this difference in wages.
Another inevitable result of the intermittent attendance of women to the labor force is their inability to be promoted to higher position as this would mean greater chaos in the office every time the women leave for child-bearing and child-rearing. The popular books on labor economics agree on this very important explanation for the male-female wage difference.
With all other determinants equal, the reason why women are still promoted to lower position and still receive lower salaries than men is discrimination. The gender discrimination is not only observed in large countries like the USA but also in small but booming countries such as the Singapore, particularly observed in the form of pre-existing structural differences, sexism and male protecting their success by excluding women from high-paying jobs (Lee).
2. The comparable worth law is defined as “A theory holding that compensation for job classifications filled chiefly by women should be the same as for those classifications filled chiefly by men if the jobs, albeit dissimilar, are regarded as having equal value. According to this theory, workers salaries should be calculated on a scale of socioeconomic value that transcends traditional supply and demand” (Answers.com).
The impetus of the law is to demolish any form of gender discrimination against women. But women having a low salary and coming from a different job than men may not neccesarily be a form of discrimination. What can be seen clearly as discrimination is the unequal pay between