Employees Resistance to Organizational Change

of change studied in the paper are Lewin’s model, the Action Research Plan model and Kotter’s eight stages of organizational change.The paper will attempt to integrate the models with the concept of resistance and come up with meaningful conclusions.
The above statement effectively summarises the context of this research interest, which deals with the concept of organizational change, with specific focus on employee resistance towards such a change in a given organization. A typical organization, according to research, goes through different forms of change, of which the most common are cost reduction, redundancies, culture change and performance improvement (Mullins 822. also see Brooks 98). The CIPD, Britain’s Chartered Institute of Personnel Development, in their own research, have given a more detailed set of circumstances which impose organizational change: challenges of growth. challenge of economic downturns and tougher trading conditions. changes in strategy. technological changes. competitive pressures including mergers and acquisitions. customer pressure. and government legislations (CIPD Change Management).
Research suggests that previously, change was a planned phenomenon, and it was implemented on periodic bases by the organization as part of a strategic plan. In other words, an organization may strategically plan to implement changes every few years. But the volatile environments where modern businesses operate have changed the way this process is carried out, due to more rapid developments either inside or outside the organizations, which eventually force the organizations to implement changes (Hussey 9). Such developments have been referred to as ‘trigger events’, and Hussey argues that these events occur too fast for comfort in modern organizations (10). The author also explains that these events may be either opportunities or threats, and that the subsequent changes are the organizations’ way of reacting to these events, in order to



There was no guarantee that those financial institutions could actually collapse if the government did not give them financial support. Furthermore, government intervention limits the potential of the institution’s leaders to explore means to save their organization hence leaving the directors of the institutions without experience to handle future financial crisis. The Islamic financial institutions differ from conventional financial institutions because they pursue the interest of investors as opposed to conventional institutions which are capitalistic. The study focuses on how conventional and Islamic institutions are operated and the main differences and similarities between the two financial institutions.
In a capitalist nation like Unite States individuals pursue personal goals as opposed to broader economic goals (HBO, 2011). The role of the state in such a situation is to make policies that will protect citizens and their property, creating an enabling environment for investors to pursue their interests. The state collects tax revenues from individuals and corporations in order to provide capitalist with level playground on which they can be able to conduct their activities (Stockman, 2013. P. 342). However, the government has the responsibility to safeguard the economy because the economic status of a nation collectively affects lives of the citizens. Capitalists’ plays significant roles in the economy hence their activities are intertwined hence making it too hard for the government to ignore their activities (DarkAngelStarQ, 2009). Since economic growth is affected by the roles of capitalists the government cannot ignore the performance of private businesses completely because poor performance of the private businesses will affect the implementation of government policies (Ferguson, 2008). The study explores the risks facing financial institutions in the documentary Too Big to Fail and also the risks

Growth and Development of Global Economy

Growth and Development of Global Economy – Economics and Section # of Growth and Development ofGlobal Economy – Economics
The global trade arena with regards to cotton import/export in contemporary times involves players from the diametrically opposite nations of the world in terms of development, i.e. the USA and the West African nations along with other nations of the world such as China. The major concern in this field are the negative externalities emitted by the US subsidies allotted to its domestic producers in order to make their yield appear competitive in the global market, but this move on part of the US government harms the West African nations which depend on cotton export for livelihood and a tool which could trigger economic growth. On the contrary, they are stuck in the vicious cycle due to the US subsidies which crowds the efficient producer’s market, since without subsidies the US cotton production would not be economical. The US government harms the poorer nations through subsidizing their own domestic cotton production more than it helps them through foreign aid, as proved by statistical data in The Oxfam Briefing Paper (Oxfam International, 2004, pages 1-40). The subsidies does not only affect the Balance of Payments, but has a trigger down effect, it lowers the income of farmers, thus reducing the income available for expenditure, further strengthening the economic crisis by lowering aggregate demand, the multiplier sets into a negative action, and poverty sets in, thus making West African nations vulnerable to US cotton subsidies, furthermore in accordance with Anderson and Valenzuela (Anderson and Valenzuela, 2006, page 19) the usage of Genetically Modified Organism for the cotton production in developing nations would have a greater positive effect than eliminating subsidies completely. However, since it is a time-consuming process to convert every small farm to GM technology, hence from the West African nation’s perspective, the USA should eliminate its cotton subsidies in order to aid the developing nations in coming out of the economic crisis and poverty situation.
The US political policies focus on hardcore protectionism with regards to the cotton market. the subsidies are unfair and distort the free trade system. According to the multiplier effect, protectionism in the cotton industry also leads to indirect help of US domestic textile and apparels industry, as presented in The Oxfam Briefing Paper. However, these subsidies focus on helping only the larger farms, despite publicizing otherwise, since 67% of the US farms are ineligible to attain the subsidy benefits, and it is generally the top 10% farms which receive 79% of the subsidies, depicting an internal imbalance and favoritism in the political arena (Oxfam International, 2004, pages 1-40). The WTO however tends to take action against this partiality in favor of the richer US farmers, and proposes reforms in order to rectify the situation and make lives of the African farmers comparatively easier, and allow them a fair compensation, since an undistorted cotton trade market could help eradicate poverty and suffering from these unprivileged nations, however the reforms should not be aimed at increasing the debt burden of the already suppressed nations, but rather alleviate their crisis, critical examination of the reform policies is a must, and these should not partially tilt towards benefit the developed nations yet again, and like the EU, prompt action is required for policy reform initiation in order to eliminate trade distortions, despite resistance from the US government which would stress to protect its domestic industry, especially the richer elite farmers.
Anderson. K and Valenzuela. E (2006) The World Trade Organization’s Doha Cotton Initiative: A Tale of Two Issues. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 3918, 1-39
Oxfam International (2004) Finding the Moral Fiber: Why reform is urgently needed for a fair cotton trade. Oxfam Briefing Paper, 69, 1-

Employment Relations in the Innovative Electronics

Subsequently, these problems affected diverse business areas within the company besides affecting the stakeholders. The customers could not get their needs and demands met by the products of Innovative and hence walked away.
The parent company reduced resources to the subsidiaries, affecting the motivation and reward system negatively. The management structure and the policies that the senior managers used caused mistrust and cynicism and failed to address the problems of the company since coherence and teamwork were affected negatively.
Innovative Electronics is a company that operates in Europe and produces sophisticated electronic control equipment used by other big companies in testing and measuring laboratory instruments, mobile phones, and chemicals. The Innovative business has experienced constant problems in the past five years, resulting in a patchy performance because of the economic turmoil that rocked the world’s market for some of its important products. This paper is an integrative case study analysis of Innovative electronics in which the problem is discussed, the case data analyzed, and the main problems facing the company identified and analyzed. In addition, recommendations are made to help improve the situation that the company is in, in future.
The Innovative Electronics is experiencing poor and low performance in its business for the last five years because of the market depression for some of its main products. The company, which had been thriving on the power of technological innovations for its business success, is also facing increased threats from its new competitors in the market because of less innovative developments that can neither attract new customers nor retain the existing ones.

Amazon Kindle And Its Innovativeness

At the same time, institutional economics define innovation as an important economic activity for reducing transaction costs and thereby improving operational efficiency. According to Leger and Swaminathan (n.d), the evolutionary economics defines innovation entirely different from neoclassical theories and assumptions. and it illustrates innovation by reconciling the micro and macro evidence. In the context of international trade, endowments and factor prices, market structure and competition, and demand pull factors are the determinants of innovation.

Sundbo (2003) reflects that innovation process is generally classified into three types such as product innovation, process innovation, and strategy innovation. Tidd, Bessant, and Pavitt (2005) state that under product innovation, an organisation tries to bring a new product or service to life with intent to meet customers’ changing requirements whereas the process innovation attempts to increase a firm’s bottom line profitability, managerial control over costs, productivity, and employee job satisfaction. In the view of O’Marah (2005), the process innovation also benefits customers by increasing efficiency in supply chain activities such as timely product or service delivery. Finally, strategy innovation is about restructuring the prevailing industry methods of creating customer value for the purpose of adding additional value to the company’s market stature and creating new markets and customer groups for wealth maximization.

European Union business law

This forms the centrality of the European Union’s rules on the free movement of persons.
However, looking at the nature of the creation of the European Union, the laws on the free movement of persons were thought of to be applicable to only persons who moved to other member states to do economic activities like working3. However, in the landmark case of Van Duyn V Home Office4 it was identified that Article 45 of the TFEU had a vertical direct effect and hence, it could be enforced by any citizen of the European Union. It also applies to all legal relationships by members of the European Union5.
In the application of sub-section 2 of TFEU Article 45, a worker is a person who performs services of an economic value for and under the direction of another in return for remuneration6. Thus, there is a protection under this provision implies that a worker is protected from all kinds of discrimination that might exist in relation to his stay and continuous provision of services that he provides in another Member State.
Unemployed citizens of a Member State can enter another Member State in search of a job under Article 45(3). And to this end, a person could be in another Member State for a reasonable period of time in The State V Royer7 was defined to be a period of up to six months.
Family members of a worker in another Member State are also empowered by Article 2(2)(c) of Directive 2004/38 to live with their dependent children under the age of 21 and their dependent spouses who are not working. Article 10 of Regulation 492/2001 provides equal rights to these dependents connected to a person.
Article 2 of Regulation 1612/68 which was replaced by Directive 2004/38 guarantees the rights of spouses, registered partners, descendants and ascendants of EU nationals working in another Member State that is not their primary home8. However, they must show that these individuals or persons are their dependents9.
From the

Critical evaluation and incorporation of change management tools for Kiribati

An acute managerial crisis may be implicated in the observed multi-perspective problems of Kiribati. Kiribati, therefore, serves as an ideal case study on emphasising the role of management in realizing the development of a particular state or people. A proper analysis of the problems facing this state and their possible solutions is a milestone in management. Some problems facing Kiribati includes. (Goldberg, 2013).
Infrastructure is of great concern in Kiribati. There is only one road passing through Kiribati and the name of the road is unknown. Also, the available airstrip is poorly developed and very dusty. The airport is serving as children’s playground as children run after the landing plane. Poor infrastructure has limited access to the rest of Kiribati and hence low exploitation of its resources. Other infrastructure such as electricity is not mentioned, implying that the state might be experiencing no real economic growth. Industrialization in such a setup is a real mystery. Poor infrastructure in Kiribati has closed the region to the rest of the world as there is limited access to the region and its resources (Goldberg, 2013).
Ecoterrorism is a term coined by Kiribati President Anote Tong.It refers to gradual and progressive advancement of Pacific Ocean water to the island. The president notes that there is an estimated 3mm rise in ocean water per year. Kiribati Island is therefore referred to as the drowning island. The ecoterrorism, therefore, puts the president in a great dilemma. On one hand, the president has a responsibility of attracting foreign investors. On the other hand, he has a to devise a plan on how to move the I-Kiribati to a safer destination to protect them from future drowning. Very few investors apart from the fishing company can accept investing in such a place. The I-Kiribati lives in great fear of the ocean. The ecoterrorism forms one of the worst problems to Kiribati (Goldberg, 2013).
Kiribati is faced

What are the main benefits and costs of monetary union What are the main criteria for the optimality of a currency area

Monetary Union amp. Section # of What are the main benefits and costs of monetary union? Monetaryunion is an important method of integration in which many nations join hands to form a single market and single currency system to reap bigger benefits of trade. Europe Union is an example of monetary union in which Euro is the currency of the nations in Euro Zone (BBC World Service, 1998). There are some benefits and some cost in joining such kind of union. Below are the important costs and benefits of monetary union: (University of North Carolina, 2009).
Benefits of Monetary Union:
One of the important benefits of monetary union is that it eliminate exchange rate between the member countries. Thus it eliminates a big hurdle in the way of trade. At the same time, countries get free from any exchange rate uncertainty. get smaller rates of transactions and more secure price transparency.
A neutral body acts as central bank on behalf of all member nations of the monetary union. This body being neutral and free from influence of any nation makes it credible for not only all members of the monetary union, but also for outside world. For example, European Central Bank acts as a combined central bank of the European Union.
Monetary union is the way of promoting greater economic alliance which is beneficial for all member states and the outside world. For example, it is easy today to deal with a group of 28 countries of Europe at a single platform named European Union.
Monetary union of nations, being a group, is considered more important than that of a single nation. Such kind of unions provides group of nation to play active role in the world affairs.
Costs of Monetary Union:
Monetary union can cause economic fluctuation, budget deficits and not suitable monetary policy if a country is not an optimal currency area.
There is a possibility of any moral or cultural hazard due to differing believes among the nations.
A common dilemma of economic and monetary union is the fact that an individual member country of the union loses its identity and cultural significance.
What are the main criteria for the optimality of a currency area?
Optimal currency area is also known as optimal currency region. This area refers to single market areas having a single currency across the region. There are many elements that define the optimality of a currency area (Alexandre Swoboda, 1999). It is important to have these elements to become the member of an optimal currency area. So following is the main criteria for the optimality of a currency area: (University of North Carolina, 2009)
A country must provide free entry and free exit to labor and capital to become part of an optimal currency area.
A country must provide price and wage flexibility throughout the boundaries of the union members to become part of an optimal currency area.
A country must provide the authorities and governments to transfer funds or adjust taxation throughout the boundaries of the union to become part of an optimal currency area.
University of North Carolina. (2009).Costs and Benefits of Joining a Monetary Union. [online].
UNC.edu. . [14th April 2015]
University of North Carolina. (2009). Optimal Currency Area (OCA). [online]. UNC.edu
. [14th April 2015]
Alexandre Swoboda. (1999). Robert Mundell and the Theoretical Foundation for the European
Monetary Union. [online]. International Monetary Fund’website: IMF.org.
. [14th April 2015]
BBC World Service. (1998). Special Report EMU: The Advantages. [online] BBC’s website:
BBC.co.uk. . [14th April 2015]

The Truth about Stories A Native Narrative

Thomas King shares a Native perspective on Native issues. In fact, this sentence alone suggests some of the problems he deals with throughout his book. King’s book covers topics as diverse as racism and stereotyping, basketball, and coping with life’s sorrows, but it looks at all of these issues through an exploration of narrative in the forms of stories that we tell ourselves and others. The book’s main message is one that discusses the importance of seeing people for who they are, and not trying to classify them as one particular race or culture. I think this is a message that is especially important for social workers to keep in mind as they struggle to help those who are not a part of the dominant culture or socio-economic class.
One thing that makes King’s message so effective is the personal tone in which he tells all his stories. He frequently speaks to the reader and is not shy about telling us when he is aiming for a story-telling tone. In the first chapter he tells two different creation myths, one Christian and one Native. The tones he uses to tell them are very different, as he points out afterwards. In the Native story, he says, I tried to recreate an oral storytelling voice and craft the story in terms of a performance for a general audience. However, the Christian version, told with a less playful tone, used a sober voice which makes for a formal recitation but creates a sense of veracity.King’s stories in the book usually use a mix of these two tones.

Drilling in the ANWR

Drilling in the ANWR Question Opportunity cost is the value of the next best alternative forgone. When the drilling begins it will definitely cause a change in the natural habitat of the arctic. The diversity and population of the animal species will be affected and will be reduced. Not only are they a part of the natural environment, they are also a source of revenue for the country with tourists and the fishing produce. So this is the opportunity cost of the drilling. These will be forgone.
Question 2
The current administration is in a fix. It has decided though to prefer the drilling compared to the natural habitat. This may be financially much more feasible to the country in general, but in the long term it can have some negative effects. This is because the drilling can cause a lot of problems to the natural habitat. The drilling will cause a damaged environment, one which can not be cured easily.
Question 3
The Congress was in a very close decision making position as they were stuck in a choice of going for the natural habitat or the economic benefits.
Because of scarcity, choices have to be made on a daily basis by all consumers, firms and governments. For a moment, just have a think about the hundreds of millions of decisions that are made by people in your own country every single day.
Take for example the choices that people make in the city of London about how to get to work. Over six million people travel into London each day, they have to make choices about when to travel, whether to use the bus, the tube, to walk or cycle – or indeed whether to work from home. Millions of decisions are being taken, many of them are habitual (we choose the same path each time) – but somehow on most days, people get to work on time and they get home too! This is a remarkable achievement, and for it to happen, our economy must provide the resources and the options for it to happen. (Tutor 2 u)
As the excerpt suggests that the government had the chance and job of making decisions and at times this can get very difficult. The government should have probably allowed for the exploration and the exploitation, however, should have also made sure that the habitat is preserved in the best way possible. These situations are pretty common for governments throughout the world.
Passing the bill would have meant a harmful impact on the environment and the oil could always be imported. Perhaps by saving that oil for the future Congress was actually taking a brave step.

Tutor2u, Markets Scarcity, 2011, http://tutor2u.net/economics/revision-notes/as-markets-scarcity-and-choice.html

Mobility within black and white families

Despite the dream remaining a unifying factor across all the diversities, income inequality continues to derail the chances of some individuals realizing the noble dream. Based on such a perspective, this paper discusses the various aspects of economic mobility within black and white families in U.S.
The underlying factors in achieving the American dream lies in an individual’s efforts, intelligence, and skills with little or no concern for a wealthy background as a basic factor. Additionally, little concern is attributed towards the historical inequalities that have existed in the American society, contributed to by the big gap margins existing between the poor, the middle-class, and the rich. One critical aspect and notion accepted by a majority of Americans attributed to American economy is due to the high degree of mobility among the diverse society. One critical aspect on the aspect of mobility states that, individuals among the low class and high-class show less mobility as compared to those in the middle-class, where an individual’s family background in terms wealth and income has a significant effect in determining the future of such an individual. Based on the fact that children from rich families tend to lead similar lives, and on a similar perspective those from poor families tend to experience similar economic mobility.
There are various key concepts pertaining to the economic mobility within the black and white families in the United States. Despite the balance that has been established in terms of economic mobility among the Americans, racial gap indifference has significantly been a major concern. To a majority of middle-class earners, parents seem to have passed the economic mobility to their children who led an almost similar life rank in the economic mobility ladder. For the blacks of the middle-class, however, a different scenario is evident. Another key concept is that despite both the whites and blacks having had their incomes

Advantages and disadvantages to bring World Cup to US

and equipment, which could be practiced on any more or less flat open space of the required size, made its way through the world entirely on its merits. But not in the United States (Markovits amp. Hellerman, 2001, p.7). Sports culture is what people breathe, read, discuss, analyze, compare, and historicize and the less popularity of soccer in the US may be a reason of cultural hegemonic sports culture in the US which may lead to the domination of other sports like baseball, basketball, tennis and so on over the soccer extravaganza (Markovits amp. Hellerman, 2001, p.9). However the craze for soccer is gaining speed in America and a transition has taken place from soccer pioneers tonbsp.soccer-literate and are gradually directing towards the creation of the road to soccer-passionate by the soccer fans (Saporito, 2010).
The Men’s Soccer World Cup held in 1994 saw almost near-capacity crowds at stadiums around the United States and attracted large domestic television audiences. Coupled with this success, the Major League Soccer (MLS) was founded in 1996 with money flowing from large owners and influential investors accelerating the games’ recognition with high media coverage. Women’s football became the most popular game in the United States nowadays followed by the phenomenal World Cup shootout victory over China by the United States Women’s national team in 1999 paving the way for the Women’s United Soccer Association’s (WUSA) founding in 2001 with huge inflow of investments (Richard amp. Nagel, 2007). The US bidding committee has also started bidding for the 2018 and 2022 World Cup for bringing this mega event in their country.
This paper will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of bringing the World Cup to the United States with the subsequent impacts on the social, economic, and environmental dimension of the country. Emphasis is given on the research of secondary literary resources. Justifications of the statements are provided with examples and

Reflection paper on Friedman and Almedar

Module Reflection paper on Friedman and Almedar Many people have a reflection that a business is incepted in the market for theostensible reason of making profits. This is especially reflected on businesses that are only focused on making profits while other activities are ignored. In such a situation, the business only focuses on factors that will affect its profitability. All other factors are not considered as critical, especially when they do not have a direct effect on profitability. However, some businesses rely on appreciating their communities and thereby offer the best in social responsibility (Bonello, 10). Such businesses do not only focus on the profit levels but also on other factors that affect the people they serve and the community around the business. These businesses are inclined to the social responsibility while ensuring satisfaction of their market with the services and products that are offered. Therefore, such businesses observe their social responsibility as well as their profitability.
Since stakeholders are only moved by profitability of a business, the business should always make sure to implement strategies that balance between social responsibility and profit maximization. Though this seems as an indulging activity, the management should focus on making a positive mark to both the community and the shareholders. This is by making a continuous increase in profits of the business. For example, the business should increase its participation in the market through diversification and expansion strategies. Increasing the market concentration increases the performance of a business. For example, investing in other untapped markets ensures a business creates more demand for its products. As such, the business will record an increase in sales and thus possibility of increased profits. However, the business should have a focus on the social responsibility. For example, selling tobacco is an acceptable activity in the market. Therefore, selling the tobacco to other markets is an acceptable market behavior. This will be a successful activity since the tobacco selling will increase the overall sales in the business. As such, the business will be observing its stakeholders’ responsibility of making a positive approach to business decision making. The business will benefit with each introduction of its products to new markets. Therefore, the business will be regarded as a responsible entity that makes profits while benefiting the community.
Though introduction of a product to a new market justifies the activities of a new business, it should be accompanied with other activities that justify the introduction of the product to the market. This will minimize mixed reactions from other stakeholders in the market. For example, all businesses have a social responsibility towards the community. Therefore, they should conduct their activities with constant reflection on this obligation.
In this case, tobacco selling is a legal venture that is accepted under the constitution of many countries. Though it is acceptable to sell tobacco products to people, there are various consequences of using these products. This is a setback to the business’ responsibility towards the community as it will be selling harmful products to the users’ health. Tobacco has nicotine and tar, both of which affect people’s health and this may not critically reflect well towards a business’ adherence to its social responsibility (Bonello, 10). This can, however, be achieved by the business through warning people against all the negativity that comes with the product use. For example, they should mention that using tobacco increases the chances of lung cancer. This will be a warning sign to people that do not need to use tobacco and tobacco products. Similarly, as a social responsibility, it should be mentioned that tobacco is highly addictive. This will be a control measure to people that do not need to use the products. In conclusion, as much as tobacco companies need to sell their products, they have a social responsibility of stating the effects of using tobacco. This will reduce the world population that is suffering from addition and use of tobacco.
Work Cited
Bonello, Frank J. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Economic Issues. York: McGraw-Hill/Dushkin. 2005. Print.

Influence of Global Economics at Micro and Macro Levels


The researcher states that Adam Smith’s was the idea that free trade should prevail as well as the notions that were backing nation-building policies in the support of national defense is more important than opulence. The act of navigation and the wisest of commercial regulations also made concessions to the mercantilistic policy of regulation of foreign trade. In the 1770s, Smith wrote the wealth of nations in the widespread of mercantilism and his advocacy of free trade was supported by the comparative cost theory and the cloth/wine arguments served as the foundation for what later came to be called the pure theory of trade. This theory has then made a turn to support the free trade theory and both Britain and the United States embarked upon policies allowing the extreme of one way or unilateral free trade. According to Dunkey, free trade economists often describe the goal of globalization as deep integration or the convergence of nations’ fundamental economic structures and policy systems, extending far beyond trade or strictly economic criteria. At the start of the twenty-first century, Americans deviated from living in a national market that was depending on its own resources. The American economy was isolated from the rest of the world by border restrictions and natural barriers, such as time, distance and lack of information. Decades of trade liberalization along with innovations in telecommunication and transportation had integrated global markets – and exposed workers in high-income countries to the pressures of global competition. The superiority of an international trading system characterized by greater multilateralism and international specialization over a trading system based on protectionism, bilateralism and a division of the world into major trading blocs is by no means as clear cut today as it was a decade ago.

Business Ethics and Society

The companies should make sure that they take care of the surrounding society in a good way. They have continuously made attempts to grow and expand their business exploring new markets and opening their branches in all the locations where they find an opportunity for growth. This has led to huge globalization with growth in economic conditions of both the company and also a huge benefit for the society as well. Every company has got a certain number of stakeholders who play a crucial role in the growth of the company.
Therefore the companies should make serious attempts to make sure that the stakeholders can also have good growth and have good economic and social conditions. I believe that the laws that are been made by the different governments of different countries focusing on the welfare of the human beings and the society are to be followed by the company strictly so that they don’t face any kind of legal obligations. The stakeholders for the company are owners, suppliers, customers, local community, employees and management.
The employees do give their best and work efficiently for the growth of the company but in return, they also look for a good salary and also want to avail some good facilities which can help them in having a good and comfortable life. The company should look to take care of the safety and health of the employees and also of their families. It should provide good educational facilities for the children’s of the employees. I can see that if the company provides such facilities to the employees than the employees feel motivated to work more efficiently.
For any company, the suppliers do play a big role as they are the one who supplies good quality materials to the company helping them in producing good quality products for the customers.nbsp.

Factors that influence female entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia


The first issue is that it puts further pressure on the male jobseekers. second, it contradicts social customs that prelude women from working in environments where they can openly mix with men. As such, women prefer to work in environments that respect the local customs and traditions, but also allow them to contribute fully to the country’s economic development. The current economic status of Saudi women is unknown, as there are no recent government figures. However, a 2004 study carried out by King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah states that women held nearly 30 percent of the bank accounts in the kingdom, with deposits worth SR62 billion, held 20 percent of corporate shares, own 15 percent of private companies and 10 percent of the real estate sector (Abdul Ghafour, 4 June 2004). The status of the Saudi economy remains untouched by the recent global financial crisis because of high oil revenues. Thus, the lavish lifestyles of Saudis, particularly women, have not changed at all. Despite all of these socioeconomic figures, the beauty salon industry is being squeezed in this economy because businesswomen prefer to invest in safe business opportunities. The Saudi beauty salon industry is huge, yet it is not a trouble-free industry. There are large risk factors in this industry, particularly inherent operational risk. This type of risk can be divided into two subcategories: (1) internal risk, which comes from within the industry and its daily practices. and (2) external risk, which is derived from outside factors such as governmental amendments or social ethics. According to a study carried out by Ghaida Aljerfani, who is a member of the Eastern Province Chamber of Commerce, more than 150 beauty salons are put up for sale every month. This number is quite significant compared to similar industries.

The Corporation by Jennifer Abbott and Joel Bakan Mark Achbar

The corporations are above the law. They decide what is right and what is wrong. Fox duo and presenters lost their careers for allegedly finding out on the side effects of Bovine Growth Hormone, or BGH from Monsanto Company. Before the airing of this film, the Monsanto’s lawyers were at task to change all the content of the story. The film also brings in the sense of capitalism and Taylorism in the context when IBM, hides some knowledge on their machines and insists on regular services to continue with their earning. Adolf Hitler contracted the company in order to provide the database meant to coordinate the war. The computers supplied by IBM had a contractual agreement of monthly servicing despite the fact that IBM had good background knowledge on how to keep the systems in place without regular servicing. Excerpts of economic interdependence and division of labor are evident in the documentary when managers of carpet companies cheat the world that they are selling new carpets yet they just recycle them.
In most cases in the US, corporations have the tendency of elevating their status and make their own decisions. This is relevant when the documentary portrays a Wall Street scandal. Privatization is one way the governments have robbed the public some of their public interests. Private companies manipulate existing laws to enrich themselves. The psychopathic nature of corporations is and ideology of Max Weber as it focuses on the bureaucracies of the US government. The private ownership of most parastatals and government institutions has robbed locals of their rights to earn the best from the community instead they end up paying more in terms of taxes. The corporations have employed Taylorism by introducing job performance rates in their companies. The corporations are competitive and require a skilled and efficient workforce just like Taylor suggested. Taylorism is also employed when Adolf Hitler contracted IBM to service their machines as he used them to coordinate the war. The scientific management principle is in play in large corporations where large scale manufacturing through an assembly of lines takes place such as The Coca-Cola Company.
Capitalism is evident from the documentary by the fact that large companies dominates and affect the lives of Americans daily. A clear look at most of the corporation highlighted by the film indicates that almost half or three-quarters of the companies deal with nonagricultural employment. Most of the US people face the danger of losing their jobs anytime due to job insecurity caused by the informal economy, which dominates nearly three-quarters of large corporations in the US.

Interaction Political And Economic Institutions

Interaction Political And Economic Institutions
North (1990) states a definition of institutions as constraints on behavior imposed by the rules of the game in society: Institutions include any form of constraint that human beings devise to shape human interaction. (Roland)
Rodrik (2007), found that economic institutions (such as property rights, regulatory institutions, institutions for macroeconomic stabilization, institutions for social insurance, institutions for conflict management, etc.) are the major source of economic growth across countries. The economic and political institutions are in growing phases in every country and most of the developing countries are in the growth phase for almost every institution. The economic and political institutions are such two patterns of thought that play a coin for research work more deeply and which affect the other and vice versa have been in a dialogue for a period of time. To access the both institution’s effect the scholars started to take interest in this regard, in the early 1960s. The political and economic institution’s power remains in the hands of some groups, especially in Asian countries. The Myrdal gave a term the soft Asian State to explain the phenomena of working of the state in controlling these institutions and by giving almost power in few hands to show allegiance towards British Raj and shaking the defiance in 1857 in the subcontinent society by some colonial Rulers. ( Burki, 2012)
The economists Acemoglu, Johnson and Robinson stated that the difference in growth pattern of economic and political institutions in different countries especially in developing and developed countries is depends upon its historical evolution of institutions and those countries which are in developing phase in Africa for example colonizers made their own rule and try to snatch the power of these institutions and overemphasize their rules over them. (The role of, 2011)
The growth and development in economic institutions can’t be ensured till the good governance and their good decision-making ability in processing the country’s economy. Bardhan(1993) found, that the challenge for a country either it is developed or underdeveloped, she must pass a commitment for making the policies for the economic institution without worrying about the groups or colonizers that try to drag country’s institutions in apart ways. (The role of, 2011)
Penalosa, Flachaire, and Konte (2011) argued that both institutions of politics and economics are playing important role in growth of developing or developed countries. The developing countries tend to show that weak political institutions and where the dictatorial government can have improved economic institutions, for example, several East-Asian economies and their study found that political institutions are not only necessary for the growth of economic institution’s growth. The better management in upper hands of the country’s heads if properly manage the economic institutions to take proper steps and don’t shatter it into parts.
To assess the role of political and economic institutions is not easy to understand especially in developing countries as these both institutions have not only a role in development of a country and any country’s economy is made after many social and political challenges and shaped in a proper manner and can be a great source for reserve distribution. The political institutions should be defined as formal or informal so to determine the difficulties and hurdles faced by settlers of the institutions in every society. A study suggested, the more pluralitarian the electoral system is, political polarization and federalism help poor countries to achieve better economic performance.(Pereira, Teles, 2011)
Roland, G. (n.d.). Understanding institutional change: fast-moving and slow-moving institutions
*. Retrieved from http://emlab.berkeley.edu/~groland/pubs/gr3.pdf
Burki, S. J. (2012, August 27). [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://sochtapakistan.com/politics-and-economics-a-theoretical-perspective/

Analysis of chapter 3 in the book Ways of seeing

In specific, it will look into the various sentence structures, paragraphs and the entire organization of the book, at large (Berger 24). The thesis of the chapter will be arrived at after the analysis.
Berger begins the chapter by pointing out that, women and women, during the early days, had various types of social presence. Men were normally measured or rated by the degree of power they offered. The power, in this case, may exist in many different forms, for instance, physical, moral, and economic. A man’s presence, according to this book implies what he is able or unable to do for anyone. A woman’s presence, on the other hand, shows what can be done or cannot be done to her. What a woman does contribute to her presence in a particular environs or occasion. She has a responsibility to keep men (Berger 24). Her being is split into two, that of being a surveyor and being surveyed. The woman’s sense of being which is always appreciated by other people, especially men. The surveyor of woman in herself is male: the surveyed female. Thus, she turns herself into an object –and most particularly an object of vision: a sight (Berger 47). This sentence, analyzed, has certain unique features that are uncommon in any other normal sentence. First, the use of colons and parentheses is meant to give more explanations on the intended information being displayed by the author. For example, the colon in the last section of the sentence has a role of giving an explanation, or an answer to the question or the issue being discussed in the previous parts of the sentence. It expounds on the object of vision being discussed in the sentence. Berger, in this case, therefore has shown his artistic knowledge of being a smart and creative writer.
In another part of the chapter, Berger identifies that women are the major subjects in one category of European oil painting, that is, the nude. The nude, according to

Culture of International Business

The culture of the international business is thus getting propagated in a number of different ways and there is absolutely no denying this very ideology. The business fraternity is thus understanding the pertinent role of the organizations and how these organizations are bringing about measures and enacting policies which look after the long term interests of the stakeholders, the customers as well as the employees who work their heart out for the sake of these organizations. What is missing however seems to be a link that essentially connects each and every item together (Dunning 1999). This would knit the unsewn pieces in a good enough way. This paper discusses the intricate details related to the cultures spread amongst the international business domains and how the same is changing the values within the organizations on a consistent basis.
From a truly business standpoint, conducting international business does have its share of benefits for the different organizations. This is because the target markets are exponentially increased and hence the scope of the business gets an even better shape. The profits start coming in when the target markets are doubled or even tripled at times. However what interests a student of business is the fact that the international business can have a number of downsides as well. There could be local level problems within the domains of the international business. The domestic pressures in the form of political tension and economic disruptions are some of the salient aspects which could mar the very basis of international business within a country. In fact, this could easily divulge into a region as well. One can quote the example of Asian countries which are deemed as very viable for outsourcing but the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have meant that the instabilitynbsp.regimes have crept in within India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka – some of the most attractive markets for outsourcing businesses.nbsp.

Relevance of Feminism for International Relations

Feminists believe that the current IR system which comprises diplomats, policymakers, government heads, academic professionals etc are dominated by the dominant male community. They argue that females can also perform equally well or even better than men in these areas and they should be allowed to show their talents to the world.
Lind (2005) has classified feminist international relations theory into three categories. feminist empiricism, feminist standpoint theory, and feminist postmodernism. In her opinion, Feminist empiricism is conservative, though not politically conservative whereas the standpoint theorists argue that the entire enterprise of international relations theory, like other disciplines, has to be rethought from the standpoint of women. The postmodernists qualify this by arguing that there is no single standpoint of women (Lind M 2005). Feminist empiricism is not keeping many aggressive attitudes in their dealings with the male community. They are ready to accept the customs and traditions up to certain extent. But politically they are also keeping strong differences with the male community. In their opinion, international politics is dominated by the male community and females need more participation in politics in order to handle the issues related to the female community more effectively. The feminist standpoint theorists are keeping more aggressive approaches in their views. In their opinion, the international relations theory should be completely rewritten to cater to the needs of the women community. The postmodernists also support this attitude, but they are keeping the most aggressive views with respect to feminism and international relationships. In their opinion, the female community should have equal rights in politics and other areas of social, economic and family lives. Postmodernists are not ready for a compromise or they are not ready to dilute their demands. Both standpoint and postmodernist theorists criticize empiricists for their liberal attitudes and thinking like men.

Federal Reserve Money Train Activity

Scenario In 150 to 200 words, explain your reasoning for the way you are planning on using Reserve Requirements. Be sure to address the following: 1. How Reserve Requirements affect the economy
2. How your action will affect economic growth
3. Why it is important to increase economic growth
4. Your rationale for the use of Reserve Requirements
At the end of the game, you will be provided with this information to give to your instructor.
Reserve requirements are important for adjusting the flow of money in the economy. The reserve requirements can create and control inflation. The economy is very dependent on the ability of the government to control money that is going in and money that is coming out. My actions affect the economy since they reduce the rate of unemployment and keep the GDP at a stable level. Making sure the economy does not grow to fast or rapidly slow down is very important in creating stability. It is necessary to increase economic growth at a rate that allows banks to lend affordable rates and reserves to hold enough money to prevent high inflation.
Scenario 2
In 150 to 200 words, explain your reasoning for the way you are planning on using the Discount Rate. Be sure to address the following :
1. How the Discount Rate can affect the economy
2. How your action will affect economic growth
3. Why it is important to slow economic growth
4. Your rationale for the use of the Discount Rate
At the end of the game, you will be provided with this information to give to your instructor.
The discount rate has its many affects on the economy. The discount rate will determine if the Federal Reserve is going to allow banks to lend at higher or lower rates. Deciding to raise the discount rate will increase overall lending rates and slow down the rate at which consumers are buying. If fewer loans are taken out it is likely that spending is also less. This is important to slow economic growth to prevent inflation, low unemployment rates and too high of a GDP. Discount rates are truly a large participator when it comes to the government’s role of increasing or decreasing economy growth.
Scenario 3
In 150 to 200 words, explain your reasoning for the way you are planning on using Open Market Operations. Be sure to address the following :
1. How Open Market Operations affect the economy
2. How your action will affect economic growth
3. Why it is important to increase economic growth
4. Your rationale for the use of Open Market Operations
At the end of the game, you will be provided with this information to give to your instructor.
Open market operations affect the economy as they control whether or not bonds are to be made more or less available. The purchasing of bonds will allow for less money for the government. Selling bonds will allow for more money for the government. Deciding to sell bonds will allow for an increase in economic growth as it will allow more available in the economy. Buying bonds will minimize what is in the economy and cause the economy to shrink. The use of open market operations depends on the size the economy needs to be in order to be successful and grow at the appropriate rate.

Mandarin Oriental Group case study


In such context, the researcher will use these strategic tools conjointly to identify three key external environmental factors that will shape strategic direction of the luxury hotel and hospitality industry. External Factor 1 (Uncertain economic condition) this external factor is being identified by using PEST and opportunities/Threats matrix. Operating cost for hotels has increased due to ongoing ill effect of previous economic recession, oil price fluctuation, sovereign debt crisis and inflationary pressure (Campiranon, 2010). As a result, profit margin for luxury hotel and hospitality industry is decreasing and lack of availability of financial revenue is negatively affecting industry growth. In context to Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group (MOHG), volatile economic condition of macro environment can decrease their profit margin and revenue earning opportunity in future. External Factor 2 (Decline of theme based Hotels) – this external factor is being identified by using Boston Matrix and Product life cycle. With rise of modern life style and globalisation, demand for theme based hotels is decreasing and customers want all the facilities under one roof (Szulanski, 2009). As a result, theme based hotels have become less profitable and the industry is observing rapid divestment by theme based hotels in order to avoid further financial loss. In context to MOHG, declining sales of theme based hotels might cause saturation and obsolete certain segment of product portfolio. As a result, business growth of company will get negatively affected. External Factor 3 (Hypercompetitive Environment) – this external factor is being identified by using Porter 5 forces. Presence of many international and large domestic players has increased level of competition within the industry. Similarity in product portfolio, small target market and high customer churn rate

Directors Remuneration as a Contentious Issue in the Corporate World

Critics of the excessive packages are of the opinion that such high packages reflect ‘pay for failure’ and do not take in to account the financial performance of the company (Solomon, 2007 p. 40). Additionally, most of the directors are geared at self-interests, thus undermining the ability of the shareholders to receive a fair return for their investments (Barty and Jones, 2012 p.14).
According to a recent report by the High Pay Commission, there has been a drastic growth in directors’ packages over the last thirty years. According to the report, directors’ packages have risen by about 5,000 percent in the last thirty years while the average income worker has increased by only 300 percent. The report recommended that firms should tackle the growing inequality in compensation in order to prevent future reputational harm and arrest the shareholder’s plummeting trust in the management. From an economic point of view, the overall UK economy can not expand when few people receive disproportionate compensation when the middle class keeps on stagnating. The excessive compensation will lead to social unrest and undue power influence by the executives who have the ability to influence the policies of the companies. According to Gadiesh et al, (2003), directors’ packages should be guided by their performance and that compensation systems should be transparent. Accordingly, directors’ packages are high since the executives yield a lot of power in the control of the boards of directors.
Additionally, the compensation boards see the interests of the executives as a primary concern and those of shareholders as a secondary concern. In this case, directors’ incentives are never linked with the performance thus leading to much controversy about the ever-increasing packages for the executives. According to the critics of excessive directors’ packages, the large component of the compensation should be based on performance that is risk-adjustable and evaluated over a certain period of time (Barty and Jones, 2012 p.16). The compensation plans should focus on the corporate strategy and directors should strive to align their interests with those of shareholders. Companies should also have appropriate limits on the benefits, pensions and other entitlements to the directors (Bebchuk amp. Fried, 2006 p. 100).

The Qatari Police I have the outline

This guard serves as a cache for the regular forces while reinforcing the metropolitan police as required. The rate of crime in Qatar is normally low due to the large presence of police throughout the country. Although occurrences of violence tend to be rare, they have happened more frequently as a result of Doha’s population, as well as economic pressures on emigrant workers. There are reports of verbal and physical harassments of unaccompanied emigrant women by local and third country national young men. On the other hand, reports of petty theft tend to be infrequent though they have been growing. they include ATM and credit card theft, pick pocketing and purse snatching (Peter amp. Dilip 10).
The main police divisions are immigration, criminal investigation, trials and courts-martial, traffic, prisons, emergency police, civil defense, nationality and passports. The criminal investigation division tends to be accountable for ordinary criminal cases, while Kuwait State Security tends to investigate security-related offenses. Both have concerns with investigations of terrorism, as well as those suspected of collaborating with Iraq. The U.S. Department of State evaluates the present crime rate in Qatar as being low. However, according to reports by Qatar’s Ministry of Interior, there is a substantial increase in crime levels in Qatar since 2005 and there are a projection of continued rise in years to come. Given the gigantic number of construction projects, as well as immense economic activity ongoing all through Qatar, particularly in and around Doha, along with the Industrial and Energy producing areas, there has been the establishment of foreign labor camps to contain the immense foreign labor pool resident within Qatar. These areas have higher occurrences of crime compared to other areas in Qatar. In areas of Doha, as well as its environs, all through weekends and after hours, huge numbers of foreign workers

Effectiveness of Bilateral Transnational Policing as Compared to Multilateral Approaches

Bilateral policing involves the use of security mechanisms and force from two countries who are involved in the security issue at hand.
Such countries cooperate on intelligence issues and attempt to track and stop the criminal activities of the terror groups or criminal mafias without involving other nations. Multilateral policing approach to transnational security issues, on the other hand, involves a number of countries who have an interest in the security question at hand. The countries invest their security and intelligence tools in stopping the terrorist activities from affecting the security of their country. The two approaches have limited applications and benefits but bilateral approaches have been favored in the right against terrorism and transnational security threat. In this paper, the effectiveness of bilateral transnational policing will be evaluated to determine its applicability in international security collaboration as compared to multilateral approaches.
The global war on terror, economic crimes, continued genocide in different parts of the world and drug cartels that control the economy of other countries make the world a very unsafe place to be in. the threats have gone beyond the local and regional threats that can only be attributed to one country to international threats that affect international security and the peaceful coexistence of the global world. These complications have affected the approaches developed in the fight against insecurity and led to the development of transnational policing approaches like bilateral and multilateral approaches.

Federal Reserve System Interest Rates and Money Supply (SLP)

Impact of Interest Rate Changes Impact of Interest Rate Changes inserts his/her Impact of Interest Rate Changes The paper discusses how the recent changes in interest rates made by the Federal Reserve have affected any consumer buying decisions such as buying a new home, refinancing a home, financing a new car, saving more money in bank, etc.
Income is a hybrid of savings and expenditures where savings and expenditures are in inverse relation to each other. Changes in major economic variables have a significant impact on the consumer spending. For example, higher interest rates increase the savings and affects consumer spending. According tonbsp.Engels Laws, with the rise in income, the percentage of income spent on food decreases but the percentage spent on housing remains constant. By increasing the interest rates Federal Reserve attempts to condense the supply of money by making it more expensive to obtain. There is no immediate effect on market with the increase in interest rate. However what happens immediately is that it suddenly becomes more costly for banks to borrow money from the central banks pushing the banks to increase the interest rates for lending money to their customers. (Siddhartha Jha, 2011)
Expenses necessary for the survival are called committed expenses. As these expenses are mandatory, there purchasing decisions are not affected by fluctuations within the interest rate environment. Further, such expenses are met against cash so interest expenses are not applicable. Committed expenses include rent, transportation, groceries, and health insurance, telephone and electricity bills.
Expenses associated with consumer goods, which depreciate quickly and rarely add value to one’s bottom line are called discretionary expenses. Expenses on designer clothes, vacation packages, high-end electronics and memberships to exclusive clubs are discretionary expenses. With the rise in interest rates discretionary spending reduces sharply because higher interest rates increase financing costs and lower disposable income. (John Bates, 2011)
Spending on big ticket items expenses like purchasing a car or financing a home is encouraged with stable incomes and low interest rates. The spending decisions for big-ticket items are more so affected by the overall economy because despite a low-interest rate environment, one would be unlikely to take on a mortgage to buy a new home, if one’s job is in jeopardy. On the contrary, a strong economy and impressive stock market returns encourage raising cash to purchase a luxury car. Lower interest rates on real estate loans are better for the real estate market in general because it allows more people to purchase more expensive homes. However the negative about low interest rates is that it tends to shove prices of homes higher because there are more buyers.
The existence of interest let the borrowers to spend money immediately, instead of saving the money to make a purchase. The lower the interest rate, the more fervent people are to borrow money to make big purchases, such as houses or cars. With less interest payments consumers have more money to spend which creates a ripple effect of increased spending throughout the economy. Businesses and farmers also benefit from lower interest rates, as it promotes purchases of large equipment due to the low cost of borrowing. (Thomas Sowell and Tom Weiner, 2010)
Conversely, higher interest rates mean that consumers must cut back on spending because they dont have as muchnbsp.disposable income. Higher interest rates coupled with increased lending standards diminish bank loans affecting not only consumers, but also businesses and farmers, who cut back on spending for new equipment, which ultimately slows productivity.
Siddhartha Jha, 2011, Interest Rate Markets: A Practical Approach to Fixed Income, Wiley Trading
John Bates, 2011, Essentials of Economic Theory, As Applied To Modern Problems of Industry and Public Policy, Nabu Press
Thomas Sowell and Tom Weiner, 2010, Basic Economics, Fourth Edition: A Common Sense Guide to the Economynbsp.Blackstone Audio, Inc.

Strategic Human Resource Management

The integration of trade into the world economy has really proved helpful for the developing countries as they can promote economic growth, development as well as poverty reduction within themselves. Organizations that are ready to use upgrade their human resources regimes are thus the ones that have found success in all relevant quarters of their business. With this necessary incorporation, they have been able to look at the ethical side of things as well since the moral grounds have been set in a proper manner and there are as such no apprehensions to state the least in the present times. The importance of adopting best practices within the human resources unit has gained a lot of significance over the years and there are efforts being made now to have the said regimes in place before further new innovations and technological advances happen in the related management field. Best fit HRM practices are now much more needed than ever before as they seem to present the sort of practices that were not present in the yesteryears and which will have a marked difference within the realms of the HR departments that are working in different organizations all over the world.

The work culture can be developed in a manner which suits the interests of the organization in the best form possible. For this to happen, it is necessary to understand that the resources department has got an immense role to play in the related equation. We must understand that we live in a global world where human resources has of late been instrumental at dramatically changing the way we perceive the way in which people think, act and feel on the job. The basic dogma on which the dot com companies work is to reach out to the greatest amount of people and make those people as their clients within a short duration of time. This would be at the expense of not being anbsp.concern related to the loss in the stock prices.nbsp.The culture which was adopted by these companies was of getting large or get lost in the whole frame of things.


There was a time when gambling was considered illegal or a disrespectful activity but now it has become a Multi-billion dollar activity in most parts of the world. In many parts of the world funding charities and other voluntary works are heavily funded with the money raised from gambling. People tend to fantasize that what they would do when they would win the lottery but mostly people rely on buying lottery tickets and some occasionally gamble with intentions that their lives are not seriously affected with it. After the approval of legalizing gambling in the United States, there has been a significant decline in certain types of gambling which include buying lottery tickets and mostly bingo for different cash prizes (Pew Research Center 2006).
Gambling in the view of many people is the most popular kind of fun enjoyment activity today. Most of the people indulge in gambling because they feel a rush or another kind of feeling each time they place a bet whether it is on sports on its casino gambling. Mostly it is a tool to have fun among most of the people. Since gambling is being legalized in many parts of the world, therefore legislative bodies have imposed many laws for safe gambling. All in all the basic reason behind legalizing gambling was the establishment of gambling places which plays an important role in the economic development. Many religious groups protested against the legalization of gambling and they mainly focused on the key points that it will threaten the stability of the community (Azmier 2000).
After the Gambling was legalized in the United States of America, it was evident that people started to spend more money on legal gambling now and this is a significant change if compared to history. The legalization of gambling encouraged people to gamble more than the limit they could afford. Buying lottery tickets has increased significantly in United States of America and a large proportion of people believe that it is a way to

The Economic and Political Situation in Jordan

In 2010 UN Human Development Report, Jordon was recognized as a country of high human development. It is the founder member of the Arab League and Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC). Jordan is the Arab and Middle Eastern country that joined International Criminal court (Ryan, p87).
Over the years Jordon has evolved as an emerging market by adopting the principles of a free market economy. The economic conditions of the country are going through transformational phases due to different economic reforms introduced during different time periods. It has now evolved as an upper-middle-income economy of the world. In order to facilitate international trading operations within the country, Jordan has signed a free trade agreement with the United States in 2001 due to which the import and export duties on many goods and services are reduced between these two countries. Jordan went into the highest number of free trade agreement as compared with all the countries of its region that indicate the commitment of the country to take an active part in the trade liberalization process (Piro, p14).
The parliamentary monarchy decides the political progression in Jordon. Prime Minister is the head of the government and multi-party system in the country. The king and his cabinet possess the executive authority for all the decision making processes. The king has the authority to sign, accept or veto all the laws. He could also suspend and dissolve the parliament whereas the session of the parliament could also be extended on the orders of the king. The legislative power and authorities are held by the bicameral national assembly also called Majlis al-Ummah. The two chambers of the national assembly are a chamber of deputies Majlis al Nawaab and the assembly of senators called Majlis al Aayan (Knowles, p43).

Growth Performance of Indian Economy

This percentage is expected to rise to 70% by 2030 – the largest in the world, according to a report titled Destination India- from the Investment Commission of India. (Hood).
We all know that for more than a century, the United States has been one of the largest economies in the world. However the past few years showed major development in some countries, and the focus moved to Asian countries like India and China which were progressing very fast.
According to the experts, share in the total world GDP of India will rise from 6% to 11% by the year 2025. The GDP of India rose to 9.0% during the year 2005-06 again to 9.4% in 2006-07. The projection reports say that India will be 60% the size of the US economy by the year 2025. India will stand in 3rd position amongst the global economy after the US and China within the next 10 years, overtaking Japan, and becoming the 3rd major economic power in terms of purchasing power.
Today, India is one of the most exciting emerging markets in the world. Skilled managerial and technical manpower that match the best available in the world and a middle-class population exceeding the population of the USA or the European Union.
Though India is the 7th largest country in the world by in terms of land area, it’s the 2nd largest when measured by population and arable land. It is the 10th largest in the world, when measured in USD exchange-rate terms, with a GDP of over crossed US $1.0 trillion (2007). When measured by Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) it ranks as high as 3rd in the world. With the rate of growth of around 8% to 9% consistently over the past 5years India is on the way to become the 3rd largest economy all the way from the 10th largest position by 2025 the first and second being the US and China respectively.
Now after more than 15 years, India is the second-fastest-growing major economy in the world in terms of growth. India’s GDP grew at a world high of 9.4%.

The Possibilities of Three Asian Giants China Japan and India

Their individual efforts are obviously not that much forceful, therefore they plan to form some sort of political and economic alliance with the suitable country and/ or countries of the region so as to give strength to their voice in the international affairs. Likewise, the possibilities of getting together and forming a concert of power by China, Japan and India depend upon their shared perspective and interdependence on economic, competitive efficiency, geopolitical, cultural, social, Environmental, geographical, strategic, energy and military strengths and future security threats.nbsp.
We are living in the 21st century borderless World and fast moving towards globalization. In this industrial age, geopolitics is targeting to move beyond the existing borders in order to have access to the resources of other countries, developed and developing. Countries having sufficient state power ( political, economic, military and energy) are using their market forces to have access to the resources of such enterprises that are not located in their own territorial limits so as to survive competitive challenges from both regional and international competitors. For this purpose such countries put their efforts individually as well as collectively in collaboration with other countries of the same region, having no conflict of economic, political, regional and/or territorial interests. In combining their resources and potential they can achieve competitive strength and power, not only economically but also politically that can give them forced to play the desired role in their region as well as World over.nbsp.nbsp.

Should Health Care Be Organised Using a Market Mechanism

These exchanges take place in a market that may exist physically or virtually. Aside from location, the other key elements that allow transactions to take place are buyers and sellers and a medium of exchange referred to by the term money. Thus, a market mechanism allows the transaction in an economic system where buyers acquire from sellers certain goods or services in exchange for money at an agreed price. The degree of freedom a market enjoys is determined by the extent to which these different elements are allowed to be influenced by supply and demand conditions. These conditions affect the number of sellers and buyers and the prices they are willing to exchange for goods and services. In a free market system, prices are determined solely by supply and demand: high demand and low supply mean higher prices and vice versa.
Markets can also be not free when a small group of economic agents – firms, the government, or some countries – control supply, demand, or prices. When this happens, goods or services may be priced too high that people could not afford them. If prices are low, the demand goes up and, as happens in health care, the supply could not cope, resulting in many inefficiencies. The health care system functions within this economic system, but unlike most systems that government allows to function with minimum intervention in supply and demand and therefore of prices, health care exhibits certain characteristics that have pushed several governments to question the degree of intervention. Many governments are asking whether health care systems should be organized according to market mechanisms, or whether or not supply and demand conditions should be allowed to determine the price of health care goods and services.
The main reason why this question is being continuously asked rests on several factors, such as the importance that governments place.

Welfare Social Security and Medicare

Another thing to think about is that some people are either ok with or are used to being poor, so long as they have their basic needs taken care of. In America, you can be considered to be living below the poverty line and still have your basic needs taken care of. So how we define poverty in America is important to consider also. Also, we should consider that not everyone is going to spend the money they get from welfare wisely. The money could be used on things like drugs or alcohol instead of on things that will improve that person’s overall quality of life. So I believe that in order to fix the poverty problem we need to fix the unemployment problem.

I hope that Social Security and Medicare will be around when it is my turn to collect but I am also not getting my hopes up. Recently the government came out with a report that projected that the Medicare trust fund for hospital care will be insolvent by 2024 and the Social Security fund will be insolvent by 2036 (Social Security..) There are a few things that are responsible for this: the ratio of those putting money in to Social Security to those collecting is shrinking, the rising expense of healthcare costs, our recent economic problems, and government spending. You would think that if a person is putting money into Social Security and Medicare all their lives they would easily have enough money to live on when they retire, which is why I feel that our Social Security and Medicare problems are mostly the result of mismanagement of taxpayer money and out-of-control spending by the government.

Corporate Social Responsibility of the Dow Chemical Company


This research will begin with the statement that the current times do not allow for companies to be in business just for the sake of making profits anymore. Many consumers rely on companies and firms for goods and services, but the level of competition allows the consumers to make their purchasing decisions based on several factors. One of the most surprising factors is how much positive goods a company is doing outside of the workplace setting. Many consumers are basing their company and corporate loyalties on how much a firm is positively impacting on their community. Therefore, CSR has become a growing concern for most, if not all firms and corporations because it provides a competitive edge to a company. Through CSR, companies are innovating new products and services to ensure sustainability. For instance, a firm might change the chemical composition of its products so as to make them safer for the end users. A firm can also devote their funds and much valued time to initiatives that are beneficial to the society, like cleanups. Corporate Social Responsibility entails the managing of the overall impacts of a company on a society. This consists of the direct impact of the operations and the wider impact of business all through the value chain from manufacturers to suppliers and finally to the consumers. Corporate Social Responsibility can also be defined as the ongoing commitment by a firm to contribute to economic development, at the same time improving the quality of life of its employees and their families as well as the society and community at large. CSR can also be referred to as corporate citizenship, involving the incurrence of costs that don’t provide a direct financial benefit to the company but promotes positive environmental and social change. The Dow Chemical Company is a globally acknowledged manufacturer and supplier of products used as raw materials in the manufacture of a myriad of other consumer products and services.

The Factors of Unemployment in Canada

The brunt is intense upon Ontario which is both the commercial capital and industrial heartland of the nation. The region which is especially dependent upon export revenues is likely to face hardships in the future due to a fall in export demands given that the demanding economies still have not recouped from their plight. Its misery is quite anticipated too, as the national government has cut down the targeted rate of economic growth in the next fiscal.nbsp.The brunt is intense upon Ontario which is both the commercial capital and industrial heartland of the nation. The region which is especially dependent upon export revenues is likely to face hardships in the future due to a fall in export demands given that the demanding economies still have not recouped from their plight. Its misery is quite anticipated too, as the national government has cut down the targeted rate of economic growth in the next fiscal.nbsp.Causes behind income inequality being a victim of hard times, the provincial government is found to be inventing methods to revive the region, which plays a huge role in the economic progress of the nation as a whole, out of troubled waters. Some of the causes being identified in the report generated by the Task Force have been depicted underneath as follows –
1. Poor productivity among Canadian workers, which is why even though they work hard, the quantity, as well as the quality of the resultant product, is not worth their effort.nbsp.
2. Poor demand for exports from nations which still are striving hard to recover from the brunt of the financial crisis.
3. The high rate of school drop-outs.
4. The growing rate of unemployment that results in a fall in the economic growth rate of the nation. This has direct implications upon the rising rate of poverty in the nation as well. The remedy of income inequalitynbsp.The Task Force, on the other hand, has provided remedies for correcting the deficiencies that have led the nation towards experiencing such bad times. The remedial measures that they have suggested clearly reflect that emphasis must be laid towards the eradication of poverty, unemployment as well as improvisation in the educational aspect. Committee has suggested have been illustrated underneath -nbsp.
1. The business houses need to invest a hefty amount in research and innovations. Innovative activities are likely to lead to betterment in factor productivities and hence economic value being produced. It is alleged as well that the government policies being framed in favor of innovative activities are insufficient.nbsp.

Expansionary Economic Policy

These tools moves the economy out of recession by affecting the money supply, interest rates, spending, aggregate demand, gross domestic product and employment.
The goal of every economy is to operate at full employment equilibrium. The policy which can do the job of stabilising the equilibrium output to the full employment level is known as stabilisation policy. There are two types of stabilisation policy. They are fiscal policy and monetary policy. Fiscal policy refers to any change in ‘fisc’ which means treasury. In a broad sense the change in fisc is brought about by changes in the revenue -expenditure policy of the Fed. Summary of revenue and expenditure can be represented by the government budget. The budget has two elements : tax revenue (T) constituting the major source of government revenue and government expenditure (G). The monetary policy refers to any change in money supply brought about by the monetary authority. One of the most important way in which the monetary authority can affect the credit market is open market operations (OMO). In OMO the Fed makes sales and purchases of Government securities in open market.
Another instrument of the monetary policy is the change in the required reserve ratio. The required reserves are the minimum balance that the Fed requires a bank to hold in the vault cash or on deposit with the Fed. The percentage of such deposits are called the required reserve ratio. The third instrument is the discount rate. Changes in the discount rate occur when The Fed changes the rate of interest on loans (Tucker,2008).
In order to analyse the effects of fiscal and monetary undertaken by The Fed we consider commodity, money and labour

Mumbai Attacks

Terrorist attack in India highlighted its security and crisis management problem. The main objective of the terrorist was to damage the image of the country and hamper its economic situation. Another important aim of those terrorists was to attract the attention of the world towards their demands and cause by injuring and killing many innocent people. The attacks happened in Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Leopold Café, Taj Mahal Hotel, Bomb blasts in taxis, Oberoi Trident and Nariman House.
Bad International Intelligence had influenced the success of the Mumbai attack. India’s police and security system were often coordinate poorly. They were not highly equipped or trained. Moreover, the security system of the country was influenced by the political leaders and the structure of India. Different legal and legislative bodies were involved to look after the security system India (Rath, 2010). Intelligence agencies, central investigative department, law enforcement, intelligence bureau, India police service, Central Reserve Force were all answerable to the Prime Minister. The military was also responsible to look after foreign threats and terrorist attacks. Too many government body involvements create an ineffective security management system. State and central authorities formed many joint committees and the task force to handle crisis situations. But often the actions of these forces and committees become slow and complicated which creates major problems in International intelligence. The federal political system of India has such policies which posses’ problem in performing duties of intelligence units. For ineffective functions of these departments helped in the success of the Mumbai attacks. There was a high possibility of facing terrorist attack through sea route. Taj Hotel is a very prominent site which can be easily targeted.

UkraineRussian oil Dispute

Ukraine-Russian oil Dispute Ukraine-Russian oil Dispute Russia and Ukraine have had an economic crisis in the preceding years that have grown into a political stalemate, with the involvement of other Western nations. The US and other western nations’ attempts to mitigate over the crisis have been futile, with Russia refusing to supply oil to Ukraine, owing to Ukraine’s failure to pay accumulated oil debts (Böhme, 2011).

Russia relies heavily on Ukraine, in its supply of oil to the EU nations. Besides, Ukraine relies on Russia for the supply of oil. Both nations fail to take responsibility over the crisis while pointing fingers at each other. This prompted the EU to send a delegation aimed at mitigating over the predicament in 2009 and January 2011, presidents of both Nations signed an agreement on the restoration of oil supplies to Ukraine and the supply of oil to the EU nations through Ukraine (Böhme, 2011). However, this agreement failed and in October 2011 the Ukrainian president faced a 7-year imprisonment over that agreement.

Recently, Ukraine and other EU nations have the reliability of oil supplies from Russia, owing to the stalemate. Half of the oil supplies to the EU pass through Ukraine. As such, the nation ought to consider other options. Survey also shows that Ukraine reliance on oil from Russia has recently reduced. This may have resulted over the reliance of other fuel sources, hence reducing dependence of Russian oil (Böhme, 2011). Ukraine may also consider seeking other oil-producing nations and create alliances. Ukraine may also consider the EU and US mitigations with the US issuing sanctions to Russia, in a bid to compel Russia to reintroduce the oil supply to Ukraine.


Böhme, D. (2011). EU-Russia energy relations: what chance for solutions? : a focus on the natural gas sector. Potsdam: Universitätsverlag Potsdam.

Globalisation As A Contemporary Phenomenon In Developing Countries

As such, under this framework, the world has experienced the inception of transnational corporations, multinational corporations, rapid rise of urban centres and freer movements of goods, and services as well as people, capital, culture and even identity (Soros, 2002. Balakrishnan, 2003. Fischer, 2003. Molina amp. Molina, 2009. Small- Medium Enterprises, 2007). Moreover, as globalization becomes one of the defining characteristics of the contemporary period, it becomes one of the fundamental elements in understanding the global market economy. Since it sheds light on the contemporary condition that firms and organizations are dealing with regardless of the place or country where the firms are situated.
However, as globalization has created a smaller and more connected world (SME, 2007), it has also widened the gap between developed countries and developing countries (Nolan, 2005. Nolan amp. Yeung, 2001a, 2001b). In fact, Nolan (2005) states
In light of this situation, a firm in developing country has a lot of catching up to do with companies in the developed world if it intends to create a niche in the global market. As such, the problems of catching up posit a humongous challenge to large firms in developing countries.
Recognising the existence of the problems of catching up, the paper will try to examine the problems of catching up within the context of a large firm in a developing country. Considering the wide scope of the subject matter that the paper intends to examine, the research will be limiting its study into one developing country only – China. Likewise, it will only tackle one large domestic firm in China. Furthermore, in tackling this query, a library research had been conducted. The following electronic databases Academic Source Complete, Business Source Complete, Jstor, and EConlit were searched using the following key terms: catch up, economic trade, China, China’s economic growth, international trade, globalization, firms, and economic theories. Moreover, books dealing with the subject matter of the research were also included in the search.

Week 4 assignment

A focus group often provides a significant opportunity for presenting intuition, outlook and nascent thinking during the information collecting process (Office of Planning and Institutional Effectiveness, 2012). It equally provides a voice to those who have the highest levels of knowledge in a given area. This makes it possible for those gathering the information to have access to implicit knowledge. In the absence of a focus group interview, this is a source which would probably be under leveraged (Office of Planning and Institutional Effectiveness, 2012).
By aggregating the discourse and countenancing for the formalization of dialogues that address specific issues, the people gathering the information will stand a chance of being part of the change process. They will also be able to give invaluable contribution to the direction-setting of the situation in question. The focus group also offers an official opportunity to scrutinize the cultural prospects of the situation in question (Office of Planning and Institutional Effectiveness, 2012). The intuition and opinion are significant in guaranteeing that there is an effective configuration between the operations of an institution as well as the external environment. An appreciation of the cultural anticipations aids us to suitably structure the process (Office of Planning and Institutional Effectiveness, 2012).
The first question as to why the former president, Franklin Roosevelt was considered an ideal candidate by the Democrats during the 1933 U.S general elections helps us to identify the ideals that he stood for. These ideals must definitely have been captivating and made the people see a change in the administration. This question will equally give us an insight on how the people thought the former president would bring change in the economic condition of the country. This question equally helps us to understand the scope of influence that the former president had over the

Retail management

The fashion industry today is marked by short life-cycles, high volatility, low predictability and high impulse purchasing (Christopher, Lowson amp. Peck, 2004). The fashion retail industry in UK is turbulent as the fashion conscious consumers expect and thrive for constant change. Added to the changing consumer preferences are the factors like globalization and the technological changes that have truly revolutionized the UK fashion retailing industry.
The fashion retail market is split into number of segments – luxury, high street and supermarket/out-of-town discounter (Bruce amp. Daly, 2006). With the supermarkets having entered the clothing sector, the fashion retail has been redefined. It enables the time-starved consumers to purchase cheap clothing instead of visiting high street. The cheap chic revolution has turned the UK fashion market upside down (Mesure, 2007). With the rise of the discount retail store the number of garments purchased by women each has doubled. Various reasons have been accounted for this changing trend – shift of production to the Far East, the weak US dollar and the abolition of textile quotas have driven down prices even in chains like Asda and Mamp.S. The phenomenon of disposable fashion rules – buy it, wear it, and chuck it is the mantra that the fashion conscious follow in the 21st century. Consumers expect low prices, and increasing incomes are the key to increased economic activity. According to Jones and Hayes (2002), clothing and fashion purchase decisions are based on want rather than need (cited by Priest 2005). It depends upon how the consumer wants to be perceived. Competition is fierce and the market is characterized by excessive discounting. Even top socio-economic groups are price-savvy.
Decreased consumer spending has a negative impact on the retailers. Besides, cost of retail space has gone up and rents have risen. According to a research by This is Money, people shop at both the top and bottom ends of

Expansion of the Atlantic World


One of the leading factors that led to the expansion of the Atlantic world was the interest of European entrepreneurs to establish colonies in the new world. Majority of the merchants were moving to new regions seeking to establish colonies that would concentrate on agricultural production. These merchants had seen the benefits of growing sugar in neighboring islands. Sugar plantations on these islands were proving very productive. They were zealously seeking new regions to establish sugar plantations. The triangle travel in the Atlantic sea seemed to favor their intents because it allowed them to move to new regions expanding the new world. Sugar was the most significant crop in the Atlantic world. More merchants needed to venture into growing of sugar after witnessing its potential economic benefits. It is worth noting that the drive to establish colonies came because of the introduction of capitalism. The theory and practice of capitalism was a new thing that drove majority of the merchants to seek every opportunity of being able to establish an economic centre. The rise of mercantilism thinking brought about the idea of capitalism (Evans and Ryden 222). Capitalism emphasized the process of increasing wealth for each nation through economic colonies. The drive to establish capitalism was strong as it translated to power in the European setting. Nations that established more colonies were powerful than those who did not venture into expansion. Each of the nations struggled to establish new nod different trade opportunities in order to increase the national total wealth and power. Even when they moved to new regions, European nations embarked on a vigorous scramble for new territories. It is in this venture that the Europeans established colonies in America. In addition, slave system is one of the crucial factors that hastened the pace at which the Atlantic world expanded (Searing 27). With increasing demand for labor, the Europeans initiated a salve trade that provided cheap and continuous labor in most of the American colonies. Slave trade helped most of the colonies succeed increasing the flow of goods in most of the established colonies. Shipping of colonies was from Africa to the American colonies. Slaves formed part of the triangle trade that exported raw materials from America to Europe. The Europeans, driven by the capitalist expansion indulged in manufacturing of goods. These goods targeted the market in Africa. Shipping of slaves occurred from Africa to America to work in the colony plantations (Evans and Ryden 25) Religion was another factor that led to the expansion of the Atlantic world. there was a religious revolution in Europe that led to the oppression of the adherents of some religions. On moving to new regions, they found new economic ventures. Some moved to establish new religious converts to the new world but indulged in trade later. Some of those motivated by religious factors also caught up with the capitalism spirit. The religious revolution was an opposition of the powers of the archbishop in Europe at the time. In the spirit of creation of new economic ventures, European settlers reached North America in 1620s (Mancall 20). After their arrival, they set out to establish colonies in the region. The first of these settlers arriving at Plymouth were Protestants. These endured hardships in North America and their persistence attracted other settlers to start

Is the MENA region assigned a peripheral place in the global economic systemOr is the region so diverse that we cannot talk in such generalised terms

According to Allan (2001) these world crises have tackled regions with certain reasons following them such that most of the renowned economists had not anticipated the crisis and thus concluded that the models they used could not adequately explain the situation. It is for this reason that the governments of different nations, businesses, unions and institutions are now anxiously in search of solutions that will not only solve the problems but also prepare the entire global community for the future outcomes.
The crises have several effects on the multilateral trading system and this has led to the regional dialogue on current and future challenges for multilateral trading system – Development Perspectives from MENA region. The discussion intends to connect various stakeholders found in the MENA region and is to be conducted through the exchange if analysis and information necessary in debating on several questions which include. what the above crises mean to the multilateral trading system and development perception of MENA region and what the pros and cons of WTO attainments of MENA countries comprise (Barnett and Rolando 2002).
MENA region refers to the Middle East and North Africa which is mostly applied in business and academic scripts. The region covers Morocco to Iran and basically includes all the countries found in Arab Middle East and North Africa. Its population constitutes 6 percent of the world’s population. The region has enormous reserves of petroleum and natural gas that enable the region to be a major source of the global economic stability. Study show that the region has 60 percent of world’s oil raw materials as well as 45 percent of world’s natural gas. nbsp.It is true that MENA region is so diverse that it can not be referred to in generalised terms this is because it comprises of many countries with the common contributor for economic development. It is therefore not possible to talk of the region as

Future scope on China and the Gulf Cooperation Council relationship (GCC)

USSR is a socialist Republic and has similar internal state policies as that of China, the policies of China closely follow that of Moscow which is then the seat of powers of the former USSR. However, in the effort to forge stronger alliances, China strived to reach out to countries like the United States and those countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. Unfortunately, talks of alliance during the meetings held in Bandung, China failed to create a strong alliance between these nations.
Throughout the 1990s, there were many important changes that occur in the foreign policy of China. These changes in the Chinese foreign policies were triggered by global political changes following the collapse of Soviet Union. The collapse of the USSR heralded the end of the cold war and triggered global political changes. As the USSR ceased to be one of the world’s superpowers, the United States took on the role as big brother of smaller nations and took upon itself to serve and the police and watchdog of democracy and power. The shift in the balance of world powers ushered the changes in China’s foreign policies especially towards the countries around the Persian Gulf. Believing that the shift in world powers may eventually affect the stability of oil supply and production around the oil rich nations of the Persian Gulf, and that the slowdown in the production of oil may affect the economic activities in China, the Chinese government embarked into the task of fostering stability in the area by advocating the resolution of conflicts in the area internally and without any foreign interventions.
As the largest country around this part of the world, China has the power to influence the economic activities in this region. In the 1990s, the value of Chinese investments around this area amounted to more than 2.2 billion US dollars. This is twice the value of its investments in the region in the 1980s. Chinese importation for oil reached about $9.5 billion dollars in

Roe vs Wade

Fifthly, was the district court correct in denying injunctive relief? This paper aims at discussing some of the issues that relate to the right of privacy as derived from the Roe V.Wade case.
In 1880s abortion was legalized in United States, and it was allowed when the mother’s life was in danger. Since the birthrate was declining during that period among the whites, the government and other human rights agencies were concerned about it. They termed the declining rate of race suicide since they wanted the women who were born in United States to reproduce. Abortion was illegal and thus if a woman had to carry an abortion it depended on the race, economic situation, and the location one lived (Critchlow, 2010). Poor women who came from other races could not afford it due to the high cost. In 1960s, there emerged a group that was known as Clergy Consultation Services on Abortion. It consisted of pastors and rabbis who dealt with illegal abortion since they sympathized with women. During the 1960s, civil rights and antiwar movements campaigned and came up with women liberation movement, and they wanted abortion to be legalized. In 1963, another group that had trained women created abortion services though they assumed that they were counseling individuals in cases of abortion. In 1967 to 1973 some of the states started reforming abortion laws, for example, they came up with cases when a woman was allowed to abort. For instance, in case or rape and incest, it was allowed (Rubin, 2001). In 1970, abortion was legalized in New York and was to be conducted in the first 20 weeks but did not apply to other states.
Roe v. Wade marked the landmark of issues relating to abortion in United States. The case was under the jurisdiction of United States Supreme Court. Roe was the pregnant woman who was challenging the constitution on abortion laws in Texas. It was illegal to

Booming of Real Estate Market

t could be seen as a growth in the economic condition of a country while might also be attributed to be a temporary ‘real estate bubble’ that will not survive for long. This boom or bubble is not only the matter of highly developed countries, rather these surging property prices could easily be noticed even in developing individual countries of the world.
This paper provides an insightful study in the growth of real estate market at an international level as well as for individual countries. This paper is an investigation into the booming of real estate market in many countries of the world relating the heightening prices to the most important factor i.e., demand, and then moving beyond to other factors contributing to the growth of this trend or bubble at such a level. The major causes behind the property market bonanza observed in several countries could also be related to some macroeconomic indicators in a particular country. However, the apprehensions concerning the existence of a ‘market bubble’ should also not be ignored. Hence, this discussion is also included in the spectrum of our study of real estate market boom.
Real estate market comprises a bunch of residential and non-residential sectors of the economy including housing and commercial construction sector (i.e., offices, houses, apartments, retail buildings, and also dams, bridges, roads etc), brokerage sector and real estate financing, investment and management sector etc. Thus there is an interlinked array of economic activities involved in real estate market. Real exchange property, in particular residential property is the pre-eminent asset category around the globe. It is the asset on which almost every household expends a substantial portion of income regardless of nation, caste and creed. Therefore, housing is the greatest sector contributing to the economic condition in the world. According to the US Department of Commerce (Bureau Of Economic Analysis), In the United States, the

Recovery of the China Stock Market and Challenges in the PostCrisis Era

In fact, an outflow of approximately US$25 billion was experienced by China in December only, and at some point in the fourth quarter of 2008 a sum of US$150 billion was pulled out from the country, according to the report of the Bank of China (Min-Chan 2009, 43).
The dramatic economic growth of China has to a certain extent been fuelled by its thriving export-driven production. Nevertheless, the export of China by mid-2008 diminished to a ‘negative 20-percent growth rate from the positive 20-30 percent rate in previous years’ (Platt 2009, 50). Because of these developments some financial analysts predicted that China would confront a financial crisis in 2009 and 2010. The prediction happened and this forced the Chinese government to initiate a set of stimulus package (Yao amp. Zhang 2011). These attempts of China to recover from the global financial crisis will be analyzed in this paper.
The end of 2007 witnessed the sharp rise of China’s stock markets. however, the end of 2008 witnessed the bubbles’ remarkable rupture. The SSECI showed a decrease from 6,135 in 2007 to 1,608 in 2008 (Yao amp. Zhang 2011, 26). It has improved to some extent, but has been wrestling to swing around 3,000 from the period of the bubble disintegration. The SSECI showed 2,900 at the end of 2010 (Yao amp. Zhang 2011, 26). These changes are shown in the figure below:
China exposed the avenues to new share offerings, letting loose a stream of initial public offerings (IPOs) to aid in the absorption of surplus liquidity and calm a raging stock market. What began as a drop of IPOs became a surge, with numerous companies primed to register in the Shanghai Stock Exchange (Platt 2009).
According to Michael Guillen, professor of international management and director of the Lauder Institute, in his remark about the recovery attempts of China’s stock market in the Financial Times (2009), During the last two years, monetary policy has

The Impact of ECommerce on the US Labour Market

The value of total E-Commerce transactions in the major economic sectors1 in the US went up for approximately 78.7% between 2000 and 20042as Manufactures and Merchant Wholesaler depended the greatest on E-Commerce whereas Retailers increased their use of E-Commerce at the highest rapidity. In 2004, E-Commerce grew faster than total economic activity in three of the four major economic sectors, which indicated E-Commerce has been gradually changing the way organizations operate, as well as the consumers’ shopping habits. Looking ahead, it is generally expected that E-Commerce will gain a substantial share of trade between market participants, although it is difficult, at least at this stage, to commensurate the exact extent of it.
E-Commerce has raised numerous questions in different areas amongst economists and policymakers. its Model, Infrastructures, Activities, Trend and Policies and Regulations have been the focuses thus far. However, it is the Employment Effect of the innovation that demands the most attention for continuing its advance in development. There are fascinating reasons for which assessing the employment effect of E-Commerce is invaluable. Firstly, E-Commerce diffuses almost into all areas in an economy, and the employment effect in one industry is likely to interact with another. The speedy expansion of E-Commerce might also become a new influential factor for economic growth and the labor market. Moreover, the leading role of the US in E-Commerce might raise fears in other countries for losing out their talent labors and their own competitiveness due to the global character of the revolution. Furthermore, the impact of E-Commerce on different industries or occupations is likely to be different. downward pressure in retail salespersons is perhaps more than offset by upward.

Germany’s Market economy as a Model for Europe

However, the long run effects of the treaty might not seem to be as fruitful as expected owing to the divergent ideologies prevailing within the EU member states, where most of nations are argued to follow a neo-conservatism policy unlike Germany (Amable, 2011. Abrahamson, 2010). Even though the leadership performances of Germany has been praised by other EU nations, it has also been criticised on the basis of the recent financial crisis and free trade policies between the US and EU as one of the major constraints to channelize the instability within the member states (Möller amp. Parkes, 2012). Thus, in light of the current economic ideological differences persisting within Germany and other EU member states and also with the US, a question arises that Will the negotiated TTIP between the EU and the US impose significant impacts on the international trade affairs of Germany within EU and outside, causing alterations in Germany’s position in the near future of global politics.
In the current milieu of global politics, effects of the recent economic downturn can be witnessed apparently in the reasons acting behind international treaties. A similar aspect can be witnessed in relation to the proposed TTIP treaty promoting free trade between EU member states and the US. In the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2008, both the US nation and the member states of EU had been facing inevitable disruptions in terms of economic stability and growth. As was apparently noted, the GDP rates in all over EU countries were dipping rapidly creating a strong negative influence on its monetary policies. The effects of financial crisis 2008 were apparent in the EU housing market and also in its stock market which indicated a steeply declining growth rate [refer to figure 1 and 2] (European Commission, 2009).
Evidently, the performance of almost every sector in the EU member states began dipping,

Culture and Religion

These groups find their linkage with four caliphs of Islam.
Owlat people are given special respect by tribes of Turkmenistan and their property is inviolable in Turkmenistan. This status of inviolable property has strengthened the Owlat people by ensuring economic stability. Pilgrimage of shrines is the activity that kept people of Turkmenistan on the path of Islam. Despite all the banes of soviet rule on pilgrimage activities, people kept visiting the holy sites because of their emotional and spiritual attachments. After getting the independence from soviet rule, the pilgrimage activities once again flourished in Turkmenistan. Importance of holy activities and their impact on human life and on culture is discussed in detail in paragraphs to follow:
Pilgrimage culture prevailed by early tribal settlement in Turkmenistan and this culture and trends were brought by Oghuz Khan. Turkmen follow holy groups known as Owlat. Six Owlet groups are respected according to level of their spiritual powers. These groups find their linkage with four caliphs of Islam and ultimately with Prophet (peace be upon him). Turk people started considering Owlat people for different festivals of life like, marriage, life cycle, cultivation of crops and religious guidance etc.
Every important work of human life used to get started with the hands of an Owlat, for the reasons of good end. Gonambashi is the term used for head of a cemetery in Turkmenistan. Gonambashi is the first man buried and around him, other people of community are buried. Gonambashi was respected for its spiritual powers to help people coming to his grave. Keramatlier is another word used during shrine activity that means place of miracles.
According to soviet specialists, Muslims of 20th century called themselves half Muslims, because of not following real teachings of Islam. Soviet rule aimed at anti religious

The Evolution of (Seaport Shipping) Container Security Since 9/11

Because of this great economic importance of ports, worldwide ports, maritime operations and their associated infrastructure and facilities represents one of the greatest challenges to security of nations, as well as to the growth of the global economy. Despite the economic importance of the ports, before the terrorist’s attack of the US in September 2001, the American ports were very vulnerable to terrorism attacks. In a bid to protect the ports and the containers shipped in it, the department of homeland security has developed a number of policies aimed at bolstering security in the ports. Examples of such security measures include container security initiative, as well as C-TPAT. In as much as the government aims to strengthen the security of the ports. and that of the shipping containers, there are a number of challenges that the government3.
One such challenge is that ports of entry are unique, and their environment is a difficult place to secure. On this basis, initiating adequate security measures and procedures to the volumes of activities occurring in the port, without affecting the operations of the port is almost impossible. Another issue that plays a great role in frustrating the efforts of the government to secure the ports is the large size of the ports. Ports normally occupy hundreds of acres of water and land, so that they can have the capability of accommodating ships, rail and truck traffic, as well as enough space for the storage of containers4. On this basis, securing such a large perimeter that is surrounded by land, as well as water is a very complex situation. Based on these facts, most countries in the world are unable to secure their ports. Before the September 11 attacks, the United States was very vulnerable to biological or chemical attacks. This is because proprietors of shipped containers were not allowed to declare the contents of their containers, until they reached their port of entry. This made

Economics (short answer questions)

This is because many workers are unwilling to take pay cuts hence inflation helps to reduce the purchasing power of their paychecks.
In the ‘Deck the Halls with Macro Follies’ video, two main ideas or arguments in relation to the growth of the economy are presented. First, it is argued that spending does not help grow the economy. Contrary to what many believe, excessive consumption does not contribute towards economic recovery. Secondly, in order for meaningful and sustained growth to be realized, there is need to delay consumption today and concentrate on saving. This will help increase production which helps the economy to grow since growth is facilitated by supply. Too much spending is not good for the economy.
In his book End this Depression now, Krugman argues that Europe’s ‘Big Delusion’ is the belief that the economic crisis in Europe was as a result of fiscal irresponsibility. It is the belief that countries operated on budget deficits and this go them into debt. As a result, the approach to dealing with the crisis has more or less been a moral one where countries are believed to have sinned. Focus has been on this big delusion and little attention has been given to other evidence.
The V Sauce video ‘How Much Money is there on Earth’ highlights a number of ideas related to money and world currencies. Two major things were learnt from the video. First, there is a lot of money kept by individuals as loose change. This money, if collected, can be put to good use. For example the loose change in America is estimated to be 15B dollars. In addition, I have learnt about the definitions of money on the planet: M0, M1, M2 and M3. Secondly, I have learnt about the Tinkerbell effect. This is the belief that money is valuable, and this helps to attach meaning and value to FIAT money.
The main objective of advertising is to sell. It helps to communicate information aimed at persuading consumers to buy. Companies decide to place an ad in the

1 The purpose of this is to examine current fiscal and monetary policies by the UK government and their effectiveness and impact on GDP and interest rates using graphical and regression analysis

In essence, the IS-LM model is a macro-economic tool demonstrating the relationship between interest rates and real out-put in the goods and services market and the money market. It is a combination of goods market and money-market equilibriums. The aggregate model describes general equilibrium situation in macro-economy. IS-LM model is based on assumption of fixed price level. This implies that general price level will not abruptly adjust when economic conditions alter. Suppose there is an increase in demand. Given supply, the increase in demand should produce an increase in price level (and in quantity exchanged within market). The period within which it stays unaltered is short run.
The time series traits of variables using three tests reveal most of variables are stationary with intercept. This captures non-zero mean under alternative hypothesis. Nonetheless, many variables are non-stationary with constant and deterministic time trends. This captures deterministic trends under this alternative. The variables may therefore be regarded as stationary and does not require differencing.
The IS Curve is representative of the equilibrium points in goods market, that is, the combinations of r and Y for which investments (I) are equal to savings (S). It is important to remember that investment is negatively related to real interest rate and is non-dependent on level of real output/income. Saving has a positive relationship to real interest rate and further increases with income.
Various scholars have argued that the European sovereign debt crisis is traceable to the nineties whereby the 15 member states then, deliberated on the benefits of establishment of a common regional currency (Sgherri amp. Zoli, 2009). Despite agreeing on certain debt targets, there are many instances where member states out-rightly failed to adhere to the ceiling limits. Despite this obvious violation, no financial sanctions were imposed on

Iceland’s Economic Crisis

Let us evaluate the possible causes of the Iceland’s crises.
The fundamental reason of the Iceland crises is the financial crises that the banks of the country faced. When there was a major deregulation practice in place, Iceland also adopted the policy. This is the period during the year 2000 when the country’s major industries were deregulated which also included the banking industry. At first, it was a prolific decision and started paying benefits. Iceland’s stock market grew by 900%, which was one of the best growths of the decade. In addition, it is estimated that the banks of Iceland had growth multiple times the growth of the country itself.
The deregulation of the banking industry caused a significant change in the spending pattern and thus, the national economy of Iceland (Bagus et al, 2011). The banks now lent money in simple terms and conditions which made it possible for the common Icelander to obtain loan for virtually anything. Mortgages became easy and the people were lured into take up house loans. The finances that the banks of Iceland used to continue their activities were obtained from interbank lending and from deposits from outside the country (Gudmundsson et al, 2010).
The growing lending eventually led to the rise in the cost of living and inflation crept up to around 14% in September 2008. As a corrective measure, the Central Bank raised the interest rate to above 15%. This caused the international funds to be deposited into Iceland’s banks because the banks of other countries were offering much lower interest rates. As a result, the money supply in Iceland grew by 56.5% compared to 5% of GDP growth.
Banks found it difficult to pay back loans because much of the investment had been circulated in the interbank market. The central bank also failed to loan the banks because the amount needed was even greater than the

These two places differ

In contrast, 24 hours gym caters to the lower end of the market and caters to the mass market.
Due to the huge disparity of the economic requirements of these two gyms, the people who frequents there can easily be categorized according to their income status. The people who goes to Equinox are typically professionals, business people, some entertainers and their dependents. They are typically well-off and rich and sports with designer clothes during work out. The people in Equinox gym have more choices where to train other than the present gym because of the choices that their economic capacity commands.
The type of people who frequents at the 24 hours gym are typically those who belong in the low bracket income and sometimes the unemployed who take fitness to occupy their time. Their choice where to train is limited because budget is a major consideration to them. Their choices are often limited to those similarly priced gym and will have difficulty in moving up to gyms like Equinox because the resource requirements of gyms like Equinox will take toll on their resources.
Due to their different economic standing, the interaction of people vary significantly. In equinox, it is observed that people there talks more about their work and business. Sometimes, the gym itself is made as a place to establish business connection. Conversations outside work typically revolves about the latest fad and hobbies like opinions on the latest model of cars, new places to visit, what’s in and what’s out. With regard to their dependents, it is observed that their conversations revolves around fun and how to enjoy life. They usually talk about gadgets and what’s cool today. It is also noticed that people in Equinox are more protocol consicous and more polite compared to those who are in 24 hours fitness gym.
In contrast, people at Equinox talks more about issues. Especially on when will this economic crisis will end

International Trade 1

United States Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service (USDA’s ERS) report says that during the period 2000 to 2004 the world economy grew from $39190 billion to $43363 billion. (www.ers.usda.gov). WTO report says that the Asian region recorded an export growth of 14.5 in 2004. Real merchandise imports in South America grew by 18.5 per cent, which was twice as fast as world trade in 2004. Africa’s trade expanded strongly in 2004. North America’s export recovery, which started in 2003, gained momentum in 2004. The enlargement process of the European Union towards the east fostered an integration process between central and Eastern Europe resulting in sharp rise in intra – industry exchanges, e.g. automobiles. The GDP growth of Asia more than doubled from 2.37 percent in 2001 to 5.42 percent in 2004. Thus, growth of an economy automatically increases the economic components like exports and trade
The major chunk of merchandise trading, after oil, around the globe happens in iron and steel, ores, non-ferrous metals and fuels. The growth of this sector also contributes to the growth of global trade. Historically the US has been the major importer of iron and steel, ores and non-ferrous metals. The growth in real estate and construction industry fuelled this need for iron and steel. Being the largest manufacturer of goods also made the US the largest consumer of non-ferrous metals like copper and aluminium. With the emergence of China, the consumption of non-ferrous base metals has gone up drastically. Chinese imports of the metals have increased to extent, where the demand has overshot the production. This increased the prices of base metals like copper. The price of copper in the London Exchange in April 2000 was around $ 1600 per metric tonne and in April 2004 it was around $2200 per metric

ReFraming Strategic Thinking FedEx


In this section, I analyze the company using Porter’s Five Forces Model. The analysis of the company is among the forces that are depicted in the figure and which represent the elements of Regulation, Power of Suppliers, Threat of Substitutes, Macro Economy, Power of Buyers, Process Knowledge and Competitive Rivalry. These forces have been chosen as they represent the different dimensions of Hamptons International business from a strategic management perspective. The forces have been selected after careful consideration of the elements that the company is faced with in its approach towards business. In this section, I analyze the company using Porter’s Five Forces Model. The analysis of the company is among the forces that are depicted in the figure and which represent the elements of Regulation, Power of Suppliers, Threat of Substitutes, Macro Economy, Power of Buyers, Process Knowledge and Competitive Rivalry. These forces have been chosen as they represent the different dimensions of Hamptons International business from a strategic management perspective. The forces have been selected after careful consideration of the elements that the company is faced with in its approach towards business. The accompanying figure analyzes the forces from a graphical view and the subsequent paragraphs analyze the forces from a qualitative perspective. A note about the analysis of Porter’s Five Forces is that two more elements have been added to the analysis. This is because it is my belief that FedEx has to contend with the broader economy as well as the regulatory aspects because of the ongoing economic slowdown and particularly since this slowdown has been precipitated by the ongoing economic slowdown. If we analyze each of the forces in turn:- The threat of substitutes is moderate as replicating the international delivery model of FedEx and other logistics suppliers takes time and hence new entrants need deep pockets and staying power to enter the industry- The power of buyers is high as the market for logistics and supply chain management has many players and buyers can always choose from value propositions at the same price or cheaper competitors who might forego some aspects of the competitive advantage but nonetheless deliver the shipment or the package.- The power of suppliers ranges from the moderate to the high as FedEx being in the logistics and supply chain business has to ensure that it delivers the shipments in coordination with its partners in the value chain and hence this aspect rates more towards the power of suppliers.

Resident Attitudes towards Gambling tourism in Marcao

With a very limited resources in the form of garments manufacturing, which is also now being lost to much cheaper labor cost in mainland China, gambling in the guise of tourism industry and in the form of lottery, casinos, games of fortune and horse and dog races, as well as the trendy online gaming, have become Macao’s last resort for economic survival.
With a long history of monopolized gambling embedded in its economy, this study will present a balance between the advantages and disadvantages of gambling to the people and residents of Macao in the context of tourism. Issues which are not always sensationalized, and most probably, rarely reported shall be dissected as objectively as possible.
The researcher has chosen this topic as a tourism student, because the tourism industry in Macao based on gambling, have impacted so much on the international identity and association of Macao. There had been so much written and talked about the gambling/tourism industry, outside of Macao regarding Macao, and yet, a little is said about the impact of gambling on the residents of Macao.
The researcher does not imply that the residents have been voiceless, or that they have been totally ignored and uncounted, but only to present an objective point of view not based on the opinion of foreign observers because this abounds in the international media. The researcher would like to focus on its research subjects: local Macanese that is residents of Macao, as well as locals that are employed in the gambling casinos.
Likewise, this research focus will also aid the researcher on the impact of tourism as a whole, if there would be diversification possibilities when it comes to Macao tourism, or that locals have much more to offer besides the entertainment.

The Challenges to IPR Posed by the Internet

The Internet has revolutionized the availability of information and legal boundaries of digital property have been subject to increasing uncertainty in a knowledge-based economy. Information is the new mantra that spells success in the modern world. Intellectual capital is important and the use of business worldwide webs spells power. Before the advent of the Internet and technology, it was physically a tedious job to reproduce and distribute plagiarized copied of copyrighted works in a physical environment and making of such copies was also a relatively expensive process. However, as Lawrence Lessig points out, the online environment is so structured that a page can be copied without leaving a trace so that the footprints of the pirate are difficult to track.nbsp. Hannabuss has highlighted the ethical issues that arise in the realm of intellectual property because through the facility of the Internet, nbsp.infringement has become increasingly easy, and it is a simple matter to pass off someone else’s creation as one’s own.
IP rights that were once deemed to be adequate to exercise the right mix of control between preserving the creativity and economic incentive of the copyright owner vis a vis the use of the material by the public for fair dealing purposes, is being challenged by the jumps in technology. The evolution of the electronic medium for the purpose of transacting business has created a complex set of legal issues that are at variance with already established legal precedents.

Are maritime transportation loosing out its competitive advantage over other modes of transportation like air and road transportation Justify your views

The existence of maritime routes or in other words the fact that regular itineraries are existent is said to be the concept of maritime transportation.1
There have been quite a few technological transformation which have had the potential of affecting water transports, the most recent one is that of the modification of water canals, increasing the size as well as the automation and specialization of vessels. However it has been noted that the increase in maritime traffic has had the consequences of major ecological disasters.2
It needs to be pointed that the bulk of circulation that takes place through maritime transportation is limited along coast line and further three continents have limited fluvial trade. The majority of maritime infrastructure requires a huge maintenance cost for the modification of waterways or investments on the expansion of capacities of ports, which is very expensive and on the other hand takes a lot of space.3
It needs to be pointed out at this point that not every country has direct access to the ocean, these countries are better known as the maritime enclave that is they have difficulties in undertaking maritime trade since they are not part of what is called the domain of maritime circulation. So it requires agreements between neighboring countries to have access to the facilities of port via road, rail line or any other possible alternative. It is important to keep in mind that the countries which are enclave are not excluded from international trade or in other words it can not be implied that they can not take part in international trade, but the problem that they face are that they face higher costs which might lead to weakening of economic development.4
It has been proved that due to the establishment of commercial linkage between continents, maritime transport has been able to sustain a substantial amount of traffic which covers approximately 90% of intercontinental transport demand of

BUS Unit 5 DB SA four

The current account deficit is usually a result of a scenario where a country is investing more than it is saving. This entails that the country is using more resources from the other countries to meet its domestic consumption requirements. For instance, the current account deficit occurs when there is an imbalance in the balance of payment (BOP). This also reflects a scenario where the amount of money spent on imports is higher than the revenue generated from the exports. In developing countries, this may be problematic since it entails that the country is not able to meet its domestic requirements in terms of productivity. This may also indicate that the government expenditure is higher than what it can produce.
However, it can also be observed that the current account deficit is not very bad to the economy especially if the deficit has been a result of investment initiatives that are designed to generate revenue in the short to long run period. For instance, in the paragraph above, the U. S deficit is viewed as a big problem given that previously stood at 1. 1 trillion dollars but has been halved to 680 billion dollars. This shows a 51 percent decrease in the current account deficit and it can be attributed to different policy changes such budget cuts, tax increments on those with a larger income bracket as well as stimulating economic growth. In this case, it can be seen that the current account deficit for USA is still controllable from within the country so it is not that bad. The deficit only becomes bad when the economy is now sustained on external debt.

Introduction to Chinese Culture

Guthrie attributes China’s economic development to three key policies that have been monumental in ensuring China engages in the global economy through both internal and external operations as explained in the exposition of the policies in the proceeding sections of the paper.
According to Guthrie, the export-oriented coastal development strategy enabled China became the third largest trading economy in 2004 with trade totals of $ 1.16 trillion (Guthrie, 2009). The policy also has been monumental in allowing for increased foreign direct investment (FDI) and liberalization of the internal markets allowing for access to new technology and understanding of management practices from developed countries. The creation of an export strategy was done by making the construction of new national and international institutions
The Chinese government created special economic zones including Pudong, Zhongguancun, and Shenzhen allowing both international and domestic firms to access tax incentives among other benefits for specific types of investment in China. The special economic zones were established in 1980 in Fujian, and Guangdong provinces allowing for augmented FDI and expand foreign trade under the leadership of Zhao Ziyang (Guthrie, 2009). The coastal development strategy allowed for autonomy in the export trade by the coastal regions areas including Fujian, Guangdong, Guanxi, Hainan, Hebei, Jiangsu, Liaoning, Shandong, Beijing, and Shanghai. The policy also allowed China to solve unemployment of rural surplus labor and provided income for industrial enterprises.
The success of the coastal development strategy is evidenced by the growth of China’s export economy by 27% between 1988 and 2005 with 26% growth in imported goods.nbsp.

Why People Choose a Life of Crime

From this discussion it is clear thatnbsp.the fewer the resources a community possesses to construct infrastructure, the more likely it is for vandalism to thrive in the vacant, burned out, and neglectednbsp. houses in that community. Suburbs have a large percentage of people living under the poverty level as indicated by a national census report in 2009. Unemployment is another issue that induces criminal activity in people. Many of the minority groups in the United States lack proper jobs, which explains why there is a large number of African-American and Latin-American youth incarcerated by the state and national governments. Poor and unemployed people resort to criminal lives because pilfering and theft offer a temporary solution to financial and economic difficulty.
This study highlights thatnbsp.strain theory is one of the most common psychological theory of crime. The ideology behind the Strain theory is that an individual covets something (like a material object or lifestyle) but they have no means of ever getting that object or living that lifestyle in the near future.nbsp.The rational choice theory is closely related to the strain theory because it involves a struggle to survive under the existing conditions. Consequently, an individual weighs up the marginal cost of committing crime, versus the marginal benefit of committing crime to save or achieve something.nbsp.If the marginal benefit is higher, they end up committing crimes such as dealing drugs, avoiding tram fare, misrepresentation of funds, shop-lifting and so forth.

Perception management

Perception Management
The film corporation is a vexed form of film, which tries to instigate the perverted state that our corporate world is fostered on. As the film commences we are shown an interview of 40 subjects all from supreme positions, CEOs, managers, and other apex positions in the corporate world. The Film delves into various aspects as will be highlighted in the subsequent accounts of this response.
As legal Person
The corporation is made to be reverted on the interest perspective of the people, imbued with a personality to serve. In the next 100 years from the 19th century saw the corporation rise to dominance
Wealth is a paramount need and goal for the corporate that’s why it choses only the best of the best to work for them. All this is at the expense of the innocent public whom are subjects of their manipulation and conjugation. ’the unintended transaction between two parties on a third (Milton Friedman, 34) The corporate world is subject to malice and it poses as a body of interest on safeguarding the legalities of the people but the underlying truth is that they are preying on the disparity of its clients.
Pathology of commerce
From Laissez-faire, the corporation equitably fits the term ‘Psychopath’. It’s not affected by guilt but is highly mimic capable, to take defiant qualities just to win over clients. This is attributably the principle of the corporate operation.
The corporation is skilful in mind setting since the mind is the window to opportunistic values. Sam a former CEO at good year tire explains that the corporation is highly opportunistic, and its these that makes it dominant.
Monstrous obligation
Sir Mark Moody recounts on his exchange with the civic rights activists when he was the then chairman of Royal Dutch shell. He finds the corporation a malignant organisation, since his actions on subjecting others to pain in terms of economic stress is what earns the corporation millions of dollars.
Perception Management
The corporation spends billions on clientele advertisement but what also serves as a manipulating strategy is the use of children as the ‘nag factor’. You manipulate your clients into perceiving that they are the ones in control (Lucy Hughes). This is a clear and vivid profile of the conformity of corporation to malice.
In conclusion, from viewing and analysing the film, I resort to base my response as the precedence of my accounts. Furthermore, the corporation gives a glimpse of the real situation on our current corporate world. On can’t help but wonder, ‘just how safe are our corporates?’ Relevant to the film I echo the fact that indeed the corporate world is a playing field where for one to survive depends on just how good you can manipulate your playmates.
The corporation. Dir. Mark Achbar. Perf. Corporate world. Zeitgeist Films, 2005. HD-DVD.

Organization external operating environment reflection paper

REFLECTION PAPER The external operating environment of an organization can be critically analyzed or evaluated based on the following key indicatorsor external factors: economical, technological, and ecological.
Let us take the case of Apple Incorporated. This company is known for its ability to initiate a highly innovative approach, fresh innovations and other essential activities for its competitive advantage. However, aside from these considerations, the company is influenced by its external operating environment.
Economic factor indicates that Apple Incorporated will have to go for innovation and look for what the customers really need in order to find for a high value for their money, especially in the advent of tough economic times. This consideration is a remarkable influence as to how Apple substantially promotes its product and service offerings.
In addition, the technological consideration is an intense area of concern due to the advancing technology in Apple’s industry due to the prevailing tough competition in it. As a response to this, Apple remarkably settles not just for less, but tries to be the top innovator in its industry, in as much as possible.
On the other hand, the ecological consideration has also influenced the decision of Apple with respect to its sustainable growth in its industry. In as much as possible, Apple is adhering to the prevailing environmental concerns affecting the ecological balance. In this case, Apple is one of the myriads of companies out there advocating the value of ecological sustainability and balance. After all, it is from the environment where the raw materials are generated and if the nature stops to supply all these essential requirements for product development, a company’s sustainable production may have to be put to a halt, and some businesses may cease to exist at some point.

Final about the Marshall Plan

This was after the Second World War. The major aim besides the rebuilding is that it targeted to avert the percolation of the Soviet Communism. It is important to highlight that this plan was employed from April 1948 for a span of four years (Nicolaus, 2008, pg 32).
This came into being after the European cities had underwent some serious destructions and even the individual families seriously affected. This was a serious incident and the trade in the continent was adversely affected. The people thereby lived in the refugee camps and got assistance from the United Nations Administration. This was consequently followed by food shortage which was experienced in the harsh seasons of winter. Various infrastructural facilities were attacked aerially while the sea vessels were sunken (John, and Nicholas, 2004, pg 42)
This was a speech that was given when the United States could not hold it any longer for the several unsuccessful mediations with the Soviet Union. This was by George Marshall who was the Secretary of the state at Harvard University. In the speech, he assured of the support from America in the making the economic status of the European states to grow through a gradual recovery system. In the speech, what came out so clearly is that Marshall believed that for the country to recover, grow and be economically stable, there has to high levels of cool political climate in the sense that a country has to be peaceful with no form of political violence that would stimulate high massive investments to flow into the economy (Robert, 2008, pg 71).
It is important to highlight that the negotiation with the Soviet Union was in January 1947.this was after Marshall was appointed into the office. The officials thereby had to make arrangements on how they could meet the Soviet Foreign minister. The move was aiming at the recovery of Germany for financial economic states. It is important to highlight that for the effective and efficient implementation

RNA silencing for the prevention of Phytophthora root rot in avocado

So, the scientists and the concerned people have found out a way to tackle this menace [2]. It is the use of RNA. The RNA is used to inhibit specific gene expression of the plants to prevent Phytophthora root rot in avocado plants. It was further found that the growing population is causing a sharp increase in the demand of the avocado across all over the world [3]. In order meet the rise in the demand, the farmers or the cultivators are using a number of elements to increase the production of the avocados. Overuse of the elements is further affecting the plants. The plants are getting affected by pests. Among them the rot root fungi is the most common form of the pests. Excessive spread of the fungi would destroy the crop and highly affect the cultivation of the crops so the scientists have discovered a number of methods which would prevent this. Among them RNA slicing is one of the most common methods for the prevention of Phytophthora root rot in avocado. According to a study, it was found that the Phytophthora root rot in avocado is primarily caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, which is an economically important disease in the avocados around the world [1]. The crops when affected with fungi and gets harmed with Phytophthora root rot, it completely destroys the crops and leaving co crop for sell and make money out of it. In Australian agriculture, economic cost of losing were estimated in previous 20 years to be more than AUS$200 million per year [] and around US$44million in California annually []. The RNA silencing is used to increase the resistance of the avocado trees with the help of transgenic rootstocks. It is expected to reduce the incidences of fungi attack on the avocado plants.
It was found that the fungi attack on the avocado trees could be prevented with the help of RNA interference process [4]. The authors further explain RNA interference as a cellular process where the RNA molecules

New Ideas from Dead Economists (Todd Buchholz) / Understanding Capitalism Competition Command and Change ( Samuel Bowles Richards Edwards Frank Roosevelt )

ses how the long-dead, great and prominent economists like Adam Smith and other could have settled issues of economic challenges facing the world today (Buchholz, pp 5-7).
Considering the background of the author, it is worth acknowledging that that his knowledge in both American and international economics endows him as the leading authorities on matters of economic aspects affecting the current world. He is an economist and he served in the government of George H.W Bush as the White House director of economic policy. He also served as managing director of the Tiger Hedge Fund under the same regime. Moreover, he received awards such as the Allyn Young teaching prize by the University of Harvard (Buchholz, pp 8-10).
Therefore, Todd tries to apply his knowledge to correlate the relevant aspects of the historic economists points of view regarding the economic circumstances to the current prevailing economic behavior. In critics, he interrogates the relevance of the applications of the historic economic theories as put forth by the great dead economists to the current economic world (Buchholz, pp 88-92)
. In chapter one, Todd highlights the pressure of accusations of varied nature that various economists receive from the corporate executives, the politicians and the altruist. The corporate executives accuse them of failure to determine costs and benefits with precision, the politicians view them as stumbling blocks as they can no longer promise without sacrifice, while the altruists blame them of being too decorative about costs and benefits. He protects the reputation of economists by branding them messengers and not makers of bad news as portrait by this group of individuals (Buchholz, pp 134-142).
The author elucidate Smiths background and more profoundly within the chapter two. He gives comparative advantage trade model which has formed the modern international trade platform. In chapter three, Todd critically evaluates the background and the contributions of

Management information system ip2

Employee Empowerment Employee Empowerment What exactly is employee empowerment? Employee empowerment is abroad concept that applies to the increased range of powers that are given to the employees to increase their rate of productivity. The term has been used to describe the economic, commercial and political development of an employee in the interest of the company. It gives the employees the right to practice democracy in the right way as proposed by Martin Beime(Beime 2006 p.3-5).
What are the pros from the perspective of the employee?
The employees generally believe that they have a right to administer their work in accordance to their needs. The concept of empowerment provides them a reason to work for the betterment of the company. A research conducted by Greasley et al shows that the employees are able to relate to the concept of empowerment in a different way than the supervisors. The employees believe that they are provided with the responsibility of completing a certain task and this inflates them to complete the particular task in a remarkable manner. Other than the sense of responsibility, the employees also believe that they get a ‘control of work’ which provides them to manage their tasks accordingly. In other words the employees are able to work in a manner that is beneficial to both the employer and the employee himself (Greasley et al 2008).
What are the pros from the perspective of the supervisor?
Employee Empowerment is considered as a source of high productivity by the supervisors. The supervisors can provide the employees with work and can create a unified goal which helps in increasing the productivity at a large scale. The supervisor is able to motivate the employee and hence optimize the performance in accordance to the needs. The supervisor tends to feel safe when handing the employees work because he/she believes that the employee would be able to take the responsibility on his own. In other words the level of trust increases between the supervisor and the employee (Potterfield 1999 p.123-124. Lashley p. 62-64).
How does employee empowerment relate to whether management believes in theory X or Y style of management and the decision-making process?
The theory X of management and decision-making process revolves around an authoritative form of leadership in which the managers hold the sole authority of making decisions whereas the theory Y states that the employees have an equal say in the decision making process. Employee Empowerment is a concept that relates to the theory Y as the managers give equal options to the employees when it comes to make decisions. Theory Y states that the managers should coach the employees in such a way that they are able to make their decisions with confidence and employee empowerment automatically instills confidence in the employees (Griffin 2012 p.39).
Generally speaking, how does employee empowerment work in unionized environments? Why?
Employee Empowerment has a very broad scope when working under unionized environments. Unions were particularly formed to empower the employees so that they are satisfied with the working conditions. It is in these unionized environments that the employees have a greater say in the procedures of the company they are working in. Employee Empowerment is one of the main concepts behind the formation of labor unions and hence it works towards improving the lives of the employees. The unions believe that empowerment of the employees can have a mutual benefit for both the employer and the employee.
It can be said that the broad concept of employee empowerment has changed the lives of employees all over the world. The employees are given enough powers in their workplace that they get satisfied and increase their productivity in accordance to the demand of the workplace.
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Beirne, M. (2006).nbsp.Empowerment and innovation: Managers, principles and reflective practice. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Greasley, Kay, Bryman, Alan, Dainty, Andrew R.J., Price, Andrew D.F., Naismith, Nicola, amp. Soetanto, Robby.Understanding empowerment from an employee perspective: what does it mean and do they want it?.nbsp.Team Performance Management, 14 (1-2), Pp.39-55.
Griffin, R. W. (2012).nbsp.Management. Mason, OH: CENGAGE Learning Custom Publishing.
Lashley, C. (2001).nbsp.Empowerment: HR strategies for service excellence. Oxford: Butterworth/Heinemann.
Potterfield, T. A. (1999).nbsp.The business of employee empowerment: Democracy and ideology in the workplace. Westport, Conn: Quorum Books.
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Macroeconomic Coursework

In other words what macroeconomic theoretical models seek to accomplish by way of controlling or stimulating variables such as inflation or/and growth are sought to be accomplished in a more articulate manner by these representative agent models. Representative agent models are in fact some efforts of economists to model and represent the macro economy as if it were a single unit. These representative agent models are based on the basic tenets of the original models.
On the other hand stimulative fiscal policy measures are adopted by governments in response to recessions or economic downturns. A recession, defined as two consecutive quarters of negative Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth in a year, can be partially or wholly reversed by using a combination of macroeconomic measures or solutions such as fiscal or/and monetary policy measures. At least this is the belief among economists though there can be a lot of arguments to prove that it cannot be done as easily as it’s proposed.
Representative agent models would necessarily require that some very stringent assumptions are satisfied before the model is adopted so that outcomes could be predicted with a degree of certainty. Thus all representative agent models based on classical/neoclassical, Keneysian/neo-Keneysian and monetary theories assume that fiscal stimulus programs could effectively boost economic growth during a recession or an economic downturn. However, those assumptions that they require as essential pre-conditions might be very difficult to fulfill though.
Fiscal policy involves budgetary measures in which the government carries through a deficit budget in order to stimulate the economy by charging lower corporate taxes. In other words fiscal revenue in the given fiscal year will be less than government expenditure on projects. These projects are naturalluy intended to stimulate spending and subsequent economic growth (Ertl, 2008). When the government spends more than what it

Impact of Employee Participation in Decision Making on Job Satisfaction in the Maldives Public Enterprises

The recent introduction of Corporate Governance Code by Capital Market Development Authority has mandated to these public enterprises to comply the governance code by ensuring that these enterprises are directed and managed at board and management level in a fair and transparent manner. The Corporate Governance Code encourages these enterprises to create value through innovation and development, implement effective control systems and increase accountability and transparency.
The general public has a very high expectation for the services rendered by these enterprises. Therefore, these enterprises should give special emphasis on maintaining quality in their services and delivering the services on a timely basis. Failure to provide the services up to the expectations of the public would hinder their trust and confidence in these enterprises. For the Maldives public enterprises to survive and to sustain in this turbulent and bombarded economic and business environment, collective and joint efforts of management and employees are vitally important. The participation of employees in organizational decision making in these enterprises and the incorporation of employees opinions and suggestions in formulating company policies and strategies are paramount importance to achieve a competitive advantage over the competitors.
Participative decision making in these enterprises would enhance job satisfaction thereby ultimately achieving higher organizational performance. When employees are given some degree of autonomy in their work, they will design their work such in a way that it will produce the best result, mutually benefitting the enterprises and the employees. Enterprises are benefitted by achieving higher productivity in employees’ work while employees are benefitted by achieving job satisfaction. Further, employees’ will feel that they are part of the enterprises and will have a sense of belongingness to the enterprises. This will result in the retaining of skilled employees due to the employee’s job satisfaction and establishment of quality work life in these enterprises.

Electronic word of mouth (eWOM)

Electronic word of mouth (eWOM) Insert Insert Self-enhancement Yes, self-enhancement or altruism is the backbone of a good eWOM. It is the genesis and a motivator for a good electronic word of mouth. It is because altruism motivates more consumers want to share the experience with the other people in the online community through the awareness platform. A better way to understand self-enhancement is to imagine oneself as a customer who read an ad they can relate with and took a step to share the ad with their colleagues or friends. Altruism is that unselfish concern that drives one to be developing ones identity by posting on the net helping to build ads. The eWOM as a marketing strategy depends on how the organizations trigger the altruistic motives of the consumers so that they can be advocates of the company’s brand on an online platform through relaying of feedback. They could do this by developing catchy ad messages to relay via the internet to their customers hence offering an excellent base for interaction to generate a good eWOM in customers.
Economic incentives
The outfit concerning eWOM should bring forth returns to either the company or the individual who has invested time in knowing. Expert’s opinion is very strong in eWOM compared to any other opinion. Because they will use the eWOM platform to offer professional counsel and as such demand incentives, the economic returns are tenable. What the expert think about your product will determine the consumption rate. When experts pass negative opinions via eWOM in a faster way than positive opinions, consumers scare from the product. However, when it comes to incentives, they will work in a manner to suit the business.

Is Globalization Doing More Harm or Good to the World


According to experts, there is proof that globalization has a direct impact on most international security issues. An international system assumes the concept in international relations (Guehenno: pp. 23), which is a symbol of unifying entities using selected ideologies. However, so many debates concerning the issues of whether globalization is of any benefits to the world or if it has negative impacts on international systems.

So many arguments relate structural violence to globalization. In developed countries, such a situation helps them in overcoming most economic barriers (Guehenno: pp. 28). This notion has brought westernization because such countries have overpowered the international markets. In this case, structural violence disrupts peace globally. In return, such violence gives birth to disparity a catalyst to major conflicts. This could be the reason as to why there is widespread social polarization in the current international system.

Through globalization, there is evidence of imbalance in power in the international systems. Such imbalances lead to suspicions among countries, which in turn increase foreign policy costs and creating new kinds of threats (Baylis, Smith S. amp. Owens: pp. 110). nbsp.The assumptions on threats are due to the change in global security. Already, the internet, intercontinental airlines, most media houses, and international companies are among the pacesetters in globalization. These global landmarks have led to interdependence. For this reason, countries are less concerned with the provision of security to other countries unless where they feel threatened. Nations with a common interest seem to gang up together with the aim of maximizing on the global nature by influencing most security matters. This, according to the arguments made by the Neo-Marxists, leads to inequality. A combination of all these issues revolving around structural violence results in global instability.

The UK banking system has some ability to supply money endogenously by relying on liabilities to satisfy an increase or decrease in loan demand what would accommodate an increase or slowdown in economic activity However banking firms are limited in this

However, in addition to this internal sustainability, the definition also requires external sustainability: we must live within ecological bounds and at the same time build up an efficient and resilient society to be able to remain within these natural limits. It requires a stabilization of the natural and human system , as opposed to an overshoot and collapse. One can characterize such a societal lifestyle as one in which there is ‘human dignity’ (van Egmond and de Vries, 2011).
The money system is interpreted as the form that money takes, and the way it is brought in to circulation. The standard approach to this system, as discussed in almost all economic textbooks, is that central banks control the money supply by means of their base money, which banks can expand by means of the money multiplier model (Mishkin, 2009). However, new arguments claim money is based on credit, created by commercial banks, and brought into the economy endogenously at the demand of the market (Wray, 1998). A greater demand for money hereby increases credit, of which debt is the other side. This strand of thought judges the money we utilize on a day-to-day basis, as bank debt, and thus for almost every Pound, Euro, or Dollar in existence someone has to go into debt with a bank.
It is clear that money as debt is nothing new, but that in the evolution of this form of money, the banking system has gained an increasingly important role in our payments system as compared to the State. In this process, it has also become more relevant for sustainability because of its role in deciding where New money (purchasing power) enters the current economic system first.
A number of different negative effects that our money system may have on society and sustainable development exist. These are considered as transmission mechanisms between the nature of money and (un)sustainable development. The number of transmission

Impact of Oil Discovery on Statebuilding in Saudi Arabia


Unlike other countries that have a diversified economy, Saudi Arabia depends on oil revenue to build its economy. However, oil prices have become very volatile with prices surging up and down, an aspect that affects the consistency of the country’s economy. The reason is that the country depends heavily on the global oil market which is faced by very high risks and uncertainties in order to make its future plans regarding the progress of the economy. With the increasing levels of globalization resulting from the liberalization of markets, efficient flow of information and integration of economies across the world, it has become very hard for a single country to make its single decisions without considering the effects of the global market. However, unlike other countries which have a diverse source of revenues, Saudi Arabia has stuck with oil in order to spearhead growth and development of the economy. Therefore, since the financial crisis which had a major impact on the spending of many countries, the Saudi economy has been greatly affected. This aspect has stalled very many projects which could have stabilized the economy. The oil discovery has enabled the country to establish various structures that make it possible for the country to achieve economic growth. Research indicates that the Saudi government has been critical in investing in the education sector. The country has improved the infrastructures in this sector. It has equipped its research centers especially the departments that deal with oil production.

Estonia in Transition

Question 1
The business milieu of Estonia had improved throughout the 1990s. According to a general measure of business-environment caliber, computed by the Global Competitiveness Report, the nation was appraised the uppermost of all the transition countries, somewhat leading Slovenia and Hungary. This became possible due to significant improvements in some main factors as compared to these countries. These include 100% literacy rate along with good education for all in 9 + 3 year education system, establishment of Estonia Information Technology College and other development in its mainstream IT and telecom sectors, modernization of energy infrastructure, privatization of utilities, inflow of foreign capital and FDIs, developed banking system, and the emerging clusters formed around Estonia’s conventional industries which are likewise coordinated with part of the stronger cluster in the Nordic area (Solvell and Porter 2008).
Question 2
Along with the aforementioned developments, Estonia progressed so rapidly since the nation was once in a while utilized as a test showcase for new advances by associations for example Erickson and Nokia while the country’s IT and telecom bunches were the quickest developing among the Baltic countries (Solvell and Porter 2008).
Question 3
The issue that Estonia was confronting in 2002 was that albeit Estonia’s success, its prospect for daily life stayed far underneath other European countries, and unemployment remained elevated. Despite the fact that leaders in business and government decidedly supported promotion to the EU, sentiment reviews in late 2001 exhibited that less than 40 percent of Estonians might vote energetic about it.
Secondly, implementation of pension reforms and other expenses, government faced a significant deficit.
Thirdly, Estonia was facing a shortfall of highly qualified labor and labor costs were also heightening by 2002. Further, despite the development in telecom sector, vast majority of Estonian households still could not afford ISDN or ADSL connections in 2002 (Solvell and Porter 2008).
Question 4
The Estonia financial businesses, as in the majority of the transition countries, banks played the overwhelming part in the rather underdeveloped financial institutions. The Estonia government should parity the growth between bank and other financial institutions. Next to that, competitive advancement and all the developments in high-tech sectors should be guarded since it is the main source of sustained development in Estonia (Porter 1998). Estonia government additionally should expand the exports sector. In resentment of solid economic development, unemployment stayed at 13% and youth is still facing challenges in finding vocations or accessing professional training. Staff deficiencies are faced by certain sectors because of constrained geological and expertise portability. Indeed, the government needs to heighten more FDIs and ensures more avenues for employment in the country especially for the fixed income of older population. Finally, government budget should also be directed to improve the average standard of living of the country.
Porter, E M 1998, On competition, Harvard Business School Publishing, Boston, MA.
Solvell, O and Porter, E M 2008, ‘Estonia in Transition’, HBS No. 9-702-436. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.

Soc #5

They wanted the world to be a safe place to live in and every peace-loving nation had a right to live their own life, determine their own institutions and be assured of justice. For the sake of world peace the United States developed a Fourteen Point Program. These included granting independence to all the important European states. The US determined that how the other nations treat Russia in the coming months would be an acid test of their good will. It would also demonstrate to what extent Russia was needed by these European nations and whether they needed Russia’s sympathy at all. The Fourteen Point Plan also demanded that the invaded portions in every nation should be restored by Russia and that the United States would be partners with all such governments that fought against the imperialists. This made the Soviets become distrustful towards the United States.
Another reason why the soviets developed distrust in the United States was when they refused to help Russia’s reconstruction after the war under the Lend-Lease Act of 1941. By the end of summer of 1945, after the WWII had ended, the United States knew that the Soviet economy was in a state of near collapse. The Soviets had lost 20 million soldiers during the war and another 20-30 million during Stalin’s decade of purge trials. Any number of factories and railroad tracks had been destroyed. Stalin had been able to fulfill his promise of industrialization during the Five Year Plan to his people but all that been achieved were now in a devastated condition. Because of all the destruction that had taken place in Russia, United States knew they were in a stronger position and when the Soviets approached the United States for the much-needed economic aid for recovery, they were denied this privilege. The Soviets’ request for a six billion dollar loan had already been denied. Under the Lend-Lease Act of 1941, earlier the United States had shipped

Ethnography Review Shadowed Lives

This aspect in the social legality of a nation’s territorial rights became very much controversial since it actually encompassed the ethical aspects over legality and constitutional amendments. Legally, a nation has their own constitutional right for national territory and the fundamental establishment of their borders secluding their legal sovereignty apart from the other nations wherein they also have their rights to protect it from invasion and unauthorized immigration.
However, the ethical aspect of life and human rights for shelter and residence usually comes in contrast to the said legal amendment wherein some people or social minority often comes in violation to the said principle for the sake of survival and comfort. Some people become stakeholders in risking their own freedom by immigrating to other countries even though in illegal approach as they lack legal access and permission to do so. Commonly, these people are being pushed by certain social and political problems such as war conflicts, social problems, employment concerns, and opportunity for better living.
To address this alarming problem, nations and together with their diplomatic coalition are now creating intervening approaches to deal with the problem of illegal immigration. Governments, mainly the United States of America are even willing to chance their residing illegal aliens a chance to become legal citizen of their respective country (Beck, 2001). However, to stop the rampant violation of the border law, government are still very much determined to strengthen their security and implement community inspection for illegal aliens hiding in the shadows of their territory. Immigration has its own rightful process based on the constitutional right of the state, which is to be respected and followed accordingly in its legal nature.
The current economic status of the world and the movements that are proposed to support the growing need for economic expansion primarily leads to the

Movie response paper

of the Modern American History of the Concerned 20 November Too Big to Fail- An Inside View of the Worst Economic Debacle in the Contemporary History
The 2008 financial meltdown was something, the impact of which is still imbued deep into the very vitals of the American economy. This economic debacle not only brought down some of the most esteemed American and international banks and financial institutions, but also happened to be a very personal tragedy for many Americans households and families. Though most of the common people impacted by this meltdown do carry an outside view of the economic dynamics that caused it, the film Too Big to Fail does provide a firsthand insight into the human dynamics that underlie those times.
It shows how the salient players like the Treasury Secretary, Henry Paulson, Ben Bernanke, the then Chairman of the Federal Reserve, and corporate bigwigs like Dick Fuld, John Thain and Lloyd Blankfein engaged in intense strategic bargaining, planning and machinations to prevent the national financial system from falling down on its knees. The primary premise of the movie is that it was indeed imperative and pragmatic to rescue the ailing banks and financial institutions by making them gel with the healthy ones, and the direct capital bailouts facilitated by the then government through contriving supportive statutory measures were necessary and must. Too Big to Fail does help the audience put the whole economic crisis into context by assigning to it a human face. It to a large extent accurately showcases the chain of events that preceded and followed this debacle and as to how the important state and corporate personalities tried to manage the much feared fall.
The movie does manage to weave the basic dynamics underlying the 2008 meltdown with apt clarity and accuracy and does show as to how some of the most important people whom the Americans trusted the national economy with, acted in a selfish, irresponsible and unprofessional manner, which eventually precipitated an economy riding on the illusory real estate boom. However, contrary to the perceptions of many common citizens, Too Big to Fail does not present these people in a negative light, but rather presents them as individuals who merely made some mistakes. In that sense the movie is somewhat soft on the very people who actually created that crisis. For example, even Richard Fuld, the CEO of Lehman, who was a prime player in the speculative financial machinations that added to the overall debacle, is portrayed as a sincere manager working hard to save the organization he worked for.
Yet, in a historical context, the movie does try to set aside the emotive content marking the meltdown, to facilitate an understanding of the actual chain of events and the people riding them. In retrospect, for a student of history, it is more important to know as to what actually happened, rather than to get confused and waylaid by the popular resentment focused on the prime wrongdoers, were they the bureaucrats, corporate personalities or the politicians.

Syria MDG’S

The year 1946 marks the time when this country gained independence and established itself as parliamentary republic. Since its independence the country has seen many skirmishes and wars. Many coups and attempts to take over the throne have shattered Syria’s infrastructure. The al-Assad family has been ruling the country since 1970.
Hafiz al-Assad ruled the office from 1970-2000 only to be usurped by his son Bashar al-Assad. Today the country is part of United Nations. But due to conflict in the region its membership has been deferred from the Arab League as well as from Organization of Islamic Cooperation. March 2012 marks the formation of Syrian National Coalition, a group that stands in opposition to the government. The Arab League invited the representative of this group to take Syria’s seat.
Currently Syria is governed by President Bashar al-Asad. It has been almost 3 years since conflict began. Humanitarian development achievements in the country have now been rolled back due to consistent fighting in the area. Flying bullets from everywhere make it difficult for humanitarian workers to continue their work.
The conflict in Syria has already killed over 120,000 people and displaced 6.5 million (UNDP, n.d.). The crisis has stolen employment from the 50% population pushing Syrian citizens into poverty (UNDP, n.d.). Millions of Syrians are searching for refuge in neighboring areas and their host countries face a great challenge accommodating millions of them. Influx of new refugees is a serious setback for neighboring states.
Basic needs like education, health, sanitation, infrastructure and non-existent economic opportunity has created cutthroat competition for jobs in Syria (UNDP, n.d.). People are practically living in ruins. Tensions are always on the rise threatening to rip apart the social cohesion. The UNDP workers were already deployed in Syria even before the crisis began. Their work was affected due

Ethics in Management Consulting

Ethics in Management Consulting
There are dilemmas that exist in the process of consulting and the best thing is to try as much as possible to solve these puzzles. One of such dilemma is that of consulting with the right client. It is essentials to know the client well through a background check. The second dilemma is that of the ethical dilemma that revolves narrowly around confidentiality and anonymity.
Being in the same situation, I would prefer that before any information is obtained there is a full check on the client to know them better. These background checks not only help him or her get better service but also protect the reputation of the company. I strongly agree with the author since the Consultancy is a dynamic field with a lot of expectations and reputation that help in better service delivery. Issues of confidentiality and anonymity are essential in quality service to clients and ensure the consultancy is operating within the accepted ethics.
The dilemma that the case presents is that of fee charge to various clients. The dilemma of fee to charge arises from time to time and what should be the criteria to ascertain the fee to different groups of clients.
I would charge different consultant fee to various groups of clients should I be in the similar situation. This would the through using the information obtained initially from them. Some of the criteria would be to look at their economic capabilities to pay and the nature of consultancy work. I strongly agree with the author’s view. This is based on the fact that the nature of consultancy varies from client to client so it can only be rational to charge different fee. In addition, different clients are served at interval and with various economical capabilities (ability to pay).
Hauser, A. (2009).nbsp.Ethics in Management Consulting: An examination of the extent to which the principles of integrative consulting ethics are incorporated in management consulting firms in Germany. München: GRIN Verlag GmbH.

Dangerous Climate Change What Strategies Are Available To Avert The Onset Of Dangerous Climate Change


Some reports have shown European summers getting hotter, Alaskan streams and other lakes getting warmer, and our polar ice caps allegedly thawing (Schneider and Lane, 2006). More than just the actual warming of the planet, the impact of such warming has certainly captured the world’s attention. These are the major issues which have caused much concern among authorities and the public in general. This issue has managed to affect the environmental, as well as the business community with projected losses in profits accredited to climate change. Environmental experts claim that as our planet continues to grow warmer, more environmentally related disasters would be expected to occur with much stronger hurricanes, storms, and typhoons building up in the warmer oceans (Lemonic, 2008). These experts further emphasize that man has to address the issues which pertain to climate change in order to stem the progression of this phenomenon into dangerous levels. The word ‘dangerous’ seems to have now been strongly associated with climate change. Its actual meaning in the context of climate change will be discussed in this paper. This paper shall discuss climate change and the different ways by which its implications can actually be quantified to dangerous levels. It will discuss the point where climate change can be considered acceptable and the point where it is considered to be dangerous. This study is being undertaken in order to establish a thorough and comprehensive understanding of climate change as well as its implications to our society and our efforts towards reversing its impact. Discussion Defining ‘dangerous climate change’ ‘Dangerous climate change’ is a term which was introduced legally during the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (McGuire, n.d). Climate researchers have come up with different definitions in order to define the point at which climate change can be considered dangerous. Schneider and Lane (2006, as cited by Spratt and Sutton, 2008) have suggested different metrics in measuring climate change and such metrics have included: the risks to unique and threatened geophysical or biophysical systems. risks related with extreme weather events. total damages. temperature thresholds to large-scale events. risks to global ecosystems. loss of human cultures. key sustainability metrics of water, energy, agriculture, health, and biodiversity. the number of people put at risk. and the triggering of irreversible chain of events. These are all metrics which can be used in order to determine how dangerous the impact of climate change is. Dawson and Spannagle (2009) discuss that dangerous climate change is the degree of climate change which violates Article 2 of the UNFCCC. Article 2 basically sets forth that the function of the UNFCCC is to manage the emission of greenhouse gases to levels which would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the weather and climate system (Dawson and Spannagle, 2009). In effect, such acceptable levels must be achieved within levels which would: allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change. ensure that food production is not threatened. and enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner (Dawson and Spannagle, 2009, p. 112). Article 2 does not use the exact words ‘dangerous climate change,’ however such words are accepted in terms of dangerous anthropogenic interference. it also refers to the man-made toxic chemical emissions which trigger climate changes beyond their natural patterns. The UNFCCC has not come up with a clear definition


Alienation from the products of ones labor This means that the worker has no information on how the product is designed or produced and such information, which is shielded from them by the capitalist class.
Now, therefore, we have to grasp the intrinsic connection between private property, greed, the separation of labor, capital and landed property. the connection of exchange and competition, of value and the devaluation of man, of monopoly and competition, etc. the connection between this whole estrangement and the money system. (Marx)
The worker becomes all the poorer the more wealth he produces, the more his production increases in power and size.
As depicted by the above extracts from the article, it is evident the worker alienated from the product of their labor. Therefore, he/she is exploited through appropriation of labor where the worker is paid wages at the lowest rate.
Alienation from one’s labor
Here, the human worker is unfulfilled given they are denied the control of the subject of labour making them be in a position of not being able to exercise control on the value and effects of his labour. See quotes below:-
This fact expresses merely that the object which labor produces labor’s product confronts it as something alien, as a power independent of the producer. The product of labor is labor, which has been embodied in an object, which has become material: it is the objectification of labor. Labor’s realization is its objectification. Under these economic conditions this realization of labor appears as loss of realization for the workers. objectification as loss of the object and bondage to it. appropriation as estrangement, as alienation.(Marx)
So much does labor’s realization appear as loss of realization that the worker loses realization to the point of starving to death?
Alienation from oneself and others
Within this context alienation occur due to the fact that man is not free to sub-ordinate his free will to external demands he has created and subjected himself to by way of his imaginations. Instead, the capitalists have a structured way of imposing their own demands on the workers. See quote:- The alienation of the worker in his product means not only that his labor becomes an object, an external existence, but that it exists outside him, independently, as something alien to him, and that it becomes a power on its own confronting him.
Works Cited
Marx, Karl . Economic amp. Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844. Oxford: Dover Publications, 1932. Print.

Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention

Despite optimistic dreams, harmony was shattered in the early 1990s with the explosion of ethnic conflict and humanitarian tragedies on the grandest scale.nbsp.
While ethnic conflict and humanitarian crises have existed since the dawn of time, for the first time ever images of extreme bloodshed, violence, and even genocide were broadcast into the millions of people around the world, from New York to New Delhi and from London to Lagos. Images of children being slaughtered, women being raped and people brutalized were beamed into the living rooms of concerned citizens all over the world, for all to see. For the first time, the public was confronted, on a near daily basis, with images of mass carnage, violence, and humanitarian crisis. People pressed their congressmen, parliamentarians and state representatives to act and, in varying degrees, a groundswell calling for a decisive role for governments in ending these humanitarian crises and conflicts emerged. Although some wanted direct military action, often French, British or American, in ending a particular conflict, most governments have traditionally favored other instruments of diplomacy: political pressure, economic sanctions and imposed a settlement through international bodies such as the United Nations. As Carleton, amp. Stohl have emphatically demonstrated, a foreign policy rhetoric may be politically salient but not always political possible.nbsp.The purpose of this report is to provide an analysis of the human rights issue of genocide and humanitarian intervention.nbsp. With the aim of providing a thorough and concise overview of an incredibly timely issue, the following will explore arguments by two major scholars in the field regarding this important human rights issue.nbsp.

The Relations between Cultural Claims Power and Universal Human Rights

To begin with, let us consider the controversy surrounding the design of the Australian flag. This case is representative of the ideological and power struggles that are rampant everywhere else in the world. The Australian flag evokes starkly different emotions from different sections of its populace. For the indigenous community, it denotes a selective and exclusivist interpretation of Australian history, which completely neglects pre-colonial heritage. For the majority of the European settlers, the blatant human rights violations perpetrated against innocent hordes of indigenous tribes do not evoke sympathy as much as colonial supremacy. This dual viewpoints of history are typical in the post-colonial societies elsewhere, with a marked shift between the sentiments of the ruling elite and the subaltern masses. As the authors point out,
These debates about the meaning of flags raise issues that point to the very foundations of international politics. States claim that they embody the identities of the peoples living within their territorial boundaries. These identities are a powerful force, even if they are sometimes contrived or imagined. The principle of state sovereignty is often upheld not just as a fundamental political and legal tool but also as the means of protecting the culture or cultures operating within the state’s boundaries. (Brown, Bromley amp. Athreye, p.200)
Over the course of the last century, states have claimed legitimacy to their causes using the language of rights. The hope lies therein for minorities and underprivileged within states to also employ the language of rights to claim their legitimate share of opportunity, prosperity, and privilege. While traditionally, notions of cultural identity held sway over other abstract categorizations, the world of neo-liberal economic globalization has given precedence to universal human rights and justice. So, the twentieth-century world is undergoing an interesting political and cultural evolution that breaks away from conventional notions of rights and justice.

Reaction / script analysis for the death of a salesman by Arthur Miller

Death of a Salesman Death of a Salesman is an exemplary play in which the Arthur Miller gained the attention of his readers by providing a picture of the American life during that period. The play was compiled and presented in the year 1949 and it achieved much recognition because of its touching and true to life story. The play revolves around the life of an American family that is in the middle of many hardships and has failed to achieve success despite of repeated attempts. The author tries to depict how many people failed to achieve the American Dream of success and prosperity. Miller has used the family to show how many Americans suffered and could not lead a stable life and faced economic drawbacks

2 Short cases

Assignment The typical person usually faces a dilemma in his or her everyday life. There are so many situations in which we are faced with a dilemma, which is defined as a problematic situation in which there are at least two solutions (there could also be more than just two probable solutions). The dilemma comes about because the probable solutions are neither palatable nor acceptable. It is often referred to as being caught between a rock and a hard place.
I had a very close personal friend from whom I had borrowed $100 last month. I had been able to extract the said amount from him on the strength of a promise that I will pay him back in a month (which is already today). Originally, he agreed to lend me the amount without interest as long as I pay it back on time. I had used the borrowed money to buy some school books and also some decent clothes. I had planned to pay it back on time using my earnings from my part-time job waiting on restaurant tables in my spare time on weekends when I am not so busy.
My dilemma is that I now already have the $100 in my pocket, ready to pay him back. A totally unexpected problem came up just the other day, with my mom informing me my grandma had suffered another of her usual asthma attacks and needed some medication immediately. This out-of-the-blue development caught me by surprise since grandma had been well long enough in this regard, meaning she had not suffered asthma for several years already and I had thought she had finally gotten over this ailment. My mom called up me to buy my grandma her medicine at a nearest drugstore within our locality. The problem was that just a few minutes earlier, I called up my friend and informed him I was going to his place to hand him back his money as repayment and as a fulfillment of my promise a month earlier to pay it back on time.

Assignment 2
Our neighborhood is a bit run down and is on the poorer side of our community. As such, it has been a haven for petty criminals although I have some friends among them. These friends are usually just juvenile delinquents who have plenty of time on their hands and nothing better to do with their spare time and extra energies. The key to survival in this part of town is to just keep your head down and mind you own business so nobody will interfere with you also.
On one of my shopping expeditions in one of our neighborhood grocery outlets, I meet 2 former school mates from high school. They both said they have no jobs and had fallen on hard times brought by the economic downturn. They were looking for a job and both said they had a hard time landing any job at all due to their having dropped out of school. After a few minutes, another guy (whom I do not know at all) came up to us and asked the two if they had some stuff. At first, I was not able to comprehend right away what stuff meant but I knew later when my two former school mates produced a packet of marijuana. They had been dealing something illegal!
I know there are neighborhood patrols who try to keep out drugs from our place. There is a standing but unspoken agreement among our people to turn in someone they know who deals in these illegal drugs. My dilemma is whether to inform authorities about my friends activities or not at all. My ethical dilemma is due to their own actions, not mine (Pollock, 2008, p. 22). In the strongest moral terms, I have been forced to re-examine my values about friendship and honesty. My two former school mates expect me not to snitch or turn them in while my neighborhood will expect me to report their presence and their illegal activities. My decision will be due to values I have and values are important in making judgments (Kirst-Ashman, 2008, amp. Hull, p. 372).

Kirst-Ashman, K. K. amp. Hull, G. H. (2008). Understanding Generalist Practice. Belmont, CA, USA: Brooks/Cole-Cengage Learning.
Pollock, J. M. (2008). Ethical Dilemmas and Decisions in Criminal Justice. Belmont, CA, USA: Wadsworth-Cengage Learning.

Outline the Main Types of Business Structure that Existed in Britain Between the World Wars Indicating their Strengths and Weaknesses

The different types of business structures in Britain between World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945) included family firms, personal capitalism, cartelization, a formation of mergers, diversification, and growth of modern industrial empires. The purpose of this paper is to outline the main types of business structures during the inter-war years, indicating their strengths and weaknesses.
During the early period of the interwar years, many British product markets were characterized by fragmentation, as companies attempted to differentiate their product separately from others’ products. Managerial and supervisory systems were weak, managers were poorly educated and trained, and the levels of managerial hierarchy were inadequately demarcated resulting in poor coordination and efficiency. According to Westall, late nineteenth century businessmen had the usual three strategy options: competition, collusion or integration. Each option had further choices for example, competition could be by non-price means such as a differentiation of products to make them more appealing to consumers. Collusion referred to cooperation between businesses to raise prices and profitability. Integration was the process by which companies joined together to accommodate larger shares of economic activity internally rather than rely on market mediation.
The term family firm refers to various types of owner-managed firms.nbsp.

Social and economic outlook for aging population

Social and Economic Outlook for Aging Population Social and Economic Outlook for Aging Population Aging population is the growing and increasing proportion of the elderly group of people. The old population has effects on the economy including a slow labor force and shortage of skills. It also leads to diminishing of revenue growth for the government and increasing of health related costs (Workers, 2005).
In the aging population, a big number of people move from the labor force. thus, causing a very slow growth of the workforce. The share of work for this group declines and is not replaced completely. Participation in labor force begins to drop at the age of 55 after retirement from the work force. With the workforce aging, employers will have to grapple with an increasing number of retiring workers. Slow labor force growth leads to spread of economic implications. For the old age population, it is difficult to achieve balance between work, family and social responsibilities. For example, Fourge et al found out that GDP fell by 14% if age of retirement remained the same. It would increase by 3.5% if age of retirement were increased (Workers, 2005).
As the workforce move, to older cohorts the issues of illness and disability increase. The old population has effects on the social outlook. Health care costs for the old population is high compared to the younger population. In the first years of life, the health costs are low up to the age of 44, and they begin to rise and shoot very high at the age of 65. For example, in the year 2002 the expenditure for infants was 5,931 dollars, the expenditure for ages between 65-74 was 4,700 dollars, it rose to 8,600 for every individual between ages 75-84 and further to 16,090 for each person of age 85 (Workers, 2005).
Workers, C. I. (2005). Growing Up: The Social and Economic Implications of an Aging
Population. Aging Population Journal, 120-130.

Economics for Managers Japan Case

For almost a decade, the Japanese have started to adopt a risk-averse mindset after the fall of the dotcoms. Due to the circumstances, zero-return in cash has become the mindset of the people. While prices continue to drop, people further delay their consumption for the hope of lower prices. This hoarding of cash or investing in zero-return or non-interest-bearing savings leads to stagnation and later, worsening deflation in the economy. Thus the country wishes for some inflation to happen by increasing aggregate demand either through an increase in consumer spending, or channeling of money to some real investments in order to stimulate growth in the economy.
Because of inflation, the relatively low or zero-return of investments most Japanese consumers have produces a negative interest rate. The Japanese Central Bank now hopes that consumers will then shift their investments to interest-bearing or higher-yielding investments to offset the effect of inflation, such as shares and real estate in order to give a boost to the economy.
The cost-push inflation in the economy thus requires the Japanese Central Bank to use some monetary policy to curb it. However, Japanese Central Bank cannot just increase the interest rate in the meantime. While the global economy seems to pose a threat, increasing the interest rate will hurt the economy and worsen the impact of this threat if it happens. Thus, the Japanese Central Bank will keep the interest rates low in order to lessen the impact of the economic crisis abroad to the Japanese economy.
The aggregate prices or the overall inflation within an economy is set by the interaction of the aggregate demand and aggregate supply. On one hand, aggregate demand is determined by the total amountnbsp.of consumption, investment, government spending and net exports in an economy.

The US Importation Benefits for World Development

Countries trade with each other because of the concept of comparative advantage and specialization.nbsp. Using the concept of Adams Smith as the basis of the theory it would not able to remember the foundation of having to import or to buy when it would cost more to make. If a foreign country can supply the United States with a commodity which would be cheaper than it can make, then there is a reason to buy from said foreign while at the same time allowing some of the produce of the US industry to be sold. In other words, the US would produce where it has some advantage.
The need to specialize and trade for the same reason should govern the behavior of individuals at it meant to result in greater out and income.nbsp. A lawyer who is also a skilled painter can benefit to just hire a painter to paint his house. It is assumed that the lawyer can earn $50 dollars per hour and that the painter earns $20 an hour. Although the lawyer is a good painter, he would do best to just specialize in his work as a lawyer by hiring a painted, as he could be saving $20 per hour.
That the world economy is benefited by US importation cannot be denied. nbsp.nbsp.One cannot talk about the economy without going back to things about demand and supply of good and services. The demanders are the households, individuals, and entities and the suppliers are the firms. This interaction could result in economic activities that will the cause the continuous production of needs and wants as sustained by the continuing demand.nbsp. From the macroeconomic model, the economy of every country is then measured by GDP growth with the necessary components of consumption, investment, government spending, and net export or the result of exports after deducting imports.
Imports by the US may result therefore to trade deficit whether the US could actually be consuming more than it produces or exports. It may there have a negative effect on its GDP. However, in business, one’s loss is another’s gain.

Growth through Internationalisation among Entrepreneurial Firms

The study of internationalization and its effects on growth of entrepreneurial firms have been studied using secondary data from relevant articles. These articles are chosen based on its topic and content, which is relevant in the study of internationalization and its effect on the growth of entrepreneurial companies. Each of the articles is thoroughly analyzed and the information recovered from them is used to discuss its implications on entrepreneurial activities. The journal article by Buckley and Hashai is chosen for its analysis. Their article Formalizing internationalization in the eclectic paradigm is based on an equilibrium model which describes internationalization in the light of competitive advantage. It explains why firms adopt overseas expansion strategies and how it acts on behalf of their growth. The aim and objective of this article are to establish a formalized theory on internationalization in the light of eclectic paradigm by reconfiguring certain neo-classical economic theories. A set of inequalities has been formulated to establish the role of eclectic paradigm in overseas expansion. The equilibrium is based on the concept of ownership advantage, location advantage, and internalization advantage which has been incorporated into the general equilibrium model, mostly preferred by economists. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is explained as an operation model which maximized the utility of workers and entrepreneurs simultaneously. A firm adopts an overseas operation only when the total utility received from FDI activities in a host country is more than the total utility received from the exports, domestic consumption and inward FDI. The three elements of the eclectic paradigm are ownership, location and internalization advantages. These are continuous in nature and often tend to support each other. The decrease in one advantage can be compensated by the other two. These competitive advantages are leveraged by the entrepreneurial firms to enhance their growth overseas and gain an edge over its competitors.

Knowledge Integration in Strategic Management

Knowledge Management has been discussed and described by several experts. Ron Young, CEO of Knowledge Associates International has defined knowledge management as, the discipline of enabling individuals, teams and entire organizations to collectively and systematically create, share and apply knowledge, to better achieve their objectives(Knowledge Management, 2009). knowledge management is a growing and established discipline and is used in many large organizations. According to Pentland (1995), as cited in Alavi and Leidner (2001), organizational knowledge creation involves developing new content or restoring existing content within the organization’s tacit and explicit knowledge. The start of the knowledge management was mainly in organizations in Northern Europe and North America. However, this concept has grown and has become an essential aspect for companies across the world. Researchers have noticed over the years that almost 75 – 80 percent of all large companies have a strong inclination and formal knowledge management programs. Knowledge Management is slowly becoming a major and crucial issue in companies.
It is essential to understand that knowledge is a major economic challenge for companies in the future (Hewitt, 2000). For every innovative and successful organization, there is a high need for creating, capitalizing and sharing the Knowledge capital. It is essential to understand that knowledge management is a program that is more of a long-term effort, and includes a strong need for strategic commitment and involves and includes the analysis of the knowledge and capabilities and tools in the company.
Business Driver: Since ages, there has been an extremely important and true saying, ‘Knowledge is Power’. Knowledge is the foundation for almost every activity in everyday life. McInerney (2002) believes that knowledge management allows companies to benefit from the knowledge that resides in an organization by using it to achieve the organization’s mission. With the attention that is being provided to the products and services alone over the years, the most significant key to value creation has been missed out over the years.

Stock control

Measurement of cost by traditional costing method and ABC costing method are greatly different. ABC allocates the activity costs into products by cost drivers, while traditional costing method uses quantity drivers to allocate costs. Since the use of the traditional costing method was not avoided of products loss, we may as well say then that its continual use would be a wrong economic decision.

It is impossible to get correct activity information of each activity and the activity channeled towards production by using traditional costing method, while this can be achieved easily and accurately by ABC method. With the use of ABC, Vauxhall could now analyze which activity is tends towards loss of products, in order to discuss the possibility of reduction of such activities.

The product loss, measured by traditional costing method, was not encountered by ABC method since ABC could accurately allocate cost information.

U S Federal Reserve System

US Federal Reserve System The central banking system of United s was created in 1913 byUnited States congress in order to provide safer modes of monitoring and a flexible banking system (Philadelphia, pp. 2). The Federal Reserve System is a government institution developed to monitor country’s economic policies including employment, supply of money and interest rate. Federal Reserve System operates like an independent entity to control public and private aspects and comprised of seven members elected by the senate and president on 14 years agreement (Plossers, pp. 1-2). Moreover, the system is operating in United States to provide exchange benefits among different regions, to control the money supply and demand fluctuations, to control arising systematic risks in financial market, to fulfill liquidity needs and to manage and supervise banking institutions (News Events, 2009).
However, its primary aim is to strengthen country’s economy by taking various active measures. The perfect monitory policies, measures taken to achieve national economic goals will lead to successful economic growth. Moreover, it requires different tools such as discount rate and open market operations in order to influence reserves of private financial institutes. It works as a government’s body and it is associated with several functions. First, it serves as a bank for bank, it involves in various transaction of banks. Whereas, financial institutions borrows money in case of shortage of money. Secondly, it works as a regulatory in buying and selling of securities in an open market and as a government’s bank, it issues U.S currency. Thirdly, as a regulatory agency, it monitors that the rights of consumers are protected, and ensures that things run smoothly in banks. However, the current economic policy is focusing on unemployment and does not include plans to raise interest rates (Plossers, pp. 1-3). Moreover, the current monetary policy is not working well the decline of dollar is problematic for businesses. Due to the fact, investments are drastically decline whereas. foreign investments are speaking out and divesting (Philadelphia, pp. 2).
According to personal opinion, I agree, because Federal Reserve System has extended its lending programs and open market operations by enlarging reserve securities, agency debts, mortgages, and by increasing maturity transformation on balance sheet. Therefore, monitory policies affect economic activities badly. Federal Reserve System focuses on unemployment which is also a major factor but high interest rates attracts investments and increases cash inflows which later on, will increase country’s economic condition.
The monitory is not working well in a sense that bad debts has increased on high extents which badly affects on unemployment and became the prime cause of economic world crisis. Conclusively, Federal Reserve System is a primary resource in solving different panics among banks. It is the main source to provide funds to banks in case of shortage in money supply. It works as a helping body for all financial institutions in case of emergencies. Whereas, it is major purpose is to maintain and table a smooth banking system by avoiding bad debts and to regulate smooth policy in all institutions in order to boost country’s economy. Monetary policy plays an essential role in making any country’s economy and strengthens banks policies ad actions.
Works Cited
News Events. Federal Reserve, 2009. Retrieved on December 03, 2009: http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/speech/kohn20090523a.htm
Plossers. Federal Reserve System, 2009. Retrieved on December 03, 2009: http://www.investorwords.com/1914/Federal_Reserve_System.html
Philadelphia. Banking Credits, 2009. Retrieved on December 03, 2009: http://www.finweb.com/banking-credit/the-federal-reserve-system.html

Female Offenders( AfricanAmerican women)

These African Americans are serving mostly for non violent crimes which include property disputes. These African Americans face a lot of challenges while in the prison and some special services are also being provided to these women so that they can avoid the problems (Snell 1994. Sabol et al 2007).
It has been seen that many of the problems that women face in the prison are due to the inefficiencies of the system which have not been corrected by the authorities concerned. A problem for most of the incarcerated females is that they cannot be accommodated in places nearby their home. This is because few facilities allow the accommodation of female prisoners. In United States it has been seen that women in prison are usually a hundred miles away from their child’s residence. It is stated that more than 60 % of all women are incarcerated more than one hundred miles from their child’s place of residence (Human Rights Watch 1996). This problem is related to the families of the female offenders as these females cannot remain in contact with their family. Economic resources of the African American women are low and hence it becomes even more difficult for the family to pay visits to the females. Female prisoners are kept in a high security zone where they cannot be harmed in anyway. This high security zone can prove to be problematic for them as they are discriminated and misclassified accordingly in these high security zones. The facilities available these days in the prisons are not enough to provide the women with the basic rights. The hygiene and healthcare systems of the prison were originally established for men and hence these African American women have to suffer at the hands of the authorities. Gynecological examination is not yet much prevalent in the prison systems of the United States. It has also been seen that many African American women are incarcerated for the use of drugs but these

Payday Loans

Payday Loans Looking from afar, the payday loan business may only be seen as ‘help-in-time’ service that benefits to a large extent, both the lender and the borrower. There are however several economic implications to the industry and these would best be felt should the industry come to a halt today. First is the issue of taxation. Because the industry is a profit-making one, the government would lose the tax from that sector. Second is standard of living. Clearly, the government and the banks alone cannot improve the lives of the ordinary people and so the absence of the industry would create a huge gap between the rich and the poor. Even more, is the issue of employment. As the nation struggles with the high unemployment rate, the payday loans industry has come to be one industry that is absorbing a lot of unemployed citizens.
The economic relation in determining the interest rates on loans paid to low-income earners and middle and high-income earners emanates from the common principle of guarantee and surety. It is logical to assume that the middle and high-income earners would easily pay off their loans. To the lender, it is the low-income earner who would face problems paying off the loans. Experience has shown that some low-income earners stop paying off their loan halfway through (Gardener, 2008).nbsp.
In the absence of payday loans, those who benefit from it would simply have had to cut down on their expenditure in order to make their earnings sufficient for them.

Coach Case External Analysis

While Coach at first developed it began to fall behind its rivals regarding stylishness and deals started to decay. In 1996 Krakoff joined Coach and he was instrumental in positioning Coach as a receptive extravagance brand“ for it was comprehended that cost was a wellspring of focused preference for the brand in the extravagance market. In October 2000, Coach opened up to the world under the name of Coach Inc. By 2005 Coach`s incomes tripled and their stake cost expanded more than 900 % since their IPO in 2000.
Economic: Throughout the following a few years the economy postures noteworthy danger to the extravagance business in the developed markets, be that as it may, rising markets, for example, China, India and Brazil are relied upon to encounter solid development in the extravagance showcase as their white collar class advances. The U.s (Coach`s biggest business) must address the Fiscal Cliff“ or an alternate monetary retreat will happen. Moreover there is right now no result in sight with respect to the European obligation emergency.
Socio-Cultural: Changing societal concerns, state of mind and lifestyles speaks to both chances and dangers to the extravagance embellishment industry. The changing inclination by working class buyers towards extravagance merchandise unavoidably makes new chances for development inside adult markets. Companies that change assembling occupations abroad for more level wages have been reprimanded by shoppers. Organizations need the necessity to assess the potential expenses and profits before assembling or scattering their items into a nation or locale.
Globalization: The essential explanation behind the expanding globalization is that firms inside the industry are pulled in by the climbing level of wage and riches and the point of interest of shabby work inside generally new industrialized nations, for example,

Goals in life

Starting with what you know involves getting to know yourself a little better without all the hang-ups and expectations of the world you were brought up in. To get to know yourself better, you have to sit down and really think about what’s important to you, what your morals are and what you feel is ethically correct. This is all about those intangible things that are meaningful to you. If you’re thinking about how impressive a 15 bedroom house would be to your friends and family, you’re on the wrong track but if you’re thinking about how it might be necessary to have 15 bedrooms in order to house all those children you want to have, you might be onto something. Follow the thought a little deeper and you might discover that what is important to you is that you have a close relationship with a number of different people.
The next step after figuring out what’s really important to you is to experiment with those areas that you aren’t all that familiar with. Do you like to do things outdoors? If you’ve grown up in the inner city, this might be a very difficult question to answer. While you’re young is the time to experiment with different ways of living, different ways of looking at the world and different ideas of what you might wish to do in life. Talk with people who are from different countries, different backgrounds and different socio-economic classes. You might learn something about yourself and you will certainly gain a greater appreciation for the diversity of the world around you. You may discover that your inner city dreams of the 15 bedroom house meant that you want close relationships with people but that you also desire more personal space, meaning an office job will not make you happy.
Finally, knowing what is really important to you and having had the chance to experiment with a variety of viewpoints, you are ready to begin setting your goals. Envision what your life might look like in 20 years