The author considers that a balanced mixture of these two views offers a better perspective. The author proposes that God’s truth as revealed in the Holy Scriptures is reflected in some parts by the Calvinists view and in some parts by the Armininans and God’s truth regarding salvation is not monopolized wholly by just one of these two views. God Announced Salvation after the fall On the sixth day of creation, after forming everything which included the light, the firmament, the plants and the animals, God created man in His own image and put him in the Garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. later Adam was joined by his wife Eve, the woman whom God formed from one of Adam’s ribs.1 Adam and Eve had everything they needed and lived very close to God and just like in a fairy tale, they could have lived happily ever after. But they disobeyed God’s commandment: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.2 Thus the first man and woman fell to sin and the whole creation fell with them.3 The loving Almighty God, after the fall of man, even in the dawn of human history, had already announced the forthcoming salvation, as He said to the serpent:And I will put enmity between thee and the woman and between thy seed and her seed: it shall bruise thy head and thou shalt bruise his heel.4 The Holy Bible abounds with several verses which teach the way to salvation. In fact the whole Bible, with its old and new testaments, showsGod’s way of having people come to know Him and His plan for mankind, His chosen and special people…who by faith will form the true family of God throughout eternity.5 God’s Thoughts Are Higher Than Our Thoughts Despite the so many verses pertaining to salvation (or maybe due to such great number), even the so-called ‘faithfuls’ have found themselves in opposite camps. This providence debate has been going on for centuries and perhaps, Christians will finally get the correct answer when they come face to face with our loving Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. Our God is a very great God. He is omniscient, omnipresent and omnipotent. He is the first and the last. We may come to know Him, but not yet as fully as we would have wanted. As it is written, For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways My ways, saith the Lord. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are My ways higher than your ways and My thoughts than your thoughts.6 The Arminians and Calvinists Views A careful and prayerful study of the Holy Bible will reveal chapters and verses which support both the Arminian and Calvinist views. The Arminians View. The Arminians believe that salvation is brought about by the combined efforts of God who initiated the process and man who must respond to God’s call. God has provided salvation for everyone, but His provision becomes effective only for those who, of their own free will, ‘choose’ to cooperate with Him and accept His gracious offer of salvation. Thus man’s response becomes the determining factor for the attainment of salvation. At the crucial point, man’s will plays a decisive role. in this perspective, man, not God, determines who will be recipients of the gift of salvation.7,8 Arminianism emphasizes conditional election based on God’s foreknowledge, man’s free will through prevenient grace to cooperate with God in salvation,
It is hard for some to imagine that this great teacher is aging and will eventually join his wife in heaven.On January 22 of 1920 Herbert Randolph, the census taker for Mecklenburg County, North Carolina visited house number 159 on Park Road in Sharon Township1. He sat with the W.F. Graham family and asked all the questions he needed answers to. Frank Graham and his wife Morrow told how they were from an old Confederate Carolina family. They were a young couple with a young son named Billy Frank2. The blue-eyed blond-haired baby Billy Frank was added to the count of Mecklenburg County. When Mr. Randolph had all the information he needed he bid this family goodbye and walked to the next farm over to meet with the Clyde M. Graham family (W.F. Graham’s Brother) at 160 Park Road.William Franklin Graham and his wife Morrow had their firstborn son while living on a farm in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina (N.C.). Mecklenburg County has their son listed as Billy Frank Graham born November 7, 19183. As Billy grew he attended school in nearby Charlotte, N.C. He had lofty aspirations to become a first baseman for the Philadelphia Athletics4. Had he been so the Athletics would have had a very dedicated first baseman! A revival changed all that for the young Billy. As a senior in high school, he made the decision to become an evangelical preacher5. His family attended a Reformed Presbyterian church but Billy decided to attend a Baptist University. He moved to Tennessee to attend Bob Jones University. He moved to Florida six months later to attend the Florida Bible Institute6. In 1939 he was ordained as a Southern Baptist minister and moved to Wheaton College where he received his Bachelors’s degree and met Ruth McCue Bell. He left Wheaton College with a degree and a wife in 1943.It is Graham’s hard work and charisma that have turned his decided vocation into a worldwide evangelical quest.
Consequently, the upper class is bound to surrender their resources in order to give way to the lower classes eventually, which is actually the law of nature for the preservation and stability of the very foundations of society. His magnificent Das Kapital (1867) is regarded as the Bible of Socialism, which reflects upon political, social and economic history of struggle between the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat since ever. Marxism argues that human history is replete with the evidences of the very reality that economic efforts are vehemently essential for the survival of humans in general. Marx believes that laws are the product of class oppression, and that laws would have to disappear with the advent of communism. (Zimmerman, 2009:96) Hence, all the developments, being made for centuries, are directly reliant upon the economic activities people get involved into and financial gains they maintain or generate, out of the hard work conducted by the workers on the one hand, and the volume of profit earned by the producer or investor on the other. Consequently, the entire series of achievements and progresses have been made by humans are certainly the product of the struggle inducted by the workers and the investment made by the producers rather than that of intellectual capabilities and philosophical vision. Hence, economic efforts at individual and collective scales are the basic reason for the survival and growth of the individuals and nations. Marx’s theory is based firmly upon the idea of a relationship between society and nature. Its fundamental concept is human labor, viewed in a historical perspective. it is the developing interchange between man and nature, which at the same time creates, and progressively transforms, social relationships among men. (Bottomore, 1973: 38-39) Marxist perspective submits to state that laborers, workers and peasants toil hard from dawn to dusk, but obtain almost nothing in return. On the other hand, the industrialists, factory owners, feudal lords and investors enjoy themselves with the lion’s share out of the profit generated through industrial units and produced from the cultivation of lands. Since it is workers, who make rich investment of time and energies for the enhancement of productivity, they should also have respectable and handsome share in the profit that is entirely dependent of their sincere hard efforts and dedication. However, a large proportion of the laborers and peasants remained poor and downtrodden due to scarcity of resources, including food, proper education, appropriate recreational and career opportunities. they are unable to gain recognition as well as luxurious life in society. Renowned naturalist theorist and father of modern theory of evolution Charles Darwin has also elaborated the same notion in his remarkable work On the Origin of Species (1859) that only the fittest and strongest living-beings have the power (and perhaps right too) to survive and reproduce, which is actually the law of nature. Based on his in-depth research on various species, including humans, birds, mammals, reptiles and insects, Darwin concludes that the species containing adoptability of embracing change are sure to survive and multiply by giving birth to their young ones. Hence, the same genes have been traveling since the creation of the universe to the future generations, and contain almost same characteristics with
Numbers -This book explains how Israel prepared to enter their promised land and it covers the years at Sinai and Moab. Numbers also describes events that are guided by God, who is perceived as a deliverer. Deuteronomy-Deuteronomy is significant because it covers the greatness of God to future generations. It reminds people of God’s blessings and waits await them in the promised land.Joshua -Joshua is significant because it provides a history of the Israelites. In this book, we become aware of the division of the tribes. Joshua encourages the Israelites to continue to follow God. Judges-This book is a historical account of what occurred in Israel. Judges demonstrate the power of God as well as his forgiveness and restoration.Ruth -Ruth is a narrative that illustrates the strength of character through faith in God by examining the relationship between Ruth and Naomi. God’s grace can be seen in this account. ISamuel -This historical book records the lie of Samuel, who was a judge. The book also covers the reign of Saul, which leads up to the life of David. II Samuel -This book is historical and records the anointing of David and how effective leadership can be when it is directed by God. The essence of this book is to demonstrate David’s ability to lead.I Kings -This historical account is a continuation of Samuel, commenting on the history of the Israelites from the reign of David to the fall of Israel. II Kings -Another historical account that emphasizes what happens when people refuse to live under the leadership of God. Elisha’s ministry is covered as well as the fall of the northern kingdom.
The New Testament’s writings were not considered complete until sometime from the first to the third century AD (Scott 1998) many people have the idea that the bible has been manipulated as time goes by. Others have gone to the extend arguing that it has been corrupted via copying which has altered some few messages in it. The composition of the bible is also raising some questions. The Christian are of the idea that the bible was written by people who were led by the spirit of God. They believe that God is the author of the bible, since, through his divine power, he communicated to individuals who wrote it. The Atheist, on the other hand claims that the disciples of Jesus are the ones who composed the bible. These myths have existed through many years, and it seems that there is no point when the truth will be known unless until when the Day of Judgment will be revealed. In reality, what has happened and will still continue happening is the translation of the bible into different languages and versions. History of the bible reveals that, the bible has beenconverted from the first language which was Latin to English and then to other languages. It also reveals that the original manuscripts, which were written in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, have been copied over the centuries, making some few changes (Dowey 2006). Despite the few alterations, history has it that the bible has been intact as it was written at first and that it is the Word of God. The reliability of some of the accounts of the gospels has been severely attacked by scientists and historians. It is due to this turmoil that this paper tries to examine the bible, how it has changed over time and how the different versions differ. Versions of the Bible Presently, there are many versions of the bible which differ significantly. Examples of the versions that are dominant in the bookshops includes. King James version (KJV), New International version(NIV) , New American Standards(NAS), Good News and New World Translation. These versions and many others which will be mentioned later in this paper claim to have the same message, but research has shown that they have some differences. The errors of omissions and insertions are evident when a variety of these versions is compared. They differ among themselves and also history has it that they do not reflect the original version of the bible. To prove this we shall sample a number of versions of the bible that exist in the modern day and examine how they have changed over time and the difference between them. King James Version The King James Version also known as the Authorized Version in the United States originated from England and was named after King James who initiated the project of translating the bible. It is said to be the widely used version of the bible. Despite the retaliations from clerics, the king made it mandatory that each church in England should use the newly translated bible and to keep a copy on the display all the time. This may be the reason behind the name ‘Authorized Version’.
Nature of God God’s nature is difficult to fathom. Throughout the bible, God’s character is revealed to its readers. This essay will delve on God’s nature as observed in the book of Genesis. In particular, the character of God in the story of the creation, the fall of man and in the story of Noah, will be the main focus for deciphering God’s nature. In the story of creation, one can describe God’s nature as being all mighty and all powerful (The New American Bible, Genesis 1-2). Being the creator of the vast universe makes God project a dominant and authoritative character. But God is not an ordinary creator. He is an organized and a genius creator as shown by the methodical way by which God created the world. He knew the earth needed light but He also knew that there is a reason for darkness. God is a perceptive creator recognizing the fact that land should co-exist with water. He has everything planned out since the beginning. God is a sensitive God who is aware that the land and vegetation would be useless if there were no inhabitants to live on it. thus, He created animals on the land, water and sky. The human nature of God is also revealed in the creation. God, like man, needs rest and He did it on the seventh day when He saw that his creation was good. With the creation of Adam and Eve, another nature of God is revealed. One sees his loving nature, creating man in His own image and likeness. If God is not loving, He could have made man in another way other than His own image and likeness. God could have simply made the animals as the only inhabitants of the world, but He did not. God wanted humans to be part of His creation and enjoy it. One views God as a very rational, generous and unselfish God. Although God has authority over man, He chose to give man free will. God is not the dictatorial type of ruler. He wanted man to follow Him but He gave man freedom. God did not totally impose His authority over man because of His great love for man. The image of a forgiving God is depicted when Adam and Eve committed the first sin (Genesis 3). God could have killed Adam and Eve for disobeying Him but He did not. He could have totally banished men from earth because of what they did. But being the loving and forgiving God, He chose to let man live. Another nature of God revealed in this chapter is that of being a just God. He punished Adam and Eve because they deserved to be punished for not obeying Him. Even the serpent that tempted Eve was given a second chance because even to this day, snakes still exist. One cannot say that God is vengeful because despite the sin committed by Adam and Eve, He still blessed them with children and allowed them to multiply (Genesis 4). Eve bore two children, Cain and Abel (Genesis 4:1-2). In this part of the Genesis, God again showed his merciful and just character. Although God punished Cain for murdering Abel, He also promised to protect him from people who intends to do him harm. God told Cain, If anyone kills Cain, Cain shall be avenged sevenfold (Genesis 4:15). In the story of Noah, God reveals his appreciative and grateful nature (Genesis 6). God saw how Noah has been a faithful servant to Him. He rewarded Noah by warning him about the huge flood that He will send on earth to wipe away the wicked men on earth. God saved Noah and his family because they have been good followers. God’s omnipotent nature is also revealed in the story of Noah. One sees God as someone who possesses unlimited power. No other person can possess such power to send forty days and forty nights of rain. yet after the great flood, He also has the power to let the sun come out again. One observes God’s omnipotent power over the good and the evil. He showed His power over Noah and his family, who represents the good and He also demonstrated His power over the evil men living on earth by washing them away from the world through the great flood. His omnipotence is clearly illustrated when He said, I have decided to put an end to all mortals on earth. the earth is full of lawlessness because of them. So I will destroy them and all life on earth (Genesis 6: 13). Two other characteristics that God has revealed in the story of Noah is His being truthful and faithful to His promises. He was truthful when He warned Noah about the flood. He told Noah the truth about how disappointed He was with the wickedness of men (Genesis 6: 5-6). God’s faithfulness is depicted in His covenant with Noah. He fulfilled His promise that He will save Noah and his family and the animals that he will bring with him in the ark. Clearly, one can conclude that God is faithful to all those who are faithful to Him. In conclusion, one can say that God’s nature is revealed in various stories in the Genesis. In every narrative of the bible, God’s different qualities emerge. One gets to know more about God as one reads through His relationships with the different characters in the bible. Works Cited The New American Bible. Catholic Biblical Association of America, ed. New York: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1984. Print.
Full Ancient Dance References Art was not recently borne but have for centuries been a part of human cultures, not only to the progressive countries but to all races regardless of education and other circumstances. Whatever knowledge the modern man has about dance and other arts, I believe have been passed on from generation to generation and has developed to whatever each race has adopted and whatever genre there are that we now know similar to how other part of our culture have been passed to us. If stories, poems and other literary works have been preserved through words of mouth in the early centuries, I believe that in an identical manner, dance have been preserved through what has been taught and passed on from generation to generation. The literary works passed on through many generations may have a lot of innovations that have affected what has been put into writing for our enjoyment and appreciation. Correspondingly, dance has its own changes as different generations adapted other aesthetic dance movements which could have been an expression of an individual’s own artistic inclination or probably have been adopted from other cultures. The only evidences preserved for us to see in physical form the dances of ancient times are the drawings left by past civilizations like the ones engraved on the stones or woods found in Egypt and other pertinent places among which is India. It has been so wise of Bharata Muni (Chiego 84) to have recorded an integral part of her country’s and any other country’s cultural background, preserving India’s dances through her written works. India has dances which are considered competitively beautiful and probably they can be noted among the top best dancers, tracing such practice to the entertainment of their nobles. Dance, along with other artistic expressions have usually been used to entertain the rich especially the royalties. In most history books and historical films, dance has a virtual importance in the portrayal of the lifestyle of kings and other powerful figures in ancient times. Usually, dancers are summoned during banquets prepared by or for the king and his royal friends. Basically, centuries ago, art was enjoyed only by those who were able to afford it unlike these times where all forms of arts are readily available at affordable prices. Dancers abound and everyone inclined to the talent are given the chance of expressing their hearts out through the discipline. Linking dance to other nations who practiced dancing as a part of their royal entertainment is Egypt. There has been a time when women were considered like flowers who beautify rooms, houses or to the ancients, palaces. The king always had the luxury of entertaining himself with dancers and other artists usually portrayed in plays and historical films, greatly useful in giving a picture of the past to the modern man. Egypt as one of the powers in ancient civilizations has had its own share of the beauty seen in such culture. In fact, they are among those whose tombs and pyramid inscriptions preserved the evidences of such treasure. Being led by pharaohs during biblical times and with the fact that the people were made to think that their role was to honor the king through their services, dancers were vital to the service of the king. Another would be ancient Greece with Aristotle as her recorder of her culture that includes the value of dance. True enough, dance reflects the culture of a people as he mentioned that through rhythmical gestures, character, experience and actions are expressed. One example could be the Greek war dances that portray what happened in the wars they have been through. There are also dances of the same race which speak of their love and pursuit for peace and is commonly called peace dance. This shows that even dances which give no words, also tell stories that are important to a nation’s history and culture. Some other countries speak about their livelihood through their dance and thus reflect the wise words of the philosopher that character is shown in dances, too. Dance also has a religious attribution as mentioned in the article which spoke about the dance of Miriam with the use of tambourine to celebrate the victory their God has given them in running away from their oppressors, the Egyptians. Being the oldest recorded dance in the Bible, it shows one good reason for the act that is, thanking God in times of joyful celebrations. This happened long before the first king was anointed so that we can imagine dance not only to be a luxury for them, at least not for the Israelites but is a part of their cultural celebrations because having tambourines during a great escape would be last of anyone’s concern. However, with the tambourine not only of Miriam but of other dancers, being available at such a time. show the importance of the art in their culture. Reference Chiego, John. The Musical Experience (2nd Edition). USA: Kendall Hunt Publishing, 2010. Print.
As per Sikhism, there is one God and they believe in the teachings of Sikh Gurus. God is linked or merged with the Gurus and Gurus represent ‘The Creator’ and Sikhs emphasize the need to keep harmonious balance between temporal and spiritual obligations. Furthermore, in sync with the beliefs of Sikhism, Judaism and Christianity also believe in one God and that God is eternal and immutable. It is said that Judaism calls for highest sense of self-discipline and it is considered to be one of the strict religion. As per Christianity God is supreme, powerful and besides being the creator of all things. Christians believe that it is possible to reach God only through Jesus, who is His only Son. As far as human life is concerned, Sikhs consider human life as precious because the soul has to goes through several births and deaths before it is blessed with human form. In tune with this belief, in Judaism everything is connected to God as God created the world and controls the all activities in the universe. As per Judaism, God has no physical form and he is not male nor female. The substance of Jewish faith is in Rambam’s principles of faith which makes defense about the existence of God. For Christians, God is the preserver of the world and it is God that created life and made humankind in His image. While Sikhs believe that human beings face problems because of their wrongdoings, they consider remembering God’s name as the prime solution. Judaism believes that every good and bad actions will be treated suitably. Like Christianity, Judaism also believes in confession of past sins and seeking atonement. The Father in Church listens for the sins committed by the people and he prays to God and Jesus to condone their sins. In Christianity it is believed that sin and evil arrived in the world through Adam and Eve. It is because of the negativities that man has become an evil force but it is God that makes final judgment on the man. Judaism and Sikhism profess that every person can approach God individually but in Christianity a mediator is necessary between God and man. Gurudwara is the place of worship for Sikhs, Jews offer prayers and worship in Synagogues and Christians worship in Churches. Sikhs do not believe in icons based prayers hence there are no icons visible in the Gurudwara, Sikhs consider their Holy Book of Guru Grantha Saheb Ji as their ultimate teacher. The Holy book contains a collection of teachings and writings by Guru Nanak and other Gurus, it is hailed by Sikhs as the living word of God. The Holy Book has ample references about Hindu and Muslim Saints. Sikhs place their Holy book on a raised platform decorated with flowers. Like Gurudwaras, there are no icons in Synagogues, but in Church we normally get to see the statue of Jesus Christ and sometimes there are drawings on the wall of the Church those depict angels. Judaism has numerous religious texts but the most important of all is Torah. God gave written and oral Torah to Moses and it contains 613 commandments of God. There would be not going to be another Torah. Similarly Christians also have a Holy Book called Bible. The foundation of the beliefs in Christianity are based on the teaching from the Bible. Besides the Holy book, Christians believe in Trinity, the Father and Son. In Judaism there are many sects, their daily prayers are a part of their life, these prayers are said in the morning and at the bedtime. Sikhs and Christians visit Gurudwaras once a
Hence, when it comes to rituals, Communion tends to be an important ritual in the Roman Catholic religion. Communion in the Roman Catholic religion not only extends a sense of belonging to the Roman Catholics around the world, but also helps them stay connected with the essential beliefs and values associated with their religion. In the Roman Catholic Church, communion tends to be the source and centre of the Roman Catholic religion. Communion tends to be the high point of any Roman Catholic mass. In the Roman Catholic Church, communion happens to be an important sacrament. It is a way and means to reach Jesus. The Ritual of Communion The communion in the Roman Catholic Church begins with an opening prayer. The clergy conducting the mass makes a sign of cross and says the opening prayer. The clergy formally welcomes the believers attending the mass and offers prayers for the well being of the parish and the community. After the opening prayer, the clergy starts the reading of the scripture. It does need to be mentioned that the reading of the scripture in a Catholic communion is not random or haphazard, but rather it follows a liturgical calendar. The Catholic Church has prescribed the readings for each and every day of the year. This practice of affiliating to the same reading on a particular day at the Catholic Churches placed all across the world, lends a sense of community and camaraderie to the people following the Catholic religion. The reading of the scripture is followed by the Lord’s Prayer. Once the Lord’s Prayer is said then begins the sacrament of communion. The priest offers to the believers gathered in the Church for the mass, the bead dipped in wine, which at a symbolic level is taken to be the blood and body of Jesus, offered to the believers so that it could atone for the sins committed by them (O’Collins Farrugia 250). It does need to be mentioned that communion tends to be the most important aspect of a Catholic mass. The Roman Catholic religion preaches that receiving communion is a must for the attainment of salvation. The other important belief associated with the Roman Catholic communion is that only a priest, who has been ordained in the apostolic succession, could manifest through Jesus Christ the imminent miracle of Transubstantiation, thereby changing the ordinary bread and wine into the blood and body of the Christ. Meaning and Significance of Communion It does need to be noticed that Communion or Eucharist commands a central place in the Roman Catholic form of worship. Baptism and Communion are the two sacraments that have been clearly mentioned in the Bible. It is held that the practice of Communion was actually started by Jesus Christ, and this ritual is clearly recorded in the Gospels. It was Jesus Christ who initiated the practice of the Last Supper where he offered bread to His disciples, telling them that it is His body, and then made them drink a little wine, saying it to be His blood. Jesus told his followers to repeat this ceremony and the Catholic Christians have been practising this ritual right from the days of early Christians. The ritual of Communion owes its spiritual moorings to the sacraments relation to the actual sacrifice of Jesus on the cross. In the New Testament one many a times come across Jesus addressing himself as a sacrifice, thereby pointing towards his imminent sacrifice on
Islamic Beginnings In its initial years, Islam has been considered a nomadic culture until it found a home in the Arab territories. Islam’s most famous prophet is someone you most likely have heard of–Muhammad or Mohammed. Muhammad was known to have united the Muslim religion and culture. He is considered their prophet because it is said that the teachings of Allah were revealed to him by an angel. These teachings are now present in the Muslim bible called the Qur’an (Khanbagi, 2006). When Muhammad, Islam’s holy man, passed away, various problems of succession arose. The succeeding years of the Muslim civilization brought on more conquered lands. One after another, we have seen other cultures and territories fall to the Muslims, including the Byzantines, Syria, Persia, Egypt, North Africa, and Spain. But, as the Muslims were conquering these territories, the fighting within their group got worse. Many of us have heard about Islam through the latest media coverage. and if so, you may have heard of the two infamous groups, the Sunis and the Shiites. These two groups were borne out of the infighting Muslims, due to differing ideas on governance. The Shiites followed Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law, and the Sunis followed the Ummayads, who were the first Muslim dynasty to rule the Arab Kingdom (Jelen Wilcox, 2002). Islam’s Golden Years Of course, during the older rule of Islam, it was not all about fighting. There was a golden period. a time when the Arabic, Byzantine, Persian, and Indian cultures were integrated with one another. They refer to it as a golden age because learning reached its peak through Muslim associations with the Greeks and the Byzantines. The interplay became more than what one would expect—a predatory or conqueror-slave type of interaction. The relationship became as simple as a teacher and a student (Kreis, 2006). As the conquered groups learned about Islam, Islam learned from the conquered. Knowledge became alive and in the process, science and philosophy was also preserved. Allah taught these Muslims to seek out knowledge and truth and to protect it (Kreis, 2006). And, this is what they did as they allowed knowledge to become a major part of their life and their daily activities. African Beginnings Most of the southern part of the African continent has been occupied by tribes known as Khoisan (Hupston, 2009). The Khoisan language is characterized by clicking sounds, very similar to that of the Bushman. From the Khoisan tribes, more divisions are later seen: the San (Bushmen) and the KhoiKhoi or Hottentots (History World, n.d). The Pygmies, which includes the Bambuti, Batwa, Bayaka and Bagyelil divisions are scattered over a huge area in central and western Africa, to include the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Congo (Brazzaville), Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic, Rwanda, Burundi and Uganda (The Africa Guide, 1996). The Pygmies were known to occupy the tropical forests of central Africa, but it was the Negroes which dominated sub-Saharan Africa. Primeval Tribes The Negroes, were an African tribe who found their home in the so-called Negro systems, in western and central Sudan, Upper Guinea, and the Upper Nile regions. They spoke the Bantu language, a language which dominated much of Africa in later years. It is composed of about 500
This paper takes a stand that killing religions are mostly associated with modern-day terrorism.Non-killing refers to attitudes and actions intended to prevent or stop international acts of killing human life. This is a term that seeks to speak against violence, and it promotes a peaceful co-existence. Non-Killing can be used to refer to a religious belief that does not advocate violence. Examples of such religions include Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity, Judaism, etc (Docker, 2008). These are regarded as non-killing religions because their teachings advocate against violence. Take for instance in Christianity, the bible teaches that if a person hits you on one cheek, then give him another cheek to hit. This means that a Christian should not take any retaliatory measures, such as paying violence with violence (Docker, 2008).Killing religions on the other hand advocate for the elimination of anybody who goes against its command. An example includes a religion that supports the murder or killing of people, who do not ascribe to its values (Pallmeyer, 2003). Controversy exists on whether Islam is an example of a killing religion or not. This is because there have been different interpretations of the teachings of Islam. One interpretation is of the need to kill anybody who does not practice Islam. Another hand, other Islamic scholars argue that this is not correct. This is because Islam seeks to embrace other religions (Docker, 2008). However, this is an issue of debate. In a nutshell, while most Muslims view religion and morality as a means of achieving peace, few of them see violence as a means of achieving it. The group views jihadists as an aberration of Islam that offers little more than oppression, religious police, veiled women, and disavowal of modern science.Christians (Nonkilling Religion) believe that God sent Christ to correct the deviations of the Jews. Muslims on another hand trust that God sent Prophet Mohammed, his final prophet, to correct the deviations of the Christians.
Death impacts differently on people. To humankind, death is the last and worst possible punishment on anyone and no wonder it is a taboo in many societies. Death to a random person whom one is not well acquainted with is not taken seriously. Referring to death as ‘passing away’ or ‘moving on’ is enough proof showing how much fear death causes to the living leading to the formation of these gentle names. In religion, death is a passage to the afterlife, which is good for the holy but a punishment for the sinners. Those that believe in reincarnation know that when they die, their reincarnations are bad and have come back to pay for their sins. Christians believe death is a passage to a better life and the rising of Jesus on the cross symbolizes the conquest over death. It is however evident everyone has their own explanation on why death spreads fear to all people. Several authors write about death but they all end up trying to comfort the masses religiously on death. In Clarence and Gregory’s work, ‘taking the sting out of death a Christian perspective’ they write about their knowledge on death and how the bible explains it. They claim that despite the knowledge that all people born will one day die, people, react differently towards this fact. Some people let this fact dictate their life and therefore end up living in fear of dying. This fear in others is applicable in self-motivation by knowing one has a specific time to accomplish all they want. Fear is the emotion aroused by knowledge of impending pain, danger or evil. The authors argue that since all humanity was in the image of God, death was not an option since according to the bible God is ever-present. The eating of the forbidden fruit at the Garden of Eden brought death upon humanity. This symbolizes that death is a sort of punishment upon humanity for thedisobedience to the creator. God has the right to take lives. however, no one else has a right as seen when Cain killed his brother God cursed him to wander the earth. This further shows death as a huge deal that should be left to the creator alone.
For them, grief is either something to be processed individually, or something to be left for God, in a process of unburdening oneself to Him. This essay compares and contrasts three models of grief: Judaism’s cycle of grief, grief from Job in the Bible, and Kubler-Ross’s grief cycle. It also compares it to joy, because grief and joy can be seen as two opposite sides of the same coin of human emotion. These grief models are different in how they define and organize the stages of grief, but they are similar in their final goal, which is to help people to come out of their bereavement and accept their new reality. These different models of grief assert that grief is a natural human response to death, although the religion-based models focus on leaving everything to God’s plans, in order to accept the loss. Kubler-Ross (1969) pioneered the studies on grief and bereavement and her findings led her to accentuate that there are five stages of grief: denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance (Kessler, 2009). They are different responses to loss, and not a linear way of experiencing bereavement (Kessler, 2009). The five stages, denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance, are considered as constituents of a grief model, which help people understand and go through their grieving process. They are tools to help bereaved individuals frame and identify their feelings (Kessler, 2009). … Kubler-Ross provides five stages that help people deal with their loss. Denial refers to not believing that a loved one has truly died, and people feel shock and numb (Kessler, 2009). Denial is important to grieving, because it is a protective mechanism that allows people to take in only what they can process and accept (Kessler, 2009). Anger is another stage of grieving and it can be directed to anyone or anything, including God, the dead, and the loved one (Kessler, 2009). It is an important emotion that helps uncover underlying feelings (Kessler, 2009). Kubler-Ross (1969) believes that anger reconnects people to the world, because from feeling nothing, they feel something (Kessler, 2009). It affirms that something is lost, and so its loss is fully felt (Kessler, 2009). Bargaining pertains to asking what could be changed or done to get back a loved one (Kessler, 2009). Depression is also a common response to death. Kubler-Ross (1969) asks the bereaved to not even consider this as a mental illness, because it is a fitting reply to a great loss (Kessler, 2009). After one or more of these responses is felt, acceptance can be attained. Acceptance does not refer to feeling that everything is alright, but accepting that a loved one is physically lost. It refers to realizing that the present reality is tolerable and that they must go on with their loves (Kessler, 2009). Judaism’s view of guilt has its cycles too. The first stage covers the death and the funeral, where mourners are relieved from their duties and responsibilities (Mallon, 2008, p.97). The second stage concerns mourning after the funeral, where the family has more time to feel their grief, although friends and other kin can visit and
These issues are lack of fellowship and the lack of Biblical knowledge amongst Christians. However, apart from these culturally based struggles, Christianity is also split by the pressures that stem from modern society. In essence, certain Christians do not have sufficient knowledge of the Bible or its use. Today, not everyone who professes to reading the Bible does so during a week’s time (Geisler, 2010). The Bible is essentially the word of God, as the foundation of the Christian belief. Today, however, many Christians lack the fundamental beliefs of Christianity, the struggle becomes how such individuals can call themselves Christians while they do not even read the Bible and appreciate the fundamental beliefs of Christianity. In addition, since Christians are called to strengthen their fellowship with God and other believers, one contemporary struggle within Christianity is the maintenance of this fellowship. The church provides a place where Christians can gather and fellowship with God and other Christians. However, contemporary lifestyles limit people’s attendance of church compared to the onset of Christianity. The percentage of churches in the current era has dwindled significantly as Christians continue to draw away from attending church fellowships. Christianity beliefs assert that when Christians’ fellowship with one another, the blood of Jesus Christ cleanses them. Today, a key struggle within Christianity is support mechanisms amongst believers who become vulnerable to negative teachings in the absence of fellowship. Traditional Christian beliefs provide that when Christians’ fellowship with one another and God, such Christians do not walk in darkness, for instance. they do not lie, steal or kill. Today, Christianity continues to be split by evils such as stealing. even amongst church leaders. Another significant struggle within Christianity is the lack of Biblical knowledge and its ultimate understanding. Responsibilities and lifestyles in the modern day deter Christians from reading or studying the Bible. This results in internal issues among Christians who hold different beliefs. For instance, today, it is common to hear Christian groups asserting they know when the world will come to an end, despite the Bible’s clear teachings that only God is privy to such information (Williams, 2000). This has over the past caused substantial problems among Christians, especially following the emergence of false prophets and prophesies. Another formidable struggle within Christianity is finding the right balance between Christians and Muslims, particularly after the advent of terrorism acts across the globe. Struggles within Islam Islam’s doctrines center on the beliefs of peace and love. However, the Islam’s main struggle today lies in the association of Muslims with acts of terrorism and other heinous crimes like piracy and kidnapping. Since 9/11, Muslims face stigmatization on matters concerning security. This stigmatization further augments struggles within Islam, concerning those who condone acts of terrorism and piracy and those who abide by the traditional beliefs of Islam like the maintenance of peace and love amongst human kind (Al-Alwani, 2005). Allah’s teachings, which are the foundation on which Islam is built, demand the maintenance of virtues amongst Muslims. However, modernity has distorted these virtues allowing Muslims to behave in
Let me now try explaining what the Apostle means by prophesies and prayer. The prophesying that is being referred to by the Apostle is the gift of reception and speaking direct revelation from the Lord Himself, particularly regarding future occurrences. Nevertheless, the Bible is not in support of the stance of those who assert that this word also means preaching. Of course, praying continues, however, I now have to ask what according to me, is a significant question: Why did the Apostle only name prophesying and praying, leaving things such as preaching, speaking in tongues, exhortation, speaking the directly revealed knowledge, and singing or even teaching? The meaning of all these things is just the same. This means that they are all of a way of speaking confidently. either giving or direct revelation, calling to action on the basis of revelation, proclamation of revelation, or even the explanation of revelation and its application, or worshiping via singing or praying. For sure, there can never be a reason as to why the Apostle chose prophesying and praying except for the fact that they are two cases in point from the list. Similarly, it is true that the Apostle would come to an agreement that it is not just as right for a man to teach or preach with a cover on his head as it is for him to prophesize and pray with his head under cover. The Apostle simply used the two Christian assembly’s activities to signify all. In most cases, people like to cite First Chronicles 25:1-3 and First Samuel 10:5 as confirming that singing and prophesying is the same thing, but this is not stated anywhere in the respective verses. The most common comprehension of that what is stated by these verses as regards connection between prophesying and singing is that a prophesy may be sung by a prophet. However, not all singing, even that in the saint’s gathering is regarded as prophesying. For the women, prophesies and prayer refers to their position in the gathering, which is done in privacy. The context of First Corinthians is the Christian gathering, and not some kind of prophesying or praying beyond this. In the First Corinthians 11, the Apostle is not talking about the matter of women speaking. In addition, it is not what he is thinking. he has the gathering’s activities in mind or consideration, but does not tackle the question of the speaking of women in First Corinthians, Chapter 11. Their silence, in this chapter is implicit. But in some other places, the Apostle directly asserts that women are supposed to maintain silence in the gatherings. In the text, Paul also talks about the Christian gatherings, and he teaches the men about prophesying and speaking in tongues and says the women should remain silent. In the book of First Timothy 2, the Apostle again teaches about good behavior in the gathering and instructs the men how they are supposed to pray in public and asserts that women should take part by being silent and dressing in an appropriate manner. Going back to the First Corinthians 11, we find that the Apostle is not trying to refer to prophesies and prayer in a restricted and strict sense, but to represent some other things, like teaching and preaching, and also not to merely be speaking, but the silent taking part also. In the gatherings, it
Michael was immediately frightened and troubled upon hearing this truth about himself. The first thought that comes into his mind is that he would not be allowed or would be unwise to go out of the house. He cannot have friends. How will he go to school? How will he eventually earn something for himself? Michael decides to go out only during the night and he will try to avoid getting in front of or under a light. One night, the faith healer Malik visited him. He told Michael, As far as I know, people who do not have a shadow are children of the dark. In your case, I hope this is not true. Oh dear Lord, please have mercy on this boy! Michael often peeks outside their window to look at the people passing by their house. He patiently waits for Emily, the beautiful maiden who just simply takes his breath away every time she passes by. I have to talk with Emily. I have to tell her how I truly feel about her. Perhaps she will reciprocate my love for her, uttered Michael to himself. However, along with the deep affection is the overwhelming anxiety. How will I be able to support the woman I love if I am a locked out, if I am a prisoner of a dark secret? What if my dark secret is revealed to the world? Will she still learn to love me? But the truth is Michael is a very good boy. There is no hint of evilness in him. Instead of going to school he reads the books his mother brings home. His passionate love for books expanded his horizon and deepened his knowledge. He is the opposite of what Malik says about him being a child of the devil. Michael is a true believer in Christ and an obsessive reader and follower of the teachings of the Bible. He developed a deep, enduring love for the Lord. Every day and every night he browses and reads the Bible and other books, looking for an explanation for his strange condition. He found out in his research that in some Asian cultures a person without a shadow is a person who has no honor, no purpose in life, and no value for his fellow people. He found out in the Bible that the demon hides in the darkness and thus it has no shadow. He reads in Psalm 91:1, Whoever dwells in the shelter of the Most High will rest in the shadow of the Almighty. He reads in the Koran: Say, ‘I seek refuge in the Lord of daybreak From the evil of that which He created And from the evil of darkness when it settles And from the evil of the blowers in knots And from the evil of an envier when he envies. One time he stumbled upon the story of Hans Christian Andersen. According to the story, the shadow of an intelligent and rich man abandoned him. After many years the shadow came back with the appearance of a real human being. They became rivals for the heart of a very beautiful princess. The shadow said, I will let you have the princess, I will stop courting her in one condition. I will be the possessor and you will be the shadow. Michael’s mother, Rosalinda, is a fortune-teller. Whether she really possesses the power to see the future or just pretending to be a clairvoyant is uncertain. She performs fortune telling in the big plaza of the city, in front of a large church which became known as the main site of fortune telling. Rosalinda goes there every day to inform people about their future through a deck of cards or a crystal ball. Her customers are those who are uncertain and anxious about their future. Her husband left her.
He instructed the servants to get six pots of water and when they poured the pots out, it was transformed into a very high quality of wine. So to save the face of the guests there, Jesus turned the water into wine. This showed that he had extraordinary powers and can perform miracles as only God can change one substance into another. The immediate result of this was that the disciples started believing in him. Thus Jesus power over creation in past and future times as deity was manifested to the humans (Guided Bible Studies, King James Bible – John 2:1-25 n.d.). 2. The second sign of miracle performed by Jesus was the healing of the noble man’s son. The son was very ill and was near death when the man went to Jesus to ask him to heal his son. He was a high official and therefore by healing his son the credibility of Jesus as being sent by God enhanced even further. Jesus had spoken the words of healing without even meeting the son and this showed the power of his healing over space (Towns 2002, xiii). This showed that God was not limited by space and so isn’t Jesus as he holds the nature of power (Guided Bible Studies, King James Bible – John 4:1-54 n.d.). 3. The third miracle performed by Jesus was that of the healing of a lame. Man. The person was paralyzed for a lot of years, in fact for 38 years and because Jesus was full of love and compassion he healed the man. The person had laid by the pool at the sheep market for many years and slowly his faith and hope was fading away. Another reason was that the person was losing hope and therefore to renew his hope and trust in God he healed him. This miracle showed the power of Jesus and his deity was restored as he chose the timing for the deliverance of his powers (Guided Bible Studies, King James Bible – John 5:1-47 n.d.). This also exemplified the power given to him by God. The deity was shown by him doing no one else would have done (McFarland 2008). 4. The fourth miracle performed by Jesus was the feeding of 5000 people. Since the power of Jesus’ healing was becoming well known and therefore people now gathered at the place where Jesus was present to speak on the eve of the Passover. Jesus asked from where the bread could be taken and he was given only five loaves of bread and two fish. He asked his servants to serve the bread to the people present there and thanked the god. By miracle all the people ate as much as they could and after everyone left Jesus asked his servants to collect the leftover pieces so that nothing is lost. When his servants collected the leftover pieces 12 baskets were full (Guided Bible Studies, King James Bible – John 6:1-71 n.d.). This miracle showed the power over food. After this incident a lot of people started believing in Jesus as a prophet and that he was a wonder to the people. A deeper meaning of this symbol is that food here not only represents the physical thing that is used to feed humans but is also talking about that spiritual food that feeds the soul of the person and that none could remain hungry in the presence of Jesus (Signs and Miracles in John n.d.). 5. The fifth miracle that was performed by Jesus Christ that eventually affected his deity was that he walked on the water in a sea storm. The disciples were going on a ship into sea whereas Jesus had gone over to the mountain but at night they got caught up in a night storm and they saw Jesus coming towards them by walking in the sea. They got fearful but then
The Sistine Chapel is recognized internationally as a treasure of Christian art, depicting scenes encompassing the time span of the Bible and linking the two major books of this holy document together in logical pictorial format. Although there had been numerous problems in determining just how to decorate the ceiling of this structure as well as problems in stabilizing this same ceiling, the primary question for many was in whether or not to trust Michelangelo, a sculptor, with something at once so important and so degrading. For while Michelangelo is widely celebrated today for his work on the chapel, ceiling work such as what he was requested to perform was typically the work of lesser artists. Once the details had been ironed out and egos soothed, Michelangelo went to work demonstrating his artistic genius. Original descriptions of the chapel indicated that the paintings were alive with brilliant color, stunning imagery and mastery of technique, but visitors to the chapel in the centuries since have felt the images must have lost some of this vigor. As the previous century discovered, this has indeed been the case as almost 500 years of soot, smoke and pollution have accumulated over the faces of the images while the underlying structure has been assaulted by the ravages of decay and erosion. As civilization approached its second millennium, the Vatican announced its intentions to restore Michelangelo’s ceiling and the other frescoes found within the chapel. While some hailed this move as a much-needed preservation effort, others argued any attempts at restoration would necessarily destroy the artistry and originality of its creator. The purpose of this document is to explore some of the controversy surrounding the Sistine Chapel, beginning with the problems of its original creation and then jumping forward to the issues involved in attempting to restore such an irreplaceable international treasure, finishing with an analysis of the outcome of the restoration efforts.
The Kelvin Grove Museum web page points out that the small boat and figures are copied from artists Velazquez, the16th century Spanish artist whom Dali claimed as an inspiration, and Le Nain., a 16th-century French artist.Sometimes called ‘The Crucifixion of Saint John of the Cross’, it is unique, in part from its perspective, and because of the reason, it was painted as it is. It is not meant to depict the crucifixion as it was seen by the various onlookers. This is shown in more than the angle from which the figure is viewed. The whole, seen from distance, is in the shape of an hourglass – perhaps a reminder that this, although a dream, is a depiction of an actual event.The work has been, ever since it went on display in 1952, the source of much admiration, controversy, and criticism it is not just another crucifixion. The unusual viewpoint is from a similar angle to that shown in the earlier drawing by St John of the Cross, his only surviving known artwork, kept in the Carmelite convent at Avila. It is not the usual viewpoint of worshippers before a depiction of the crucifixion as depicted by earlier artists, both in medieval times and in the 20th century as in Marc Chagall’s ‘The White Crucifixion’ of 1936. This is another important work as, with the presence of a Jewish prayer shawl, it unusually serves as a reminder that Jesus was a Jew.Schweig in 2000 suggested that the painting is from the bride ( i.e. the church as the bride of Christ, Bible, Revelation 22) looking down upon her tortured bridegroom. Although there are several figures, there is no one either worshipping or praying. As in the earlier work by St John of the Cross, there is a total absence of many of the items associated with the crucifixion, and sacred depictions of it, i.e. the crown of thorns, the soldiers, the blood and nails. No halo, not even a vague one to tell the onlooker that this is someone very special.
Armageddon–A Movie Review Introduction Disaster movies caught the interest of the film viewers since the end of the world controversy. In 1998, Touchstone Pictures released a movie of the same genre entitled Armageddon. The popularization of the Earth’s last days, the beginning of darkness, and the end of all life forms would all boil down to one agent: Hollywood. The list of famous actors in the long cast credits, together with the aid of visual and sound effects plus the degree of interest of the story line are the ingredients of producing a blockbuster movie where Armageddon is one. Armageddon: Acting, Musical Score and Cinematography The combination of drama, love story, and humor helped in the development of plot, although the main story is about a rogue comet about to hit the Earth’s surface, which would define the fulfillment of the Armageddon prophecy found in the Book of Revelations in the Bible. The comet possesses a gigantic size that it would be impossible to destroy it using a nuclear weapon coming from the Earth’s surface, which leaves NASA to the possibility of drilling down to the comet itself, splitting it to half and preventing it from impacting the planet. Deep Impact, a movie of the same genre came out before Armageddon. However, according to Leong, Armageddon has done what Deep Impact has failed to do. Deep Impact failed to leave an emotional mark to its audience due to an excessive presentation of characters and vague subplots. Armageddon on the other hand, provided a cathartic effect to its viewers, in the array of professional and award-winning actors. A favorite scene would include the part when Grace Stamper (Liv Tyler) and her dad Harry (Bruce Willis) exchange goodbyes through a television monitor live where the comet is located (Armageddon). Tyler begs his dad not to do mission, in an attempt to save his life while Willis tries to explain to her subtly why is he doing it and gives her relationship with A.J. (Ben Affleck) a blessing, which adds up to the emotional intensity of the scene. In the beginning was a narration of how the Earth was destroyed by a piece of rock and turned it into a cold planet. While in the background was an orchestration of music which has a tone of fear and death. Trevor Rabin’s musical score for Armageddon not only gives life to the totality of the movie but also heightens whatever excitement the viewers have. Lindahl agreed to this statement by saying that the musical score was a superb action score that will rock your house and get your adrenaline pumping. One important aspect is the musical score’s parallel relationship with the scenes. The movie’s cinematography offers a vivid picture of each scene which is a mix of realistic and artistic creation. Conclusion An overall rating of the movie would lead to a recommendation of the movie to other audience. While the story line is not at all great, what makes the movie good is the fact that it successfully mixes the other genres such as romantic and comedy, through the sub-plot love story of Grace and A.J. and the humorous lines by some comic relief character like Owen Wilson. Works Cited Armageddon. Dir. Michael Bay. Perf. Bruce Willis, Ben Affleck, Billy Bob Thornton, Owen Wilson, William Fitchner, Will Patton, Peter Stormare, Michael Clarke Duncan, Steve Buscemi, and Liv Tyler. Touchstone Pictures, 1998. Film. Leong, Anthony. Armageddon Movie Review. Media Circus. Media Circus, 1998. Web. 10 Jan. 2011. . Lindahl, Andreas. Armageddon: Reviews. Soundtrack Magazine. filmmusicsite.com, 10 Aug. 2010. Web. 10 Jan. 2011. .
The revival of old religion along with New Age philosophy has made modern society curious about 2012 Apocalypse. New Age beliefs made modern man look back at different philosophical and spiritual beliefs that led to rediscover the Mayan Calendar. It is important to understand that ancient Mayan cultures had divine respect for the sun, moon, and stars. The main factor in the creation of the Myth is the Popul Voh, which is similar to the Bible since it also tells a story of creation by the Mayan God known as Heart of Sky. The story is replete between the battle of good versus evil, but the important thing is that it highly influenced the creation of the Mayan Calendar, much more- it shows the Mayan’s beliefs in cyclical time periods as a scared entity (Gossen. 17). It was during the Ezapa era were shamans or priests calculated 5 periods in a cycle (wherein a cycle of 25,625 years were divided into five). Each period represented 5,125 years known as five world ages. By 2012, the world is nearing the fifth period that would supposedly end in a catastrophe. It would take volumes of research to understand how the Mayan calendar was formed, but it is interesting to know the reason behind this cultures obsession with numbers and mathematical accuracy – it was the basis of legitimacy for political power (Rice 11). … The power of information, especially through technology is much respected nowadays. hence, the public would depend on men of science to explain the forthcoming event. This would not only make them understand, but develop a belief system based on scientific assumptions. This brings us to a more intelligent discussion regarding the 2012 Apocalypse- what men of science have to say about these things. Science has a great role in educating the general public about the issue. There are some people like Greg Braden and John Major Jenkins, who aggressively promote the fulfillment of the 2012 Apocalypse. Jenkins has been reviewing other books regarding Mayan prophecies but concludes in the end that the event coincides with the winter solstice in 2012 (alignment 2012.com). Another popular writer, Greg Braden, explores the power of the algorithm in exploring cycles. His earlier books like the Divine Matrix that presented controversial issues like the Michelson and Morley experiment (Braden 19) and his connection of spirituality and science made many people believe in Braden. His new book Fractal Time tries to explain the importance of patterns in people’s lives that could create a change in the society. Braden used algorithm to create a Time Code calculator that anyone can use in charting the events in one’s life. However, these are individuals trying to make sense out of what they believe in and sharing it to the public. Do scientific authorities support such? It doesn’t because science needs to be exact. What we have for now are possibilities of having sun spots. NASA provides an update of such ever since sunspots were created way back in 2006. Sunspots are planet-sized flares that can create sun storms
In terms of style, Ulysses is unique not because of the way it changes all complementary styles in each episode, but as a result of the narrative refusing to remain obedient to the story line. The themes increasingly shift away from the plot and diverts into independent raillery of the readers over the meaning of the characters. The story also shifts in a way that celebrates and appreciates humor, creativeness and definitions of exploration and thereby resembles other popular wanderers such as the Jews, Bloom and Odysseus and Bloom’s changing characters as an adulterous and faithful wife known as Molly (Derek 111). James structured the book Ulysses in a way that it corresponds with the events that take place in the Odyssey. The relationships created between the two main characters in Ulysses Stephen Dedalus who is a fatherless son and Leopold Bloom who is a sonless father makes parallels with the circumstances of Telemachus and Odysseus. However, this interpretation of this relationship between Stephen and Bloom does not clearly account for imperative themes of impotence and motherhood. Despite the ideas reflecting Stephen as a son in the quest for a father and Bloom is a dad looking for a son. both their desires go beyond those of a son-father relationship. James makes it clear that Bloom is in search of a son would play out as a mother to the son instead of a father. In addition, in Stephen’s case it is complex to define what he is really looking for either a father or a mother or whether he is making efforts to get away from maternal figures and ideas altogether (Bernard 167). Before one dives into the function of impotence in the care giving in the lives of Stephen and Bloom, it is vital to consider establishing motherhood as an effective and powerful theme in the book. In Ulysses, most of the women come out as unfaithful with Molly who is Bloom’s wife having an affair with one Blazes Boylan and Stephen is sure that Shakespeare’s wife known as Anne Hathaway practiced infidelity. In the play that Stephen also discusses called Hamlet, a character in the scenes named Gertrude betrays her male counterpart by sleeping with another man. Despite of all of these pessimistic images, James does not forget to speak about the significant role of motherhood. Bloom came to the realization that homes always seem to break down after the departure of the mother and he also believed that the role of the mother was protecting the son as long as it takes on earth and even after death. Bloom has the idea of keeping a traditional talisman that is a small potato a representation of her mother. Motherhood is an overpowering and an emotional turmoil for Stephen as he still dresses in black to signify his continued mourning of his mother who passed on a year ago. He also reflects on the mother of all creation who is according to the Bible, Eve. He adds that a child’s affection and a mother’s love for her son is the most and only true thing in the world in life (James 567). Bloom’s deficiency in masculinity as exhibited in his infertility adds highly to his femininity and this leads to his role as a mother. For over ten years, Bloom has not changed his
Saul was adamant at first but with the miraculous things that happened to him, have come to accept his calling and thus, the conversion. From his old name Saul, he embraced the name Paul and accepted the task of spreading the good news to the Gentiles from Rome to Italy and elsewhere.Friedrich Nietzsche (as quoted by Gager, 2002) expressed a typical hatred and sentiments that contrasted Paul to Jesus, as The glad tidings of Jesus were followed closely by the absolutely worst tidings – those of St. Paul. Paul is the incarnation of a type which is the reverse of that of the Saviour, he is the genius in hatred, in the standpoint of hatred, and in the relentless logic of hatred. And alas what did this dysevangelist not sacrifice to his hatred… He did more: he once more falsified the history of Israel, so as to make it appear as a prologue to his mission.Here, another kind of Paul is revealed to the common reader which is a farfetched image as that in the NIV Bible that helped propagate early Christianity, which, then at that time, was neither called Christianity nor whatever else.Gager (2002) wrote that Paul has long been regarded as the source for Christian hatred of Jews and Judaism. Second, among Jews, he has been the most hated of all Christians. And third, the issue of Paul’s conversion – for Nietzsche, his hallucination – lies at the center of all debates about the apostle. Little wonder that Paul has raised vexing questions across almost twenty centuries. How did this zealous Jew, Saul the Pharisee, who by his own admission had been an active persecutor, a hater, of the early Jesus-movement, suddenly emerge as a fervent follower of the risen Jesus? How are we to understand his role as the apostle of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles in relation to this dramatic transformation?
In this theory, punishment is not justified by any good results but by the guilt of the criminal and therefore, a criminal must pay for their misdoings in a way that is proportional to the harm inflicted by their wrongdoing. This was very common in many traditions and it is clearly seen in the Jewish tradition in the Bible specifically in the Law of Moses. In the event that a person is tried and found guilty and punishable of a crime, the individual automatically forfeits or suspends an equal value of his or her right to something. Kant contends that the punishment must fit the crime committed and argues that a crime committed to another person is a crime perpetrated to one self. He contends that the most appropriate punishment for a murderer is capital punishment (execution). If a person who has committed a murder is allowed to live, justice is not done and this exemplifies a subversion of justice and the very essence of humanity in the world. Punishment of an equal measure is in all ways justified by the criminal act of the criminal, this is the right of retaliation and punishment in the mode of ‘like for like’. Retributive justice often faces a lot of criticism especially from human rights activists who say that it is a violation of the natural rights of the offender. Natural rights are the basic and fundamental rights to all human beings by virtue of being creatures of nature. these are the rights that every human being is born with and cannot be taken away by anyone or any government or society. These rights protect us against the deprivations that can be imposed by the interests of others on us. Chief among natural rights is the right to life and the right to own property. Other natural rights include the freedom of worship, right to participate in government and politics, and the freedom of expression. Natural rights are based on the assumption that human beings are naturally rational and good and thus enjoy certain rights that are absolute at all levels or stages of the human life. Punishment should not violate the natural rights that individuals are entitled to because this would cause more harm than good, we ought not to impose such harm on anyone unless we have a very good reason for doing so (Golash 1). In retributive justice, the punishment in most cases is seen to override and violate the natural rights of the culprits/offenders. It is seen to be very punitive and does no good to the society. Retributive punishment is in no way tied to the impact it might have on the society but in the punishment of the offender in a manner that is commensurate to the crime committed (Rosen 7). The only fit or rather reasonable punishment for a person who has killed another person is that he should die. therefore, in taking away another man’s life, which the offender cannot reinstate, he or she forfeits or suspends his/her natural right to life, this is the right punishment for like with like. Justice should never at any time be exercised for the encouraging another good either regarding to the unlawful or the society. Justice is administered because an individual has committed a crime and is solely responsible for his actions and should be subjected to a punishment of an equal measure to the crime committed. Matters of justice are therefore not in any way contingent with the natural rights of a guilty individual. According to the maxim of the Pharisees, it is better that one man is put to death than that all people should perish. in this regard if righteousness and justice perish then human life loses its value dignity and essence in the world. The idea of keeping a man who has been condemned to death alive is therefore a
go if you don’t go to heavenDo you go to heaven when you die
Death is like sleep
In several locations, the Bible likens death to sleep. Notice the apostle Paul’s comforting
instruction to the believers in Thessalonica:…English
Describe one of the incongruities found in Genesis that lead us to believe that it could not be the work
of a single author (Moses)
Lecture Notes THREE
Take a look at Genesis 1: 1—2:4a (in other words, start at In the beginning when God created… and finish the first sentence of chapter 2: 4 These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created. In your mind put a big THE END after that. If you read the very next sentence of verse 4 in chapter 2 In the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens, when no plant of the field was yet in the earth this is the beginning of a SECOND and different creation myth written by a different group of people. Even if you compare these two creation accounts you will see very different events; in the first, God creates in a series of days from a sort of hands off approach, and the second God is like the master artist who has a garden and gets down into the mud to create. In the second he does not speak to create, he does in the first one, but actually ‘works’ to create. In the first account men and women are created simultaneously. In the second account man is created first, then woman and they are both given names (Adam Eve… both symbolic names by the way; Adam = the first man, Eve = mother of all). The first myth focuses on how God creates something out of nothing and that everything has a place and is ordered (as opposed to the pagan myths of the time which emphasized how the gods were about chaos, disorder and were mischievous), whereas the second one emphasizes how humans are made to be in relationship with each other and how their actions break those relationships (the eating of the fruit, the murder of Abel).
As I mentioned before, even though the Hebrew Scriptures are foundational for all three monotheistic faiths, often each one interprets the same text differently. For instance, most Christians have come to think of the talking snake in the Garden of Eden as Satan. This is an assumption that must be resisted. Keep in mind that when the Jewish author wrote the Adam Eve story, the character of Satan had not yet been developed. Even the author understands the talking snake to be simply a snake; Now the serpent was more crafty than any other wild animal that the Lord God had made. (Gen 3:1). He is simply a crafty snake. Nothing more, nothing less. While there is nothing wrong with imagining the talking snake as a bad character, a villain that plays a type of Satan role, we do damage to the integrity of the story if we insist that the people who crafted the story had Satan in mind when they wrote the part of the talking snake. They did not.
In a similar way, our brains are so influenced by pop culture that it colors much of what we read. For example, we have seen so many Ten Commandment films and spoofs, that when we come to Exodus, it is difficult for us to remove those Hollywood biases and to take the story as it is written out. The movies never depict Moses as having a horrible speech impediment (as the Bible states), so much so that he needs his brother Aaron to be his spokesperson. Too, in the film versions of the story, it is usually the case during the scene of the battle between Pharaoh’s magicians and Moses (through Aaron), that the filmmakers will depict the magicians putting on tricks (plays of light, strings and wires) to perform their wonders while Moses’ power is real. Yet a careful reading of the text assumes that the gods of Egypt were real. At the time that the story of Moses was being crafted, strict Jewish monotheism had not yet been cemented. What you had going on was henotheism. Henotheism is the belief that while many gods exist, your loyalty, devotion and worship should be with the greatest of these gods. Clearly the Hebrews saw their god, Yahweh, as the greatest of all the gods, but not the only god in existence. The battle between Pharaoh’s priests/magicians and Moses/Aaron is a clear indication of the author saying My god is better and stronger than your god!!!
So Moses and Aaron went to Pharaoh and did as the Lord had commanded; Aaron threw down his staff before Pharaoh and his officials, and it became a snake. 11Then Pharaoh summoned the wise men and the sorcerers; and they also, the magicians of Egypt, did the same by their secret arts. 12Each one threw down his staff, and they became snakes; but Aaron’s staff swallowed up theirs. 13Still Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he would not listen to them, as the Lord had said. – Exodus 7:10-13
Theism and Naturalism Theism and Naturalism Every person who is born in this world raises questions regarding the world he is living in at some point in life. A person is free to explore possibilities and potential explanations to find the answers of the situations in which he finds himself. However, in the many debates between Theism and Naturalism, one always finds the secular Naturalists to keep a window open for some form of metaphysical beliefs of the Theistic world (Phillips &. Brown, 1996).
This paper offers a response, explaining the view as a Christian, believing in a Theistic worldview compared with the Philosophical Naturalism. The paper explores “big” questions raised by laypersons and experts, explained better through Christian Theism than Philosophical Naturalism.
How did this world come into existence? Scientist, theologians, and philosophers have spent their lives finding the answer. Various theories and propositions have been presented, and the scientists now agree with the fact that the existence of world came into being from nothing and that it is continually expanding towards a fierce end. The “Big Bang Theory” is the only possible explanation the Naturalists’ can give for the existence of the universe, which itself is contested in cosmological terms among scientists, providing insufficient answers regarding who was that being that made the Big Bang. The Christians believed all of this, long before scientists, through scriptures in the Bible referring to an “uncaused, first cause” (God) that caused the universe. The Theists’ answer is the only possible explanation providing coherency and stability to the cosmology of the Big Bang Theory. This is done by explaining an ever-loving God that existed before anything else existed who made this world to show His supremacy, and for people to understand His nature and offer the glad tidings of an immortal life in the hereafter.
Naturalists have pondered and presented various vague theories explaining the complex structures and systems involved in the make-up of this universe. Unfortunately, they do not recognize a creator and that is why they are unable to present any plausible explanation. The biological explanations of origin of life are stated through Darwin’s “Theory of Evolution,” yet it is unable to provide sufficient evidence regarding the physical aspect of its origins. However, the Christian theism explains the harmony in which this universe has existed to be the cause of a creator. The (Genesis 2:7) explains that God has the power to create life from non-living matter and that he created life “from the dust of the ground” (pleaseconvinceme.com, 2012).
There are many other questions that the Philosophical Naturalists are unable to provide answers. Some such questions include the emergence of consciousness in humans and the existence of the mind, free will, and destiny debate. Furthermore, the ways in which one defines evil, pain, and injustice when one does not have a parameter to check it against. All these and many other questions are sufficiently answered through Christian Theistic worldview. The ‘good’ is defined by the Bible, and that is the only thing that will lead to salvation.
Phillips, G. W., &. Brown, E. W. (1996). Making Sense of Your World: A Biblical Worldview. Sheffield Publishing Company.
pleaseconvinceme.com. (2012, May). The Christian Worldview is the Best Explanation . Retrieved May 17, 2012, from pleaseconvinceme.com: http://www.pleaseconvinceme.com/index/The_Christian_Worldview_is_the_Best_Explanation
Job is the significant and main character in the Book of Job. He is my personal favorite figure in the Hebrew Bible because of the attitude he maintained even throughout the face of sufferings and difficulties that ordinary men would not have been able to have.
From the very beginning of the book, Job is described as a righteous and blameless man who pleased God in every way. After every feast his children held, “Job sent and sanctified them, and rose up early in the morning, and offered burnt offerings [according] to the number of them all: for Job said, It may be that my sons have sinned, and cursed God in their hearts. Thus did Job continually.” (Interlinear Hebrew Bible. Job 1:5) He did everything he could to stay away from all kinds of evil. He was even the greatest man among all the people of the East. He was also extremely wealthy and influential in the land of Uz, where he lived and resided.
Because of his character and influence, Satan had come to the Lord’s presence with the angels and conferred with God regarding Job. Satan believed that Job was only faithful and loyal to the Lord because of the wealth and the influence that he had in the area where he lived. Without it, Job would, without hesitation, turn his back to God and would stop serving Him. This challenge of Satan resulted in Job becoming a ‘test’ of faith and loyalty in the Lord.
After the Lord had told Satan and given him permission that, “all that he hath [is] in thy power. only upon himself put not forth thine hand, Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD.” (Interlinear Hebrew Bible. Job 1:12) And so Job’s troubles started pouring. In one day, several servants came to him telling him of the news that all the livestock that he had died. He quickly lost his wealth and even all his ten sons and dauhters, but in spite of
then Select one key theme/idea in the book that can be used in a church and explain why (one paragraph) and how the church should use it" Analysis of the book: Hole in our Gospel is a book by Stearns1, and it gives a challenge to the American believers to rethink the messages contained in the gospel. Stearns approach in this book is to teach the eternal salvation based on faith, and reclaim the neglected concepts of victory and fullness that will come through the Kingdom of God, manifested here on earth. According to Stearns, in the efforts of evangelists to make the teachings contained in the gospel easily understood, they have managed to simplify the gospel, focusing on how to save people from going to hell, in their next life. Due to focusing on saving people from hell, the discipleship and participation in Gods redemptive work has been short changed2.
It is the desire of Stearns to create a broad understanding of evangelism and the gospel while proclaiming it to the entire world. On this basis, Stearns wants to depict the American Christians actively involved in the preaching of the eternal salvation of mankind, and also bringing the victory of Christ to the oppressed in the society, as well as relief to the poor people of the society. This book by Stearns is based on the scriptures, and it focuses mainly on the teachings of Jesus about the Kingdom of God, the prophet’s condemnation of the sins of the Israelites, and also about the gospels3. In developing this book, Stearns manages to quote a whole passage in the bible, and these forces a reader to confront and understand it. This also helps him to avoid taking some ideas out of context, while explaining them.
One idea denoted in the book is faith, and faith can be defined as substance of things hoped for. To successfully live a Christian life, there must be faith. The reason as to why faith is important is because it is the main idea upon which the beliefs of a Christian faith are founded. Faith in God is a fundamental requirement for an individual to become a child of God. In fact, one of the pioneers of Judaism that is Abraham is always referred to as the father of faith4. This is because he believed God for a son, despite the number of years he had lived. Other heroes of the bible also walked in faith, and an example includes Gideon, Moses, Peter, Paul and even Jesus Christ himself.
It is important to denote that before Christ did a miracle. he looked at the faith of the person who needed a miracle. In our Christian churches, we need to walk in faith. This is if we want to have a manifestation of the powers of God. For Christians to acquire faith, there is a need of reading the bible, attending church seminars, and gatherings5. This is because faith is always acquired by hearing the word of God, and the testimonies of the believers. Through faith, Christians will be able to survive the numerous temptations that occur because of their beliefs.
Stearns, R. (2009). The hole in our Gospel. Nashville, Tenn.: Thomas Nelson.
The Role of Medieval Roman Catholicism in Christianity The Role of Medieval Roman Catholicism in Christianity The history of the Catholic Church is traced by scholars and theologians from the time of the twelve apostles nearly 2,000 years ago (Aguilar 2007). Devotees of the Catholic faith believe that Jesus Christ is the founder and ultimate head of Roman Catholics. With the death of Christ, the apostle Peter was designated as the first Pope, or temporal head of the Catholic Church. Since then, the mission of this faith is to spread the faith across the world. Roman Catholicism is defined as “the faith, doctrine or polity of the Roman Catholic Church” (Merriam-Webster, 2010).
The contributions of two prominent popes in the medieval times paved the way for the conversion of Emperor Constantine in 312 who “legalized Christianity, promoted its interests, and took an active role in its institutional and doctrinal development” (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2010). The name Christianity was coined from Jesus Christ. Christianity is the name given to that definite system of religious belief and practice which was taught by Jesus Christ in the country of Palestine, during the reign of the Roman Emperor, Tiberius, and was promulgated, after Jesus’ death, for the acceptance of the whole world, by certain chosen men among His followers.
The role of medieval Roman Catholicism, therefore, is the promulgation of evangelization of various peoples all over the world. In addition, the church instigated roles of education, engaging in charitable activities, and promotion of the family as the sole unit of social and moral values.
As revealed in the history of Roman Catholicism, “one of the most significant developments of the late ancient and early medieval periods—for Roman Catholicism and all forms of Christianity—was the emergence of Christian theology. During the late ancient and early medieval periods there was also a significant growth in monasticism, the origins of which are traditionally associated with the Apostles in Jerusalem” (Britannica, 2010).
The teachings from the Apostles became the basis for their compilations of the Bible. As indicated in the article on Roman Catholicism stating that “the churchs role in mediating salvation has been emphasized more than in other Christian traditions. Supernatural life is mediated to Christians through the sacraments administered by the hierarchy to whom obedience is due” (Roman Catholic Church, 2010). The origins of Roman Catholicism were instrumental in proffering the existence of God, as proven in five ways, to wit: from motion, from the nature of efficient cause, from possibility and necessity, from the gradation in things, and from the governance of the world (Fisher, 2007). The role, therefore of medieval Roman Catholicism was to pave the way for the proliferation of theological frameworks for teachings in Christianity which have been the basis for religious applications of contemporary times.
Known to be one of the oldest institutions in the world, the Catholic Church is rich with traditions and beliefs seen through the eyes of devotees. The legacy passed by the medieval Roman Catholics on religious beliefs, practices, and traditions of moral and ethical values was instrumental in shaping the way Christianity is today.
Aguilar, M. (2007). The History and Politics of Latin American Theology, Volume 1.
London: SCM Press.
Fisher, M.P. (2007). Living Religions. Prentice Hall.
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. (2010). Definition of Roman Catholicism. Retrieved 05
August 2010. <. http://mw2.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/roman+catholic>. Roman Catholicism. (2010). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 05, 2010, from
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Roman Catholic Church. (2010). Retrieved 05August 2010.
eds much light on many mystic forms and ceremonies yet extant, notably upon Freemasonry, the Tarot, and the later Kabalah, and is a great aid to the comprehension of the Astro-Theosophic schemes of the Rosicrucians.” (Carnahan)
Another important text is the Talmud, composed of the Mishnah and the Gemara, both written in the early Middle Ages. The Talmud contains Jewish oral law and customs, although it has not been taken as religious authority by all Jews. The manuscript Toledoth Yeshu provides a Middle Ages Jewish version of the Christian gospels, in which Jesus is seen as a false prophet who used the Ineffable Name to perform miracles (Humm).
The Medieval Christians used typological allegory to connect the Old Testament to the New Testament Bible. For instance, the Old Testament was seen as prophesizing Christ’s life. In the Old Testament, Jonah was freed from the whale after three days. likewise, Jesus rose from the tomb after three days. Many other Old Testament events are linked in this way to Jesus.
Illuminated manuscripts from the Middle Ages were mostly of a religious nature. In the case of the Christians, illuminated manuscripts were usually either the Bible or a book of prayers. Jewish illuminated manuscripts include the Padua Ashkenazi Mahor (NYPL), which is a medieval Jewish festival prayer book that reflects the customs of the Jewish community in Germany. A traditional Jewish allegory in the Padua manuscript refers to Israel as a rose. An image of a Gothic gateway is used for the Gates of Mercy.
During the early Middle Ages, there was much legislation concerning Jewish ownership of Christian slaves, sometimes prohibiting the situation (Glick 33). Jewish ownership of slaves was atleast partly related to the fact that many Jewish merchants specialized in long-distance trade, including transport of slaves (Glick 45). The Christian clergy tried to prevent the loss of Christian slaves into Muslim territory as well as the conversion of Christian
Introduction As I entered the church from the northern entrance, rushing not to miss the 5pm evensong quire, the beauty of the cathedral was breathtaking and I could not help, but to take a minute and stare at the beauty of the building and precision of the detailing of each piece of architecture of the artist in the creation of the gothic building.
As I entered in the church, the first thing to catch my attention was the beauty of the golden high alters which apart from the rest of the church was built in the 19th century. At the center of the mosaic creation of the alter is a mosaic showing the last supper that Jesus had with his disciples. There are four large statues of Moses, St. peter, St Paul and another of king David on either side of the alter which give the whole building a serene feeling of holiness. The pulpit where the sermon is conducted is made of gilded wood and from where the sermon is conducted on Sundays.
As I walked the length of the abbey, I reached an entrance on the end where the evensong is conducted. There is where I met vergers, who looked as though they were on guard duty at the door, but when I asked them about the evensong, they let me in pleasantly and gave me a program which explains the service. they also added my name to the list of people to sit in the quire. From their on, I just watched what other people were doing and copied them.
We were then later issued with pamphlets with the week’s services and music along with the evensong service sheet. which basically tells one when to stand and sit or when to respond. The service then soon began when the whole congregation was signaled to arise in the singing of the poem Tallis in manus tuas, Domine (after Thomas Tallis). The poem was also in the pamphlet issued to the rest of the congregation and soon, I was in rhythm with the rest of the congregation in the recitation of the Tallis in manus tuas, Domine (Tallis, pg 89).
Soon after, we completed reciting the Tallis in manus tuas, Domine the preacher who had been seated at the alter came in to the pulpit and gave a brief reading from the Bible only and excluded a sermon. After the reading, the choir which mainly consisted of around thirty boys who were seated at the quire and wore red robes, arose and what followed left me speechless. The boys’ singing of Purcell Lord, how long wilt thou be angry was really the most wonderful thing I have ever heard (Tallis, pg 112). Just like me the rest of the congregation was left also wanting for more. I guess its one of the major reasons why the Westminster abbey is so popular and why each service is always a full house.
The entire service lasted for a period of around 45 minutes and was concluded by a prayer by the preacher. He then later led the congregation in the recitation of the sign of the cross after which everybody dispersed.
Tallis, Thomas, and William Byrd. Cantiones sacrae: 1575. London: Decca Record Co., 1969. Print.
Westminster Abbey. Radnor, Pa.: Annenberg School Press, 1972. Print.
Professional ment for Psychology Counseling BA degree One of the most attractive careers to an individual committed to the overall development and progress of his fellow beings has been Counseling Psychology, which is a psychological specialty encompassing important domains of human involvement such as supervision and training, career development and counseling, diversity and multiculturalism, and prevention and health. The professional practice of psychological counseling has great importance in the contemporary world as people are troubled by more and more psychological issues and the role of a professional in psychological counseling is unquestionable. As an individual who has deep concerns for the miseries and issues faced by the fellow human beings, I have often regarded the career of a professional practitioner of psychological counseling as an effective way to render my service to the well being of the society and the people around me. Similarly, a reflective self appraisal of my strengths, weaknesses, and personal qualities also offers me the good reason for selecting a career in Psychology and Counseling. As an individual who has successfully completed Bible college graduation, I am most concerned about the psychological affairs of the people around. I also have great experience of working among people who need mental strength and support. Along with my regular preaching in various religious programs, I also conduct Bible studies for women at a rescue mission. The experience that I gathered from such activities, significantly, strengths and personal qualities as a person qualified for the career in Psychology and Counseling. I share great compassion with people who are in distress and miseries, and have a strong desire to help them accomplish their goals. I have often been excited to find positive changes in the lives of people around me through care, compassion and divine understanding. My Christian values and spirit of compassion and charity also have contributed to my decision to opt for this career and course. Therefore, a self appraisal of my strengths, weaknesses, personal qualities definitely confirm that my experiences and qualifications will contribute to my chosen field, which is Psychology and Counseling (BA) degree.
The career of Psychology and Counseling has a great scope in the development of my personal life and achievement of my life-goals. As a person who has ever been interested in assisting people in need, the career of a professional practitioner of psychological counseling can help me realize my career goals, and I understand Psychology and Counseling (BA) degree as a gateway to my successful career and life. I have attained important experience of dealing with the issues of human beings in different spheres of life. My career as a Human Resource Professional has offered me the opportunity to deal with varying groups of employees, understanding their motives and reasons for their actions and behaviors. Thus, I am convinced with my ability to deal with people and their problems, and this course can offer me significant progress in this regard. Along with these experiences and qualifications in relation to people management and assistance, my strengths, abilities, and personal qualities can contribute to a proficient career in Psychology and Counseling. This particular program can prepare me for the independent professional practice of psychological counseling. I am most hopeful about the proposed instruction in counseling theory, therapeutic intervention strategies, patient/counselor relationships, group therapy, family therapy, child and adolescent therapy etc. In short, I am greatly convinced about my strengths, abilities, and personal qualities that can contribute to my chosen field, which is Psychology and Counseling (BA) degree.
Who is an outsider? One who doesn’t fit into the existing social and cultural set up of the society is an outsider! The society is not comfortable with him. One is not comfortable with the values of the society and is unable to assimilate into the mainstream. One lives with a conscious effort to preserve one’s own identity. One sincerely and strikingly believes that the values practiced are more precious than the values prevalent in the society in which one is living. . Unable to find the perfect discipline of one’s choice, one is compelled to carry on with the available discipline. Often one faces a clash of values with serious implications. The conflict between Shylock and Antonio, in Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice, is similar. The verbal duels between them indicate how their personalities are contradictory. For example, Shylock thinks that a man of Antonio’s upbringing can neither lend nor borrow for advantage, whereas for Shylock it is a way of life. This is the confirmation of the difference between a Christian and a Jew.
The approach to money, of the Christians and Jews in the 16th century Venice, was entirely different. To Christians, earning interest by lending, was a sin. So the presence of the Jews(outsiders) was considered necessary to save Christians from the sin of lending to earn interest. . The Jews in Venice at that time were held in contempt but their economic utility was appreciated. Jews were necessary like bakers, for the overall welfare of the community. The religious beliefs of Shylock and Antonio show up strongly in their secular activities. Shakespeare cleverly understands and weaves the dialogues indicating the differences between the Jewish and Christian perspectives on the Bible. In Judaism great emphasis is laid on free will, which means human endeavor, incentive and motivations are a prominent part of the action-oriented life. Christians see divine intervention in the day to day happenings and have a greater tendency to rely upon the divine forces. .  .
However, he expressed his preserve attitude towards Jesus but declared his distrust with the doings of the disciples of Jesus. He said he did not know which would first between ‘Rock ‘n ‘Roll and Christianity.
The famous quote by Lennon received much attention in the United States when it first appeared in the Datebook teen magazine (Sullivan, page 314). It was then that a backlash against the Beatles ensued leading to the ban of the Beatles music in Radio stations in the Southern ‘Bible Belt. Such bans were also made in other countries like South Africa and Spain. Criticised by many religious leaders of the time and somehow supported by a few, Lennon issued a semi-apology about his statements. The Vatican accepted his apology, but the religious far-right has never accepted it. The Claim by the Beatles was taken a communist plot to soften America for the Bolshevik takeover.
According to Mark Sullivan, the rock music as used by the Beatles disclosed them as anti-religious as perceived by many believers (Sullivan, page 316). However, in America, the rock music was seen as an intention of the Russian Communists to ruin the American Youth. The quotes made by John Lennon toady appear in the most recent anti-rock treatise, ‘The Legacy of Lennon: Charming or Harming a Generation? by Reverend David A. Noebel. As a pioneer of the anti-rock movement and the anti-Beatles movement, in general, Noebel wrote and preached to warn against the evils of the Beatles. It may probably be thought that all rock music is evil and anti-religious. However, such thinking would be misleading. Some preachers are said to have taken a positive interpretation of the claim by Lennon to strengthen the values and standards of Christianity. They were opposed to a mere critique of the reality that some things are valued more than Christianity.
The rock music by the Beatles was viewed as
There is one common denominator as far as social order workings are concerned and this centers on gender and its role in the society. In this respect, there is much debate going on concerning the relationship between gender and disability. The concept of feminism features prominently in this debate and scholars have advanced different theories to support their claims. Critical analysis of “Good Country People” by Flannery OConnor indicates a clear point of intersection between disability and gender. Deriving important theoretical concepts echoed by Rosemarie Garland-Thomson in Integrating Disability, Transforming Feminist Theory gives a picture of what the society think about disability and gender with much focus on the womenfolk. In Flannery O’Connor’s case, there are two main characters in Joy who is also referred to as Hulga and the young man who sells bible. There is also Mrs. Hopewell and Mrs. Freeman who plays a significant role through behavior to explain the interesting disability and gender relationship.
The society sees women as lesser beings on various premises and this sort of prejudice assigns women some level of disability. Feminists argue that women have long been considered sex tools by men but undergo depreciation in terms of beauty and physical structure with time. This form of natural process is considered some sort of a weakness woman who is treated as a disability. This explains why the elderly women, who have most probably attained menopause phase of the reproductive life, are considered to be of less value. This is an aspect of physical disability being analogous to deficiency in terms of performing some activities. In ordinary society, men can be physically incapacitated but still pursue their dreams and end up marrying as a complete individual. However, the case of a disable woman is viewed with pity and is
The portrayal of women in the New Testament therefore reveals the new role of equality that Jesus endowed upon women, demonstrating that in the kingdom of Heaven, both men and women had equal access – a message that was in contradiction to the existing Jewish tradition that placed men in a superior position in matters concerning the spirit.
The New Testament therefore offers a picture of the egalitarian principles of the new Kingdom of God. As opposed to a largely male dominated spiritual history that is contained in the Old testament of the Bible where women play only a peripheral role, the New Testament reveals the importance Jesus accorded to women and therefore provides inspiring spiritual food for women in today’s age, allowing them to identify with the faith, courage and loyalty of the women disciples of Jesus who stayed with him right up to the bitter end.
The message offered by the New testament is one against oppression and persecution in any form. Jesus elevated the status of women in the new kingdom of God by ascribing a more important role to them and providing them release from their oppression and suffering. Weems(2005) examines the inter relationship among the women, in order to demonstrate how a common thread of scared female experiences serves to bind all women together, irrespective of their caste or creed. Such a common bond is largely the result of their common bond of suffering that unites them, and the same core of understanding provides relief and comfort to these women as they strengthen and support each other. This is especially in evidence during the crucifixion where the women gathered together in a group, huddling at the foot of the cross, sharing their common grief and deriving strength and hope after the resurrection of Jesus.
One of the most important female characters in the New Testament is Mary Magdalene, who was possessed
Martin went to the University of Wittenberg in 1508 to teach dialectics and philosophy. His stay there was short-lived as he was sent to do other assignments, one of which was spending some time in Rome. He returned to the University of Wittenberg in 1512 and after receiving a doctorate in Theology was appointed as a lecturer on the Bible shortly afterward. He studied a lot. It was during this period in his life that he came to realize that one receives justice through the grace of God and not from doing good works.
This new doctrine justification by faith started to develop. Luther also became dissatisfied with other aspects of religious life. He realized that the parishioners of the Wittenberg church of which he was a priest would habitually buy indulgences. He made his uneasiness public with the posting of his 95 Theses on the church door.
This started confusion. Luther was accused of being heresy and was denounced as a heretic by Emperor Maximilian. They even threatened to burn him at the stake. In 1520 he was handed the Papal Bull of excommunication and he was asked to retract his conflicting statements. He responded by burning the Papal Bull. He later married and had six children. He died on 18 February 1546.
Addiction Addiction I agree with Dr. Jenkins that addiction disfigures God’s image in human beings and that it crashes with dedication in a person. God created human beings in his own likeness meaning that he wanted people to live a moral life while praising him and reading the Bible to get knowledge (Block, 2012). Therefore, when a person is addicted to something such as alcohol, this signifies that God can do such a thing. However, this is not true because the Bible teaches that God is a holy being who does superior things rather than unacceptable obsessions.
Addiction also crashes with a person’s dedication to their faith. Dedication is an act of devoting oneself to doing a certain thing. For example, when individuals are dedicated to a certain faith, they spend their time learning more about that belief and acting according to its teachings (Block, 2012). However, when a person is addicted to things such as sex and alcohol, that person spends most of the time thinking about the addiction and even doing it. Such individuals leave little or no time to dedicate themselves to the teachings of their faith.
I also agree with Dr. Jenkins statement that some individuals struggle with addictions. This is because human beings are different and they adapt to change differently. Some people may be quick to switch from one behavior to another while others are slow.
The effect of Dr. Jenkins argument to a counselor is that it may increase one’s popularity or affect it negatively. This is because some believers argue that addiction is acceptable when it involves acceptable things such as helping others. However, those who agree with the argument may seek further help from the counselor so that they can change their ways (Block, 2012).
Block, T. (2012). A Fatal Addiction: War in the Name of God. New York: Algora Pub.
The Judaism art dates back to the biblical times judging by the various piece of architecture and other artistic works described in the Bible. It is worth noting that the Jews have been conservative for a long time and this can be explained in their artistic works. The Jews are notorious for their Christian believes and the teachings of the Bible, which prohibits sculptured image. Hall (99) says that the second Mosaic commandments state “You shall not make for yourself a sculpture that resembles anything in earth or in heaven”. Despite the fact that the Bible expressly prohibits art, the Jewish have a history of rich artistic work and several artists with global reputation.
Most Jewish arts get their inspiration from the Bible. The Biblical Jezebel literally means “in the shadow of protection of God”. Jezebel was a Jewish Artisan who was anointed by God with the sole purpose of building a tabernacle. Therefore, in order to have a holistic view of the Jewish culture the concept earliest works of Judaism is seen from God’s commandment to Jezebel. The prowess with which the Jewish conducted their arts has received praise from the Bible judging by the beautiful work that has characterized the construction of the First temple that was constructed in Jerusalem during the leadership of King Solomon. The temple was overlaid with gold and decorated with Cherum (1Kings 6). Moreover, the beauty of the second temple is apparent. the second temple was popularly referred to as Herod’s Temple. According to Howard &. Ian (112), Tractate Succot attest to the beauty of this church by saying that none who is yet to see the Herod’s Temple has ever seen a glorious building.
Even after the destruction of the second temple in Jerusalem, the Jewish art continued to flourish. In fact, the Judaism art spilled outside Israel, which is the foundation of the Jewish culture. The beautiful works of Judaism art is evident in the Beit
Puberty and Adolescence al Affiliation) Stages of Puberty in Adolescence Puberty among boys and girls is the stage through, which their body becomes mature and achieves the capacity to reproduce through fertilization (Cameron, 2013). The stages of puberty in adolescence differ among boys and girls. In relation to boys, the stages of puberty involve: Enlargement of the testicles, this is followed by some physical changes such as: An increased growth in height as well bodily changes such as broadening shoulders and deep voice. There is also maturation of cardio-vascular systems such as the heart. the lung also matures leading to increased strength and capacity to physical endurance (Cameron, 2013).
On the other hand, the puberty stages among girls begin by development and enlargement of the breasts. This is usually followed by increase in height, waist size and the overall body weight (Salkind, 2002). The hips also broaden followed by whitish virginal secretion, coupled by growth of pubic hair in the armpits as well as in the vaginal area. The first menstrual cycle usually occur after a period of two years (Salkind, 2002).
How Christians Can Help Teens understand their Teenage Sex is not an Appropriate Act
Christian should act as role models, mentors and counselors when it comes to teaching teens on issues of sex before marriage (Kohl, 2012). In this regard, Christians should focus on open-ended discussions with teenager that discusses the consequences of engaging in pre-marital sex as well as the importance of abstaining from teen sex. This can be supported from certain quotes from the Bible that prohibits pre-marital sex and considers it a sin.
Personal Example on how Teenagers can be taught to Avoid Pre-marital Sex
An example that can be used to teach teenagers to avoid pre-marital sex is through provision of case studies of people who engaged in pre-marital sex and the challenges they faced after performing pre-marital sex. From a personal basis, the integration of Bible verses where sex is prohibited i.e. the 10 commandments may also provide imperative in such teaching. However, the major question that may arise through using Bible verses is, Could it be an effective for teenagers brought up in non-Christian backgrounds?
Cameron, N. (2013). Human growth and development. Amsterdam: Academic Press.
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Kohl, B. (2012). Teenage sexual morality a supplemental resource on secular viewpoints, biblical teaching from an evangelical Protestant perspective, and practical implications for Christian teens.
Top of Form
Bottom of Form
Salkind, N. (2002). Child development. New York: Macmillan Reference USA.
But every thought process has its beginning and its end in the irony is that the end lies within the beginning.
Florian’s narrative about memory and thoughts hints at the story of flood mentioned in the Bible. In the book of Genesis chapters 6-9 are dedicated to the story of Noah’s Ark. It is also known as the story of flood. It is written that God was watching how humans have turned wicked and disobedient. Therefore, he decided to wipe the human race from Earth.
At this time of Gods fury one righteous man Noah made God reconsider his decision. God told Noah to build an ark to save his chosen people, which included Noah and his family. God intended to send a catastrophic flood to destroy all the creatures.
God gave Noah instructions how to carry on this journey of ark by bringing a pair of every living creature. This included seven pairs of all clean animals plus all kinds of food that can be stored for those animals. Noah did as he was instructed by God. When the Ark was ready they all went into it and the rain started falling on Earth. It rained heavily for 40 days and nights. The earth was flooded with water for 150 days and every living being was killed in the process.
When the water receded the ark halted at the mountains of Ararat. Noah waited for eight more months with his family in the ark, waiting for the earth to get dry. After almost a year God instructed Noah to leave the ark. Upon setting foot on the ground Noah built an altar and started worshiping the Lord with offerings.
Noah’s flood story heavily influences Sandy Florian’s books. She tries to draw similarities among biblical scriptures and her own observations. Her words are not to mock the biblical narratives. She only strives to create an analogy, a parallel dimension or a small role model answer the questions that have been boggling the human mind since the beginning. The way this flood story is portrayed in the Genesis she finds stark similarities with the fierceness
Matthew The book of Matthew begins the New Testament and is the first of the four Gospels – accounts of Jesus’ life and ministry, which include stories he taught (called parables), lessons He taught, and miracles He worked. The Gospels also include the teachings, insights, and instructions Jesus gave to the people who followed Him so many centuries ago, as well as to those who follow him today.
Matthew focuses on Jesus as the fulfillment of the Old Testament law, on Jesus as the Messiah Who was prophesied for so long, and on the kingdom of heaven. Matthew is especially rich with Jesus’ practical instructions in the lives of others. This book has a great emphasis on Jesus’ teaching ministry.
In Matthew chapters 5-7, there is a collection of teachings called The Sermon on the Mount. In this great sermon are The Beatitudes, which is a list of heart attitudes and character qualities that bring blessings, as well as The Lord’s Prayer.
Mark is the shortest of the four Gospels and tells the story of Jesus in a style that is simple and concise, yet detailed. It focuses on facts more than on themes and on actions more than attitudes. Because of Mark’s straightforward and unadorned approach, many believe this book gives a much more vivid account of Jesus’ life and ministry than the other Gospels.
Scholars believe Mark’s Gospel was written during a time when Christians were viciously persecuted and killed for their faith. This may be the reason for the sense of urgency we feel in Mark and for its emphasis on the cost of following Jesus.
Luke’s Gospel is the longest of the four Gospels and presents Jesus as the Savior of the world. it highlights the ministry of the Holy Spirit. and it pays particular attention to women, children, the poor, and the oppressed.
Luke contains many wonderful stories and lessons, including one of the greatest and most important truths for any Christian’s life: “For with God nothing is ever impossible and no word from God shall be without power or impossible of fulfillment” (1:37).
In Luke 4, it is seen that the devil is tempting Jesus in the wilderness and every time the devil says something, Jesus immediately responds, “It is written, …” and fights back with a verse or passage of Scripture. This is one of the most important passages in the whole of the New Testament, as it is the passage that shows Jesus fighting, and winning over, temptation.
The book of John does not take a chronological approach, but tells about Jesus in terms of themes and topics.
One of the themes in John is love – loving God, receiving His love and loving others. In John 13:34, Jesus says: “I give you a new commandment: that you should love one another. Just as I have loved you, so you too should love one another.” This is one of the most important principles seen throughout the New Testament.
John also gives great insight into the ministry of the Holy Spirit.
The book of Acts basically picks up where the Gospels end. Before His death and resurrection, Jesus told His disciples that it was “profitable (good, expedient, advantageous)” for them that He would go away, because if He did not, the Holy Spirit would not come to them. In Acts, it is seen that the Holy Spirit did come and that He is still on earth today.
The book of Romans contains many vital truths that are considered essential to a proper understanding of Christianity. Many of Christianity’s basic truths are found in Romans: we cannot earn God’s love, but we must receive it as a gift. everyone sins. sin requires death. Jesus’ death paid the price for the sins of others.
Paul talks about people and what it is that they did, or shouldn’t have done. Paul understood so well the things we do are separate from who we are.
First Corinthians covers a variety of subjects, but most of them are centered on motives and the behaviors of believers. This letter was written by the apostle Paul and addressed to the Christians in Corinth, a wealthy city on the Mediterranean Sea, where people from various cultures and religions often converged. Their diverse backgrounds and religious experiences often caused problems in the church and created a need for Paul to write his letter.
First Corinthians deals with everything from spiritual issues such as the gifts of the Holy Spirit, the importance of unity among believers, being confident in God, and how to behave in church. It is also a vivid description of what love is (chapter 13).
Second Corinthians is perhaps the most personal of all letters from the apostle Paul. It is his second letter to the believers in Corinth, probably because their problems continued after his first letter. Into their situation of strife and conflict, Paul sends this letter to thank and encourage those who have been faithful to God and loyal to him, to share some personal insights and struggles and to encourage people in the church.
One of the great themes in Second Corinthians is that a believer in Jesus Christ in a new creation, one who has right standing with God and is an ambassador for Him.
In Galatians, Paul addresses and emphasizes a subject that is very important: the grace of God. Many people tend to approach God through the Law, which simply means doing what is right and obeying the “rules” of Christianity. This is called “legalism.” Galatians teaches that God is to be approached through grace. Legalism teaches that God is obeyed out of obligation. grace teaches that God is obeyed out of love.
Though Ephesians is literally filled with wisdom, encouragement, and great teachings about what it means to be a Christian and how the church should operate, one of the most important messages seen is the unconditional love found in God. One of the key points of this book is that God loves everyone.
In addition, this book addresses the spiritual blessings that belong to those in Christ, their position of authority in Christ, the mysteries of God, the need to walk in love and light, and how to war against the powers and principalities in the spiritual realm.
Philippians is full of truths and principals for living a victorious Christian life. it contains much practical advice for everyday life. and it is a book of great joy. Even though Paul wrote this book from a prison cell, undoubtedly in very bad conditions, he had real joy in his heart and he encouraged his readers to do the same. He knew that the enemy always wants to steal the joy of others so he can sap their strength.
Paul’s message in his letter to the Colossians is all about Jesus. In this book, Paul addresses a popular false teaching that undermined the sufficiency and lordship of Jesus Christ and was prevalent in the city of Colossae. In response, Paul wrote throughout Colossians of Jesus’ power and preeminence, of His superiority over worldly thinking, and legalism.
Among all great teachings in Colossians, Paul continually urges his readers to keep Jesus first in their lives, and to do everything as though it were being done for God and not for other people.
In every chapter of First Thessalonians, Paul mentions the second coming of Jesus Christ. This is a topic that has sparked interest, speculation, excitement, and controversy for years. Also in this book, Paul commends the Thessalonians’ courage and steadfast faith in the midst of persecution. Their conduct serves as an example and an encouragement to people today when they are being persecuted or ridiculed.
Because the people in Thessalonica did not properly understand some of the things Paul wrote to them in his first letter, he soon had to write them a second time. In this letter, he addressed the fact that some people overreacted to his comments on Jesus’ return to earth. They thought the second coming of Christ was so imminent that they lost their proper perspective of life.
First Timothy is the first of two letters the apostle Paul wrote to a young minister, his “true son in the faith,” named Timothy.
In First Timothy, Paul emphasizes the importance of praying for people, especially those who are in authority. He writes, “First of all, then, I admonish and urge that petitions, prayers, intercessions and thanksgivings be offered on behalf of all men. For kings and all who are in positions of authority …” (2:1,2)
Also in First Timothy, it also states the qualifications and characteristics needed in church leaders, instruction on proper behavior in church services, insight on dealing with doctrinal error, and exhortation to honor widows, elders, and people in authority.
Second Timothy is filled with encouragement, perhaps because the young man Timothy really needed it. It is believed that Paul wrote this letter shortly before his death, while he was suffering a much more harsh imprisonment than he previously endured. For that reason, this is quite a personal letter from the older Apostle to his spiritual son – like Paul’s final instructions before he finished his course on earth.
Titus, like Timothy, was a young minister who followed Paul’s leadership and received oversight of the church in Crete. This church seems unorganized and fill of people who needed more instruction and correction. To help Titus, Paul wrote this letter, which addresses several subjects he also wrote about in First Timothy. In Titus, Paul emphasizes the proper structure of the church, solid doctrine and godly living, especially in the form of good works.
Philemon is a very short book, but with a very important message. From prison, Paul wrote this letter to his friend, a prominent and wealthy Christian man named Philemon. According to the customs of his time, Philemon was a slave-owner. His slave, Onesimus, escaped, went to Rome, became converted, and met Paul. When Paul realized what happened, he decided to write Philemon and encourage reconciliation and forgiveness between the two men.
Paul opens his letter by addressing Philemon as “dearly beloved,” making sure to show respect and affection for a fellow believer. He then affirms Philemon’s work and ministry before confronting Philemon with the need to take Onesimus back to his slave and receive him as a Christian brother. Throughout this letter, there is a tone of friendship and unity in Christ. Paul’s humility and genuine love for both Philemon and Onesimus are evident and allow him to make a bold request for their reconciliation.
Simply put, the book of Hebrews in about “better things. Written to believers under pressure to turn back to their former Jewish faith or to mix Judaism with Christianity, this book emphasizes a new and better covenant that people have with God through Jesus Christ. Hebrews exalts Jesus’ supremacy over all kinds of former things, such as prophets and angels. It clearly reveals that superiority of the new covenant over old religious places and things, such as the tabernacle.
Hebrews contains a thorough description of Jesus as Great High Priest and mankind’s once-for-all perfect sacrifice for sin. It also includes and addresses the extreme importance of faith in the lives of Christians.
The book of James emphasizes the fact that true faith in God must be accompanied by good works.
In addition to his focus on unwavering faith and good works, James also provides tremendous practical advice for Christians’ everyday lives, including extensive teaching on the joy that is found in suffering and the power of the tongue. He writes about wisdom, about resisting temptation, and about prayer.
First Peter is such an encouragement to those who believe because it reminds them that we always have hope in Jesus. This letter is full of practical advice for everyday living, especially in the midst of hard times, and urges Christians to keep the glory of our inheritance in view while we are living here on earth.
First Peter teaches that there is such thing as godly suffering. Some suffering is done in Christ and some is done for him. When a believer suffers in order to do God’s will, that is cause for rejoicing. Saying no to self and suffering in the flesh leads to the death of selfishness, and that kind of hardship yields tremendous freedom and strength.
Second Peter was written to people who either did not know the truth of God or were not standing firm in it, so they were in danger of being deceived concerning the second coming of Jesus Christ. The Bible exhorts us in several places in the New Testament not to be deceived.
The letters called First, Second, and Third John were written by the same apostle John who wrote the Gospel of John and the book of Revelation. This man was a disciple of Jesus Christ. he knew Him personally and was one of three disciples with whom Jesus spent a great deal of time.
Two of First John’s themes are love and light. In chapter one, it is seen that God is light and that there is no darkness in Him.
Second John is addressed to “the elect (chosen) lady (Cyria) and her children.” Though we do not know if this “lady” was an individual or a group of believers who collectively comprised a church, we do know that John loved this person or these people dearly.
John’s reason for writing this letter was that his readers were dealing with false teachers who traveled from place to place spreading error and refused to admit that Jesus Christ ever came to earth in bodily form, in the flesh, and was both fully human and fully divine.
Third John is a brief letter addressed to a man named Gaius, who was most likely a pastor or leader in the early church. Where John has to warn the recipients of his second letter not to associate with false teachers, this letter provides Gaius with instructions on how to treat traveling ministers and missionaries who teach the truth.
In this letter, John also urges his readers not to imitate evil, but to imitate good. Those who do good, he writes, are of God, but those who do evil have no experience with Him and do not know Him in any way.
The book of Jude warns believes against false teaching and provides a helpful list of characteristics of false teachers and erroneous teachings. False teachers are ungodly. they want to use God’s grace as an opportunity for disobedience. and they deny Jesus Christ as Lord and Master. They reject authority and look down on what they do not understand.
The book of Revelations tells about the second coming of Jesus Christ. It tells of the Seven Seals, the Seven Trumpets, and the Seven Bowls (which are the various plagues and horrors that befall on those who do not accept God as their Savior). Some of these include the great earthquake, mountains crumbling, water turning into blood, and darkness. All of these, and more, take place in the seven years proceeding Jesus Christ coming back to earth.
Although many people were against his will of becoming a missionary, he did not give attention to them and managed to proceed with his ambitions (McHugh 12). He declared that because God conquered on his life, he had the obligation of preaching the word to unbelievers.
With such an astonishing spirit, Saint Patrick went to Ireland to publish the gospel to all people without discrimination. He suffered many persecutions from unbelievers but did not lose heart. He also suffered many insults from the people of Ireland who did not believe in God. One of the advantages that Saint Patrick had is that he understood the language and customs of the Irish people. After some time, people started gathering at his crusades in large numbers. He could always acknowledge his presence by beating a kettledrum. In order to move the hearts of the Irish people, Patrick told sweet stories that demonstrated the achievement of Christ (McHugh 10).
After teaching the Irish people how to read, Patrick encouraged the importation of various useful books. Many of the books came from England and France. Another achievement that Patrick managed to accomplish is that he established cloisters. These were missionary schools of which many people got the chance of learning about the gospel. Some people managed to train on how to minister the word of God in these schools. Through his pioneer mission, Saint Patrick managed to baptize many people in Ireland (McHugh 60).
Saint Patrick marked to be one of the greatest missionaries in history because he managed to deal with the prejudice of Irish people. He also conformed to the political institutions in Ireland. Through his hard-working, the Christianity he founded in Ireland became self-supporting after a short period. Even though Saint Patrick encountered many difficulties in his missionary work especially from the political arena, he contributed a lot to establishing Christianity in Ireland. He also made good relationships with Irish people and portrayed positive characteristics of how Christianity ought to be. Moreover, many people were motivated through his teaching and belief about the judgment day. He demonstrated the scripture injunctions literally and mostly quoted the bible in his teaching (McHugh 32). This made many people believe in him and accepted to be baptized.
The history of Moses is recorded in the book of Exodus which is a part of the Old Testament. His mother sent him on the river Nile to prevent the Pharaoh’s men from killing him. He was found by the Pharaoh’s daughter where he was raised and lived. As a young man, he had to flee Egypt after killing an Egyptian (Jacobs, 2007). Roaming around in the land of Sinai, he married and lived for forty years in that region. It was also in the Sinai where he saw a vision of God as nearby bushes were burning. Moses went back to Egypt where he called upon the Pharaoh to release his people from slavery and bondage. A series of plagues that shook the Egyptians convinced them to let the Israelites out of slavery (Jacobs, 2007). The Pharaoh’s armies would drown in the Red Sea as Moses and his band of followers would successfully cross into the Sinai Peninsula. After leading his people out of slavery, Moses would introduce the religious beliefs and laws which were vital for the Israelites (Jacobs, 2007).
The bible is filled with narratives and accounts of brave men who guided by God accomplished the impossible. Moses stands out as the greatest of them in terms of the adversities and calamities which he faced (Judaism 101, 2007). Throughout his life struggle, he acted with endurance and control. He lived a life of luxury when brought up in the household of the Pharaoh. However, destiny had other things in store for him. His forty years of wandering in the Sinai Peninsula would forever change his life. With the vision of God, he returned to Egypt where he preached to the Pharaoh to stop his wicked ways and release the Israelites. When the Pharaoh refused to be intimidated by Moses, he remained calm and placed his trust in God. The .ten plagues sent by God became a message to the Egyptians that the Israelites must be freed.
It is a human tendency to always look out for oneself and be self-centered in terms of gaining advantages and avoiding negative consequences. However, the Bible commands to love one’s neighbor as one’s self. This means that individuals should look out for each other the way they look out for their own selves. Husbands should love their wives the way they love their own selves, and even put their welfare over their own.
The New Testament advocates for mutual submission and mutual service among married couples Implying that one is not in a position higher than the other and are equal in all ways. However, the traditional gender roles of men and women indicate that men are more superior than women and women should bow to their husbands’ wishes. Men go out to seek livelihood to sustain the family while women stay home to care for the home and render service to their husbands and children. In contemporary times, gender roles are shifting to be more equitable for both genders, as women are now more empowered to assert themselves as capable of doing men’s roles and doing even men’s jobs. Due to these changes, there is a going battle between keeping traditional roles or adopting more modern gender roles, and in both, it loses the biblical essence of mutual submission and service.
Lawler depicts human marriage as one based on a strong foundation of loyalty, service, and obedience to one’s spouse and not only based on a deep affection for him or her. It goes deeper than mere emotions towards another human being and goes on to enact the love by serving the other and being steadfastly faithful. One should emulate how Christ loves his Church or people, as he not only serves them but has an unwavering faithfulness for them.
The New Testament teaches that love in Christian marriage entails fidelity and faithfulness to each other. It should be exclusive and permanent, therefore, indissoluble. This implies that divorce is out of the question once one decides to marry. Eschatological love is advocated in the bible.
Her meditations relate with an ocean undergoing climate change that is rising in sea levels and temperatures. The chapters in the novella take their titles from the thirty-two points of the compass. The titles range from “0°” to “348°45′.” The thirty-two chapters in the novella engage the reader into the action of boxing the compass.
In her novella, Sandy Florian uses many references from the bible. There are events found in this novel that relates to the bible. Some words and objects relate to those found in the bible. Therefore, this essay seeks to establish the bible references that Florian uses in her writing.
The first reference to the bible occurs by the mentioning of the word paradise and mentioning about the birth of Jesus. The narrator says, “the l is replaced with a cross-linking east with the ambivalent direction of paradise, the place where Christ was born”. (Florian, 7). The bible also talks about the birth of Jesus Christ in the New Testament. The bible says that Jesus was born in Bethlehem. (Luke 2:1-20) The word paradise from the bible means heaven or a nice allusion in Boxing the Compass. The use of the word paradise is symbolic. It symbolizes a beautiful place in the novella.
There is a reference borrowed from the bible when the author mentions about Plato and the arbitrary rules. “She reads her bible. She speaks to no one yet she argues that Plato himself articulates the arbitrary rules”. (Florian, 10).From the bible, Pilates was the law enforcers. They set the rules that governed the people. In the bible, Jesus faces a trial before the Pilates. They were hypocritical yet they enforced the law (John 18:28-38). The appearance of Plato in the novella symbolizes the theme of power and authority. This reference from the bible also brings out the theme of hypocrisy. In the novella, the writer says that the woman talks to no one yet she argues about Plato and the arbitrary rules. This .shows the hypocritical nature of human beings.
Marriage of non-Filipinos to those belonging in Iglesia families is just one of the examples of how those comprising the minority of the Iglesia population have been involved in the religion (Catholic Answers, 2004). Despite the widespread estimate of the number of the constituents (which is between three million and ten million including those outside the Philippines), the Iglesia conceals their real population. It has a larger population than the more known Jehovah’s Witnesses, which also assert they are being the genuine Church of Christ (Catholic Answers, 2004).
Indeed, unlike most of the other cults which have Western origins, Iglesia ni Kristo (INC) or the Church of Christ has its roots from the Philippines with Encyclopedia Britannica (2007) describing it as indigenous. Historically, it was a small church founded by Felix Manalo on July 27, 1914 (Elesterio, 1988). Thus, he was considered by his followers as the messenger of God.
After the fast expansion in 1945, the number of members reached the 600,000 marks by the end of the 20th century (“Iglesia ni Kristo”, 2007). This has also led to the building of chapels throughout the country and to their being a well-heeled federal religious organization.
However, the foundation of INC was not an easy task. it was a great struggle for Manalo. Yet, Harper (2001) noted that one thing is certain: preliminary association with the Bible pushed him to impugn what has been taught to him regarding religion and God in the Roman Catholic Church. According to her research, Manalo had joined other religious groups before he finally established INC. At the age of 18, it was found out that he joined the Methodist Episcopal Church where he trained about the Bible and become a lay preacher. .
Persuasive Communication Persuasive Communication Discussion One One is of the belief that rap and hip hop music is an artistic form of expression which does not promote negative social behavior. These two genre of music has been widely misinterpreted and given a negative connotation by those who do not appreciate the culture that is embodied in the music. Rap and hip hop music are often associated with the Black people who are their major promoters and patronizers. Most of the people who abhor these types of music are those who are still engulfed by racial discrimination, yet refuse to accept it. They turn a blind ear when they hear these type of music which are attributed to the people of color. Instead of listening to the messages evoked by these music, they prejudge it and consider it as one which encourages bad behavior.
In M.K. Asante’s book “It’s Bigger Than Hip Hop: The Rise of the Post-Hip-Hop Generation”, he talks about the censorship being imposed by the record companies on black artists of hip hop and rap music (Asante, 2008). The reason for this censorship is that the companies claim that the messages of hip hop music delve on the social, economic and political problems of the Black people. This is why hip hop music is often misconstrued to be encouraging negative behavior.
In judging rap and hip hop music, it is essential that the listeners look deeper into the lyrics of the songs. The audience should have an open mind and consider the messages of the songs as the voice of the youth and the Black people. It is not fair to judge them according to who the singers or performers are. rather, the listeners should view the lyrics as an expression of a deeper problem conveyed through music.
Among the ethical perspectives that were presented in Box 16.1, one considers egalitarianism or the “Golden Rule” as the most ethically defensible. The “Golden Rule” is a perspective which is universal among most of the religions in the world. therefore, it is clearly viewed as ethical. In Christianity, the Bible states, “All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye so to them. for this is the law and the prophets” (TeachingValues.com LLC, n.d., p1). In Buddhism, the Udana-Varga states, “Hurt not others in ways that you yourself would find hurtful” (TeachingValues.com LLC, n.d., p1). The Islam religion’s version of the “Golden Rule” is “No one of you is a believer until he desires for his brother that which he desires for himself” (TeachingValues.com LLC, n.d., p1). While in Hinduism, it is expressed as “This is the sum of duty. do naught onto others what you would not have them do unto you” (TeachingValues.com LLC, n.d., p1).
The “Golden Rule” is one of the most basic and succinct principle of ethics which people all over the world believes in. Often when a person is confronted with a dilemma, he would usually ask himself whether it would be in the best interest of all concerned. The “Golden Rule” is ethically defensible because it is premised on a person’s moral values and principles. It presupposes that individuals only think of good things and have no intention of hurting another. Even in the judicial system of most cultures, the “Golden Rule” is a rationale for most laws that have been promulgated (Duxbury, n.d.). The “Golden Rule” is a principle which can be applied in all aspects of an individual’s life. Its universality is further strengthened by its concept of fair treatment for every person.
Asante, M. K. (2008). Its bigger than hip hop: The rise of the post hip hop generation. New York: St. Martins Press.
Duxbury, N. (n.d.). Golden Rule reasoning, moral judgement and law. Retrieved from law.virginia.edu: http://www.law.virginia.edu/pdf/workshops/0708/duxbury.pdf
TeachingValues.com LLC. (n.d.). The universality of the Golden Rule in the world religions. Retrieved from teachingvalues.com: http://www.teachingvalues.com/goldenrule.html
Euthanasia and Physician Assisted Suicide Euthanasia: Interview to a Neighbor Euthanasia and physician assisted suicide is an act where a physician administers a lethal dose to a patient because the patient cannot do so. The patient is the instigator of their own death. Some states have made this act legal while in others it is still illegal. People have different views and opinions regarding physician’s assisted suicide, one such person is my neighbor, who I personally interviewed.
Mary Gonzalez, who works in a non profit making organization as a social security person thinks that there is no moral justification, whether in medical science or in any kind of sound reason. Life is a gift from God and no human being has the right to do whatever they please with it. She believes death is gods will and wish and everyone has their time of death and there is no turning back from this time. She is opposed to all forms of euthanasia, not just because she believes God is the creator of life or because of the teachings of the catholic church, but also because these churches and biblical teachings are supported by philosophical, ethical and reasoned argument that can be availed (Armstrong, 2009).
As a Christian, Mary Gonzalez believes it is against her religious background and moral perspective to take her life or even request someone in doing so. She believes no one has the right to kill or assist in killing no matter how hopeless the situation. In relation to euthanasia being a way to relieve pain, to the suffering individuals, Mary insists that it is wrong and against the Hippocratic oaths of doctors. The oath states that, “I will not give a deadly drug to anybody if asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect or in swearing the giving of poison when asked for it.” The American Society of Internal Medicine and American College of Physicians do not encourage or give support to physicians regarding euthanasia (ACP-ASIM, 2010). Physician assisted suicide, she believes, deteriorates the trust that patients have in the physicians.
The government is wrong to give any right to a certain group of people to kill other people. This is illegal and should be abolished. Instead, people should encourage the suffering and give them hope until God decides when to take their life. The biblical worldview according to Mary Gonzalez is a well reasoned and gives a moral value to the sanctity of life (Cox, 2009). This is because it is possible to point to a moral right or wrong. It is concerned with the good of the community at large while the secular worldview is more focused on the individual rights. In reality, one outweighs the other and according to historic tradition and the bible, the one that has its interest in the good of the community wins.
Physician assisted suicide and euthanasia are considered as dignity deaths or a way of empowering. The question remains, “to whom is the empowerment going?” Is it the relatives and the doctor who is unable to administer a cure, or the activists who find a meaning in their own lives of such death? In her concluding words, Mary Gonzalez said that a problem cannot be solved by ending the lives of the people to whom the problems exist (Cox, 2009). The most humane yet difficult solution to the suffering of humans is addressing the problem and letting God take control.
ACP-ASIM. (2010). Euthanasia. Retrieved from American College of Physicians and American Society of Internal Medicine: https://www.acponline.org/
Armstrong, K. (2009). The case for God. New York, NY: Knopf.
Cox, H. (2009). The future of faith. New York, NY: HarperOne.
Though two princes sought Portia’s hand in marriage, their royalty and riches did not impress her, settling instead for Bassanio who did not have an impressive title or riches but pleasant character impressed her and they married (Smith 45-47). This play is reflected in current romantic relationships whereby some flourish without finances while others fail. Finances play a crucial role in romantic relationships, but they are not enough to sustain them. In society, Smalley (1997, p12) notes that the roles of men and women are well defined in family, and other social places. These roles are clear from ancient times and they are included in religious texts including the Bible, the Koran among others. Providing the family with security and other necessities is the role of man, while the woman is supposed to take care of the children and the husband (Smalley 17-21). According to Christian teachings, the man is the leader of the family responsible for making all decisions even without consulting with his wife (Smalley 41). In this regard, a man is supposed to dedicate his efforts working to ensure that his wife and children are well provided, while the woman should dedicate her life doing domestic chores and taking care of the children. …
Men for instance are supposed to be aggressive and competitive while women are required to be submissive and loyal to their husbands. Consequently, men hold most leadership positions in the society while women are relegated to lower segments. For long period, women remained in the periphery of the society, due top lack of economic and political power. Because of the imbalance between the two sexes, women for long periods have remained completely dependant on their husbands in families and in relationships. Thus, the role of man as the sole provider is so entrenched that women expect men to provide them with emotional and material resources in romantic relationships (Bach 54-59) Many relationship experts contend that the current romantic relationships are based on the traditional roes of both sexes, whereby women are expected to be that helpless girl, waiting to be rescued by a handsome, armored prince (Smalley 53). In the current society, it is widely accepted for a woman to depend on the husband for financial support, but if the woman is the one supporting the husband, it is considered that there is no romance in the relationship. In the modern society, the welfare of the women has changed dramatically from the traditional woman whose role was restricted to domestic work to powerful and more assertive individuals. Today, women hold prestigious positions, including head of states, chief executives of large multinational companies, and successful business owners among other influential positions in the society. While submission and humility characterized the traditional woman, many of them nowadays are competitive and risk takers who know exactly what they want in a relationship. In an ordinary family set up and in relationships,
92250 But from the outset, the idea of God as an absolute monarch and his kingly rule is pervasive in Scripture.”(Cf.New Dictionary of Theology). The concept of “Kingdom” is not currently in the democratic mindset of our modern world. Ladd points out that in western idiom a kingdom is primarily seen as a realm over which a king exercises his authority. He quotes a modern dictionary definition: “A state or monarchy the head of which is a king, Dominion, realm”, and adds that while a secondary meaning of “kingdom,” relates to the people belonging to a given realm. He does not see either of these definitions as being accurate, as they tend to “lead astray from a correct understanding of the Biblical truth.” (18) Greek and Hebrew scholars that the primary meaning of the Hebrew word “Malkuth” in the Old Testament and the Greek word “basilica” in the New Testament is of the rank, authority, and sovereignty exercised by a king. As Ladd says, “When the word refers to God’s Kingdom, it always refers to His reign, His rule, His sovereignty, and not to any realm in which it is exercised. (20) Edersheim adds that the rule of heaven and the kingship of God was the “very substance of the Old Testament. the object of the calling and mission of Israel. the meaning of all its ordinances whether civil or religious. the underlying idea of all its institutions.” The Old Testament, he says, could not be understood without this.” (265) It was common that the rule of a king would be established by the terms of a covenant, in which two parties are bound together in a solemn, unbreakable oath. There are a series of covenants in the Bible, the terms of which were always determined by God. The earliest books of the Old Testament outline these covenants, showing the development of the nation that was to be the primary realm of his sovereignty on earth.
41000 An article titled Harry Potter Exposed written by Dr. Johnson explores how witchcraft in the book is realistically written by one who claims to have previously practiced it before he found Christianity. He writes, “The Word of God is certain, powerful, and is filled with thousands of promises from God. Why would you want to reject the Word of God, which describes the sinfulness of mankind accurately. when Wicca doesn’t even recognize the Biblical concept of sin” (Johnson 5). The same concept is applicable to almost all religions. The Bible speaks of the devil and how he uses sorcery and dark magic to conjure his will. The idea that witches and wizards are evil is nothing new and depicting them in such a way that they are cool will not help parents and their respective churches to teach children about these sins.The Potter series shows children the notions of power and magic as reality without regard they may actually think they could have the same powers, contrary to the teachings of religion and promotes upon children disrespect for the authorities.The Harry Potter books create the world of witchcraft in such a way that it is wonderful. This does not consider that there really are people who are practicing witchcraft. Wicca is a term used to describe this kind of sorcery and there are people who practice it. The same people promote Rowling’s books because they say it is similar to their practice and shows what they do on a regular basis. If one who reads Potter searches it on the internet and finds information on how to be a witch then they could do the same simply because they want to be part of the world that was described in the book. This is against the teachings of Holy Scriptures. Similar to Muslims who believe that the devil is the enemy of God, some Christians share the same response to the cult that is displayed in the books. An article titled Harry Potter Exposed written by Dr. Johnson explores how witchcraft in the book is realistically written by one who claims to have previously practiced it before he found Christianity. The Potter series should be banned in schools, especially in elementary with very young and impressionable children, because it gives false ideas to kids who may not be able to distinguish what is good from what is bad. They may also prevent parents from effectively teaching the beliefs and values that they want their children to have. As a result, children may just be confused because their parents are saying that witchcraft is bad and it is against their religion but the books they read are all about witches and wizards that consider them to be good. Harry Potter is actually found by the American Library Association to be the “most banned book in America” (Olukotun). The volume of copies sold may be a testament to the popularity of the book but this does not make the books’ contents right. There may be more valuable to why it has been banned widely and perhaps the benefit of protecting children is more important than them actually joining the hype of reading the series.
Introduction Niebuhr defines responsibility as the ability and requirement to give account to somebody for something. In the context of social relations, the concept of responsibility, with the obligation and freedom it implies, has its place. He further asserts that being responsible is being a self in other-selves’ presence and that one is bound to these other-selves and is capable of answering to them freely. Responsibility entails trusteeship or stewardship over common life things of the selves. .
Christ says that they will have done all these to him. The goats, on the other hand, represent the sinners who Christ will put in his left hand and cast into eternal fire/punishment for having failed to do the above to their neighbors and therefore to Christ (The Holy Bible, New International Version, Matt. 25.31-46).
Mathew 19:19 encourages Christians to honor their parents as well as loving their neighbor as themselves. In Luke10:25-37, Jesus gives the parable of the Good Samaritan where he emphasizes on loving one’s neighbor as oneself as well as caring for/helping those in need. Isaiah 61:1-3, indicates that Christ came for the poor, the broken-hearted, the captives, the prisoners, the mourners and for those who grieve in Zion to provide and bring salvation to them. James 5:1-5 condemns the self-indulging rich and declares misery for them and destruction of their wealth for hoarding wealth and failing to pay those who mowed their fields and their harvesters their wages (The Holy Bible).
The above scriptures are a clear indication that the responsibility of Christians towards their neighbors is that of love for one another. They should perform good deeds towards them taking care of them, especially those in need. This is a command from God and failure to adhere to it leads to eternal damnation.
Discrimination is treating a person less auspiciously than another person based on his/her class, category or group (Scobell, para1). These Scriptures relate to the concept of discrimination in that they show how God will treat the group of sinners differently from that of the righteous in the Day of Judgment. Therefore, this is an indication that in the Christians’ life, there is room for discrimination as far as God and his judgment are concerned. Scriptures to support this include Matthew 13:24-30, Romans 6:23, Psalms 72:2, Ecclesiastes 3:17 among others (The Holy Bible).
However, this is not a license for Christians to discriminate against others. They should not use this as a justification to oppress others, not to love or even not to help those in need. This is evident in Galatians 3:28, Matthew 7:12, James 2:2-4, Matthew 5:44, Deuteronomy 27: 19, James 2:8, 1Timothy 4:12, Galatians 5:14, Luke 10:27, Mark 12:31 among others. The only way in which Christians should show partiality is by not allowing sinners to draw them away from God or associating in their wickedness as seen in 2 Corinthians 6:14, Ephesians 5:11, 1John 1:6, Exodus 23:2 among others (The Holy Bible).
My Relationship with God: Beginning and Growth
Spirituality is mostly concerned with the belief of the existence of a Supreme Being who gives and controls the world and everything in it, whether living or not. Being a Christian entails the belief in God, and having faith in Jesus Christ as the Savior of Mankind. Christianity is not a trait, but a choice that one makes in life depending on their faith. Some academic institutions are spiritual and require students to be of a certain religion before admitting them into any of their faculties (Jeynes, 2007).
My introduction into Christianity was at birth. I was born of a Christian family and had Christian relatives who guided me through this religious path. My grandmother in particular is very religious and spiritual. She used to take me to church for at least two services a week, in addition to bible study sessions that took place at home. This young introduction into Christianity strengthened my faith because I listened to God’s word on almost a daily basis. It guided me in everything I did and I believed in it. In fact, my grandmother claims that she witnessed me speak in tongues at the age of four. I was playing outside when the Holy Spirit suddenly took over me and I was thrown into a trance in which I spoke in foreign languages.
My current growth in Christianity is stable and constant. I believe in God and, therefore, feed on His word on a daily basis. My faith is nurtured by reading the bible constantly and sharing the word of God with others. I also interact with other Christians and get to know their experiences, as well as share mine. Worshipping and praising our Lord and Savior benefits me spiritually in a manner that no other activity can.
My Christian values as learnt from the Bible and other Christians will help me succeed in the school’s academic environment. Academics involve a lot of hard work and dedication, which are common traits of Christians. The leadership qualities that are nurtured in Christians through the examples taught in the bible will help me be among the best in Sports Management (Fahlbusch, 2008). It will be easier to cope with tough academic times and schedules such as examinations and coursework due to the persistence instilled in me by bible teachings. Christianity values education, and my excellent academic history, coupled with my religious background, makes me a good candidate for admission into this great school.
My desire to get more of Christian growth and to boost my faith will make me feel comfortable in the institution’s spiritual environment. There will be no need to adjust to the environment, as it is not new to me. I was used to attending services and Christian meetings since childhood, and their inclusion in the curriculum will not affect me in any way. In fact, this is the best environment to be in. The fact that the school provides a spiritual environment creates an opportunity for me to grow my Christian faith. It is also an opportunity to interact with other Christians and to grow each other spiritually. I believe in having a purpose in this life, and that purpose is God’s will. Getting a chance to join this school and its Christian community will be a great opportunity to understand my purpose in life and the impact I have on other people’s Christianity.
Jeynes, William, and Enedina Martinez. Christianity, Education, and Modern Society. Charlotte, N.C: IAP- Information Age Pub, 2007.
Fahlbusch, Erwin. The Encyclopedia of Christianity: Vol. 5. Grand Rapids, Mich: Eerdmans, 2008.
The website takes into considerations Christian conservatives. His address littered with the types of rhetoric that appeal to the credulous in America. He stated that God’s blessings had been with America from the beginning and God is not done with America. He drives his support by calling on millions of conservatives who rose to reignite the promise of America. His words and zeal give hope that seems unattainable (TedCruz 1).
He tends to give people promises that seem unrealistic. He advocates for change by promising on new ideas. His strategy aligns with an agitation for the rights of the minority, or instance, are the religious conservatives. The conservatives follow the Bible teachings and expect everyone to conform (Cruz for president 1). They create an ideal society of Christianity.
His campaigns have the themes of developing tougher immigration laws, the right to bear arms, a more robust foreign policy, and an end to Obamacare. He raps all his motives in the flag of American exceptionalism, divine providence, and naked nationalism (Cruz for president 1). Americans view his ideas and philosophies differently. Most Americans believe that where he wants to take them is where they came from some centuries back. For instance, a society with sexual inequality and with women denied the right over their bodies.
In his campaign website, he ludicrously lists the repeal of the Obamacare as the primary thing that Americans need to do to restore the economic opportunity. He is also fighting for the end to ethanol subsidies and an end in the Export-Import Bank. He positions himself as real small government opponent of the called crony capitalism (Cruz for president 1). He, therefore, helps in the fight for a socialist society. Cruz also calls for the fight for traditional marriage. He gives hope to the minority. His ideas seem to vary with other candidates as stands out with an aim of coming up with
Comparing Greek and Hebrew Civilizations The fundamental difference between the Greek civilization and the Hebrew civilization were their views on religion. In ancient times, religion remained a major driver of socio-economic and political realities. While the Greek religious tradition relied on a number of gods, the Hebrew tradition insisted on the oneness of Moses’ One True God. Furthermore, the Greeks were open to question religious ideas that in turn led to freer thinking. In comparison the Hebrew were reluctant to question God and faith in fear of inculcating God’s wrath that led to thinking that is more conservative. Consequently, the Greek system prepared individuals to serve the state while the Hebrew system prepared individuals to serve God. There is little question that religion played an important part in the social lives of both civilizations but dogmatic religious practices are more readily associated with the Hebrew tradition. In similar fashion, the political realities of the day reflected the intrusion of religion into the affairs of the state. The Hebrews believed that God would hold everyone accountable one day so the ruler was expected to be accountable to God alone. In contrast, the Greek system of personal accountability relied on philosophy and on the discretion of fellow men. Hence, the Greek ruler was accountable to his fellow men more than his accountability to any gods. This increased accountability paved for the world’s first democracy in Athens (Blainey).
The achievements of various Athenians such as Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, Herodotus, Thucydides, Hippocrates, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle among others laid the foundation for the modern Western civilization. The move to democracy strengthened the Greek quest for knowledge. Furthermore, the Greeks had managed to disassociate divinity with exploration of things around them. Even after Athens was subsumed into the larger Greek civilization, the traditions of learning and development continued unabated. The epistemological drive of the Greeks led to developments in science, architecture, law, philosophy, commerce and numerous other fields. A rich scientific tradition can be traced back to the Greeks with names such as Archimedes, Hero of Alexandria, Galen and others appearing in scientific discussions to this day (Thornton).
In contrast, the Hebrew tradition kept God intact with learning limitations. God was seen as the center of the universe in the literal sense and ideas upheld by the scripture were unquestionable. The strength of the Hebrew tradition of advancement lay in social values that projected Abraham as the father of all Jews that made all Jews brothers. The fraternal spirit brought to prominence in this manner allowed people to exist together in society without large social distinctions. In addition, social values were proclaimed through religious undertones such as the “Ten Commandments” that form the basis for modern Western morality and ethics. Another of the more prominent accomplishments of the Hebrews was the introduction of a day of rest known as “Sabbath” which is considered as the first wide-ranging law of social welfare in the world. This day is still celebrated as the weekend around the world. Moreover, a large volume of Western art, literature and scholarship is derived from traditions of the Hebrew Bible. The depiction of Jesus, Moses, Madonna and other such holy figures in modern art is undeniable. Similarly, the influence of Hebrew philosophy is undeniable in the sense that most Western philosophy tends to either deny or acknowledge these ideas including philosophy derived from the Greek tradition to support or deny these claims (Wilken).
Blainey, Geoffrey. A Very Short History of the World. London: Penguin Books, 2004.
Thornton, Bruce. Greek Ways: How the Greeks Created Western Civilization. New York: Encounter Books, 2002.
Wilken, Robert L. The Spirit of Early Christian Thought. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.
The first example of the closeness between death and whiteness is of the racial issue. . The two sources above that show a racial feature of death and whiteness are the last chapter of White and the movie, Night of the Living Dead. Caucasians have a unique connection with the death, not all of it good. The racial whiteness affecting death is powerful.
Dyer’s “White Death” chapter of White raises several racial aspects of death and the race of Caucasians. To begin with, the dead Caucasian body in art has been glorified. Dyer (1997, p. 208) points out that several Caucasian deaths in all forms of art are worshipped by the whole world, the main on being Jesus Christ. The Bible, paintings, and other forms of art portray Jesus as a white man, with blue eyes, light brown or blonde hair, hanging on the cross. Jesus on the cross shows the noble whiteness of death. These images are racist for several reasons, but the main one being Jesus was a Jew. Jews rarely have blue eyes and blonde hair. No one knows what Jesus looked liked, but he most likely had dark eyes and hair, resembling a typical Israeli of today. The issue is that a white symbol for death and the afterlife exists through the man-made images of Jesus. Hence, it stands to reason many people believe the way to heaven, through death is white.
Religion, other than religious art, also shows how white and death intertwine. In movies, ghosts and recently deceased people appear white. Dyer (1997, p. 209) names The Sign of the Cross and Ben Hur as examples of when a person dies, a white light greets them. These martyrs die, going into the white ever after. These types of white deaths remind a person of pure death.
Most scenes of heaven depicted by artists from Michelangelo to Da Vinci are white. White people, white robes, white wings, and white clouds are major themes of these famous writers. However, this concept has been carried throughout the centuries. Numerous scenes of death, or even people’s perception of death, include a white light or an angel with white wings and robe. .
61500 Let us begin with the theme, “hate the sin, but love the sinner”. “Hate the Sinful acts but Love the offender," it has always been mistaken as Jesus Christ said it, but the fact is Mahatma Gandhi mentioned it several times. This phrase is what now people famously refer to “hate the sin, but love the sinner” and was quoted many times from Mahatma Gandhi autobiography. Some individuals point out to this theme to provide themselves unlimited permission, or even an obligation, to hate sin in other individuals. In The Laramie Project play, the Reverend’s comment was saying indirectly that Matthew in his lifestyle “sinned” (Kaufman 27) by becoming a gay. The Reverend wrongly believed that Matthew hoped that when he was falling into a state of comatose, he was thinking about how he would change his gay sexual preference or attitude. In addition, the Reverend’s comment insinuated that Matthew’s sorry situation was because of the beating he received (Kaufman 65-66). In saying this, he wanted people in Laramie to understand that he loved Matthew Shepard as a person, but his sin of being gay was what caused his death. Religion has played a significant role in Laramie and is considered a major contributing factor in what happened to Matthew. It is obvious that religion is a significant part of numerous individual’s lives in Laramie as a way to enhance moral and general identity. Throughout the entire town, many religious events and churches highlight the significance of the Christian religion. This town was defined by its focus on religion and the importance of family values. Before the death of Matthew, the town, it seems, was preaching that being gay was a sin. In such a case, individuals mostly keep away and quiet from those who sin. However, the religion later advice to hate the sin an individual commit, but not the individual. In the Bible, being gay is a sin, in which Laramie Reverend and some residents of the town device to hate discriminatory on those who are gays. This is the reason that resulted in Matthew’s death because he was regarded to have committed a sin that is hated.
This article would further give an understanding of the origin of Jesus Christ and the race to which he belonged to (Patton 1880, p 123-125).
In order to get a good understanding of the truth of Jesus Christ one has to have perfect knowledge about the scriptures. These scriptures provide data that can help in determining the truth about Jesus Christ. Scriptures, customs and social background help people to put in their views about Christ. They give a proper understanding of the environment in which Jesus was born. And if these scriptures are read closely they can have a link to the origin and the history of Jesus. According to different research and people, Jesus Christ was a human being who belonged to the faction of Jews. However, there are contradictory views on him belonging to the faction of Jews and of him being humane. Jesus Christ was a man who came to this world to accomplish the duties of God. He came in this world to fight for the people who were suffering and who were abandoned. Jesus Christ himself was not accepted in society and suffered from different atrocities. In his time he preached about the true path of God and he even gave his life for the message of God. He fought for his way to freedom but as he was unaccepted in the society he was crucified till death. This happened when one of his apostles betrayed him as was predicted by him before. (Cones 1969, p.27-55)
While Jesus Christ has left his symbol for this humanity people still fight as to which race he belonged to. The Negro groups are the supporters of the fact that Jesus belonged to the race of black. According to the research done the bodies of Mary Magdalene and Martha have been found in a village where most of the population was Negro. And to further confirm this DNA tests took place which confirmed that the people of Mandella belonged to Negroes. The advocates have even .related this to Chapter 13:1 in Bible which states “Now there was in the church that was in Antioch certain prophets and teachers: as Barnabas and Simon that was called Niger..”.
The article “Get out of the House More Often” by Jim Wallis and “I Am Malala” by Malala Yousafzai both provide inspiration to the world, despite having different purposes. Both articles take a totally different turn but a keen focus in both results to recognition of the similarities amid them. This paper tries to make a comparison between the two articles: it provides brief summaries of both articles then compares the two.
“Get out of the House More Often” by Jim Wallis
In this article, Jim Wallis begins by quoting a verse from the bible (Mathew 5: 13-14):
“You are the salt of the earth… you are the light to the world…” (Wallis, p.34)
Actually, the idea that Wallis depicts in this article rotates around this verse. Wallis’ main idea is that when an individual gets out of his usual life confinements and gives the outside world a positive outlook then they are bound to recognize so many aspects that are worth changing to make the world a better place. He, for instance, explains the transformations that people such as his parents, his wife, John Fife, and Joe Nangle had in their life after they decided to go into the outside world and put efforts into making a change. Generally, to prove his point, Wallis cites several instances where people have made efforts to help the poor and the distressed have better lives. He believes that regularly getting to the outside world, transformed his family’s lives and his life too (Wallis, p.49).
“I Am Malala” by Malala Yousafzai
In her article, Malala explains how she refused to be silent and struggled to get her right to education. This was after the Taliban took over her home (Swat Valley) in Pakistan. She takes a looks at the mirror and remembers how she paid the price for airing her views. She cannot remember what actually happened on that fateful day. all she knows is that she got shot (Yousafzai, and Lamb, p.408). Malala’s recovery from the gun shot however seems to have taken her to an extraordinary journey to the United Nations halls in New York from the remote Swat Valley in Pakistan. At sixteen she has become the Nobel Peace Prize world’s youngest candidate, and an international icon of peaceful protest (Yousafzai, and Lamb, p.409). Her article is an incredible tale of how her family got uprooted by international terrorism, of the struggle to girl’s right to education, and of parents who love their daughter so much in a society where sons are prized.
These two articles have different purposes but compare a lot. For instance, Wallis believes that taking a step in getting out of the world to assist, inspire, motivate and unite people does not only change the world, but also tremendously transform’s one’s life. He actually implies that by assisting the world, one ensures hope to people. This compares to Malala’s case: despite all odds she has managed to motivate, unite and inspire the world, through bravely standing out to support education for girls and condemn terror activities. By standing out, Malala became a global icon of peaceful protest. She left the confinements of her life and decided to face the outside world, thus apart from saving many Pakistan girls, her life received tremendous transformation.
Generally, Malala’s efforts are like a demonstration and example of Wallis’ ideas. Changing the world through individual efforts can greatly transform an individual’s life. With such sacrifice, an individual’s actions (like in Malala’s case) can be powerful enough to inspire the world to change, since the world is made to believe that despite all the problems, trying to eradicate them promises a better future.
Wallis, Jim. .Faith Works: How Faith-Based Organizations Are Changing Lives, Neighborhoods, and America. Berkeley, Calif: PageMill Press, 2001. Print.
Yousafzai, Malala, and Lamb Christina. .I Am Malala: The Girl Who Stood Up for Education and Was Shot by the Taliban. , 2013. Print.
Full On Normative Questions A normative question is, as the word suggests, a question about what have been believed to be right or wrong, the practices and beliefs which are considered norms. Generally speaking, there is perhaps an inert desire among peoples and cultures to create norms in order to avoid mistakes and walk the good old straight path of virtue and morality. However, this does not mean that people should simply accept the norms without questioning them. People are thinking beings and it is natural for them to ask questions about the things that happen around them. They have the tendency of finding reason for everything they do and observe because they are not automatons who simply will do what they are asked to do. Instead, people have feelings and dreams which drive them to make sense of the things that affect their lives. Philosophers such as Plato, Confucius and Socrates asked various normative questions, trying to find not only the meaning and reason behind the norms but also the meaning and reason of living itself. However, it does not always take a philosopher to ask these questions. Normative questions have been asked even by nameless, faceless children.
Normative questions are the opposite of positive questions. While normative questions focus on value, positive questions concentrate on the facts. For instance, normative questions will ask if a norm is good or bad or if it is right or wrong but positive questions inquire about the how the world moves, what is the distance between the moon and the earth or the speed of a falling body. In other words, positive questions spark a person’s interest on things that can be described and measured and answered with proofs such as statistics and experiments. The answers for normative questions on the other hand, are based on experience and general observations.
In the world today wherein wisdom and intelligence are equated with knowledge about facts, normative questions are not as desired as positive questions. It seems that more and more people are interested in finding out about facts that science can explain. Many people are abandoning the teachings of religions because they claim that only unquestioning fanatics get fooled by the inaccurate teachings of religions. Stories in the Bible, Qu’ran and other religious books have become mere fairytales which only our “uneducated” ancestors believed to be true. Those who follow such teachings are not considered bright enough to see that they believe stories made up by men. This then brings the issue whether normative questions have a place in modern times.
Personally, I believe that normative questions have a place today. Human beings are not only reasoning beings. They are also emotional and moral beings so it is but right for them to consider if the things they are doing are right or wrong, if they are bad or good. Normative questions keep people’s beliefs in check. The reason why this is important is the fact that history shows the rise and fall of morality and humanity because of the presence or absence of normative inquiry. For instance, women were once considered to be inferior to men. It was believed that their place is the house and their task is to please their husbands, take care of the children and attend to the household chores. For centuries, women kept quiet about this issue because norms suggested that accepting their fate is the right thing to do. However, this led many women to be used and abused. It was not long ago when women started asking normative questions. With the nature of their gender and expected roles, women writers expressed such questions through short stories and soon enough, they gathered momentum and finally had the attention they deserved. This example alone shows that normative questions can make things which were considered “right” to really become right.
According to the bible principles, dealing with people requires consent because it shows love and respect. Third, involves the understanding of numerous dynamics of a particular culture in terms of its practices and existence. It is a phenomenon supported by the scriptures because it establishes the foundations of formulating problematic assumptions and solutions from a biblical context.
However, in terms of ‘sociohistorical view of culture’, there is value to offer counselors who are working with diverse clients. For instance, the historical perspective of comprehending culture is imperative in human development because it helps counselors involve scriptures when assessing the traditional views found in the culture. Similarly, while clients from diverse backgrounds enjoy the incentive of displaying different contexts of ranging from historical to political, their Christian nature is what is of interest to counselors. The scripture advises on feeding the hungry and this is pegged on human development. The books read: “His disciples were hungry and began to pick some heads of grain and eat them (Mathew 12:1).” It thus suggests that sociohistorical culture is interconnected with traditions, literacy practices, and other cultural artifacts that cater to the poor (Artiles et al 313). In that perspective, cultural mediation becomes a new phenomenon of understanding the essence of value systems when dealing with multicultural clients. Overall, this indicates that institutional cultures have a role in influencing the sociohistorical culture within the parameters of integration.
Consequently, it is vital for counselors to consider the role of integrating ‘ecological validity’ when working with diverse clients because of numerous reasons. For example, it assists counselors in identifying the spiritual dedication of attending to the poor is an integral step. The scripture reads: “You would not have condemned the innocent (Mathew 12:7).” This implies that researchers and counselors enjoy the mandate of achieving psychological tasks that are encouraged by the scriptures and other different environments with diverse clients. However, spiritual intervention usually interferes with research findings when they are geared toward clients. This is because the results differ fundamentally from the expectations of most participants when they are guided by the bible.
It, therefore, is imperative to infuse all biblical issues especially those pertaining to culture to find the overall solution during one’s research. This will ensure that all sides of the problem are clearly evaluated for spiritual adherents.
Diversity of Family Forms A family is a complex and diverse social (Ballantine and Keith, 272). It is usually in a continuous interactionwith other social institutions and may at times reinforce them. A family unit prepares the next generation, that is, adult family members mentor and tutor the young ones in becoming moral adults.
There are different family structures in our large social system. I will demonstrate the diverse family forms by asking ten of my friends about their families. Five of my friends are part of nuclear families. Their families consist of a father, mother, and other siblings. Their families are small.
Two of my friends are from families in which the parents are divorced. Their lives have transformed because of their parents divorce. They have had to move to new homes, leave one of their parents as well as some of their friends. The children also had to move to new schools.
The other three of my friends are from families in which their parents have re- married. I am from a nuclear family, consisting of two parents, that is, mother and father. I have a sister and a brother. My own family arrangement is not so different from that of my friends since most of them are from nuclear families. This idea therefore suggests that a family unit is not so different from one society to another. Nuclear families have become more common as industrialization, urbanization and migration continues. This is because most individuals will move to urban areas due to social factors like searching for job opportunities. In these urban areas, it would be more practical to have a small family.
These results suggest that family institutions are changing due to factors such as industrialization and migration that have led to changes in the occupational structures. Family forms are changing in a great effort to adapt and respond to changes in society (Ballantine and Keith, 280).
I belong to Presbyterian religious group since it is the one into which I was born. I worship and pray to God in church. This religion provides guidance to individuals regarding acceptable behaviors in the society. It also makes a huge contribution to the society by teaching and encouraging its members to integrate faith and life in their day-to-day activities.
Presbyterians have been around since the 16th century. Presbyterian beliefs and heritage started with a French/ Swiss theologian called John Calvin (1509- 1564). The church traces its ancestry back to Scotland. The first Presbyterian organization was held in Philadelphia in 1706.
Presbyterian Church has since its establishment, been known as the most conservative religion. It has however been linked with internal doctrinal conflict in recent years. Doctrinal beliefs of the Presbyterian Church that entail the purest expression of its scriptural doctrine have therefore reformed. The Presbyterian Church continued to see growth in major parts of the church. This was during the 20th century. This led to the adoption of Fundamental Christianity, by believers of the bible as the source of religion, as opposed to Modernist Christianity, which believed that Christianity had to be re- interpreted concerning modern scientific theories.
The Presbyterian Church encourages its members to participate in politics of its community. The denomination has representatives in political and civil organizations in the communities in which the churches are located.
Ballantine, H. J. and Roberts, A. K. Our social world: Condensed version. Pine Forge Press: Newbury Park, CA. 2010. Print.
since the horrific images of September 11, 2001, one of the greatest obstacles proponents of a global community overcome is the image of the Muslim people as blood-thirsty, murdering terrorists. There are in fact millions of Muslims around the globe, in virtually every country of the world, who are in fact not terrorists and have little desire to do more than – like most people – provide for their families and live out their lives in a peace.
In Arabic, the word “Muslim” means one who surrenders, and for Muslims the surrender to God, or Allah (Merriam Webster on-line dictionary). Mary Pat Fisher (1999) describes how the Arab people received the Word of God through the Prophet Muhammad (p. 346). Just as those whose faith rests in Judaism and Christianity, Islam can also be traced to the patriarch Abraham (p. 344). Also, just as the expression of Judaism is held within the Old Testament of the Bible, as is the expression of Christianity held in the New Testament of the Bible, the expression of Islam rests within the Qura’an (p. 344). The revelations of the Qur’an unto the Prophet Muhmmad by an “angel in human-like form, Gabriel…,” began about 600 C.E., which began with the words “Proclaim! (or Recite!) In the name of they lord and Cherisher, who created – created man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood: Proclaim! And they Lord is Most Bountiful – He who taught (The use of) of the pen, – Taught man that which he knew not (p. 347).”
The revelations made unto Muhmmad by the angel Gabriel continued “intermittently,” says Mary Pat Fisher (p. 347). The central theme of the revelations was that there was but one God, and that one God was calling the people of Islam unto Him (p. 347). The word “Islam” means “complete trusting surrender to God (p. 347).” At first Muhammad shared his revelations only with those people he believed he could trust. his wife, Khadijah. his cousin Ali. a friend named Abu Bakr. and a freed slave
He is conscious that he is a sinner, and is not ready to meet his Maker. He withdraws from the company of his friends and devotes himself to prayer and the study of the scriptures. However, his attempts “to seek the salvation of his soul” (Tyler, ) through vigorous prayer meet with no success.
Nettleton now experiences his dark night of the soul. He is “assailed by infidel doubts” (Tyler, ) and questions the veracity of the Bible and the existence of God. He then comes to realize that his earlier religious services “had been prompted by selfish motives” (Tyler, ) of escaping punishment, and not by true love of God, or genuine repentance. He is influenced by President Edwards’ accounts of religious revival, Brainerd’s memoir, and other sermons.
Finally, Nettleton finds that “a great change has been wrought in his views and feelings” (Tyler, ). He is confident in the truth of the doctrines of the Scriptures, and treasures the Saviour. He accepts that his identity is the defined only “by the Grace of God” (Tyler, ). He finds his firm faith and with this, “A sweet peace pervaded his soul” (Tyler, ). However, Nettleton remains humbly ambivalent about his own position in the eyes of God and is always aware of his inherent weaknesses. Nettleton’s conversion covered a long period of ten months. This extended period of self-analysis and study made him eminently suitable for his profession as a minister of Christ.
The following account of the conversion of Asahel Nettleton is taken from Bennet Tylers work Memoir of the Life and Character of Rev. Asahel Nettleton, D.D. published in 1844, the year of Nettletons death.
."From my earliest age, I endeavored to live a moral life, being taught that God would punish sinners. but I did not believe that I should suffer for the few offenses of which I had been guilty. Having avoided many sins
28) THE ARGUMET SORUNDING THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN CHURCH LEADERSHIP" To underscore my theme, I quoted Richison’s (2000) work which postulates that Christ’s redemptive work not only saves all (male and female), but also gives people the will to work for God. Because of this, there is no room for gender discrimination, since men and women are justified. I also made reference of Johnson’s (1997) work, wherein he argues that the cause of feminist Christians is misguided since Galatians 3:28 and other scriptural passages in the New Testament are indicative of, and in support of gender parity. Particularly, Johnson shows that cases that feminists take as scriptural references that act as vestiges of gender discrimination are actually instances which have been taken out of context.
I also point out that and concede to Davis’ (2013) postulation that God only qualified functional differences of the sexes: He defined the roles that men and women have to play, in the society, but did not intend them to treat each other as unequal. Because of this, it is wrong to say that God in the Scriptures sanctioned gender inequality.
I ended up with the standpoint that in respect to Galatians 3:28, women should be allowed to discharge leadership roles just as men, since men and women are equals. Likewise, the reason I drew for their equality is their being in possession of inherent qualities that espouse them to leadership duties, calling and responsibility (Lind, 2013).
From the presentation, I learnt that Christians, regardless of their sex, can identify with Christ. This is because, I realised that the concept of servanthood emanated from Christ Himself who was also the perfect servant. The Bible in Exodus 21:6 and Deuteronomy 15:17 speak of an individual who makes himself a slave out of his own volition and his ear is pierced (or opened) with an awl. Later on, Psalms 45 confirms that the slave in Exodus 21:6 and Deuteronomy 15:17 is a foreshadowing of Christ, the servant of God. To underscore this standpoint, Isaiah 53 also refers to
71750 Ministers of the crown, lawyers, church clergymen and doctors follow next in the nobility line considered the middle class society. Apothecaries, craftsmen and shop owners, qualify as the lower middle class. Workers in the city handle any job available within the kingdom. Land workers are in the peasantry category. They were called serfs in Eastern Europe in the year 1980 (Rao, 2006, p. 13). Eastern Europe classes translate the bible and decide to have it in their own respective languages. Women never get to access education unless they were in the nobility or upper middle class. Eastern Europeans reduce education spread to prevent rebelliousness and sudden uprisings. Male life expectancy is higher than women due to child birth complications. The women live ten times longer than men once they survive the childbirth. Child delivery was a complex procedure during the time due to limited surgical education. Children die by the time they reach five years old, and each family expects half of the siblings not to make it. Cold climate within the regions brings about rain. Poor drainage harbors contaminated stagnant water causing waterborne diseases resulting to multiple deaths because of lack of proper medical remedies. Women rights were non-existent. Women were the father’s property passed on to become the husband’s possession. Only women without fathers and widows had the right to have independent rights in a society in Eastern Europe. A woman’s infidelity results to murder by the husband. The Eastern Europe rule gives every husband the right to eliminate infidelity. Virginity was of high value in the 18th century. Women who lie about their virginity to the husband before marriage face the same result. Consummation is a public event until the husband is satisfactory and approves of the wedding gift. Two forms of clothing attire are available. one for church and the other
The articles interconnect with apocryphal books, ancient and modern interpreters work, medieval work that laid the foundation for modern day ideologies, methods as well as movements that are key for biblical studies. The writer has minimized alteration of the original information as much as possible to maintain the authenticity of t6hje information in the bible. However, there has been addition of information to small extent which go beyond minor corrections. In this context, it has been observed that the book of Esther has additional text that comprises about nine sentences. These have formed the basis for the recent studies carried out on the book of Esther. Furthermore, the Song of Songs for instance, has thirty additional items to the bibliography causing some minor differences in the upcoming books and present day interpretations. Therefore the writer has laid a good foundation to modern day biblical studies and interpretations. it has been noted that the Deutronomical books in the old Testament has additional fascinating topics that focus on individual interpreters, modern approaches as well as theological topics that give immense inspiration. This has been based on the articles written or excerpted from the Dictionary of interpretations by John H. Hayes.
Most biblical interpreters and writers emphasize and give particular attention to information obtained in the last two centuries. This marks a unifying factor towards the greatest interpreters. However, some interpreters subdivide their research and work to the different categories, namely: Early interpretation, which addresses the ancient Biblical information and how they formed basis for subsequent work. The second category is the early middle age. This follows the early middle age and borrows heavily from the earlier version. Thirdly, there is the twelfth century interpretation which laid the foundation for the other interpretations. Others are The scholastic period, the early modern period and
Mary Jones Mary Jones was born in a poor Welsh family in December 1784. Born to Calvinistic Methodist parents, Mary embraced Christianity at the ageof 8 years old. Her parents lived at the Cader Idris mountain’s foot in the North Wales. Mary Jones learned reading in Thomas Charles’s organized schools. Thomas Charles was passionate about teaching the poor children. Mary visited a farm regularly to read Bible, and had a deep desire of owning a copy of Bible. Welsh Bibles were too expensive for such poor children. After saving money for up to 6 years, Mary was able to buy a copy of Bible. One find morning in 1800, Mary started her 25 miles long journey to Bala crossing several mountains, valleys, and streams barefooted with the hope of buying Bible from Thomas Charles, only to find that all copies he possessed were either occupied or sold. However, Thomas Charles became overwhelmed to see Mary weep and decided to sell her the copy she had been promised before. Thomas Charles was greatly moved by Mary’s endeavor to get Bible and he thought what could be done for others like Mary who wanted to have Bible but could not possess it. Therefore, he came up with the idea of formulation of a new Society to provide Bibles in Wales as a result of which, the British and Foreign Bible Society was established in 1804. Mary Jones passed away in 1864. Her grave is in the “Bryn-crug Calvinistic Methodist Chapel” (“Mary Jones resources”) graveyard.
“Mary Jones resources.” Bible Society. N.d. Web. 6 Nov. 2014.
Of the four Gospels, John makes the most intense use of the prologue method in shaping the outlines of particular Christology (O’Day 1995: 758). The Gospel of John’s prologue can be described as the most profound passages in the Bible as its description of Christ Jesus as the logos has put forth an everlasting influence of theology of Christianity (Bruner, 2012:3).
The prelude of John 1:1-18 is distinctive in Bible literature. It is obvious that John’s main point is not God the person but the emphasis on the distinctiveness of the Word. The Logos are the focal point of the work as well as the teachings in the passage that show that the Logos is complexly involved with the universe’s creation. All through the prologue, it is quite clear there is a pre-existence of the Logo (Giblin 1985: 87-103). A lot has been said about the beginnings of the word logos. Philo used the term and yet Philo’s logo is an impersonal manifestation of God’s Wisdom. While John’s use of the word logos borrows from that of Philo (most notably considering that John wrote the Gospel when he was in Ephesus because it is at this point that the Greeks were able to comprehend its usage), but John goes a step further than what Philo dreamed of. Instead of a pantheistic, neutral divine release, John’s logos are a more personal, eternal being that is not part of creation but instead the creator himself (Seitz, 2007: 55).
To have a better understanding, the first verse must be examined. The verse is broken down into three parts each playing a significant role. The first noticeable thing is the flawed form of eimi usage all through the prologue concerning the logos. The phrase has an attachment “en arche” being timeless – i.e. dating back as, so one wishes it to be, in pushing back the beginning for the Word was already existent. This is evident in the New English Bible. It says, “The Word was already there during the beginning of all things.” Therefore,
Giotto is generally considered as the first in a series of legendary artists who positively contributed to the renaissance in Italy. Religion played an important role in Italy during the renaissance. It was a period characterized by turmoil in the Christian faith especially the Roman Catholic. Renaissance had a profound impact on contemporary Christianity especially in the way people perceived the relationship between God and man. Some more secular aspects of humanism developed against a background of Christianity and art was used to portray Christianity as the true religion. Most of the new art of the time was in dedication to the church or was commissioned by the church.
The self-awareness that the masses developed during the renaissance also influenced art during the period. Architects, artists, writers, and sculptors in Italy were using phrases like “all Romana et all Antica” or “Modi antichi” to show their awareness of the transformations that were taking place during the time. The awareness was not limited to classical antiquity but was also spread to the growing desire to imitate and study nature and portraying scenes from the bible to imitate classical forms.
Renaissance art was distinguished because of its ability to develop high quality and realistic linear perspectives involving nature. Giotto di Bondone was a futuristic artist and the pioneer in applying perspective to develop a trend in arts that moved towards realism. Giovanni Villani, Giotto’s contemporary described him as the painting master who drew all his postures and figures according to nature. Giotto’s mastery of the art is maybe best captured by Vasari Giorgio who described him as the artist who drew accurately from life. He was credited with applying a painting as a telescope into space through the art of perspective. Perspective only came to be formalized much later by Alberti Battista (1404-1472) and Brunelleschi Filippo (1377 -1446) in their subsequent works.
ction…”3 Thus, it is the art with which one is able to retrieve information and learning that sets one apart from simply recalling or remembering. In order for learning to take place, one must have a source from which to draw upon knowledge. Once this is achieved, recollection is attained. Thus, knowledge has a purpose and a direction which can be analyzed through various means. This is the nature of knowledge. [150 words]
Part II. Method/Hermeneutics. Seventh-Day Adventist4 theology is unique. Seventh-Day Adventists’ theology approximates a movement with apocalyptic overtones. Adventists’ hermeneutics, or interpretational theory, stems from the books of Daniel and Revelation, which are both books of the Bible that deal with prophecy. Seventh Day Adventists are particularly concerned with prophecy and how it relates to the interpretation of the sacred text of the Bible. Basically, the main ideas that characterize Seventh-Day Adventism has been carefully analyzed. The way the Bible is interpreted by people within the religious culture of Seventh-Day Adventism is very specific. The theme of the end times reoccurs often, more often than not, in the hermeneutics of the Seventh-Day Adventists. The main hermeneutic regarding the book of Daniel deals mainly with the foreshadowing of the coming of Christ. The main hermeneutic regarding the book of Revelation deals mainly with the symbols associated with end times and the impending return of Christ. [150 words]
Part III. Method/Hermeneutics. The Seventh-Day Adventist hermeneutic is continued to be discussed in this section. The interpretational theory of the Seventh-Day Adventists depends largely on the text being evaluated or analyzed. In the case of Seventh-Day Adventists, the text that is mainly focused upon—usually, but not always—is Revelation. This is because a large part of Seventh-Day Adventist theology usually focuses upon the up-and-coming return of Christ to earth in order to
English: 6 November 2005 A critical analysis of the Rocking Horse Winner In the “Rocking Horse Winner” money proves to truly be the root of all evil. The Bible even declares the love of money is the entryway of greed. The reality in behind this is the fact that too much money is never enough. This idea is clearly seen through the literature in D.H. Lawrence’s “The Rocking Horse Winner”. What is very sad about this whole short story is the knowledge that the son wanted nothing more than his mothers’ approval and her love. He also wanted to help her feel satisfied financially. In attempting to achieve these things, she brought him down in his own life, ultimately ending in his tragic death.
The author really does a wonderfully, descriptive job in bringing the main focus of this story into reality. It shows that though you can have nice things, a comfortable home, and financial security, there is still a craving for more. Even the house, that Paul and his family live in, seems to harbor a desire for wealth, from within itself. It seems the house comes alive with the desire for money as the following literary passage shows: “There must be more money! There must be more money!” (Lawrence 288) The voice of the house is heard by everyone though no one mutters a syllable about it. The voice literally drives Paul half crazed and his only hope in shutting the house up is to win more money, or so he believes. Unfortunately, this does not work either because now the house is feeling of greed and wants more. In fact, the voice is more declarative after receiving the first sum of money and now is even louder and more demanding. “There must be more money… Now www… More than ever!” (296)
From here on the greed and demand for money grows progressively worse. Paul had somehow hoped his mother would finally show she loved him but still she remained as she’d been when she would feel her children near, “the center of her heart would go hard” (287). She was a mother that did not know how to love her children. The only love the book shows she gave was her adoration to money. Further, in the following comment we see how much she was enthralled with it. “If you’re lucky, you will always get more money” (289). This proves she only valued the worth of the dollar and what it could bring her. If she feels there isn’t enough then she becomes resentful and preoccupied with the idea that they will never have a substantial amount.
In concluding this critique of Lawrence’s short story, there is a grave lesson to be learned here. The obsession with money and the urge to get more only leads in self destruction, such as happened to Paul. In the end he almost seemed possessed by the evil of money. His innocence was shattered and his life consumed, then taken. Money can’t possibly be worth losing your life for, but Lawrence’s depictions in this literary work prove that for some, it’s worth their very souls.
1. D.H. Lawrence, The Rocking-Horse Winner, A Treasury of Short Stories (1947)
Our Individuals Place in Society. As the movie explains, we all have a role to play in our society. Fathers have a responsibility of being the bread winners and bringing up their children. They offer guidance and act as the role model for their children. A society is an organized group of people living in the same geographic region and is associated together for political, religion, culture laws and values reasons. A modern father is quite different from a traditional father who only gave disciplinarily and was the breadwinner in a family. They develop a personal relationship with the children and develop a very strong relationship as the children grow. In this film, Rowans father is willing to do anything for his sick son. He is seen traveling a long journey to seek treatment for his son who was discovered with Autism disease. The father has played a parenting role as he overcomes all the challenges along the way without giving up. A society has a power to determine how children grow and their future character. It is imperative for parents to give and offer the right morals and guidance to their children for better molding in a society.
Difference Between Ai Wei-Wei and Banksy
One of the major differences between Ai Wei-Wei and Banksy is that Ai Wei-Wei used graffiti art while Bankysy used street art. Bankysy was a filmmaker who used art to deliver his message. He was voted as one of the most influential persons in the world. He is put in the same category with the alike of Obama and lady gaga. He mainly displaces his art on publically visible places such as walls. On the other hand, Wei-Wei was a filmmaker and activist in China. His use of art was considered as destructive. He uses Scarecrow to deliver his message in the street of China. Art is a variety of human activities and the resulting product of those activities that usually involve technical and imaginative skills. These activities include criticism of work, work of art production, the study of art, and dissemination of art. Art focuses on the production of visual art that includes the creation of object or image, painting, printmaking, and photography. Art can be mainly be used for educating a society. One of the place where you can display art include on public streets and roads. A good example where you can use art is when you want to challenge a governments decision to ignore public opinion. One can decide to use art to educate people about the serious consequences of the governments choice of action or decision. Art is very effective way of communication and educating a society.
The Place of Human Being in Nature.
The book of Kells is sometimes known as the book of Columba. Its a Gospel book in Latin. It contains four gospels books of the Bible in the New Testament and various prefatory tables and text. In this book, different cultures are discussed. The book talks about how images are understood as visual exegesis. The nature of humans has been portrayed as one that can be influenced by the use of art. The objects being displayed in the book have a great impact on a human understanding of the message being conveyed in the book. The culture of humans depends on the interaction between human and other species. Culture differs among different societies. The nature of the human being is to adopt and practice the existing culture in their community. Different objects can be used to influence a culture among people living in the same region. In this book, the objects used are meant to educate people from a Christian perspective.
Social construction is a construction of a reality that you might not be aware of. It is a notion assigned to object based on gender, races and the class they are in. Rowans parents are a victim of social construction as they believe they have a responsibility of seeking treatment for their son. They know since they are the parents of the sick child, only they are entitled to seek medication for their son. Another social construction is the love they feel for their son. They are willing to do anything for him to get better. There is a strong relationship between the father and the son that portrayed a good parenting.
Creation of Beauty by Human Being
Ecocriticism is the study of environment and literature from an interdisciplinary point of view. Ai Wei-Wei sunflowers are made up of dedication and millions small work. Each of these sunflowers are identical but are unique. From these sunflowers, beauty is observed by the way they look. Human beings can create beauty by the use of art. When one creates an object, which has a good appealing to the eyes its an addition to beauty. A human can add beauty by adding more art in our society such as painting, use of scarecrows and creation of objects such as sunflower seeds.
Ai Wei-Wei Serpent Meaning.
One of the many uses of art by the Ai Wei-Wei was the creation of a snake bag. The snake bag is very beautiful and has become very famous around the world. It was created using 360 childrens backpacks that were killed during Sichuan earthquake in 2008. The main reason for using the snake bag art is to deliver the message that the children died as a result of the poor code of building houses in China. Corruption was the key factor that led to building of the poor houses. As a result, China government has regarded him as a threat.
Who is a Human Being?
According to this picture, a human being is portrayed as one who is fascinated by nature. He is surrounded by nature hence influencing the way he relates to the objects around. It is from this nature that leads to a human creation of art such as symbols and painting. A human can be greatly influenced to create something new or a resemblance of what the nature has.
One would wonder what the exact purpose of Mary Rowlandson work was, was it merely an inclined statement of author’s religious belief? Or was it pure evidence of what she truly underwent while in captivity as a woman? Or was it to tell a story of the challenges the early colonial Americans faced? Well in a broader context her work combines both the three notions. the power of a higher intervention, strong religious belief. the power and position of a woman as viewed by her society portrayed in the most difficult of situations and the tension between the Native Americans and the Colonial Americans.
Mary Rowlandson’s major work was the mentioned narrative documented in her book “The Sovereignty and Goodness of God” describing the conditions and processes she was put throughout the captivity and the religious faith in God that kept her alive and fueled her with hope (Rowlandson 25). Mary employed the spiritual aspect in telling her story referring to the captivity as maybe a test from God and an opportunity to review her self-conscience. she continuously quoted numerous bible verses in her citations like “Cast thy burden on the Lord, and He shall sustain thee”, a verse from the biblical book of Psalms. She narrates the episodes in the first person as she clearly describes the events with a hopeful tone but spotted with a few instances of despair and anguish (Smith-Rosenberg 112). Subjectivity is however noted from analyzing her thoughts, motivations, and feelings in general. The narrative is divided into twenty sections corresponding to the “journeys” she was taken through during the captivity ordeal from the raid through her enslavement to her release. Mary attests the passing’s of her “journeys” as the doing of God’s faith.
Submitted by Diana Ina, RN In partial fulfillment of the requirements of Transition to Professional Nursing N3645 Jeanean Boyd, MSN, RN January 24, 2015
Philosophy of Nursing with Compassion
The philosophy in Nursing serves as the conceptual framework of how patients are cared for. Nursing to me is a work of the heart. Compassion is the key in interacting with patients and getting them to focus on forming trust in the healthcare professional. Everyday many people are hospitalized due to many reasons and diagnosis. The first impression of the healthcare professional is what the patient will always remember. Nursing is a wonderful and unique area of study that God grants to people that I believe have a servant’s heart. We make a difference in so many areas such as healing, environment, self –worth and the total well – being of the patient. Nightingale’s philosophy includes the four meta-paradigm concepts of Nursing, but the primary focus is on the patient and the environment (Nightingale, 1860/1969). Health is “not only to be well, but to be able to use well every power we have to use,” (Nightingale, 1969, p. 24)
Choice of Nursing
Nursing has been a fascination of mine since I was a little girl. I have a lot of compassion and love for people. My career started at the age of 17. graduating from the High School of Health Professions. I worked 4 years as a Nurse Aide, 10 years as a LVN, and now 22 years as a RN. I look at the patients I care for with a heart as if they were my family members. giving excellent care. I feel God gave me a gift to share and take care of others. Philippians 2:4 states “Let each of you look not only to his own interest, but also to the interests of others. (Holy Bible King James Version).Ephesians 4:32 states “Be kind to one another, tender hearted, forgiving one another, as God in Christ forgave us.” (Holy Bible King James Version)
I recently had tragedy in my own life and was a bit heartbreaking. My husband died from a cardiac arrest on dialysis in October 2014. Being a dialysis nurse I questioned coming back to dialysis and even nursing profession. After 3 months to heal and go through my grief, I now realize this where God wants me to be and be more effective. The nurse owes the same duties to self as to others, including the responsibility to preserve integrity and safety. (ANA, 2001, p. 18)
Essence of Nursing
The core of Nursing is caring and compassion. Patient – centered care is a very important component that recognizes the total well – being of the patient with a holistic approach.
The patient is given compassionate, coordinated, age and culturally appropriate, safe and effective care (Massachusetts Department of Higher Education, 2010, p. 9).
Historically from the era of Florence Nightingale‘s philosophy focused on the primarily on the patient and their environment, with the nurse controlling the environment to enhance the recovery of the patient.
The ANA code of ethics for nurses was developed as a guide to responsibility care for patients in a manner that reflected quality in nursing care and the ethical obligations of the Nursing profession. Sometimes in today’s society “quality of care “ can be jeopardized for many reasons such as short staffing for patient to nurse ratio, lack of supplies necessary to care for patients due to hospitals budget issues. The quality of care for older people that are residents of long – term care is also an ethical concern.
There are political factors that also influence professional pursing practice. Healthcare reform is a major issue due to so many people that can’t afford health insurance. The Affordable Care Act provides access to insurance for all Americans through tax credits and premium assistance, which should significantly improve access to healthcare. (Healthcare Reform: Chapter 12 Law and the Professional Nurse).
Beliefs and Values
A patient is a person that is receiving a medical treatment or healthcare services. The patient is most times ill or in need of medical treatment by a physician or hospital. Human being/patients are the recipient of nursing care or services. Patients may be individuals, families, groups, communities or populations (AACN, 1998, p. 2 as cited in Massachusetts Department of Higher Education , 2010 , p. 7).
The patient’s family members and significant other also depend on the healthcare team to take competent care of their loved ones. It is critical to communicate with the family members or significant other, also keeping HIPPA guidelines in mind .Family members are the vital links in the transition from hospital to home care. (Patient/Family Education Learning Module, uhn just.org.)
My fellow health care providers serve in many roles with patients including, practitioner, social worker, dietician, caregiver and advocate. They work as a team to meet and address the holistic care of the patient. Placing RN behind your name means you are committed to the legal, ethical, and moral responsibilities that define professional roles. These responsibilities are based on (ANA’s) Nursing Scope and Standards of Professional Practice, the ANA’s Nursing Cide of Ethics, and the ANA’s Nursing Social Policy Statement.
I am 52 years old and I am in good health. My weight is something I am working to decrease my weight due to being pre-diabetic. I have a personal trainer and I have changed my eating habits based on the advice of my primary MD whom I trust.
Vision for the Future
In 2 years I would still like to be working with Home Hemodialysis which is the provision of dialysis in the home of a patient with End Stage Renal disease. Concurrently doing Peritoneal dialysis, in which the inside lining of your abdomen acts as a natural filter.
In 5 years I want to continue in the same areas of dialysis, incorporating traveling to other facilities as an educator to train other nurses to perform dialysis, along with competencies reviews. I also want to have my BSN completed.
In 10 years I would like to have completed my MSN to be teaching Nursing at a accredited university. Education is my goal as I head into my retirement years to motivate and encourage new nurse into the field.
My strengths that will support my personal goals are determination, compassion, professionalism and my faith in God to be in Nursing for 34 years and continue to provide quality care to patients. I am a strong team player with my fellow healthcare provides.
I am a great communicator who speaks up to and express my thoughts both clearly and concisely.
There are financial limitations that may prolong how long it takes me to get my BSN to MSN. Since the recent death of my husband, lack of moving forward mentally may be a stumbling block, along with fear. I have to overcome lack of motivation and just push forward and keep believing. Phillipians 4:13, I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me. New King James Version (NKJV).
ANA Code of Nurses: https://nursing world.org/ethics/code/protected nwcoe813.htm
Holy Bible (King James Version)
Chapter 2 -3: Philosophy of Nursing —- Role Development in Professional Nursing
Practice by Kathleen Masters
Roger Fenton Born on 28 March 1819 in Lancashire, Roger Fenton was a prominent British photographer. He is widely regarded as the first war photographer in the world. His father and grandfather were wealthy and influential people. His father was a famous politician whereas his grandfather was a banker as well as a business person. “Fenton studied painting and then law” (Roger Fenton). He was graduated in 1840 from University College, London. Fenton married Grace Elizabeth Maynard in 1843. “In 1853, he was appointed as the official photographer of the Crimean War, taking 360 photographs in all. Although his pictures only depicted the "acceptable" parts of the conflict, they were the first to capture the mundane aspects of warfare” (Roger Fenton Biography). He was died on August 8, 1869. This paper analyses the pictures taken by Roger Fenton with respect to subject matter, composition, framing, and intent.
Even though Roger Fenton has taken more than 360 war photographs, he deliberately avoided the pictures of dead, injured or mutilated soldiers. At the same time, he was successful in portraying or revealing the atrocities of war with the help of the photographed landscapes at or near the war front. Crimean War between Britain and Russia was portrayed beautifully by Roger Fenton. One of the most famous war photographs taken during Crimean War by Fenton is known as the Valley of the Shadow of Death.
(Valley of the Shadow of Death)
British soldiers faced lot of humiliating defeats in the place shown in the above photograph. Even though, dead bodies or injured people are not visible in this picture, the viewers will get a haunting experience after watching this picture. “Borrowing from the Twenty-third Psalm of the Bible, the Valley of Death was named by British soldiers who came under constant shelling there” (Valley of the Shadow of Death). Valley of the Shadow of Death is considered to be the master piece of Roger Fenton. It is still considered as an important piece of war photography. The theme of this picture is the view of a cannonball-strewn road near Sevastopol. This photograph appears to be a simple at the first look. however close analysis of this picture may present a haunting experience to the viewers. “The image offers a kind of visual equivalent to Tennysons poem The Charge of the Light Brigade. In it, the poet pays tribute to the six hundred British cavalrymen who died in this same valley on 25 October 1854” (Roger Fenton: The Valley of the Shadow of Death)
Fenton believed that the perceptive eye of the camera could record "all the mighty world." “Always exploring new subjects and testing the limits of his practice, Fenton photographed Britains ruined abbeys and stately homes, Russian architecture, romantic landscapes, the collections of the British Museum, the Crimean War, the royal family, as well as "Orientalist scenes" and still lives (All the mighty world)
To conclude, Roger Fenton was a photographer who tried to educate the world regarding the atrocities of war with the help of war photographs. Even though he rarely photographed the pictures of dead or wounded soldiers, his war photographs speak volumes about the destructive elements of wars.
“All The Mighty World”. 2012. Web. 31 July 2012.
“Roger Fenton Biography”. 2012. Web. 31 July 2012.
“Roger Fenton”. Web. 31 July 2012.
“Roger Fenton: The Valley of the Shadow of Death”. Web. 31 July 2012.
“Valley of the Shadow of Death”. Web. 31 July 2012.
In the Bible, it is sаid thаt “God’s presence in аnd аbsence from the world аre а mystery thаt is impenetrаble to thought аnd even more so to mаn’s senses аnd experience. It would seem thаt we cаn only think аnd speаk of it in propositions thаt аre diаlecticаl, thаt is, which cаncel eаch other out. For if we construct the ideа of God аs its content demаnds, God is both everything (to pаn estin аutos: Sir 43:27)—for nothing cаn be outside God, nor cаn аnything be аdded to him—аnd ‘exаlted аbove аll his works’ (pаrа pаntа to ergа аutou: Sir 43:28). For none of these works is God: indeed, eаch of them is sepаrаted from him by the infinite distаnce аnd opposition of аbsolute аnd relаtive. The more God hаs to be in аll things if they аre to ‘be’ аt аll, the more his presence in them reveаls him to be utterly different from them: the more he is immаnent, the more he is trаnscendent. This diаlectic is correct in its own pаrticulаr wаy, but it sounds empty. religious experience finds it hаrd to follow, with the result thаt the imаges of God in the religions mаnifest а plurаlist diversity.
In the following essаy, I will reflect the аbsence аnd presence of God in а few stories by different аuthors including “Go to tell it on the mountаin” by Jаmes Bаldwin аnd Douglas Couplands “Life After God”.
The first novel “Go Tell It on the Mountаin” by Jаmes Bаldnwin wаs writing in 1953 аnd is а аutobiogrаphicаl novel аbout the role of the Christiаn Church in the lives of Аfricаn-Аmericаns. The presence of God is described аs а source of repression аnd morаl hypocrisy аnd аs а source of inspirаtion аnd community. It аlso, more delicаtely, exаmines rаcism in the United Stаtes.
The opening chаpter tells the story of John, а young Аfricаn-Аmericаn boy in Hаrlem in the eаrly pаrt of the 20th century. John is the son of Elizаbeth аnd her preаcher husbаnd Gаbriel, the lаtter of whom is а strict disciplinаriаn. Gаbriels religious philosophy is strict аnd is one of sаlvаtion through fаith in Jesus, without which one is dаmned to hell. John hаtes his fаther аnd dreаms of wounding or killing him аnd running аwаy.
The poems selected for analysis are Medusa by Carol Ann Duffy, Ozymandias by Percy Shelly and The Clown Punk by Simon Armitage.
Medusa by Carol Ann Duffy is a dramatic monologue told in the first person. The character in the poem is an insecure woman who suspects that her husband could be unfaithful to her. She is a monstrous character looks at things and they turn into stones. That is a result of jealousy in her. Many times, people do not like monstrous characters in works of art, because they are scaring. In medusa, however, empathy and sympathy are evoked in equal measure. Both stem from the fact that the woman’s situation causes her serious suffering and distress.
A reader of the poem ends up feeling sympathetic. It may cause them to shed a tear. Her jealousy causes paranoia and this worsens the relationship between her and her husband. It causes damage to her well-being and she struggles to regain her lost identity.
Ozymandias is a sonnet and made of fourteen lines. It doesn’t fit any known/conventional Petrarchan pattern. The rhyme scheme used is strange for a sonnet. It evokes dislike because the character in the poem, Ozymandias, emerges as a proud and a very arrogant type of person. Below is an excerpt.
In the poem, the Ozymandias imagines that he is the most powerful individual on earth and that nobody can do some of the things he does. He is boastful and too full of himself. It is usual for people or a reader of this poem to dislike this kind of character. Too much pride and boastfulness evokes dislike, especially if sounds like the character has disregard for others and their abilities. Generally, even in the bible, it is said that pride precedes destruction and that it comes before a fall. The character makes a huge statue of himself and this tells a lot about his big ego. Later on, the statue is shattered and only its leg and head remains.
The poem is a moral narrative that uses quite some metaphors and imagery to pass the
Thomas considered war as well as the idea of war to be justified in certain cases and unjustifiable in others (Tooke, 1965, Pg. 77). Once these objections have been considered in-depth, we can evaluate how applicable they are to the world around us and if they still stand true today. As one of the greatest medieval thinkers, the works of St. Thomas Aquinas hold a special position when it comes to philosophy and ethics. On the subject of war, the Summa Theologiae is his most relevant work since he considers the idea of war itself to be a sin and thus all war is unjust as well as unlawful (Finch, 2007, II-IIq.40a.1). These objections stem from the Christian heritage which St. Thomas is quite attached to and other objections made to war also connect in some way or the other to the concepts given in the Bible.
For example, objections such as war being contrary to peace thus being a sin is certainly an idea that comes from Christianity but St. Thomas also uses logic to help him in his objections to war. For example, he considers the legality of war and suggests that a contest of reason would be perfectly legal since there are no deaths involved when reasons battle but when individuals engage in martial contests, they die without reason and thus die without legal causes.
However, St. Thomas does not dispute that a war can be justified in some situations but lays down strict criteria for a war to be just. He demands that war should be authorized by a prince who has the right to command the warriors to go to war. Individuals who do not have such authority cannot wage war and should not engage in the battle to settle their differences which can be settled in a court of law. A war can be justified if it is fought in self-defense and not as a war of aggression. Moreover, the war which is ordered by the prince can be fought against people within the land as with people from without the land in order to protect the kingdom.
St. Thomas Aquinas also demands that war should have a just cause, which is to say that war must only be carried out on those who have shown that they deserve a war to be imposed on them.
Greek literature is known to be the pioneer that laid the foundation of all the current forms of literature in the world. The various genres that are explored in Greek literature include history, comedy and tragedy. Hesiod is considered as the father of Didactic poetry. Both Homer and Hesiod used to write in the Epic form of poetry. The major thematic concerns in their works included mythology and history for example in Hesiod’s case one of his best works is Theogony in which the poet talks about the origin of the gods and the world.
The epic provides a very apt and thorough account of Greek Mythology and the Greek ideals and customs. The various themes that are explored in Iliad include revenge, warfare, power, love and death.
Hence it is observed that both the works of Homer and Hesiod can be described as a bible for Greek customs, traditions and history although the two poets had a marked difference in their depiction of life and writing styles. .
glish has been the dominant language for centuries and the translating group (publishers and Bible scholars among others) use different methods to produce various versions that enhance peoples’ comprehension of the teachings. Critics point on the faithfulness of the Bible translations arguing that it contains distorted meanings and words of God. There is the dynamic equivalence method which lays emphasis on the original meaning, formal equivalence on word by word (Wallace 23). However, rather than focusing on the grammatical content in translations, the problem arises in trying to ensure the symbolic language used in the original material of translation makes sense upon paraphrasing and conversions. The benchmark is to ensure that though languages may change, the word of God still remains unchanged.
The Greek New Testament has been criticized for its textual underpinnings that demonstrated a departure from the received Greek text. When Westcott Foss and Fenton John Anthony published the Greek New Testament, they considered the available ancient manuscripts that have been discovered to have missed certain passages (“Why so,” Bible.org). Many Biblical translators have failed to credit the works of these men, despite the fact that they laid a pillar in Biblical translation works. Their work has been claimed to be glorious, but surrounded by controversy on their contradiction from the original sources. Westcott and Anthony used two sources of the manuscripts that came from codex sinaiticus and vaticanus, believed to be false copies of the New Testament. Critiques hold that they entail the fifty falsified manuscripts deliberately corrupted by Eusebius to fulfil the order of neo-pagan emperor Constantine. the two manuscripts not only contradict each other numerously, but 99 per cent disagree with other Koine Greek manuscripts (“A concordance,” archive.org). Studying the version, there is rising doubt from the contradictions and posing inaccuracies that exist,
The book of proverbs provides wide coverage of money, the way it should be acquired and utilized in society. In proverbs (11: 24) the Bible states that ‘one man gives freely, yet gains even more. another withholds unduly but comes to poverty’. The meaning of this verse is that those who withhold money have little chances of succeeding or making profits. This verse provides an incentive for each person to use the money for investment (Marr, 2006). While business is risky, investing gives money the opportunity to make profits. Secondly, this verse may refer to organizations that hold profits by minimizing employees’ wages (Morris and Morris, 2004). While such an organization may make high profits in the short term, in the long term, they are likely to make losses as employees lose focus on the organizational goals.
The question of business expenditure has attracted a lot of attention in the contemporary business environment. Business managers are faced with the dilemma of optimizing profits at the expense of their employees or vice versa. The issue of corporate social responsibility has pushed the organizations to further consider their investment strategies. Research has shown that for an organization to remain profitable in the long term, it is crucial that it takes care of the employee welfare by spending on decent wages and employee comfort. The idea of the bible (Proverbs, 11:25) that a generous many will prosper while one who refreshes others will also be refreshed points out to the benefits that an organization gains for remaining generous to their employees (Marr, 2006). When an organization pays its workers well it enjoys optimal profits due to employee loyalty and high labour turnover (Morris and Morris, 2004).
Business conduct is one of the most crucial factors in a business environment. .
Running head: Missionary Journeys of Paul Typing Template for APA Papers A. Sample Grand Canyon This paper summarizes the various routes Paul took on his three missionary journeys and the stops he made. These are among the most famous and effective evangelical works in Christian history. Each time Paul started from Antioch and travelled with various companions, along the way lecturing at synagogues and spreading God’s words in many villages, towns and cities.
Paul’s Missionary Journeys
In the early 1st Century, Saul – also called Paul – was a Hellenistic Jew who ardently had set out to persecute Christian converts. However, the message reached him at Damascus in the shape of Jesus Himself and Paul converted to Christianity (Acts 9:1-8). he vowed to spread the word of God and the Church to other lands thereon. According to the Acts, the Holy Spirit directed the Antioch Church to send out a missionary team, comprising of Barnabas and Paul (Act 13: 1-3) for the purpose of preaching the Gospel to the Jewish community and the Gentiles.
The First Journey
It was around the 48AD that Paul and Barnabas led a commission from Antioch, Seleucia and travelled to the island of Cypress (Calmet 1832, p731). The group made various stops along the way in villages and settlements to preach the Gospel. As indicated in the map (Fig 1), the team made the way through Salomis and travelled through the area of Paphos. It was here that they met the Jewish sorcerer and false prophet with the name of Bar-Jesus. He was actually an attendant to the Governor Sergius Paulus. Paulus was an intelligent logical man and was interested in seeking the truth. When he summoned for Barnabas and Saul, Elymas the sorcerer intercepted and tried to steer Paulus away from them. Paul, with the power of the Holy Spirit, unveiled the truth about Elymas’s deceit and lies and stated that he would turn blind because of them. Paulus, hence, converted to Christianity.
From Paphos and Cypress, the mission continued onwards to Perga in Pamphylia. This is where John left them to head for Jerusalem. Preaching and spreading the message of God, the mission travelled to the city of Antioch of Pisidia, and covered the towns of Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe, further East (Acts 13:13-14:20). In Iconium, Paul went to the Jewish synagogue to an assembly of Jews and Gentiles and was so articulate in speech that a great many of the listeners converted. however, the Jews were specifically hostile and the evangelical strategy to preach in synagogues proved to be more cumbersome. Along the way, Paul and Barnabas faced life threats and stoning, were confused as the human form of God and had to persistently explain their message to people. They moved on towards the Lycaonian towns of Lysrta and Derbe, going to the homes and meeting places of the Jews and Gentiles. Taking the route along Attalia, the mission made its way back to Antioch of Syria. (Act 14) This journey was especially successful for gentiles and marked the time when ethnic and religious differences began to manifest between the Jewish and the Gentiles within the Church.
Figure 1: Pauls First &. Second Missionary Journeys, Source: Biblical Foundations for Freedom
The Second Journey
In the 51AD, Paul suggested to Barnabas to revisit the areas that they had visited earlier for evangelism. A disagreement between the two ensued when the decision as to whether John, who had previously abandoned the duo’s mission at Prega, should be allowed to travel with them. Following the rift, Paul proceeded to take Silas on the second missionary journey, while Barnabas went on to Cypress.
As can be seen in the map (Fig 1), Paul travelled to Tarsus, Derbe, Lystra, Iconium and Pisidian Antioch, all the way strengthening the Church message. At Lystra, a devout disciple called Timothy joined the mission. Through the regions of Phrygia and Galatia, they travelled and delivered the decisions by the apostles in Jerusalem and instructed the people that they must obey. When they were at Troas, Paul had a vision at night that a man called him to Macedonia. Taking it as an omen, the mission took route to Macedonia (Act 16: 9-10). Sailing through Samothrace into Neapolis, the mission travelled on to Phillipi, Thessalonica – the capital of the district of Macedonia and Berea. During their stays, Paul and his team faced many hardships, including being thrown into prison and getting severely flogged but they continued the work of Jesus. They made churches for the peoples of faith wherever they could but at Berea they faced a lot of resistance from the Jewish synagogue.
From Berea, Paul took the mission to south to Athens, Greece, the center of Western Society intellect and then to Corinth, a major seaport and presumably the capitol of Achaia. He was joined later by Silas and Timothy from Macedonia. Here Paul is supposed to have written the 1 and 2 Thessalonians and continued writing more letters. They reportedly spent 18 months in the city of Corinth, before journeying back.
The Third Journey
On the third trip, Paul was dispatched by Antioch to Ephesus. (Acts 19:1). Ephesus was deemed to be the fourth largest city in the empire, along with being the center of trade and politics and had a huge population of Greeks and Jews. It also hosted the pilgrimage of umpteen pilgrims to the Temple of Artemis and thus was central to paganism as well. Paul spent all his time there for the next couple of years and in 57AD wrote 1 Corinthians and evangelized neighboring cities of Smyrna, Sardis, and Laodicea. Here too he faced threats and hardships from the locals and pagan worshippers. Upon leaving Ephesus, Paul travelled to Miletus and Philippi where he presumably wrote II Corinthians. From there he travelled to Corinth and then back. It was around 58AD when he travelled again with the intent of going to Jerusalem by Pentecost.
Figure 2: Paul’s Third Journey. Source: The Bible Study Website
Apostle Pauls Third Missionary Journey. The Bible Study Web Site. Retrieved 8 October 2009 from http://www.biblestudy.org/maps/pauls-third-journey-map.html
Bucknell, Paul J. Acts Map: Pauls First &. Second Missionary Journeys. Biblical Foundations for Freedom. Retrieved 8 October 2009 from http://www.foundationsforfreedom.net/References/NT/Acts/Acts_Map_3-Rome_Journeys.html
Calmet, Augustin, Taylor, Charles &. Robinson, Edward (1832). Dictionary of the Holy Bible. New York: Crocker and Brewster.
Mannerism in Italy and the High Renaissance in the North" The High Renaissance &. Mannerism in Italy and the High Renaissance in the North Introduction Mannerism refers to a style of architecture and arts that was used in the 16th century. Mannerism was characterized by the alteration of elements such as space and proportion. Mannerist architects and artists used the idealized and classical forms that were developed by artists of the Italian Renaissance. These artists exaggerated these forms using unconventional ways in order to heighten power, tension, elegance and emotion. Mannerism encompassed different stylistic approaches, which were influenced by the harmonious ideals that were associated with influential artists such as Michelangelo and Raphael (Murray, 2007). This differed from the stylistic and artistic ideals of the high renaissance, which focused on the exploration of the harmonious ideals.
Mannerists painted figures by using twisted or contorted poses and foreshortening. They used this technique to achieve an illusion of form projecting into space. This is evident in Michelangelo and Raphael’s frescoes in the Sistine Chapel. The paintings in the chapel appear stretched. The figures have elongated necks and torsos, which create unrealistic illusions of space (Murray, 2007). Additionally, the paintings in the ceiling of the chapel show sharp jumps from the foreground to the background instead of the usual gradual transition. In this case, Raphael and Michelangelo experimented with traditional subjects from mythology or the Bible in order to intensify emotional responses from the audience. This was also used in order to add to the visual or literary references.
Mannerism differs from high renaissance in terms of approach, content and form. High renaissance was the apex of visual arts. This was a period of extraordinary artistic production. The most popular artwork of this period is the Last Supper by Leonardo. Artwork of the high renaissance emphasized on classical tradition and the expansion of the network of patronage. During this period, there was a gradual attenuation of figures into an artistic style, which was later known as mannerism (Murray, 2007). Though the frescos of Michelangelo and Raphael were produced during the period of mannerism, their standards are considered as a culmination of the high renaissance style. These paintings are viewed as high renaissance because of their ambitious scale, complexity of composition, use of pointed iconographic and closely observed human figures.
The paintings of Raphael and Michelangelo on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel have differences and similarities to the artwork of the high renaissance. The classical principles of the arts of the high renaissance were balance, beauty and order, in addition to harmony, serenity and rational design. These attributes can be used to describe the frescos of Raphael and Michelangelo (Murray, 2007). The main difference between the two styles of arts is that mannerism assumes an anti-humanistic and anti-classical view of the world. Mannerism is notable for elongated forms, collapsed perspective and the use of precariously balanced poses. These are evident in paintings such as the Last Judgment on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the Creation of Adam by Michelangelo.
Mannerism refers to an artistic period that followed the Italian High Renaissance. Mannerism encompassed different stylistic approaches that were influenced by the harmonious ideals of influential artists such as Raphael, Leonardo and Michelangelo. This differed from high renaissance because it explored these harmonious ideals. As shown in the frescos of the Sistine Chapel, mannerist used twisted poses and foreshortening as techniques for creating illusions of forms. The frescos also show that mannerists experimented with traditional subjects from mythology or the Bible in order to add visual or literal reference, and intensify emotional drama.
Murray, L. (2007). The high renaissance and mannerism: Italy, the north, and Spain, 1500-1600. New York: Oxford University Press.
Luke 5:12-16 Luke 5:12-16 What does this small story tell us about Jesus? Try to discover the central message of this story, and then write it out. Read the story and write out the main messages.nbsp.
In Luke 5:12-16 (The New American Bible), tells us that if Jesus wants to heal a person, He can do so. One sees the willingness of Jesus to heal even those people who are ostracized by society, like the lepers. It is also clear from the story that the mission of Jesus is concentrated on those who are sick and those who need help. Another realization that one gathers from this story is that Jesus did not want to be popular. He would rather do good things and not boast about it. He did not want any recognition from other people. From the story, it is clear that Jesus is a very compassionate person and that He is willing to be seen even with lepers, even though during those times, lepers were prohibited to go near people who are well.
The central message of this story is that one should have a strong faith and believe that Jesus welcomes anyone, whether he is sick, poor or unaccepted by society. In the same manner, one thinks that Jesus wants His believers to do the same with his fellowmen. Another message is that one should not be afraid to ask Jesus what one needs. There should be no doubt in one’s mind that Jesus will heal those who ask Him with faith. One must humble himself before Jesus.
2) What is the Gospel writer trying to say to his readers by the way he puts the smaller stories together? Try to discover what the three stories have in common.nbsp.
In Matthew 24 (The New American Bible), the Gospel writer is trying to say that one should be ready always to face the Son of Man because He will come when He is least expected. Each one should try to do good at all times because when the Son of Man arrives, He will punish those who were not true to His commandments and He will reward those who have followed His teachings.
In Mark 9 (The New American Bible), the Gospel writer talks of the resurrection of Jesus. In this chapter, one also observes again that Jesus does not want the disciples to tell anyone about his resurrection.
In all of the three Gospel stories, the humility of Jesus is highlighted. He could have chosen to be famous and popular because He is the Son of Man. He could have asked those whom He has healed to talk about it to his family and neighbors, but he chose not to be in the limelight.
Another common element in the three stories is faith. In Luke’s gospel, the leper exemplifies faith in Jesus by trusting that He will be able to heal him if Jesus wills it. In Matthew 24, the Gospel writer talks about the faithfulness of the servant to his master. It is implied in the story that the servant trusts that if he follows his master’s orders, he will be rewarded upon his master’s return. It is not only the servant’s faithfulness that is depicted here but also Jesus’ faithfulness to those who serve Him rightly. He is faithful to His words that He will reward those who does good and punish those who does not follow His teachings. In Mark’s gospel, Jesus somehow asks for faith from His disciples in believing that the Son of Man will suffer but will eventually resurrect. He wants His disciples to believe whatever the scriptures states including that about Elijah and the Son of Man.
They incorporate the values of humanity, stability and silence in a way that is desperately needed in the society. (Norris) This perception and aspect instills the interest to know much and deeper about the relation of this group in relation to religion and society.
Norris reveals her gratitude for literature buy using language and metaphor to bible reading. With regard to the psalms, she reveals how sometimes slowly and painfully the words work to the foundation of the heart. She gradually acknowledges much about forgiveness, patience, and value of community, simplicity and the freedom values. She finally achieves healing in the sanctuary of the cloister. She also finds peace in her troublesome marriage and gains a different perception and understanding of her life challenges in the outside world. Moreover, she discovers the beneficial change that can be effected by the drive of spirituality. This is brought about with the understanding that love forms the center of all things only if it is kept to its rightful place and purpose.
Norris identifies the worldly view in the expression of the holy in unity with the exalted and her vocation as a poet. She broadly develops the belief that the call of the monks and the poets are similar to that of the prophets and the poets. This is because they reveal the deputation of the one who distinguishes the transformative power that is hidden in the simple things. Prophets are instrumental in making the society view the reality of things. Neither to have they allowed us to abnegate our pain. On the other hand, poets express the long desire of the people who have lacked the best expression to articulate them.
The remarkable thing about The Cloister Walk is its central focus on prayers that is dominant in all chapters. The writer defines prayer as the act of being our own self without pretense or hypocrisy before
The Catholic Reformation The reformation events arose as a result of the criticism the Catholic Church received from Martin Luther, a at the Wittenberg University (Mullet, 2004). He openly condemned the luxuries that the leaders of the church engaged in and ended up pinning his ninety five notions of protest on the Roman church door. During the reign of Pope Leo X, the church sold luxuries which were good works using lies. The selling of these luxuries took place for the purpose of raising funds for rebuilding the church at St.Peters (Mullet, 2004). These luxuries sold because of the lies that the church was using. The leaders sold them to the people using lies saying that whoever bought a luxury would get out of purgatory whereas any person you bought for would escape hell’s fury. Martin Luther however believed in going to heaven only by believing in Jesus Christ. This outcry from the professor scared the Pope because the people realized they do not require any human involvements for them to go to heaven (Mullet, 2004). The translations of the bible, especially the New Testament into other languages that people could understand and the following of the older testament’s Judaism by the church were the other causes of this reformation. There was evidently a lot of corruption among the high level clergy at the time (Hulme, 2004).
These events led to the reorganization of the church immediately after the pinning of the ninety five notions by Martin Luther on the day of All Saints. This activities brought a lot of friction between him and the pope resulting in his trial in the year 1521. The trial resulted in his excommunication and the eventual spread of reorganization across the entire German state. This new movements arose without involving the direct influence of Martin Luther (Hulme, 2004). The Christians in Zurich, Switzerland, also revolted under Zwingli who also spread the gospel of the standard of rationalization through faith (Mullet, 2004). There was also an emergence of the radical reformers claiming that the standards of authority in spiritual matters must be put to use without concessions. In France, John Calvin led his people through his forceful influences to serve the church and the state as one organization. This he said would have to be forcefully done for the magnificence of God. The spread of the reformist factions in England was more about political issues than spiritual issues (Mullet, 2004). This resulted in the formation of the Anglican church after the pope’s refusal to grant the King of England a divorce from his wife (Hulme, 2004) . The King became the head of the church while another reformist in Scotland by the name of John Knox led the creation of the Presbyterianism association at around the same time. He got his influences from his previous workings with John Calvin in Geneva (Hulme, 2004).
The impact that the Catholic Church reform had on the society is that it brought about the emergence of various factions leading their faithful. A lot of suspicion and disorder came to the leadership of these Christian groupings as a result of their fights for power and money (Mullet, 2004). The Catholic Church developed strategies to counter the charges that the reformists made against the church. The efforts by Pope Pius V eventually led to the reunification and resurgence of the church. The reformers movements cause an erosion of the faith people had in the Catholic Church (Hulme, 2004).
Hulme, E. (2004). The Renaissance: The Protestant Revolution and the Catholic Reformation in Continental Europe. London: Kissinger Publishing.
Mullet, M. (2006). The Catholic Reformation. New York: Routledge.
However, the main story found in the Bible, and one which is derived from the poem, are two different stories. In the beginning, of the poem, the excerpt from the first stanza is a cold coming we had (Eliot, 2012, line 1). This quote sets a scene for the rest of the first stanza, which depicts an image of winter and cold air for the reader. Then it continues by describing the misery experienced by camels, how the camel men complained and the unfriendly towns in which they travelled. However, the version in the Bible most certainly does not mention anything difficult or appalling about the journey made. As depicted from the poem, the journey was made in winter, riding on camels that were smelly. To comprehend this poem, one has to precisely understand Christ’s impact on the world (Eliot, 2005). Thesis Statement: the Journey of the Magi can be described as an analogy that compares the journey that was undertaken by Magus who made a visit to Jesus when he was born, with the author’s journey when converting to a Christian. The poem is precisely depicting the journey of the poet. Eliot, from being an atheist to a Christian. In this analysis, it will be clear that as much as the poet tries to capture the Magi emotions he also wanted to reflect on his developments as a writer in Christian faith. There are two themes among others which are clearly depicted in this poem. There is the theme of rebirth and death which are clear indications of the similarity of the poet’s journey and that of the Magi.
1. Beguilement can be committed by a speaker who trying to sell a product that supposedly cures a disease. This is often made by a salesperson selling nutritional supplements yet claiming that such supplements have been proven to cure a person of disease. This misleads or tricks the listeners thinking that the speaker is an authority on such matters when in fact he is just selling a possibility that is unwarranted. Deceit, on the other hand, is committed by a businessman claiming that the product has the best promotional offer. However, people are deceived when they sign on the terms of the agreement and learn that there are certain payments that have to be made before one can claim the offer. In the case of lying, a public speaker claiming that all those who suffer right now are being punished for their sins. This is lying since Job has also undergone adverse circumstances without having sinned. People are made to believe by the speaker that contract faith exists and not God’s will for his people. Bearing false witness is committed by a public speaker who tells his listeners that he was there when the crime happened when in fact he fabricated a story. This is often committed by people who are being paid to create a false witness.
The bible qualifies a righteous man by The one whose walk is blameless, who does what is righteous, who speaks thenbsp.truthnbsp.from their heart ( Psalm 15: 2, NIV). Also, telling the truth has repercussions as Proverbs 14: 25 says A nbsp.truthful witness saves lives, but a false witness is deceitful. Lying is dangerous and can inflict misery upon the lives of both the liar and the victim.
3. Plagiarism is wrong because it constitutes stealing another person’s idea or work. Back in the olden day’s intellectual property did not exist then. It was explicitly commanded in the Bible that people should not steal and this refers to everything that a man owns. In Ephesians 4:28 ( ESV) it is stated that Let the thief no longer steal, but rather let him labor, doing honest work with his own hands, so that he may have something to share with anyone in need. Therefore, people committing plagiarism should exert effort in coming up with their own work. The rewards of their work would enable them to share the blessings to others who are less fortunate.nbsp. nbsp.
esponse you said: The second line takes a different approach to the same purpose, putting god as not only the greatest power but the greatest knowledge. You have defined God as an all-knowing entity that appears in the universe. It is the true notion in general, but it seems to me that Caedmon’s song does not refer to such idea. What is more, this creation has been made to convince the audience into the devolution to the Christian religion.
Father of Glory (Bede, 5) is the next describing expression that appears in Caedmon’s song. This one underlies that God has a right to represent a divine glory in our world. He is the creator, so author intends to manifest this peculiar side in the third line. The word glory has been treated to the oldest determinations of honored people and acquires positive connotations in religion. In addition, we have one more expression eternal Lord (Bede, 5) that means lord of everything. Such explanation is natural, as we observe the story of world creation.
Caedmon’s song gives an accurate and imagery explanation of the story of universe origination step by step. This piece of art does not represent any information about the nature of God or his role people’s life. However, I do share your ideas about this creation as a tool for conversion and importance of descriptive models in the text.
You suggest the idea of woe coming after joy as inevitable, and regard it as the basic concept used in Beowulf. Moreover, you refer to the Bible, and successfully confirm that notion. In your work you say: While this psalm contradicts the question: what is the effect of emphasizing the pattern that after joy comes woe I think it also plays into the context of the poem by enhancing the significance of the cruel deed. I do agree with such suggestion and maintain that idea of woe after joy is elucidated in both Beowulf and the Bible.
A parallel to the concept after joy comes woe as you mentioned in your work is
In the 1700s, debates regarding the extent of the Royal Prerogative powers ensued.nbsp. This was further aggravated by the execution of one King and the expulsion of Charles I in 1649 and James II in 1688.nbsp. Discussions on the issue culminated with the passing of the 1689 Bill of Rights, which considered the use, and abuse of certain specific royal prerogatives as unlawful.nbsp. It was concluded that most of the prerogative powers may be exercised only upon the advice of ministers, and although the Monarch retained certain powers which can be exercised independently such as the power of appointment and removal of ministers and ministries, the royal power found it difficult to freely exercise its prerogatives, especially if it is in contravention of the advice of the Parliament.
The following are some of the powers vested under the Royal Prerogative:nbsp. (1) Calling for and dissolving of the parliament, calling of elections. (2) Giving of royal assent to legislation. (3) Preparing plans to confer benefits to citizens. (4) Granting of clemency, pardoning of convicts, or reducing penalties thereof. (5) Entering into treaties, declaring war and making peace, controlling the issuance of passports and preventing foreigners from entering the country. (6) Controlling, organizing and disposing of the armed forces. (7) Appointing of judicial officers, ministers, and other public officers. (8) Procuring of ships. (9) Printing of authorized versions of the Holy Bible.
The royal prerogative to establish and enter into diplomatic relations with other countries or states played a significant role in the formation of a strategic alliance that has been an important factor in international relations.nbsp. The wisdom of determining whether or not the country should befriend another country, and which country or countries it should be, is properly laid on the Crown/Monarch.nbsp. The latter is in a better position to evaluate the conduct of relations with other jurisdictions.nbsp. The long process of debates and arguments in the Parliament is considered unnecessary as it involves a purely executive function.nbsp.nbsp.nbsp. Also, since it is the Crown/Monarch who personally engages himself in these functions, it is but proper that such power be exercised by him, to the exclusion of the Parliament.
Man is a spiritual being. He has always sought to explain his existence and the origin of his existence. Many religions started in this manner then as they grow and spread the fundamental rules and regulations begin to take form. Islam is a missionary religion and Muslims are commanded in the Quran to invite all to the way of the Lord (Tingle 4). Christianity is also a missionary religion as the twelve disciples were ordered to go and spread the word.
The monotheistic feature is a common thread that shows unity and conformity. Islam and Christianity share a similar idea of who God is. He is omnipotent and is the highest source of being. This is the basic tenet of both religions that unify them. They both believe in the divinity of God and the control he holds over every other life. God is absolute. There is one Allah creator of the whole universe who is just, compassionate, and merciful. The story of creation share similar patterns as both the Bible and the Quran attest to the creation of light and the seven day period. They also explain man’s creation as evolving from dust. In his unique relationships with humans, God makes covenants with them. Paul stated that there is only God. This concept should create unity between the two religions that nothing else can. His metaphysical nature not only presents itself as a theological fact but in a psychological and scientific way as well.
The commandments are present in both holy books. Although the Muslim community was given twelve commandments, and the Christians ten, they both share a common bond in terms of the laws and regulations that came down from God through the prophets. Since the concept of sin and Satan exist in both religions a stronger sense of unity seems even more realistic in viewing some moral and societal issues.nbsp.
In the New Testament, Jesus Christ remains the medium and the message of the communication of God. The word says that in the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God (KJV). The meaning of this is that Jesus was with the father from the beginning. The incarnation of God can be described to be the language of expression that was used to convey his total love for the humanity. Incarnation is thus viewed to be a manifestation of the self-communication of our God (Wiggins, 2012).
In 1 Tim. 4: 12-16 (Lawrence amp. Bredfeldt, 1998, p. 214), Paul focuses on reliability as a recipe of success. notably, reliability purifies motives, reputation, passion and most importantly warmth. Biblical communications seem to have two levels. They include God’s communication with man, and the other one is man’s communication with other God and other human beings. Therefore, the interpersonal communication of God to man is what is referred to as a revelation (Lawrence amp. Bredfeldt, 1998). The Bible has presented to Christians many principles of communication. These principles are key in helping believers to be communicators who glorify the Lord and therefore will form my personal theory to communicating the biblical truth. ( Pastor Dennis amp. Grimes, 2001)
The real reason for teaching or ministering plays an imperative role in fulfilling or achieving inappropriate ends (Lawrence amp. Bredfeldt, 1998, p. 215). It speaks about where many words exist then transgression is unavoidable but the wise restrain their lips. The above biblical text clearly teaches us that we need to be very careful of the words that we talk. The Holy-Spirit should be our guide and our helper so that we do not utter words that will spear-head conflict in our communication.
Evidently, this principle may be real in the classroom setup. Suppose a lecturer brings up the topic of debate in the classroom about divorce in our Society. Certainly, this can be a sensitive
of Muslims in the United States, in their establishment of numerous mosques and religious schools across the country, and in their extremist attacks against Americans. There appears to be a general impression among the public that the American security
system worked efficiently in thwarting recent terrorist attacks such as the bombing plots at Times Square, in a flight over Detroit, and during a Christmas tree lighting ceremony at Portland, Oregon (Stakelbeck 106). However, these were isolated plots that failed anyway, and were not saved by the intervention of security agencies.
Similar to Stakelbeck’s views in his book The Terrorist Next Door: How the Government is Deceiving You About the Islamist Threat, 2011, Catherine Herridge, a television journalist, writes in her book The Next Wave: On the Hunt for Al Qaeda’s American Recruits, 2012, of the increasing possibilities of having Islamic terrorists for neighbors. She adds that the lax attitude of the American government towards recruiting Islamist sympathizers in the workforces has resulted in several attacks from within organizations. For example, a U.S. Army Major Nidal Malik Hasan gunned down forty-five people including 12 soldiers, and an airport shuttle bus driver plotted a subway slaughter. Home-grown terrorists born and raised in the United States have posed a great threat in the recent past and will continue to be an ominous, concealed danger in the future. They cannot be identified because they appear American in every way, have clean records, American passports, and mass murder in their hearts (Herridge, 2012).
The Pew Research Center Report, (PRC, 2011), forecasts that America’s Muslim population will triple in number, from 2.6 million to 6.2 million in 2030. For ensuring the spread of Islam, American Muslims are engaged in a campaign of mosque-building across the country, including in the very heart of the Bible belt (Stakelbeck 6). Today there are over 2000 mosques and innumerable Islamic schools, where the teaching of extremist Islamic ideologies are carried out.
For example NIV says, Surely I will redeem them on the other hand NKJV simply says, For I will redeem them. This shows a lot of emphasis by NIV than in NKJV.
The use of the word declares the Lord is a strong affirmation of a direct statement from God as used in NIV while NKVJ uses the word says the Lord which does not seem very strong in expressing a statement from God, to declare is more absolute than to simply say. The two versions use different auxiliary verbs in referring to future events. NIV has frequently used the word will which is a much lighter word compared to the use of shall in NKJV which expresses something that must happen.
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.yet in distant lands they will remember me while NKJV says, I will sow them among the peoples, And they shall remember Me in far countries in order to clearly understand the meaning of the word, it is appropriate to consider other scriptures in which the word has been used in the bible.1 In Psalms 22: 27, the scripture says, All the ends of the earth will remember and turn to the LORD, and all the families of the nations will bow down before him, (NIV) and NKJV says, All the ends of the world Shall remember and turn to the LORD, And all the families of the nations Shall worship before You. The emphasis on this text is to encourage the people of Israel to remember and reflect on the things that God has done to them (Carr 2010, 011).
The movement of the Israelites from Egypt to Canaan brought them into a close fellowship with Yahweh as well as becoming the paradigm of all redemptive work of God for all the generations of mankind. The book of Haggai2 also affirms what has been elaborated in the book of Zechariah chapter 10. He spoke of the restoration and remembrance of the people of Israel by their God. Prophet Zechariah also shared a well-established tradition when he
It’s a cultural and spiritual fall of Dakota under the constant attack from the harsh world of Non-American White People. The stories are written by the writer with elegance and simplicity.
The author listened to the story by an old lady of their tribe by lying her head in her mother’s lap depicts the picture of a traditional Indian family who played a role of a warm and loving shelter under which there is no place for hypocrisy. The reference of the Lakota mythological figure of Iktomi is very significant his stories reveal the oral tradition which was transferred from one generation to the next one. Thus the spirituality was taught in a very gentle and loving manner to the young Dakota generation. A blend of Christan mythology and her tribal tradition which influenced the upbringing of the writer is seen when Zakaria-she compares herself and her friends with the nymphs. Nymphs are the supernatural figure basically in Greek mythology. We shouted and whooped in the chase. laughing and calling to one another, we were like little sportive nymphs on that Dakota Sea of rolling green. (The Beadwork,)
Zakaria-s’s life suddenly changes when she went to the missionaries’ school to the East land. Here she has compared the missionaries with the Satan from the Garden of Eden who through their astuteness deeds ensnare eight years old girl and took her away from her Dakota paradise and with the false promise of the apple tree. In Parts IV and V of School Days, she intensely portrays the nightmares of a very innocent girl, a nightmare of the palefaces devil and the bitterness she felt when a schoolmate died with an open Bible on her bed, listening to the superstitious ideas of the paleface woman taking care of her.
Theology and Philosophy ID: Difference between theology and philosophy Not much difference is evident. However, theology refers to faith and philosophy is about the reason to believe. Philosophy believes in the power of one’s own intellect and capability to dissect the theological beliefs. On the other hand, theology is all about faith. For example, Christian theology is about the trinity, the bible and the incarnation. Similarly, Hindu religious faith revolves around karma and concept of rebirth.
While philosophers start with discussing about faith, they do not blindly believe in everything. Hence, philosophy applies the power of reasoning to understand the theological principals of faith.(Cortez, 2012)
Philosophical approaches to nature and existence of God
This approach emphasizes that belief in existence of god relates to the self-interest of people, rather than their faith in the god’s existence. This approach is supported by the argument that believing in god’s existence will mean being rewarded in heaven. However, if god does not exist, then only loss that people can have is the absence of this reward. Similarly, god’s existence would mean, for non-believers, going to hell and receiving infinite punishment. However, if god does not exist, it means no change in their condition.
Therefore, the approach argues that believing in God’s existence would be in the self-interest of the people as it provides them an opportunity to be rewarded in heaven.
This approach emphasizes on the reasoning that mentioning about god means talking about some concept that exists. Hence, god is a concept that can be proved through abstract reasoning.
Pascal’s Wager is a better argument as it clearly defines the reason as self-interest of people to believe in god’s existence, while ontological argument is based on abstract reasoning only. (Arguments, nd)
Similarities and differences
Natural theology and philosophy cannot be different, when discussing about the personal beliefs. For example, natural disasters such as the recent Nepal earthquake and Asian Tsunami reaffirm the belief that god exists. However, rational thinkers and philosophers provide scientific evidence for such happenings. The timing of these disasters cannot find any support from philosophical reasoning. Hindus and Buddhist have strong faith that the god is creator, destroyer and responsible for recreation as well.(Burke, 2015)
When discussing about natural theology and philosophy, rational thinkers cannot deny about the existence of god, as the plain proofs such as above are sufficient to convince them. As human beings begin to ponder on the issues involving life and death, they realize that people are obliged to remain obedient to the god’s commands. However, these aspects of natural theology find scientific support from philosophy in establishing that the events or situations created by god can be scientifically explained and justified, as is evident in the Nepal’s earthquake. This affirms the existence of god, which is supported by the philosophical reasons and scientific explanations. As natural theology aims to convince the atheists about existence of god, philosophers tend to raise questions about the existence of any human being. For those who believe in god’s existence, humans owe their life to the great creator, called god. (Joyce,nd)
Arguments for the Existence of God (nd). .Philosophy of religion Retrieved from: http://www.philosophyofreligion.info/theistic-proofs/
Burke. D, (2015) How Hindus and Buddhists view Nepal’s devastating earthquake .cnn.com Retrieved from: http://edition.cnn.com/2015/04/26/world/nepal-earthquake-buddhists-hindus/
Cortez. M, (2012) Philosophy vs. Theology .marccortez.com Retrieved from: http://marccortez.com/2012/05/15/one-of-these-things-is-not-like-the-other-philosophy-vs-theology/
Joyce. H. G, (nd) The Existence of God .principles of Natural Theology Retrieved from: http://www3.nd.edu/Departments/Maritain/etext/pnt01.htm
This essay will argue that Luther’s adherence to sola scriptura shaped his sacramental theology of the Eucharist in The Babylonian Captivity of the Church. This paper will demonstrate Luther’s dependence on the Bible for his theology of the Eucharist by exploring the way he employs the Scriptures to do three things. First, Luther argues that the Eucharist is one of the three sacraments of the Church. Second, he declares that the bread and wine should both be made available to the congregation. Thirdly, he advances an argument against transubstation. All three of these arguments, as will be demonstrated, are rooted in Luther’s interpretation of the Scriptures.
Criticizing the adoption of pagan practices by the Church, Martin Luther’s the Babylonian Captivity attempts to point to the pagan practices that Luther denoted were not founded on scripture. Some of these included the way in which indulgences were sold and/or the way in which the Pope was understood as the vicar of the Son of God. elements that were clearly not founded on scripture and the earthly teachings of Christ or His disciples.2 This particular treatise was published in 1520 after a period earlier in that year when Pope Leo X had published a bull that expressed disapproval of his teachings against the corruption that had become rampant in the Church. The papal bull also gave Luther some sixty days to repudiate what were alleged to be his heresies, and if he did not do as the pope demanded, he would be excommunicated.3 Historians have widely speculated concerning whether Luther saw the actual bull, but the fact that he mentions it in the later parts of the Babylonian Captivity means that he may have had some knowledge of and most likely ignored it. What followed was that the pope officially excommunicated Luther and the possible reason behind his excommunication was not only