Why Were the Bolsheviks Able to Seize and Retain Power in Russia

Besides being ruthless to his people, Nicholas II was known as Bloody Nicholas because of executing political opponents, conducting military campaigns that were hitherto of unprecedented scale, steering the Khodynka Tragedy, causing the 1896 mass panic that resulted to over1,389 deaths and conducting consecutive anti-Semitism pogroms.
Putting into consideration of the Ruthless nature of Nicholas II, the big question that arises in most people’s mind is. how did the Bolsheviks seize and retain power while revolutionary left in post-war Germany had failed to do so?
According to Roberts and Morris (212-256), World War 1 outbreak in 1914 led to the Battle of Tannenberg that saw over 30,000 troops wounded or killed and more than 90,000 captured while their opponents, Germany only had a loss of 20,000 casualties. Nicholas took direct command in order to oversee the war and left an incapacitated wife, Alexandra to control the government. By 1916, Russia loss was over 1,800,000 soldiers with a million soldiers missing and 2 million held as prisoners of war. Poor government management led to limited ammunition and rifles and Nicholas sent unarmed men to war hoping that they could garner equipment from the fallen soldiers. The soldiers felt that they were inhumanly treated. they felt that they were merely considered as raw materials that could easily be squandered for the purpose of maintaining power ad being rich. This diminished their morale and in 1915-1916, most of them retreated.
Most of the soldiers&nbsp.constituted the peasants and this meant that if they lacked ammunition, they also lacked fortunes that they could feed their families with and the military breakdown therefore transformed into a national wide outcry as war became an oppressive inevitability.