Use elements of minimum core in applying theories and principles for planning and enabling inclusive learning and teaching

Education Number Department Introduction In the years, psychologists and scientists have been having interest on how humans learn. Consequently, there are now a number of theories on learning and teaching. The key theories are behaviourism, neo-behaviourism, humanist, and constructivism, among others. The theorists started by looking on the reaction of animals to new stimuli and used this to include human beings in the field of education (Coffield et al. 2004).
Discussion
There is a four-stage learning process was proposed by Kolb. This has a model that is usually referred to when describing experimental learning (Brooks 1995). This process can be applied in any of the phases and it should be continuous, meaning that there is no limitation to the number of cycles that can be made in a learning situation. According to this theory, with no limitations, one would simply go on repeating the same mistakes. According to the theory, individuals learn in four ways and they are likely to develop one mode of learning more than others. Thus learning is by concrete experience, by observation and reflection, by experimenting actively, and by active conceptualization. These four processes can be applied by learning facilitators or teachers (Coffield, et al. 2004). This can be applied in literacy and language. For example, in reading one can use readable, accessible texts also teaching learners explicitly how they can develop comprehension skills using activities that are related to their texts. Learners are also encouraged to highlight the main words also ideas in texts, successful questioning, setting the picture, as well as stimulating previous reading prior to any reading so as to offer learners’ great chances of decoding the text, will also work.
There are other diverse theories and principles that have been developed to aid in understanding planning and enabling inclusive learning and teaching. The minimum core elements can be applied in enabling inductive learning and teaching. One of these elements is the use of reinforcement. It is vital that the teachers integrate positive reinforcement to learning and teaching. Positive reinforcement includes rewards given to students and positive remarks made by the teachers. This can be given to encourage behaviour, achievements and notable improvements (Curzon 2003). This is important in learning as it is important how learners view themselves, their self esteem and being aware of their strengths and weaknesses affects their learning ability. The learners’ degree of motivation as well as engagement in learning and the phase the learner should be considered.
There are also cognitive approaches that can be applied. This emphasises on the importance of experience, problem-solving, meaning, as well as the development of sight (Brooks 1995). It is noted that this theory has developed the idea that people have diverse needs and concerns at different times also, and that they posses interpretations that are subjective at diverse backgrounds. Therefore, teachers can apply different methods for diverse individuals depending on their needs.
The educators also, have to bear in mind that personalities have diverse elements. Some of these include the emotions, intuition, intellect, the body impulse and imagination. For learning to be effective, the educators need to know that all these need to be activated. This is according to the theory of holistic learning which emphasises that individual personality is made up of many aspects (Curzon 2003).
Another core element that can be incorporated by educators is the use of action learning. It is believed that action learning connects the world of action with the world of learning via reflective process in the learning sets such as small learning groups. Therefore, it is vital that emphasis be paid to small group discussions.
Conclusion
Although there are all these and many other minimum core elements that can be applied in enabling inductive learning and teaching, it is important to integrate diverse approaches at diverse situations instead of using only one method. It is also vital to bear in mind that there are individual differences among the scholars. Thus, educators ought to work on incorporating a variety of activities that cater for all individuals in the educational programmes.
References
Brooks, J. 1995. Training and Development Competence: A Practical Guide. Kogan Page, London.
Coffield, F. et al. 2004. Learning Styles and Pedagogy in Post-16 Learning. A Systematic and Critical Review. Learning and skills research centre.
Curzon, L. 2003. Teaching in Further Education: An Outline of Principles and Practice. Continuum International Publishing Group. London.