The Obligations of the Carrier under a Bill of Lading Are to Properly

There are a number of purposes among which is the evidence of the contract of carriage, statement of the condition of goods received and whether the goods received match the contract description, document of transfer without transfer of ownership rights (2004). Obligations of the carrier under the Bill of Lading include proper and careful loading, keeping and stowing of the goods received alongside with proper discharge of the goods on the board. While, undoubtedly, consideration should be given to human input, the present technological development, and long industry experience significantly lower the possibility of human mistakes during the transportation process.

Crude oil is widely used as a source of energy alongside with production of plastics and manufacturing. As an item of strategic importance, crude oil has for a long time been an object of various political confrontations. The issue is rooted in supply and prices on the commodity: transportation infrastructure emerged in an attempt to satisfy the rising demand for crude oil and products made out of it. Crude oil is transported from production sites to refineries by water and by land. About 62% of all crude oil is shipped by means of maritime transportation: barges and tankers, the remaining part is moved mainly by pipelines, trucks, or trains. Thus, consideration should be given to the two major means used in the industry: oil tankers and pipelines (Hopkins, T. D. 1992).

The safety of the commodity during the transportation process largely depends on the technological aspects of the cargoes used. Oil tankers are classified in accordance with their size: while coastal tankers can carry only about 50,000 tons of dead weight, ULCC is Ultra Large Crude Carriers and can transport over 300,000 deadweight tons. An increase in size of tankers and, consequently, an increase in the amount of chemicals transferred requires special security systems to be installed inside the tank to guarantee protection from the oil spills. The&nbsp.majority of tankers are owned by independent tanker companies, thus technological characteristics responsibility is transferred on the owner.&nbsp.