The Effects of Water Pollution on Child Mortality

Water pollution is “contamination of water by undesirable foreign matter.” It has impacts on our sea, our surface, and our groundwater (Yanful 140). This underlines the fact that water pollution will certainly affect day to day life. According to Encyclopaedia of Public Health, “Infant and child mortality are deaths to children under age 1 and under age 5…. Child mortality (often called under-five mortality) is measured as a probability or the proportion of children dying before their fifth birthday… Infant mortality is defined as the probability of dying between birth and exactly one year of age expressed per 1000 live births” (Encyclopedia of Public Health 755). Though there are various reasons attributed to infant mortality or child mortality, water pollution can be treated as the most significant among them.
It is a fact that infant mortality and child mortality occur in various parts of the world. However, the majority of the studies agree that the child mortality rates are higher in underdeveloped and developing countries when compared with the developed nations in the world. An overview of the reports related to this issue unveils that the majority of the underdeveloped nations are there in the African continent where the number of children died in infancy is quite alarming. According to the latest report of the World Fact Book of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Afghanistan, Mali and Somalia are on the first three places having the higher infant mortality rate (U.S. Central Intelligence Agency 2014). They are marked with more than a hundred infant deaths in 1,000 live births.
The statistical pieces of evidence proposed by various organizations concerning this issue reveal the present state of child mortality. Globally, two million tons of sewage, industrial and agricultural waste is discharged into the world’s waterways and at least 1.8 million children under five-years-old die&nbsp.every year from water-related disease, or once every 20 seconds.