Remedies and Restitution Justifying Punishment

102500 Therefore punishment must act as a deterrent as well as retribution in order to reduce crime. The amount of punishment for various crimes predicts the future behaviour and choice of people with criminal backgrounds. Politicians campaign about tough punishments to discourage people who have a tendency to commit crime. Tough punishments were imposed on criminal to substantiate the concept of deterrence evolved among the followers of social thinker Jeremy Bentham in England. Bentham’s philosophy of utilitarianism states that a prospective criminal calculates from the point of view of benefits as well as costs of the person’s action. Hence before committing a crime of stealing property or money, the person will consider the amount of punishment received by a criminal for similar crime and thereby there are chances for deterrence. Deterrence may be divided into general and specific deterrence. General deterrence is defined as a condition when the general public presume that the cost of an offence is more than its benefits by considering the intensity of punishment for an offence. The effectiveness of general deterrence increases when the general public is continuously informed about the probability and intensity of punishment for various offences. The information should create a feeling that offenders will be caught, prosecuted and awarded specific punishment for a specific offence. When people are fully aware about the methods of punishment for specific crimes, people will develop an instinct to get rid of criminal activities and when they know that punishment is severe, it will instigate fear about the outcome of committing offence. Public hanging of criminals was believed to be an efficient public deterrent. However, specific deterrence is the contrast of general deterrence. It applies and aims to change the decision and attitude of criminal who have already