Questions on Syntax

Meanwhile, [15Max remains in a critical condition], and [16Tanya has been incarcerated]. [17The audience must have been sitting on the edge of their seats]! (a) Group together instances of each clause type, and identify the grammatical features that characterise each type. (b) Next, consider the verb strings in clauses 8, 13, 16 and 17 and describe their constituent parts both in terms of the category of each verb (lexical, auxiliary, etc.) and its form (finite, non-finite, etc.).
This first section of the exercise concerns clause types. The clause, according to Borjars and Burridge (2001: 212) is a unit formed an optional bits the speaker has chosen to include. Almost it is agreed among linguists that a clause is a unit larger than a phrase but smaller than a sentence. In some cases, a clause functions as a sentence provided that it has a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought. Crystal (1988: 277) identifies four types of clauses. These are declarative, Imperative, explanative and interrogative clauses.
The short text above contains declarative, interrogative and explanative clauses. As the exercise requires, we are going to group the clauses that belong to each type together. Next, we are going to identify the grammatical features characterizing each type. First, we are going to start with declarative clauses. The declarative clauses in the text are listed below:
In a declarative clause, the speaker or writer is simply making a statement, opinion, fact or an arrangement. Its structure is analogous to the simple English sentence. That is, The noun phrase (henceforth NP) precedes the predicate verb phrase (henceforth VP):
Mick ate the sandwich. An interesting trait of declaratives is that a statement, whose key function is to notify the hearer or reader something, can also be used to pose a yes-no question. This could be done via a raising