Qualifying Exam Theories

International organizations backed by World Bank have been advocating poverty alleviation through economic policies that are international in nature but have the potential to influence national policies (Introduction to international relations: Social constructivism, 2012, p 170). There is an emerging ‘global anti-poverty agenda’ that has changed the rules the way people, government and other public organizations are tackling poverty (Noel, 2006). There are several theories that have emerged to explain and tackle poverty. however, all theories seem to agree upon the issue of tackling the problem as inherent and arising in the social structure, which is also seen to be the best solution seems (Altatis, 2012).
Liberalism postulates freedom of thought and expression and opposes conservative and authoritarian views. It is a doctrine aimed at helping the outward welfare of men and does not take into account the inner welfare. It is concerned with the outward conduct of men. This doctrine recognizes that inner welfare cannot come from outward, materialistic possession. However, it posits equality of material possessions based on division of labor and individual capability to labor and materialistic possession.
Outer well being as advocated by liberalism and its proponents is very much needed for man as it gives every individual a chance and the right to equal opportunity. This theory is based on equality of men in line with the natural law and law of enlightenment and demands equality of political and civil rights to all men. It is based on the assumption that differences between men are artificial and that all men are created equal, and hence need to be given equal rights (Mises, 2012).
With equality under law, each individual will have the right and freedom to work to his capacity to be able to attain social equality. Although private ownership is said to create differences in terms of material possession, liberalism with its stress on materialistic