Psychology and Criminology

On the other hand, violence is a form of aggression whose ultimate goal is to cause extreme harm, such as death. Although all forms of violence are aggression, many aggression instances are not necessarily violent (Lindsay amp. Anderson 2000, p. 538). Aversive events, according to the Cognitive Neoassociation Theory, produce negative affect that stimulates physiological responses, communicative motor reactions, memories and thoughts often associated with tendencies of fight and flight. Such negative events may range anywhere between provocations, frustrations, unpleasant smells, uncomfortable temperatures and loud noises. While flight tendencies are associated with fear, the fight associations will lead to basic feelings of fury. An examination of the Cognitive Neoassociation Theory shows that behavioral tendencies, emotions and aggressive thoughts are all linked together in a person’s memory. It also shows a basic assumption in which cues believed to be present when an aversive event takes place will be associated with the event, emotional and cognitive responses that the event triggers. The Social learning Theory provides that aggressive responses are acquired the same way as people acquire any other forms of complex social behaviour, which is either through the process of observational learning or direct experience (Tremblay 2000, p. 137). Observational learning could be from a peer group, although only up to a certain degree and from what parents do in front of children. Direct experience may include persons abused as children, which could further be compounded by their ending up in adoptive homes without stable peer groups. If a child underwent abuse at various developmental stages, brain damage is often a consequence of the direct experience.
2 It is true that violent gangs have presented real and complex dangers in urban centers