Propasal

Criminal Research on Kidnappings CRIMINAL RESEARCH ON KIDNAPPINGS The goal of this research is to prove the hypothesis, “Individuals from richer families tend to be victims of kidnappings while individuals from less privileged backgrounds tend to be the instigators of kidnappings”. The independent variable in this study will be “the victims from rich families”. On the other hand, the dependent variable will be “kidnappings” and “instigators of kidnappings”. In other words, “kidnappings” and “instigators of kidnappings” depend on the existence of “victims from rich families”. This research will take on quantitative method, which will aid in testing the hypothesis scientifically. Qualitative data will be derived from a reliable source, which is the population, and this will be through conducting a sample survey. This research will have both theoretical and practical importance. This paper seeks to establish the hypothesis that individuals from rich families are more likely to be kidnapped.
Purpose and Overview
The type of crime that will be included in this proposal is kidnapping. During kidnappings, kidnappers unlawfully abduct and detain an individual against his or her wishes or intentions. A crime qualifies to be a kidnapping when an individual is unlawfully taken or moved to a different location without his or her consent. In most case, kidnappings are usually carried out with the objective of terrorizing the victim, asking for ransom, or influencing a political decision in exchange with the kidnapped person. Additionally, in many situations, children are largely the victims, although, adults too at times usually find themselves victims. Kidnapping is an offence, which according to law, has been categorized into degrees in relation to its magnitude (Hart &amp. Zandbergen, 2009).
Theory
Kidnappers opt for the criminal activity of kidnapping in order to make ends meet. Kidnappers abduct and detain individuals, from rich families in exchange for rewards or ransoms.
Hypothesis
Individuals from richer families tend to be victims of kidnappings while individuals from less privileged backgrounds tend to be the instigators of kidnappings.
Methodology
Type of Research
The best type of research that will be applied when approaching the problem of kidnapping is descriptive. Through descriptive research, the important variables. dependent and independent will be established, which will aid in conducting the research. The descriptive research will start by exemplifying the problem, conducting a literature review, developing a research tool, identifying the population and sampling, data collection, and thereafter analyzing the data.
Quantitative method
This research will take on quantitative method, which will aid in testing the hypothesis scientifically. Qualitative data will be derived from a reliable source, which is the population, and this will be through conducting a sample survey. The data will be analyzed with the aim of establishing whether they correlate or associate with one another. For instance, through quantitative research, the study will try to prove the hypothesis, “Individuals from richer families tend to be victims of kidnappings while individuals from less privileged backgrounds tend to be the instigators of kidnappings”, to be true (McCord &amp. McCord, 2011).
Importance of the research
My research has both theoretical and practical importance. In theoretical importance of this research, firstly, my research will assess the factors that lead to the kidnapping crime. Secondly, my research will give an insight regarding the victims and instigators of this crime. Thirdly, in practical importance, my research will benefit the law enforcement by providing them with information that will aid in kidnapping investigations (Fass, 2006).
Background of the research
Kidnaps in most cases, occur as a result, of kidnapper’s intention of asking for ransom. Annually an estimate of about more than 8,000 kidnappings occurs worldwide. Additionally, it is estimated that ransoms asked after kidnappings worldwide total up to more than $500 million annually. Equally important, about 40% of kidnapped victims usually experience safe releases after their families or concerned parties pay up the ransom. On the other hand, there are some cases, in which ransoms are not paid, this is because of negotiations or kidnappers knowledge that no ransom will ever be paid (Kaplan, 2004).
Consent form
CONSENT FORM FOR RESEARCH STUDY
Title of Project:
Name of researcher:
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I authenticate that I have read and fully comprehend this data sheet, which relates to the above study.
I comprehend that I am participating voluntarily and I have the right to withdraw from the study at any time.
I understand that the information I will provide in this study will be handled in a confidential manner.
I agree to participate in this study.
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Research Approach
The best research approach, which will be used in this study, is deductive research. This is so since a hypothesis and a theory was established for the study. The study will aim at either confirming or rejecting the stated hypothesis. The reason for choosing deductive theory is that the study will entail steps like formulating a theory, a hypothesis, observing and concluding with confirming the theory (Kaplan, 2004).
Independent and Dependent variables
The independent variable in this study will be “the victims from rich families”. On the other hand, the dependent variable will be “kidnappings” and “instigators of kidnappings”. In other words, “kidnappings” and “instigators of kidnappings” depend on the existence of “victims from rich families” (Ram, 2008).
Research Variables
The variables in the research will be of two types the independent and the dependent variables. Other variables are sex, age, marital status, job occupation, residence, race, nationality, income, employment rate, and police response.
Validity and Reliability
The first step in determining the validity and reliability will be by ensuring that all the procedures employed during the whole process of research are scientific. Scientific procedure will ensure that the results from the research will be repeatable if performed by a different group of researchers. The second step of determining the validity and reliability will be through performing a pretesting procedure on the data-collecting tool before the actual data collection procedure commences. Validity will be measured by randomizing the population, which will be used as the source of data for the whole research process. A precise measurement will be through breaking validity into two that is internal and external validity. Internal validity will be measured by critically examining how the study design has been structured in terms of the expected scientific research method. External validity will be measured by scrutinizing the results and causal relationships in the study (Kaplan, 2004).
Reliability of this research will be established quantitatively this will be through ensuring that the quantity of data will be measurable, accurate and consistent. For instance, the sample population will contain a preferable number of respondents who fit the desired characteristics of this research. Reliability of this research will also be established through following up the respondents if clarification for any information is needed (Kaplan, 2004).
Choosing the sample
The population that I will employ in this study will incorporate victims of kidnappings. The kidnappings will include those in which the kidnappers have asked for ransom payments. Probability sampling will be the best approach that I will use to sample from the target population, and in this category, simple random testing will be ideal. Simple random sampling will provide an equal opportunity for any character in the sampling frame to be included in the study. The mere idea of employing a probability sampling will ensure randomness (Kaplan, 2004).
Research questions
1. Has anyone ever attempted to take the child away from its guardian against his or her will?
2. Has there ever been an instance where someone attempted to attack, defile, molest, or rough up the missing child.
3. Has anyone threatened the child with a weapon, stick, bat, or rock in the past year?
4. Has an authority like a babysitter attempted, in the past year, to touch the child inappropriately, or tried to make the child do the same to them when they were unwilling?
5. Has anyone the child knows well, or casually tried to coerce the child into sexual activity that was unwanted by the child/
6. Has anybody ever kidnapped or attempted to kidnap this child before?
7. Has anyone at home or school made any threat face to face to the child, Have there been any incidences of bullying reported by the child.
8. Has the child ever run away from home under any circumstance? How soon were they found?
9. Does the child suffer from Emotional and Behavioral disorder, EBD, and are they prone to solitary playing and existence?
10. Has the child been insisting on visiting a specific location, say an amusement park? Have her guardians taken her there yet, or was she still expectant?
11. Are both of the girl’s parents still together? If not was there a custodial battle and was it satisfactory for both parents.
12. Has any convicted child molester been released from jail in the child’s community? If so, has been into any form of contact with the child? Do they visit the same store? Does his child go to the same school as the subject?
13. Is there a family member with mental disability? Where were they on the day of the kidnapping and what were their demeanor?
14. Does the child have any mental disorder?
15. Do any dangerous areas like ponds, dams, or quarries exist?
Participant research has several pros and cons (Concannon et al, 2008). The researcher gains access knowledge that would otherwise have remained unknown. This helps him get a better grip of the aspects under study. However, the suspects may alter their behavior if they realize they are being investigated, and thus present themselves more desirably. The researcher may also develop sympathies, or develop a bias that is exaggerated towards them. This will alter the dynamics of the case.
Scale or Index questions
The essence of including scale or index questions in a survey is to ensure that a response is given a variety of answers. The variety of answers in scale or index questions aid in measuring a variable in quantitatively. A formulated question can consist of options such as strongly agree, tend to agree, agree, disagree, tend to disagree or strongly disagree (Babbie, 2010). Ultimately, scale or index questions eliminate the notion of respondents either giving a yes or no response.
Scale or index questions
1. Individuals from wealthy families are more likely to be kidnapped.
a) strongly agree
b) tend to agree
c) agree
d) disagree
e) tend to disagree
f) strongly disagree
2. Most kidnappers are likely to be individuals from deprived families.
a) strongly agree
b) tend to agree
c) agree
d) disagree
e) tend to disagree
f) strongly disagree
3. Most kidnapped individuals are usually released after payment of ransoms.
a) strongly agree
b) tend to agree
c) agree
d) disagree
e) tend to disagree
f) strongly disagree
References
Babbie E. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. Sydney: Cengage Learning.
Concannon, D. M et al. (2008). Kidnapping : an investigators guide to profiling. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.
Daudarand Y, Chin V. (2004). LINKS BETWEEN TERRORISM AND . International Centre for Criminal Law Reform , 1-6.
Fass P. (2006). Kidnapped: Child Abduction in America. London: Oxford University Press.
Hart T, Zandbergen P. (2009). Crime Mapping: A Journal of Research and Practice. Center for the Analysis of Crime Statistics.
Kaplan D. (2004). The Sage handbook of quantitative methodology for the social sciences. New York: Sage Publications, inc.
McCord J, McCord S. (2011). Criminal Law and Procedure for the Paralegal. Sydney: Cengage Learning.
Ram C. (2008). Regulating Intrastate Crime: How the Federal Kidnapping Act Blurs the Distinction between What Is Truly National and What Is Truly Local. Heonline, 768-793.