Modern World History The principal reasons for the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade in the early 19th c. The Slave Importation Act of 1807 which become effective in 1808, served to end the importation of slaves to the United States. President Jefferson played a very critical role in ensuring that slave trade came to a halt as he stopped the building of naval ships that were used to transport slaves from Africa. The British parliament banned slave trade in 1807 during the Napoleonic wars. One of the leading figures towards the abolition of slave trade in Britain was Wilbur Wilberforce who argued against the act on religious grounds.
2. Why did England (Great Britain) industrialize early, beginning around the mid-18th c
One of the factors that contributed to early industrialization in Britain in the early 18th century is geographical position and availability of natural resources. The nation had an extensive coastline and navigable rivers that made it easy to transport materials and people (Tyler and Ferdinand, 107). There are two values that were deeply entrenched in the lives of Britons namely self-interest and an entrepreneurial spirit. The people were driven by the desire to create personal wealth hence creating a vibrant environment for industrial revolution. The country offered legal and cultural foundations that enabled the entrepreneurs to initiate the industrial revolution (Mendum and Steve, 65). The specific factors include peace and stability after England united with Scotland, existence of capitalism, the rule of law that ensured smooth transition of events and removal of all trade barriers between England and Scotland.
3. Describe the Marxist and Social-Democratic alternatives to liberal, laissez-faire 19th c. capitalism.
Social democracy as put forward by Marx relates to a form of political ideology whose aim is to establish democratic socialism through two key methods namely reformist and gradualist. It can also be described as a policy regime marked by universal welfare and collective bargaining initiatives within a system of capitalistic economy.
Social democracy came into existence in the 19th century and was greatly advanced by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Spielvogel, 125). He advocated for non-violent means through which workers could attain their goals such as collective bargaining through formation of trade unions. Marx further supported his views on social democracy based on the universal suffrage.
4. How and when did French and German nationalism emerge, and how did one help produce the other?
The French nationalism is believed to have been established by Joan of Arc who fought many battles for France and always addressed her supporters as Frenchmen. The French nationalism came into full force after the French Revolution. It was also promoted by Napoleon Bonaparte on the foundations of the French Revolution which included equality, power and liberty. The concept of nationalism was spread to other European countries such as Germany through the numerous invasions by Napoleon.
German nationalism on its part is based on the assertion that Germans are a nation that promotes its cultural identity and unity of the German people. It began with the birth of Romantic nationalism at the time of Napoleonic wars when the Pan-Germanism began to emerge. The German nationalism greatly improved during the Napoleon invasions as the Germans united against the invasions. However, after the rise and fall of the Nazi Germany, German nationalism greatly declined and reached a point when it was viewed as a taboo topic. It later arose during the Cold War so as to advocate for the reunification of East and West Germany. Thus German nationalism was greatly influenced by the French nationalism.
5. Describe how, why and when the Japanese resisted European imperialism, virtually alone among the Afro-Eurasian peoples of the late 19th c
In the period between 1858 and 1863, the Japanese through the radical Samurai got involved in anti-foreign terrorism and assassinations as a response towards European imperialism. They destroyed several ports and forts. The Meiji Restoration was geared towards eliminating the supremacy of the European powers as it was viewed as a threat towards the Empire of the Japanese. Japan’s felt that European imperialism was going to end its superiority in the region by limiting its strength and influence among its key close neighbors such as China.
6. Describe the main ideological characteristics of Soviet communism and of the Soviet Union (1922-1991)
The main ideological characteristics of Soviet communism and of the Soviet Union (1922-1991) include creation of a classless political system that is based on the sharing of all wealth and property of the nation to all members of the society. Under the regime of Lenin, the ideology of communism was greatly influenced by the Marx. This form of communism did not take into consideration the aspect of individual greed and selfish nature of man. Under Stalin the system of communism developed into a form of dictatorship as opposed to the basis of equality that was initially exhibited.
7. Describe the main ideological characteristics of Nazi Germany (1933-1945)
Nazism which was also referred to as National Socialism was marked by a variety of fascism and totalitarian ideology. The political ideology of Nazism was to establish a totalitarian state or bureaucratic state in which the government was marked by dominance as opposed to individual dominance. The regime focused on monopolizing all human activities at both individual and private level. The basic characteristics of Nazism were based on the building on a charismatic figurehead and in that case Adolf Hitler and a strong military force. It was based on the invention of common enemies which included the Jews, Communists, pacifists, free masons, gypsies, and homosexuals among others. It was also marked by re-modelling of the working class by making the workers to shift their focus on higher ideals as opposed to class struggles. The higher ideals included extreme nationalism, racism and war.
8. How was liberal, Bourgeois democracy and capitalism transformed by President Roosevelt during the New Deal in the interwar period (and also by social-democratic governments in France, for example)?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt came up with the New Deal soon after descending into power. The New Deal brought about various types of social and economic reforms that were familiar with that of the European nations. The New Deal marked the culmination of a long term trend towards the abandonment of laissez-faire form of capitalism. The New Deal ensured transformation of the liberal, capitalism and bourgeois democracy through the establishment of key sectors such as the banking and credit system. The era brought about a sharp revival of the interest of the people in the operations of the government (Kelly and Greg, 78). The New deal further promoted good relationship between the United States and other countries such as France and Britain by encouraging trade between nations.
9. How did de-colonization help globalize the Cold War?
There was a lot of decolonization that took place during the Cold War which can be viewed as a response towards the globalization of the influence of the European powers. It paved way for the dismantling of the North Atlantic-centered international system of operations. The decolonization was about the rethinking of the nature of the global order as well as an in-depth look into the role of race and citizenship (Waugh, 34). Decolonization is remember as an everlasting proof of that the strategies that were being pursued by the superpowers at the time did not create a stable framework for the management of international relations.
10. What were the causes of the end of the Cold War?
The coming into power by Mikhal Gorbachev was a great significance towards the end of the Cold War. He introduced two key policies namely glasnost and perestroika which played a very important roles in ending the Cold War. Glasnost which means openness was aimed at allowing the Soviet officials to be receptive to some of the western ideas and goods into the Soviet Union. Perestroika allowed limited market incentives to the citizens of the Soviet Union. The disintegration of the Soviet Union into several countries lowered its global strength thus speeding the end of Cold War.
Kelly, Nigel, and Greg Lacey. Modern World History for Ocr Specification 1937. Oxford: Heinemann Educational, 2001. Print.
Mendum, Alan, and Steve Waugh. Revise Modern World History for Aqa Specification B. Oxford: Heinemann Educational, 2001. Print.
Spielvogel, Jackson J. World History. Agoura Hills, Calif: West Pub. Co, 1999. Print.
Tyler, Alice F, and Ferdinand Schevill. A Syllabus of Modern World History. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1934. Print.
Waugh, Steve. Essential Modern World History. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes, 2001. Print.