John Stuart Mill’s Utilitarianism Conception

Mill also defined the difference between higher and lower forms of happiness. Mill advocated the empowerment of university graduates who were believed to be in a better position to decide what is best for society.

John Stuart Mills Utilitarianism is usually seen as the classical expression of consequential ethical thinking (Rosen, 45, 2003). Utilitarianism has been the most influential normative ethical theory taking the teleological approach in modern times. It was based on the concept that if any alternative is suitable for the majority of the people than it is correct. Utilitarianism comes in two basic forms: Act Utilitarianism, and Rule Utilitarianism. According to utilitarianism, the moral status of an action is determined by the actual or probable consequences that the action will have for everyone whose lives are affected by that action. The moral agent has the obligation to perform that action that will bring about the best consequences overall. The value or usefulness of action in promoting good and preventing evil is known as the "utility" of the action, and so the basic principle of utilitarianism is known as the Principle of Utility. This theory proposes that the worth of any action depends on its outcome (Mill, 23, 1974).

A striking feature of Mills statement about pleasure is that, apart from being universal, it is quite ambiguous. It contains nothing to tell the reader what they should or should not find to be pleasurable or painful. This ties into the concept of the impartiality of utilitarianism. To establish a moral framework based on the principle of utility, it must necessarily strive to increase the pleasure and decrease the pain of all those who adhere to it. That does not preclude, however, that there could not be many different utilitarian moral codes whose individual laws are quite disparate but are seen by their adherents to promote the principle of utility. This is possible because Mill accepts that it is difficult and unwieldy to live one’s life trying to promote the "total happiness" of the world – the end goal of utilitarianism.&nbsp. &nbsp.&nbsp.