Signs of PTSD can be activated by sounds, memories, and dreams linked to past trauma (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). In addition, seeing the objects or the people who may have taken some part in the trauma may trigger the symptoms of PTSD. He desperately wants to call his sister because he feels that she could be a source of solace when he is in problems. Jack exhibits post-traumatic stress symptoms, which are classified into three DSM IV categories. First is the persistent re-experiencing of the incident, which is also referred to as the intrusive signs. In this category, the victim could be experiencing vivid recollections, nightmares and a feeling of re-living the incident. Second is the persistent evasion of any stimuli, which might remind them of the traumatic condition. Finally, it is a state where the victim experiences hyperarousal condition that causes hypervigilance, sleep interruption and startle reflexes (Yehuda et al. 2002).
The consequence of all these behaviors is some level of mental distortion, which prevents the victims from taking part in their daily activities. Other signs include bad temper, emotional liability, agitation, and sometimes eruption of violent behavior. If Jack is not treated on time, he may result in substance abuse in an attempt to seek self-medication. Depending on the duration that Jack has suffered from this disorder since he experienced the traumatic event, the disorder can be categorized based on the DSM IV 4 including acute stress reaction, acute PTSD, chronic PTSD and delayed onset of PTSD.
A multiaxial Diagnostic System commonly denoted as DSM-IV-TR uses a diagnostic system with 5 levels used in the classification of disorders and illnesses. .These five levels assist whoever is providing treatment with a diagnosis that is complete including the factors influencing the patient’s psychiatric condition. This provides an effective plan for offering treatment.