Human Resources Practices and Policies

41000 Training, learning, and development are essential in any organization wishing to have a sustainable competitive advantage. Training provides and /or improves skills necessary for the performance of job tasks whereas development is to enhance abilities of the employee for the greater long-term good of the organization. The purpose of training and development is to promote organizational performance (Uma, 2013, 137). Organization learning is the process of creating, sharing, diffusing and applying knowledge in organizations (Saks &amp. Haccourn, 2010, 35). Instead of focusing on individuals, an organization should focus on the whole system to ensure that knowledge is distributed organization-wide while at the same time enabling the development of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) of individuals to perform tasks. Training, learning, and development have shown to have a high impact on organization effectiveness and competitive ability. Provided it is linked to organizational strategy, it becomes a strategic activity in the organization aimed at ensuring a sustainable competitive advantage. Some companies view spending on training and development as a waste of resources as in the end, some employees leave after training or because benefits are not easily realizable. However, research has shown that increased spending on training and development leads to higher sales gross profit, and increased productivity (Saks &amp. Haccourn, 2010, 7). One research study showed that spending 6% of payroll on training achieved 57% sales increase per employee, 37% gross profit per employee and 20% high ration in market-to-book values (Saks &amp. Haccourn, 2010, 7). If leveraged, it can be of much benefit to the organization. Another benefit is that it improves the organizations’ ability to attract and retain talented staff. There are those employees who value career growth and advancement more than salary increments especially the young generation. Offering training and development is a great opportunity for career enhancement thus attracting potential employees and also ensuring commitment and engagement for those already on the job (Uma, 2013).