HardWired Systems and Their Effects

Twisting the wire enhances this cancellation effect and can effectively provide self-shielding for wire pairs within the network media [CCNA, 2003]. Two types of twisted-pair cable exist and they are unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and shielded twisted pair (STP).
In UTP cable, each of the eight individual copper wires in UTP cable is covered by an insulating material and each pair are twisted around each other. It is least expensive than any other type of LAN cable. It provides speed and throughput from 10 to 1000 Mbps up to the maximum cable length of 100 meters. The main advantage of it is that it does not quickly fill up wiring ducts as it is a thin and flexible cable. The most commonly used cable is CAT 5 UTP cable.
STP cable combines the techniques of shielding, cancellation and wire twisting. In STP, each pair of wires is wrapped in a metallic foil and then the four pairs is wrapped in an overall metallic braid or foil (usually 150-ohm cable). STP reduces electrical noise both within the cable (crosstalk) and from outside the cable (EMI and RFI). It provides speed and throughput from 10 to 100 Mbps up to the maximum cable length of 100 meters. It moderately expensive compared to UTP cables.
Co-axial Cable: The layout of the co-axial cable is shown in figure 2. It consists of a hollow outer cylindrical conductor that surrounds a single inner wire made of two conducting elements. At the center of the cable is a copper conductor surrounded by a layer of flexible insulation. Over insulating material is a woven copper braid or metallic foil that acts both as the second wire in the circuit and as a shield for the inner conductor. This second layer (shield) helps to reduce the amount of outside interference from fluorescent lights, motors, and other computers. The metallic shield is covered by the cable jacket [CCNA, 2003].
Co-axial cable is used as a high-frequency transmission line to carry a&nbsp.high-frequency or broadband signal.&nbsp.