Discuss methods for mitigating challenges encountered in the classroom given that some students are learning English as a second and third language

speaking backgrounds at English schools (Candlin &amp. Mercer, 2001). For recent arrivals, the educational experiences they have had in their country can play an important role in determining their success at school in England. The extent of formal schooling and the level reached previous to their migration will determine their familiarity with learning in an academic situation. Also, overseas- educated parents of English-born EAL students will have expectations of schooling shaped by their learning experiences (Lipjakova, 2003). Parental expectations will not necessarily match those of teachers in schools, and so there may by different attitudes towards discipline, curriculum content (including extra-curricular activities) as well as the nature and extent of parental involvement (Harding &amp. Riley, 1986). The way in which the school responds to these differences will significantly affect both parent and learner attitudes to the school and ultimately the EAL students’ progress. Also, research indicates that competence in English is related to the level of competence in a learner’s first language: “Children with greater proficiency in L1 appear to learn L2 more easily” (Cummins, 1984, p. 136). In the past, EAL students were encouraged abandon their first language and to use English as much as possible. Today it is much more widely appreciated that well-developed proficiency in the first language is a positive advantage in learning a second language. It is also now seen that it is very important to maintain and develop the first language for a number of other crucial reasons, including the maintenance of family, peer and community relationships, as well as continued cognitive development and growth in self-esteem and identity of the individual EAL student.
Hence, it is critical to recognise what knowledge is needed by ESL students, and what are the most effective strategies for meeting thee needs. A childs self-concept, their