Corrections and Prisons

The court system in the United States is divided into the federal governments and the state governments which are administratively different from each other (Miller Gaines, 2012). The courts act independent of the legislature and the executive. it is a semiautonomous branch of the government. The federal court system vests power on one Supreme Court and all the other courts remain inferior to the Supreme Court. Federal courts are divided into three levels. the federal district courts, the courts of appeal which is more superior to the district courts and Supreme Court which is the highest federal court. Miller Gaines (2012) cited that, the federal district courts are made up of 92 districts with at least one bench in each of the available 50 states, one each in the Columbia District and Puerto Rico. There are judges in each of the districts ranging from 1 to 20 judges. District court judges are appointed by the president recommended by the members of the senate and confirmed by the senate. District federal courts are charged with the responsibility of solving cases like violations of the constitution and other federal laws, cases that directly involve the federal government, maritime disputes, foreign government cases, and cases involving citizens from foreign countries or of two different states (Miller Gaines, 2012). The court of appeal system consists of 11 judicial circuits in the 50 states and one in the Columbia District. … and is the only federal court that is mandated by the constitution to give a final jurisdiction on all the cases that come before it. It consists of one Chief Justice and 8 Associate Justices. In addition, it has jurisdiction on cases that involve two or more U.S. states and high ranking diplomatic staff. Judges in the three main federal courts serve for life (Miller Gaines, 2012). The federal judiciary also watches over a group of courts that handle specialized and specific cases. For example, the Court of Federal Claims that looks into cases of monetary claims alleged against the U.S. government. There are also the Courts- Martial that handles cases that involve the military personnel under the Military Law and the Tax Court (Miller Gaines, 2012). State court systems are diverse having a hierarchically organized system that encompasses general and specialized courts. It comprises of inferior courts like the magistrates court, justice of peace court, municipal court, traffic court, municipal court, police court and the county court which handle minor criminal and civil cases in mostly an informal manner (Miller Gaines, 2012). Serious and superior cases are heard in the state district court mostly known as the superior court. Superior courts hear appeals from minor courts and are organized by counties. they have jurisdiction over major civil suits and serious crimes like grand larceny. Large cities like New York have appellate courts between the superior courts and the states highest courts. Courts with special purposes under the state courts include probate court, family court, divorce courts, juvenile courts, small claims courts and housing courts. Judges in these courts may be elected or appointed. When appointed, the judges