Child Developmental theories

25 pts What domains does this theorist describe as developing? i.e. physical, social, emotional, cognitive, all Is this theory considered A “stage” theory.
What does he or she describe as the primary impetus for
Children’s developmental change.
Briefly summarize the theory or what the theorist is most known for.
Sigmund Freud 1856-1939
Psychosexual
yes
Satisfaction of a libidinal needs
Unconscious desires control human behavior. Id, ego, and super ego are the basic components of the mind.
Lev. Vygotsky 1986-1934
Cognitive, social and language
yes
Culture
Development is impacted by interactions with culture, friends, and families. There are eight stages throughout lifetime that personality develops
Jean Piaget 1896-1980
Cognitive and social
yes
Interactions with culture, friends, and families
Development occurs in eight stages. Development is impacted by interactions with culture, friends, and families.
Erik Erikson 1902-1994
Emotional, psychological and social
yes
Overcoming a conflict
A child is considered an active learner developing through stages.
John Bowlby 1907-1990
Emotional and psychological
no
Conditional behaviors
Learning occurs gradually and continuous. Development occurs due to specific conditional behaviors. Emphasizes on the environment, rather than hereditary. Observable behaviors are the most import.
B. F. Skinner 1904-1990
Language
no
Environment
Learning occurs gradually and continuous. Development occurs due to specific conditional behaviors. Observable behaviors are the most import.
Uri Bronfenbrenner 1907-2005
Social
Yes
Both Environment and hereditary
Balance between nurture and nature. Child is at the middle of concentric factors that affects the child.
Lawence Kohlberg Born 1926
psychological
Yes
morality
Moral development is continuous and occurs throughout lifetime.
Howard Gardner Born 1943
Psychological and social
no
Multiple intelligence
Multiple intelligence, including special relations, music, and interpersonal knowledge
Arnold Gesell (1880
1961)
physical
Yes
Nature or heredity
Growth and development take place in a series of stages. Personal genetic makeup affects maturation rate
10pts
Select 3 developmental theories and discuss how viewing development from these “theoretical lenses” might impact your clinical Physical therapy or Occupational therapy practice working with children.
Over the past few decades, there has been an increasing interest in the development and use of theory in physical and occupational therapy. Therapists have realized that theory is not only meant for academic field, but is also useful in the clinical setting and community at large. In addition, therapists have realized that theory is not only useful for the sake of understanding ideas and concepts, but also for informing, explaining and guiding the practice of therapy. Three of the theories can help direct the physical and occupational therapy on children include Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson’s psychoanalytic child development theories and Jean Piaget
To begin with, the application of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory in physical and occupational theory can be of great value in the sense that emphasizes the importance of childhood experiences and events on development. Unlike other theorists, Freud focused mainly on the mental disorders, as opposed to normal functioning in child development. In his theory, Freud described child development in a series of psychosexual stages. The stages, according to Freud include oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. In this regard, Freud noted that each of the stages require the satisfaction of a libidinal needs which can also play an important role during adulthood. Freud also found out that it is not easy for a child to complete each of the stages successfully and noted that a child would develop a fixation that would later impact adult personality and behavior. Therefore, understanding this theory might help physical and occupational therapists in applying effective therapies on children by taking regard their developmental stages and patterns.
Another developmental theory that can be of value to therapists is Erik Erickson’s emotional psychological development theory. This theory was build upon Freud’s earlier works. Erickson identified eight important stages in a child’s development. According to Erickson, each of these stages is marred by a conflict that must be resolved in order for a child to develop emotionally and socially. In addition, he noted that each stage has both negative and positive outcome, though people tend to be at either ends of the spectrum. Erickson also noted that the failure of success in dealing with the crisis in each of the stages could affect overall functioning. Erickson’s theory is useful in therapy since it suggests that child development requires that therapists deal with conflicts first, which is important.
Lastly, Jean Piaget’s child development theory is also crucial as far as the application of theory in therapy is concerned. According to theory, Piaget suggested that children learn by actively constructing knowledge through experience. He posited that the roles of adults in assisting a child to learn is by provide the necessary materials for the child to be able to interact and construct. This is an important suggestion that therapists can apply when working with children in a clinical setup.