Secondly, the technology required for the low-class lock is low and the lock can be produced by some small companies in town. They have a cost advantage in tax and administration. The product can meet the requirement in the low-class market. Thirdly, the higher steel price compresses the profit space.The case company is located in the North of China. It is a medium-size company which has three production lines and can produce about a hundred kind of lock. Their products are mainly the door lock and padlock. Their locks are used in civil and industrial areas. They can produce the low- and medium class lock. Between 2003 and 2005, they pay attention to low-class door lock because of high demand by the construction company. In these two years, the competition in the low-class market became fierce They decided to go back to the medium market. In 2007, The productivity of medium-class lock take 30% percent and the profit takes more than 50%. The top management realized they must develop in a medium-class market because of the high-profit ratio. However, their vision and strategy can not be implemented successfully by their current performance and control system.During strategy implementation, strategic uncertainty must be met. These strategy uncertainties drive the new strategy. The company’s current source of strategy uncertainty is stronger competition (Atkinson and Court, 1998). Normally, companies choose one or more performance measurement and control systems to monitor the uncertainties interactively. The case companies choose the revenue interactively which is highly responsive to changes in competition. However, the measure of the whole revenue can not meet the requirement of the new strategy as the companies decide to develop their product in the medium product market. The sales and profit of the medium class products are not monitored separately and interactively. Moreover, the supplier is an important aspect of strategic uncertainty in the competitive market.
Аs is true of аll instаnces when humаns bаnd together to аmplify their individuаl efforts, communicаtion wаs instrumentаl in the endeаvor of mаnаgers to direct аctivities needed to creаte, produce, аnd sell products or to provide services. Due to а nаturаl increаse of the orgаnizаtionаl size, the need for аutomаted systems аppeаred for the effective аnd timely mаnаgement of people аnd resources. The Informаtion System (IS) is whаt the compаnies now use to reаch the objectives of effective processes through mаnаging the systems, people, dаtа records аnd аctivities thаt process the dаtа аnd informаtion (Robson 2005).In the following pаper, I will reseаrch IS аnd its effect on orgаnizаtions. In order to prove the efficiency of IS on prаctice, I will present аn IS use in the life of humаn resource depаrtment of аn orgаnizаtion.Technologicаl аdvаnces in the form of IS hаve chаnged the аvаilаbility of informаtion аnd the nаture of communicаtion within contemporаry orgаnizаtions. Compаred to more trаditionаl meаns, electronic communicаtion аnd informаtion technologies cаn cаrry more informаtion fаster, аt а lower cost, аnd to more people while аlso offering increаsed dаtа communаlity, processing, аnd powerful recombinаnt cаpаbilities (Fulk, Boyd, 1991). Аdvаnced communicаtion аnd informаtion technologies extend the number аnd vаriety of people involved in orgаnizаtionаl decisions, diminish temporаl аnd physicаl interаction constrаints, аnd increаse horizontаl аnd verticаl communicаtion.Moreover, the use of аdvаnced communicаtion аnd informаtion technologies in orgаnizаtions is widespreаd аnd commonplаce. Decreаsing technology costs аnd, often, а criticаl mаss of users hаve fаcilitаted substаntiаl use of electronic mаil (Аlbrecht, 1984), corporаte Intrаnets, Web pаges, videoconferencing, аnd group support systems.
Later on, Frank Robinson suggested the actual Coca Cola trademark. In April 1891, Asa Chandler, a pharmacist and a businessman purchased Pemberton’s recipe and turned Coca Cola into the internationally recognized brand it is today. In 1892, the company grew by ten times as a result of merchandising. Currently, the company operates beyond Georgia and the United States and has nearly 400 brands in over 200 countries (Ford, W. et al., 2007: 2).Currently, this multinational company does not operate in Myanmar, but is planning to venture into this market soonest possible. This event is after the U.S government lifted a ban on investing in Myanmar, in May, 2012.Foreign Direct Investment involves investing money in a company incorporated in another company. There are several advantages that Myanmar will gain, when Coca Cola Company establishes its operations there. First of all, employees of Myanmar will get exposure to globally valued skills. Once established, Coca Cola Company will have to train its employees, hence an improvement in the country’s human resources. Second, Myanmar will have a chance to be integrated into the global economy. Coca Cola Company is a corporation that has its operations in many nations across different continents. Its investment in Myanmar will expose this country to the world economy due to possible access to a wide market all over the word. Additionally, Coca Cola Company will bring along with it advanced technology and processes. This will lead to increased competition in the domestic market, hence posing a great challenge to other companies to improve their products and processes.These factors lead to improved quality of processes and products in a certain industry. Moreover, Coca Cola Company can use its foreign expertise in upgrading the existing technical processes. This country will also strengthen technical assistance on crucial regulatory issues such astaxation, due to adaptation of home country measures to support Myanmar.
The growth of these local companies is giving very tough competition to international chain hotels like Pearl Continental, Holiday Inn not only in terms of price but the quality of products and services as well.Quality service is a major challenge facing the hospitality sector in this millennium. Competitive advantage and competitive success rely heavily on the service quality in this industry. The delivery of service depends upon various factors and the most important factor is the people or human resources. Every interaction is a service encounter in the hospitality sector and interactions take place at various levels. Assessing customer expectations and efficiency in the delivery of service is a big challenge in this highly competitive and fast-moving industry. This paper will attempt to study whether the high or low volume of service encounter affects the overall service quality at Hotel Park Inn, Peshawar. It will try to determine how the contribution of employees, of the managers, technology, innovative ideas, and the consumers themselves helps meet the challenge in the new millennium.Hotel Park Inn, Peshawar (PIP) is a 3-star hotel and experiencing rapid growth. Its products and services give the customers a feel of a 4-star hotel. The hospitality sector in Pakistan can be divided into the corporate and the consumer sector, the corporate being a very large and dominating sector. This is especially in view of Afghanistan as the neighboring country which uses Pakistan as the entry and exit point for all its travels. The hotel has 70 rooms on offer apart from the conference and wedding facilities. Conferences contribute towards revenue generation but its main revenue comes from rooms sold. The hotel is very strategically located which provides easy access to both the discerning corporate clients as well as the leisure traveler. It also offers wedding facilities for the local people. The PIP’s association with recognized tour operators adds to its service quality as it is in a position to offer sightseeing packages to its foreign clientele.
The report focuses on the significance of the company’s internal and external analysis for meeting the targets and tackling new challenges in a determined, productive, and highly innovative way. The report also defines how the industry, understudy, can enhance its trade level according to the contemporary requirements by increasing the sales volume and presenting its products to the consumers in a more refined and innovative way. The use of the latest technology and new dimensions of the present-day commercial atmosphere applied by Coca-Cola has also been mentioned. The brilliant achievements of the Coca Cola Company have also been elaborated in a comprehensive but precise way.When someone talks of the most admired, discerning and trendy soft drink, one single name suddenly comes to mind that captures the imagination, electrifies the passion and freshens the feelings of the individuals. the name beggars description in flavor and style for the consumers, and a sense of long struggle, unparalleled determination and wonderful accomplishment urges the business community to analyze the corporate culture, business strategies and achievements of the grand beverage company. Coca-Cola Beverage Industry is one of the most admired brands among all the superlative merchandise and products of the globe at large. Its name, trademark, and logo are considered as the surety of sublime quality and magnificent trust of the users. Coca-Cola has built a global empire and now sells close to 450 brands in almost 200 countries. The company claims to adhere to the highest ethical standards and to be an outstanding corporate citizen in every community we serve. (Retrieved in waronwant.org) The company has achieved marvelous triumphs during nearly quarter past one century and serves as a landmark in the history of modern public beverages that are popular among all ages and all classes in all regions of the world alike. Coca-Cola was introduced the first time before the world in May 1886 in Atlanta, Georgia.
This mixture demands continuous and effective flow of information and the ability to adapt to change. All members of the company should be involved and strategy, when needed, needs to be changed accordingly. Robust measurement of strategic competences is critical.Canon has applied strategic planning since 1957. The strategic approach to achieving top market position involved everyone and there was a careful planning of the resources needed in order to achieve the market position.Canon has focused on the photocopying market in the beginning and it has focused on niche marketing i.e. producing small photocopiers. It has in parallel, developed new technology. Starting from photocopiers, Canon has developed since then core competencies in printers, scanners etc.The company emphasized customer satisfaction and it is customer oriented. Based on customer satisfaction, it has developed its growth plan which is called Excellent Global Corporation Plan. In this plan, the goal of Canon is clearly stated i.e. top share and profitable operations. The strategic planning process involved: highly automated manufacturing plant, high –technology products and synergy.So, the structure of Canon’s strategic plan was the following: the centre set the long-term strategy whereas the business units (product divisions) implement medium-term planning acting always within the constraints placed by the centre. Crisis management and contingency planning were important in Canon’s strategic process since the company wanted to be prepared in case of adverse events. These various plans were consolidated by the centre. Each business unit/division prepares its own budget, these budgets are gathered and then the centre prepares short-term plans.The company culture is quite distinctive: people are encouraged to talk and debate.The emphasis on people is shown in the objectives of Canon for the years 2001-05 among other objectives such as product leadership, development of RD and strong financial position.
The company has been spending considerable amounts of resources and time and ending up with the wrong candidate. It is the right time for a change for the betterment of the Company. In order to guarantee a steady growth and attainment of the set company objectives, it is of the essence to consider a dynamic recruitment process. It is also apparent that many companies, at present, are adopting innovative recruitment processes for senior-level staff members, especially our competitors.Additionally, our competitors have broadened their horizons on the subject of recruitment approaches. In particular, Companies are investing in the social media channels, such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Job websites to find prospective employees. On the other hand, companies consider the mobile and online applications to recruit staff members. These activities indicate that managers and human resource administrators see the value of technology in targeting the highly qualified and relevant candidates for job positions. It is also clear that acquiring the right candidate for distinctive job positions is not an easy task. This is considering that our company has been spending considerable amounts of time, money and resources in conducting a recruitment process (which entails combing through hundreds of academic and work portfolios) and still end up with hardly any reliable candidates.The Master Computer Services Company must adopt new and innovative ways of recruitment of its senior staff members in order to save on the recruitment costs and resources. This will be made possible by considering the following new and innovative recruitment approaches.Social channels of recruitment – Social channels are developing fast and many employers are considering using the social media to reach out to the potential candidates.
Walden – A Treatise on Transcendentalism Henry David Thoreau delivered his magnum opus to America which he baptized with the title Walden. The book is all about Thoreau’s experience in a cabin located near the Walden Pond surrounded by woodlands which is owned by his affiliate and teacher Ralph Waldo Emerson in nearby Massachusetts. The book was written to illustrate how Thoreau detached himself from the society for the objective of finding a bias-free understanding of it. In the cabin where he lived on for two years, he practiced with humanly motivation the life of an ascetic. His existence in the simple abode was portrayed with minimalism and naturalism. yet it is important to note that the cabin was not situated in a wild environment but in the fringe of the municipality which is not so far away from his family’s quarters. Although not on the face of an extremely formidable and callous nature, Thoreau observed meticulously a primordial lifestyle exemplified with the fundamental human needs which were food, shelter, clothing, and fuel. He knowledgeably applied his skill in economy by diligently recording his expenses and savings. Living with a meager amount of income, he built a home and enjoyed the most rustic freedom available to mankind. Moreover, Thoreau alleged in the tome that over- dependence on literatures was never an effective conduit towards transcendence or the ideal conception of one’s spiritual condition against the lure of worldly facets or sensual perceptions. spiritual success can be attained through individual intuition or experience. The magnificent natural surroundings endowed to us by Mother Nature is goading us to live simply and to concentrate on the elemental sounds of nature such as the rustling hum of the leaves, the chirping of migratory birds, the ringing of the chapel’s bells, the jangling and muffling of wagons, the farm animals moaning, and the tiny creatures flirting. The last chapter of the book condemned the American preoccupation on success and excessive affluence that were vestigial to their pursuit of happiness. Thoreau compassionately encouraged humanity to alter their lives for the wellness of the spirit and not for the mounting of wealth and material possessions. He epitomized these advices by means of passages interspersed in the book such as sell your clothes and keep your thoughts, and say what you have to say, not what you ought. Furthermore, Thoreau denounced conformity because this administrative demand hinders the genuine journey of humanity towards happiness and contentment. individuals, as he accepted, should follow what their hearts and minds utter because only though self-discretion will a person obtain a blissful subsistence. The masterpiece of Thoreau generally criticizes the debilitating fixation of the Western culture towards consumerism and materialism which in the long run will spawn the obliteration of nature. The venture of Thoreau towards simplicity has three objectives. primarily, the endeavor was performed to elude the global weakening effect of the Industrial Revolution and its threat against the pastoral and agricultural life. likewise, he abridged his expenditures and augmented the amount of time dedicated to leisure time so that he could accomplish much on his writings about how one’s lifetime should be lived, whether materially or else. Lastly, he utilized the philosophical treatise of Transcendentalism which will offshoot into an experience guided by the Divine through nature. Thoreau’s triumphantly achieved his dream of a life grasped through the lens of stoicism and a life free from the commonplace hedonistic activities of mankind. Materialism is an apparent outcome of the constant evolution of societies and the steady advancement of technology which made production of surpluses hence profit attainable. As Thoreau eloquently put it, individuals should make use of their free will in directing the path of existence that will best suit them. it is not spiritually enticing to follow the current trend of civilizations which is the steadfast creation of myriads of worldly substances for the satiation of human superficial needs.
This paper refers to a comparative study of six articles related to the factors that can influence the strategies followed in the management of information. More specifically, the papers under examination are this of Blenski (2004) who studied the relationship between the risk management and the management of information, this of Brent and Douglas (2004) who examined the role and the usage of information management to the evaluation and the control of intellectual assets, the work of Charp (2001) who referred to general aspects of information management, the work of Desenberg (2000) who examined specifically the management of knowledge (as the greater area in which information management activates), this of Nychka, D., Gray, G., Haaland, P., Martin, D., O’Connell, M. (1995) who studied a particular area of use of information management, the medicine and finally the work of Rhodes (2002) who proposed a method (DEA) for the evaluation and analysis of data using innovative technology.Brent and Douglas (2004) tried to identify the strategies, which could be used for the management of the information related to intellectual assets. According to the ‘information and cultural products exhibit at least four unique characteristics: a) no fixed tangible qualities or fixed form (e.g. a movie may be shown at a theatre, broadcast on network television or sold on a VHS tape or DVD), b) exchange does not require direct contact between the seller and buyer, c) value of the product is derived from content not from the physical artifact employed in distribution and d) the right to reproduce or distribute the product is often restricted’ (Office of Management and Budget, 1998, in Brent and Douglas, 2004, 443).
Alternative forms of currency have particularly been important in small communities where there exists mutual trust. These communities can make use of the alternatives forms of currency to strengthen their economies and to ensure that the demand for the produce of those particualr communities goes high (Farrington 2008). Technology has also introduced more sohisticated from of alterantive currencies where people create online communities that use alternative forms of currency. In essence, communities can escape the tedious formalities, requirements and risks that are associated with conventional currency and enjoy the effeciencies associated with alternatives forms of currency while at the same time strengthening the local communities and enhancing business relations. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the benefits and limitations of multiple exchange movements as well as noting areas for future research. 2.0 Local Exchange Trading System (LETS) 2.1 Functionality Basically, LETS involves people living within a given community who have decided to form some sort of a system requiring membership and where the members trade with each other using the barter trade system. Hoeben (2003) outlines that in average members of such a community do not make more than one exchange every month. In essence, the economic viability of such a system is significantly limited. In practice the actual exhange of goods for other goods do not actually take place but the members invent some sort of virtual currency that is used to monitor the balance of the members (Greco 2001). The system does not charge or accrue any interest becaue its major role is to monitor the transactions by its members. LETS responded to the need of European communities during tough financial times and since then the system has gained significant fame. However, the founder of LEST outlined that for the system to be functional certain conditionalities had to be met. These conditionalities were that the system should be run professionally and that the cost of operation should be paid by the members via LETS currency, trade should only take place on the basis of free will, full transparency is expected with regards to the accounts of each member so that other members can know the persons draggin the system behind, the unit of currency should always be equal to the national currency (Douthwaite 2002). 2.2 Benetits of LETS 2.2.1 Wealth Creation for Communities LETS plays the important role of empwering local communities to create and accrue that stays within communities and functions to benefit the communities. According to Visser (2005), the wealth of a community is viewed in terms of the goods and services the community owns and not the money the community has in its banks. LETS places emphasis on the generation of goods and services because members will need these goods and services to be able to accumulate LETS credit that they can use to buy other goods and services. Each individual in the LETS community will be motivated to play an active role on the system by having as many trading partners as possible. In order to have trading partners one will need to have goods and services to offer the trading partners and to have enough credit to be
Clear government policies and competent bureaucracies for management of solid wastes are needed urgently especially in countries where there is rapid population growth through urbanization into peri-urban areas. Services and programmes that include proper waste disposal for management of hazardous biological and chemical wastes, minimisation and recycling will be needed.Waste disposal is usually done commonly done by dumping (on land or into water bodies), incineration or long term storage in a secured facility. All these methods have varying degrees of negative environmental impacts with adverse environmental and health risks if wastes are improperly disposed or stored.Waste management in developing countries must emphasize and be linked to the creation of jobs, poverty alleviation and community participation. Too often authorities in poor Third World cities seek to imitate the technology and equipment used in developed countries. This is misguided and linked to corruption through kickbacks from purchases of transport fleet or from contractors. Often does not make economic and social sense for the poor. For example, there is often an informal sector of refuse collectors and scavengers that has developed their livelihoods from the collection and sales of materials. They minimise the volume of wastes to be collected for disposal. Adoption of waste management systems from developed countries will reduce access to garbage and displace such informal refuse collectors and scavengers, who end up poorer than before the development plan was implemented. Further, households in many developing countries do not sort their garbage (as done in industrialised countries) and so the adopted technology will simply collect to dispose of all wastes without recovery of reusables and recyclables.National policies should promote efficiency in the use of resources, emphasizing waste prevention and the productive use of wastes. There is increasing evidence that community-based approaches to waste management can promote more sustainable development.
The server virtualization also allows the organizations to run different software applications on diverse operating system to fully utilize system resources of a single physical machine. The operating system can run in isolation and / or side by side on the same physical machine. Each virtual machine (operating system) has its own allocated virtual hardware (e.g. Random Access Memory, Central Processing Unit, NIC, etc.) to load one operating system along with software applications. It is vital to state that the operating system uses the allocated virtual hardware resources, consistently and usually regardless of the actual physical hardware components (Bento, 2012). Advantages of Hypervisor Several advantages can be availed by an organization utilizing the technology of server virtualization. The server virtualization facilitates the organizations to combine the workloads of the underutilized server machines onto a smaller number of fully utilized machines. Keeping in view the fact of utilizing comparatively less number of servers for the multiple operating systems and software applications to manage the workload, it can be stated that the server virtualization can be cost effective for the organizations. … The utilization of hypervisor in the hardware infrastructure of an enterprise provides features of securely splitting each virtual machine / operating system and supports the legacy software systems as well as new software applications on the same server (Shavit, 2008). Disadvantages of Hypervisor for an Organization For every advantage there exist one or several disadvantages, therefore, the hypervisor has disadvantages as well. Comparatively, one of the main disadvantages of utilizing the native hypervisor is that the hypervisor reduces the performance of the operating system as well as the installed applications run slowly. While using the host hypervisor limits the enterprise to install the operating systems as per the limitations of the host operating system. The disadvantages of utilizing hypervisor in the enterprises include but are not limited to the requirements of servers with high specifications (i-e Randon Acess Memory, Central Processing Unit etc.), it requires additional hardware components and difficult to use console interface. The type two (2) or host hypervisors lead to the loss of centralized management, it has lower density and therefore, it becomes difficult to install many virtual machines of the first type. The organizations have to suffer with less security while utilizing the host hypervisors. It is pertinent to mention here that there are few operating systems cannot be installed simultaneously utilizing the hypervisors. The hypervisor technology only supports the Intel operating systems, whereas, the type 1 or native hypervisor does not support Solaris SPARC, AIX, HPUX, and the high-End UNIX systems. Introduction to
My experience as a health promotion practitioner in this module has been of many benefits, especially the use of behaviour change as a method of health promotion. Behaviour in this context refers to the product of individual or collective action that is a primary determinant of people’s health (Marmotet al. 2008, p.1664). This has a lot to do with people’s lifestyle risk factors, which are now leading contributors to morbidity and mortality in Europe.It is worth noting that one of the important theories that have affected my thinking is the social cognitive theory. The understanding of concepts in this theory as well as their applicability has gone a long way in helping me in conceptualising the principles, theoretical frameworks and methods of health promotion. I have become more critical and creative thinker than there before. It has assisted me in knowing how to interact with people and embrace human diversity. However, apart from the Trans-theoretical Model, Social Cognitive Theory and the Theory of Planned Behaviour concepts I learnt in this course, I was happy by the use of technology to change behaviour. The use of E-health interventions delivered by the internet more effectively. The information is accessible from anywhere by the use of computers and mobile phones that are accessible by the larger part of the population because they are cost-effective (Malvey Slovensky 2014, p. 30). These interventions have the basis on the planned behaviour theory of behaviour change, which assumes that individuals’ expression determined by purpose and is under projectable by approaches, independent norm, and perceived action control. I was delighted to learn that mobile phones are applicable as the most convenient way of delivering behavioural interventions (Trainor, 2010). This is due to the development of mobile technology including internal sensors of user position, emotion, and social engagement that raises theview of continuous and automated tracking of health-related behaviours.
Meaning comes from the belief that the human being is composed of flesh and soul. The flesh houses the soul that is to be well nurtured and prepared for after-life. According to most religious beliefs, after-life can be spent in either Satan’s hell or God’s paradise. These religious beliefs influence greatly the moral values and day-to-day lives of individuals. Some of these narratives such as the Ten Commandments have led to born ethical systems.If an individual is deeply involved in computer games, after some time they will realize that it will become difficult to distinguish between virtual reality and actual reality. In other circumstances, a dream may be very powerful that when an individual wakes up from it, they feel they are still attached to the dream. In the present world, scientists have advanced reality technologies to facilitate the linking of imaginative engagement with dreams and worlds. Farmers who keep chicken have also applied this technology. They create an illusion of chicken wandering happily in an open field while in reality they are locked in a cage. Many people find more purpose and meaning in their simulation than there real lives. For example, Brian a high school teacher feels more of himself as Frankenstein, a character in a computer game he plays than what he actually feels in his real life.Most of the indigenous tribes give myths about the origin of the universe and creation that shape the daily lives of individuals. Many of these narratives show the connection between man, environment, and animals. These narratives draw their meaning from the connection of their stories that link to cycles of life, natural calamities, and death. The purpose of these narratives is drawn from relating some of these rituals to bring harmony and peace in the environment. This type of knowledge is passed from one generation to another through oral traditions facilitated by village elders and schools. In some way, indigenous knowledge and religious knowledge are similar since they set the society in a way of organizing events according to their beliefs.
The interest has been taken to such an extent that even larger companies like GE have changed some of their methodologies to match those of smaller companies. Small companies are the envy of the business world since they manage to change their operations on the fly and can enter and exit markets with ease which is not available to larger companies.On the other hand, there have been arguments against the wisdom that small companies are flexible and adaptable considering the number of SMEs which have been put out of business since many of them were based on trends. It can be shown with the use of studies and articles that the size of the company is often immaterial when it comes to flexibility and adaptability. Rather, it is the technology, the culture, the business environment, and the person in charge of the company that lets the company have qualities like being flexible and adaptable to the environment.Despite this, there are several interesting arguments that point towards how SMEs are flexible and adaptable precisely because of their size. Or as in the case of Equation Research Inc. the complete absence of size which makes them a perfect example of a small company. Equation Research is a small company that does not have any physical premises at all and manages its entire seventeen person staff from the internet. They specialize in getting research done for other companies and conducting product and service-related surveys online (Rupley, 2005).In fact, had it not been for the internet and the various information systems used by Equation Research, it is impossible to think that they could continue their operations. Levy and Powell (1998) made the same deduction that the information systems and the organizational purposes for which the technology is used as well as the technical background in which the organization exists, affect adoption and use by shaping usability and usefulness. Simply stated, if the information system used by the company is adaptable and flexible, the company will become adaptable and flexible as well (Young Francis, 1993).
The purposes of this brief analysis is to direct the way to focus on the development and use of what has been termed by many as a human exoskeleton. Whereas many scientific advancements work to aid humanity, both directly and indirectly, the recent development and use of a human exoskeleton has performed such a task in a meaningful, humanitarian, and much needed way. As such, this brief discussion hopes to chronicle the growth of this technology, provide the viewer with the appreciative understanding of such development, and seek to point out the level of human dignity.So, it can be gained by its introduction to those who have been born with developmental issues, been wounded, or been subsequently partially paralyzed. As such, the following exhibits help to greet the viewer with the understanding of the growth and progression of the technology as well as to paint an outline for what type of ways that this technology could be put to use to assist the individuals mentioned.The first evidence of what would serve as the inspiration for a human exoskeleton can be understood as a type of fusion between the deep water diving suits pictured above and the naturally occurring exoskeleton of many insect species. As a means of understanding how the exoskeleton could both enhance and strengthen the experience of those that would foreseeably utilize such a suit, developers began to consider some of the applications that would be suitable for such a device. Obviously, one of the first applications that came to mind and struck the interest of some very lucrative government contracting was that of DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration). As a function of the fact that these human exoskeletons had the possibility of being able to assist combat troops in performing feats that would otherwise be unattainable with the utilization of current extant technology.
According to many publications, NIST is very proactive in this element as one of the main is attacks on User Domain. There are several types of attacks on the User Domain that are prevalent, as they can be quite successful against an uninformed or untrained employee. By implementing good company policies and ensuring that best practices against these attacks are used, an organization should be able to mitigate the risks found in the User Domain.Within the realm of User Domain, NIST is also very comprehensive in its understanding spoofing and DDoS. One of the worst vulnerabilities for user domains is insider attacks. Insider attacks occur. For instance, denial of service and spoofing are one the most common themes that occur. The problem is the fact that intercepting authentication or other sensitive information can be executed with the current WAN technology since it utilizes the traditional TCP/IP in user domains. (Best Practices for the Security 2013)Moreover, spoofing can also be conducted since an intruder can deceive the network that it recognizes a possible unauthorized access. The problem with installing firewalls in a user domain is the fact that they are fully feasible. Insider attacks occur when one user domain gains more privilege than the other user and shares that information. Tipton (2005) This becomes extremely dangerous because it allows the hacker to have one central location to exploit information. (Best Practices for the Security 2013) Inside attacks can be vast and potent depending on the type of attack. For instance, an executing script can copy sensitive information and can make one central machine a master. This can be detrimental to a data breach. This master to slave configuration can be used with full throttle for malicious attacks.
When introducing a strategic change in the organization, the manager should come up with a SMART plan. It means that the future plan should be Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Time-bound. (Chaudron, 2006) Organizational strategies to be used on change should also be specific and direct. For instance, the company will use ‘SWOT analysis’ to allow the company to define their core competencies, etc.Change in management is a very broad subject. A structured approach to change can either refer to an employee as an individual or as an organization. From the perspective of an individual, a change could refer to a change in behavior and beliefs. Looking at change on the business side could mean a change in the business process, adopting the use of new technology, or implementing a new business goal.There are hundreds or thousands of management tools that can be used in planning and conducting assessments once the organizational change has been implemented. (Chaudron, 2006) The number of available management tools often leads to confusion and leads to the downfall ofWhen doing strategic planning, SWOT analysis can be used in analyzing the advantages and disadvantages of the strategic plan. This model is designed to provide a ‘straight-forward’ observation regarding the strength, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of incorporating the new business plan within the organization. SWOT Analysis can be used together with the PEST analysis, Porter’s Five Forces analysis, or Cost-Benefit analysis.According to David Chaudron (2006), Employee Satisfaction Survey or Employee Survey can be used in acknowledging the expectations and opinions of the employees regarding the plan for a change. (Peale, 2006)
It is also home to a considerable part of European biodiversity. Yorkshire, one of the largest historic counties in Britain, has a population of approximately five million. The area is surrounded by North Sea, Durham County Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire, Derbyshire, Lancashire, and Westmorland. Yorkshire County is divided into north, west, and east ridings. The city of York is not part of any of the ridings. Agricultural fields cover 75 percent of the land in Yorkshire. (http://www.soilassociation.org/web/sa/psweb.nsf/A5/yorkshire.html) The large urban area serves as the potential market for agricultural products. The agriculture sector in Yorkshire has seen tremendous changes over the course of the past 50 years. Earlier, the fields were divided into smallholdings, owned by a larger member of people. Now the tendency is to own larger units of specialized farms. Obviously larger farms have several advantages over smaller units.After the Second World War, farming practices have become intensive. With government guarantee in prices, more farmers resorted to capital investments and started increased use of modern technology, especially machines. Generally, large capital investment is required for the effective implementation of machines. The introduction of machines in small holdings is not very profitable. All these factors have necessitated large farmlands. The advantages of the larger farmland are many. Firstly, output has increased significantly. Over the 50 years, more than 100 percent productivity increase has seen in some of the crops. Secondly, it has made mechanization easier. The use of machines resulted in a reduction in expenditure. It has also made operations quicker and faster. Thirdly, it has led to the specialization of crops, now the focus is on cultivating more profitable crops. Fourthly, it has also highly helpful ineffective management of the agricultural land. Fifthly, the use of modern technology in large farms.
nal characteristics of Japanese capitalism, it is worth going back to history and defining the main reasons for the development of the peculiarities of Japanese capitalism.However, Japan made a miraculous recovery. It left behind its empire and the military. It turned instead to democracy and to developing its business strength. The United States made loans to help Japan rebuild. The resource that Japan used was its most proven one – a united people willing to work and save for the good of Japan. (A.D.Chandler,1990)The savings of individual Japanese supplied money to Japanese banks. They worked in cooperation with the government to rebuild Japan’s damaged factories. They modeled their new industries after the best the world had and then improved them. They trained people to work in the industries.Using resources from overseas, factory workers processed them into well-made products. Their steel industry began to complete with the world leaders. Cameras, stereos, television sets, and calculators streamed off modern assembly lines. By the 1970s Japan was the world’s third-ranking industrial power. By the 1980s it’s automobile industry had become the largest in the world.Today the Japanese people have a prosperous economy. Their major cities of Yokohama, Osaka, and Nagoya each have populations of more than two million. Tokyo has more than 8 million people. Within its borders, Japan has more universities than all of Western Europe.Japan has not reached its level of success without problems. In such countries as the United States, people worry about Japanese competition. Many American business leaders have watched profits fall as shoppers buy Japanese goods. In some cases, American factories have closed, and workers have lost their jobs. The Japanese government has had to work hard to persuade other countries not to place trade restrictions on its goods. (Fruin, W. Mark,1992)Masahiko Aoki states that Japanese growth was not an application of American technology and the organization of production.
In Mexico, it has been reported that workers are offered very little wages to an extent that they are forced to send their kids to offer labor in garment factories instead of going to school (Esbenshade, 2004, pp.4). This denies the young children from achieving their rights to education and forces them into the same torturing manual professions like their parents. The word sweatshop was first coined in the early 1900s i.e. during the industrial revolution. It was a term used to express the kind of abusive working situation several workers in Latin America used to and are still put to go through by middlemen who make an income off their sweat. For every pay a worker receives, there is a percentage that is taken by the middlemen. This percentage is what is said to be sweated from the laborer despite the fact that, they received minimal wages for disproportionate work, under unhygienic conditions. Basically, the greatest victim of sweatshops is often women. Under these working conditions, these women’s right to wages that meet basic costs of living is violated. they live and work under substandard and hazardous working condition. they receive no compensation for overtime work. also endure sexual harassment. In many instances, the women fall victim to this inhuman habit as they are lured by recruiters who promise heaven but only offer hell. Worse still, is the fact that in most instances, they pay lots of cash in recruitment and contractual fees that tie them up to commitments that would probably last for endless years. Some even go for several years without receiving even a single penny as they try to pay off their debts. Those who attempt to escape back home without meeting their contractual commitments are in most cases blacklisted or jailed. The laborers, who often are not quite familiar with their labor rights frequently, carry on with work even when their wages delayed for weeks. Some employers even lure the women into offering them sexual favor for better opportunities and wages, something that never comes to bear fruits (Hapke, 2004, pp.3). Global Corporations’ Perspective and Ethics Ethics among global corporations is a widespread issue that impacts not only in the economies of Latin America but also the economies of other nations as well. In a time when technology has enhanced accessibility all across the world, the global economy is continually becoming more and more vital. Labor standards of the firms targeting foreign workers must aptly take into consideration the principal form of human rights and the persona of both the individuals targeted as well as that of the company. When discussing ethics among global corporations, some of the key areas of debate include extortion, moral norms and human rights (Hapke, 2004, pp.3). The behavioral traits exhibited by firms in the hosting nations normally impact negatively on the economies and persons of both the targeted nation as well as the host firms doing business. Due to this, the ethical standards under which a company ought to operate under has been a source of extensive debate for a very long time. There are two fundamental ethical issues in human rights that need to be largely taken into consideration by global business players.
A shift in demand curve occurs due to a change in the income of buyers, change in the price of other goods and change in the taste of the goods. A shift in supply curve occurs because of change in the cost of production, change in the price of other goods and a change in the technology etc. If demand increases due to the influencing factor other than the price, the demand curve will shift to the right and when demand decreases due to an influencing factor, the demand curve will shift to the left.When other things being unchanged, an increase in people’s income typically increases the demand for houses and hence the demand curve will shift to the right and as a result, the equilibrium quantity of houses bought will increase. In the existing housing market condition, it is obvious that the availability of credit is an influencing factor in shifting the demand curve for houses. If more credits and loans are available for less interest, the quantity demanded houses will increase and hence the demand curve will shift to the right. The supply curve of houses will be affected by a number of factors like the cost of production and technology used in house construction. Lipsey and Chrystal (2007) explain that a fall in carpenter’s wages will reduce the cost of production of the houses, thus shifting the supply curve of houses to the right. In such a case, construction firms may plan to increase construction and hence increase the number of carpenters demanded if the price of the houses did not change (p. 214). The demand curve for houses is negatively sloped. An increase in the output leads to a fall in the market price of houses.Price Elasticity of demand is a measurement of the responsiveness of demand for a product or service to a change in its own price. Price elasticity of demand for houses measures the responsiveness of demand for houses to a change in its price.The demand for housing is expected to be inelastic because housing is a necessity and there are very few substitutes available.
The beginning of the endeavor from Microsoft vs. the European Union came from a complaint left by Sun Microsystems. The complaint was based on Microsoft not revealing information that should be made public in terms of the PC operating system and overall functioning. The system that was complained about was furthered with information that wasn’t provided to vendors about the Microsoft Windows Media Player Product. The investigation which followed stated that Microsoft denied revealing specific information about the products, which allowed them to dominate the market while other vendors remained at a disadvantage because of the information which was not disclosed. The belief was that Microsoft had become involved in becoming anti-competitive, specifically because of the lack of information available to the public about the media player and operating system of Windows. The problem which arose was based on vendors not being able to create products that would compliment and intertwine with Microsoft. This continued with the competitive advantage that allowed Microsoft to dominate the market and the different aspects of operating systems that were associated with this (EU, 2011).The behavior of Microsoft reached a verdict of being anti-competitive and didn’t comply with Article 24 (1) and (2) with not supplying vendors with information. This is noted to be anti-competitive because every vendor is required to supply specific information to the public. If the competition did have the information, then it would have remained a part of the competitive field and would have allowed other vendors to use the same information or create complementary software systems. However, without revealing the information, vendors don’t have the capacity of making systems that comply with the Microsoft Windows operating system. This leads to the inability of other vendors and suppliers to create open-source products or software systems that can be used on the operating system, which is currently dominating the world market with computers. The result is a monopoly that allows Microsoft to continue to leverage the main consumer demand for cheaper and efficient operating systems without having other software or vendors that can compete with the product or create alternative products. The decision is shown best with the Apple competition, which is unable to create the cheaper models and software systems but which doesn’t have the information from Microsoft to become competitive in the field.From the viewpoint of Microsoft, there is the viewpoint of having antitrust with the decision which occurred. If information is revealed about the products and services offered through the operating system, then a vendor can easily copy this and begin to sell the idea outside of the operating system. There may also be the ability to create open-source alternatives for individuals, which would lead to a loss in profit for Microsoft. The dynamics of operating systems and technology would lead Microsoft at a disadvantage because of the way in which individuals could work with the technology and operating systems that are offered by the corporation. The viewpoint of Microsoft was one which was reliant on not disclosing the information so they could keep their products safe and without complexities in others stealing or using the products and systems that Microsoft created (Groklaw, 2011).
Introduction PESTEL is a model that considers the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental as well as legal aspect (Thomson Strickland, 1998). It is considered as one of the models that can be successfully used particular for groups that are considered to be more private focused. Such groups may be victims of being oblivious to the effect of the external forces since their focus is laid on the internal forces. In studying the European Tour operation, PESTEL had been exhaustively practiced to arrive at the current status of the industry. Discussion According to the study, Political factors such as Government policies and trading policies were central to the growth. A case in point is the outcome of the competition authority clearance which witnessed the merger between Thomas Cook and the British Competitor MyTravel, an integrated international group. The economic situations and trends were also awakened the industry, where players like TUI responded to the actions of Thomas Cook by the acquisition and merger with First Choice. These home economic situations and trends tighten the competition in the European Tour and Operation Industry. The economic situation was also concerned with the Industry specific factors where the Thomas Cook adopted flights that gave the customers choices of chartering plans rather than DO It-Yourself and thus assured security and good value for the vacationers. Economic factors such as interest rates also influenced the operations of players like TUI. This was witnessed where an anticipation of a sustained weakness of the pound against the Euro and the expected increase in unemployment made TUI to cut summer capacity by 27% to the British travelers in 2009. These economic factors also saw Thomas Cook undergo reorganization after experiencing continuing decrease in revenue. On consideration of the social factors, TUI got involved in low cost airline which was expected to get to the average families as well. TUI also got itself different brands all over Europe and world at large to present different images in different environment, which they successfully did through travel agents as well as having there different brands of Tour operator selling not only fully packaged tours but also individual travels components. Competing Technological Development also shaped the tours operations in Europe. The observation that call centers and online bookings combined, in 2005 accounted for 25% of the sale gave an indication that technology had given the business of Tour operation a new face all together. This is also observed when online Travel Agencies are noted to have been moving quicker than the traditional Tour Operators who were seen to be going down the hill. The Literature also elaborates that tours operators no longer competes exclusively amongst themselves but face competition from online channels. The maturity of technology seemed to have played a very significant role in the development of tour operation in Europe. When it comes to environmental factors, clearly, Consumer buying patterns played a role in the determination of the progress of the industry the fact that a number of structural changes between US and UK. This was grounded on the understanding of the differences between the US markets and the European markets. The study notes that the Europeans take more vacations than Americans and that US travelers tend to be more independent and
Today, the economies of most of these markets are growing and expanding at a rate that easily attracts multinational companies from all across the world. Most of these emerging markets are also having very favourable macroeconomic and microeconomic policies that put them at highly lucrative positions to choose in the doing of global business. With the coming and advancement of technology also, there has been a major boost in terms of how effective and efficient business is undertake in these emerging markets. All of these favourable conditions notwithstanding, it remain a fact that with the level of development in these emerging markets, companies need much strategic approaches to make good use of consumers in emerging markets, especially those at the bottom of the pyramid. In this paper, two key business strategies that can be used by these companies are critically discussed. Strategies of Market Growth Gollakota (2010) identifies consumers at the bottom of the pyramid as one of the most important stakeholders of any company’s supply chain, especially those in emerging markets. … erstanding circumstances that consumers must satisfy to meet their needs, whiles the final parameter looks into the essence of what the consumer wants to accomplish (Gollakota, 2010). Generally, though, the deep cost management centres on the second paradigm, which advises the need for prices of products and services to be cut low to ensure that those at the bottom will also have the means of responding to their needs. For the companies to do this cost cutting without running at a loss it important that they are engaged in prudent management of production cost. In the second instance, the use of deep benefit management is recommended for use. Unlike the former which focuses on cost management, this is more concerned about value management, where the need for companies to think of ways of adding new features that give unique value to their products and services is recommended (Ghemawat, 2010). In most cases, what has been observed with emerging markets is that consumers at the bottom want to use their money in the most guaranteed means that they have to be very certain about value for money. In effect, even if they will have to be paying more, they would need guarantee that the same product or service from another outfit has less value than the one they are purchasing (Pelle, 2007). Meanwhile, the best way to raise the value of a product is by introducing new features that takes away cost in an indirect manner. Some of these ways include offering convenient locations, transport, or other services that are essential for BOP customers Gollakota, 2010 p. 361). Conclusion In conclusion, it will be reiterated that the need for businesses and organizations to succeed is not an achievement that comes by accident, especially when reference is made to emerging markets. As
The concept does not revolve round the balance between the family and career but it needs to be a more comprehensive approach that analyses the balance that employees and employers strike between work and life outside of work. While it is very difficult to achieve a perfect work-life balance, difficulties have been perceived even in achieving a sustainable or a desirable one.The UK labour market is one the most flexible in the world which benefits both the workers and the employers. UK has a high employment rate of just below 75% which indicates a strong and healthy labour market. The unemployment rate is low but the labour market exhibits a high degree of labour turnover. Around 6 million leave jobs every year and similar number find new jobs. These job changes are voluntary and they feel secure in their jobs. Amongst other reasons, flexibility and work-life balance have caused changes in the traditional labor market model (Doogan, 2003).The legal framework influencing work-life balance has to be taken into account. According to the Employment Relations Act (1999), an individual is entitled to 18 weeks of maternity leave and 13 weeks of parental leave apart from leave for emergency situations connected with the dependents at home (Hogarth et al, 2003). Through the Part-time Workers Regulations 2000 the government encourages oppurtunities for part-time working. Part-time working has gained importance because of changes in human resource strategies, increased female participation rates, industrial restructuring, impact of technology (Hogarth et al, 2003) and due to changes in family structure and an ageing population (Lewis Smithson, 2001).The increase in women’s employment has predominantly been in the services sector which provide little career enhancement oppurtunities even though these are low-skilled and part time jobs.Women change jobs twice as often as men, which is a reason for concern and warrant research.
By the use of the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) the drivers of Speed –delivery vehicles would be empowered by the wireless devices which will help them in interacting with their managers and access information from their company’s intranet instantly without taking the services of the telephone staff anymore. Through WAP the information, maps, and plan chalked out for the drivers by the management as well as the information required by the management from the drivers would be very easily and quickly delivered to both the parties. WAP can be built on operating systems like EPOC, Windows CE, JavaOS, FLEXUS, OS/9, PalmOS, etc. WAP is meant for handheld digital wireless devices like mobile phones, PDAs, etc. since it is designed to work with wireless networks like GSM, it can be considered technically suitable in this case. One advantage of WAP is that even between different device families, it has the capacity to provide service interoperability. So if the company wants to shift to other network technologies like CDMA in the future, they will not have to face any major problem with WAP. According to Wikipedia, Spin-off technologies, such as MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) (picture messaging), a combination of WAP and SMS, has further driven the protocol. An enhanced appreciation of device diversity, supported by the concomitant changes to WAP content to be more device-specific rather than being aimed at the lowest common denominator, has allowed for the content presented to be more compelling and usable. As a result, the adoption rate of WAP technology is on the upswing.’’(para.24) So sending maps to the drivers would be easier through this mode. The other advantage and deciding factor of WAP are that its deployment is cost-effective.If we look at the usability of WAP we will find that the drivers who are always on a move would find it difficult to navigate with a WAP-enabled mobile because of limited deck size. So care would have to be taken to keep the messages and maps as simple and understandable as possible otherwise the whole investment would go awry.
Nevertheless with the passage of time Joe Papa handed the responsibility of running the business to his eldest son. Now the elder son Little Joe now wants to expand the operations of the company and like to open outlets on parts of the St. Louis County and in the suburbs of St. Louis. The next half of the report will be presenting a list of recommendations that can be applied by the company to formulate their strategies for the next 5-10 years. Recommendations In order to have a sound strategic plan for the future the company at first needs to define its core products, services as well as the target group of customers. Defining target is important as the company exists because of its customers. In this process the company must also develop a mission and vision statement. This will clearly portray the intentions of the company about where it wants to go and what it wants to achieve in the near future. Now since the company wants to operate in other parts of the country it needs to have a proper strategy. The selection of place where it will be opening the outlet has to be at busy place. This will ensure steady flow of customers. After a shorter expansion and based on the feedbacks of the local customers regarding products and services, the company can take up international expansion. This will not only help the company to earn more revenue, but will also facilitate them to cater to a large number of segments. Prior taking the international expansion the company needs to ensure it maintains the highest quality of products and services. Also other factors such as customer relationship management and customer query management needs to strong. Depending upon the country of operation and its external environment the company may take up either FDI or joint venture to expand. It is important that within next few years the company develops a core competency for itself. Therefore in order to develop it the company must focus on a number of aspects. Some of the possible aspects on which competency can be achieved are variety in dishes, authenticity of the ingredients, ambience of the outlets, free home deliveries, specialized or localized menu etc. The company should implement information technology into their system of operations. By implementing IT into their system the company will be able to introduce various other options. For example it can introduce online order processing system, inventory management system, customer relationship management and also automation of a number of store activities. The company should promote itself with the help of television advertisement, fliers in the form of discount coupons and also promotion through newspaper will help to serve the purpose. Nevertheless strategic planning can also be an effective tool, if properly utilized by the company. In this context the board of directors for the company must consider one among single, standing and contingency plans. After determining the best possible solution and based on the evaluation, it should prioritize the plans in a systematic manner. The implementation of the plans should be the next step. The company should also consider controlling the implemented strategies. Assignment II Strategic planning is defined as the process by which organizations decides about the objectives of the company and also decides upon the appropriate courses of action required to achieve the objectives (Cambridge Dictionaries
The relationship between the natural environment and free trade focuses on the trade policies’ impacts on the ecological environment, the impacts on the trade flows and the use of trade measures in order to attain environmental policy objectives (Irwin, 2009). Free trade impacts the environment drew international attention in 1991 when the Mexican government challenges United States laws on the ban of exports of tuna to the US from Mexico. The United States Marine Mammal Protection Act prohibited the import of tuna and dolphins from countries that used fishing methods that killed the dolphins (Mitchell, 2009). In its case, the Mexican government argued that the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) allowed free trade between the two countries. Accordingly, the World Trade Organization (WTO) outlined that countries could restrict free trade in instances when the measures are necessary to protect the safety and health of the citizens. In the ruling, GATT panel clearly outlined that the US government had violated GATT agreements since it could not utilize its domestic legislation to control and protect dolphins that were outside its territory (Geradin, 1997). This case opened new controversial issues on the impact of free trade on the environment since Mexico did not press for the implementation of the panel ruling. Thesis statement: International free trade and environmental protection can never be compatible. Free trade increases global economic activities and leads to higher national incomes. The total global trade volumes have increased significantly due to trade and the free flow of labor among the trading partners (Irwin, 2009). The growth in free trade has been supported by advancements in transportation networks, an increase in outsourcing, industrialization, and the emergency of global trade organizations. Proponents of free trade assert that it leads to efficient resource allocation due to the comparative advantage of nations in producing certain commodities. Garber (1993) asserts that free trade increases global economic output due to the expanded market for excess output and elimination of market access tariffs and regulations of the domestic economies. Accordingly, free trade encourages competition among various firms thus leading to high-quality products and low prices to the consumers. It is acknowledged that free trade will foster technology transfer that contributes to human advancements and better quality of life in society. Accordingly, free trade enables multinational companies to reduce the costs of production by attracting high qualified skill force at a lower cost and moving their manufacturing plants closer to sources of raw materials (Michalos, 2008). In addition, free trade will contribute to growth in the domestic gross product by ensuring higher employment levels and consumer incomes thus ultimately contribute to increasing consumption levels in the economy. However, environmentalists assert that free trade leads to market externalities like pollution and thus stringent domestic environmental regulations are necessary in order to check the standards of goods imported in the economy (Esty, 1994). The WTO established a committee to deal with trade and environment in 1995 in order to deal with issues concerning domestically prohibited goods and eco-labeling. A major concern for the committee is the relationship between multinational environmental agreements(MEAs) and WTO regulations since the environmental agreements entail provisions that restrain the signatory countries to ban the importation of certain goods
of the of the ‘The Story of Stuff’ Introduction The Story of Stuff is a well known documentary by Annie Leonard. In it, the author claims that we are fast running out of options due to overconsumption of the Earth’s resources, and that one way we will be wiped out or our very survival will be threatened if we continue to abuse and overuse natural and man-made resources in this way. It is a well directed and eye opening critique of the ‘materials economy’ (Leonard, 1). Discussion Basing her discussion on the well known cycle of (1) Extraction to (2) Production to (3) Distribution to (4) Consumption to (5) Disposal, and taking them one by one, Leonard points out the inefficiencies in this system at every stage. In order to shock the reader into realizing the severity of the problems, the author has interspersed her discussion with some rather startling facts. For example she rightly says that the Government has failed in its responsibility to provide safety and security for its citizens. She maintains that out of the world’s 100 largest economies, 51 percent are corporations and 49 percent are countries. This fact has been stated by Sarah Anderson and John Cavanagh in their report entitled ‘Top 200: The Rise of the Corporate Global Power’ in which they compared the size and power of international corporate entities to the Governments of nations. What hope can Governments and people then have to save themselves from the caprices of corporations? In fact instances of Government lobbying on the part of corporations and their donations are so common that many people have simply given up thinking in the power of Government to reform society according to idealistic principles. That is why you see a low turnout on any election day. Leonard also maintains that in the last three decades, we have used up as much as one-third of the Earth’s resources (Hawkins, Lovins Lovins, 4). The Global Footprint Network found that in 2003, Humanity’s Footprint exceeded the Earth’s Biological Capacity by over 25 percent (Harris, 1). The reason for such overuse of resources is that we are being led down the path of overconsumption by corporations who want us to buy things again and again through the means of planned obsolescence or perceived obsolescence (Taylor Tilford, 467). While planned obsolescence is engineered into the limited durability of a product like a television set, perceived obsolescence is created in our minds through technology and fashion. We all want the latest mobile sets- no matter if we use or even know how to use half the functions on it regularly. This mindset, developed after the Second World War, shifted the concentration of corporations from producing long lasting, quality and durable products to products that had a limited useful life- just enough to last till the next new technology came along. It was the birth of consumerism and the materials economy. The average US consumer spends 3-4 more times in hours shopping than his European counterpart (Cross, 192). Conclusion The author has made some very valid points and this video documentary has been viral over cyberspace for quite some time. However despite all her good intentions, it seems we cannot stem the tide that consumerism and advertising has created. Works Cited Cross, G. Time and Money, 1993, p192. Harris, F. Global Environmental Issues, 2004. Hawken, P.. Lovins, A. Lovins, L.H. Natural Capitalism. Little Brown and Company, 1999, pg 4. Leonard, A. The Story of Stuff, 2002. Taylor, B. Tilford, D. Why Consumption Matters in ‘The Consumer Society Reader’ edited by Juliet B Schor Douglas Holt, 2000, p. 467.
Their study sought to find out more about the disorder in its congenital aspect. The researchers specifically wanted to know whether eye-movement based memory effect can stipulate evidence in congenital prosopagnosia. The behavioural indicator is a reprocessing result in face recognition. This means that when viewing a familiar object, the eye fixates less. The eye’s appraisals also occur in fewer areas. Formerly, prosopagnosia was commonly regarded as quite rare. However, recent experts have asserted that some are born with this impairment, thus, the term congenital prosopagnosia. This spectrum is characterized by having difficulties in perceiving not only faces but objects and visual scenes as well. The research consisted of two experiments. The first one aimed to duplicate the face reprocessing effect in two age groups (young adults and old adults). The 19 participants had normal vision acuities. They were made to view 40 different stimuli on the screen. Each face was presented for 5 seconds. Half of the materials were familiar. If a participant would perceive the stimulus as known, he would press the right button and the left if it were otherwise. Their respective reaction times were then recorded. The respondents’ retinal focus were assessed and calibrated. … Since childhood, he had difficulties in identifying faces and is presently having trouble in recognizing his children’s early years’ photos. In addition to the procedure done in the first experiment, a confidence rating regarding the respondent’s answers were employed. The results showed that all of the unfamiliar faces were correctly identified. However, only 85% of the known photos were appropriately recognized. The rates of his confidence level regarding his responses were slightly higher for unfamiliar stimuli at 3.2 out of 5. There was a significant difference in his reaction time at 0.001 with the F tabulated value 12. 702 (1, 35). His reactions were faster when it comes to unfamiliar faces. The experiments then conclude that congenital prosopagnosia may be evaluated using behavioural indicators. The second article is done by Righart and de Gelder. Their paper is entitled, Impaired Face and Body Perception in Developmental Prosopagnosia (2007). Their paper aimed to find out if the disorder also involves the inability to recognize the people’s bodies. Brain scanning techniques have shown certain brain areas that get activated when the individual tries to recognize faces and objects. Currently, cutting edge technology has made it possible to assess parts in the brain when recognizing bodies. The methodology required four participants. Their particular phases of perception were evaluated and recorded. Firstly, how the respondents detected objects, faces, and bodies in the initial stage was substantiated. This was done by judging various kinds of incident-related possibilities to standardized and disorganized pictures. Three among the four individuals with developmental prosopagnosia had results that signified incorrect stimuli
Persons advocating for financial aid to the poor countries as a solution to their poverty argue that the financial aid that these poor countries receive help in boosting their economies. Economic development is actually the primary reason why such countries or poor people seek financial aid. Poor countries use the financial aid they receive from donors in boosting their investment climate such as promoting entrepreneurship and by providing direct support to trade. The poor countries also use the funds received in settling debts especially after they are strike by disasters. For example, farmers in Bhatinda in India were in deep debt after their lands became waterlogged, thus needed financial aid to support them and settle their debts. Moreover, the obtained financial aid can be used in investing in other areas, thus offering them more talents to build and develop their respective countries.Persons supporting the idea of financial aid to the poor states also argue that if proper measures are put in place, the aid allocated can provide substantially sustainable solutions to poverty. Working towards a sustainable future is the most effective way through which donors can end poverty in the poor states. Natural resources are diminishing at a rampant rate as the demands of the population continue to increase and as the gap of income continues to widen as well. Subsequently, sustainability is the only viable solution that can help in curbing the rising demands of the population that are satisfied using scarce and depleting resources.However, it is essential to note that the journey to a sustainable future should be done in a way that does not compromise the future generation’s needs. Thus, sustainable solutions must be done in a way that would get people out of poverty and at the same time protect the environment (Jones 39). Some of the aspects that should be considered while applying sustainable solutions to help the poor countries include providing access to agriculture technology that do not lead to climate change, and providing food and water.
According to the research findings it can therefore be said that foreign direct investment (FDI) is direct venture into business in a country by a company from another country. This can be either by buying a company in the intended country or by increasing operations of an open business in that country. In actual practice, FDI attraction may bedifferent in various countries. In this respect, technology, market access, growth, poverty reduction and the foreign direct investment outcomes of a country are extremely significant. Other aspects such as damages to the environment, regions and local capabilities are considered to be negative in a countries economy. For the last two decades, increased technological and liberalization advances have resulted into increased growth in the flow of FDI. This means that foreign direct investment gained in share of domestic investment and gross domestic product (GDP) in many countries. It is done for numerous reasons that involve taking advantage of low cost wages or for exceptional investment privileges like rewards to obtain a link that is tariff-free towards the countries markets or the regional market through the use of tax holidays granted to the company. Foreign direct investment is the submissiveness in security investments of various countries such that it comes in the form of securities and other investments being contrast with portfolio investments. The national accounts of a country, that relate to the equation of national income (Y=C+I+G+(X-M)) where I is investment plus foreign investment, The inflow minus outflow that amount to Net inflows of investment, is at least 10% or more of voting stash in an enterprise operating in an economy apart from that of the investor. It is the sum of other long-term capital, short-term capital and owners’ capital as frequently shown in the balance of payment. Transfer of technology expertise, management involvement and joint venture are means used. The FDI may be both inward and outward, resulting in a net inflow that is positive or negative and stock of foreign direct investment that sums up the number for a given period. International factor investment is one example of FDI. Perspective FDI is the form of FDI that arises whenever a company ensures that its country-based income is duplicated using the similar stage chain in the hosting country by use of FDI. Podium FDI, and Vertical FDI that arises whenever a firm shifts upstream through FDI and downstream in various chain value through performing activities that adds value in a vertical fashion stage of a host country. The reduction in the international trade is attributed to the horizontal FDI as the most of them is usually move towards the host country while other two types generally act as a stimulus for it. Foreign direct investor gives out the power of voting of an enterprise within an economy by incorporating a wholly owned subsidiary / company anywhere, acquire shares in an associated enterprise, merger or acquire an unrelated enterprise, or participating in an equity joint venture with another financier or enterprise (Borensztein De Gregorio, 2008). FDI incentives may take the following forms. Low individual income tax corporation tax rates, tax holidays, preferential tariffs, which could be, a tax on a countries’ exports or imports inside and outside of a country, or a price schedule for services like as train service, buses route, and electricity usage, special economic zones(It involves a geographical region having economic and different laws that encourage the free-market. Export processing zones, bonded warehouses, Maquiladoras which is a Mexican name for manufacturing operations within a free trade zone(FTZ), where firms import material and equipment on a duty tariff- free assembly basis, and manufacturing processing. After this, the assembled export are manufactured, and processed to give out finished products. In other situations, raw materials are send to the origin country. Investment financial subsidies, soft loan or guarantees, free land or subsidies, relocation
In describing the fundamental purpose of the building of Solomon’s House in New Atlantis as possessing the knowledge of all things and their practical applications through scientific research, Bacon says: the end of our foundation is the knowledge of causes, and secret motions of things. and the enlarging of the bounds of human empire, to the effecting of all things possible (Bacon, p. 288). He made elaborate descriptions of advanced scientific endeavors which would have, at the time of the publication of his essays, inspired awe and wonder from his colleagues. Some of the technology described in the treatise were not even considered remotely possible at that time, so it is no doubt that he was considered one of the greatest thinkers of Europe.Bacon propagated the value of advancing one’s learning and perfecting the process and means by which knowledge of things could be attained, i.e. scientific method and technology. However, his was a method that did not rely heavily on hypothesis as experiments. indeed, the indirect cause of his death was his zeal for conducting experiments (Bacon, xiv).In describing the paradisiacal world which is the New Atlantis, Bacon made mention of the ultimate purpose of the existence of Solomon’s House, and further on, the areas where learning and advanced technology have been applied to. This world is isolated and enclosed, and the means by which the inhabitants constantly invented and discovered many things was through a methodical process of gathering information and observing how things occurred in nature, extending into society and relations, how they have men who scout other nations and cultures and come back to apply those learnings to their own civilization. He described how laws consideringmonogamy and marriage helped stabilize the society and dispelled many of the corruptions which have constantly besieged Bacon’s own high society.
From this paper it is clear that information technology has enabled Zara to disrupt existing technology applied in the clothing retail industry by other companies such as Inditex. Zara applies point on sale (POS) to serve its client instead of normal tallying of products at the counter. Zara switched DOS operating system to mouse technique in order to speed up its transaction at the counter. This approach made Zara compete other exiting companies such Gap, HM, and Inditex among other clothing companies. The idea was to penetrate the market using a technology, which was not existing. Largely, Zara was able to serve clients in markets, which had competitors.This study highlights thatZara was able to acquire more customers in a flooded market. Introduction of unique technology outweigh the preexisting technology thus reducing efficiency of the technology in comparison to the modern technology. For instance, introduction of point on sale operating system influenced the speed of completing transactions at the counter. Its application influences the number of clients willing to buy product from the store because many clients would like to spare time. Disruptive companies introduce products, which increase efficiency and effectiveness. Point on sale is effective because it interpret the price of the product at a glance. It redeems time because it can handle many clients at very short time. Uniqueness in product delivery usually influences consumer behavior in the market…. Point on sale is effective because it interpret the price of the product at a glance. It redeems time because it can handle many clients at very short time. Uniqueness in product delivery usually influences consumer behavior in the market. Queuing in a large store such as Zara is hectic because of large volume of clients served. Efficiency of the service provided would influence clients to buy products from the store. Apparel Industry Model Gap spends much money on advertisement because its products do not command large market share or influence. The objective of advertising is to create awareness about the existence of the product in the market and to influence consumers to buy the products (Businessweek. 2007). Gap takes long before introducing new apparel in the market. The month of August dominates the period when Gap introduced its product in the market. Gap primarily manufactures its goods in San Francisco, United States (Engler, 2004). Gap primary sources of risk in manufacturing include delay in logistics, which influences the time a product arrives in the market. The company risks introducing out of fashion products because of the shipping time. Fashion influences retailing of clothing apparel. Gap makes money by selling its products in various markets. Gap competitive advantage is production of anti-sweat products, which many clients seem to like. Zara customer characteristics Zara’s customer characteristic consists of you people who are quick to respond to fashions in the market (Inditex 2011). Age influence demand and taste for products. Zara directs its product to young people who dwell in cities. City dwellers like responding to change in fashion by buying new products introduced. This consumer behavior has influenced
They even explained an abbreviation for the respective concept that is Unsolicited Bulk Email (UBE). 2. Overview of Spam 2.1 Origin of Spam Fletcher stated that the first act of spam is considered to have taken place in 1978 when Gary Turk sent email messages to 400 people via the ARPANET. the purpose of the email was to promote his latest computing invention. Later, the term ‘spam’ originated from a Monty Python sketch that included few individuals singing the brand name of a canned meat ‘spam’ in a cafeteria in the 1980s. This is the instance after which the word became common and started being used other than the name of the brand. One of the most notorious initial spamming activities was initiated by two lawyers, Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel. They sent emails to around 6000 recipients to advertise their services for Green Card processing. Their actions were highly resented and were replied with hate emails from the recipients. The concept of spamming caught on after the initial acts of resistance and became common from the late 1990s. According to Fletcher, the concept has intervened so deeply into the internet that it comprises of almost 78% emails from a total of 210 billion emails everyday around the world. Spammers have always managed to find their way around the spam filters and other detection software as they have learned the strategies and mechanics that are adopted by such software. Figure 1: Frequency of spam emails in different countries (Humphries) 2.2 Historical Approaches to End Spam Due to the absence of sophisticated spam filters in 1990s, simple techniques were used to fight spam. Zdziarski explained some of them in the following manner: Primitive Language Analysis: The messages were scanned for certain phrases like Call Now, Free Trial etc to find spam emails. This technique identified the spam messages on the basis of its content. Blacklisting: Paul Vixie devised a mechanism in which the spammers were maintained in a list and the users were given the opportunity to ignore messages from them. This technique identified the spam messages on the basis of the origin and sender. 3. Types of Spam There are numerous types of spam prevailing on the web in the current times, some of the most common ones are: 3.1 Email Spam Bowers, Harnett and Edwards stated that email spam is used to advertise different products and services to a large segment of consumers by sending bulk emails. Numerous types of products and services are included in this category, such as financial services, products, health services, travel promotions etc. Many email spam are also sent with the aim of acquiring personal information of the users to pursue different kinds of fraudulent activities. such attempts are known as ‘phishing’. 3.2 Text Messages Spam Spamming activities also prevail on the wireless communication technology of cell phones. This medium often proves to cost the recipient some amount if his package charges for the incoming of the text messages. Cell phone users suffer similar type of spam as the internet users, such as promotion of products and services and attempted scams. However, in the category of text messages, the recipient also receives lot of spam from the telecom service providers themselves in the form of promoting their latest campaigns. This might
The party begins with the gentlemen sitting down to eat. Once the meal is over, the gentlemen agree not to drink heavily that night. As each speech ends, another one begins. When they were finished, they all agree on who had the best speech. Each speech builds on the previous speeches and slightly alters the previous speaker’s message. Ultimately, Socrates speaks and proposes an entirely new understanding of love.In Plato’s Symposium the second speaker, Pausanias begins deliberation on love following the speech given by Phaedrus. In great part, Pausania’s speech functions to expand on Phaedrus’ categorization of love, and deepen its meaning. While Phaedrus establishes the transcendence and significance of love, Pausania’s discussion notes that there are certain sorts of love that can be valued higher than others.Pausanias categorizes love by the main idea: love may be good or bad depending on the performance of the two lovers. Pausanias acknowledged the importance of performance by using these words, turn out in this or that way according to the mode of performing them. and when well done they are all good and when wrongly done they are evil… (Plato, Symposium Pg126). I agree with Pausanias because our performance style makes our work good or bad. For example, when the nuclear fission technology was founded, scientists thought that the world’s energy problems would be solved. When they used that technology in atom bombs and in Chernobyl, thousands of people died and permanent damages were made to the environment.Pausanias states that noble love is heavenly love, which is a love of soul rather than the body. The other kind of love — the common love — is the love of common people and it is random. I disagree with Pausanias about the common love. I think common love is as sanctimonious as ‘heavenly’ love and humans need that kind of love because of biological desires.
This study discusses the spirit and rationale of the TRIPS, the constraints under which the Agreement functions, and the actual and potential impact the Agreement may have in terms of the benefits realized from scientific research and development. While the provisions mandate the observance of standards that must be met by Member States, the details pertaining to the manner of implementation in each jurisdiction still depends largely on the national laws and culture of each State. Despite the broad range of benefits developing countries stand to realize under TRIPS, there still exist at present structural deficiencies and substantial inadequacies in legislation that tend to put developing countries at a prima facie disadvantage. Legal points are supported by case law and jurisprudence, with a discussion of doctrinal cases pertaining to TRIPS. Table of Contents Title Page Abstract Table of Contents Introduction 1. Brief historical background 2. Structure, key provisions and innovations of TRIPS 2.1. Patent protection 2.2. Flexibilities provided under TRIPS 2.2.1. Compulsory licensing 2.2.2. Parallel importation 2.2.3. Protection of data submitted for registration 2.3. Transition periods 2.4. The Doha Declaration 3. Concerns of developing countries in relation to TRIPS implementation 3.1. Market exclusivity rights 3.2. Compatibility of TRIPS with frameworks in developing countries 3.3. Inadequacy of institutional infrastructures 3.4. Technological deficiencies and technology transfer 4. Advantages of TRIPS agreements for developing countries 4.1. Limits to market exclusivity 4.1.1. Article 27.2 4.1.2. Article 27.3 4.1.3. Article 30 4.1.4. Article 31 4.1.5. Article 32 4.2. Limits to data exclusivity requirement 4.3. Degree of self determination by Member States 4.4. Extended transition periods for developing countries 4.5. Paragraph 6 of the Doha Declaration 5. Potential disadvantages developing countries might experience under TRIPS 5.1. Dearth of legal expertise 5.2. Substantial costs of implementation 5.3. Risks and uncertainties during transition 5.4. Market disclosures 5.5. Backlash of parallel importation 5.6. Ambiguities in interpretation 6. Result of TRIPS implementation among developed and developing countries 7. Legal issues 7.1. Procedural issues 7.1.1. Issue of direct effect and the jurisdiction of the Court to interpret provisions of TRIPS 7.1.2. The treatment of non-violation complaints 7.2. Substantive issues 7.2.1. Monsanto –Argentina: On the issue of patent enforcement and the antitrust law 7.2.2. India – Mailbox (U.S.) : Obligation to adopt legislation compliant with TRIPS arise upon entry of Agreement into force 7.2.3. Canada – Generic Pharmaceuticals : Construction of Article 30 7.2.4. U.S. – Copyright Exemption : Exceptions to remuneration of copyright license 7.2.5. Canada – Patent Term : On patent term for pre-TRIPS-granted patents 7.2.6. U.S. – Havana Club : Denial of patent rights due to violation of strong public policy 7.2.7. EC – Geographical Indications : National treatment vis-a-vis material reciprocity 7.2.8. U.S. claims regarding Brazil’s compulsory licensing legislation in the case of
St. Louis County due to this rising concerns focuses on establishing a task force unity which is capable of investigating cybercrimes effectively. Hence, it is recommended that cybercrime task force must increase its cooperation with the law-enforcing bodies In order to effectively combat and eliminate risks of cybercrime.21st century has been an era in which most of the criminals depend on progressive technologies and the Internet to undertake their criminal activities. It has been revealed that internet technology has emerged as the primary medium for criminals to plot organized crime. In the present day context, crimes are mostly driven by technology which includes ‘identity theft’, ‘intellectual property theft’ and ‘payment card scam’ among others. According to the ‘Federal Bureau of Investigation’ (FBI), United States (US) has been the hub for high-tech criminalities which has eventually increased the concerns for law enforcing bodies to develop certain tools or equipment that would efficiently combat contemporary period crime along with protecting the fundamental rights of US citizens. As witnessed cybercrimes have increased to such an extent that the level of organized crime has significantly augmented which has become a huge threat for national security. In addition, cybercriminals have developed new criminal practices and extended their criminal network across the globe which has pressurized the US federal government to create new cyber policies for maintaining cybersecurity.In this context, the paper intends to develop a cyber-crime task force plan for St. Louis County in Missouri. Additionally, the equipment and technology required for the cyber-crime task force to mitigate the risk of cybercrimes in the county will be determined. Furthermore, a brief account will be provided about legislative measures to be developed in the county for increasing the capability of local lawenforcement agencies to curb cyber-crimes.
With the great development of information technology over the last few decades, today multinational companies and small scale enterprises increasingly rely on computer networks to run their business more smoothly and efficiently. However, modern business networks are becoming increasingly vulnerable to malware attacks due to security system flaws and careless employee behavior. The Operating System used by companies can have a great influence on their network security. According to a study A Brief History of the Windows Operating System by Curtis, Microsoft announced the development of Windows in 1983 for its own operating system called MS-DOS. Windows 1.0, the very first version of Windows, was released in 1985 and it used ‘gadgets’ like calendar and calculator. The second version of Windows, Windows 2.0, was released in 1987 and it introduced two programs such as MS Excel and MS Word. Windows 3.0 was released in 1990 and it continued until 2001. Windows 3.0 was characterized by the introduction of virtual memory, multitasking programs, and improved graphics. Microsoft released Windows 3.1 in an effort to include necessary fixes and to improve font functionality. Subsequently Windows 95 was designed for promoting compatibility and user-friendliness, and it was marked for the change from 16-bit to 32-bit. The next version was Windows 98, and it focused particularly on internet connectivity and internet connection sharing. Windows 2000 played a significant role in improving the user experience by increasing the number of plug and play devices compatible with the OS. The next version of Windows, Windows XP, is the most widely recognized Window OS as it was appealing to both desktop and laptop users. The next release, Windows Vista, was a failure because of high system requirements and severe performance and security issues. Learning from the failure of Windows Vista, Microsoft introduced Windows 7 in 2009 that focused on speed, stability, and minimal system requirements.
The context factors act as Vehicle Mile Travelled (VTM) growth drivers. They include legal/political climate, family structure, social/cultural conditions and technological, economical and institutional structure of the American society. The discussion provided for the impact of the outlined factors is one-sided. Most of factors such as decentralization of companies can have either effect. Travel requirements decreases as a person ages due to the decrease in the activity level and decrease in work related travels. Contrary to the earlier arguments, the aging factor does not increase or reduce the VMT. This is because the decreased levels caused by the aging population are countered by the increasing travel levels caused by the maturing young adults. However, the improved health, wealth and higher licensing rates for the elder women have curtailed the reduction in the rates of mobility for the older generation. The argument on the aging factor overlooked the impact of the economic growth on the VMT. This reduces the rate of VMT. Changes in the nature of work will reduce VMT because most of the employment agencies and individuals are applying the use of computer technology to enhance production. Most of the workers can work from home and avoid travelling to their work places. Most institutions of higher learning are also leaning towards introducing online lessons. This will reduce the travel requirements for most students. Decentralization of companies to rural areas can also contribute into the reduction in the VMT because companies may be located near the workforce thus, negating the travel necessity. Finished goods will be brought near retailers and consumers negating the necessity of travelling over long distance to acquire them. The impact of the aging population is reasonable because the travelling tendency of a person is dependent on the activity level. The travel frequency increases as a person matures to middle age. Children may not directly produce VMT but they increase the travel demands for their parents. The middle aged adults would directly increase the VMT as they are in the peak levels of the work related travel. It is notable that the prevalence of dispersed suburban environments and more working parents have made many teenagers rely on auto-travel to and from school. The rise in the fuel prices will generally lead to the reduction in the VMT. However, changes will be insignificant because most people are forced to drive to and from work regardless of the oil prices. Stabilization of workforce participation rates may have either impacts i.e. it can reduce or increase VMT. The increase of women workforce may lead to the increase in the need for travel. However, the rate may still reduce because the involvement of women does not signify an addition in the work force. They just fill the vacancies that would have been filled by anyone, meaning that the number of the workforce is preserved as well as their travel needs. The impact of most of the outlined factors is dependent on the changes in other factors. For instance, changes in the increase in the cost of driving may increase VMT in case of the future growth in the economy and income levels (Ewing 2007). Changes in manufacturing and distribution and trends in the cost of real property are the two opposing factors that can lead to increase in VMT. The decentralization of industries due to the enhancement of new
With Huawei continued investment in cutting edge technology, the firm is set to become one of the major challenges of the more established and Western-based telecommunications corporations. To increase its influence and reach more customers in various parts of the world, Huawei has also entered into partnerships with numerous companies. Theories of Internalisation The term internationalization is descriptive of the methods that are used by business organizations to adapt their numerous operations, in regards to company policies, resources, and organizational structure, to suit foreign environments (Dunning 2006). Before embarking on the process of internationalisation, business organisations have to take into account factors such as the geographic distance of the overseas market being considered, the different company associated operations that the company will engage in the foreign branch, and the level to which the company would like to integrate corporate activities (Mitgwe 2006). Dunning’s Theory in the Internationalisation of Huawei According to Dunning’s OLI model, foreign subsidiaries usually demonstrate higher productivity rates than their local counterparts due to the existence of ownership competitive advantages (Dunning 2006). Dunning’s eclectic (OLI) model stipulates that there are three critical elements that are evident in any firm that invests in a foreign branch or subsidiary. The three factors are location advantages, ownership advantages, and internalization advantages (Dunning 2009). Ownership advantages have to do with the existing conditions that accompany foreign direct investment (Contractor 2007). For example, to be successful in foreign investment, a firm has to have comparative advantages over other foreign corporations before it determines that a branch will be set up in a foreign nation. Location advantages have to do with the extent to which foreign business-related conditions are favorable to the company in question (Sethi, Guisinger, Phelan, and Berg 2003). Internalization factors, on the other hand, have to do with how well the multinational corporation can internalize ownership advantages in order to prevent the escalation of transaction costs which are naturally incurred in the course of international production. The Huawei Technological Corporation is a firm that was launched long after other telecommunications corporations had already been launched in the Western nations (Dunning 2009). Huawei, therefore, focused more on meeting particular objectives in order to realize its internationalization. Huawei has traditionally used low cost as a technique to enter markets in both developing and developed nations. Huawei also invests in developed nations mainly to realize the adoption of new technologies.
figures Figure 1 preparation of the electrolyzer module 6 Figure 2 Filling the syringe with distilled water 7 Figure 3 Placing inner containers 7 Figure 4 Connecting tubes 8 Figure 5 Using fuel cells and solar panel 8 Figure 6 Inserting batteries 10 Figure 7 Assembling electrical fans 10 Figure 8 Connecting the motor to reversible fuel cell 11 Figure 9 Using solar panel 11 Introduction Hydrogen derived from renewable sources such as wind and solar is clean, self-sufficient and a permanent energy solution for sustainable development. A kilogram of hydrogen is roughly equivalent to a gallon of gasoline in energy content. (Johanna L, 2007) This makes hydrogen a technology of the future in reducing reliance on imported fuel and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen could be produced from fossil fuels using steam reforming, which emits CO2 and expensive ways such as catalytic cracking without CO2 emissions. This pathway is more cost-effective. Water electrolysis is an efficient and expensive way because of its high electricity requirement. For instance, a study (Khan M.J., Iqbal M.T., 2005) stated that assuming an electricity cost of $0.05/kwh, nearly nowadays price of wind produced electricity. hydrogen made from water electrolysis costs more than $2.84/kg based on higher heating value. Hydrogen produced from photovoltaic is also expensive because of high PV electricity cost.( Sherif S.A. et al, 2005) Wind produced electricity, on the other hand, is becoming more competitive nowadays. Therefore, it can produce less expensive hydrogen. Electrolysis: The general principle in electrolysis is that water is supplied to an electrochemical cell, and hydrogen evolves at the anode while oxygen evolves at the cathode when the supplied energy is greater than the zero current cell potential. Alkaline electrolysis is commercially available technology. It takes place at a temperature around 800C and pressure of 1-30bar.( US department of energy, 2010) Fuel cells: Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy in fuel to electrical energy with high efficiency and low environmental impact. Because combustion is avoided, they produce power with minimum pollution. They contain electrodes anode and cathode separated by an electrolyte. Fuels such as hydrogen or hydrogen rich synthesis gas, are supplied to the anodes while the oxidant is fed to the cathodes. The most common oxidant is oxygen from air. Electrochemical reaction occurs in the electrolyte producing current while deriving external load.( Fuel cell Handbook, 2010) Materials and Methods Preparation of the Electrolyzer Module and Solar Powered Hydrogen Production 1. Insert the reversible fuel cell, terminals on top, into the slot on the base. Cut 2 x 4cm length pieces of rubber tube and insert a black pin into the end of one tube. Place the tube with the black pin into the top pin on the hydrogen side (with black terminal). Place the other tube firmly onto the top input nozzle on the oxygen side. Figure 1 preparation of the electrolyzer module 2. Fill
This technological transition has seen the emergence of the E-books which is a system in which an entire book is stored in a soft copy. They have to be stored in a computer and can be accessed at any time through the internet. The devices used to access the e-books are referred to as the e-readers. The use of e-books has earned global fame since it is accessible through the internet which has transformed the world into a global village. The emergence of this form of technology has been so rampant in the market to the extent that those companies dealing in books and ignored its usage have found it hard to survive in the markets. (Matthews 54) Borders Books in the United States of America is a perfect example of the importance of the use of e-books. The company went out of business because electronically sensitive companies emerged. These companies, Amazon and E bay forced them out of business. Amazon’s operations are centered on the Linux operating system. This has enabled the corporation handle the wide customer base. Another advantage of technology in business is that it has ensured the security of customers and the company since information is well secured. E-commerce strategies used by modern companies has enabled customers transact regionally, internationally or even globally. The usage of e-books has even grown further across the globe thanks to its ‘question and answer sections’ which users find very sufficient as they are able extract the information they need without searching for too long. Most e-books are designed in a PDF format since it is the most common format across the globe. This drive is aimed at ensuring that as many people as possible across the world are able to access the e-books. The future of e-books look promising due to the overwhelming reception it has received globally. The existence of search engines such as the one availed by Google also contribute significantly to the growth of e-books as they enable people to find the e-books of their choice from the internet with much ease. Competition among the firms dealing in e-books also ensures its continuity as new products keep emerging by the day. E-books can be read from the internet or be downloaded to be read later. The use of e-books has also been boosted a great deal through their endorsement by prominent personnel in the society. These persons are known to greatly influence the tastes and preferences of many in a society. For instance, Oprah Winfrey once claimed that the emergence of the e-books was her most favorite form of invention as it enabled her to become a good reader which she said she was not before. This virtually convinced people that this was a great form of invention and many gave it a try. (Swedberg 112) The emergence of every form of invention has always come with its merits and demerits and e-books is not an exception. However good or productive an invention may be, it always comes with its negative side effects even if it is of the slightest magnitude. E-books are however observed to bring with them more advantages than disadvantages. Some of the advantages of e-books include: e-books come in various forms such: written form, image form, audio form and video. This gives e-books an edge over the hard copy books as those users who do not fancy reading can opt to use the video or audio forms of e-books. This way it also makes it possible for the
The Developmental delays impact on the learning needs of children in various ways. For instance a child with Down’s syndrome, an autosomal abnormality can have features such as mental retardation, sloppy forehead, speech problems, large tongue, and heart defects. This child is likely to go through a not so normal learning procedure. First because of the physical appearance, other children may discriminate against them. This will pause as a challenge to the child’s learning needs because socialization is viewed by psychologists as a very important aspect of child learning as seen in the case of Albert Bandura. Albert believed that direct reinforcement cannot account for all types of learning therefore learning can occur by watching other people. This type of social learning works best when there is direct contact with the model being emulated. A child who has Down’s syndrome does not have the advantage of freely enjoying this type of learning which encompasses a very large part of young or in this case preschool life. Down syndrome babies have to be in a special learning environment preferably under the keen eye of a specialist and on special technology to stimulate their minds to enable them learn and grasp the things being taught. These special instances will include physical and speech therapy. Unlike the other children they also have to be treated with more care and both they and their family or caregiver should be subjected to regular counseling. When it comes to playing and games, which are also a very important part of learning, children with developmental delays are also subjected to special circumstances. For instance a child with cerebral palsy cannot comfortably play with the other children. They will need proper supervision which will only be possible after they have gone through sessions that involve medication, psychological counseling. As for the case of fragile X syndrome, these individuals have serious emotional disorders and some of them display mild learning disabilities. Given this, such a child cannot be left alone to interact with other children because their apparent lack of social skills is likely to cause a scuffle sooner or later. The environment on the other hand is an interaction of various aspects. These includes the economic status or the social class of the child, the child’s family including parents and siblings the immediate surroundings of the child this includes the culture of the immediate community they live in. The social status influences a child’s learning needs because they a re by default subjected to higher and better modes of education. This impacts on them because as compared to other children who are less privileged they will get exposed to high class education with better facilities and a better one on one with the teacher hence their likelihood to learn quicker. Compare this to non-economically privileged kids, they are likely to be in a class with more children and are not likely to get a one on one with the teacher, the school they will attend will not have sufficient facilities. These factors however all boil down to the influence the family has on the child, if in the family there are scholars or people who place
In the case of Indira Gandhi International Airport, the Airport Technology (2010) reports that the foggy weather condition causes visibility to drop below 50m, (CAT III C conditions) lasting approximately ten hours, thus affecting airport operations. The situation of low visibility is no different in the Dubai Airport. One reason why the problem of low visibility has become a topical issue of late is the inconvenience low visibility operations cause airline operators and customers. Apart from the fact that low visibility is commonly associated with flight diversions and delays, The Office of the Federal Coordinator for Meteorology (2011) laments on issues of safety and efficiency saying Weather alone is a significant cause of aircraft accidents and a contributing cause in many accidents with other main causes. Happily, low visibility in airports and in aircraft operation is a problem that can be tackled. The problem statement for this dissertation therefore is the issue of low visibility operations in Dubai Airport and how the problem can be solved to reduce flight diversions and delays. … These objectives have been termed ‘specific objectives’ and outlined below. Specific Objectives The researcher hopes to achieve the following specific objectives in a bid to achieve the ultimate aim, which is to reduce the chances of the flights diversions and delays departing flights during low visibility operations at the Dubai Airport. The objectives are: 1. To explain the impact and effect of bad weather on aviation services with specific reference to low visibility caused as a result of foggy weather conditions. 2. To critically examine the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) requirements for airlines and how these requirements help in the daily operation of aircrafts 3. To outline the effects of bad weather and low visibility on aircraft operations 4. To find out how airside operations can be improved at the Dubai Airport 5. To examine the works and duties of air traffic services including air traffic controllers, air traffic engineers and meteorologists and how these duties impact on airline services. 6. To critically evaluate the training and qualification program of airport staff and how these training and qualification programs can be improved to better future airline operations. 7. To find workable strategies and models for equipping airports for low visibility operations Justification of the Research The United Arab Emirates is one of the World’s busiest air travel destinations. Specifically, Dubai is known to house a good number of people who travel to the emirate for trade and tourism purposes (Ankoma, 2010, p.18). This makes the Dubai Airport of the busiest Airports in the world. According to the Dubai Airport Media Centre (2011), Aviation began in Dubai in 1937 when the first Imperial Airways
Supra-culture is common across nations with similar economic backgrounds, religion and ethnicity (Srnka, 2004). Macro-culture is common within the nation, across people who share the same country of origin or residence (Srnka, 2004). Meso-culture is common amongst particular communities or professional groups within the broader macro-culture (Srnka, 2004). Finally, micro-culture is shared amongst family or clan members or by people across the same organization (Srnka, 2004). Culture has been defined differently in different areas, and, keeping in view its strategic importance, the concept of cultural ecology has sprung up where culture is assumed to be an outcome of the natural environment (Steward, 1955).The new wave of globalization is said to be bringing about what is known as cultural change. In this context, culture is not viewed as static but dynamic. that is, it is constantly evolving in an attempt to keep pace with the forces of globalization. This change has given birth to two distinct possibilities as far as cultural change is concerned. that of a clash of cultures and that of cultural learning (Soderberg Holden, 2002). At the same time, it is anticipated that a new culture is taking shape known as the global culture of the world culture (Soderberg Holden, 2002), which has its roots in the concept of the global village. The ‘global village’ concept tends to propose the idea of a boundary-less world, with strong integration brought about the revolutions in information technology and telecommunications. Although, this bore little relevance to the traditional management practices that were limited to planning, organizing, staffing and controlling, the globalization and its associated cultural dynamics have immense importance for contemporary management which is dynamic and not static. This strong relationship between the two issues has givenbirth to the concept of globalization and the concept of cross-culturalism.
Modern technology allows for searches into private records by anyone with a computer. It’s hardly arguable that the framers of the Constitution cherished liberty more than security. The same cannot be said about Americans today or their justice system.The Fourth Amendment readsThe right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. (Cornell Law School) The Founders thought this Amendment paramount in expressing their ideals of freedom and liberty. One of the main acts that helped alienate the colonists from their Mother Country was the intrusive, regular, violent warrant-less searches by the British ‘Red Coats.’ These actions galvanized the colonists thus accelerating the War for Independence. Throughout the history of the country, at least until relatively recently, the courts interpreted the Fourth Amendment much as the Founders intended. Courts held that for search and seizure to be ‘reasonable’ under the Amendment the police must have, at minimum individualized justification for the intrusion, amounting to probable cause. (Bodenhamer/Ely, 2008 p. 155) The past generation though has witnessed an erosion of the liberties found within the Fourth Amendment as well as other aspects of the Constitution. The Supreme Court’s practice had been to uphold a strict interpretation of the Amendment. As late as 1968 the Court ruled the police must, whenever practicable, obtain advance judicial approval of searches and seizures through a warrant procedure (Terry v. Ohio, 1968). In many ruling during the past 40 years, the Court has ruled, essentially, that theAmendment is an obstacle for law enforcement.
If not monitored properly and not acted upon proactively, a recession may continue beyond the normal business cycles and may become a depression as well (B. Abel Bernanke, 2007). The fall in prices, economic activity, employment levels, consumption, and GDP are some factors which when combined can be the major cause and main source of the recession.Despite the financial crunch that the world had recently faced, the reality is that the governments of the developed economies such as that of UK and USA have been unable to route the increased government expenditures into the right direction. otherwise, the recession would have been avoided at the first place or ended quickly but critical decisions and fault in their policies brought negative repercussions. The recent recession hit many industries and left them in bad shape in the UK. Among those seriously crippled by the recession include the Steel industry, automobile sector, retail industry.Steel which had been considered as a very precious metal in the early 1990s has been losing its shine now. Overcapacity and surplus supply in the industry, falling demand, and increasing fragmentation have been an obstacle to the growth of this core sector of the economy. The way that technology today is attracting a huge number of entrepreneurs in the economy is an incontrovertible proof that steel had always been a profitable sector. Large numbers of corporates were actually inspired and promoted but the main problem was that most of them had lacked financial backing (Lingwood, 2010).Steel being a capital-intensive industry requires huge capital and financial investments. Most companies thus ran a high debt exposure, borrowing form a portfolio of financial intermediaries and institutions. The steel market was booming and as a result a lot of new projects were flourishing at a high pace. Consequently, capacity had been augmenting quicker than the demand. This complemented with the recent industrial slowdown and slump in economic growth worldwide has widened the demand-supply mismatch much further.
Corporate Culture of a business firm shapes the process of conducting business operations and activities. It signifies the different types of behaviors and relationship patterns reflected by the business enterprise in the course of dealing with its internal and external stakeholders and organizational people. The business culture of Coca-Cola encompasses the parameters of integrity, passion, empowerment, commitment and diversity as the key standpoints in motivating the people to work in a spirited fashion. The organizational culture of Coca-Cola ignites the passion within the individuals to perform in an exalted fashion so as to continually work to promote creativity and innovation in their job pursuits. The people also work as Change Agents in the enterprise domain (Our people, culture, vision and values. Workplace Culture). To this end, the above cultural paradigms of Coca-Cola tend to have an impact on the Job Performance criterion of the people in the concern. Job Performance is defined as the effective value gained from the different behavioral reflections of the employees that in turn tend to have an impact, positive or negative pertaining to the mode of accomplishment of organizational goals. Though these behavioral sets can be effectively controlled by the individual employees yet individual behavioral types like ‘Task Performer’ and ‘Citizenship Behavior’ are related as such that help in the effective goal accomplishments while ‘Counterproductive Behavior’ is taken to negatively impact the goal accomplishment function. ‘Task Performers’ and ‘Citizenship Behaviors’ are those employees that proactively work to transform the resources available with the concern in the form of technology, human and financial capital to produce desired set of goods and services and those that without any need for earning rewards move to form effective interpersonal relationships with other organizational people and also such that tend to defend the concern and boost the motivation levels respectively (Colquitt, LePine and Wesson 37-50). The work culture of Coca Cola encourages people to actively work in an empowered fashion to help accomplish organizational goals effectively. Moreover, the business culture of the firm is open motivates the people to work in a coordinated fashion to achieve end goals. In terms of Applications of Performance Management, the management team at Coca-Cola tends to work on the process of Management by Objectives where the employees mutually coordinate with their managers to perform a given set of objectives within a stipulated time period. Evaluation of the performance of the employees is conducted based on the degree of achievement of the objectives set (Colquitt, LePine and Wesson 55. Employment: Our People).Three different components are mainly identified with the cultural framework of an organization like firstly ‘Behavior’ that relates to the different types of conducts or events reflected by the company. secondly ‘ingrained values and internal beliefs’ that in turn contribute to the development of objectives for organizational values and mission and finally the third component relates to the Assumptions’ held concerning the company’s mission and visionary values (Lussier and Kimball 160). The organizational culture of Coca-Cola is found to be composed of value sets related to the centralization of decision-making functions and also focuses on dependability on a formal or hierarchal work system.
Advancement of technology has fueled the use of telephone across the world. This is because telephone devices allow users to send instant messages, offer voice calls, and access to websites. However, the conveniences and pervasiveness have not brought benefits but also some numerous negative impacts (Murphy, 2009). The content of this paper will examine the telephone technology as a form of communication and the impacts it causes to the society. 2. Background 2.1What is telephone technology. A telephone is a telecommunication device that enables two or more parties to conduct a real time conversation when they are not close enough to hear each other talking directly. The device converts sound, efficient and most typically the human being’s voice, into electronic signals appropriate for its transmission via data cables or other transmission channel over a wide distance, and replays such signals in an audible form to the users (Murphy, 2009). 2.2 When was the telephone invented and by whom? The telephone technology has resulted in an integral part in today’s life since its invention by Alexander Graham Bell in the 1876 (Murphy, 2009). The nineteenth century was the communication revolution era whereby there was invention of many communication devices. Researches argue that the nineteenth century’s greatest invention was the initiative of invention itself. The invention of telephone technology has had many impacts on the world. Telephone has also brought the current generation into the secondary oral age. The first telephone technology invention in the year 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell and additional development by other inventors, the telephone was the initial communication device in world history that enabled human beings to communicate directly with one another over large distances (Murphy, 2009). Rapidly, telephones became indispensable in government, business, households, and is currently the most used small communication device. 2.3 How does telephone work Telephones operate in a simple way. It captures the user’s voice vibrations through plates and coils and then translates the vibrations into electrical signals. The telephone amplifies these signals and then transmits them to another telephone device where the receiving device changes them to voice signals in the reverse form (Farndon, Manning Walt Disney Company, 2003). When the receiver picks up the call, the telephone connects him or her to the network. When one dials a phone number, this number goes to the telephone provider requesting for connection with that number’s subscriber. The provider then times this conversation duration and bills it. In many countries, the telephone network is digital, therefore, the telephones behaves in a similar way like a computer, transmitting and receiving audio signals in binary codes (ones and zeroes) as an alternative of a continuous signal. When you convert tens to binary codes, you get an approximate whole number, which defines the telephone’s audio sample. This system can be used anywhere not only with telephones and its called PCM. That is how the telephone operates (Farndon, Manning Walt Disney Company, 2003). 3. Impacts on society 3.1 What was the society like before development of telephone tech
This paper tends to assert that democracies should be forbidden to possess chemical weapons. Possessing chemical weapons threatens the integrity of a country. Let’s take the example of Iran to figure out how much tension possessing chemical weapons can create for the country itself and for the rest of the world. Iran has already been seeing tense relationship with U.S. and its allies, since the Iranian Revolution that came about in the late 1970s. The threat to Iran’s solidarity increased when President Bush declared it as part of Axis of Evil (WBGH educational foundation 2013, par.2). This threat did not decrease with the election bringing Barrack Obama in presidency. The notion that has further triggered the decision of U.S. war with Iran is Iran’s quest in nuclear technology. Iran’s acquiring chemical weapons, according to U.S., will be a threat to world’s peace. Even the allies of U.S. – England, Germany, and France- are worried about this nuclear state of Iran. … Iran is not becoming a nuclear power (Henderson 2013). and therefore, it will not bear any threats from the external world, still threats prevail because Iran has been making military purchases from Washington and Gulf Arab, and has been making military maneuvers. This shows how being involved in and possessing chemical weapons threatens the stability and integrity of a country. Moreover, possessing chemical weapons creates a sense of hostility among countries of the world. USA has already entered into wars with a number of countries due to this reason, and this has destabilized those countries and has also put damaging effects upon the American economy. Entering into conflict disrupts the peace, not only of Iran but also of U.S., who has already lost the lives of many of its soldiers in military actions against Iraq and Afghanistan. Americans will never tolerate if the correct number of casualties of American soldiers in the war on terror is revealed to them (Nouraee 2010). The environment of hostility brought about by chemical weapons only increases hatred, and encourages the residents of the attacked country to develop rebellious feelings. This does not help decrease terrorism, but increases violence and radical hostility. It only turns into a global hate combat. Also, U.S. has already been suffering from financial burden because of heavy budgets being assigned to war on terror. The sense of confrontation has been prevailing throughout the world because of the possession of chemical weapons by some countries, and this unhealthy environment poses risk to economies and social statuses of countries. Possession of chemical weapons should also be forbidden because it increases the chances of warfare. Let’s understand what the ultimate objective behind the possession of
However, there are some strategic loopholes that can addressed to reap full benefits of the system. Table of Contents 1 Chapter One- Introduction 2 Chapter Two- Literature Review 3 Chapter Three- Research Methodology 4 Chapter Four- Results and Findings 5 Chapter Five- Conclusions and Recommendations 6 References 7 Appendices Chapter 1- Introduction 1.1 Title Exploring the role of change management and new HRMS (Human Resource Management System) adoption. the case of American Express Bahrain. 1.2 Aim To explore the role of change management by studying the steps American Express Bahrain has put into action to introduce the new HRMS on its employees. 1.3 Research Question What are the chronological steps that a company must apply in order to introduce new software to the organisation? 1.4 Objectives To examine the techniques that American Express Bahrain use when introducing change to employees. To establish a questionnaire to understand the steps those were taken. To draw conclusions on ways and theories that help organisations sequential their introduction of change to their employees. 1.5 Background to the study The term Change Management deals with the substitution of one thing or set of conditions for another , thus making something different from its previous condition, be it an alteration in state, or quality, variety, variation, mutation(Sofroniou,2009). Change Management is something that all managers should know how to cope with especially with our rapidly changing world and the contribution of technology to the modernisation of business functions and practises. Consequently, organisations must adapt to the environment around them in order to stay competitive by leveraging technology and new systems (Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, 2009). Organisations must be able to adapt to the changing environment if they are to survive. Threats to organisational existence include but are not limited to changes in technology, the tastes of consumers, the regulations of the Government, the increase in the cost of various resources, and values and capabilities of the prospective employees, downsizing, mergers and acquisitions(Palmer et al, 2006). However, all these reasons came from one major source –Globalisation. According to Webster’s dictionary the term globalisation is the development of an increasingly integrated global economy marked especially by free trade, free flow of capital, and the tapping of cheaper foreign labor markets (merriam-webster, 2012). Thus, the world’s economy is treated as one big market which makes it difficult for organizations to be unique and different from competitors. Moreover, globalization has majorly affected organizational change. This is evident because of all the planned and unplanned changes that occur in small and multinational companies. In the recent time the most important thing faced by most of the global organization is the constant changes in the all aspects of business. Due to the technological revolution most of the organizations are practicing the new technologies related to the human resource management system(HRMS). The development in the information technology has given a new paradigm shift to the HRMS. Most of the global organizations are accepting the virtue of the HRMS (Grobler Warnich. 2005. P, 39) The new trend in the global organization is to apply computer based technologies to create a strong HRMS. Most of the organizations like American Express are using the HRMS to revamp the HRMS
Catfish is one of the types of fish that people consume, which differentiate the consumers along different lines of the economy, society and political differences. Through this differentiation, people have different perspectives of looking at the catfish both from the perspective they may have from the influence they have from their culture and social ties. The analysis of production and consumption of catfish will help in explaining the various reasons that make it a consumer product of a specific group of people within a society, which may mean a lot of structure formulation within a society. The analysis focuses on the sources of catfish and the places in which it is a common form of food while in some others. it could be a rare commodity (Tucker and Hargreaves, 2004, p.27). Catfish are popularly produced in different places in the world as one of the small-fish that people consume as food for their own and which they sell to a few people around their environment. However, research shows that production of small-fish in sector of fishing is an aquaculture that usually target different people who fall in the low economic classes in the society. In the economy, consumption of these small-fish is therefore, related to specific people in the country who could be a having similar general characteristic (Tucker and Hargreaves, 2004, p.39). Catfish is mostly common among the Vietnamese who invest in production of the organisms for food in different place in both large-scale and small-scale levels of the economy. This production is facilitated by the demand that is raised for the food that that has some contents of fish and the different levels of production of catfish through the aquaculture technology implies the different demanding issues that surround food fish production within the society. In this respect, when food fish demand increases, people have adopted various ways through which they can improve the amount of products they obtain from their investment. In the Vietnamese culture, fish are highly regarded and therefore, people adopt aquaculture in order to meet the local demands as well as the needs of others that are away from the country. In the aquaculture for production of the catfish species of the fish, there are different factors that favour the production in the area, which motivate people to invest in the production as a mode of subsistence or as a commercial activity. In order to produce, people depend on different opportunities that the environment offers, which help people to exploit it for their benefit. In this respect, people have different ways through which they produce the catfish to the different market in Vietnam or away from the country. The most common factors that are important in determining the production of the catfish include the sources of water where the fish will grow, the availability of fingerlings that grow to be the mature catfish and the space that is available for people in to establish their production and the aquaculture. In most cases, people who invest in aquaculture try to establish their production by varying the conditions in the condition of the environment to allow the production even in places that are not very favourable for production. This aquaculture in
They are exposed to and benefit from computer literacy in schools, some students attend school exclusively online, and then, of course, there are the games, chat rooms, and other social media, like Facebook. However, there is one thing that a very dangerous, hurtful, and serious threats to the mental, emotional, and physical well-being of adolescents and teenagers every single day for some children who visit the internet. this occurrence is cyberbullying. Cyberbullying is a cruel child of our modern technological age. There are a number of actions that qualify as fitting under the umbrella of cyberbullying, including: 1. Sending unkind or threatening messages through emails or messaging boards. 2. Intentionally spreading untrue rumors onto the internet or text messages. 3. Posting inappropriate, offensive, or insulting photographs of a person onto a site with the sole purpose than to criticize them. 4. Taking another’s internet information and use it to invade the accounts in order to be unkind or may pretend to be someone else that you already know. 5. Participating in the forwarding of such messages is perpetuating the problem (Hatch, 2011). It is, essentially, the same type of degradation, insults, humiliations, and intended embarrassments that children experience in the physical world accept adapted to attacks via the internet. Fortunately there are practical and applicable answers for those concerns. There are a long list of pros and cons related to children, teenagers, and the internet. It can improve classroom learning, helps children keep up with the changing technology, can increase visual reasoning, and can, in some case, widen ones social circle. However, there are also, all of the negative, or, potentially, negative aspects, like loss of privacy, sedentary lifestyle, and the potential for cyberbullying ( Hatch, 2011). Individual people react differently than the next. For some children, the internet becomes their solace from the stressors in their lives, and is beneficial. The trick in this case is moderation. Like with anything there is such a thing as too much of a good thing. When the time spent on the internet begins to supersede the living of their life, which causes them to shy away from all things that are not involving the computer, then there be an issue or problem that needs addressing. It is the responsibility of parents to understand the difference and take the time to be involved in the things your teens, and, especially, adolescents and pre-teens are doing when online. One such proposed negative effect is that excessive internet time, in fact, causes loneliness or depression. This is a rather broad statement. There are so many different factors that contribute to feelings of loneliness and in the case of depression, hereditary and genetic predisposition elements that have absolutely nothing to do with computer usage (Dean , 2010). There is, also, theories that too much internet can cause users to become addicted. Again, like with depression, there are so many factors to consider, like psychological predispositions and hereditary elements, that would contribute it solely to their computer use is a rather impractical argument (Siegel-Itzkovich, 2011). Therefore, for the most part, computers cannot be blamed directly, especially with limited data to support such theories. Cyberbullying is something that is happening every day, in every school, and in every state in the
The size of a firm not only influences a firm’s ability and readiness to adopt E-Commerce but also the extent to which technology will be adopted by the firm. This simply means that larger firms tend to adopt technology at higher levels while the smaller firms are inclined to adopt technology at the lower levels (Cragg B. P. Mills M.A., 2009)A firm’s prior usage of technology in the form of PCs with modems and an affinity towards the internet and e-mails will also affect the diffusion of the new innovation. An organisation with a large number of transactions and data is more likely to adopt E-Commerce as this can be of great assistance in streamlining operations and as well as in offering process efficiency within the organisation (Thong J. and Yap C, 1995).The adoption of E-Commerce by the SMEs relies heavily on the acceptance of the technology of e-commerce by the business owners. If the owner does not identify with the usefulness of technology nor has an understanding of its potential, then naturally the owner will be reluctant to adopt E-commerce. However, on the other hand, if the attitude of the owner is positive, that is, if he is well aware of the intricacies of computers and has some knowledge on technology and how ways to reap benefits from it, then the business is likely to adopt e-commerce (Lubbe S. et. al. 2003). Another case where an owner is likely to adopt E-Commerce for his business is on the recommendation of experienced people. Before investing in the adoption E-Commerce the owners also considers the return he will be getting for his investment. This concern for the returns on the investments made often leads to the small and medium-sized firms being more anxious on their mid-term survival rather than on the long-term viability (Lubbe S. et. al. 2003). Henceforth, most of the small and medium-sized business owners are often hesitant on making investmentswhen short or medium-term returns are not guaranteed.
Occasional analysis is very important for measuring the effectiveness of the organizational strategies. H M Hennes Mauritz AB (operating as HM) is a Swedish retail-clothing company, known for its fast-fashion clothing offerings for women, men, teenagers and children. HM has the stated goal of giving the customer unbeatable value through the combination of fashion, quality and price. We shall be studying its competencies and methods across five different factors found to be central in building and carrying out an effective Strategic Management. 1. Strategy and Organization: Organization is a relatively broader term and in a long term introduces itself as a stable social framework which exploits the environmental resources and directs them towards more organized form as a product. it can also be summarised as the social arrangement to distribute tasks to achieve a collective goal. This technological term depends on three elements of an organization. Capital and labour are primary inputs gained from the environment. These are further processed to transform these variables into product and services which are ready to be returned for the environment for future use. These are further empowered to get customer faith to uphold the key position in market and get maximum market share. Strategy is an action which is needed to direct the organization and its various components to achieve a desired state in the future. So each organization has its strategies across its various departments to derive the flow of actions across the globe. According to Barr et al., (1992), strategic change is not all of sudden but it’s an attempt by the organization to restructure itself according to the need of the present consumers and keeping the future in mind so that there is substantial shift in the priorities, hence warranting new things. It is the duty of the organization to implement these changes in more reproducible way and convey the message to the shareholders in the convincing manner. According to HM, they are a flat organisation, encouraging employees to take up new challenges and try many different roles within the organization. Moreover, many in management today start their association with HM on the shop floor. The business strategy of keeping fashion fresh, as if it were a perishable good, has helped HM evolve continuously. It has encouraged continual growth. the company is present in 35 countries and has more than 1900 employees, with plans to reach 2000 by the end of 2010. With the uncertainty of today’s global economy. the acceleration of new information technologies. and increased competitiveness in the market place. there are significant elements of strategic thinking that are necessary to ensure the continued success of an organization. 2. Strategic Leadership: Strategic Leadership is defined as a person’s ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the organisation (Ireland, Hitt 1999). It leads the organization on to the path of growth and success, while keeping vision in mind. So to fulfill these, all managers and executives should be well equipped with knowledge and latest technology to formulate and execute the strategies in more effective way. According to Stumpf, Fulmer and
By 1937, British scientist Alec Reeves invented and patented the Pulse Code Modulation (PCM). The digital revolution has also been pushed forward by the advent of cheap and powerful computational devices. We must also keep in mind the immense contribution of the military in any great leap in technology. The First World War brought in electricity and vacuum tubes. By the Second World War, solid state electronics were invented and this is the first impetus in bringing in the era of miniaturization and power. By 1950s and 1960s, computers were developed and used by the military to build the World Wide Web, which later on in the 1990s were made available to the average consumer. In 1957, Max Matthews of The Bell Laboratory demonstrated how to record sound digitally using computer. The digital recording process consists essentially of an Analogue to Digital conversion. This is achieved by chopping up the signal into small intervals at a rate at least twice the highest perceivable frequency. Each part of the sample is then coded using binary numbering system and recorded as pulses. The earlier experiments were done using tape as a storage medium but later discs replaced them. They had a higher density. In chopping up the signal at the rate of 44.1 KHz (in case of ACDs), the amplitude of each part of the waveform sampled is expressed as a binary number containing the equivalent of a combination of 16- zeroes and ones (if 16 Bit quantization is used as in ACDs) or any lower number depending upon the system. This means that the amplitude of this small part of the signal sampled can be expressed in as many as 16 to the power 16 or 65,536 increments. Such a high number of increments to describe a small part of the signal required fast recording density and speed. Therefore video tape recorders were used to record digitally converted audio signal. Discs carrying video frequencies were made to rotate up to 1800 rpm and between 150 and 400 rpm for audio programs. To record a full album digitally, we had to wait until 1976. The first ever 16 bit digital recording was made by Dr. Stockham of Soundstream using a Soundstream Recorder in the U.S. Santa Fe Opera. Sony introduced its flagship D/A converter the PCM 1 in the same year. Now digital recording was in the hands of anyone who can afford the machine and hook it up with an existing VHS VCR to convert it into a digital recorder. In 1979, the first fully digital album was released by Ry Cooder: Bop till you Drop. It was recorded using a 32 track digital multi-track recorder built by 3M. In 1980, Sony and Philips announced the arrival of Audio Compact Disc. The possibility of easy and lossless distribution of high quality digital audio content finally brought in the first waves of the digital boom. In the sphere of studio systems, during 1985, there were only three models of Digital Audio Workstations (DAW) available and only two of them were disk based systems. Audio File from AMS and Direct to Disc by NED, were the only two options the third by Denon was the DN 052 ED. But in the years immediately after this, the Digital Audio Workstations were the order of the day for any studios. 3M, Sony, Mitsubishi and Studer introduced their own versions of the DAW. By 1986, the digital consoles started coming in and RDAT was introduced in Japan, making it possible to make digital replicas of recordings easily. If CD was to replace the LP, RDAT was supposed to replace
I plan to become a chief Radiologic Technologist by the next five years, that is, in 2018.For me to reach the set goal, there are interim goals I need to achieve to be well equipped and qualified for the position. I have listed these interim goals based on the order I need to achieve from the first to the last. First, is to introduce skill development program within my department. This will ensure that employees are well trained and have the ability and confidence to do their jobs effectively and efficiently. The other benefit of introducing the program is that the senior officers in my department will train me together with other employees on the skills that are appropriate to become an effective leader in Radiologic technology. This will give the skills and outlook of what shall be required of me when I get the position. The second interim goal is to complete my Bachelor Degree in Radiology technology by 2016. This is a requirement for one to take any managerial position within the Radiologic Technology. The third goal is to obtain a managerial position in Diagnostic Medical Imaging department. I will be a manager in this department for two years after, which I will move to the next goal. The managerial position will assist me in assuming more role and responsibility in my department to prepare me for the Chief of Radiologist Technologist by the end of the year 2018. In doing this, it is my hope that I will be showing to the management my ability to assume higher roles in the department and the organization as a whole. Lastly, I will resume the chief executive position where I will remain until I create the next resolution.The resources needed to meet the set career goal vary accordingly, but some of the interim goals require the same resources. To begin with, the first interim goal, introduction of skill development program, requires thorough research into the type of the training and the equipment appropriate to achieve the skill development goals within the department and research into other departments of the radiologic technology and other organizations that have successfully implemented such training in their departments.
Computer crimes or cyber crimes are crimes that are committed through the use of computers. We can classify computer crimes into two very broad categories: crimes that are aimed towards networks or computer devices and crimes that are facilitated by the use of computers but where the target is someone or something else and not the network or other devices. These two types of computer crimes have many types and all of them will be elaborated in the paper. Computer Crime that Target Networks or other Computers These types of computer crimes are most important because they are directly related to the invention of computer itself. The creation of computers actually gave birth to such crimes. Other type of computer crimes only use computer and they were being carried out long before computer technology was developed so they have only been increased through computers. But computer crimes that target network are specifically designed to harm or damage systems and networks. Some of these crimes are virus dissemination, worms, denial of service attacks, hacking, Salami attack, credit card theft, electronic funds transfer fraud and spoofing. All of these crimes alongside with their possible damages will be listed below. Virus Dissemination Virus is a program that copies itself and spreads from the host computer to the target computer (Solomon, A. 1995). It is malicious software that attaches itself to other software and then spreads to other computers. Virus attacks are very common and they are usually targeted at networks. Because viruses can multiply they can reduce the speed of your computers. They are attached to programs so when we run programs, viruses run to and in this way they slows the speed of the computers. Viruses can also delete files from a computer system. Actually viruses are custom made so they can do a lot of harm to computers and networks. There are many types of viruses like Worms, Trojan Horses, and Bomb etc. All these viruses use different techniques to harm computers and networks. Worms are similar to viruses but they are separate programs. A virus can be cleaned but in order to remove a worm the file has to be deleted. Trojan Horses are also programs that are disguised as normal programs but when we run them they destroy data and damage computers. Trojan Horses do not self replicate like viruses and worms. An example of the damage that can be caused by a virus is the Melissa Virus of 1999 when Microsoft and large companies had to completely shut down their email systems (Brain, M. 2011). Virus dissemination means to spread viruses from one computer to another in any form. This can harm the computer and corrupt files therefore virus dissemination is included in computer crimes. Viruses serve no useful purpose and are designed to damage computers or networks. They usually delete important files and can cause havoc for companies and households. The spreading power of virus makes them dangerous. Virus dissemination is one of the most common computer crimes of modern technology age. Denial of Service Attacks The Denial of Service Attacks is a computer crime in which attackers flood a particular website or service and prevent legitimate users of the service from using that service (CERT, 2011). Attackers actually flood the service and service is disabled for legitimate users. In Denial of Service attacks many fake requests are
It is imperative to reduce the defence expenditure since it has minimal contribution to the economy. The decline in defence allocations will result in lower incomes for firms that operate in this industry. The reduction in defence budgets will lead to reduction of operations in the defence-contracting firms. Consequently, such entities will retrench employees to an extent that suit their income levels since they are profit oriented. The reduction in budgetary allocations will result in merging of firms as they attempt to consolidate their operations to reduce their overheads. The reduction in defence spending will result in contraction of the defence industry. Additionally, the reduction in defence spending will result in reduced foreign earning form this industry. The defence industry has few players. As such, the industry has few buyers and contractors. The main contractors include Lockheed, General Dynamic and Boeing. This implies that the industry is monopolistic and inelastic. This state is due to the nature of their merchandise. Additionally, the above contracts are shrouded in secrecy due their sensitive nature. Thus, customers in this industry prefer certain contractors. (Burns). Evidently, the market forces that characterize other industries are absent. Thus, the cost of products in this industry is dependent on other factors rather than market forces (Dwivedi 54). Such factors include duration of executing the contract, the sensitivity of the technology and global alliances. The factors that drive prices in this industry are different since arms trade is a sensitive industry monitored globally. As such, governments do not licence many firms in this industry. The state of the current industry has benefits and disadvantages. First, the industry deals in sensitive merchandise hence, most governments prefer to keep the deals confidential. Additionally, proliferation of some of the weapons would lead to destabilization of global peace. Therefore, having few firms in this industry helps deal with black-market dealers. Having few firms in this industry implies that the present corporations will always get contracts. This means that there is minimal competition among the firms involved. The American government has made efforts to maintain competition among players in this industry by barring any merger of large defence firms since this would turn the industry into a monopoly. As such, the American government barred proposed unification between Boeing and Lockheed (Krieg). This would have resulted in the unification of the two principal aerospace contractors. The intervention of the American government was timely since these are the two leading firms in the industry. Therefore, allowing such a merger would have eliminated competition in totality (Krieg). Evidently, this sector ought to have additional players to make it more competitive. This applies to the large contracts that require massive capital outlay. However, this does not apply to smaller contracts since numerous firms have the capability to bid for such contracts making it competitive. However, competition does not vary cost of contracts. This is a key feature of this industry that will not change since defence-contracting firms use specialized
For economic growth to happen there is a need for entrepreneurs to assume, manage, and organize the risks that are in the various business ventures. While entrepreneurship is personal, it has an impact on the entire society, which affirms the positive correlation between entrepreneurship and economic growth. Entrepreneurship is usually s an outcome of complex factors that include socioeconomic, technological, and psychological factors within the environments in which the entrepreneurs live. As a process, entrepreneurship is very dynamic and risky as it involves a combination of human talent or creativity, capital, and technology. The concept of entrepreneurship applies to small business enterprises as well as large businesses and multinational corporations. It also applies to economic activities and non-economic activities. Entrepreneurial activity, on the other hand, refers to the rate of new venture startup that is initiated or started by the entrepreneurs and is motivated by the availability of opportunities. Economic development focuses on ways in which production and competition for resources are enhanced. It also involves the process through which per capita income of a country is increased. The development of entrepreneurship is, therefore, an important aspect of economic development as it speeds enhances the production factors and speeds up the production process, which in turn enhance economic growth.The economy is portrayed as a combination of enterprises and businesses each of which is a combination of the various factors of production. The Role of the Entrepreneur and Creativity The entrepreneur fulfills several functions. The most important function is that of innovation. The entrepreneur uses the available information and his creativity to come up with products that fulfill the need that has been identified in society. The entrepreneur also comes up with improvements to the already existing products and comes up with new markets for the products. Being creative, the entrepreneur also comes up with a new organization for a specific industry. Through creative innovations, the entrepreneur converts the available material into resources. He also comes up with different ways to combine the available resources and come up with more products that are better and more productive. Creativity is, therefore, a very important part of the entrepreneurship process. In relation to entrepreneurship, creativity is the process of developing new services and products that were previously unavailable (Wennekers, Stel, and Carree 45). An entrepreneur also has the responsibility of organizing the resources that are a necessary part of the production. This means he has to use his creative and innovative abilities, and his leadership skills to coordinate the production team, generate the resources required for production, and supervise the process of production. The entrepreneur has to ensure that the available resources are channeled towards progressive activities in the pursuit that he has chosen. If the entrepreneur is not keen on the process of the organization of the resources, he may end up using the available resources to produce goods or services that are already in surplus.
Others will have their dining halls centralized at one building while others prefer decentralized services. However, the ultimate objective of these plans is providing quality and affordable meals to the students. in this easy, I present my findings from an analysis of two leading universities’ dining halls in the state of Florida, the Florida University of Technology dining hall and the University of Florida dining hall. Features of the Florida University of Technology dining hall Centralization into one building The Florida University of Technology dining hall, commonly known as the Panther Dining Hall, is the sole food provider to the students in the campus. Located at the main residential building in the university, the dining hall seeks to provide the students with convince in the accessibility of food to the students. … With its large windows that always remain open. the dining hall has a good supply of air. Additionally, students can enjoy outside weather, by choosing to eat from the outside. There are cleaners who constantly keep on mopping the floor, thus maintaining its clean nature. Quality and variety of meals Despite being the sole food provider in the university, the dining hall strives to offer the students with a variety of meals that are high quality and affordable. Professionally prepared and packaged, the students receive high standard services from the dining hall. Having a meal in the hall gives one the impression of eating from a three star restaurant. Among the popular meals available in the dining hall to the students, include pizza buffet, pasta to order, deli, dessert, home-style entree with carvery, and salad (Florida Institute of Technology, 2013.) Presence of bars and international drinks Within its premises, there is an international bar and grill, which serves students with different alcoholic brands. With a variety of different alcoholic beverages, most of which are drawn from different countries, the dining hall factors in the international students (Florida Institute of Technology, 2013.) Therefore, one does not have to leave the campus premises in order to have their drinks. Not unless the students want to for a night out in the city, the dining hall fully caters for all the drinks that students could require. This enhances their security, as they do not have to leave the school compound most of the times. Different alcoholic bars and beverage bars The dining hall also has a beverage bar, one that serves the non-alcoholic drinks to the students (Florida Institute of Technology, 2013). This
Instant replays were necessitated by the need to be accurate. There was a problem when teams were awarded titles and trophies they did not deserve. One point can make a significant difference. One score can be the difference between the winner and the loser. It has been observed that teams have been given points they did not score. All because the referee thought the ball went past the score line. In 2010 FIFA world cup, for instance, in South Africa when England was playing against Germany England was denied a goal by the referees. Yet replays confirmed the ball went past the goal line. Before a team wins a championship, it costs the team a lot of money, effort and time. Teams invest up to millions of dollars in these activities so that they can win. When an unfair decision by a referee denies a team a crucial victory, then it causes anger and frustrations. Yet the referees cannot be in every place within the field of play…. Before a team wins a championship, it costs the team a lot of money, effort and time, (Kramer 194). Teams invest up to millions of dollars in these activities so that they can win. When an unfair decision by a referee denies a team a crucial victory, then it causes anger and frustrations. Yet the referees cannot be in every place within the field of play, (Wiederhold and W Sutphen 54). The other problem involved cases of discipline in the field of play. There are instances in which players attack each other in a way that is malicious, (Verna 21). Some of those incidences can result to injuries. The referees are not always in a position a see some of these incidences as they happen. Most of these incidences are captured by video cameras. These footages are aired in the course of the game, (Gamache 101). This sparks a wave of outrage from fans and supporters. Sometimes the referees are accused of being biased. This happen when it is perceived that the referee is being unfair to one team. The referees need to be at a position to see things as they happen in the field of play. Referees involve instant replay technology. Instant play helps to sort of some of these challenges. Tournaments must be a fair platform. This is because they must show genuine effort being rewarded. Technology must be used to solve the problems that exist if it has to make sense to us. There should be a way of spotting and monitoring all the incidences in the course of the game. This makes sure that all cases that require disciplinary action as handled in the right way, (Verna 21). The other serious problem is on the bases of security of the players in the field. This also extends to the security of the fans watching the game in the field. There have
The reason behind the wide acceptance and adoption of this technology is that it caters to a massive market of printing packaging materials. Conventional form of printing could not suffice for such tasks effectively since the packaging materials are made in different types and sizes. The level of precision, quality and pace that can be achieved with the flexography technology cannot be matched with the old methods of printing and other competitive technologies in the modern markets. 2. Overview of Flexography Flexography is defined as a type of ‘rotary web letterpress’ that amalgamates the aspects of letterpress and rotogravure printing (Print Process Descriptions: Printing Industry Overview: Flexography). The material that is used for printing tends to dry faster as it is consists of a low viscosity solvent. There are three types of inks that are used in this form of printing. solvent-based, water-based and ultraviolet-cured. Each one of these inks is dried off in different ways (Overview of Flexographic Printing). The inks are very thin that makes this form of printing even preferable for four color printing jobs (CMYK). Ink possesses much relevance in any printing process. Since flexography printing produces fine finish printing, the ink has several characteristics. The ink should be able to create a visual effect or color. The ink must be compatible with the material on which it is being printed. Production packaging tends to suffer different environmental conditions due to its frequent displacement, therefore the printing needs to survive the presence of chemicals, scratching and fluctuation of temperature in the surroundings. 3. Applications of Flexography Flexography is considered to be the simplest and cheapest mode of printing packaging materials. There are several applications of flexography. some of them are mentioned below (Printers – Flexographic Printing): Ridged containers Folding cartons Multiwall sacks Paper sacks and plastic bags Milk and beverage cartons Disposable cups and containers Labels Wrappers of food items The quality of the printing is commendable and irrespective of the irregular or complex shape of the object. Another form of flexography printing exists that is designed to be used for publications, for example newspapers, comics, booklets, promotional catalogues etc. Food and candy wrappers are usually required to be printed with bright colors. flexography achieves this with factor with ease. Organizations tend to prefer this technology due to the lowering of the cost of the packaging which is coupled with competitive results. 4. Relevance of Flexography in the Graphic Information Technology Industry Flexography technology has improved to a great extent over the years due to which it has brought about greater level of precision, efficiency and quality in the graphic information technology industry (Polischuk). The improvement of this technology from satisfactory image definition and effective management of shorter runs of printing to excellent finish over massive printing activities has given the consumer an appealing alternate in the printing industry. The monopoly of the competitor technologies (like gravure and offset technologies) has been broken by the improvement of flexography (Polischuk). The designs that were traditionally considered to be impossible without the usage of gravure and offset technologies, have been proven to be achieved by flexography printing. Flexography is able to cater to the innovative design features of the modern age, as well as the contemporary one with details and precision. The processes and quality of flexography printing is able to meet the rapidly changing requirements of the modern markets since there is increasing demand of better quality and endeavors to
A significant number of physical and virtual IMSs have been developed over the last few years with varying degrees of success. Most of these systems does not offer virtual access to general users through internet using mobile devices like cell phones, IPods etc. On the other hand Physical Identity Management Systems (PIMSs) can be implemented with the help of staff in physical places like government service offices, workplaces etc. However, there is an increased realization for the establishment of clear standards and guidelines for integrating these virtual and physical IMSs. We need an integrated platform that can meet the physical and virtual identity requirements and expectations. My research will define a conceptual framework for integrating physical and virtual identity management systems. The framework will not only set design standards but will also contribute towards measuring outcomes of these systems. The proposed framework includes various identity tokens like smart cards, biometrics, PINs, etc. and accessibility tools like the World Wide Web (WWW) and other mobile technologies. The framework will aim to establish a conceptual model using theories of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), Design and Research while addressing the requirements of physical and virtual Identity Management Systems. The conceptual model will provide single sign-in convenience to several virtual and physical systems thereby, will reduce the need to remember multiple log-in credentials in different domains by using web technologies. The research will rigorously investigate users’ needs (or identity token that the user has at that time) and the sectors’ identity requirements to find out the best ways that can be adopted while accessing different virtual and physical systems. This research may use the Technology Acceptance Model for the validation of its conceptual framework discussed above. The framework will identify the attributes for physical and virtual identity management systems to provide an acceptable and accessible user experienc
Furthermore, many procedures and tests in an outpatient center take place in a few hours hence the ability to serve as many clients/patients as possible gives the business an edge. The center establishes a diagnostic and examining tool that uses low-energy x-rays to scrutinize the human breast. Most importantly, Quality Imaging has recently added an all-digital screening mammography in the offices as a step to ensure it delivers best quality care to patients. Digital mammography gives highest resolution images useful in detecting breast cancer in its earlier development stages. In fact, the images appear on radiologist’s computer in a matter of seconds. The ability to use all-digital screening mammography is an improvement from the traditional diagnostic system, which also involved physical examination of the human breast. It is also significant to note the system has no waiting time for the film to develop, which implies patients wait less time to know test results. In addition, digital mammography allows the radiologist to analyze breast images with the help of special high-resolution monitors. Further, it is possible to adjust monitors for contrast, brightness and zoom depending on requirements. One of the major benefits of this technology is the ability to manipulate images. Moreover, there is reduced the need to retake due to under or over exposure, the result of which saves time lowering a patient’s exposure to X-rays. The center has an ever-open laboratory center that helps diagnose varieties of illness. Laboratory services are accessible to patients referred to Quality Imaging or those interested in lab tests conditions. In the lab, patients are tested for a number of illnesses, which include blood tests and tests for various infections. There is a follow-up process that accompanies testing to ensure treatment if the need arises. Nonetheless, no appointment is necessary to have one enjoy laboratory services.
It is important that the health information will be well communicated as it influences attitude, perceptions, awareness, knowledge, and social norms, which all act as precursors to behavior changes (Bensley Brookins-Fisher, 2009, p. 74). It also is directly connected to the good or poor quality of the patient care and lessens costs in the hospital and health care center settings (Haux, Winter, Ammenwerth, Brigl, 2004, p. 11). Specifically, information systems benefit the health sector by (1) by providing clinical patient-related information on time. (2) assisting the rest of the hospital staff in their tasks. (3) providing access of information for easy management and giving administrative people and other concerned authorities the scheme that each health care provider do in the provision of individual patient care. (4) maintaining cost and time-efficient services. (5) enhancing health education by reaching more people without spending big amounts. This process requires time to be done. Previously, such a process was well-practiced. but time is essential in health care as every minute a life can be lost or saved. Indeed, the information flow before the existence of information technology was not enough to respond to the fast pace of hospital activities. It is important to take note that the information from the different departments is vital to the diagnosis of the patients’ conditions and to the totality of the health care that is required and must be delivered to a patient. The information may range from different laboratory findings such as CT scans and x-rays results to blood compatibility tests and many other significant diagnostic examinations. If in any case that the condition of the patients needs life-saving measures, although unlikely, there would be nothing else to do but to let that measures wait until appropriate information is known. In the existence of information systems, traditional information documentation fallbacks are put to history.
The Future of Shipping IndustryShipping industry is considered as one of the most seasonal industries in the world and can readily be influenced by the external factors such as political, economic, as well as, other events. The recent economic downturn has also taken its toll on the shipping industry as there has been a sharp decline in the cargo trafficking as well as freights charged by the industry. According to some recent reports, freights have been lowered to almost 95% from the highest recorded freight charged and industry is hardly covering its operating cost. (The Business Times). The decline in the overall demand from developed countries such as US and UK is forcing many developing and emerging countries to look for local demand, and as such there is very little demand being generated internationally as suppliers from countries like China is finding it difficult to sell their products in international market. (Wade).Until most recently, the industry was facing an uphill task of meeting the expenses because of increase in oil prices. Due to the lack of fuel efficiency, many shipping companies found it difficult to manage their costs as consistent increase in oil prices was seen as one of the greatest threats to the short term viability of the industry. (Vidal). Considering this fundamental challenge, environment specialists like Vidal conclude that the future of shipping industry would largely depend upon how the industry adopts to the bio-fuel technology as the industry does not only have to withstand increasing costs but also have to face the increasing criticism for its involvement in polluting environment.It has also been argued that the ship designing is largely based on existing regulations which need to be fulfilled before a ship can be rolled over for the commercial purpose. Due to complacent nature of such regulations, it is often felt that the ship makers as well as shipping industry have to face the wrath of industry dynamics which are not allowing them to be more competitive. As such the future of shipping industry is largely based on the changes to be made into the relevant regulations in order to make it more competitive and sustainable.It is also important to note that due to increased awareness of the consumers and emergence of so called ethical consumers demands that the supply chain of the international organizations shall be ethical in its orientation. Shipping industry, being part of the overall global supply chain, is feeling the heat also because of the fact that it is emitting dangerous CO2 and using more polluted fuel in ships.Community shipping is a new terminology and may lead the emerging wave of changes in shipping industry. Community shipping advocates the use of shipping industry within a particular region such as EU. EU, as a region, has been continuously striving hard to develop models which can comprehensively cover the shipping in order to improve competency of the industry on regional level. However, the absence of any such concepts in other parts of the world may not lead to the development of community shipping and as such due to diversity of the suppliers and buyers. shipping industry may not make a transition to community shipping until regional economic clusters are developed.Works Cited1. John Vidal. Fuel Economy: Back to the Future in Shipping. 2 Jan 2008. The Guardian. 25 Feb 2009 .2. The Business Times. Shipping industry gears up to ride another storm. 07 Jan 2009. Asia One News. 27 Feb 2009 .3. Wade, Alex. The Coaster: Shipping industry rocked by recession. 21 Feb 2009. Times Online. 25 Feb 2009 .
Business Letter Dear James, Thanks for your letter regarding internet security issues. I do understand that Glassplex is growing rapidly in the business of plexiglas. Soon, you are likely to have the internet presence in order to cater your customer needs and meet your larger aspirations. I understand that the matter related to internet security concerns you. Internet, a shared network, provides resources that we never thought of 15 years back. Along with its benefits, it brings a risk of abuse too in forms of virus creators, hackers and from numerous malware operators. You need to have a robust security system in place that can protect you from hackers, virus mongers, spyware, Trojans, and hosts of other malwares. For your immediate need, I would recommend you a product that has come from a giant of all who knows ins and outs of the nuisance creators and their modus operandi. According to Microsoft, they have devised a product which offers state-of-the-art protection against all known risks associated while being online. Microsoft Malware protection Center (MMPC) is equipped to provide world-class antimalware research and response capabilities. A product called Microsoft Security Essentials (MES) is built on the Microsoft industry-certified antimalware protection platform. The product is developed around the core antimalware technology that is also the basis of other security products from Microsoft. It has also received the VB 100 award from Virus Bulletin Ltd and also a certification from ICSA Labs. The key features of the product (MES) include the following: Automatic Update MES ensures that the antimalware engine, signatures, and application are automatically updated. The system downloads new malware signatures every day. As new threat emerges, malware engine upgrades delivering new applications to your system to combat the threats. Smart Caching and Active Memory Swapping MSE uses smart caching and active memory technique limiting the amount of memory used even if the volume of malware enhances. This ensures smooth functioning for less powerful system such as notebooks. When scanning process on files is slow, MSE uses telemetry by sending it to Microsoft for analysis and resolution. Routine updates remove unnecessary signatures, provide for improved scanning speed and thus reduce memory usage. Simple and Easy in Use Microsoft Security Essentials run in the background, with minimal interruption, without taking a toll to your resources. When your intervention is required, you are presented with recommendations through application alerts. PC Performance Not Affected The product is smaller in size. Updates and scans run when the PC is idle. CPU throttling ensures that at no point of time, it uses more than 50 percent of the CPU resources so that your system continues to perform your essential tasks. For more information, you can visit http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/security_essentials/default.aspx and take your own decision in the internet security related matter. If you have any questions, kindly do not hesitate to contact me. Thanking you, Sincerely, ABC References: 1. Microsoft Security Essentials Product Information (2011), [Online] available at http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/security_essentials/ProductInformation.aspx [Accessed 11 July 2011] 2. Malware Protection Center [Online] available at http://www.microsoft.com/security/portal/Shared/WhoAndWhat.aspx [Accessed 11 July 2011]
Today, it is not surprising that all industries look to sustainability as inspiration in their efforts to subside climate change, rising temperatures, flooding, uncontrolled pollution, and other harms affecting humans and world ecology. The same can be said in the design technology, construction, and tourism industries. While these various industries have now merged to present a single cause such as increase tourism in a given area, it takes extensive efforts to combine all and come up with a single project that will address sustainable eco-tourism using bio-mimicry. This paper will try to explore the possibilities of embracing bio-mimicry in said industries with luxury tourism as the common denominator.Nowadays, architectural design inspired and modelled from nature is significantly gaining importance and recognition. This new and practical approach is called as biomimicry. With the ever-increasing population of the world, perhaps this approach is the perfect and right solution to the existing built environment problems, fast depleting natural resources and other human challenges.Biomimicry, as its name suggest, is from the word bios, meaning life, and mimesis, meaning to imitate. For the purpose of this research, biomimicry is defined as the imitation or taking inspiration from nature’s forms, process, and ecosystem to solve human problems (Klein, 2009). Similar terms for biomimicry also include biomimetics, bio-inspiration, bionics and biognosis. In fact, the principle of biomimicry is threefold: to use nature as a model. to use nature as the standard measure, and to use nature as a mentor. However, this topic would be further explained in the succeeding part of this paper.In the study conducted by Klein (2009), he proposed that to fully emulate the nature especially in built environment design, the architectures and designers should take consideration on the three levels/types of mimicry. This includes the form, the ecosystem, and the processes of the natural world.
It is clear from the discussion that Knowles described andragogy as an emerging technology for adult learning. Knowles employed the word theory in his description of andragogy and later explained that, he obtained the term from his European colleagues. Interestingly, Knowles, explained that he was not certain on the assumptions of andragogy and left the correctness of the assumption to be challenged, tested and modified through inquiry process. The andragogy learning process advocates self directing in learning process since different people would learn at different rates depending on several factors such as age, occupation, and other dimensions of life. The only role that teachers would be required to play in such a process according to Knowles, Holton Swanson would be to encourage the students as well as nurture the learning process as the students direct their learning process. The learning process in adult education does not follow a systematic process as would be the case with pedagogy, but the adult learner would be willing to learn a new concept in order to cope with a specific life problem. Therefore, the process has been much designed with the flexibility that would allow the student to discover their needs in search of specific lines of knowledge. The andragogy learning process, therefore, offers the necessary tools and creates the conditions necessary for the student to discover the above-explained knowledge. Through Knowles adult learning process and methods, there have been an increasing number of adult learners in institutions of higher educations in and education system that could have been otherwise considered to favor the lower education levels. As Gold explained, there has been a gradual increase in the number of adult learners registering in the U.S.A universities in search of particular areas of knowledge.
People Should Use Technology
The world as it is today is greatly impacted by different technologies. In fact, technology has a huge effect on virtually every aspect of human life. Most, if not all, technologies that are in existence today have been created with good ends in mind. While this is the case, these technologies are associated with negative effects as well. While technology has negative effects, its positive effects far outweigh these cons, which makes it more valuable for humans.
Different quarters have divergent views in regard to the impact of technology on people’s creativity and smartness. Skeptics note that technology is doing a lot to make people less creative and more dependent. In this respect, Lesnar (par. 7) notes that exposing children to technology at an early stage in life sets them up to be incomplete, less creative, and devoid of imagination. This is especially the case, according to Lesnar (par. 8), given that technology denies them the chance to engage in hands-on interaction. Proponents of technology on the other hand argue that the notion that technology makes people less smart and less creative cannot be further from the truth. Johnson, for example, notes that technology makes people exercise their minds in powerful new ways much as it makes them smarter (par. 2-3). In his view, Johnson notes that the online world has had a salutary effect on people’s minds with people learning a lot of new ideas over a short period of time. Indeed, the notion that technology is making people become less participatory in their learning and less creative is quite disputable. This is the case given that almost all forms of online activity are by nature participatory, forcing people to learn new tools.
Opponents of technology have accused it of making people lose the capacity to concentrate and become less critical. As Carr (par. 2) notes, technology, and more specifically, the Internet, has made deep reading become a struggle. Instead of concentrating on what one is reading, the net chips of an individual’s capacity to deeply contemplate as they are constantly bombarded with new information, adverts, alerts, and banners. The net effect of this is that the individual only gets to skim through media, their thinking taking on a staccato quality. The notion that the Internet is making people reducing people’s capacity to concentrate deeply and become better critical thinkers has been disputed by many an expert. Sergey Brin, one of Google’s founders holds the view that if all of the world’s information was attached to ones brain through technology, one would become smarter and therefore better off (Carr par. 16). Generally, technology has made people become active consumers and producers of huge amounts of information going by the number of people who surf the net and blog actively. This fact points to the fact that technology makes people become more critical in their thinking as they imbibe, digest, and analyze huge amounts of information over short durations.
In conclusion, technology has both advantages and disadvantages. While this is the case, it is beyond doubt that the advantages of technology far outweigh its disadvantages. As opposed to the notions presented by critics that technology makes people become less creative, critical, critical, and more dependent, it makes people smarter, more critical, and less dependent on others. This is true owing to the fact that it helps in the individual’s cognitive development. Generally, people should use technology constructively to solve life’s problems and to increase their efficiency while avoiding the temptation to become less creative and superficial readers.
Carr, Nicholas. Is Google Making Us Stupid?. The Atlantic Monthly. July 2008. Print.
Johnson, Steven. Everything Bad Is Good for You: How Today’s Popular Culture Is Actually Making Us Smarter. N.d. Web.
Lesnar, Sarah. Why Steve Jobs Didn’t Let His Kids Use iPads (And Why You Shouldn’t Either). Web. 2014. http://nextshark.com/why-steve-jobs-didnt-let-his-kids-use-ipads-and-why-you-shouldnt-either/
SWOT Analysis Number: Lecturer: SWOT Analysis in strategy SWOT analysis is a tool used in strategic management to understand thestrengths and weaknesses internally, and identify opportunities available and threats faced by a business entity. By analyzing strengths and weaknesses, a company will be able to formulate a strategy to distinguish itself from competition, hence competing successfully. On the other hand, uncovering opportunities will enable the business to exploit them fully while eliminating the threats from impacting on the operations. This analysis gives the strategic position of the business and the environment by identifying the strategies creating a firm specific business model that best aligns the organization’s resources and capabilities to the requirements of the environment in which it operates.
The acronym SWOT stands for, as has been alluded, to strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Each of these has a strategic implication to the business, and proper analysis will show a true picture of the organization’s place in the business environment. Strengths and weaknesses are internal to the business entity directly controlled by it while opportunities and threats are external, and a company can only anticipate and react to the changes. As such, analysis is instrumental in strategy formulation and selection to pursue the optimum possible position.
For success to be realized, strengths should be build upon, weaknesses rectified, opportunities exploited and protect against threats. Strategic planning is enhanced by SWOT analysis as it is a source of information for strategic planning to identify core competencies, and setting of objectives. From the knowledge of the past and present, the future can be comfortably planned (Pearce &. Robinson, 2012). Let us consider each of the four substrata in the SWOT matrix.
An organization’s strengths are either tangible or intangible qualities which enable it to accomplish its missions. They form the basis under which success can be laid and sustained. They include patents, brand names, good reputation, exclusive access to resources, technical know-how by employees, and distribution network. The firm must have distinct features giving it consistency. The employee expertise, process capabilities, finances, products/services with customer goodwill and brand loyalty form the foundation for the organization to thrive.
These are qualities hindering the firm from achieving its mission and accomplishing optimum potential by hindering the organization’s success and growth. The absence of certain strengths can be viewed as weakness. Some of the things that form part of the weaknesses are the opposite of the items in strengths, making it not to react appropriately to the changing strategic environment. They include, but not limited to, depreciating machinery, narrow product range, poor decision-making process, and insufficient research and development facilities. Some other problems like high employee turnover, huge debts, raw materials wastage, and lack of proper and wide consultation in decision making. It is important to note that, a firm is able to control by making necessary changes when these weaknesses are identified by minimizing and eliminating where possible.
The environment under which the firm is operating portents opportunities for the it to grow and make profits. The firm should be able to identify these opportunities and benefit from them, to plan and execute strategies that lead to better profitability and to gain competitive advantage. The organization, apart from auditing the environment strategically for opportunities, it should be able to analyze how these opportunities present themselves and how to take advantage. With a great customer focus, opportunities rise from markets, competition, industry, government policy, and technology. The government can deregulate the business environment which can cause the ripple effect in technology advancement, and demand for previously prohibited goods and services. The organizations should be able to have the flexibility to react appropriately and make money, for example, regional trade blocs can be created or trade barriers loosened.
Threat result from the environment when, instead of favoring the business environment, it curtails by thinning revenue streams or regulating the environment. Threats jeopardize reliability and profitability and compound vulnerability if they can relate to the internal weakness of the organization. Threats are uncontrollable and can mean destabilizing and threatening the survival of the company. They include change in customer tastes, new regulations, and increase in trade barriers, new substitute products, employee unrest, technological changes, increased competition, price wars, and reducing industry profits (Pearce &. Robinson, 2012).
Pearce, J., &. Robinson, R. (2012). Strategic Management Planning for Domestic &. Global Competition Pearce (13 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Development" Training The training of employees should take place after the employees are taken through orientation to enlighten them better on assistance services (Kamin, 2008). Being an important aspect in an organization, training will mold the thinking of Sam’s Club employees. Wentland writes that a well-trained employee is more productive and efficient. Sam’s club training of will revolve around for basic grounds (2007):
Training will allow new employees to be aware of mission, vision, rules and regulations and the working conditions of Sam’s club
Training will enable the existing staff in order to enhance and refresh their knowledge.
Training will prepare the employees to share the responsibilities of the higher-level job.
Training will enable the employees cope with changes in technology and organization policy changes.
From the above, Sam’s club will benefit in the following ways:
It will improve employee morale- Training of employees will make them have a sense of belonging and job security therefore improving their morale bringing about improved results.
Customer satisfaction-Due to training, it is expected that the customers will be satisfied to better service delivery from the employees.
Minimal supervision-When employees are trained, they become well acquainted with the operations of Sam’s club therefore they require minimal supervisions.
Few errors- employees make fewer errors because of training. Knowledge gained enables the employees be proficient in their working minimizing the chances of mistakes and this facilitates efficiency in both quantity and quality of service provided by the employees.
Return on investment (ROI)
Return on investment is the measure of a corporations profitability, equal to a fiscal years income divided by common stock and preferred stock equity plus long-term debt (Bull,2008). Sam’s club return on investment is crucial in determining its investment review. In order to calculate the Return on Investment of Sam’s club, through the following steps:
Step 1: .Calculate all the costs associated with .an .investment.
This will involve determining the initial upfront costs, maintenance costs, taxes and research cost associated with the investment.
Step 2: Estimate or calculate the returns.
This will involve determining the gain there will be from the investment and when these returns will take place because returns are uncertain.
Step 3: Establish a timeline for costs and returns.
A simple time line will be drawn to list all the costs and investments where costs will be listed as negative and revenues positive in the following manner.
1/1/ 2008 initial investment cost: -$100,000
9/21/ 2008 sell investment revenue: $120,000
Step 4: Calculate return on investment .
This will be important in evaluating the efficiency of Sam’s club as an investment. (Grant, 2010).
Bull, R. Financial ratios: how to use financial ratios to maximise value and success for your business. Oxford: CIMA. 2008. Print
Grant, R. M. Contemporary strategy analysis (7th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &. Sons. 2010. Print.
Kamin, Maxine. Customer service training. Oxford: Pergamon Flexible Learning, 2006. Print.
Wentland, Daniel M.. Strategic training putting employees first. Amherst, Mass.: HRD Press, 2007. Print.
It is apparent that Germany stands a chance to benefit a lot from Europe being as vibrant as a continent. The country shares borders with many European countries, pretty much on all its sides. It is with that note that this country cannot just fail to be actively involved in pursuing a European policy. Furthermore, being located at the heart of the EU, Germany enjoys other benefits apart from the main reason such as living in harmony with each other. Benefits derived from the integration include issues such as prosperity and security among the members (Schweiger 9).
As mentioned above, the EU embraces international trade at a larger extent. Germany would benefit from this as it would the other countries in the integration. As a matter of facts, Germany can be looked at as a blessing to these other countries (Schweiger 12). This country is prosperous and has strong economic productivity (Janning, tatsachen-ueber-deutschland.de). Thus, there is a lot that it brings on the table to the benefit of the EU. For instance, it has a pool of quality products and up-to-date technology that is available at reduced or no tariffs to other nations in the integration.
As would be like with any other symbiotic relationship, Germany is set to gain a lot from other nations as well. She would trade buying goods and services from other EU Nations. This will make the EU self-sufficient continent whereby all Member countries benefit (Janning, tatsachen-ueber-deutschland.de). As much as it is crucial for Europe to grow strong politically, it is obvious that economic dynamism brought about by integration as well as the attractiveness of the market to have played a bigger role as a driving force that prompted other European Nations to accede (Schweiger 16).
Since this is a broad topic, a holistic qualitative method of study was chosen. A case study regarding Sony’s emergent strategies was undertaken, following the examples provided by the review. The research uses a structured grounded approach to the study. A structured grounded theory is a research approach that allows the hypothesis to emerge from exploring a case study. The data collection was based on secondary documentary evidence, supported by Yin (2003). In case of study research, data collection, analysis, and dissemination occur cooperatively in order to explore a descriptive case study. The research finds that Sony is able to understand when the business world is unpredictable and Sony is able to organize itself to respond to market pressures through its brand identity. However, Sony does not have adequate strength to move knowledge inside the organization to consumers or to build relationships with customers based on information, such as in the release statements of new products. Sony is able to evolve, however, its continued and rigid focus on the PlayStation line does not offer a flexible approach, particularly in seeking out new sources of revenue and innovation.
New theories in strategic management consider a back to basics approach (Grant 2007). The video game industry is one of the most volatile and high growth industries in the modern technology era (Williams 2002). However, the industry is controlled by three main competitors: Nintendo, Microsoft and Sony (Williams 2002). With the recent launch of the PS3, Sony has suffered unexpected profit losses from low purchases in both the console and the game software development.
Thus, it becomes important to examine if customer satisfaction affects the marketing strategies employed. Many firms do not focus on customer satisfaction as a method of increasing back to basics profitability and instead focus on other methods of generating money. This includes mergers and acquisitions (Anderson and Mittal 2003). Yet not all blame can be laid upon the consumer.
Social structured learning tries to adjust new technologies in our old social structures which enable us to adapt them more rapidly. This is an era of smart phones and everybody is familiar with the term ‘app’ so with this concept of social structured learning we can incorporate future education techniques into this already established technology. To quote an example UCLA and USC’s app HyperCitites is a personification of this type of learning. suppose you’re roaming around town and you spot a building by pointing your phone at that building this app would show you its entire history i.e. who lived here before, when was it constructed, how it looked like a century ago and what the environment was like. This type of learning enables students to learn faster as they are already such types to apps to access information of their choice i.e. the nearest restaurants and theaters.
The market for mobile education is growing at rapid rate and is currently worth $3.4 billion (GSMA, 2012). But despite this rage of adopting mobile education techniques the main trend in the future of education is the shifting roles of teachers and students. The main advancement will be from the teacher in classroom centric model to the world being the students’ class. Students will use the technology they are most equipped with and learn at their own pace hence, adapting to their strengths and weaknesses. The coming revolution in the world of education is the entire remaking of the teacher-student-classroom model.
Instead of the conventional way in which the teacher stands at the front of the classroom and lectures the students, the teacher would keep an eye on the progress of students while assisting those students who need any further guidance on an ad-hoc basis. These way teachers would be able to give time to students who want to do something advanced while also having
r Job Inpatient r: As a managerial health care professional, an Inpatient r is responsible for reviewing and organizing allpatient files for accuracy, and coding that information into the computer system so that the records will indicate all relevant data, such as the reason that the patient was admitted, type of illness and breakdown of the treatment that was prescribed and received. Some examples of how the Inpatient Coder is required to do the coding are:
Guidelines: Follows official coding guidelines to review and analyze health records.
Feedback: Provides feedback and education to physician and professional staff regarding changes in coding methodology and enhanced documentation procedures for optimizing reimbursement.
Billing etc: Coders who also serve as billers must be familiar with the physician’s personal fee schedule, the Hospital charges and packages etc. They should also know how to record and account for reimbursements and use the billing software and use the indices in all the coding books effectively.
Software: They should be competent in using Medical Coding ICD-9 Software. This is a .diagnosis .and .procedure .categorization search tool based on the latest ..NET .Framework Technology. .Adding, modifying or deleting ICD-9-CM codes with the click of a mouse.
Chart Review: An inpatient coder must thoroughly review all patient medical charts in an effort to ensure that all information is accurate and reliable. He should do chart review by extracting pertinent data from the patient’s health record, and determine appropriate coding for reports and billing documents.
Compliance: All information entered into the database by an inpatient coder must be done so in accordance with the policies and procedures of the medical facility. Should Maintain compliance with both external regulatory and accreditation requirements, and with State and Federal regulations.
Staff Interaction: When discrepancies and other anomalies are discovered in files, an inpatient coder must communicate with medical staff members such as nurses and doctors to resolve the issue immediately without delay.
Education: In order to gain employment as an inpatient coder, the candidate must possess a high school diploma or its equivalent and have taken coursework in medical terminology, physiology and anatomy.
Coding for Hospice Care: Hospice Care typically work to maintain the comfort and maximize the quality of life of fatally ill patients.
On admission, the coder must identify and code the diagnosis that qualifies the patient to meet the hospice certification of “life expectancy of 6 months or less”. During the hospice episode, the additional disorders/diseases may be added and should be updated upon recertification.
End-stage diagnoses are not usually captured by the ICD-9-CM code( the medical coding software). Secondary diagnoses also are coded because patients other have multiple medical conditions at the end of life. Eligibility criteria by diagnosis is guided by the LCD. (Example: End Stage Heart Failure is characterized when the patient already has been optimally treated for heart disease). Hospice coders should be familiar with these criteria to determine appropriate coding of terminal diagnosis and co morbidities.
Example of an ad: https://hca.taleo.net/careersection/newswedishmedcntr/jobdetail.ftl?lang=en&.job=868263
Coder Job Description: Outpatient Coder:
An outpatient coder must know how to code multiple areas efficiently, related to the services performed at an outpatient hospital or a hospital owned facility that is classified as outpatient. The types of coding this type of coder must know are CPT procedures, ICD-9 diagnosis codes, and HCPCS supply and service coding. A coder must know medical terminology and anatomy.
Outpatient Coder would be responsible for abstracting, coding, and sequencing the classification of medical and surgical procedures, professional services, diagnosis, supplies and treatment modalities. Some of the core tasks are:
Selection: He should selects the most accurate and descriptive codes from the listings of American Medical Association Current Procedural Terminology (CPT-4) Coding system, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM). and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS).
Assigning and Complying: Assigns Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs) and performs coding compliance reviews. Abstracts and codes pertinent medical data into multiple software programs.
Daily Activities: An outpatient coder must determine the most appropriate coding from either a paper chart record or an electronic chart record.
Computer Software Used: Most facilities have a specific type of computer software the coder uses to determine the Ambulatory Payment Classification (APC) used by government payors and many third-party insurance carriers.
Ability to Override: The Outpatient coder must have a good understanding of when the data does not explain "the whole picture." They have the ability to override the computer code outcome for more appropriate choices of codes or APC.
Accurate Evaluation: A coder must be able to accurately evaluate when more information is needed from the physician or ordering medical provider.
Confidentiality: Coders must not discuss any medical case outside the office with any other employee, family member or friend.
Example of an ad: http://www.ohsu.edu/hr/jobs/job_details.cfm?job_posting_id=IRC33271
(n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from http://www.anthctoday.org/: http://www.anthc.org/mod/jobweb/pdf/07-460.pdf
(n.d.). Retrieved 2011, from www.ehow.com: http://www.ehow.com/facts_5095627_outpatient-medical-coder.html
Henderson, K. (2011). Retrieved from www.ehow.com: http://www.ehow.com/facts_5993646_job-description-inpatient-coder_.html
Lou Ann Schraffenberger. (2011). Effective Management of Coding Services. AHIMA Press.
Live information on the remotest of area and solution to your any problem, be it basic or complex, can be achieved with the help of information technology. Apart from these all, information technology has served humankind in a manner nobody expected it to initially. Information technology has helped reducing global warming throughout our planet.
Global warming is one of the gravest dangers posed to the environment in today’s era, due to the emission of greenhouse gases. Recent discoveries including the scientific advances in Information Technology have drastically reduced the carbon emission of the globe by decreasing the energy need created by internet processing of multiple tasks including the bank transactions, online ticket booking, shopping, etc. Moreover, the non-renewable sources of energy utilized to generate the power for these IT transactions could be further reduced with the help of ‘Green Technology’.
“Two thousand scientists, in a hundred countries, engaged in the most elaborate, well organized scientific collaboration in the history of humankind, have produced long-since a consensus that we will face a string of terrible catastrophes unless we act to prepare ourselves and deal with the underlying causes of global warming.”
Global Warming – Global warming is the dramatic and unexpected surge in temperature of the climate, which is a common abode for many different species and not just human beings, caused as a result of series of negative human activities like burning of fossil fuels( coal, oil, and gas) and large scale deforestation. The burning of fossil fuels releases a large number of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). These gases act as a thick blanket and absorb thermal radiations emitted by the earth’s surface, thereby resulting in the planet to warm up significantly. . .
In the United States, there is a growing trend for environmental responsibility at the corporate level, at such a level that it seems to be driving the activities of competing companies in how they approach their advertising strategies. Unlike the European markets, the United States companies in the technology sales and service support industry often use environmentalism and corporate support for improving a greener lifestyle as part of the heavy promotional investment. In fact, a large retailer in the US, Best Buy, has been offering free recycling services for customers as a means to lure them into their stores. This includes old desktops and old analog television sets, as two examples. Being the sales leader that Best Buy has become in this market, consumers who need to get rid of their old computer technologies, and have no idea how to go about it, are drawn to this strategy and it can serve as a significant strategic marketing advantage to improve sales with American consumers.
Also in this environment, consumers are reconsidering the importance of extended service plans, those plans that offer continued benefits for making an electronics product purchase. Says a retail executive in this country, “You used to be able to fix a TV with a solder gun and transistors. That’s not the case anymore. it can be a $400 part” (Klosek, 2009, p.28). The extended service plan also provides companies with considerable profit opportunity, since it is a pay-now type of risk agreement where the retailer is able to measure actual cash balance in real-time by adding costs to the product sales receipt. .There are difficulties with this market entry strategy that should be identified, the most considerable is the high level of competition in the sales of electronics and similar devices all across this populated region.
It can be said that effectiveness translates into productivity where its absence can be projected in failure like, employee absenteeism and turnover, conflicts, performance instability and communication breakdown (Kaplan &. Norton, 1996). Organizations that enjoy the benefits of effective organization for instance display features such as maximized output, lowered costs and advancement and excellence in technology.
There are several methods of assessment techniques that can be adopted to determine the level of effectiveness that an organization is operating at. The varied methods can be as many as there are researchers in this field. Used at different times of necessity, the approaches target a different point of view on the organization (Cameron &. Whetten, 1983). A few of these approaches are discussed in the paragraph below.
When goal approach is adopted, the management attaches critical importance to the output or results that are achieved at the end of operational timeline (NCCI, 2007). The achieved output level is a measure of effectiveness in a proportionate relationship. Assessment could also be done using internal process approach where favourable results are deemed to emanate from the vital processes that are used to make transformations on input to achieve goals. Features of management such as coordination as well as employee welfare are given the centre stage in this approach. Ideally, output is the result of management and organization that is used to transform input towards achievement of goals. Alternatively, the system resource approach puts much emphasis on the acquisition capability of raw materials and other important resources from the environment that the organization has (NCCI, 2007). Effectiveness is attached to the efficiency of the first stage of operation which involves input. Constituency approach is the other
82000 The researcher states that one of the categories of technology that boost the performance of globally distributed team workers is the discussion board. In this category, there are various communication technology tools that are put in place. The tools here are those that are capable of facilitating communication among many people in different places at the same time. The technologies are always connected together through the internet before members start using them. The internet connects different PCs even those situated in far places. Therefore, many people are brought together by such communication technologies that are enhanced by the internet. There are various examples of technologies that are categorized under the discussion boards. One of these technologies is the web communities formed by members of a particular group. People who engage in specific tasks that are similar can decide to form an online platform through which they share information. The web communities are also platforms where team workers can coordinate the work they are allocated by the head of the team. Another example of technology in the discussion boards is the yahoo club. This is a form of communication technology that is supported by Yahoo. Yahoo is a leading mail services provider in the world and it has been reliable in ensuring people in different parts of the world connect. Through the yahoo clubs, globally dispersed workers can connect and share the different knowledge they have. Good coordination of workers would lead to improved performance of the team in the long run.
The Dunnings OLI model also known as the electrical model was developed by professor Dunning. The theory is essentially a mix of three elements, namely ownership, location, and internationalization. The three elements of the theory were explained as advantages by Dunnings. The model was developed by him with the object of identifying the main factors which motivate a firm to expand internationally. Dunnings was of the opinion that existing theories of international expansion are partial and tries to develop a concrete theory by bringing in the various aspect of existing theories together.
The ownership advantage as explained by Dunnings is key aspects behind the existence of MNE’s. The ownership advantages are firm specific. When large organizations invest in a foreign nation, they are bound to have certain costs. These costs may be related to increases in production expenses, setting up of manufacturing units, procurement of resources and other factors. In order to overcome such costs, the firm is required to get compensated in some other form. This can be by gaining increased revenue or procuring enhanced retained earnings and so on. The ownership costs play an important role for MNE’s to invest in a foreign nation for productions. If the cost of ownership is low, FDI can be easily made. However, the market and industry feasibility must be well analyzed before making such an investment. Alternatively, if the ownership costs are high, firms should forecast and determine if making such an investment would be profitable for the long run or not. The ownership costs under such a case need to be compensated with adequate levels of returns. Usually, ownership benefits in a foreign country arise out of aspects such as property or other firm-specific advantages. Ownership advantages are seen to develop out of monopoly as well, such as privileged or singular access to certain resources or patents. Most MNE’s which seek to invest in a new foreign market prefer to initially understand and assess the different forms of ownership advantages which can be procured.
Many at times, such ownership benefits gained from a foreign nation facilitates the firm’s aids in improving operations at the firm’s parent base in a different nation. For instance, a number of firms invest in China so as to procure ownership advantages of low-cost superior technology. Such technological benefits may also be transferred to the firm’s other operational units located in diverse nations. The ownership advantages may also occur in a reverse form, such as different strengths of a firm which can be exploited abroad. Such as a firm which possesses patent rights regarding the production of a certain product may find more demand in a foreign market than its own parent nation. Hence, already existing firm advantages may facilitate a company to function more successfully in a foreign market.
13 February To what extent has Googles strategy been built upon a common set of resources and capabilities ratherthan specific customer needs? What are Googles principal resources and capabilities?
Due to volatile customer preferences and needs, established businesses worldwide are focusing more on strengthening their internal resources and capabilities. From a small web firm, Google Inc. has emerged as a dominant industry giant over the past 12 years. The firm is continuously adding up various internet services such as email, satellite maps, e-book libraries, word processor, photo management and telephony. Apart from being a search engine, these extensions reveal strong commitment of the firm to formulate its strategy on basis of resources and capabilities.
The estimated Google’s Brand equity was 25.6 in 2008, a 96% increase compared to 2007. Google’s set of available resources and capabilities enables it to build a strategy focused on company’s internal environment rather than following market trends. According to Robert Grant, “ When the external environment is in a state of flux, the firm itself, in terms of its bundle of resources and capabilities, may be a much more stable basis on which to define its identity”. The company is developing its advertising resources and generates around 99% of the revenue through advertising.
The prime resources and capabilities of Google Inc. include search engine differentiation, brand value, qualified workforce, innovative technology, culture, advertising, cost and speed, huge user-base and concentric diversification. Strategic partnerships and agreements with leading businesses allow Google to enhance active use of its resources and capabilities. The firm values its employees with a number of benefits, performance rewards and is also considering wide expansion to its current human resource.
As Grant notes, “The resources and capabilities of the firm form the foundation for building competitive edge”, Google is giving tough competition to its market rivals. However, there still exists a lot of room for improvement in Google’s common set of resources and capabilities as its revenue depends almost entirely on advertising and it also lacks a better understanding of the China market.
Grant, Robert. "Chapter 5: Analyzing Resources and Capabilities." Contemporary Strategy Analysis. 5th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, 2005. Print.
2500 At one point in the article, Honan talks about how he is going to go out of town and is debating about allowing his location to be tracked during this time period as it would make public that his wife would ultimately be alone for five days. His wife states at one point, “You’re not going to announce to everyone that you’re leaving town without me, are you? A lot of weirdos follow you online."(Honan). I couldn’t help but agree with his wife’s consensus. Although there might not be that many weirdos running around out there with the intent to hurt others, it is still scary to think that someone could easily find out where you are and that you had basically handed out this information voluntarily. In reading this article, I was impressed to see all of the capabilities of technology with apps such as iWant, GasBag, and Wiki me, but I also feel like there is an overload of it right now. A lot of these apps just don’t seem necessary and could end up causing more trouble than they are worth. By the end of the piece, Matthew Honan seems to agree with this somewhat when he nearly gets in a car crash because he was placing too much of his attention on his smart-phone and not enough attention on the road(Honan). I concluded from the article that with apps, the phrase “too much of a good thing” definitely applies.
Supreme Court of the US
The Fourth Amendment provides that:
“The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.”
It is clear from the wording and the tone that subtle of the very Amendment lies in the ‘reasonableness’ of the searches and seizures, put into context, and so has been affirm in Kyllo v. United States (535) among many cases preceding it touching on the same. It is evident from the very outset that the small, quiet city of Intrusia is indeed, in a state of panic. a state of affairs that the state is in fact responsible for – the protection of life. The suspicion that someone was selling methamphetamine illegally to the locals, more so to the underage [teenagers] and that and a popular life has been lost due to inappropriate use of the said chemical has been proved beyond doubt. I firm the legal principles that give the police department the right to protect life, people and their properties thereof. However, so must be done accordance to the constitution. In this very case, the state prosecutor advised the police department to talk with the local cell phone carrier about “cloning” the phone of a suspect, Mr. Doe’s, which was done, in effect, allowing the police to read text messages sent and received by Mr. Doe. In no time the police had evidence implicating Mr. Doe as a dealer and the location of the meth lab, leading to the accused being convicted and his meth lab being closed.
This case requires explicit legal based decision on whether the interception of Mr. Doe’s text messages via a cloned phone was but an unreasonable search and seizure, exceeding the provisions of the Fourth Amendment. It is important to note that though individual’s privacy is doubt fundamental in this case, the degree to which the principles of search and seizure, more so of crucial evidence, promotes legitimate collective interests must not be lost, for laws enjoyed by every citizen of this nation also carry certain responsibilities (Bond v United States 539).
Cell phones are important tools of communication, with criminal enterprises included in the same processes. Accordingly, valuable incriminating information can indeed be intercepted from dangerous criminals. To reiterate, the fundamental rights enumerate under the bill of rights have responsibilities for individuals enjoying, and so is the cost. That even though the search and seizure protections under the Fourth Amendment infringes on privacy of modern day cell phone use[s], specific exceptions may well still justify the same process without legal warrants that has been an important part of the amendment. “the exigencies of the situation” that makes it objectively and reasonably compelling for the law enforcement to conduct [a] warrantless search[es] (Katz v. United States 394). Such exigencies may include the prevention of imminent destruction of evidence, and/or the prevention of imminent [further] injury.
The limits of modern day technology is unimaginable, and so goes to the extent to what cell phones provides with regards to individuals privacies. The fact that criminals also employ technology in coordinating their activities is in itself make it less worthy of the protection of the Fourth amendment. The police must follow the law in their quest to protect the public — get a warrant before conducting any searches and/or seizures. I affirm Mr. Doe’s claim that the interception of text messages violated the unreasonable search and seizure protections of the Fourth Amendment, and hereby quash his conviction.
Bond v United States, 529 U.S. 334 (2000).
Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347 (1967).
Kyllo v. United States, 533 U.S. 27 (2001).
EMPOWERMENT PERCEPTIONS AND CONFLICT
In most organizations, conflicts arise when the employees state their demands for a certain position, recognition, appreciation, financial benefits and independence. The same concerns the management that faces conflicts with forces outside the organization, as government or unions do not often recognize and appreciate what leader of certain organization did. Conflict situations arise as a result of the different status employees have. For instance, management at higher levels of the organization feel resent about the change suggestions that the employees of lower levels propose. Such situations usually evoke conflict between the management and the employees, however it can be prevented by developing activities of tolerating suggestions, for example. In the organizations, conflict situations appear because of fear of power, force to do certain activities against the will of employees or fair attitude toward the employees (Richmond, Wagner &. McCroskey, n.d). The imaginary concern for a certain demonstration of power from the management side bears fear and thus conflict. Force to be involved in to any kind initiates lead to conflicts. Fair determines the moral values of every individual and can evoke conflict situation with the empowered person that is the management in the organization. Besides, differences in personality, perceptions and status of empowerment arise conflicts. Employee empowerment begins with the concept of strategic compatibility of staff and tasks, technology or the information processes, as well as rewards and the organization structure for which everything should be in accordance to ensure the effectiveness of work (Sahoo, Das, 2011). Communication gaps, personality differences, lack of cooperation and substandard performance of the leaders within certain organization can be misunderstood by its employees, thus provoke conflicts. Having different styles of leadership, principles and values that differ from the others employers risk to arise conflict situations with the employees. For instance, a risk- taking manager can be in conflict with a risk- minimizing manager as both have different principles of their work of the organization control and a well- being of the company. However, such strategies as changed styles, improved organizational practices and changes in roles and structure can help prevent conflicts within the organization (Conflict management, n.d.). In the situation with a risk- taking manager and a risk- minimizing supervisor, a conflict is in different approaches both use for the well- being of the organization. While the supervisor possesses the higher level in the organizational hierarchy, one can display the competing type of behavior. The supervisor is concerned more about personal goals rather than a concern for establishing good relationship with the specialist of the similar position. .On the contrary, the attitude of the risk- taking manager is more of collaborating behavior, as he/she searches for a mutual satisfactory solution and it involves high cooperation with the supervisor and low confrontation. Avoiding of the conflict resolve from the supervisor side will not lead to the conflict situation to resolve itself. .While supervisor due to the status within the organization does not recognize the way to find the solution of the conflict, the manager demonstrates the behavior of accommodating, which .is a search for common understanding of the situation. What is more important, both should find compromising, a mid- way solution, that will enable conflicting parties to become relatively equal in power and have mutual independent goals. Since avoiding conflict is one of the major responsibilities of high- level managers, it is their duty to create a healthy environment in the organization to ensure the effective working surrounding, which will avoid conflict situations.
The power relationships between the management and the employee compose an important aspect of the social environment for the employees inside the organization. Perception of power appears as a significant mediating variable for employee’s behavior and the main predictor variable of the employer’s commitment. Since most employees perceive power with an ability of an employer to move, persuade or encourage personnel or even threaten it or promise reward, they define it in a different way according to the situation they are involved into.
Conflict management, n.d., Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, Available from http://www.fao.org/docrep/w7504e/w7504e07.htm
Richmond, V., Wagner, J. &. McCroskey, J.., n.d., The Impact of perceptions of leadership style, use of power and conflict management style on organizational outcomes, Available from http://www.jamescmccroskey.com/publications/113.pdf
Sahoo, C. &. Das, S., 2011. Employee Empowerment: A Strategy towards Workplace Commitment, European Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 3, No.11
The facilities found in any room can be used as alternatives to the rapidly improving technology (Gee). For instance, a white board may be placed in a class room and this eliminates the need for PowerPoint presentations and the use of projectors. Chairs may be designed in such a way that there is storage at the bottom of each chair where one may place their belongings. This eliminates the need for cupboards. The use of hairs that can easily be folded and stored to create more space in the room may also be implemented (www.oecd.org). Teaching laboratories are essential in any learning institute. These laboratories must have a computers that belong to the facility as they tend to be interactive rooms. Mobile computer laboratories with network printers and wireless access point are employed here. Open laboratories are also required in cases where there is a one on one support. They are equipped with the same software as teaching laboratories and are usually rum by the student workers. In all these laboratories, the furniture should be movable so as to support various types of learning activities offered (Gee).
Classrooms should be designed according to the number of students at the institute. In rooms with more than fifty students the floors are designed in such a way that they are steeply sloped. This is to enable the students in the back to see over the heads of students in front. It should fitted with comfortable chairs, a white board or a projector to aid during teaching process. They should be designed in such a manner that allows the students to see both the board and the lecturer (Gee). The furniture in the lecture halls should be portable and can be easily reconfigured for various learning activities.
Lighting is very essential in any lecture room where a combination of both natural and artificial light may be implemented. The lighting should be such that it does not produce glare or hotspots on the white boards. Blinds can
Health and health deliverables have always been intrinsic part of the people and an important part of a country’s development policies. Through the times, people have been accessing healthcare through changing formats of social structure and advancement. The perspectives towards health have evolved through times. Different generations have accessed health in different ways. Hence, interview with three different generation vis-à-vis grandfather. father and child has been quite revealing. The elderly people of grandfather’s age were more conscious towards their health and relied on home based medication for treating ailments like common cold, fever etc. followed healthy lifestyle with outdoor activities and nutritious food habits. They mainly access healthcare through medical expenses and consult their local doctors. As part of baby boomers’ generation, their health related expenses are fully insured by state and Medicare takes care of it. They are satisfied because they find their doctors friendly who empowers them with information about illness so that they can take better prevention next time.
In the times of the fathers, life had become more hectic which left little time for outdoor activities. The technology had infiltrated all aspects of their personal and professional life. They access healthcare through local government clinic and specialist that have opted for in their health insurance. Most pertinently, healthcare deliverables had become market driven. Healthcare is purchased by individuals and employers from private agencies and insurers and not government. This segment is not satisfied as they could only opt for healthcare plans which they could afford and not what they actually required. It also meant that in cases of serious illness, their finances were stretched badly. For poor and marginalized population access to quality healthcare was limited due to lack of resources. Access to healthcare services was also tedious due to long queue and waiting. Access to healthcare services were accessed mainly by prior appointments with specialists and relied on strict medications for getting well. They were more resigned to higher cost of healthcare and had little faith in alternative medicines.
The current generation of people is technology driven but it also realizes the importance of holistic treatment. It believes in empowered decisions and therefore is more inclined to research the illnesses through internet. They access healthcare through local dispensary as well as consult specialist if the disease is complicated or new. They are also better placed financially and therefore are able to opt for health plans that suit them best. As such, they are able to select the best health consultant for their health related needs. They are satisfied with the payment arrangement which they share with their employers or pay fully from their pocket to the insurer. But poor people are hit hard due to escalating cost of healthcare deliverable and as such they are not satisfied. Most Interestingly thing about this generation is that are aware of socio environmental paradigms that are responsible for many of the serious diseases like cancer, mental stress etc. Thus, more and more people prefer alternative medicines or treatments like Yoga, meditation, homeopathy, naturopathy etc. to keep fit.
Rapid Freight Converged Network Security
Implementation of a converged network system is the key adjustment that the CIO of Rapid Freight should consider. The network system merges phone, voice, and data services under one platform. The network will boost portability of technology by enhancing the use of Personal Digital Assistants and soft phones. The network will also enable ease of monitoring all aspects of the organization while reducing challenges in security (Paul, 2011).
Implementation of the system introduces some security challenges. If a threat penetrates the network, it will easily infiltrate across the domain due to the single line flow. The challenges are both external and internal to the organization. External challenges arise from unauthorized software or data that seek entry into the organization’s domain. Internal challenges, on the other hand, can be either accidental or intentional. Accidentally, internal threats occur when people use their portable devices outside the network then plug them back in importing viruses and other malware. Some members of staff might be malicious and try to access unauthorized segments (Paul, 2011).
External threats are easily kept at bay through the implementation of firewalls. A firewall allows flow of data from known sources to the webserver or specified destination while rejecting unknown traffic. If the firewall is compromised, it severs the connecting of the system to the internet host. Notwithstanding, firewalls are not perfect and should not be used solely (Stewart, 2010).
Unified Access Control and Network Access Control ensure that device users are authorized to use the network. Account management system registers network users and signals any illegal activity. Coupled with Personalization, the intervention will keep the network safe from internal threats of any nature (Gregory, CISA, &. CISSP, 2007).
Implementing session management features such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) will overcome challenges posed by use of VoIP phones, Video conferencing and PDAs. IPSec VPN scrambles traffic from the phone and safely connects to the corporate network without fear of infiltration. Soft phone users will require authentication into the Converged network. Secure Socket Layer VPN (SSL VPN) ensures that users are logging in from healthy computers when accessing the network remotely. Intrusion Detection and Prevention software (IDS and IPS) will further enhance overall security by scanning entire network to identify and report signatures or suspicious traffic arrays (Gregory et al, 2007).
Figure 1. Security measures framework. This figure illustrates how various security measures will be incorporated into the proposed Converged Network
Gregory, P.H., CISA., &. CISSP. (2007). Converged Network Securities for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing Inc.
Paul, S. (2011). Digital Video Distribution in Broadband, Television, Mobile and Converged Networks: Trends, Challenges and Solutions. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing Inc.
Stewart, J. M. (2010). .Network security firewalls &. VPNs. Mississauga, Ont: Jones &. Bartlett Learning.
Driving Forces. What are the two most relevant driving forces from Table 3.2 for a firm with which you are familiar? Have these driving forces made the industry in which the firm operates more, or less, attractive? Explain your rationale.
Netflix is a company which has grown exponentially and is still showing a strong tendency of expanding. It started as a startup in 1997 and by 2007 it had delivered one billion DVD movies. The two major driving forces behind Netflix expansion are the emerging new internet capabilities and applications, and the changes in cost and efficiency.
Netflix started off with a novel approach to DVD movie rentals by letting customers rent for cheap as compared to its competitors like Blockbuster and more importantly it allowed its customers to keep the movie for as long as they wanted without any late fee penalties. It became an instant factor in its success. In today’s busy world the ease of keeping a rental movie without having to worry about late fee charged to the clients was a service that no other competitors of Netflix had thought of. This business recognized it and reaped tremendous financial rewards in the long term.
In the last few years Netflix again left its competitors far behind and even drove its major competition out of the market by simply recognizing and incorporating the Internet technology to its business. The streaming videos and the growing number of internet users was a factor which would influence almost all businesses if it has not already done so. Netflix allowed its subscribers to watch instant movies without having to pay any extra amount. This was a major boost to their business expansion and even took clients from cable where people had to pay extra to watch a new movie. The use of emerging internet technologies during this economic down turn gave Netflix an extra edge over its competition as its subscribers are paying for internet already and at a very low cost they can watch movies instantly without having to leave the comfort of their home.
Opportunity for Expansion. Should a business always expand if given the chance to do so? Think of a company that recently added one or more new businesses to the organization. Does the addition seem to be in line with the original mission, vision, and core competencies?
The three facts which the management needs to analyze are the current business situation, its future direction and the strategy to get there. The first most important factor is the realistic assessment of the present situation. Any shortcoming in analyzing the present will compromise all future strategies. It will take into account a business’ current performance, its strengths and weaknesses as well as the standing in the market vis-à-vis its competitors. The next factor which would allow managers to decide is the future direction. Without a clear goal for the future no solid strategy can be developed.
The expansion driven without any careful consideration of internal and external environmental factors leads to least beneficial results if not downright disastrous outcomes. So the decision to expand is not to be based on whether it has to be always done or not but rather it needs to be based on rational and analytical research of internal and external environment of the business as well as the market position of competitors.
Whole Foods is a business which started with a clear mission statement and always stuck to its original mission, vision and core competencies. On Whole Foods website it is clearly stated that their mission is to sell high quality natural and organic products and caring for the environment. It has stayed true to its core vision when it acquired Wild Oats Market. Though a complaint was lodged against this by stating that it would eliminate competition for Whole Foods and allow them to raise prices and reduce quality. But it has not happened and Whole Foods expanded their business without compromising its core values and vision.
Crafting and Executing Strategy, Quest for Competitive Advantage by Arthur A Thompson Jr.,A.J. Strickland III and John Gamble.
Technical Summary Objective The main objective of the research is to increase production capa for pandemic and seasonal influenza vaccines through a better technique other than the traditional one. The technique used is baculovirus-insect larvae system (the system consists of small living biofactories) to enhance the generation of recombinant influenza virus H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA). The traditional technique (embryonated hen’s egg technology) has its flaws, and this makes an ineffective method of addressing pandemic and seasonal influenza (Gomez-Casado 35).
The researchers used baculovirus-insect larvae system to enhance the generation of recombinant influenza virus H1N1 HA. Mouse-adapted H1N1 A/PR/8/34 strains were used for the study. Genomic RNA (full-length) was acquired by infecting MDCK cells. the procedure was done under biosafety level-2 conditions. pFBHAhisKDEL and pFBMelHAhis plasmids were used to produce the recombinant baculoviruses BacHAhisKDEL and BacMelHAhis using Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The instructions provided by the manufacturer of the system were strictly followed. Control used was baculovirus vector BacNI (this is a baculovirus, which has no foreign gene). There was propagation and amplification of the recombinant baculoviruses in Sf21 insect cells in order to attain infective titers of around 108 plaque-forming units (pfu) (Gomez-Casado 36).
Sf21 insect cells and the insect larvae (Trichoplusia ni) were infected using recombinant baculovirus dilution to attain the amount of pfu per dose required for each selection. Total soluble and non-denatured proteins (TSNDPs) were obtained through homogenization. these proteins were from baculoviruses infected T. ni larvae (Gomez-Casado 36). The proteins were prepared using various techniques for western blot (WB) assays and protein size determination. Recombinant HAhisKDEL protein purification from the infected larvae was done using Co2+-based immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) resins (Gomez-Casado 37). The response of HA-specific IgG (immunoglobin G) was measured using ELISA tests. Inhibition tests of hemagglutination were done for each of the duplicate based on instruction from the World Organization for Animal Health. Female mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were immunized and tested for virus challenge. The first group of mice (4) was immunized with TSNDP extract (containing HAhisKDEL protein) from the infected larvae. The second group (4 mice) was immunized with purified HAhisKDEL protein. Control group (3 mice) were immunized using TSNDP extract from the infected larvae containing the control baculovirus BacNI. The second control group (6 mice) was immunized using PBS (phosphate-buffered saline) (Gomez-Casado 37).
A comparison of HA protein generation yields for the insect larvae cultures and the recombinant baculoviruses in T. ni larvae were done. The results indicate that, in both production systems (Sf21 cells and HA in larvae), HA productivity was increased by the KDEL sequence. There was a 198 percent increase in larvae and a 298 percent increase in Sf21 cells in comparison with similar HA sequence lacking the KDEL retention signal. The comparison results indicate that insects can enhance HA productivity by around 400\, and 600 percent compared with “Sf21 cells for HAhisKDEL and MelHAhis proteins respectively, per biomass unit (1 g of fresh larvae)” (Gomez-Casado 39). The first group of mice immunized developed particular antibodies after the first dose of antigen. however, ELISA tests done after 365 days indicated a considerable decrease in the antibody titers after the last dose of immunization. The second group of mice also developed specific antibodies, but after three doses of immunizations, antibody titers were still high. All the control mice immunized lacked specific cross-reactive immune responses (Gomez-Casado 39).
Gomez-Casado, E., Gomez-Sebastian, S., Nunez, M. C., Lasa-Covarrubias, R., Martinez-Pulgarin, S. &. Escribano, J. M. “Insect Larvae Biofactories as A Platform for Influenza Vaccine Production.” Protein Expression and Purification 79 (2011): 35-43. Print.
In this technological world, there are many techniques that can be used to prevent pollutants from getting into the atmosphere (Nemerow, 1995). However, the big question remains whether this hi-tech technology can be used to ensure that there is zero pollution in the world. This paper sets out to determine how different industries prevent environmental pollution. I will also discuss the feasibility of zero pollution concepts in this paper.
The question of whether the world can exist with a state of zero pollution is one that has elicited a lot of reaction from different quarters. Many people might say that the level of pollution has risen to unmanageable levels which implies that such a state is only imaginary. It is known, for example, that the United States of America is the world’s largest energy consumer, most of its energy being derived from sources that are considered to be dirty. Some of these sources include natural gas, coal, oil, and nuclear energy, all of which lead to environmental pollution in one way or another. A significant portion of the energy used worldwide ends up being wasted through leaky windows, inefficient equipment or in one way or another. This wasted energy may also contribute to the pollution of the global environment. Other people have, against all odds, noted that zero pollution is achievable albeit at a significant cost and with considerable effort.
Different pollutants of the environments can pollute the air, soil or water. The industrial sector is one of the most notorious polluters of the environment. Most manufacturing, mining and utility industries normally emit toxic substances which end up choking the environment as noted by McKinney, Schoch and Yonavjak (2007). Pollution from different industries has led to global warming, which has in turn had a huge impact on climate change. However, different countries and organizations have been at the forefront
Interview: Changing Play with Someone 50+ Years I grew up in Dubai. Back in those days, everyone lived a Bedouin lifestyle, meaning there was nothing luxurious like television, electricity and or form of technology. I also was in a very large family of six siblings, of which I was the youngest, as well as my parents. Many of my cousins lived nearby so there was always someone to play with. Because girls did not go to school back then, I mostly helped my mother cook food or clean the house.
I remember some traditional games that I liked to play with my sisters and cousins. Some of these games are known today under different names because I can see my great grandchildren playing them but they use different names. I also did not go to school, but at age 5 and 6 I played many games, such as the Hunter (similar to hide and seek), Carrom (similar to snooker), marbles, and hopscotch. Because I did not go to school, I could only play games with the neighborhood kids. At home my sisters and my cousins all liked to play the Hunter game. But in the neighborhood, most kids either played marbles or hopscotch. I mostly liked playing with marbles. Also, the Carrom game was fun to play with the board. During my free time I would just help out around my home with any chores that needed doing. At home I would play with my sisters and cousins, but outside I would just play with the neighborhood kids. I was able to develop strong relationships with my relatives and also neighborhood kids because of playing these games with them. I think that the fun that I had contributed to the good relationships I had with many kids. Adults had no say in what we played because mostly the kids just came up with new ideas about what games to play. When I got married and moved to Egypt at the age of 14, I did not play as much as I used to when I was a child. Simple activities such as washing clothes and sweeping the house became normal to me.
I think that children play much differently today than when I was a child. Now there is more technology so kids don’t have to think too much about what games they can play. One bad thing about this is that it can cause tension among kids, which reduces friendships. Kids these days don’t talk as much when they play because they are always looking at a screen. When I was young, talking and telling stories was an important part of play. I wish that children these days would be required to use their brains more when it comes to play. Too many people have tried to make things easier for kids by not making them think first. I am proud of the games that I played as a kid, but more importantly I am thankful for the friendships that I made.
Boing 737 Manufacturing Footprint: The Wichita Decision The past few decades have seen the interesting trend of the commercial aircraft industry manufacturing operations shifting from vertical to horizontal integration with the major players choosing a structure they feel is best for them. This industry started with a vertically integrated airframe-manufacturing model with Boeing as the major commercial aircraft manufacturer. Airbus later joined the industry 20 years later also adapting the same platform and derivatives strategy. In as much as the as the industry was highly vertically integrated, these companies still sourced distinctive components from specialists such as Pratt and Whitney.
However, in the early 1990s many commercial aircraft manufacturers including Douglas Aircraft, McDonnell Aircraft, and Boeing switched to horizontal integration through mergers. The major drivers to this shift were technology that progressively became more specialized, costs of production using vertical integration became uncompetitive and the dire need for management efficiency. On the other hand, factors such as lower costs due to increased economies of scale and increased market power made Airbus maintain vertical integration.
Horizontal industry structure seems to be a benefit since it helped resuscitate Boeing that had stagnated after many years of vertical integration structure. It helped it install a lean system and clean up the production of the 737. The evolution of the auto industry is similar to that of the commercial aircraft industry. Major players in the industry have adopted the “lean production system”. However, competitive forces are far from being static, and hence vehicle manufacturers can no longer rely on excellence in production only (Shih and Pierson 2010).
Questions to ask
Should Airbus shift to horizontal integration in their manufacturing structure?
Should Boeing go ahead with the sale of Wichita Division? Why?
Shih, W., and Pierson, M. Boing 737 manufacturing footprint: The Wichita Decision. 2012. PDF file.
In the state of Michoacan, Mexico, relief, and slope were used to classify the landscape into different landforms such as plains, piedmonts, plateaus, hills, and sierras (Bocco et al. 2001). In the Oregon Coast Range, Roering et al. (2005) were able to distinguish a debris-flow terrain from a deep-seated landslide terrain by means of a topographic index determined by slope and curvature.
The applicability of morphological mapping depends on the scale and resolution of the elevation data and the scale of the features to be investigated. For example, a 1:50000 or 1:100000 topographic map may not be appropriate for studying the surface morphology of glacial moraines and ablation areas, thus the need to do topographic mapping at larger scales (Sharp 1984. Watanabe 1985). Conversely, the study of the continental- to global-scale topographic relief may prove too cumbersome if 1:50000 maps are used.
Computer technology has greatly improved the state of morphological mapping. The practice has been revolutionized by the digitization of elevation data, the increased processing capabilities of computers, and the development of various terrain analysis software. The increasing use of remotely-sensed images jointly with digital elevation data has further enhanced the discipline of morphological mapping (Florinsky 1998).
A plane table survey set-up consists of a drawing platform, a tripod, an alidade, and a device for measuring distances (Gillespie 1868. McCormac 2004). The platform is mounted on the tripod such that the former can be leveled and rotated. Paper for plotting is fixed on top of the platform. The alidade consists of a telescope mounted on a ruler such that a vertical plane contains both the edge of the ruler and the telescope’s line of sight. A vertical arc indicates the inclination of the telescope. With the alidade, a stadia rod can be used to measure distances. .
Modern-day information systems using information technology can be effectively utilized for this purpose if the organization and its management are capable and sincere. Privately owned organizations formed for profit have their own agenda which motivates its management and employees to effectively develop an effective information system. But in the case of government organizations, apart from capability, the elected body has to be sincere and motivated in order to effectively develop information systems that can provide valuable service to different sections of the society. Running a country with diverse cultures and races can be challenging and an effective information system can be invaluable in achieving all-round development. The study will focus on government organizations in Australia. It would be pertinent to define what a government organization with regard to the views of a government body in the country. According to The State Records Act 2000, of Western Australia, “government organizations include tertiary institutions, parliamentary departments, State and local government agencies and corporations, Royal Commissions, the Cabinet and the Executive Council, Ministers of the Crown, Courts, and Tribunals” (Henderson 2005). This definition will be taken as representative of such organizations in this paper.
This research proposal is for a study of the implementation of information systems in government organizations in Australia. The proposal will focus on the aboriginal population of the country and will focus on the service that the government provides to the Aboriginal community and how it impacts on them. It will also provide recommendations to improve information systems.
According to Jeffrey and Kentaro (2000), the social performance of a company is achieved through maintaining effective relationships, minimizing negative activities and creating a better environment. It can also be regarded as the benefits that a company spreads to its customers, employees and the community. Toyota is the third-largest automotive manufacturer in the world, the company mostly aims at selling, leasing and repairing auto motors. Christopher (2003) further claims that Toyota Company also deals in financial services especially through distribution to subsidiaries. Incorporate sustainability, the company is on the lead among all other automotive companies. Christopher (2003) describes that recently the company set its vision for 2010 which involves increasing its market share to about 15 percent which is currently at 10 percent. This strategy of expanding its share is incorporated within the provision of a good environment which is aimed at capturing a bigger percentage (Marr 2009).
One competitive advantage that the company has is its stable capital structure which will enable the implementation of the desired plans and aggressively improve its technology for instance in carbon emission. Vella (2006) describes that the challenge of climate change has resulted in the introduction of electric cars and this shows that the company will position itself better in the market due to its unique competitive advantage. Abuelsamid (2008) shows other advantages that the company has effective operations and increased eco-efficiency. It also has the best supply chain globally. The company, on the other hand, has some challenges facing it, for example, the fact that it rarely concentrates on social issues affecting it.
According to Lasic and Fackler (2008) production has reduced around the world and if the government would introduce economic stimulus efforts then this will increase growth. One major challenge affecting the sustainability of the companies involved in the automotive industry includes global climate change.
61500 The theory of dependence emerged with the writings of Baran. In his work, Baran made a division of the world into capitalist and underdeveloped economies. He tried to emphasize the interrelation between development and underdevelopment processes in a world-centered approach. He was the first one to mention the technology and international division of labor as the major determinants of the famous center (developed) and periphery (underdeveloped) approach. This theory argues that in this relationship the center produces for itself and the periphery and the periphery produces mainly for the center. In the periphery, there is the existence of a large subsistence sector. According to the dependency explained by Baran, the stagnation in the periphery is the result of the emergence of global capitalism. The process of development is supposed to be related to capital accumulation, which is actually dependent upon surplus extraction. According to Baran, in the process of global trade the underdeveloped. .The competitive advantage approach draws its strength from the fact that firms have a place of importance rather than nations. However, this theory does not make the nation insignificant either. The success of the nation depends on the success of the firms producing a particular product. The increasing level of outsourcing in recent times especially the US firms outsourcing to India, prove the validity of his theory. The development of the modern day’s MNCs has led to another form of trade known as firm trade where exchanges take place within firms.