Young Offenders Criminals or Victims

Until a few decades ago, only adult individuals of the society were victims of this social evil. however, recent studies have indicated the existence of adolescent offenders in developing, as well as developed parts of the world that are carrying out criminal activities like robbery, theft, rape, and even murders. In the United Kingdom, any individual falling below the age group of 18 years and above 12 years of age who carries out any criminal offense, he/she becomes a juvenile offender, and number of such young offenders is increasing every year that has enforced experts to identify and recognize factors that are causing such inefficiencies in the society.&nbsp.

It is imperative for a study to identify objectives along with a defined purpose statement, a lack of focused objectives often causes incompetent results, as well as misuse of resources. It is anticipation that the outcomes of the proposed research will facilitate the researcher to identify different factors related to young offenders and circumstances that enforce them to involve in such unconstructive activities in society.

In addition, the proposed study foresees a wide-ranging analysis of different studies related to the identified purpose statement that will enable the researcher in deciding the status of young offenders as victims or as criminals. Furthermore, the proposed research will endeavor to identify flaws in the UK Justice System that are responsible for the existence of young offenders in the region. Lastly, the proposed study is expecting to obtain identification of possible solutions that can contribute to eliminating different factors related to young offenders in the UK.

Few experts (Wolfgang &amp. Johnston, pp. 56-63, 1962) have specified that crimes are the outcomes of unpleasant social circumstances.&nbsp. Pleasure or personal satisfaction is not always the cause of criminal activities, and sometimes, unconstructive circumstances enforce individuals to commit criminal activities, (Caldwell, pp. 30-32, 2002) and thus, the criminal is not always the cause, but can be the victim as well.&nbsp.&nbsp.

What does Malinowskis classic study of the Kula Ring suggest about ways in which commodities can be used as tools for expressing social and cultural identity How have subsequent anthropological studies challenged or supported his ideas

The participants of this ceremony travel hundreds of miles in canoes in order to exchange shell necklaces and armbands, natively called soulava and mwali respectively. These ceremonial gifts are always circulated in opposite directions, i.e. necklaces are circulated clockwise while armbands, on the other hand, circulate anticlockwise (Zeigler, 2012, p.15).
Kula is a highly complicated institution involving strict rules regarding traditional transactions, as well as elaborated magical rituals and ceremonies held on public level. However, the gifts exchanged are not in any way considered valuable in its worth, though these gifts were treasured as a connection to social circles. Kula involves a number of classes of gifts that defines one’s social status and ranking. Kula ring can somewhat be regarded as a trade but here an individual gives away an item of greater value as compared to what he receives (MacLeod &amp. Scott, 2001. O’Neill, 2008).
The debate regarding the Kula ceremony of exchanging “useless” things as gifts and economic trade of “useful” commodities has paved way for a number of complex economic models. However, Kula, in its essence, is a trade system which is developed and strengthened by the ceremonial gift exchanges. Kula helps in paving way for commodities trade by nourishing peaceful social relations among the villages whose individuals take part in the ceremony.
In the course of Kula expeditions, smooth trade of commodities and utilitarian items takes place as the individuals travelling for Kula exchange are accompanied by their village or tribe people for the very purpose of carrying out trade. Therefore, the Kula exchangers act as ambassadors of peaceful social community and trade system. The trade goods are shipped back and forth in the course of Kula gift exchange. However, the trade never takes place between the Kula partners but the trade only takes

Law dis6

Commercial Loan Law discussion 6 Assume you are responsible for approving commercial loans at a bank where you are a senior lending official. You are approached by two hospitality college graduates, each with three years management experience acquired after they completed their studies. They are seeking a loan slightly in excess of $1 million to establish a restaurant in the community. The funds will be used to lease land, facilities, and equipment as well as for renovation, inventory, salaries, and other start-up costs.
a. Will the organization structure selected by the partners have an impact on you decision to extend the loan?
The organizational structure is the bedrock for operating procedures and also determines those involved in making of major decisions. It is these decisions that lead to success or failure of the business hence its ability to offset the loan. The organization structure is therefore an important factor to consider when deciding about the loan.
b. What type of organizational structure would you want to see?
A Pre-bureaucratic structure would be best as the business is medium-sized, requires limited specialization and the structures allows for quicker decisions which are imperative in a restaurant business.
c. What other factors would influence your decision?
How realistic and achievable the business plan is, the borrowing history of the partners, the values of the collateral provided by the partners, the ability of the partners to offset the loan in the period provided should the business fail and the ability of the guarantors, if any, to offset the loan should the partners fail to do so.
d. Would it make a difference to you if the partners were requesting the loan to complete a franchise agreement with an established and successful franchisor?
The nature of the business would make a considerable difference. In a franchise, there are less teething problems as the brand name is already established. The business model is already tested as the franchisor is successful. However on the considerations, one must appreciate that the decision making of the entrepreneurs is limited as the franchisor has a significant say in the operation of the business hence their growth may be limited to a certain level.
e. What information would you want to see from the franchise relationship to help you make your decision?
The amount of fees to be paid to the franchisor as royalty as well as what the franchisee is to pay as training and advisory fees. The fees should not be too large as to hinder leave too little money for the daily operations of the business. Another factor to consider is the role in decision making of the franchisor which should not be too large and the duration of time that the franchise is supposed to take place. The creditor ought also to consider the business format- whether trade name franchising or business format franchising
f. What information (franchise relationship) is required by law?
The Franchise Disclosure Document (FDD) which should be made available to the franchisee by the franchisor, two weeks before payment of any fees. The document contains agreements made by the two parties on terms of the franchise including the fees.
g. What additional information might you request if the partners were seeking the loan to operate as an independent restaurant?
The intended location of the restaurant and the reason for choice of the location and the projected income from the restaurant.
h. Would it matter if the loan were for an existing restaurant, as opposed to a new start-up?
It would have a significant effect on the decision to lend if the restaurant is existing since its solvency can be determined as opposed to a new restaurant. It can also be evaluated if the management system of the hotel is working as opposed to a new restaurant. Generally, there is lower risk lending to an existing business than a new start up.
Works cited
Starting and Managing a Business: Franchise Business sba.gov/content/franchise-businesses. Web. 28 Aug 2006.

EMBA London Program at The University of Chicago

I am interested in pursuing an EMBA because throughout history businesses have always existed. These businesses have existed by trading off merchandise and/or by exchanging merchandise for currency. In this case, the merchandise is the technology service. Since then the manner of making business transactions have evolved to include technology. Although technology is a mechanism of performing business transactions more rapidly, we should not forget to maintain the human element vivid in them.
I want to master my skills in business administration since throughout history it has to lead to economic empowerment for many corporations and countries. Having this economic crisis vivid in our daily lives makes the seeking of new strategies and venues a must, to help get out of this magnificent rut. Forming part of your institution of higher learning will give me more insights on how I may make contributions in this area as an expert with the help of the expertise and experiences of your faculty members. I have had close to a decade (?) of experience in this area of business administration and I have had to make decisions that have been crucial to obtaining successful business transactions results.
In business, it is not a good idea to make decisions on a trial and error basis. The bottom line of an entrepreneurial ship is to be on the cost/effective side of the spectrum (the bottom line of a financial statement.
By obtaining an EMBA at The University of Chicago Booth School of Business, will give me ample information gathered by international experts and it will give me the opportunity to make decisions based on others´ experiences that have had positive and negative results. In doing so, I will be able to apply strategies and methodologies to make successful business transaction decisions based on others´ experiences and based on the case studies presented in classes.

New Holiday Package for Explore in Tourism Industry

Explore Worldwide Ltd. is an adventure tour company which was established in 1981. Explore is not just a market leader but it is the most popular adventure tourism company in the UK. Explore offers various torus packages such as short breaks, family adventures, cycle tours, tailor-made tours, etc. Explore has organized 40,000 tours until now and offers 400 tours across 120 countries.
As mentioned above the tourism industry is growing at a rapid rate and hence there is tremendous competition. Explore’s competitors are not just local and national but also international tourism companies. This is because of the niche that Explore has established over the years by organizing tours to international tourists and has been able to build a loyal customer base. This is evident from the fact that there has been an increase in the number of trips booked by the same tourist groups. The various competitors of Explore in the UK are Diamond Travel, Thomas Cook, Exodus, First Choice, The Adventure Company, etc. There are various international tourism companies that compete with Explore but they all can not be analyzed in general as the competition in the international market is destination-oriented.
In recent years adventure tourism has grown at a fast rate and is one of the primary categories in the tourism market. This has been supported by various researches. A study by National Geographic and TIA suggested that 20% of the total leisure market is occupied by active or adventure travel (Heyniger, 2006). It was revealed in 2001 (The Mintel Report) that 25% of total European tour packages were accounted for by adventure torus. The study also found out that there were a total of 443,000 adventure holidays per year. It is estimated by the Travel Industry Association of America that adventure tourism is growing at a rate of 10%. Various studies have thrown light on the fact that there is an increase in the number of women who are taking up adventure tourism (Heyniger, 2006).&nbsp.

The Arms Race’s and Space Race’s Impact Politics and Culture

Beginning with the basic arms race this paper will present studies that show the technological and educational benefits of the race to arm the nations. The full effect of the national mobilization, in both countries, was a unique and monumental undertaking that served to provide the technical knowledge that led to the staggering innovations of the subsequent generation. Proving that the benefits ran far beyond the military application, this study will confirm that argument that the 1950s, in specific, marked a turning point in military ingenuity and upper-tier scientific exploration. Directly accompanying this rise in technology was the fundamental fact that better education was needed to further any significant works.
Birthed of the military’s need for expertise in new and still developing fields of research this study presents arguments that define the effect that needs to be had on the education system of an entire nation. With new demands and ever-increasing competition from the Soviet Union, the American education system underwent a substantial upgrade. Such an accomplishment, while made for sake of the brief military need, still serves to provide educated students for a still warring world.
Alongside the Military buildup of the 1950s, the Space Race helped to define the pride and determination of a nation. In direct competition with the U.S.S.R., American Space technology was thrust into the mainstream of society. Unknown and unremarkable scientists became national heroes and figures of consequence nearly overnight. By proving that the need for the American culture to feel triumphant helped to fuel the drive to space, this research will link the importance of the Space race to the cultural development in the decade of 1950 – 1960 and well beyond. By providing a point of national pride with which an entire population could not only rally around but hold up as role models and heroes, the Space Race provided an outlet for the pent up frustrations&nbsp.that were left simmering from the Second World War.&nbsp.&nbsp.

The Importance of Renewable Resource Over Fossil Fuels

In the same measure, fossil fuels also form a significant component of energy sources. Fossil fuel includes coal, natural gas, and oil. They form from organic material decay. Nonetheless, fossil fuels are non-renewable, as they will run out with time. The widespread use and preference for the two energy sources facilitate debates about their sustainability based on several factors like environment and health issues. The debates, in turn, facilitate studies about the significance of renewable energy and fossil fuels. Therefore, this work majorly focuses on the importance of renewable resources over fossil fuels.
As highlighted above, renewable is the perfect solution to global energy challenges. Its advantages over other energy sources define the strengths and benefits it offers the final users and the environment. First, renewable energy sources are gifts of nature. Therefore, they are found everywhere in unlimited quantities depending on the time of the day and the season of the year (Dave 2013). The sun, wind, and water are freely available for harnessing through appropriate technologies since their products do not entail any cost. The sources are more reliable and more resilient. Renewable energy covers more land, unlike fossil fuel machines. The distribution can take place over a large geographical area. The modular systems have each solar panel and windmill in different arrays and in high numbers that make them efficient (Dave 2013). When encountered in awful weather conditions renewable energy has better chances of surviving than its compotators. The use of fossil fuels like coal, natural gas, and nuclear power requires a large amount of water for cooling. Regions with no water or more periods of drafts put electricity generation at risk. When it comes to water supply solar photovoltaic systems and wind systems, do not intend to use it.
Second, renewable energy is a self-sustaining source of energy. There&nbsp.is the sustainability of energy from the sun, water, and wind. The energy has an infinity of sustainability, and we will never run out of the source of power.

Why I Want to Be a Students of Boston University

To be included in the roster of Boston is both an honor and a privilege. It is at this time my greatest aspiration to be accepted in the university. Suffice to say that Boston University’s reputation as a premier educational institution precedes itself. Its status is not only limited to its reputable academic foundation but it is also considered among the top research institutions in the world. This proves that importance it allocates to further study is among the reason to its success. In my research regarding the university, what impressed me the most was its rank as among the top 10 IS departments in the United States by the Wall Street Journal. The business program, especially its Executive MBA course, is proven to be globally competitive that manifests in the real world.
My background as a Korean compels that I should attain a degree that would serve me well when I finish my undergraduate course whether I decide to build a career here or anywhere else in the world. Given the chance to be a part of the school’s glorious tradition, I hope to be able to contribute to its goal that includes research to attain academic excellence. I am certain that I would be able to offer diversity that may be an edge for me as I delve into the field of Information Technology. Given that this is correlated with the university’s business program, I will b able to master my proficiency in my chosen field. The scope of what Boston University offers to their undergraduate students in my main motivation for wanting to enroll in the institution.
The goal of the department in its aim “to understand the impact and implications of information systems and technology on business strategy, processes and operations” imparts a wide array of educational competence for its students. It is a multifaceted program that is not only focused on one aspect but also includes other areas that will prove to be very useful in my future. In the possibility that I become a bona fide student of Boston University, I want to take full advantage of this opportunity to master the area of Information Technology as it relates to business. The possibility of partaking in the university’s long-standing tradition of research pre-eminence would be a tremendous honor in my part.
My diligence as a student would be the virtue that I would want to exercise as a part of the institution’s population. This, coupled with my instinctive interest would be what I would want to achieve in my undergraduate studies. I know that despite the difficulties that I would face in my study, granted the fact that I am a foreign student, I hope to utilize this diversity to my full advantage. I only wish to prove myself as a valuable part of Boston University in my probable future as one of its students.

Outline chapter(4)

BOOK CHAPTER OUTLINE Insert In a whole perspective approach, Hattie observes education as a comprehensive and dynamic process. Thisis made possible through the comparison with various fields formerly advanced. Such fields include medicine, agricultural knowledge, which agreeably dates quite earlier than the formalized civilization brought about by education.
To achieve this consequentially, Hattie argues based on fundamental approaches. First, he presents a set of findings as guidelines to the criterion that must be established in order to achieve the most benefiting education practice. This is explained through the relationship of various effects that may accrue, from the innumerable studies that have been conducted. This means that sophisticated approaches have been bore during the past several decades that help in understanding effects.
Next, Hattie sub-groups these consequences into various sub categories in order to understand the specification criterion that best explains the entire effect. For instance, he disintegrates the schooling process into components like students, the process of teaching and learning, other co-curriculum activities, the teachers in charge, the curriculum being used, stakeholders partaking the schooling process, just to mention but a few. With such sub divisions, they can be well understood in this individualized content. This just explains what begets the dynamic perspective of the schooling process.
Hattie then establishes a measurement criterion for the varied observations made from the individualized sub groups. This enables them to be categorized in order of effect such that others are ranked as extreme, while others as mild.
In general, the chapter outlines the individualized as well as the generalized perspective research methodologies encompassed in the learning process. A myriad of methodologies are explained and recommended as pertaining to any education process which, as a matter of fact, is complex.
Reference
Hattie, J. A. C. (2012) Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. New York, Routledge.

The Development of a Child

The developmental process can be boosted or nurtured by manipulating various events during prenatal life, and physical, social, cultural, learning and emotional areas through environmental stimuli as suggested by some theorists (Ashford et al., 2001). Holistic development of the child is the integrated approach of nurturing the child’s all-round developmental progress. The developmental domains should be gazed and grasped carefully to understand the overall growth of the child. This helps in unfolding abilities of each child. Then, accordingly, efforts should be made so that, the child is encouraged to learn and evolve. Bringing together all the development aspects, lead to a flowering of a child. Another important angle to study developmental process is to address issues such as developmental delay. The study of typical chronological ages associated with specific physical and mental capabilities help in the prevention of an early intervention in developmental delay. The development studies are focused on issues related to physical and motor development, social and emotional development, cognitive development, etc. Therefore, development is a cumulative effect of all the developmental stages and domain. The growth of the child should be healthy and appropriate in each developmental sphere. Though the developmental timelines can vary greatly from child to child, it gives the overall picture of growth chart (von Hahn, 2005a). Various aspects of holistic development like physical, emotional, intellectual, social, moral, cultural, and spiritual are interwoven (Meggitt, 2006). The different dimensions of the development are blended in individual’s personality and behavior. Functions related to these domains, work as a whole coordinated system in the human being.
Motor skills are the abilities required in order to mobilize muscles of the body.

Discuss the impact of LUNG DISEASE (excluding that caused by asbestos) in the workplace

Though the air we inhale contains mostly oxygen and nitrogen, it also has things that can damage the lungs. Bacteria, viruses, tobacco smoke, car exhaust, and other pollutants ate present abundantly in air.
People with lung disease have difficulty in normal breathing. These breathing problems may prevent the body from getting enough oxygen. It is not a surprise that people with lung disease find it difficult to work as normal people, walk and swim, run or does any other work as normal person. This paper discusses the impact of lung disease in the workplace.
By understanding some basics about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its symptoms, it is possible to analyses its impact on the every day work or its impact on the workplace. COPD is a condition in which the air passages are damaged, leading to shortness of breath and increased coughing. Emphysema and chronic bronchitis are forms of COPD. In the case of emphysema, the lung’s air sacs loose their elasticity. As a result of this the exchange of oxygen to carbon dioxide becomes very difficult. Additionally, the air sacs are often damaged, leaving fewer of them to do the work. These factors result in the shortness of breath and make it very difficult for a person to perform normal work.
Chronic bronchitis is another form of COPD. In this case the small airways within the lungs become inflamed and harden over time. Besides the cilia which are the small protective hairs that clear mucus also losses its effectiveness and the mucus glands enlarge. The narrowed airways together with increased mucus cause congestion and coughing and make it more difficult to breathe. There are many who have both emphysema as well as chronic bronchitis. Most people with these diseases find breathing trouble to be the most problematic among the symptoms (Wilkinson, 2002).
According to studies it is said that COPD is the only primary cause of death that is ever-increasing in occurrence. Even though it is a well known

Examine the importance of avoiding plagiarism

There are many universities that have proper academic guidelines regarding rules of properly citing the sources taken from various journals, books, or websites.
Higher educational studies are a very critical stage for the students and this phase is the starting point for building the career for individuals. They need to pass this phase with good grades for attaining future achievements. Due to being in such a critical stage of studies, there are many cases of plagiarism detected amongst students of higher educational studies. This paper discusses the importance of avoiding plagiarism by all individuals in the academic learning environment.
The world we are residing in is the information age where the amount of information available for the general community is there in abundance and also is free of charge. It is extremely easy to plagiarise the work of others due to easy availability and accessibility of the work. There are many research papers available online for users and students who want to copy the work do it from these online sources and other research databases as well.
Nonetheless, it is extremely important to avoid plagiarising the work of what other authors have done. By plagiarising, the individual is violating the legal laws of the research work or paper and also the individual is considered to be involved in unethical practices. It is highly unethical act to regard someone else’s work as one’s own. By not acknowledging the person via the right reference techniques, the individual is taking the credit of the work. Some students take the aspect of acknowledging sources is to copy paste the work of the author and then write the name of the author in brackets. This again is not the right of acknowledging anyone’s work and would be regarded as plagiarised work.
There have been many research studies conducted that

Pricing Policy in British Industry

Under limit pricing, the mark-up of the price of an average cost is decided by the height of barriers to entry in a market (Sawyer 2005, pg 99). In both cases, companies do not achieve prices that are predicted by pricing theories due to a lack of information. Instead, predicted prices may be viewed as the desired state that businesses seek to attain due to the fact that such prices would further their objectives for profit maximization. It follows then that actual prices are occasionally above and below the corresponding predicted prices (Sawyer 2005, pg 99).
In his study, Skinner (1970) posited that it was clear that cost-plus pricing is fairly widely used in the British industry. Though the question remains regarding whether the mark-up is modified for changes in demand and in the actions of competitors (Skinner 1970). He argued that although 70 percent of companies claimed to use cost-plus pricing, there was significant emphasis on fixing prices to competition and demand (Skinner 1970).
In their study, Coutts, Godley, and Nordhaus (1978) studied six two-digit level manufacturing industries in Britain and found that a predicted price predicated upon a constant mark-up over normalized costs was highly correlated with actual prices. Though they found that demand factors did not have a significant impact on prices, there was strong evidence that the profit margin declined during the time of the study (Coutts, Godley and Nordhaus 1978).
In a later study, Sawyer (1983) associated changes in price to cost changes of material inputs and of labor and toward demand factors for 40 three-digit industries in the UK. His results suggested that price changes that are relative to cost changes are not significantly influenced by short-run fluctuations in demand (Sawyer 1983).
These studies suggest that output price changes are strongly correlated with changes in input price (Sawyer 2005, pg 101).&nbsp.

The Specific Scenario of British Petroleum

This event is investigated in light of the company’s behavior post the oil spill and their consequent reaction in front of the press and as expressed in their annual reports. More specifically, this paper looks at how BP’s reaction post the disastrous oil spill ties in with the theories about company behavior.
There is extensive secondary research that discusses company behavior and explains how and why a company might behave in certain specific situations. According to the legitimacy theory, an organization only acts according to the behavior that is deemed correct and wanted by society it operates in and as deemed fit by other potentially influential parties. the actions performed by the company should thus be ‘socially acceptable’ otherwise the company will have trouble operating in a society that thinks of it as ‘unethical’, ‘immoral’ or ‘unable to comply with social norms or requirements’ and will be fast rolling downhill on its way to failure. (O’Donovan, 2002, p.344). Results of some empirical researches confirm the legitimacy theory (Branco and Rodrigues, 2006, p.232. Deegan et al., 2002, p.312) while on the other hand, some scholars and their studies outright reject the concept put forward by the legitimacy theory (Guthrie and Parker, 1989, p.343).
According to research, the stakeholder theory explains how a company may be portrayed with regards to the internal relations between different units and individuals that comprise it and that this may manipulate the firm’s performance. According to this theory, the company’s stakeholders include not only shareholders but also other groups such as employees, suppliers, society, etc that have an inherent stake in how the company performs. (Freeman et al., 2010, p.28. Jones, 1995, p.407). critics of the stakeholder theory say that the nature of the relationships between the management and investors are always different from the nature of the associations&nbsp.between the management and other stakeholder groups mentioned. and thus this theory cannot fully elucidate the company’s actions in a specific situation because it has to factor in the management’s response in order to satisfy the shareholder and the response in order to satisfy other stakeholder groups and it is unclear which response the company will ultimately opt for.&nbsp.

A Variety of Research Methods for Studying Responses to Romance

Positivists assume that a fixed measurable reality exists external to people (Glesne, 1999). On the other hand, qualitative methods are generally supported by the interpretive (also referred to as constructivist) who portrays the world in which reality is socially constructed, complex, and ever-changing. Each represents a fundamentally different inquiry paradigm and researcher actions are based on the underlying assumptions of each paradigm.

The non-experimental studies used a variety of research methods such as observations, interviews, survey, questionnaires, etc. The data for these studies were mostly the responses of participants and self-reports and were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The wealth of research on various topics on romance provided a credible backdrop for the analysis of data.

Glesne (1999) states that qualitative researchers seek out a variety of perspectives. they do not reduce the multiple interpretations to a norm. She adds that in qualitative research, face-to-face interactions are the predominant distinctive feature and also the basis for its most common problem. Such a problem she states includes researchers’ involvement with the people they study and the accompanying challenges and opportunities that such closeness brings.

Straus and Corbin (1990) claim that qualitative methods can be used to better understand any phenomenon about which little is yet known. They can also be used to gain new perspectives on things about which much is already known or to gain more in-depth information that may be difficult to convey quantitatively, or where the researcher has determined that quantitative measures cannot adequately describe or interpret a situation.

Effect of Education to Special Children

Generally and grammatically, inclusion is generally defined as “the state of being included” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary). Though this term is more widely used in the realms of education, the term is also used in the area of disability rights and in the field of taxonomy. However, this paper will only focus on the inclusion regarding education.
According to the Wisconsin Educational Association Council (2007), “inclusion remains a controversial concept in education because it relates to educational and social values, as well as to our sense of individual worth.” Generally, people who have other disabilities have not been able to attend regular classes due to there their physical or mental deficiencies, thus creating an atmosphere of being secluded from the public and suffer from social stress and personal development.
However, as years pass by, laws were created to supervise the possibility of these children having lessons inside a comfortable environment where they could undertake their education. It was the law called LRE (Least Restrictive Environment), which made way for special children to be placed in regular classes instead of having special classes which have been the traditional training for these atypical students.
Several studies served as the backbone of this law and it quickly gained support in the year the 1930s, when it was established, and in the year 1960s, when the rapid growth was formally announced as a breaking away from the traditional segregated self-piece practices (Dunn, 1968. Johnson 1962. Kirk 1964. Quay 1963). It was the concept of LRE that led way to the development of other laws such as IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Educational Act) which took care in improving the rights of special children in education so that they could experience a normal lifestyle as far as possible.
The aim of this paper is to explore the various possibilities in which inclusive education for special children can be attained. It will cover the pros and cons of being in inclusive education. It will also feature the outcomes of the surveys conducted&nbsp.about special education programs.&nbsp. The end result should prove that the inclusion of special need children in education is better for the special need child.

Corporate Social Responsibility of Marine Organisations

Entities such as the Business for Social Responsibility and The Business Enterprise Trust in the United States of the Centre for Tomorrow’s Company and Business in the Community in Britain have synthesized empirical data along this area.
For instance, the Centre for Tomorrow’s Company – whose own special conceptualization of corporate social responsibility initiatives it tagged the ‘inclusive approach’ has the following to say:
At the very least, the research supports the view that the inclusive approach, while serving shareholders’ interests, particularly in the long-term, does lead to business success as a result of improved customer satisfaction, greater commitment on the part of the employees, a more effective supply chain, and an enhanced reputation in the community at large (Centre for Tomorrow’s Success, 1998).
Over the past decade, a growing number of companies have recognized that the business benefits of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and practices. Their experiences are bolstered by a growing body of empirical studies which demonstrate that CSR has a positive impact on business economic performance, and is not harmful to shareholder value (www.bsr.org).
The evidence stacks up to the point where any reasonable person must begin to ask what more might be required to demonstrate a binding cause and effect relationship between increased competitiveness and environmentally and socially responsible behavior (Committee of Inquiry Report to the British Government, 1999).
Society’s preoccupation with the social responsibility of organizations has existed since at least the early 1930s and probably even before this period. The infamous Dodd-Berle correspondence in the Harvard Law Review in 1931-32 is conventionally depicted as launching the academic-CSR debate (Wells, n.d.).

Makers Women Who Make America

Lecturer Makers: Women Who Make America Makers: Women Who Make America represent the documentary film that illustrates women equality struggles in the United States. The women equality struggles are illustrated based on happenings in the late 20th century (Last five decades) (Groer 8). Meryl Streep narrated the film, and Public Broadcasting service distributed the film. as a three part television documentary covering three hours, in February 2013. The film comprises interview sessions with women from every social class. For example, political personalities like Hillary Clinton, and television stars like Oprah Winfrey.
The first section of the film illustrates the 1950s and the 1960s. this is referred to as awakening. This builds on the impact of The Feminine Mystic developed by Betty Friedan in 1963. and illustrates significance of women in America. Katherine Wsitzer, a college student, participates in the Boston Marathon, and hence challenges the competition’s ban on women participants. The second part, referred to as “changing the world” happens during the 1970s. The part discusses sexual revolution and also the abortion debate. The third aspect of the film illustrates women events in the 1980s and the 1990s. The issues discussed in this part include. violence against women, sexual harassment, women workforce, and the Supreme Court nomination of Clarence Thomas (Groer 12).
Betty Friedan influence development of the second wave feminism. She questioned the notion that women should be contended with being a wife and mother (Rose 26). The housewives hence realized that doing housework is not entirely fulfilling. Marlo Thomas played the character, in 1966, of Ann Marie in That Girl. The ABC series represented the first American Sitcom that illustrated an independent single woman. Katherine Switzer, a student at Syracuse University in 1967, had an interest in participating in athletics. However. the college did not have a female track team. Switzer was inspired to participate in the Boston Marathon, by men’s coach. Women were not encouraged to take part in long distance running. This is due to the concerns that running damages reproductive organs of females. Switzer registered for the competition as K. V. Switzer, thereby challenging the all male criteria in athletics. Gloria Steinem illustrated that huge societal change is illustrated when majority of individuals realize that inequality is unjust, and that individual talents exists in all human beings.
Through the powerful and intimate interviews with women achievers, known or unknown, the viewers are given great illustrations on opinions or views of women pioneers in the specified fields (Groer 45). Directed by America’s major independent film makers, Makers generates new life and great unforgettable experiences that every person, male or female, should understand.
PBS announced, on 21st January 2014, six episode series of Makers Season 2. Each episode illustrates different career fields, with examples of women pursuing those fields (Rose 18). The series is expected to premier, 30st September 2014. Each episode studies the effects of women’s movement in six major fields previously closed to women. These fields are. politics, space, Hollywood, comedy, war, and business.
Works Cited
Groer, Annie. "Fifty years of feminism in Makers: Women Who Make America". The Washington Post. February 25, 2013.
Rose, Charlie. "Makers: Women Who Make America". Charlie Rose. February 25, 2013. Print.

The Changes In The Use Of Buildings In Manchester

61500 The city features a lot of famous buildings and landmarks including its palatial mills, warehouses, libraries, churches and other historical landmarks. The city of Manchester is also accredited to be the city from where the Industrial Revolution initiated. The city’s buildings have displayed an immense show of power, politics and wealth. The banking halls featured in the famous King Street simply go on to show reflect what’s just mentioned above by its large and well-furnished banking halls which were built during the Victorian era. Everything changes with time and so has the building landscape of Manchester. The twentieth century saw the grown of what’s referred to as the “modern day Mexico”. Recognizing the importance of studies, the Central Reference Library was built on Saint Peter’s Street, aiming to provide students and old aged people a good place to study and increase their knowledge about things. Focusing on civic amenities of the metropolitan, the Town Hall Extensions were also developed with an aim to provide people places where they can head out to. Throughout the years the Manchester City Council has played a very active and important role in maintaining the old buildings of the city alongside constructing new ones. The citizens of Manchester take very much pride to be associated with in a city whose council has not just maintained old buildings and preserved the heritage of the city, but utilized them in such a manner that their existence is utilized to their full capacity. The once famous Corn Exchange has now become a Triangle, the famous Joshua Hoyle’s warehouse situated in Piccadilly has been converted into the classy Malmaison Hotel and the Watts Warehouse has been converted into a glamorous hotel.

Assignment 1 Ethics Terminology Assignment 2 Ethics

Assignment Ethics Terminology Conflict of interest: It describes a situation of a person or a corporation where personal interests compete with professional values and responsibilities. For example, a human resource officer responsible for recruitment hires a person because of his friendship with him.
Corporate accountability: It refers to the responsibility of an organization towards its stakeholders, which include shareholders, customers, employees, etc. For example, it is the corporate responsibility of a company to provide quality customer support even after the sale has taken place.
Corporate culture: It is the mixture of beliefs and values of an organization which gives rise to a unique professional atmosphere. A company which allows freedom to choose working hours can be said to have a positive corporate culture.
Fraud: It is the act of cheating for the sake of monetary gain. For example, a manager is indulged in fraud if he ‘runs’ off with the investor’s money.
Whistleblower: A person who exposes wrongdoings within an organization to the public or to a higher authority with the aim of stopping it. Whistle blowers yearn to uncover illegal activities like ‘wiki leaks’ owner has acted as a whistleblower for the US army.
Transparency: The term applies to openness and truthfulness of a business in its communication and dealings. A company or a business follows transparency if they make their end-year financial statements without hiding any facts.
Kickback: Giving money or something of value to a person to garner a favorable decision. A food company may pay a large sum of money to a person from the government quality department who will aid in providing the company with certification despite its using unethical ways of manufacturing.
Assignment 2:
1.&nbsp.What&nbsp.should&nbsp.Chantale&nbsp.do?
Chantale is faced with the dilemma of either keeping quiet to keep her job or speak out about the unethical practice. She should first make sure that she is not over reacting to the situation. She should do a research by talking to people from medical field about dangers of such little quantities of waste. If she is convinced that the company is indeed following unethical practices, she should talk to her seniors and try to convince them against it. If the move fails, she should tell his friend about it who can bring this issue into light through his newspaper.
2.&nbsp.What&nbsp.are&nbsp.the&nbsp.reasonable&nbsp.limits&nbsp.on&nbsp.loyalty&nbsp.to&nbsp.ones&nbsp.employer?&nbsp.
Loyalty of an employee is all about working diligently for the betterment of the company but that does not imply that a person will stand by the company even if it employs unethical practices.
3.&nbsp.Would&nbsp.it&nbsp.make&nbsp.a&nbsp.difference&nbsp.if&nbsp.Chantale&nbsp.had&nbsp.a&nbsp.position&nbsp.of&nbsp.greater&nbsp.authority?&nbsp.
Yes I think it would make a difference. Chantale is a person who seems to care a lot about public interests. With a position of greater authority, she would certainly have made every effort to put an end to such activity.
4.&nbsp.Would&nbsp.it&nbsp.make&nbsp.a&nbsp.difference&nbsp.if&nbsp.Chantale&nbsp.had&nbsp.scientific&nbsp.expertise?
It would have helped Chantale in deciding whether this action was putting anyone in danger. Toxicities are present in everything around us but they only pose a danger if they are above certain levels. Having knowledge about these levels and the type of waste that is being dumped would certainly have helped her decide whether to pursue the matter further or not.
Works Cited
The case of Avco Environmental. (n.d.). Business Ethics Case Studies Whistleblowing and the Environment: .

The Educational Part Of The Life

The Educational Part Of The Life
I am a 50 years old father, and a husband with four children and currently one daughter is an undergraduate in the medical school. In the recent past, I had devoted my life to business and served as an NA at a local hospital of which I have quit and sold my business in order to focus on my studies. My life has been tough in that, I have learnt to do everything with care and hard work. Though I never finished my high school in good terms, I have managed to provide for my family and even gone for further studies in the university am currently attending.
The experience gained as a businessman, an NA in a local hospital, a nontraditional student and the knowledge I will gain from the studies will greatly boost my own aspiration in becoming that person I had dreamt to be since my junior years. I have been able to tackle life challenges and at the same time handling family matters in every way.
My academic life will improve significantly in line with achieving a change in how l view life. Throughout my life, I have embraced time management and realism in engaging all sets of psychological thinking to motivate young people in working hard and be determined as life offers chances but only patience and courage will make one break through.
Not having an educational base really broke many of my achievements during the junior youth years but luckily made it through investing in both business and learning at the same time. This opportunity offered me the best managerial skills and planning in that, every resource within my reach is well utilized to benefit my life that of my family and society.
I have finished my high school at the age of 47, being the oldest student in class, everybody could think of the laxity and backsliding but I shocked everybody to having come out victorious and even advanced my studies to becoming a nurse. This motivation and achievement will build a solid foundation towards mentoring other nontraditional students that learning is a life-long process and anybody can achieve it at any level regardless of age and it will positively encourage my children to follow my footsteps to culminate the aspect of hard life in future. As a professional nurse, my past experience will make my working more interesting because I will have the fore-knowledge towards tackling situational crisis and managing available resources to benefit every citizen regardless of social class.
It will be with regards that I be offered the scholarship to further my studies in provision that throughout my life I have struggled to accomplish my dream in career and goal achievement. Currently, I have an obligation as a father and at the same time a student. Having closed my business and quit the NA position, it will be challenging to pay tuition fees for my children at elementary level to college level, at the same time provide basic needs for them and cater for my education.
The scholarship offer will greatly be a show to the society especially to the nontraditional students that there is always a way and learning requires space and time to be accomplished. With all the devotions experienced in life, I am affirmed that the results to my Master’s degree in Nursing will change the face of the society and that of my family. Having difficulties in finishing high school due to financial constraints, I wish to engage all my efforts in my studies and that’s why solely my mind has got the right direction to pursue MDN though the scholarship offer.
I am determined to helping others in the society accomplish their goals so that they will not get into the same situation I was in while in school. Receiving the scholarship will instill credibility and as well sound as a form of reward to my hard work recognition to an extent of empowering my personality as a father and a professional in the field of nursing.

What was the impact of Soviets and American policies on the Middle East

The impact is usually characterised as the Israeli-Arab conflict which is not only attributed to super and world power intervention during the Second World War, but perpetuated and exacerbated by US and Soviet intervention during the Cold War Era (Azar, Jureidini &amp. McLaurin, 1978). During the period from the Second World War to the end of the Cold War, the Middle East has been a cauldron of tensions and conflicts with major conflicts primarily concentrated around the Israeli-Arab conflict (Shlaim, 1996). Using the balance of power theory, this paper will analyse how and to what extent US and Soviet policies in the Middle East produced and/or contributed to these conflicts. These conflicts are arguably the main impact of US and Soviet policies in the Middle East.
The classical balance of power theory argues that states align their allies and interests in the creation of an international system that ensures that no state is possessed of “overwhelming power” or dominancy over other states (Chatterjee, 1972, p. 51). The modified version of the balance of power theory is more appropriate to studies of Soviet and US relations and their policies in the Middle East. In this modified version of the balance of power theory, each of the super powers aligned their allies and interest in the Middle East as a means of preventing the spread and influence of the other super power in the region and globally (Walt, 1985).
Under the modified version of the balance of power theory, competing states respond to one another in that when one state pursues hegemony aggressively through alignment with other states, the competing state will attempt to match that aggressive alignment (Walt, 1985). The US and the Soviet Union persistently attempted to “balance against aggregate power” (Walt, 1985, p. 35). As Walt (1985) explained, the US and the USSR saw each other as the “other’s greatest potential threat” and devoted their

German Debate Ignores Need for Educated Immigrants

Back in 1961, Germany and Turkey signed an agreement to bring thousands of Turkish Gastabeiterto work in the coal mines and steel factories. This provided inexpensive labour supply that has helped Germany’s booming post-war economy. Presently, the Turkish are regarded as the largest ethnic minority in the country. A debate on whether to integrate them in the education system is a pressing issue that has seen Chancellor Angela Merkel be intermittently changing her take on the issue. One day, she is in support of the Turks and seemed to embrace immigration but on another day, she condemns it. The cultural and economic problems of integration for immigrants from Turkey have been deemed to have an overall negative effect on the social and economic levels on the countries that accept them.
Seehofer and Merkel are clearly aware that the public is against more immigration in Germany and more so, by the Turks. Merkel remarks are ambiguous as she is seen to attempt to calm down or sooth the electorate while leading her party to more contemporary positions. Over one million people migrate to Germany fifteen years ago and by last year it had reduced to 721,000. Numerous students that were well educated tend to return to the origin countries after they have completed their studies. This is a clear indication that Germany is no longer an immigration country but, an emigration one.
Despite the fact that Germany has greatly benefited from the hardworking immigrants from North Africa and Turkey, there was minimal effort to incorporate into Germany society. There have thorough immigration requirements that have focused on basic knowledge values of the German Society edging out many people. An anachronistic remark was made by Merkel after her dismissal of a multicultural society terming them as Multikulti. This is clear proof that past events that took place still hold deep meaning in their policies. However, this should not be the case in modern society.

Hematological Pathologies

Microcytic anemia- This is a hematological pathology associated with a decrease in the level of hemoglobin in the blood. The disease is characterized by a decrease in the size of red blood cells resulting in a Mean Cell Volume less than 80femtoliters. The cells are also hypochromic and paler than in the physiological state.
Hemolytic anemia- This is a pathological condition associated with the decrease in the number of red blood cells due to the disruption of erythropoiesis and erythrocyte destruction. This is mainly prominent in the bone marrow.
Pernicious anemia- This is a pathological condition associated with a decrease in the number of erythrocytes due to the insufficiency of vitamin B12, which in turn results in the reduced production of erythrocytes.
Erythropoiesis- This refers to the procedures involved in the formation of erythrocytes.
Reticulocytes- These are immature erythrocytes which comprise approximately 1% of RBCs in the blood.
Which illnesses are associated with blood loss- Anemia can occur due to blood loss in cases such as hemorrhoids, ulcers, cancer or gastritis.
How do malabsorptive disorders contribute to the development of anemias- Malabsorption disorders are also involved in the pathogenesis of anemia due to decrease or faulty production of red blood cells. An example is Iron deficiency anemia, whereby disruption of absorption in the duodenum may lead to a decrease in hemoglobin production as this mineral is necessary for this procedure. This, in turn, will result in decreased Hb levels and anemia. Absorptive disorders may also disrupt the uptake of folate and vitamin B12 which are both necessary for erythropoiesis.
What is “anemia of chronic disease”- Anemia of chronic disease refers to any long term disease leading to inflammatory, malignant or infectious processes that reduce both erythropoietin and Iron levels. In addition, these diseases reduce the lifespan of erythrocytes. Examples of such pathologies include severe trauma, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus and heart disease.
What are some of the lab tests used to evaluate anemia of chronic disease- Lab tests used to evaluate anemia of chronic disease include Iron panel, serum folic acid and vitamin B12, serum AST and ALT, levels of TSH, electrophoretic studies of urine and serum and serum levels of metals such as arsenic and lead.
How can medications cause anemia?- The usage of NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and aspirin may lead to gastritis and ulcers which in turn result in blood causing anemia.
Distinguish between the following types of anemia-including symptoms-
1. Iron deficiency anemia-This is anemia due to faulty or decreased erythropiesis. The body has insufficient Iron, hence cannot synthesize hemoglobin. This anemia is often normocytic or microcytic and is also hypochromic. Symptoms include pallor, fatigue, loss appetite, irritability.
2. B-12 deficiency- This leads to megaloblastic anemia. And is often associated with loss of gastric cells, unlike Iron deficiency which involves disorders of the duodenum. This type of anemia is macrocytic. The main distinguishing sign of this disease is Hunter’s glottitis. Other symptoms include malaise, depression, brittle nails, fatigue and weight loss.
3. Folate deficiency-This disease is a result of malabsorption of folate which can be due to kidney pathologies or alcoholism. This disease is also macrocytic and when suspected it is also necessary to check for levels of vitamin B12. Symptoms of the disease include weight loss, amnesia, presyncope and malaise.

Barriers Excluded Groups Face

In most cases, people with disabilities may have barriers to participation in some aspects as they have activity limitations or some forms of impairments (Schumm and Stoltzfus, 2011, p. 94). However, dynamics in their living environment including perceptions of people who live among them, the constructed environment as well as the manner in which social institutions have been framed may also function as obstacles to participation The people with disabilities have a lower likelihood of getting employment compared to other people in the wider population while at the same time getting lower incomes forcing them to rely on the people who care for them (Grosh, 2008, p. 345). Personal networks have become important in terms of supporting the integration of people who live with disabilities into the broader community. Studies and anecdotal evidence from various areas have suggested that particular communities have a lower likelihood of participating in recreation activities in comparison to the other members of the community (Jarvis, 2009, p. 92). Additionally, a lot of attention has been focused on coming up with projects that will inspire participation but there have been fewer efforts to identify the people who exclude themselves (Awortwi, 2012, p. 89)

Numerous major barriers affect the people who are part of underrepresented and excluded groups especially those with disabilities. This includes challenges with the transport system since there is a general lack of regular and public transportation services, especially in rural areas (DeVault, 2008, p. 90). This poses problems for individuals who are affected by limited mobility in terms of accessing various forms of transportation such as taxis and buses. The people with disabilities also have to deal with issues of attitude as barriers to their participation and it is clear that some providers including parents and caregivers have negative attitudes towards some of the people with disabilities along with other people who are considered to belong to excluded groups.

The Connection Between Events in Scott Fitzgerald’s Life with Situations in The Great Gatsby

Fitzgerald&nbsp.was sent to the Newman School in New Jersey in 1911. Father Sigourney Fay in this school recognized his literary talents and encouraged him to work for distinctive achievements in life. The guidance provided by Father Fay proved to be the foundation of his scholarly accomplishments later in life.
For receiving college education he was sent to the prestigious Princeton University. He was fascinated by the aristocracy and the royal charm of this place. Here, he took great pride in his literary pursuits but he was not attentive and serious towards his academic studies. He contributed regularly to the Princeton Tiger humor magazine and also composed lyrics for the Princeton Triangle Club.
Fitzgerald joined the army in 1917 as he was convinced that he will not be able to graduate. He continued to nurture his intellectual interests. He wrote his first novel ‘The Romantic Egotist’ this year only. The novel was rejected by Charles Scribner’s Sons but interestingly they praised the novel’s originality. The writer in him got the impetus to work harder on it.
Meanwhile, he was commissioned at Camp Sheridan which was located near Alabama. He was a young lad at this juncture of life who fell in love for Zelda Sayre who was a celebrated belle. He was discharged by the Army in 1919 and went to New York to try his luck in the advertisement business as his love Zelda was not happy with his small earnings. He was also ambitious for achieving distinguished success in life and in his efforts to achieve this he re-wrote his novel but it was rejected for the second time by the Scribners. He was not successful in his advertising venture as well. Unwilling to continue with him Zelda broke her engagement with him. Disappointed he returned from New York in 1919 and decided to re-write his novel.

Environmental Studies Energy Policy

In the gameplay, there are various missions that can be undertaken to save the world. The fuel crisis is particularly interesting. the primary objective of the mission is to save the world from this crisis up to the year 2120 with hope still intact. However the player might lose the game if global warming goes above three degrees, the global human development index should not fall below 0.5 and one must not lose control of the GEQ HQ region. The difficulty of the game highlights the difficulties that governments face today. It aims to motivate people to make changes in fuel consumption so that they experience a better future (Fate of the World: Tipping Point, 2015).

The background of the game is based on the year 2010 where through a decade of economic uncertainty. A period of growing civil unrest the world is experiencing the most erratic patterns of whether that has ever been experienced. There are various adverse effects of global warming with cyclones being experienced. The melting of northern and southern ice caps has had its effects, threatening the extinction of the polar bears. Islands such as the Maldives have admitted that they might have to migrate their citizens and are calling for world leaders to check on the climate change (Fate of the World: Tipping Point, 2015).

At the start of the game, the population is increasing, and temperature changes are being experienced there is also the melting of the ice caps. The north is melting more than the south. My first strategy is to reduce carbon emissions because they contribute profoundly to global warming. The biggest contributors to the carbon emissions are North America, Europe, China, East Asia, and Oceania. The recruitment of agents is crucial in these critical areas, and strategy is chosen for the area in question. All the strategies have their consequences that are listed. To stop global warming, I chose different strategies for different zones.

Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education Internal Controls

Pennsylvania System of Higher Education Internal Controls Affiliation: Describe four key aspects of the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Educations (PASSHE) internal environment including internal processes, leadership, structure and culture. Explain why and how each affects the strategic planning process.
Pennsylvania State System of Higher Educations (PASSHE) is one of the largest providers of education in Pennsylvania with fourteen universities and four branch campuses. Its leadership can be said to be the core foundation of PASSHE with a chancellor and a board of governors not to mention presidents of the universities in their different locations. The leadership is composed of qualified people both academically and management wise and hence will not only provide new aspect academically but also ensure that the management system is coordinated which leads to effective planning.
The structure of PASSHE comprises of the board of governors, the chancellor, the 14 presidents of the universities and 14 councils of trustees each representing the 14 universities. The board of governors which is made of 20 members is the one that makes the final decision and this prevents power being vested in one person only (the chancellor). The structure also permits decentralization of decisions and resources and hence making planning easier and faster.
The culture of PASSHE is mostly derived from the mission statement which is to provide instructions to graduate and undergraduate students beyond even the master’s level and in the fields of arts, sciences and even applied fields. It is this mission that has ensured its sole culture is furthering education and professionalism. It is the strict following of this mission that has led to PASSHE having even over 600,000 alumni, an increase in the universities and even an introduction of new studies.
The internal processes of PASSHE include the governance of the employees, students and facilities. The smooth running of these areas is what makes the institution achieve its commonwealth standards. If one of these areas and their processes fails to work or slows down, then the rest will also be affected because these internal processes are interdependent. Planning therefore must involve these areas simultaneously.
The same simultaneous involvement of these key aspects of PASSHE must be ensured during planning if the current standards of the state education system are to be maintained and even increased.
References
http://www.passhe.edu/Pages/default.aspx

The history and developmental advances of beta blockers

Drugs exerting antagonistic effects at sympathetic nerve endings are called sympatholytics. Similarly the neurotransmitter of the Parasympathetic system is Acetyl choline. Drugs accordingly are called parasympathomimetics/lytics. Both these neurotransmitters exert their specific action by interacting with target cells on specialized cellular sites called receptors. The original concept of receptor sites was introduced independently by Ehrlich and Langley as early as the late nineteenth century. It is now well established that receptors are part of macromolecular complexes on effector cells with which drug molecules interact to produce effects. Isolation and characterization of receptors has been done by radioligand binding studies. The receptors of the sympathetic system have been broadly classified into α and β receptors with further sub classifications. Similarly the receptors of the parasympathetic system have been broadly classified as muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. Medical interventions have been designed during the course of research in therapy whereby either mimicking or antagonizing the role of these neurotransmitters has been exploited for beneficial effects.
β blockers are the drugs or molecules which block the action of Noradrenalin on the β receptors which has a very specific role to play in maintaining physiological equilibrium in the body. β receptors are present throughout specialized cells in the body and play important roles in physiological function. They are predominant in cardiac cells, small coronary vessels, smooth muscles like trachea, bronchi, blood vessels, intestines, vas deferens, liver, diaphragmatic striated muscles, uterus and non innervated tissues like erythrocytes, lymphocytes, mast cells and polymorphonuclear leucocytes. The type of β receptors in different organs are

United Technologies Corporation

United Technologies Corporation What happens to training and development efforts in the midst of a downsizing of this magnitude? Downsizing creates an element of uncertainty among employees, they are not sure about their future with the organization and so training and development efforts do not prove as much affective in such a scenario. Moreover, from organizational perspective, massive downsizing wastes much of the training and development efforts and costs already incurred on the employees which are later laid-off.
2. Will employees take advantage of a tuition reimbursement program such as the one described in the Case Study during a restructuring? Why?
No, employees will not take advantage of tuition reimbursement program in such a scenario because due to low morale and element of uncertainty they will not be motivated towards further studies, moreover as they know that in the case of being laid-off they will have to bear the burden of tuition fees by themselves, so they will not take advantage of such a facility.
3. What happens to employees who are laid off at the time they are taking college classes?
Economic burden doubles for the employees who are laid off at the time they are taking college classes because not only they have to lose their source of earning but also have to pay their college fees afterwards.
4. Can Pratt &amp. Whitney (and UTC) maintain their commitment to tuition reimbursement in such an environment?
They should discontinue rendering this facility until the period of restructuring completes (but should continue for the employees who are already enrolled under this facility)

Does US Seek Hegemony over Asia

Does US Seek Hegemony over Asia
The America’s objective is to promote peace, encourage prosperity and sustain freedom The US leadership mainly focuses on maintaining an international system that respects the rule of law. However, achieving a complete Asia Concerts of powers will be difficult. It is argued that the outcome of the terrorist attack of September 11, in United States crucially tampered the evidence of US foreign policy. In this new era, it is argued that everything has been subjected to the so-called war on terror. This has overridden the previous foreign policy that had focused on maintaining a categorical position of hegemony all over the world. It is evident from the official statement that US continues to play a great role to ensure a stable balance in Asia. The America’s political, economic and diplomatic leadership enhances global freedom, peace and prosperity. US have acknowledged the fact that maintaining order in Asia will be a complex task given the great distances (Glaser, 2011).
United States concerns about Asian stability are guaranteed. In using the history of 20th-century guide, Washington will continue dealing with Asian-Pacific. US have an issue dealing with China as it has become a rising power. However, United States is seeking to face China has a rising economic and military power in Asia-Pacific. The United States president has promised to make their missions and presence in Asia-Pacific the top most priority. After the president announcement, approximately 500 US troops were said to be deployed to Australia. The US is foreseeing a growing threat of its hegemony from China. America’s tactical moves to Asia are aimed at pinning down China as well as counterbalancing its development (Glaser, 2011). The US economic and hegemony in Asia-Pacific has triggered concerns about national security. United States has established a key military base in Japan, South Korea, Philippines, Thailand, Guam, Singapore and now Australia. The former Defense Secretary of United States spoke at the International Institute of Strategic Studies conference and said that US is aiming at maintaining a robust US military in Asia. The US is taking measures that help them overcome the area denial scenarios and anti-access that US faces in Asia, which restricts America’s from accessing strategic resources and markets. United States believes that its hegemony in Asia will deter and defeat the potential rivals.
The US has tried to be part of the Territorial disputes China has had with Taiwan and Philippines, over the islands in the South China Sea. The robust military presence of US reduces the chances of territorial and sovereignty disputes that may disturb the regional security. For instance, US was committed to Taiwan since 1950, whereby US prevented Beijing from launching a total invasion of Taiwan. Currently, a kindly America hegemon triumphs in Asia-Pacific and is crucial in controlling the economic and strategic environment. From an empirical view, American hegemony finds silent and widespread support in the Asian region. This support is mostly from the Association of Southern Asian Nations states which perceive US presence important to counteract the China irredentism or recovery of Japanese militarism (Glaser, 2011). The only way to sustain US presence in Asia is by accepting instead of challenging actual hegemony. Since the establishment of the United States, the idea of hegemony has sat restlessly with American perception. To control the China’s competitiveness in the Asia –Pacific region, US has been creating trade deals with the Asians regions that offer the America’s associates some trading privileges that do not extend to China.
Reference
Glaser, J. (2011, November 17). US Seeks to Maintain Hegemony in Asia-Pacific. Retrieved
May 7, 2015, from http://news.antiwar.com/2011/11/17/us-seeks-to-maintain-hegemony-in-asia-pacific/

Inadequate Staffing Ratios in Nursing

Inadequate Staffing Ratios in Nursing
Inadequate Staffing Ratios in nursing is a major problem facing the healthcare field today. Over the past years hospitals have recorded high vacancy rates of registered nurses (RNs). Nursing shortage "reflects fundamental changes in population demographics, career expectations, work attitudes and worker dissatisfaction" according to the American Hospital Association. This situation is not expected to get any better soon even as research conducted by the federal government warn of a possible increase to about 800,000 or 29% by 2020. This comes at a time when the demand for nurses is on rise and is in fact expected to take a 40% rise.
There is a growing concern over this issue considering the fact that many solutions offered depict some weaknesses. Fist, the decision to increase nurse ratio has been linked to struggles between cost benefit and cost effectiveness. Studies conducted by Reiter et al (2012), to reveal the financial performance encompassing the direct cost of nursing leaves a lot to tell. According to his research about 80% of this performance equaled the remunerations and benefits, 44% comprised inpatient care costs, and 30% reflected hospital expenditures. Given this data one can easily deduce why the state government is struggling with insufficient budget to support adequate nurse to patient ratios.
Secondly, there an increased uncertainty on how new healthcare reform will affect ratios. Reiter, Harless and Mark (2012) study on California’s assembly bill (AB394), showed an increase of 20% daily nursing hours and estimated its cost to be about $168,000 to $2.3 over the following five years. With such costs, the general public (the patients included) is expected to pay heavily if this ratio is to be met.
Finally, there is increased concern for the lower number of graduate from the nursing program. Medical schools across the nation depicted low student registration, a factor that has been linked to the current problems facing the nursing field. This deficit is made even worse considering the fact that a large segment of the nursing workforce is nearing retirement age.
References
Reiter, K. L., Harless, D. W., Pink, G. H., &amp. Mark, B. A. (2011). Minimum Nurse Staffing Legislation and the Financial Performance of California Hospitals. Health Services Research, 56, n/a-n/a.

Police Field Training Officer Program

Started by San Jose police department, FTO is a Field Police Training program that provides practical training to new police graduates. The aim of this program is to provide on-filed training to newly graduated police officers to make them apply their knowledge and skills in real life police practices. The training helps graduates become accustomed with the requirements of practical policing. In the FTO program, the officers are assigned to experienced training Officers for on-field training and evaluation that lasts up to 17 weeks. “The FTO Program is also responsible for coordinating and conducting the POST mandated 40 hr. Field Training Officer Seminar for all new field training officers and sergeants” (San Jose Police Department [SJPD], 2012).
The sergeants and field-training officers not only train new police graduates but also assess their on-field performances to certify them for solo patrol duty. The training program helps graduates become solo beat officers at the end of the 17-weeks training. Upon completion of the training program, each graduate is asked to work under supervision of a patrol team for further evaluation. This is known as the probationary period for new officers. This is the time when sergeants evaluate the performance of their assigned graduate officers once in every two weeks. At the end of the probationary period, the top authorities of the FTO program calls each of the officers for a formal oral board assessment to know their individual performances as solo beat officers. The officers who show acceptable performances and meet all performance standards get the opportunity to work as permanent employees.
In the FTO program, supervisors explain the performance rating criteria to graduate officers to make them aware of what they need to do to achieve their permanent positions in the police department. Officers in FTO program need to meet the set of performance standards in order to be known as a solo patrol duty officer (SJPD, 2012). They not only need to show at least an above-standard performance on two successive evaluations but also need to be approved by at least two of their recent sergeants before being certified for their permanent positions in the police department. Candidates have to show at least above standard performance in the 16-hours per month training sessions.
The program does not seem to be to affecting the affirmative action efforts because it is designed to make officers aware of their on-field job responsibilities, as well as to make them perform in a real environment. There is nothing negative regarding this program as it is aimed towards the establishing peace in the society. The program trains new officers in practical environment to prepare them for their roles as solo patrol duty officers.
To make the FTO program workable and beneficial for newly graduate officers, authorities need to overcome some key barriers, such as, lack of proper funding, lack of community support towards on-training officers, and lack of interest of new officers as many of them want to join the police department upon completion of their studies without training.
References
San Jose Police Department. (2012). Field Training and Evaluation Program — Purpose and Description. Retrieved from http://www.sjpd.org/BFO/FieldTraining/

Treatment of Pancreatic Insufficiency due to Cystic Fibrosis

61500 The pancreas is definitely affected by CF. Aside from the proper breakdown of insulin, the pancreas is responsible for the production of digestive enzymes that help break down ingested food. An inability to do this is known as exocrine pancreatic inefficiency, which is another serious condition brought about by CF. EPI is also characterized by an “impaired digestion and decreased absorption of nutrients,” both of which leading to poor nutritional status among those with CF. There are also other symptoms of EPI that include pain, bloating, flatus, steatorrhea, and malabsorption. Although EPI is common in dogs, it occasionally occurs in humans through CF and Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome. For those with EPI due to CF, studies have shown that the best solution is pancreatic enzyme products, or PEP. The pancreatic enzyme product, or PEP, known as EUR-1008, or Zenpep pancrelipase, has been proven to be an effective treatment against EPI in patients with CF (Wooldridge et al., 2009). EUR-1008 is in the form of “enteric-coated microspheres of porcine enzyme concentrate” occurring in capsule form that can be orally administered, and available in 5000, 10000, 15000 or 20000 units. Treatment using EUR-1008 was administered to confirmed CF patients who were diagnosed with EPI and who were both less than and more than 7 years of age. The diet of the patients was also controlled and was required to maintain a minimum of 100g of fat. The experimental study yielded positive results in terms of the positive changes in the coefficient of fat absorption, or CFA, in the coefficient of nitrogen absorption, or CNA, and in the alleviation of the signs and symptoms of malabsorption of food. The data for CFA and CAN were measured using a 72-hour stool sample. The significantly higher mean for both CFA and CAN compared to placebo trials proved the effectiveness of EUR-1008 in the treatment of EPI caused by CF. There were also noteworthy physiological changes in the patients that included improvements in the vital signs, weight, BMI, and QOL assessments which proved better than before the administration of EUR-1008. Moreover, EUR-1008 had no known adverse effects reported during the study and was also well-tolerated and safe. The best thing about it is that it proved to be efficient in patients of all ages (Wooldridge et al., 2009). As EPI was positively dealt with by EUR-1008 in patients of all ages, it can also be treated using pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy, or PERT, in children with CF and aged 7 to 11 years old (Graff et al., 2010). PERT consisted of the administration of “pancrelipase delayed-release 12,000-lipase unit capsules” to the children (Graff et al., 2010). Since the study was conducted across 10 health centers in the United States, there was a strict daily monitoring of the symptoms and dietary intake by properly trained staff. Among the 16 patients who completed the experimental study, all had improved CFA and CNA values compared with placebo trials. CFA for the PERT capsules had values of 82.8% while placebo had only 47.4%. CNA for PERT capsules were recorded at 80.3% compared to placebo values at 45.0%, thus obviously proving that PERT was indeed effective in the treatment of EPI in children with CF. Moreover, aside from the improvements in CFA and CNA, there

INTERVIEW NOTES AND ANALYSIS

Client admits value of therapist taking her in a step-by-step process to organize her goals and problems. Therapist reinforced client’s realization that the angry emails are untrue, and undescriptive of her character. Therapist encourages client to break down her objectives into manageable pieces. Therapist acknowledges that the necessary skills are within the client, and to not forget.
TREATMENT OUTLINE
The treatment plan employed by the therapist in question was centered around permitting the client to fully express their own needs and desires, while providing a gentle encouragement towards the purpose of goal setting. The posture used is encouraging and supportive, displaying a willingness to listen and a personal availability on behalf of the therapist. In part, the strategy employed is a similar to Egan’s model of the skilled helper. But there is a sense that certain important details may have been left out of the video recording.
But overall the therapist appears interested and attentive towards the needs of the client, guiding her towards self-empowerment in regards to addressing the problems, and planning for the future. Planning in particular appears to be integral to the overall treatment strategy. This session is less about unraveling a particular psychological condition and more about helping the patient take charge of their own life.
The environment is supportive of the recovery process. The room appears to be small and enclosed, and likely has been used for some educational purpose, or similar counseling settings. The setting is unlikely to contain problematic distractions, and has a ‘cozy’ feel. This lead to a subconscious impression of security or protection, and should prove a benefit to the session except in cases of extreme, clinical claustrophobia. CRITICAL EVALUATION In regards to the first patient, the divorced mother attempting to reunite with her daughter in Australia, her initial written comments as described in the report suggest issues with self-esteem. It is important to delve deeply into the mindset of the patient, in order to get at the root causes of self esteem deficiencies. And also to identify instances of the irrational thinking by the client that may serve to gratify a neurotic tendency, but is ultimately self defeating. It speaks well of the therapist who is able to procure an acknowledgment that those criticizing the client have a weak position. It is encouraging that with respect to the heat e-mails, she was able to conclude that there was little truth in them, thus minimizing their bearing on her value as a person, and her worth as a parent. This acknowledgment speaks well of the counselor’s ability. While not a pressing issue of life and death, improving self-esteem in clients such as this is always beneficial, to the extent that a higher self-esteem is a predictor of less stress over the course of a lifetime. The counselor must help the patient develop coping strategies that will inhibit stress proliferation. (Barker, 2007) Also essential is the facilitation of goals and organization of a coherent plan in that regard. For laypersons, well -structured goals are rarely spontaneous, but most are a consequence of deliberate planning. The counselor is wise to get at the root issue, encouraging the client to define what they truly want. In this case the opportunity to complete their studies, pass their exams and get a visa that will allow them to remain in

The Importance of Health as You Age

Scot: anything that gets your body moving is technically a physical activity. The first thing one has to consider while aging is to keep moving. That means that you should not spend long hours sitting down.
Scot’s response on the health of the elderly is similar to some of the studies. Adults (50+) spend an average of 10 hours daily either lying or sitting down. The consequences of their inactivity include heart diseases, obesity among others that lead to early death compared to the overall population.
As one gets older, it is vital that he remains active if he wants to remain healthy and uphold his independence. Otherwise, everything you have always enjoyed practicing and taken for a ride will start becoming harder. They might struggle pursuing simple pleasures such as playing with their grandchildren, walking it to the mall, meeting up with friends and even leisure activities.
Eating right is another of making your health better. As one ages, good nutrition plays a very vital role in how well you age. Eating low-fat, low-salt diet with lots of fruits, fiber and vegetables can diminish your age -related diseases including diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis, stroke and other chronic diseases (Martin, 89). Diversifying your diet with a variety of foods can easily help your body get the nutrients it needs.
For instance, proteins that is required to rebuild and maintain muscles. One can acquire low fat, protein from fish, soy, low-fat meat, a limited amount of nuts and eggs. Carbohydrate that provides the body with energy is important. There are two major sources of dietary carbohydrates: complex carbohydrates that come from grains and vegetables and simple sugars such as lactose, sucrose and fructose. Unlike refined sugars, fruits have fiber and vitamins. dairy products have nutrients such as vitamin D and calcium, and complex carbohydrates have minerals, vitamins and fiber. One has to get most of the carbohydrate calories from

Going to a Foreign Country

Going to a Foreign Country It is always difficult for one to go to a foreign land and spend time away from family and friends. But then again there are some decisions in life which require sacrifice of the highest order. If I ever go abroad to pursue higher education, I would face difficulty in the beginning coping up with the norms and behaviors of the society in which I have stepped into as well as dearly miss my friends and family members. However I realize that this is a short phase which would occur mostly in the starting and with things settling down, I will feel all at ease within the foreign country. In the pursuit of knowledge, I am ready to undertake such a visit to a foreign country but I know this beforehand that I would come back to serve my own motherland so that my country benefits from my education and related experience that I have gained in the foreign country.
I have made it a point to dedicate myself whole-heartedly towards studies once I land in the foreign country. I would not indulge in acts which are unbecoming of a student and devote all my energies towards something constructive. I would find ways to interact with my peers and ask them for their help if ever I drop into some problem. I will proactively help my mates without their even asking for the same. I would make a schedule for myself so that I could study within my free time and also understand a little about the culture of the foreign country. I would communicate with people in their own language so that they feel I am a part of them and am willing to make an effort to be close to them through their language. This will give them a feeling of love and humbleness from my side. I believe being away from all of these people would eventually help me focus more on my studies as well as impart quality time towards the curriculum. I would try my best to attain the top position within my class.
I will regularly keep in touch with my family members and once in a while meet my friends of the past online. I will keep them abreast of my educational journey as well as find out what is happening within their own lives. I would make an effort to wish my friends and family members on special occasions which I will surely be missing the most. I would call them up on their birthdays, wedding anniversaries and so on and thus try to be a part of their happy and grief-stricken moments. In the end, I would like to tell them how much I love them by sending them gifts and cards from the foreign country since I believe this is the most beautiful gesture that I can undertake sitting miles away. I would try my best to remain loyal, committed and truthful towards my education and keep my parents proud of my achievements.
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B Activity

What would you do to address the situation? Who would you communicate with outside of the room? Where does your role as the teacher start and end in terms of helping her?
As a teacher, I may opt to seek help from outside of the school in order to find out the most appropriate ways of communicating with Nora until she is able to confide in me the details of her case. Besides the insights provided by the specialists conferred with, I would make it a point to conduct research and studies, inasmuch as my schedule could allow, to determine the nature of Nora’s condition as whether it occurs due to an ensuing mental illness or something induced by emotions toward a social or physical environment. In class, I could attempt to incorporate a special lesson that would enable my students to participate in an activity of sharing views or opinions. This way, I would be able to figure out how different Nora is compared to the rest of her classmates in terms of the level of creativity, resourcefulness, and especially the manner by which she expresses herself as well as the content of all her responses. Her degree of responsiveness on certain issues discussed would aid me in detecting an aspect of her conflict.
Moreover, I would continue to keep in touch with Nora’s friend in private for updates and probably ask how Nora is coping with her concerns at home or any parts of the community beyond school. I think it might help to advise Nora’s friend to stay by her side during the moments she appears disturbed or bothered to see how his or her comforting presence may prevent any tendencies of self-infliction by Nora. If I can get her to open up to me what the real problem is behind her cutting of wrist in this process, my role as a teacher I suppose could go as far as communicating with her parents, yet only at the hint of her consent or whenever she feels ready. Meanwhile, I ought to proceed teaching the class, of which Nora is part, the essence not merely of academic endeavor but even the values associated with overcoming life’s difficulties.

A Brief History of the Antibiotics

Thus the drugs to treat these infections have to be numerous so that they target the susceptibility of each bacterial pathogen. Thus, the advances in pharmacology have brought forward a new era of antibiotics with vast options to treat the infections that were once considered lethal in the history of mankind. Major disease epidemics in the history of the world, like the Black Death by plague in the early 1900s that caused deaths of millions of people were brought under control successfully with the help of antibiotics (Levinson 2008). Endemic diseases like Tuberculosis, that have been a scourge for humanity for ages and were uncontrollable despite the use of innumerable drugs and therapies, have been found to be susceptible to different combinations of antibiotics. Worldwide measures are now being taken to eradicate such diseases from the face of the earth. Thus, single or in combination, antibiotics have opened the new doors to a healthy life for the sick people who had no chances of survival. Antibiotics themselves are the products of microorganisms. The drug substance produced by one microorganism has adverse effects on certain other microorganisms and serves to kill them. This is how the antibiotics were produced initially. Due to their remarkable effects on wound healing and recovery from infections, soon they became famous with the names like ‘magic bullet’ and ‘wonder drug’ (Aminov 2010, Levinson 2008).

The origin of the use of antibiotics for treating the infections is as old as the infections themselves. Different communities in the past used living organisms to treat infections. In ancient times, different types of molds were used by people to heal wounds and infections. Tetracycline antibiotics have the ability to get incorporated into the bones and accumulate in them. Studies on bones of ancient Romans of Egypt and the Nubian population of Sudan reveal traces of&nbsp.tetracycline in the shafts of bones, which shows that tetracycline was included in their diet.

Argument in favor of Holistic Therapy for Lung Cancer Patients

Holistic Therapy for Lung Cancer Patients The treatment of lung cancer is one of the health concerns in the present era. Holistic therapy which is the focus of the paper is a type of treatment for lung cancer. This is also known as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). The paper will present an overview of the said technique such as the definition, mechanisms and effects of its application.
Holistic Therapy for Lung Cancer Patients
Holistic Therapy or treatment for lung cancer is also known as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), which is a general term referring to several healing systems, philosophies, and practices that are considered unorthodox as compared to the conventional or western medicine. The holistic therapy focuses on five aspects of life that contribute to persons’ sense of well being, namely physical, social, spiritual, emotional, and intellectual (St. John, 2009). To have a better understanding of the benefits and advantages of CAM over conventional medicines (specifically chemotherapy), three arguments will be created to support Holistic Therapy.
Chemotherapy is a method of treatment wherein anticancer drugs are administered to the bloodstream usually via IV infusion, with some that can be taken by mouth. The treatment not only affects rapidly multiplying cancer cells but also has adverse effects with healthy multiplying cells (Rothenflue, 2010). Focusing on the chemotherapy for lung cancer, the treatment has inherent side effects that can cause temporary as well as permanent damage to the patient. This side effect includes the reduction of healthy blood cells that lead to vulnerability to infections, bruises and bleeding, and the constant feeling of weakness and fatigue. It may also permanently damage the cells in hair roots. even if hair grows back after treatment, the color and texture would be different. The anticancer drug can also harm the cells in the digestive tract that leads to loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, or mouth and lip sores. Side effects become even worse when radiation therapy is taken at the same period (Rothenflue, 2010).
For the first argument, it is evident that conventional medicines are detrimental to the physical and emotional well-being of the patient. The invasive nature of chemotherapy makes holistic therapy more appealing to cancer patients, with current studies indicating that increasing number of cancer patients have undergone at least one alternative treatment. The most common CAM treatment is the use of vitamin and mineral supplements, which is intended to strengthen the patients’ immune system and to help increase their appetite.
The second argument that can be raised is that CAM or holistic therapy is more effective than conventional medications. This is due to the fact that holistic therapies promote the overall wellness of a patient –mentally, physically and emotionally – and without letting the patient to experience pain and suffering with the strenuous and stressful chemotherapy. Also, studies have found out that acupuncture is useful to manage the vomiting of patient associated with chemotherapy. The use of hypnosis, massage, meditation, and yoga has also been suggested to manage the side effects of conventional medicines and manage the symptoms of the disease as well (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM).
Finally, holistic therapies can be used as replacement to conventional medicines by conducting several types of therapies such as ayurvedic medicine, chiropractic medicine, homeopathic medicine, and other treatments that claims to provide cure to lung cancer patients and increases their chances of survival in fighting cancer (St. John, 2009).
References
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). (2011). Cancer and CAM: At a glance. Retrieved from http://nccam.nih.gov/sites/nccam.nih.gov/files/camcancer.pdf
Rothenflue, V. (2010). Lung Cancer Treatment Information from the National Cancer Institute. Texas: Department of State Health Services. Retrieved from http://www.cancerallianceoftexas.org/storage/pdf-files/lung_cancer.pdf
St. John, T. M. (2009). With Every Breath: A Lung Cancer Guidebook. Retrieved from http://www.lungcancerguidebook.org/

How a bill becomes a law

How a bill becomes a Law Identify the problem/concern, your proposal/idea, Include studies, reports, personal experience, or anecdotal stories related to your proposal.
Concern
Each individual has an essential role to play in the provision of a secure and a safe environment. Provision of safety especially to the children has to involve every member of the society because. almost all the members of the society express their concern for the children in various ways. Cases of children getting involved in a road accident resulting from illegal bus turning is on the rise. From such accidents­­­, the children end up sustaining major injuries like broken bone and laceration to the head (Macias, 2011). In addition, it has come to realization that those that sustain the injuries are the ones on the front seat of a school bus. Injuries exhibited by schoolchildren leave all stakeholders dumb folded and this is of utmost concern even to me who is a nurse.
Proposal
Consequently, there is a need to develop a protection mechanism for the children, which will involve proposition an idea that focus on enacting a bill into a law to ensure safety of the children in school buses. The idea that entails proposition of the bill may come from representatives or from the citizens. From this case, the idea to provide safety measures to children driving on schools bus comes from me as an ordinary citizen and a nurse. From my observation, there is an increase in the number of accidents causing injuries to children driving on front row of the school bus (Black, 2012). The number of children brought to the emergency room with fractures and other injuries is alarming thereby, this call for the need to provide protection mechanism to the children (Mehta&amp. Lou, 2013). Children sitting at the front row are vulnerable to injuries when the bus makes a sudden braking as the bus lacks safety belts on the front rows (Macias, 2011). After proposition of the idea, the citizen can then discuss it with their representative. After that, the representative seeks support from the fellow colleagues by discussing the bill further with them as well.
Anecdotal/ personal experience
As a nurse, I had an encounter with children rushed into the hospital, emergency room section, with sustained injuries because of a car having made a wrong turn in front of the bus, whereby the bus driver braked suddenly. This breaking was the cause of the many injuries like broken limbs and head lacerations that children sustained.
Has there been similar legislation introduced and/or passed in other states?
There have been similar bills before that proposed the need to have seatbelts in school buses. For instance, the year 2007 saw the enactment of a legislation advocating for children to have seat belts in school buses. This was following a tragic occurrence whereby a bus rolled over occasioning the demise of 2 girls and 12 other children sustaining major injuries (Mueenuddin, 2013). Though there lacks a unanimous legislation advocating for seat belts in school vehicles, many states have made this agenda their obligation and instituted relevant legislation in this sector. This is for instance evident in Texas, Florida as well as New Jersey amongst others. Therefore, the idea of having seatbelt is an appropriate measure to ensure safety and prevent the increased cases of accidents (Mehta&amp. Lou, 2013).
Identify financial impact if any, Identify stakeholder groups that would support this bill, Identify people/groups that would oppose this bill
Financial impact
It is also important to consider various feature of the bill such as its economic implication, individuals that are likely to support it and those that are likely to oppose it. The bill will have a positive financial impact in various ways. Since provision of seatbelts in school buses is costly, the bill focuses to ensure provision of seatbelt on the front seat alone (Mehta&amp. Lou, 2013). This will save on the cost. in addition, it will also appeal to the transport committee that opposed the previous legislation (Black, 2012).
Stakeholders likely to be in support
As a result, the transport committee and child protection committee are likely to support the bill on various grounds. The transport committee is likely to support the bill in regards to its economic nature while child protection committee will support it in regards to protection of the children.
Groups that would oppose the bill
Schools may be among the groups at the front line in opposing the bill with claims that school buses stand safe in their current conditions because they have compartments.
Make an appointment with your legislator to discuss your proposal
Involving the member of the legislature in the initial process of developing the idea is important as it shows availability of support to the idea to enable it develop into a law (Macias, 2011). The member of the legislature also provides a clear guidance during the process of developing an idea, which entails, obtaining signatures from other persons with the same interest.

References
Black, P. E. (2012). Static Analyzers: Seat Belts for Your Code.&nbsp.Security &amp. Privacy, IEEE,&nbsp.10(3), 48-52.
Macias, A. (2011). Injury prevention legislation.&nbsp.Bulletin of the American College of Surgeons,&nbsp.96(1), 51-52.
Mehta, G., &amp. Lou, Y. (2013). Modeling school bus seat belt usage: Nested and mixed logit approaches.&nbsp.Accident Analysis &amp. Prevention,&nbsp.51, 56-67
Mueenuddin, Nyal.(2013).Bill would require seat belts on school buses. Retrieved on 27 April 2014 from

The Rich Literary and Academic Texts Present in Latino Studies

Personal accounts, narrative fiction, and academic studies which delve into the experiences of such journeys refer to a complex process which affects all parts of a person’s life.&nbsp. The person’s language, religion, physical appearance, and sexual identity are all framed as problematic in American mainstream culture, and the Latino or Latina individual has to come to some kind of accommodation between conflicting expectations of family, self, and external reality. It is the solving of these contradictions that lead to the construction of a new and vibrant meaning which in turn influences mainstream American culture.
Achy Obejas describes the moment of the first contact between a Cuban family and the United States in a way which highlights the contradictions which immigrants have to negotiate. She describes the arrival of a ten-year-old Cuban girl to Miami using two different narrative techniques. The first technique is to use a first-person description of the innocent child’s first impressions. The second, contrasting technique is to use a much more ironic perspective on events through the eyes of that child’s adult persona. The child has an instinctive suspicion of attempts by well-meaning officials and volunteers to enforce an acculturation process. The blonde doll and the grey clothing, for example, are rejected as being self-evidently inappropriate for a Cuban girl. There is a spirited defence of the pride and self-respect that the family feels in the face of enforced poverty during the initial months of settling into the new environment.
Second-hand clothes are pressed upon the family, but the child notes approvingly that they will never wear them (Obejas, 1994, p. 118). The child clings to the green, synthetic sweater that she wore on the hazardous boat trip to America if it were a lifeline back to her beloved home in Cuba. The excesses of capitalist America are described using the image of a supermarket which is like a flying saucer in this fantastic “land of plenty” (Obejas, 1994, p. 118).&nbsp.&nbsp.

Alzheimer’s disease market analysis

5.1 people of the age above 65 have 3.2 million women affected and 1.9 being men. In United States, there are more non-Hispanic whites that live with the condition and other dementias that have the condition more than other race or ethnic group in United States 2. Older Hispanic and African-Americans are more likely to develop the condition as compared to other whites and dementias. Studies show that half of children whose parents are affected will develop the disease. The onsets of age for such families who develop the disease tend to be relatively low and are usually at the age of between 35 and 60. The onset in the families has been determined to be fairly constant. Children with Down’s syndrome will develop the disease when they are in the middle age though they may not display the full range of symptoms.
Worldwide, the estimated population with the condition of Alzheimer’s or related dementia is nearly 44 million. In the population only 1 in 4 people with the condition have been diagnosed. The rate is in high increase where in 2030, the estimated population with the condition is expected to increase with nearly 76 million. Research shows that in nearly four seconds, there is development of a new case of dementia.
Alzheimer and dementia is more common in Western Europe than in any part of the world. The region where the condition is less prevalent is in sub-Saharan Africa. Environment and activities that are carried out by an individual is much important as there are practices that accelerate the development of the condition. There has been a summary of the role of diet, disease and activities that potentially play a role in the onset of the disease. Hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking and dyslipidemia have been found to increase the risk of Alzheimer The factors that have portrayed reduction in the risk of getting the disease include Mediterranean diet as well as higher education 3. Mediterranean diet acts as an antioxidant and

How to Improve Buffalo City

SPEECH It is really good to see that we have gathered together today, for our Buffalo Buffalo has seen its good times in the past, but today, as we see, it appears that we are confronted with a number of perhaps intertwined and seemingly unsolvable problems, which have not only derailed our efforts to progress but have also impacted our morale negatively. I would like to bring your attention to a few things, and then leave the debate open for yourselves to think if we are being told the right or the wrong perspective, about our dear Buffalo city.
1 – We often listen about the population drain of our city. There are studies which mention that in only a few decades, the population of our city has declined by almost 50% (Rey, 2001). However, I would like to point out that if we compare the population of whites and blacks in our city, we come to know the astonishing fact that the population of blacks has in fact increased in the city, and it is only the white population that has decreased in number (Population of Buffalo, 2005). So, are we only reporting the figures of whites? And if so, why only whites? Is there a hidden interest behind such reports?
In my opinion and you can also see around the world that increasing populations are generally a problem. Im surprised to see that it is only in Buffalo city, that decreasing population has appeared as a problem. Less people, less traffic, less need for resources, less troubles and consequently more opportunities and prosperity. But why is it that our media portrays this trend to be negative for our city? Again, is there a hidden interest behind the scenes?
A general impression is created that the vast majority of people leaving Buffalo city are young people, and such change is happening due to the loss of jobs in the city. The Buffalo News in 2000 stated that the ranks of elderly were growing stating that 15.9% were older than age 65 in comparison to the national average of 12.4% (Heaney, 2000). However according to 2006 census, this average for Buffalo city is 13.6% (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006). Now are we hiding something? And the next question is, hiding from whom?. Are we afraid to let common people know about the real picture? Why half truth? The citizens of Buffalo need to know the complete truth.
In my opinion, we are not in a position to trust the media blindly. We need to do our research prior to believing what media is feeding our brains. The conditions are not hopeless and there is much we can do to improve the condition of our city. We need to understand that cities develop as a result of collective efforts, and we need to take-off the blame from the oppressed and poor minorities of our city, and in turn our ruling corrupt elite will have to learn to take responsibility of what happens in our city.
I believe that the conditions of Buffalo city are far better than many other cities of the world, and if we are together and willing to bring back luck to our Buffalo city, we need to work together without being distracted by the untrue and unjust gestures of our media. and if we can do it, trust me. we can, not only build this Buffalo, but also another city greater than Buffalo city itself.
References
Rey, J. 2001. City falls below 300,000. The Buffalo News 16 March:A1.
Population of Buffalo, New York: 1820–2000 for whites, blacks, and Hispanics. Source: U.S.
Census Bureau (2005).
Heaney, J. 2000. A graying WNY in public policy and private lives. The Buffalo News 27 February:A6.
U.S. Census Bureau, 2006. Population characteristics of Erie County, NY. http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html? lang=en

Influence of Carbohydrate Beverages on Resistance Training

Too much drinking is not a healthy practice as it affects the efficiency of the athlete to perform well physically and it can also provide for negative effects on his health (Casa et al, 2000).
&nbsp.Resistance training and a healthy diet go hand in hand. Resistance&nbsp.training accounts for being a&nbsp.vital and essential part of&nbsp.the routine of an athlete and their training. Various studies have been carried out to assess the acute and chronic effects of different diets on resistance training.&nbsp.Some selected nutritional strategies have been used to elicit responses to resistance training in individuals. Nutritional processes such as protein balance, glycogen breakdown, and&nbsp.re-synthesis&nbsp.are elicited. Resistance training depends a lot on the consumption of nutrients, on the bodily response to meals and the response of the body mechanisms to exercise. These have a critical role in the regulation and maintenance of metabolic balance.&nbsp.The diet plan of any individual should also be closely monitored prior to the beginning of resistance training. The diet plan depends on the quantity of nutrient intake, quality of nutrient intake and the timing of nutrient intake. These three things are a triad that develops a person’s adaptation to resistance training. The model of adaptation involves an exercise stimulus primarily and lastly&nbsp.ends with resistance training. Resistance training includes increased muscle strength&nbsp.and size (Volek, 2004).&nbsp.
Carbohydrate supplementation such as carbohydrate beverages have effects on resistance training. Evidence suggests that the breakdown of glycogen occurs in the body following the performance of the resistance-training activity. This can lead to performance decrements. These shortcomings have negative effects on training. Studies suggest that the provision of carbohydrates and at the time of resistance exercises leads to maintenance of muscle glycogen concentration. The retention of muscle glycogen could result in the substantial&nbsp.performance of the athlete during training.

Did Humans Cause the Global Warming

The current state of research does not confirm the link between warming and human activity and implies that years will pass before we have a better understanding of its causes, mechanisms and, if necessary, solutions.
Scholars and professionals in climate studies lack unanimous agreement as for whether global warming is the direct consequence of human activity. Nevertheless, most of them unilaterally assert that the planet is gradually warming and that the climate is slowly changing. Statistically, the last century was marked with the steadily rapid increase of surface temperatures on the planet – 0.56 K over a century (Anonymous, 2010). Temperatures at the New York and Paris latitude moved about 2 degrees, while temperatures in the polar latitudes changed up 3 degrees Celsius (Singer &amp. Avery, 2007). Actually, polar latitudes and Arctic ices represent the most complex problem: Arctic warming has already become the issue of the major climatic concern. During the twentieth century, air temperatures in the Arctic land rose by 5 degrees Celsius (West, 2009). By the end of the twenty-first century, the average temperatures in Alaska are expected to rise 3-5 degrees over land and 5-7 degrees over the ocean (West, 2009). In the Arctic, warming is more rapid intense compared with the other regions and the rise of temperatures there will have a profound effect on the flora and fauna. Ultimately, the end of the 20th century was marked with the growing number of hurricanes and storms of unbelievable strength (Houghton, 2007). Windstorms and hurricanes were followed by floods due to unusually intense rainfalls or because of the long periods of reduced rainfalls (Houghton, 2007).

Is Famine Best Examined as a Result of Overpopulation or as a Crisis of Entitlements

The studies examine that the increases in the world’s food output were particularly impressive after World War II. In the thirty-five years from 1950 to 1985, world grain harvests increased from less than 750 million tons to 1.7 billion tons. Even though the world experienced unprecedented population growth during this period, the growth in food production was so spectacular that it permitted a 25 percent increase in per-capita food supplies and a corresponding increase in meeting minimum nutritional standards. Primarily, these studies concern European countries and the USA but do not take into account Asian and African countries where population growth has a direct impact on famine.
P. R Ehrlich in the book “The population bomb” explains that. "Our position requires that we take immediate action at home and promote effective action worldwide. We must have population control at home, hopefully through changes in our value system, but by compulsion if voluntary methods fail."

The Work World Perception vs Reality

Working in the military is a career that has attracted a large number of young individual entering job markets for years. However, I have never imagined that I can work or rather enjoy a military career. Life as a soldier, I believed, is a preserve of those who are desperate. In other words, I have always looked at military career as a last resort that comes after all avenues for a better job opening comes. The perception was given much credence by my family member’s perception against working as a soldier.
I also believed that military career is a preserve of those who do not want to further their studies. The belief that military life has less intellectual challenge and relies on government jobs to survive, is not strange among many people (Sam 1st Lieutenant 120). In other words, for anyone who wants to further studies and engages in a serious profession such as attorney, business executive, and many other reputable professions. With all the risky experience of going to the battlefields, this perception has been with me for as long as I can remember.
However, my recent interaction with two soldiers who had just come from Iraq has changed my perception. I accompanied my friend, Trevor, to a coffee shop. Trevor was to meet two of his friends, x-military servicemen who had just returned from Iraq. As we got to know each other, I became curious and engaged the ex-soldiers, Joshua and Caesar, in a conversation.
In our informal interview (Patton 49), I came to learn that Joshua had a degree in Law and decided to join military after graduation. Caesar, on the other hand, had passed his high school so well and was admitted at the University of California. Although they both had opportunities for some more intellect-based careers, they decided to join military. They cite the adventure, patriotism and the desire to explore more outside the traditional office environment. I have come to acknowledge that military career, just like any other career, is driven by passion, and not a last resort desperation.
Works Cited
Patton, Michael Quinn. Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Newbury Park, CA:
Sage Publications, 1990.
Sam 1st Lieutenant. Service and Sacrifice. NY: Xlibris Corporation, 2011.

Sector Matrix the Concept of Value Chain

The chain concept has been the dominant concept within the theoretical framework of economics as well as strategic studies as different theoretical frameworks such as BCG and Porter’s ideas gave rise to the overall concept of the value chain. However, on a much bigger scale, the idea of value chain encompasses a much larger significance because it interconnects different industries either within the borders or outside the borders of the company. This therefore also means that the global supply chain management is not just a mere concept but a social as well as economic phenomenon. The concept of global commodity chains emphasized the spatial and territorial dimensions of doing business and is based on the concepts of global chains.
A new and more innovative concept is the concept of sector matrix which outlines the interplay of demand and supply forces. By emphasizing the demand distribution and supply interaction, the sector matrix increases the field for visible as it attempts to define much more complicated activities and put more focus on redefining competition not from the perspective of the competing manufacturing systems but from really divergent perspective.
Globalization of economic resources of the world has given rise to a new phenomenon where products are hardly produced in the domestic markets as there are innumerable linkages between different players which collectively contribute towards the development of chains which regulate the whole process of manufacturing activity. For example, NIKE outsources almost all of its manufacturing facilities and goods sold in the US are made in various countries of the world.
Porter’s ideas on the five forces indicate how the firm in a particular industry can gain a competitive advantage. Porter’s five forces discuss the impact of buyer and suppliers on the given firm as the interaction of both the entities on the firm defines the overall competitive advantage of the firm. What is also, however, critical to note that the existing rivalry between the firms as well as the threats of substitutes is two more threats which give rise to the different competitive dynamics within the industry.

The Scientific Study of Ecology

Ecology: A Critical Review 2007 Ecology: A Critical Review Ecology is the scientific study of interactions of organisms with one another, and it is one of the most valuable and significant scientific studies in the world. The aim of this paper is to discuss three ecology-related topics in particular, those being: when a population approaches its carrying capacity, what the possibilities are for its continued growth and survival in its environment. the process is that would allow a population to be established and to thrive in an ecological community. and the process that is involved in the forming of a new species. By addressing and discussing these three specific issues, not only will we be able to gain valuable information on these particular matters but on the subject of ecology as a whole. This is what will be dissertated in the following.
In ecology terms, the carrying capacity of a population refers to the supportable population of an organism, and this is taking into consideration the vital factors such as food, habitat, water, and so on. There is strict mathematics involved with the carrying capacity issue, and depending on the particular situation, the impact of famine, for instance, could be quite moderate or extreme. In terms of what the possibilities are for the continued growth of a population once it has approached its carrying capacity, this really depends on the particular population being discussed, but it is very important either way here to understand that “Algorithms for estimating the carrying capacity of areas provide wildlife managers with important information for understanding and managing populations…The energy-based carrying capacity of an area varies with the energy required by a wildlife population and the energy available in foods on the area.” (29).
In response to the issue of what process would be necessary in order to allow a population to be established and thrive in an ecological community, basically there are several different factors that need to be taken into consideration here. In all reality, the most classical explanation is that all species are able to coexist, as long as they are “sufficiently different in their ‘niches’, the particular habitats or conditions in which they thrive or in the resources they exploit, and have corresponding weaknesses in other areas, so that no one species is able to out-compete the others.” (67). This is incredibly important, and basically means that any population is able to be established and thrive in an ecological community, as long as that the only process necessary here is to constantly ensure that there is no other species or population around that is able to overwhelm them.
Finally, in regards to the matter of what the process is that is involved in the forming of a new species, this is the most complex issue in discussion of all here. The evolution process is one which is certainly slow and gradual, not to mention incredibly complicated. The term evolution has long been associated with the ‘origin of species’, and according to Darwin in particular: “Species evolve through the development and further modifications of adaptations under the guidance of natural selection. For the most part, evolutionary change was a slow, steady and gradual affair. and species are temporary stages in the continuous evolution of life.” (Eldredge, 2007). It is also critical to recognize that the environment plays a major role in the developing of any new species, in particular by triggering dramatic changes that cause extinction and speciation, and species stabilizing for millions of years followed by an abrupt disappearance when their ecosystem is disrupted. Overall, it is quite easy to see how specific a process is necessary in the developing of a new population, and time is one of the most variable but essential factors here.
References
Audesirk, T., Audesirk, G., &amp. Byers, B. E. (2006). Life on Earth. San Francisco:
Benjamin Cummings.
Eldredge, N. (2007). Species, Speciation and the Environment. August 20, 2007, from
http://www.actionbioscience.org/evolution/eldredge.html

Why does communsim work in some developing countries and democracy in others

It intrudes further into the lives of people than socialism does. For example, some communist countries do not allow their citizens to practice certain religions, change jobs, or move to the town of their choice (Margonis, 1993).
According to Nowotny (1997), communism has been perennially perceived to have been but a — certainly disastrous — evolutionary accident on the road of progress. Once this error would have been corrected and once the communist system was removed, the countries concerned would, without any great difficulties, resume their rightful place on the ladder of economic and political progress. This would occur spontaneously. Errors could stunt or thwart the development. But, on the other hand, no special measures would be necessary to promote it. Markets and with them wealth. civic society and political institutions and with them democracy would install themselves without further ado. Some even claimed that this step back unto the ladder of political and economic evolution would be easier (Nowotny, 1997). Although communism is always seen as ‘the big bad wolf’, there are still studies that suggest that it is much better that developing communist countries to embrace communism first before venturing into capitalism.
Numerous researches argue towards the success of shifting governments from communism to democracy. McFaul (2005) cited the Serbian, Georgian, and Ukrainian cases of democratic breakthrough resemble one another-and differ from other democratic transitions or revolutions-in four critical respects. First, in all three cases, the spark for regime change was a fraudulent national election, not a war, an economic crisis, a split between ruling elites, an external shock or international factor, or the death of a dictator. Second, the democratic challengers deployed extra-constitutional means solely to defend the existing, democratic constitution rather than to achieve a fundamental rewriting of the rules of the political

Anya Kamenetz

The chapter “Waking Up and Taking Charge” puts forth the ment that the youths of the new generation are getting more and more edgy with the politicians of their nations, but without their involvement in the political structure of the country, the things are not going to change for the betterment.
“Waking Up and Taking Charge” is the final chapter of the book “Generation Debt: Why Now is a Terrible Time to Be Young” by Anya Kamenetz. The book deals with the approaching disaster of our economic system and the community if we constantly follow the mindless way of operations we have practiced so far, however most significantly the book focuses on the “power of education” along with the rising arrears outrageously brought by the concept of “job-security” that comes with lower wages and the national programs existing in order to “help us” that actually aids the process of ripping the nation apart. The author states that to deal with the educational debt issue it is necessary on the end of the young generation to take active measures against the political system of the nation, as can be traced in the quote, “Young people urgently need a strong national generational movement”. The author puts stress on the situation that the educational institutes of the modern era moving out of reach of common people. In this regard the undergraduates of the Yale University went on a weeklong protest after which the University declared that it would not ask for any tuition fees from the kids belonging to the families making lesser than $45000 annually. The author puts forth the several reasons supporting why the involvement of the students in the nation’s politics is necessary. She felt that the young generation lacks any political guarantee and the generation have been experiencing risk by getting stuck to the cycle of availing loan for higher studies and then spending their whole life in a small job that helps them to pay-off the loan money in parts. Until and unless the students step out of this cycle, they will never be able to set higher career ambitions. The author states two solutions two these issues, which are-
To lead a life within a person’s means
To fight for the fair allocation of the country’s resources
Now staying within the means can be practiced alone but fighting for the proper allocation of resources can take place in a united way. The stated incident of Yale proves that, “without a unified voice, individual protests can make only small ripples”. The chapter further states that in order to lower the student debt, Pell Grant must be enhanced. The author further puts stress on her intended audience, i.e. the students that a major number of people within the age group 18-34 do not vote. She reminds this age group that if they wish to welcome a changed tomorrow, then they should start with electing their own governments.
Thus it can be concluded from the chapter that student activism and student unity has been highly encouraged throughout the book. An inspiring group called Virginia 21 was formed based on similar principles of changing the educational system and the world at large. The author inspires her reader to work towards their goal in a united manner and nothing could stop them from becoming successful.

Impact of EBusiness Initiatives on Firm Value

The study reveals that the cumulative abnormal return for such initiatives ranges from 3.5% to 4.74% in the first five days. Another significant finding is that the abnormal returns are higher in the e-business initiatives of business-to-consumer firms than that of business-to-business firms. The explanation for this claim is found in the ‘firm size effect’. It is found that higher abnormal returns are created in small-sized firms. As business-to-business firms are generally bigger than business-to-customer firms, it is claimed that the latter will gain more abnormal returns in the e-business initiatives.
Thus, putting an end to the long ambiguity regarding the profitability of e-business initiatives, the study came up with the finding that it is highly beneficial to the firms because it offers future benefits to the firms in the form of increased market values. The reason, according to the scholars, is that such aggressive steps are often considered as futuristic by stakeholders and other public. Thus, such firms escape the usual bandwagon effect.
Admittedly, there were previous studies which proved that e-business initiatives positively affect the value of firms. However, the present study stands apart for showing the various effects of e-business initiatives based on the nature of the initiative and the nature of the business. The strength of the study lies in the fact that it investigates the issue in two different capital markets. namely KSE and KOSDAQ. However, there are some findings that contradict the findings in the American market. For example, while the e-business expansion of an established e-business company makes a more positive effect than the e-business initiative of a non-internet firm in the U.S, the opposite is true in Korea. Similarly, though the study hypothesized that the abnormal returns are linked to the layer to which the e-business form belongs, it could not prove the same in KOSDAQ –listed firms.
Thus, the study poses certain challenges for future research in the fact that it has found some differences between the U.S and Korean markets in the way e-business initiatives are received by the public and how firms profit. The study seems limited to the fact that it fails to provide an explanation for the same. Moreover, it has failed to explain why the layer does affect abnormal returns in KSE but not in KOSDAQ. However, the study is rather groundbreaking in the fact that it has further elaborated the matter of e-business initiative profitability showing that factors like the nature of the firm, its layer, and the size of the firm all have some effect on the way the e-business initiative will affect the firm value.

Electronic Waste Management Approaches

Managing electronic waste is a pollution problem rapidly increasing all over the world. The increase can be attributed to the technological innovations of electrical gadgets that replaces the analogue machines. The number of electrical appliances disposed in developed countries is much higher than those in developing countries. In developing countries, the main source of the electronic wastes is the electrical appliances from the developed countries. Several researchers have shown that polyhalogenated and other toxic metals from the electronic waste can pose serious threat to the lives of people as well as their environment. The disposal of electronic waste affects the health of humans in two ways. First, one can get contaminated through the food chain. Secondly, direct exposure to workers carrying out the duties at the disposal site. Since the discovery of toxic substance in electronic waste, there has been inadequate laws all over the world governing effective management of electronic waste. This has exposed the environment to risks. Large quantities of electronic waste are majorly recycled in developing nations. The number of landfills has been on the rise in both developing and developed countries. Presently there is extensive research on electronic waste management in order to minimize the problems, both at the international as well as the national levels. Research involves sorting components that could be precious metals and those that can be recycled. Several tools such as LCA, MCA, MFA and EPR approach can greatly improve most of the problems related electronic waste. Studies conducted using LCA in various countries indicate that, recycling is the most recommended plot for managing electronic waste. Finally to mitigate the electronic waste, its the role of every citizen to take responsibility in matters related disposal of electronic waste.
References
Peeranart Kiddee, Ravi Naidu &amp. Ming Wong H.(2012). Waste management. Journal of electronic waste management approaches:An overview.33 Retrieved from:

The effects of mergers and acquisitions on small business lending

The effects of mergers and acquisitions on small business lending Date:
Introduction
Small businesses have been cited as essential in the growth and development of world economies, their particular significance in this case is something that is beyond emphasis. In many countries, small businesses make greater contribution to the process of industrialization. Besides raising countries overall output as well as per capita income, small businesses play an active role in employment creation, establishing balances in regional growth and development as well as enhancing effective utilization of resources (Craig &amp. Kohlhase 2006). All these factors are essential in a country’s processes and strategies to improve the GDP and general economic welfare.
Besides the expected advantages arising from consolidations taking place in small businesses, mergers and acquisitions play an important role in increasing the size of banking institutions in a country. These benefits include. mobilizing of domestic savings, which are necessary for investments, deepening and increasing intermediation processes, as well as reduction of inefficiencies entrenched in businesses and other economic activities. However, there is one thing that has remained unclear in many economies, that is. the impact that mergers and acquisition have on credit creation to small and medium-sized businesses in a country.
Effect of Mergers and acquisitions on credit creation
Studies indicate that large and complex organisations that are created by mergers and acquisitions in the banking sector are less disposed compared to small institutions that are less complex. The research further reveals that most of these borrowers in small businesses are dependent on banks for credit. however, they hardly get it following the new business developments in the banking sector.
The reason for this development follows the fact that the large financial institutions resulting from mergers and acquisition in the banking are usually not interested in extending loans and other credit facilities that requite close knowledge of particular small business (Haq 2005). This comes about because there are several diseconomies that arise from the process of such loans, as well as other financial products to not only small business, but also to medium-sized enterprises.
The diseconomies that large financial institutions face in advancing credit to small businesses often arises from several factors, first, lending to these businesses is distinctly different in terms of their activities, which requires the mergers and acquisitions to have different technologies and a special lending culture that takes care of these concerns (Haq 2005). Creation of these systems and structures can be very complicated and time consuming in the face of increased competition in the financial sector.
Bureaucracies in credit creation to small businesses
In addition, the procedures of establishing policies and regulations related to screening processes and monitoring of small business borrowers happen to be quite different compared to those involving large businesses. Mergers and acquisitions fear that their organizational complexity stands to be greatly affected in various ways when they concentrate on advancing credit facilities to small businesses.
Ebimobowei &amp. Sophia (2011), in their research, have indicated that a strong link exists between the size of banking institutions and the amount of credit they supply to small businesses, in this regard, large financial institutions often reserve small proportions of their finacial resources to small businesses compared to that devoted to large businesses.
Following the foregone discussion, it is evident that mergers and acquisition in the banking sector have many undesirable outcomes as far as the growth of small businesses is concerned. Countries stand to share this negative outcome considering the benefits that small businesses have on the general economic growth and development processes.
References
Craig, S., &amp. Kohlhase, J. (2006).&nbsp.The economic role of small businesses using large data sets an analysis of the contributions of small firms to urban growth. Washington, D.C.: SBA Office of Advocacy.
Ebimobowei, A &amp. Sophia, J. (2011). An Analysis of the Efficiency Effects of Mergers and Acquisitions in the Nigerian Banking Industry.&nbsp.Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences,&nbsp.2(9), 135-141.
Haq, R. (2005).&nbsp.Alliances and co-evolution insights from the banking sector. Basingstoke England: Palgrave Macmillan.

Green Buildings

Conventional use of energy requires exploitation of resources such as coal in the production of electricity, use of hydropower among other energy sources that have been in use for many years. Consequently, the use of the above sources of energy in buildings leads to massive environmental pollution and environmental degradation. For instance, the use of coal to produce electricity results in massive emission of carbon dioxide and environmental degradation in areas were cola has to be mined. As a result, the entire process leads to land and environmental degradation among other negative effects. To reduce environmental degradation and pollution from emissions, buildings are designed and constructed with features that minimise overreliance on conventional energy by relying more on natural lighting and energy conservation designs. There are various standards of grading buildings on a scale, which reflects the extent of energy efficiency in such buildings. In other words, the more efficient a building is, the more green such a building is, with several certification bodies coming up to rate and certify energy and resource efficient buildings.
The research aims at investigating different requirements before certifying a building as green and the requirements that a building has to meet to warrant the green title. A few case studies of highly rated green buildings will be analysed with respect to the perspective of energy and resources efficiency, and how such buildings contribute to environmental sustainability. Moreover, the dissertation will seek to investigate different aspects that are used to rate these buildings and the different ratings used by the recognized certification bodies with close investigation of implications of building rating in addition to the current market response to green construction.
Though the concept of green building dates back to the early 90s when groups advocating for sustainable

Nurses Narratives of Unforgettable Patient Care Events

In general, the qualitative method used for the study is appropriate although some aspects of the study can be improved.
This critique assesses the research of Gunther and Thomas (2006) with regard to the research problem, purpose, method, sampling, protection of human subjects, data collection, data analysis, findings, and conclusion. The exercise is undertaken to have a better understanding of qualitative research.
What are the key themes of the nurses’ narrative of their experience? What do their narratives indicate their concerns and perspectives? What concerns are important to them? What do the narratives tell of their situation?
Purpose. The authors stated explicitly that the purpose of their research is to “explore the experience of a registered nurse (RNs) caring for patients in contemporary hospital”. Implicitly, the authors defended the significance of their study this way: although there have been studies on how society values the work of a nurse, there have been few studies on how nurses value their own work (Gunther &amp. Thomas, 2006, p. 370-371). Understanding how nurses value their own work through their own narratives will be important towards society’s better understanding of the value of their work.
A study on the value of nurses’ work is important especially as the work of registered nurses remains largely “invisible and undervalued by society, physicians, and administrators (Gunther &amp. Thomas, 2006, p. 370, citing works of several authors). The purpose of the study is highly significant to nursing because putting a proper value to nursing would be crucial to enhance the proper supply of nursing to attend to society’s needs.
Gunther and Thomas (2006, p. 370) noted that although “abundant quantitative research has been conducted on variables such as job satisfaction and perceived stress”, only a few studies have been done on areas of concern from the perspectives of registered nurses. On the last point, the authors cited works of several other authors that supposedly provide confirmation that only a few studies were done on the subject.

Analysis of Out of Body Experience Your Brain Is to Blame Article

number The human brain is a very multifaceted organ that receives and sends information to the body depending on the stimulus. The integrity of the brain responses can be altered. This chapter of the article focuses on the response of the body from a stimulus induced in the brain externally. These studies were initially conducted to gain insight on the reactions portrayed by people suffering from schizophrenia and epilepsy. In addition, the studies are aimed at understanding how a human brain works and how it responds when certain sections are triggered.
An out of-body-experience is a state when the self disengages from the body and lives in a fantasy world of its own. It is a creation of the brain in response to certain trigger or stimulus induced to the brain or from the internal body senses. This experience can be induced externally by delivering mild electric current to specific parts of the brain. In the article, Dr. Blanke attached electrodes in to a 22-year-old woman brain to check the language areas. When a current is applied, the woman turned her head to the right saying she had a weird sensation that there was someone else lying on the bed with her (Blakeslee 2).
Dr. Olaf Blanke is a neurologist at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland. He conducted studies on the responses of the brain when external stimulus is induced.
Multisensory processing regions are areas in the brain that combine information from various sensory organs to create a wholeness of perception. According to the article, schizophrenics experience delusions and they may even confuse their action as those of another person. For example, they may feel they are being followed even when it is obviously not true.
Work cited
Blakeslee, Sandra. Out of body experience? Your brain is to blame. The New York Times, 3 Oct, 2006. Web. 30 Oct 2014.

Business Aspects of Introducing a New Food in Australia

In the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) the agency responsible for ensuring the safety of food is the Health Protection Service (HPS) of ACT Health. The HPS under its Food Sampling Working Group (FSWG) looks after the development, overall implementation and coordination of the Food Survey Program (Program). These government agencies monitor the introduction of new food as well as supply to ensure that it is safe and poses no risk to the consumers. The new food should comply with standards for microbiological contaminants, pesticide residue limits and chemical contamination.
The introduction of the new food in Australia has to meet all the food surveillance data from public health units in Australia. This data includes the results of compliance testing, and specialty targeted surveys. If the new product is canned food then it comes under the Canned Food Information Service Inc (CFIS Inc) for the promotion and review of the product. The CFIS aims to convince consumers about the foods contained and to dispel misconceptions and so generate increased purchases. The nutrition program of CFIS is aimed to create awareness of the influences of public opinion.
After that, the authority issue a license only after carrying out a comprehensive risk assessment process so that the Australian environment and human health and safety would not be at risk. The national regulatory scheme does not look into the marketing issues of new food. The main objective of the authority is to provide an unambiguous recognition, under Commonwealth law.
Mandatory nutrition labeling is necessary for the launch of any new food product as it has significant impacts on health in the community. The method of nutrition labeling divided into two steps, first, it identifies the risk factors of diet-related disease and studies their impact on health systems expenditure and the value of life.&nbsp.Secondly, it estimates the level of reduction in risk factors. &nbsp.&nbsp.

Mood Dependent Memory

The paper shows that in order to assess whether mood dependent memory is in fact supported by these studies and what the potential implications of mood dependent memory could be.

According to Roediger and McDermott (1995), when people are presented with a list of words that are semantically related and asked to recall the words, they will falsely report hearing certain words which were not actually presented – for example, the word “sleep” when presented with a group of words such as “bed”, “rest” “tired” “awake” and “dream”. The word “sleep” for example, is highly associated with the other words and is known as the “critical lure”. Another aspect that influences memory is disassociation where emotions and thoughts may affect memory and may result in cognitive failures. (Wright and Osborne, 2005)

Wright et al (2005) conducted a study to examine two research questions: (a) who is likely to have a false memory? (b) How does this relate to mood, for instance, if a person is in a negative mood, is he more likely to have a false memory? One aspect of their research included testing the impact of mood upon the memory performance by subjecting the participants to musical pieces and hypothesizing that this would affect the memory performance.

The theoretical rationale for this test was the mood-as-input hypothesis put forth by Martin et al (1993). This hypothesis states that there is an interaction between the mood and the extent of memory recall which is determined by the nature of the task, especially where the question of recall of critical lures is concerned. This hypothesis suggests that when people are asked to recall as many words as they “can”, then those in a negative mood are likely to recall more words than those who are in a positive mood. This is because when they are in a negative mood, they may not be satisfied with their performance and feel that they need to keep recalling words, whereas those in a&nbsp.positive mood may be more easily satisfied with their performance and may stop with recalling fewer words.

Main Areas of International Business Where Knowledge of Culture is Crucial for Business Success

The paper shows the base for alignment between strategic and operational management, two-way communication system and complete percolation of organizational goals to individual employee goals.
Key to success in multinational business lies in the modeling of business practices according to respective needs, expectations, and perceptions and thus, proper awareness of culture is imperative. The entire expansion efforts of organizations rest on this basic premise. This paper is an endeavor to highlight the importance of cultural studies in multinational business and which areas are impacted by this function.

Not only human resources and strategic management but also the choice of entry and investment location decisions are also guided and facilitated by cultural awareness which this paper tries to address. With the help of theories propounded by renowned researchers in the respective field, insights have been developed to understand their implications in the practical scenario.

A multinational word in itself denotes diversity in the form of values, beliefs, identities, strategies, procedures, innovation, management and others. Individual performances and behaviors cumulate in organizational performance and manipulation of individual organizational behavior results in global business diversity.
When an organization operates on a global platform, its success is measured superficially from its tactics, strategies, market share captured and gaining a competitive edge. But the major driver of success in international business is actually a sound knowledge of cultural variations and compatibility across different markets.
Organizational behavior is attributed to individual personality traits exhibited by employees as a result of their upbringing, shared values, space conception, inter-relationships, and activities. Across cultures, these dimensions variate to a large extent giving way to different viewpoints and acceptance notions which are essential to be understood in the context of&nbsp.multinational business.

My Decision to Transfer to a New University

 My Decision to Transfer to a New University
The decision to transfer to a new university is not one to be taken lightly. I am currently studying at West Virginia University. My time here has been full of engaging course work and opportunities for socializing and service. However, I am currently seeking a more intimate educational experience that will facilitate for me to keep in contact with family and friends near home better.
The work for my current major in Exercise Physiology is challenging and enjoyable. I have learned so much about the health sciences that I am determined to continue my education into graduate school so that I can become a Physician’s Assistant. I realize that your university does not have an Exercise Physiology program. I am most interested in any pre-health major that will sufficiently prepare me for my graduate studies. Your university has an outstanding reputation for preparing students for graduate level work. This is the primary reason I would like to transfer to your school.
My focus on family and a career as a Physician’s Assistant guides my academic efforts. I enjoy learning and am a dedicated student. My transcript shows that my efforts have resulted in good grades. I enjoy learning cooperatively with other students and have had some of my most valuable learning experiences collaborating with my peers. In addition to having a strong work ethic, I find time for fun with friends on the tennis court and the ski slopes. It is my hope that we can soon meet to discuss my candidacy for transfer to your university.

Management 4900

It should state the result, its significance and any other conclusion(s), which may be relevant.
Introduction: A novel mouse mutant and the corresponding protein, mKIAA058 (in the following ‘KIAA’), was identified and further analysed. In order to understand the functions of this gene/protein, a mouse strain containing a non-functional allele (mKiAA058-. Null-allele) was successfully established. First data indicated an autosomal recessive inheritance as heterozygous (KIAA+/-) as well as homozygous knockout (KIAA-/-) animals were identified. The deficiency of this protein (‘Knockout KIAA’) affects multiple tissues, including skeletal defects (delayed/reduced development of bone and cartilage. growth retardation) as well as a progressive form of vascular degeneration. Later, a corresponding disease in humans was found in a small number of very young patients. The prospects of the patients are not clear at the time and the analysis of the mouse model may provide some hints for the severity of the disease. The analyses of the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease are still ongoing and some problems and experiments linked to these studies are given in the following. Statistical tests may be used to answer some of the questions.
In order to define potential effects of the presence/absence of the KIAA protein on the inheritance patterns, a number of breedings were performed. The genotypes of the parents were known and the genotypes of the litters (age: 14-16 days) were analysed by allele-specific PCR reactions.
In three parallel experiments (1.1, 1.2, 1.3), crossings of 5 wildtype males (KIAA+/+) with 10 heterozygous females (KIAA+/-) were started and all litters (given as total number of mice) were genotyped and the numbers of all possible genotypes are given in the following Table 1. All tested mice appear normal and show no altered phenotype at the tested age (day 14-16).
In three parallel

The Lifestyle Theory

Thus the lifestyle theory brings forth the issue of a rational choice that determines an individual’s involvement in crimes (Johnson, 2011). The present study focuses on an understanding of the lifestyle theory and the vital issues that may be associated with the theory as well as understand the probable solutions to complicated problems related to the theory.
As far as the lifestyle theory is concerned there are three interlocking models that constitute the theory. These are the structural model, the functional model, and the change model. Through a structural model, a lifestyle is defined operationally along with its features. It also explains how the lifestyle fits into a larger system of classification. The functional model delivers the developmental features of a lifestyle with respect to the fears, beliefs and values of a person in a community, distinguishing such factors into initiating ones and maintaining ones. The change model of the theory deals with the focus of change in a lifestyle. This is primarily concerned with the changes that occur naturally in the lifestyle of an individual during a lifetime influencing the behavior of the lifestyle (Walters, 2006, p.1).
The most important issue associated with the lifestyle theory is the fact that depending on lifestyles, individuals tend to get victimized and get involved into criminal activities. This has been discussed in several studies. Different individuals have different styles of living their lives. The different activities that individuals are involved may be mandatory or optional, leading to lifestyles being patterned, or customary, or persistent, common or involving routine activities (Robinson, n.d.). It can be discussed here that while there are certain activities that are customary or mandatory for almost all individuals to follow regularly which may be the routine activities of

Courts and schools

Courts and school Courts and school Free speech is a right that is possessed by every individual in the United s of America. however, students are deprived and rationed this right in the Ashland schools district in Ohio to the extent that it resembles a privilege (Baker, 1977). Every state has the possibility and responsibility to provide educational facilities for individuals. however, it is not within the jurisdiction of the state to deny students any of their constitutional rights such as freedom of speech (Baker, 1977). Several studies and analogies have been carried out, including those that utilize the argument of the fourteenth amendment, and the majority of authors state that speech regardless of its nature, is a liberty which individual possesses and restriction is a violation of this right. The congress clearly stated in the first amendment that no law should be made restricting free speech and that includes in the learning environment.
An example of a case involving the restriction of free speech is the Tinker case that took place at Des Moines Independent School District in the year 1969, whereby students who were against the Vietnam War put on black armbands to show their objection (Caplan, 2010). In the midst of this protesting action, the school decided to suspend anyone who would be seen with an armband (Russomanno, 2006). When the case was reviewed by the United States Supreme Court, the verdict was that the students have the right to express their opinions on any subject even on controversial or offensive views (Russomanno, 2006). However, there are some exceptions on free speech in schools and this should not be obstructive to the education process. Unfortunately, there are no guidelines that illustrate the extent to which speech can be regulated (Amar, 1992).
In Ashland schools district in Ohio, there are several policies that have been implemented to address the issue of speech in the school environment. The approaches that are taken by the districts are in an attempt to prevent violence from occurring in the education system as well as education to be carried out uninterrupted. Currently, the state prohibits the wearing of any gang related regalia. The district also makes an attempt to distinguish the expression of fighting words in the form of clothing or otherwise. Reference to this approach can be traced back to the “Cohen’s Jacket” case. In this case Cohen dressed in jacket that had the words “Fuck the draft”. This case is also used by the district for reference to the extent at which speech can be regulated in a schooling environment.
As an administrator, it is essential for one to be aware of the constitutional rights possessed by the students as well as other parties in the educational environment. There are several issues that conflict such as free speech and the normal functioning of the school. The administrator must be well educated on both aspects in order to know where to draw the line in the processes of implementing policies in the school. The administrator must also be aware of the persisting issue in the community that are subjected to use in hate speech and these must be addressed from a community perspective by educating the students on the issue at hand.

References
Amar, A. R. (1992). The bill of rights and the fourteenth amendment.&nbsp.Yale Law Journal,
1193-1284.
Baker, C. E. (1977). Scope of the First Amendment Freedom of Speech.&nbsp.Ucla L. Rev.,&nbsp.25,
964.
Caplan, A. H. (2010). Freedom of Speech in School and Prison.&nbsp.Washington Law Review,&nbsp.85,
71.
Russomanno, J. (2006). Dissent yesterday and today: The Tinker case and its
legacy.&nbsp.Communication Law and Policy,&nbsp.11(3), 367-391.

18482006 The Evolution of Womens Position in Society

61500 The author has presented Stephanie Coontz’s “Too Close For Comfort”. It addresses current sociological studies which find that there is a steep decline in American’s close relationships outside the sphere of marriage and the family. Coontz traces the changes which occurred in the role of marriage, as the source of emotional support to men and women, over a period: from Biblical times, through the medieval and Victorian ages, to the present decade. She holds that the emphasis on romantic love and marriage is an ideology which held reign only in the first half of the twentieth century. Coontz argues that while the expectation of finding “fulfillment and friendship in marriage” is justified, it is equally important to strengthen relationships outside the world of matrimony. “The Declaration of Sentiments,” drafted by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, is a milestone in the women’s suffragette movement in the United States. In 1848, the year in which the convention was held at Seneca Falls, New York, and at which the declaration was issued, the status of American women was drastically inferior to that of men. Stanton and her co-reformers list the grievances of American women, and formally announce their resolution to “use every instrumentality within our power to effect our object”. On the surface, Stephanie Coontz’s article and the Convention’s Declaration address entirely different issues: the former analyzes the cause and effects of making marriage the main source of emotional support, while the latter addresses women’s status.

“Healthcare Business &amp

Financing" Various empirical studies that have done over the past by the researchers to prove that there is a relationship between social, economic status and heath results. For example, a group of researchers of Internal medicine carried out research to determine whether there is a correlation between socioeconomic status and results for patients with a heart attack. The research discovered that poor patients who have been with a heart attack perform worse as compared to patients from the rich families. The argument may be by the fact that the poorest patient tend to undergo via extreme stress because they cannot meet their medical expenses as compared to the rich patients. Further, the study discovered those poor patients diagnosed with a heart attack were found to die early as compared to the rich. The reason for early death is due to the social, economic status. It was observed that patients from power social and economic background could not afford quality health care due to their low incomes. In addition, patients from the poor background are unable to adapt/change their lifestyle as compared to the rich. The discussion indicates that there is a relationship between socioeconomic status and health outcomes (Alter et al., 2006).
In America, health care is a privilege but not a right. Americans believe in conservatism. every individual should be able to cater for their needs including health care. The federal government has a role of empowering its citizens so that they can take care of their needs. The US constitution does not provide health care as a right. The Americans have been paying their medical bills without relying for the government to pay their medical bills. It is imperative to note that there is various reimbursement methods in healthcare system used to pay medical bills and include. billed, historical, specific service charge, bundle charge and capitulated reimbursement

Entrepreneurial business

The share of powered brushes is almost half of the value of the market.
The social factor that influences the toothbrush market is that consumers are getting more sensitive towards dental healthcare in order to reduce dental treatment. According to date UK consumers’ concerns regarding toothbrushes are: they value the features of the toothbrushes, the comfort they provide, if they are recommended by professional and they also have concerns more about health of gums rather than cavity protection. The findings suggest that consumers are willing to pay premium prices for toothbrushes addressing these concerns: (The Infoshop.com, Toothbrushes –UK-April 2004,
There is no specific environmental factors mentioned in reports, however the fact that more people are environmentally concerned should not be ignored. Any efforts in producing a new toothbrush should take this factor into consideration and adapt its manufacturing ability accordingly
The powered toothbrushes continuously evolve the ones with round oscillating bristle heads have helped to improve oral hygiene. According to clinical studies, powered toothbrushes are more efficient to remove plaque than manual therefore they are widely accepted among dentists.
In the late 1990’s the market of powered toothbrushes was shaped into two distinct categories: the high end toothbrushes ($20-$110) that provided complex motions to the bristles and the low end which provided very little cleaning benefit.
“The brush head, with its combination of fixed and moving bristles, was designed to have a more traditional sized brush head permitting patients to brush their teeth in an optimal manner recommended by a dentist, while the motorized circular portion of the brush promotes more effective cleaning.&nbsp. In addition, this brush has an angled shaft to permit easier access to the back teeth in the oral cavity”
The type of consumers that use powered toothbrushes are the

GFP Mutants with Altered Mass Spectra

92250 The green fluorescent protein (GFP), was discovered and isolated from the from the jellyfish Aequorea victoria (1). The native protein contains 238 amino acids which fold into six alpha helices and eleven beta strands forming a classical cylindrical beta sheet with anti-parallel strands. The GFP protein owes its fluorescence to the derived chromophore that is buried deep in the beta-barrel which protects interactions with the solvent. Due to its stable fluorescence, GFP has been used in biological studies as an important marker for processes like protein trafficking. Sequence data for GFP has led to the development of recombinant GFP proteins with modifications to increase the fluorescence intensity and longevity. There are many mutant GFPs with differences in absorption and emission spectra. There are enhanced GFP (EGFP) that has higher-intensity emission after blue-light excitation compared to wild-type GFP (4) (3). Another is GFPuv, a recombinant GFP with maximum emission spectra is 509nm, similar to that of wild-type GFP. GFPuv has a molecular weight of 29 kDa with three amino acid substitutions (Phe-99 to Ser, Met-153 to Thr, and Val-163 to Ala resulting in 18 times more brightness under ultra-violet (UV) light at 395nm. GFPuv is 18 times brighter than wild-type GFP. The large fluorescence of GFPuv making it suitable for experiments that require detection of changes in fluorescence. GFPuv expressed in highly expressed in E. coli is a soluble, fluorescent protein in contrast to wild-type GFP, which may be expressed in inclusion bodies as a nonfluorescent protein.

Hepatic Granulomas

&nbsp.In line with this matter, Alcantara-Payawal et al. (1997) stated that as much as 50 to 80% of patients who are drying from tuberculosis were observed to have clinical evidence of hepatic granuloma. (Alcantara-Payawal et al., 1997)

For this study, the researcher will discuss the basic pathophysiology on hepatic granulomas including its etiology, pathogenesis, pathology, diagnosis, treatment, clinical features, imaging studies and the necessary clinical intervention on the said disease.

A granuloma is a chronic inflammation of the macrophages, epitheloid cells as well as the giant multinucleated cells. (Williams &amp. Williams, 1983) Normally, the formation of a granuloma occurs when there is a coordinated interaction between the monocytes and macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelioid cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and fibroblasts. (Oloris et al., 2007)

As a clinical sign or a manifestation of infection, presence of toxic substances, allergic reaction, reaction of the autoimmune system, including the presence of neoplastic diseases (Williams &amp. Williams, 1983), the formation and development of hepatic granulomas is normally induced by the presence of a foreign body tissue such as the schistosome eggs (Van de Vijver et al., 2006. Loeffler et al., 2002) or Schistosoma mansoni eggs (Oloris et al., 2007) within the presinusoidal capillaries. These eggs normally secrete antigens that could activate the growth of the endothelial cells. It is the CD4+T cells responding to the presence of the egg antigens that causes the granuloma formation to start to develop around the tissue-trapped eggs. (Van de Vijver et al., 2006. Mwinzi et al., 2004)

Even though the real cause of granuloma formation remains unclear, it is believed that the lesions that occur protect the poorly soluble exogenous and/or endogenous irritants. (Hepatitis-Central, 2008) In other words, the body’s immunologic mechanisms convert the mononuclear phagocytic cells into epithelioid cells to form the granulomas.

Analysis of Why I Killed My Best Friend Novel by Amanda Michalopoulou

The 258-page long novel brings a story revolving around Maria, a young girl who is relocated from Nigeria to Greece to continue with her education there. However, she is depressed by this move as it takes her away from her lovely African continent. Although she is a native of Greece, she is not pleased with its language, school, food, classmates and the air she encounters in Athens. Later, she gets happiness after the arrival of Anna Horn, a Parisian girl with whom she develops a strong, but the controversial friendship that continues during their time in school and many years after the completion of their studies.

To begin with, Amanda clearly brings out the theme of friendship in the novel. Although they came from diverse cultural backgrounds, Maria and Anna become great friends in Athens. Being that they were foreigners, they felt out of place. Having been born in Nigeria, Maria had fallen in love with life there. Thus, she had regarded Africa as her favorite continent. In fact, she had forgotten that she traces her origin to Greece. Since she never appreciated that, she was so remorseful when taken to study in Athens. However, her sorrows came to an end when she met and befriended Anna. Apart from being foreigners in the school, they had to become great friends because they shared a lot of similar views and philosophies in life. This made them establish a very strong bond that could not be broken regardless of the competition they had against one another. They could go to class and attend demonstrations together. Later, this friendship continued even after the completion of their studies at a time when each of them was now a grown-up woman. However, despite their inseparable friendship, these girls had disguised enmity between them. They had created fiercest competition over boys, political beliefs and future ambitions.

Natural Gas Production in Eastern Kentucky Had a Negative Impact on Water Quality

The particular problem is examined in this paper. A series of reports published in regard to this issue are presented and critically discussed. Reference is made specifically to the impact of the oil and gas production in eastern Kentucky on the region’s water quality/ quantity. It has been proved that oil and gas production has contributed to the pollution of water across eastern Kentucky. the role of these activities in the pollution/ limitation of the region’s water may not be as high as initially estimated – especially because other activities, of similar type, i.e. coal mining activities, have also been found to be involved in the particular problem. However, oil and gas production are major contributors to the pollution/ limitation of water in eastern Kentucky, as reflected in the findings of relevant studies. measures should be introduced for the appropriate monitoring of these activities aiming to control their effects on the region’s water.

In order to understand the effects of oil and natural gas production in eastern Kentucky on the water quantity/ quality in the particular area, it would be necessary to describe the geographical structure of the region, especially in regard to its water deposits and their distribution/ use. The Kentucky River is a key feature in the greater region. its basin is quite expanded (Graph 1) covering the needs in the water of about 42 counties and 710,000 people (Kentucky River Watershed 2011). The river system has been estimated to 420 miles in total (Kentucky River Watershed 2011). In these terms, the protection of the quality and the quantity of the water of the River would be of significant value, taking into consideration the fact that the drilling works developed near the River can ‘pollute or dry up wells in a zone expanded in many miles’ (Kentucky River Watershed 2011). In other words, the oil and gas production developed across the eastern&nbsp.Kentucky region can affect the quality/ quantity of water in the region.&nbsp.

To Live or Not To Live The Terri Schiavo Debate

Many argue that it might have been, but then there were many arguments in this case. Not all of them were ethical or logical, and not all of them played out in court. The story of Terri Schiavo is so much more tragic than people stop to realize. When a situation is so easily preventable, how does it get so terribly out of hand, and how are even the most basic decisions of care handled? The bottom line, Terri Schiavo should have been alive today, and possibly even alive and well.

Terri Schiavo suffered a cardiac arrest due to an eating disorder on February 25th, 1990. She was without oxygen for several minutes and then lapsed into a coma. Her coma then evolved into a Permanent Vegetative State. For fifteen years, she remained in that state, until her feeding tube was finally removed for the last time on March 18th, 2005. She died thirteen days later, ending a fifteen-year battle with so many players, and yet so few concrete, satisfactory, answer (Quill, 2005).

Terri Schiavo was in a Permanently Vegetative State, also known as PVS. While experts tried to argue that she was in a Minimally Conscious State (MCS), at her autopsy, it was confirmed that she had been in a PVS. The difference between the two conditions is slight. Those patients who are in a PVS are unaware of self and environment. they may make gestures, sounds, and eye movements. These behavior, however, are involuntary. People in an MCS are aware of self and environment, but can only express it so much. They cannot speak, but their gestures, eye movements, and vocalizations are a deliberate attempt to communicate with those around them (Winslade, 2007). While Schiavo’s state was considered irreversible, there is much more that may have been learned from her had she survived. Studies have shown that some patients in a PVS can regain some level of consciousness. Some may live for decades in a PVS and begin to recover some consciousness.&nbsp.

The theoretical foundation of states regulatory response to the financial crisis

The Theoretical Foundation of s Regulatory Response to the Financial Crisis s There are many theories which have been put forward by many states as a strategy to regulate the financial institutions when a crisis strikes. These theories includes among others, the Money market operations by the central banks, the Deposit Insurance, Bank insolvency regime, Crisis management among others. This paper will therefore discuss the theoretical foundation of states regulatory response to the financial crisis taking into account how these theories have been applied in different countries like the United States, United Kingdom and Poland.
The Theoretical Foundation of States Regulatory Response to the Financial Crisis
Introduction
A financial crisis arises when the demand for money is more than the supply resulting in a liquidity problem forcing banks to borrow to make up for the shortfall and in some cases leading to a collapse of this banks. This results into a financial crisis. It is for this reasons that theories have been developed across the financial field on the regulatory response to the crisis. The following are some of the financial regulations that are being adopted by many nations across the globe in trying to control the financial crisis includes. liquidity risk management, money market operations by the central banks, bank insolvency regimes, financial crisis management, and the deposit insurance. This paper seeks to explore the theoretical foundation of states regulatory response to the financial crisis.
States Regulatory Response to the Financial Crisis
The following are some of the theories of state regulatory response to the financial crisis, which we are going to look at in this study and their applicability in different nations.
The Deposit Insurance
The Deposit Insurance has been used as a way of regulating the financial institutions to control the financial crisis from inflicting adverse effects on the economy of a country. The deposit insurance is a measure used to protect the bank depositors in case of a financial crisis (Strater and Corneli 2008 p.46). It protects the investors from losing the money they invest in the banks in case the banks have liquidity problem and become insolvent. The Insurance deposits ensure that the investors recover the money. The deposit insurance operates by allowing the banks to deposit part of the money with the Insurance deposit to cushion them from any financial crisis that may lead to recession and closure of these banks. The United States for example protected the smaller banks from the poor states by adopting the insurance Deposit as a strategy to avert a looming financial crisis (McDonald 1996 p.19-23).
Liquidity risk management
Liquidity risk management theory is also a regulatory response theory to financial crisis. Liquidity is the ability of a bank to fund its assets and meets its long and short term obligation as and when they fall due. When a bank is faced with a financial crisis, it is not able to fund its assets or meet its obligation as and when they fall due. This therefore call for a liquidity risk management strategies such as the adoption of the liquidity adjusted value at risk and the liquidity at risk to manage the liquidity problem arising from the foreign exchange reserves.( Duttweiler 2009 p. 300).
Money market operations
Money market operations by the central banks are also a theoretical regulatory response to a financial crisis. The central bank is a financial institution charged with the responsibility of issuing the currency and regulation of money supply and the control of interest rates of a country. The central bank also regulates the functioning of all central banks of a country. As a regulatory institution, is charged which the responsibility of supervisory and control by being the lender of last resorts to all commercial banks during a financial crisis. The operation of money market by the Central bank was seen in the North Rock bank, a bank for retailing deposits at one time faced a financial crisis which almost lead to the sale of its assets as it could not obtain funding from the wholesale market which had faced a closure. This prompted an intervention from the central bank to obtain cash to save the bank from collapse by using the open market operations to be able to cope with its short term interest rates. This response of regulation by the central bank through money market operation has been seen to be a good strategy in controlling a financial crisis. This theory was used to control the financial crisis in Poland (Ugolini 1996 p. 9-21).
Bank insolvency regime
Bank insolvency arises due to inability if a bank to meet its obligations as result of liquidity problems. The insolvency of a bank is declared when the obligations of a bank is in excess of its assets. In this case the bank will be declared bankrupt. This therefore calls for the establishment of a bank solvency regime, whether corporate or special. A special bank insolvency regime ensures that a timely action is taken in case of a financial crisis. In most cases it has been seen to provide consistency between the bankruptcies related functions and supervision. By taking a quick response, this assists in controlling a financial crisis. The Citibank and Bank of America had to adopt the bank insolvency regime at a time this banks were faced with liquidity problem to an extent of becoming insolvent (Crotty 2009 p.553-580).
References
Crotty J. 2009, Structural causes of the global financial crisis: a critical assessment of the new
Financial architecture: (Cambridge Journal of Economics), Vol. 3 p.563-580
Duttweiler Rudolf, 2009, Managing Liquidity in Banks: A Top Down Approach p. 300
McDonald Roland, 1996, Deposit insurance: Bank of England. Centre for Central Banking
Studies p.19-23
Strater N Corneli M 2008, Deposit insurance: An empirical study of private investors knowledge
and perception p.46
Ugolini Piero, 1996. National Bank of Poland: the road to indirect instruments P.9-21

Dream of Red Chambers

Imperial Exam about Non – Attachment

Chia Lan and Pao-yu both went for the exam. Chia Lan’s success was evident but Pao-Yu’s changed attitude towards studies was very curious in nature. This was displayed in his result when he stood seventh and Chia Lan ranked one hundred and thirteenth. After the exam, Pao-yu disappeared from the gate of the examination hall and his feeling of non-attachment from the worldly duties and affairs and from all materialist attractions diminished. This became more obvious before his departure, he said to Precious Virtue: “Chieh-chieh, I am going now. You can wait with Tai-Tai for the good tidings”.&nbsp.And to his mother, Madame Wang he said, “I shall never be able to repay Tai-tais kindness to me but I shall try my best at the Examinations and earn the degree. Perhaps this will make Tai-Tai happy and in a way atone for my past unworthiness."&nbsp.

Chia Cheng about Ritual

Chia Cheng adhered to the teachings of Confucian canon and governed his life following those teachings. For him, the sincerity lies in the mourning and true emotion and not in pompous and expensive ceremonies. Despite all the objections and criticisms, Chia Cheng abandoned the place of mourning and left the arrangement for the rituals on the hand of other people. And the impact the rituals had on the lives and minds of the subject and people around Chia Cheng can be well demonstrated from the sayings of Phoenix, “Lao Tai-Tai was never extravagant in her life”. And also commented, “I do not understand what Lao-yeh meant about the sincerity of mourning and the teachings of the sages but I know that Lao Tai-Tai used to love Nai-Nai and myself and was kinder to us than the rest and that I for one will be ashamed to face her in after¬ life if her funeral is skimped. So I implore Nai-Nai to spare no expense. Lao Tai-Tai provided for this herself”.

The Swimming Pool

The main problem is that the new maintenance engineer was not qualified to run the pool operations, the general manger of the club had just fired the previous engineer who was qualified in this field. Mr. Angelo, the new maintenance engineer was qualified in all positions other than the repairing and maintenance of the swimming pool.
The manager supposed that the experience of Mr. Angelo in other fields would substitute in the management of the pool. Besides, the manager believed that four day training on the basics of the maintenance and repair of the pool would provide him with enough knowledge to effectively run the pool. she was wrong.
It was the responsibility of the general manager to ensure that the current engineer as fit for all the positions. Instead, she assumed that he was proficient at other roles. he would as well manage the pool (DeCenzo, David and Stephen 25).
In the cedar case, the management seems to be under trouble due to the change of staff, the situation could only be changed if the new employees and managers receive specific training on how Cedar resort is operated. Otherwise, new staff will arrive with fresh ideas and ways of management (DeCenzo, David and Stephen 49). It appears that cedar has managers who were familiar with the preferences of the trusted customers, the new staff came with new ways of running the resort that did not work for the members, they opted to leave.
The managers ought to have come up with a way of training the new staff in a manner that would suit the previous standards of the resort, by so doing, the quality of the services would not have deteriorated as it now.
Human resource professional are supposed to make decisions that they can be accountable in case of any setbacks. Human Resource managers and other decision makers of the management who take part in the process of making decisions have in the past years progressively been alleged “personally liable” in the federal and state employment laws. In most cases, it is due to a decision that they made in the wrong manner.
The case studies on the swimming pool and cedar demonstrates personal liability for general managers who take part in human resource decision making, and what these managers can do to reduce their experience to personal liability. This is the case in cedar, the new management is supposed to understand that it is their responsibility to train their staff the way they want the resort to be run. Besides, the freshly trained employees are supposed to work under the watch of a supervisor until the supervisor confirms that they can work independently. This can be of much help in reducing future errors that could be fatal (DeCenzo, David and Stephen 4).
Professional lawyers on human resources cases support prolonging liability to individual employees since they feel that experience can cause the business officials to more in a more careful manner to weigh the alternatives before taking an action. These accusations can also pressure the business to settle out of court when existing workers are faced with personal liability. The situation in the both case studies could have been worse if the members sustained serious harms demanding for a full investigation that would identify that the manager hired a person with no experience. If these members had opted to file a lawsuit, the manager could be charged with several charges such as personal liability. Such cases can be avoided by ensuring that newly hired workers are fully qualified for the task they are assigned
Work Cited
DeCenzo, David A, and Stephen P. Robbins. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2005. Print.

Special Needs populations and their impacts on Parole and Probation Officers

Studies show mixed results about the effectiveness of these programs. however, no one can deny the importance of these programs in the judicial system when the criminal activities have reached new levels. Juvenile rehabilitation programs are of major importance in special needs populations apart from other programs.
The ever growing special needs population and the nature of their needs have affected the role of Parole and Probation officers. A shifting focus to the needs of special needs populations is not unique to Parole and Probation officers. special needs populations by their very nature have unique needs, and many government institutions are attempting to shift to cater to these needs more appropriately. The primary role of a Parole and Probation officer is obviously to monitor the rehabilitation of criminal offenders outside of a prison environment with an eye towards re-integration and reducing rates of repeat offenders. The increased complexity of the nature of crimes has caused the judicial system to initiate a diverse number of offender programs to address them. It has also extended the scope of the role and duties of parole and probation officers who are being assigned in charge to supervise the programs. To understand the ways special needs populations have changed the roles of Parole and Probation officers, one must first understand key differences between those two roles. Probation officers are in place to supervise rehabilitation without the offender having been in prison at all for a crime – they are assigned probation as a replacement to prison, with the understanding that if they violate the terms of probation they will be sent to prison. Parole officers, on the other hand, deal with people who have been released from prison on parole after completing part of their sentence – the fact that they have been in prison makes addressing special needs populations, who often have a harder time dealing with correctional institutions,

Consumers’ Attitude towards Celebrity Endorsements in Advertising

The total advertising expenditure in the US for the same year was a whopping $279.6 billion (U.S. Annual Advertising Spending Since 1919, 2008). Also in the UK, the advertising industry provides almost thirteen thousand jobs, which shows how it has helped the British economy (Whyte, n.d.). This is because capitalism has engendered an emphasis on consumerism wherein economies rely mostly on consumption expenditure (Busler, 2002). For instance, consumption expenditure accounted for an estimated 68% of US GDP (Busler, 2002). Consequently, companies have to rely on—aside from product and service quality and other strategies needed to produce what consumers will buy—advertising in order to attract consumers (Busler, 2002).
Hence, based on these facts, it cannot be denied that advertising plays a major role in today’s cutthroat world of business. The competition is so fierce that a supermarket in the US is known to carry an estimated twelve thousand brands in their store—and that is just a supermarket, it does not even include department stores and other industries where brand names are important (Kulkarni and Gaulkar, 2005). Because of this, numerous advertising strategies—where the avenues used are the different types of media: TV, film, print, and radio—have been developed throughout the years to make sure that the billions spent on it are worthwhile. Moreover, because of the proven significance of advertising to various businesses, whether big or small, innumerable studies have been conducted in order to ascertain its effects on consumer behavior and attitudes—as the end goal of advertising is, of course, to sell products and increase revenues for companies.&nbsp.

Important Characteristics of the Clinical Instructors in Radiology

71750 There have been numerous studies, carried out to examine the characteristics of clinical instructors in nursing and related health programs. These studies have much information that relates to radiography. The article is about behavioral characteristics that clinical instructors should adopt in radiography and which characteristics they should designate. The journal targets clinical instructors to enable them to improve their behavioral characteristics for better clinical experiences. The journal mostly focuses on the behavioral characteristics of clinical instructors, there are numerous challenges encountered in the clinical education. One of the problems is that each student may not be able to spend enough time with the clinical supervisor. This may originate from various causes one of them being that there may not be enough patients for students to gain experience. The importance of identifying these problems is in order not to be restricted into thinking that the clinical instructor solely bears the responsibility of student learning experience. The challenges, however, are minor with the clinical instructor playing the leading role in students learning experience. According to Jennett, clinical instructors have a significant effect on the success or failure of a student in the clinic. The instructors supervise, advice, coach and facilitate students in solving problems, decision-making, and critical thinking. They also have the responsibility of providing a learning environment conducive to their students.

Views on the United States in this Economic Crisis

Personal values are honed since birth. Studies continually search key proofs to find out what parts of one’s values are acquired genetically, culturally or environmentally. Either way, these values spell out how people function as a productive citizen of the world.
Values such as respect, compassion, magnanimity, generosity and other important concepts that an individual keeps making a life for himself amidst everyday struggle are the guiding blocks of his morale. Growing up in a close knit family where respect for elders is a prime value to follow, I have learned to appreciate the wisdom that elders emulate. Much of growing up, half one’s lifetime is spent trying to figure one’s role and value in the world. And elders like parents, or teachers, or any other people who are more experienced in particular endeavors can impart both knowledge, skills and wisdom that help people like me go through maturity more smoothly.
Personal values affect an individual’s decisions. Marriage is a very big decision in life because it is definitely life changing. Other cultures find 20 years old the marrying age, while other traditions find 35 as the perfect marrying age. How one values matrimony will eventually spell when he would decide to embark on it. I value monogamy and so I will make sure that before I get married, I would be ready for marriage physically, mentally, financially and emotionally.
Personal values are organic. People continue to learn and grow and interact with his surroundings. As an individual explores and relates with other environments such as the place of his work, organizational values are bound to affect his own personal values.
Organizational values hold the beliefs and traditions of a group of people working together towards one goal.

The effect that war has on soldiers mentality

This study therefore attempts to explore the effects that war has on a soldier’s mentality, or what some scholars refer to as the emotional or psychological effects of war on soldiers.
Studies carried out by psychologists’ indicate that soldiers ideally face psychological disorders associated with wars. In the novel ‘yellow birds’ by Kevin Powers, a story is told of a 21 year old soldier who went to war in Iraq and lost a friend ,Murph ,during combat. The soldier narrates his ordeal during the war and its aftermath in his life on now he’s faced with legal, emotional and psychological battles that he needs to cope up with forever (Powers 10).Below is a discussion on the various metal disorders soldiers are prone to, not exclusively from Powers’ narrative piece, but also from the voices of other scholars in this field.
The experiences in the battlefield-in most cases after combat- does leave soldiers with unpleasant physical and mental ‘injuries’ that they have to nurse upon coming back home, or long after the war has ended. The mental injuries normally present themselves in the form of mental illnesses. Martinez et al, (73) enumerates the various forms of mental illnesses that soldiers are prone to. They include. the post traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, and alcohol or substance abuse. The living evidence of these is to be seen in the lives of surviving war veterans. The post emotional effect of war in them is distressing and hurting, not just for them but their families’ alike. Each of these mental disorders is discussed below.
One of the main effects of war on the mental health of soldiers is the Post-traumatic stress. It occurs after one does experience or witness a life threatening event like the scenes in a military combat. Key symptoms of this illness include nightmares,

What effect s can debt have on personal or professional relationships Does this influence behavior Construct an argument to support your claim

Depending on the debtor’s external conduct, work and friendship relationship tend to suffer. In most cases, debtors tend to feel that their friends or colleagues judge them because of their financial situations and behaviors, which could affect their social interactions qualities. Generally, debts triggers stress and tensions among people and in some cases, it results in constant fights hence creating unsafe environments (Wolny 58). Debts can have impacts personally or professionally. Professionally, debt can affects a worker’s overall work performance in that an individual can become inattentive or limited focus while performing his duties at the work place hence leading to job losses or financial problems (Wolny 59).
Debtors usually feel socially controlled because they sometimes cannot afford their necessities, which might be an indirect pressure to them. As a result, this might affect their social standing. Alternatively, debts can influence a person’s behavior. In this case, a person’s self-worth might be affected which would then lead to emotional problems (Wolny 62). The inability of an individual to borrow could eventually lead to social problems. Numerous studies reveal that personal debt levels tend to be associated with related adverse health behaviors and poor psychological behaviors. One of the most common behaviors that might be influenced is stress. Stress remains the biggest mechanism through which debts can affect psychological health. Generally, a person’s stress experience can be related to the reduction of immune system functioning and the release of stress-related hormones. In most cases, they influence a person’s cardiovascular function and blood pressure. In some instances, the problematic personal debts and outcomes that are associated with it such bankruptcy can lead to a person’s decline in psychological health. Alternatively, some studies reveal that debts can lead to depression, suicidal cases and

The Recruitment Challenges of Black CAP

According to Bradshaw (2007), in any profession, employees are attracted to work for an organization that can guarantee a full-time job.1 This way, employees are assured of job security and development in their course of employment in the organization. With this in mind, Black CAP employs individuals to work for it on a contract basis, which is a part-time job that lasts for three to five years. In this regard, the organization has the challenge of hiring people that wish to work on a part-time basis. In fact, studies have documented that most of the people that work on a part-time basis lack the necessary skills, experience, and competence that can foster organizational growth (Allen 2008). This is attributable to the idea of lack of full-time job that can lock such people from acquiring skills and experience obtained by people employed permanently through training and development and other incentives accrued from long term employment.2
Therefore, Black CAP may end up only hiring desperate employees that have failed to secure a job in other organizations and decide to work in any organization under any working conditions provided by the organization. Besides, Kim (2006) noted that owing to the fact that the employees know that they would not be working for the organization for a long time, employees can lack the required motivation to keep them productive to bring change to the organization.3 Yudhvir (2012) argued that there are many incentives that help improve the morale of workers including non-monetary benefits.4 One of these incentives is the assurance of the employer to the employee that he has a permanent job that he can rely on. This way, the employee is motivated to work hard to produce top results for the organisation.5
Since Black CAP is a nonprofit organization, its remuneration package for its employees is much far less than that of private and public sectors. Therefore, the organization is faced with the challenge of attracting proficient employees&nbsp.who would wish to work in an organisation where they are remunerated well (Chaudhary 2012).&nbsp.

AMRICAN Jewish Striggle

American Jewish Struggle Jewish entry into the Americas s back to about 1492 when they were forced out of Spain. The expulsion triggered Jewish migration into among other places the Netherlands. When the Dutch established a colony in Recife, Brazil, some Jews moved with them. In 1654 Portugal recaptured Recife from the Dutch and Jews fled across the Caribbean with some heading to New Amsterdam. This was a remote Dutch port settlement and the first for Jews in North America (Sarna and Golden).
Jews upheld their long held tradition of preserving their identity, customs and religion. Like other Jews in the rest of the world they developed the following traits:
i. Jews organized themselves around synagogues. For instance, New York, Newport, Charleston and Philadelphia Jewish communities maintained their local synagogue that catered by their religious needs.
ii. Jews who established themselves in large settlements like New York and Newport distinguished themselves in trade and commercial enterprise.
iii. American Jews retained the group identity based on their point of origin. For example, Jews from Eastern Europe identified themselves as Sephardic Jews. At the same time, those from Germany called themselves Ashkenazi Jews (Rosove 50).
With the American Independence, the nation granted its citizens freedom which extended to religion. Consequently, Jews had to struggle against members of their community dissenting from their Judaic religion to join among other religious inclinations, Christianity, Atheism and secular ways of life. Jews had to withstand prejudices promoted by the freedom of worship in the United States.
Starting from the 1840, American Jews struggled against widespread adoption of American models in their synagogues which threatened their long-held traditions. For example, rabbis began to merge aspects of their religion with Orthodox and Protestant American denominations as others sought to adopt the Reform Judaism (Rosove 52).
When the American Civil War began, Jews also found themselves split into Southern pro-slavery and Northern anti-slavery Jews. The ensuing tensions brought anti-Semitic sentiments in America to the fore. In the armies, Jews fought to have their own chaplains until the law was amended to allow this (normally, only Christian ordained ministers occupied this role). In 1872, General Order No.1. an anti-Jewish order called for the expulsion of Jews from General Ulysses Grant’s army regiment. Protests by Jews made President Abraham Lincoln reverse the order (Sarna and Golden).
Politics, particularly prior to and after World War II has presented a trying existence for American Jews. The persecution of Jews by the Stalinist regime in Russia, the Nazi regime in Germany and the Holocaust show manifestations of Jewish struggles that account for significant immigration to the U.S (Charters 24).
After 1948, American Jews have fought with allegiance and political identity issues around the sense of belonging to the Zionist nation of Israel and the U.S. The Palestinian and Arab World challenge on the legitimacy of Israel has also impacted heavily on American Jews (Sarna and Golden).
Jewish tradition also presents a challenge to individual spirituality in the modern American Jew. For instance, unlike other religions such as Islam that are passed down generations through the father, Judaism is matrilineal. Judaism also discourages intermarriages with non-Jews which has escalated in present-day America. Israel also continues warring with her Middle Eastern neighbors particularly the Palestinians, Hamas and Hezbollah militants. These developments contribute to modern American Jews struggle with identity from the religious, social and political standpoint.
Cited Works
Charters, David. "Jewish Terrorism and the Middle East." The Journal of Conflict Studies,
27(2) (2007): 23-36.
Rosove, John. "Israeli and American Jews-The Struggle for Consensus and Current
Tensions." Jewish Journal (2014): 50-52.
Sarna, Jonathan and Jonathan Golden. The American Jewish Experience through the
Nineteenth Century: Immigration and Acculturation. n.p October 2000. 22
October 2014
.

Compare and contrast two leaders

Hitler was instrumental in German Nationalist movement, who is accused for exterminating Jews, and depicted by historians as devil incarnate. In this context, words of Konrad Heiden hold true. “For years, Mein Kampf stood as a proof of the blindness and complacency of the world. In its pages Hitler announced –long before he came to power—a program of blood and terror in a self revelation of such overwhelming frankness that few had the courage to believe it…That such a man could go so far towards realizing his ambitions—that is a phenomenon the World will ponder for centuries to come” (Konrad 1969). Mohandas Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869, to Karamchand Gandhi, at Porbandar, an obscure town in Gujarat. He had a very good childhood as his father occupied high office of the province. In his childhood Gandhi was very timid, shy, and introvert and not smart and good at studies. He got married at the early age of thirteen, as was the custom of his community, which affected his education a little bit. Somehow he completed his high school education and joined college, but his performance was not satisfactory and subsequently dropped out just after three months. His family adviser suggested that studying law and obtaining barrister title from England was rather easy and he was sent to England. After completing his law study in England he returned to India. He was not a successful lawyer in India, and hence his brother arranged to send him to South Africa in pursuit of his career as a lawyer.
Adolph Hitler was born to Alois Hitler on 20th April, 1889 in Braunau-am-Inn, Austria near German border. His father was a senior custom official who retired from civil service when he was only six. Adolph was very intelligent and ambitious to be a painter. As his father was in civil service, he was educated in the best school of that time. His father wanted him to follow his career and reach great heights in civil

Why Comprehensive Sex Education Should Be Taught in the United States

There is no point denying the fact that making sex education part of the curriculum to be taught to the students is true, one of the most effective means of its deliverance. Despite that, justification of&nbsp.such an attempt requires considerable rationale because deliverance of sex education in schools and colleges would decide the children’s orientation towards sex. The way sex education is delivered, the age at which students are delivered particular concepts and the sensibility students show towards gaining such knowledge are critical factors that can both make and ruin a nation. Looking at the matter from such a broad perspective raises several issues. What becomes particularly challenging is the selection and designing of the most rational form of curriculum and coursework that would effectively deliver all concepts without being offensive on moral and ethical grounds. Despite all these problems, it is imperative that sex education is delivered in order to have the nation educated on various aspects of sex. This will pave the way to maturing the attitude people generally adopt towards sex. Lack of sex education makes people susceptible to acquiring various sexually transmitted diseases.
Many issues the American society confronts today pertain to sex. With the advent of technology, juveniles have developed a greater tendency towards visualizing sex without having matured enough to understand the underlying factors that encourage such a wide-scale projection of sex and vulgarity on media. Juveniles fall prey to sexual content displayed on uncensored channels and pornographic internet sites. Moved by the unexplored secrets of the “wonderland”, it is little wonder that they indulge in such practices that make them repent at a later stage in life. Most of the issues that surface over the course of time pertain to deteriorating sexual health. Apropos the inappropriate sexual practices, studies have shown that juveniles in America are frequently falling prey to sexual diseases. According to the 1997 report issued by the Institute of Medicine, every year, as many as 3 million cases of diseases transmitted sexually have been noticed among teenagers&nbsp.(Murphy).&nbsp.

Effectiveness of PreEmployment Screening in the Prevention of Staff Dishonesty

However, some of the studies suggest that in certain cases pre-employment screening does not proves to be a very effective tool to stop staff dishonesty. there are other variables responsible for the occurrence of dishonesty amongst the staff. So the underlying research questions here are:
The sources used for this study shall be the scholarly articles on the previous related studies. Moreover, an in depth study of the profiles of the organizations shall be made which have been subjected to staff dishonesty. Investigations shall be made into their pre-employment screening programs.
Generally speaking staff dishonesty can be defines as “any intentional behaviour on the part of an organisational member viewed by the organisation as contrary to its legitimate interests” (Gruys and Sackett 2003). This phenomenon of staff dishonesty could be because of various reasons. For example, “job dissatisfaction can be an explaining variable for some acts of staff dishonesty. Staff who are unhappy with their working environment or circumstances have been shown to be much more likely to offend” (Mangione and Quinn, 1975) . or it might be beacsuse, “staff who are under external financial pressures, such as high levels of personal debt may be inclined to steal from their employers to ease their financial burden” (Merton, 1938). Other than this studies have shown that opportunity is the key to understanding why some staff engage in deviant behavior (Astor, 1972).
So the basic framework that these research findings suggest is that there are certain basic or imperative causes that underline the behavior of staff dishonesty and furthermore certain procedures that organizations deploy in their pre-employment screening to rule out the individuals who might be prone to criminal activities might actually prevent staff dishonesty.
Quantitative methods will be used for this study: the independent

Textbook Analysis 5

The books is mostly organized according to chronology of the civilizations and roughly sectioned according to geographic location. The book takes a broad approach to the study of social studies. It is not just a history book, where the overwhelming emphasis is usually on dates, battles and important people. The full scope of the human experience is encompassed on the pages of this text. For example, chapter 4 presents information on the ancient societies of Egypt and Kush. Rather than learning about the pharaoh in abstract terms, the book is adept at showing why pharaoh was central to the lives of all Egyptians through the importance of their religious belief in an afterlife. The book is also good at getting student s to connect with these ancient peoples on a personal level. Each chapter begins with a short reading titled, “If You Were There…” The student is presented with a situation that is designed to elicit some sort of emotion. For example, the chapter on Egypt and Kush begins by discussing the influence Egyptian culture had over Kushite culture. The students are asked how they feel about their older sister having a baby and choosing to give it an Egyptian name instead of a Kushite name. These discussions and readings are a strength of this textbook. They allow for spontaneous bits of all the social sciences to come into the discussion, instead of focusing solely on the historical doings of these people.
Each chapter in the book is divided into two to five sections. Each one of these section assessments asks questions typical of a social studies textbook. Some are designed to reinforce main ideas and vocabulary presented in the section reading. Other questions are designed to engage the student in higher level thinking by asking them to evaluate a statement from the text or to think critically about information from the section just read. This is not, however the only assessment offered by

NUTRITION FOR AN ACTIVE LIFESTYLE

Water is the main component that keeps the volume of the blood in the body.
DEHYDRATION AND HYDRATION: Because of the vital roles of water in the body functioning, keeping the fluid level of the body is important for athletes who exercise or practice for long hours. A workout under the duration of thirty minutes can get on with water only, but beyond that water loss from the body will lead to dehydration. For athletes probably the most important nutritional concern is fluid replacement. The main loss of water from the body is due to perspiration. In water sports like swimming, one will not even know the loss of water through perspiration as perspiration is rather invisible here. According to various studies if one loses water up to two or more percent of ones body weight ( water makes 60% of the body weight) due to sweating ( If the athlete weigh 50 Kilograms and if he loses one litre sweat ) , that will lead to a drop in blood volume. This will force the heart to work harder to pump the blood through the arteries. This is the extreme situation of dehydration. This leads to muscle cramps. The functioning of the brain heavily depends on water as pointed out by K.G styles, the hydration technique expert (http://EzineArticles.com/ ), and thus dehydration affects the brain leading to fatigue and dizziness. If not rehydrated immediately this situation may even lead to heat illnesses like Heat Stroke and Heat Exhaustion. In addition to excessive sweating, other causes of dehydration are inadequate fluid intake, failure to replace fluid losses during and after the exercises, working out in dry hot weather, in the open, and drinking only when one is thirsty.
According to, Ron.j. Maughan and Robert Murray, though we usually take care of the dehydration due to sweat lose during exercises, not much scientific interest is shown to study the pre exercise dehydration. Pre exercise dehydration may be due to

Theories of Attachment

BONDING: THEORIES OF ATTACHMENT ID Number: of School Word Count: 650Date of Submission: September 14, 2011
BONDING: THEORIES OF ATTACHMENT
The components of a healthy mother-child bonding includes hugging, kissing, cooing, caressing and holding the infant more often, especially in the first few hours after birth. All these are designed to promote early contact between mother and child in which studies showed this in turn leads to increased likelihood of breast-feeding, longer periods of breast-feeding and talking or speaking to the child in a more sensitive manner (Parke &amp. Clarke-Stewart, 2010, p. 114). The importance of healthy bonding is to ensure the very survival of a baby who is overly dependent on the mother, unlike other mammals or animals who can more or less fend for themselves right after birth. New longer-term research studies had likewise shown that bonding occurs not only if the mother cares for the child but also with the fathers (Belluck, 2011, p. 1) in which fatherhood is a crucial component in raising successfully the child and of nurturing a family.
One attachment theory developed by psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby had emphasized the need of infants to have one consistent primary caregiver to whom they can attach normally during their social and emotional development, typically from 6 months to 2 years old. Usually, it is the mother that provides the need for an attachment figure but other people may in some cases be acceptable such as the father, the grandmother, the older sibling or close relatives.
Another prominent theory on bonding is the one developed by Klaus and Kennell which states that maternal bonding is important which in turn gave rise to the new practice of bringing a new baby to its mother instead of being brought to the nursery. The theory became controversial as they postulated that maternal deprivation can lead to maladjustments later on such as an eating disorder, personality defects, juvenile delinquency and substance abuse by a failure to bond.
I believe the attachment theory that is best aligned and integrated with my own views of attachment is the single caregiver theory. Infants stick to one caregiver during their first months of existence and any changes will result in the so-called separation anxiety as the infant grows a bit older and able to recognize faces and voices. It is therefore very vital to have only one person as the primary caregiver, maybe relieved by someone else but only for brief periods of time so as not to cause stress, anxiety, fear or other negative emotions on the baby who sees long periods of separation as a threat to its survival. The attachment theory by Bowlby is now generally accepted and is used to guide new therapies and also in formulating social and childcare policies today.
Bonding refers to the feelings of the mother towards her baby while attachment is the strong emotional bond that develops between them. The short-term benefits for the baby is its immediate survival (Rathus, 2010, p. 115) while the longer term effects of good attachment is an ability to later on develop other types of bonding in adult life, again as propounded by Bowlby. The theory of attachment is built on the concept of a close emotional relationship between two persons that in this case, pertains to a mother and her infant or child. The four characteristics of a good bonding-attachment are proximity, separation anxiety, pleasure upon reuniting and lastly, a general orientation of an infants behavior towards the primary caregiver being just around or in a nearby place (close proximity) for its own reassurance (Maccoby, 1980, p. 81).
Any caregiver must therefore pay close attention to these four factors or characteristics in caring for the infant. Additionally, Klaus and Kennell had also proposed their separate theory of skin-to-skin contact to develop stronger and closer bonds by experimenting with two groups of newly-born infants. At any rate, bonding develops later on to be used as schema in adulthood.
References
Belluck, P. (2011, September 12). “In study, fatherhood leads to drop in testosterone.” The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/13/health/research/13testosterone.html?src=ISMR_AP_LO_MST_FB
Maccoby, E. E. (1980). Social development: psychological growth and the parent-child relationship. CA, USA: Harcourt-Brace Jovanovich.
Parke, R. D. &amp. Clarke-Stewart, A. (2010). Social development. MA, USA: John Wiley &amp. Sons.
Rathus, S. A. (2010). CDEV. CA, USA: Cengage Learning-Wadsworth.

Coconut Oil although a saturated fat is good for you

For that matter, different data and information regarding the use of coconut oil for different applications can be found in abundance. The study conducted is related to the said accumulation of data and information that can present the benefits and useful applications of coconut oil in different field and aspects of the human subsistence. In addition, one of the important objectives is to be able to state the different nutritional and health benefits of coconut oil.
The determination of the composition of coconut oil is one of the primary aspects that are needed to be studied to be able to present the reasons behind the benefits of the said oil. Coconut oil is composed of saturated fat (90%). Although this is the case, the said fats are primarily medium chain triglycerides that are considered less harmful that other types of saturated fats that are generally considered harmful. Specifically it is composed if saturated fatty acids (92%), monounsaturated fatty acids (6%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (2%) (Fife, 2004. 2006. Holzapfel and Holzapfel, 2004). The kinds of fatty acid composition are presented in Table 1.
The fat content of coconut oil can be considered to bring about false impression that it is bad for the health due to the word fat itself. On the other hand, the main compositions of coconut oil which are medium chain triglycerides are different from the saturated fat that can harm a person upon high intake. On the contrary, the components of coconut oil with the unique saturated fat composition had been proven for its positive effects (Fife, 2004).
Based on different studies and researches coconut oil can be used for both the nutritional and health benefits. For that matter it had been described as “nutraceutical” due to the capability to cure ailments and help in the nourishment of the body (Holzapfel and

Developing a Quantitative Research Plan

Foreign direct investment in the host country is made because of many factors which include cheap labor in the country, special facilitation of the government of host country to foreign country such as low tax rate or tax exemption, or the vast business opportunities in the host country. Sometimes FDI is made in a country which is nearby to the sea land or from where foreign companies find near location from its buyer and seller (Atique, Ahmad, and Azhar, 2004).
The importance of FDI for host countries is even more than the foreign investors. It makes an improve balance of payment summary for the host countries. Countries that have higher FDI are always in a fruitful position and their economy boost rapidly. It also reduces the trade barriers between the host country and foreign companies. Furthermore, through FDI the host country not only receives the cash inflow but also new technologies, new innovative procedure and products are transferred. Through FDI, host country also receives their management skills and expertise which help for local domestic companies (Li and Liu, 2005).
Some researchers argues that the impact of FDI on economy growth of the host country depends on the condition of the country, its political and government stability (Freckleton, Wright &amp. Craigwell 2010). While some studies claimed that FDI does not lead to the growth of the host country where there is a lacking of absorbing it (Borensztein et.al., 1998. Hermes and Lensink, 2003).
Some studies argue that the important factor of FDI on the economic growth of host country is the employment generation (Hermes and Lensink, 2003). While some studies claims that technological diffusion is the factor which helps in economic growth (Borensztein, Gregorio, &amp. Lee, 1998). According to (UNCTAD, 1999), FDI helps to increase competition in the local market which makes domestic market more efficient.
The study focuses on the impact of foreign direct investment on the economic growth of

Autism Related to Child Language Disorder/Intervention

This paper will explore the connection between autism and child language disorder, and between autism and the various interventions employed to mitigate the effects of the disorder.
It is widely acknowledged that there are unanswered questions regarding the effect cognitive defects might have on theories relating to the causes and nature of infantile autism. First of all, what are the limitations of the cognitive defect and does it go beyond language? Secondly, does it form the core handicap which triggers other symptoms? Thirdly, if there is evidence that it does, is the cognitive effect a direct cause of the behavioral syndrome, or should an interaction exist between a specific set of environmental or other conditions and the cognitive effect before the syndrome develops. With respect to question one, it has been suggested that language is not the primary deficit. Rather, perceptual disturbances stemming from a homeostatic failure are key to autism (Bartak, Rutter &amp. Cox, 2005). Scholars have often put forward the argument that autism results from widespread cognitive impairments that also include handicaps in visual perceptions. Various forms of perceptual defects have also been noted by other scholars. It, therefore, follows that autistic children can have various cognitive defects that involve verbal skills as well as perceptuo-motor (Rice, Warren &amp. Betz, 2005). On the other hand, a majority of these defects have been discovered in autistic children who had mental retardation. This makes it possible that the defects may have been caused by&nbsp.associatedretardationas as much as autism. In searching for a nature of cognitive skills that might be particular to autism it is crucial to control the degree of cognitive development. Unfortunately, most research studies conducted have been unable to satisfy this fundamental requirement and therefore are of little (if any) value when determining the scope of the cognitive deficit.&nbsp.

Three Misconceptions about Age and L2 Learning by Marinova

Contrary to the widely held belief that youngsters are able to learn the second language faster than the adults, research by other scholars has shown that there has been some form of misinterpretation of facts. Research by Rivera (1998) showed that adolescents, in fact, did better than children in early stages of L2 phonological acquisition, a claim that can be used to dispel the erroneous belief that the opposite is true. According to the above-mentioned research, children learn new languages slowly and effortfully than adolescents and adults do. Normally, children can acquire their first language easily from their parents or caregivers which is different from a foreign language.
Another fallacy is misattribution of age differences in language abilities to neurobiological factors in language processing. Brain functioning and language behaviour cannot be conclusively attributed to the data currently available as it is limited. It may not be true to give a conclusion that young people have better brains old people in terms of L2 learning since there are few studies that attest to that assertion. Age, therefore, does not affect the functioning of the brain which can be used as a basis of criticising the view that young people perform better than adolescents in learning L2.
The third and most common fallacy is misemphasis of the fact that adults are incapable of acquiring the second language with native-like L2 proficiency. Most notably, adults are generally regarded as poor in learning which often distracts objective research on the teaching and learning of L2. There is a need to demystify the myth that children learn more quickly than adults as various studies have shown that adults are more capable of learning faster than children. It can be noted after a critical reading that this article is concerned with learning second languages and various factors that influence the process.

Global legal realism as commonsense

rd, it is worth noting that the Western legal system largely emanated from the canon and Roman Laws, some of which are inconsistent with the global legal realism of the contemporary world. Besides, the Western academic legal culture addresses the theory of morals from a positivist, state-oriented, unempirical, secular, and Universalist approach. Evidently, Western legal education, culture, and systems are too liberal to form the core of comparative literature and law (Bermann, Glenn, Scheppele, Shalakany, Snyder, &amp. Zoller 2011, pp. 935-968). This paper takes a critical view of comparative law and literature as it relates to the Western legal systems and the comparative impact of Western legal systems on legal realism from a global perspective.
Comparative law entails the study of the similarities and differences of legal systems belonging to different countries. In essence, comparative study deals with the laws of various countries as well as the legal systems that exist in the world, including regional and international legal systems. Some of the legal systems under comparative law include the Jewish Law, Hindu law, Common Law, Chinese law, Civil law, Islamic Law, and Socialist Law (Bermann, Glenn, Scheppele, Shalakany, Snyder, &amp. Zoller 2011, pp. 935-968). On the other hand, comparative literature entails the study of the differences and similarities of global literatures, how such literatures relate to one another. It essentially means that comparative law and literature ought to derive equal sense from all the components that it studies. Since international law and literature is dynamic, political, and economic forces tend to determine which ones to be given more credence (Ingram 2014, pp. 237-267).
Unlike the previous centuries when comparative law and literature involved the comparison of all legal systems and literatures of the world without favouring the dominance of one system or the other (Zumbansen 2011, pp. 427-433). However, times have changed and the

Development of the Tourism

TOURISM A recent development established in the tourism sector has greatly influenced the growth of many nations. Many countries have grown famous because of the tourism sector. The major benefit that comes with it is increased income and employment levels. However, it does possess a number of setbacks. Challenges facing the tourism sector can be remedied.
To begin with, the tourism sector experiences high tariffs. It varies among countries. A notable example of this includes: high costs of airline tickets. hotel rooms. and tourist attraction sites. It has negatively affected the sector. Therefore, there has been a constant reduction of tourists who opt for regions with low tariffs. Consequently, there is a need to set low tariffs (Hall, Smith, &amp. Marciszewska, 2006).
Second, insecurity is a major challenge affecting tourism. Unfortunately, many countries have done less about solving the problem. Consequently, this has led different nations to imposing sanctions as a way of protecting their citizens. Therefore, this has led many tourism countries to face economic losses. As a solution, governments need to invest more on security, and set up policies that would protect tourists (Okoth &amp. Ndaloh, 2010).
Third, political instability has continuously been a challenge to the tourism sector. Thus, it has subjected tourists to difficult political situations. For instance, despite claims by government that they support tourism, visa allocation has been limited. These among many others hinder tourism. Therefore, through proper leadership political stability is attainable (Some of the Major Current Issues Confronting Tourism, 2006).
In conclusion, the success of the tourism sector entirely depends on the security, political stability, and low tariffs. By achieving them, challenges affecting the tourism will be minimized.
References
Hall, R. D., Smith, K. M., &amp. Marciszewska, B. (2006). The Challenges and Opportunities of EU Enlargement. In R. D. Hall, K. M. Smith, &amp. B. Marciszewska, Tourism in the New Europe (pp. 247-250). New York: CABI.
Okoth, A., &amp. Ndaloh, A. (2010). PTE Revision Social Studies. Nairobi: East Africa Publishers.
Some of the Major Current Issues Confronting Tourism . (2006, july). Retrieved from Tourism and More: http.//www.tourismandmore.com/tidbits/some-of-the-major-issues-confronting-tourism

The Effect of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder on Learning

Treatment options for children with ADHD include behavioral therapy, special education programs, and medication. It is estimated that 70% to 80% of children with ADHD respond to medication which can help curb impulsive and overactive behavior, allowing children to focus, be attentive and learn ( Lymn, Glass 1804).
The term Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (ADDH) was first properly coined in the DSM-III of the American Psychiatric Association in 1980 and was subsequently acknowledged as a serious disorder warranting scholarly scrutiny. In the early years little was known about this disorder with Barkley (1982) reporting in his review of 20 years of scientific papers on the syndrome that the majority provided no diagnostic criteria for ADDH or ADHD. As a result, early studies in the literature were largely subjective and perhaps replete with misdiagnoses (Barkley 1944).
The DSM-III of 1980 changed this and was a “landmark in official diagnostic nomenclature”. For the first time, it provided detailed descriptions and diagnostic criteria for ADDH. The three criteria which were established for diagnosis were: 1) specific multidimensional symptoms (involving symptoms in impulsivity, motor overactivity and attentional impairment), 2) age of onset (before the age of 7 years) and finally 3) duration (symptoms must be present for at least six months). Definitional issues aside, Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity (or ADHD) is now recognized as a serious disorder with possibly important effects on cognition (Cantwell and Baker 87-88).
Two symptom clusters give rise to three subtypes of ADHD: Predominantly Inattentive, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive, and a Combined type (Martinussen &amp. Tannock 1073). This essay will address the relationship between ADHA and learning to discover whether or not there is a direct relationship between ADHD on the ability to learn.
In attempting to discover whether the association between Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and learning association&nbsp.between Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and learning disorders (LD) exists, Cantwell and Baker undertook a study of 600 children with learning disorders.&nbsp.

Liberal Studies

this context, Banham’s (79) view towards morality parallel’s the Christian view regarding obedience to God’s commands, according to which the Christians obey God’s commands because God commands them and not because of fear of punishment in hell or for the sake of rewards in heaven after death. Hence the rationale is one does the right thing because he/she recognizes him/herself has a reason to do and not out of feelings.
For most Americans, being successful is all about raising an being part of a loving family, about contributing something meaningful to their society and about maintaining healthy relationships with friends and colleagues. The worthwhile contribution may be local in scope, as in volunteering to assist school, charity or neighborhood church. Or it may involve wide social or political stage i.e. including national or even global movements like those trying to reduce world poverty, fighting the HIV pandemic or seeking greater equality for politically, socially or economically underprivileged groups. It is a fact that people have different views on success because our individual life experiences and genetic make-up combine to make our individual objectives unique. But in a broad sense, success is the same for all of us. To me, a successful life is a journey I choose along the path to fulfillment of my unique genetic ability as a human being (Scott, 26).
Moral confusion is present today in the United States and it continues to escalate under Obama administration which widely supports the incongruous political combination of publicly funded gay marriage and abortion. The moral confusion undermines every of life in the United States, from uncouth local politicians to foreign policy to the teenagers whose social media accounts, which they can easily access, divulge bracing vulgarity and materialism. Without proper guidance, this generation of young people is putting their future in danger, posting all manners of rubbish on the web.
The drift

Review on depression

Depression in Adolescence – Article Review Depression in Adolescence – Article Review Introduction There is a belief prevailing among professionals as well as laymen that the period of adolescence is beset by stress, severe moodiness, as also with constant preoccupation with the self. However, recent research belies this belief.
Many research reports published towards the end of the 1960s reveal that many adolescents negotiate this particular period in their lives without any major psychological problems. In fact most adolescents, irrespective of sex, successfully traverse this period of development by forging a constructive sense of personal identity, and can fashion relationships of an adaptive peer nature, while maintaining intimate relationships with their own families. However, research done in the 1970s showed that emotional difficulties in adolescence often developed into grave psychiatric disorders during adulthood. All these have helped in the recognition of depressive symptoms as apposite subjects of research in adolescents and as such the number of studies on the subjects has exploded.
Depression in adolescents
There are essentially three classifications of adolescent psychopathology. They are 1) depressed mood 2) depressive syndromes and 3) clinical depression. In the study of depressed mood, depressive emotions as well as other characteristics adolescent development are involved. The depressive syndrome approach presumes that depression as also some other syndromes reveal the co-occurrence of emotions and behaviors as quantitative deviations from the norm. The clinical approach is founded on suppositions of a disorder or disease model of psychopathology.
Depressed Mood
Studies on depressed mood are concerned with depression essentially as a symptom and refer to the incidence of unhappiness, sadness or blue feelings for an indeterminate period of time. No postulations are made on either the presence or absence of any other symptom. Depressed mood is normally determined by means of adolescents self-reports concerning their emotions, by way of measures particularly concerned with mood or included in the checklists of depressive symptoms.
Depressive Syndromes
Multifarious experiential approaches to the evaluation of adolescent psychopathology, including depression, have revealed that facets of depression are related to several other problems. Depression is observed as a assemblage of emotions and behaviors that have been observed statistically to transpire together in an interpretable mode at rates that go beyond chance, sans implying any specific model for either the nature or the cause of such associated symptoms which can include anxiety also, and found to be founded on symptoms like crying, feeling lonely, apprehension of committing bad things, a wish to be perfect, feeling unloved, a belief that others are coming out to get him/her, feelings of unworthiness, nervousness, fear, guilt, suspicion, self-consciousness, sadness and worries. This collection of symptoms is in turn associated with withdrawn feelings, somatic complaints, and social, thought and attention problems, and delinquent, aggressive and self-destructive behavior.
Clinical Depression
The American Psychiatric Association has developed a diagnostic model to diagnose clinical depression. This model bases the diagnosis on an analysis of the presence, duration, as well as the severity of groups of symptoms. It assumes the presence of a certain syndrome and its attendant symptoms, as also that such symptoms are related to important levels of existing disability or distress and an increased risk of harm in the persons current functioning.
Reference
Petersen, A.C., Compas, B.E., Gunn, J.B., Stemmler, M., Ey, S. &amp. Grant, K.E. (1993). Depression in Adolescence. American Psychological Association, 48(2), p 155-168.

Interventions in Juvenile Delinquency

The massive amount of theories concerned with Juvenile Delinquency and the treatment of juveniles remind that juveniles are supposed to be handled with extensive care affection by the elders. Juvenile Delinquency, as it is the criminal activities of the juveniles, often mull over as youth crimes or the one that leads to youth crimes. Analyzing the different studies on this topic, it reveals the fact that the tendency of committing crimes occurs mostly in children at the time of their transition from childhood to adulthood. It is often viewed that transitions between family, school, and work are challenges to the youngsters and they fail in their attempts to live in accordance with them. As it is the world that does not give much consideration to social relations ensuring the smooth flow of social life, it makes one difficult to cop-up with the present social scenarios. “The restructuring of the labor market, the extension of the maturity gap…and arguably, the more limited opportunities to become an independent adult are all changes influencing relationships with family and friends, educational opportunities and choices, labor market participation, leisure activities and lifestyles, [and so on, are some of the causes that lead to Juvenile Delinquency]”(Chapter 7, Juvenile Delinquency, pg.189). Along with these issues, one can cite out many pressures that suffocate the youngsters. the fast growth of population, lack of the necessities of the world, poverty, unemployment, unstable governments, the disintegration of the family and educational system, [and so on.] (Chapter 7, Juvenile Delinquency, pg.189). This research paper is an attempt to find out the real reasons for juvenile delinquency and the best strategies and interventions designed to prevent juvenile delinquency.
Juvenile delinquency is a kind of antisocial misdeed common in juveniles. Adult people who had not loved parents and suitable living&nbsp.circumstances are seemed to fail in following good habits throughout their life.&nbsp.