This is done to get a clearer picture of the gamut of this humongous problem. The paper, in the end, proposes certain actions which are deemed authentically responsive to the real needs and context of homosexual sales using crystal methamphetamine.One dominant global problem that is wreaking havoc to the personal, social, and psychological lives of millions of people and posing a major legal, social and public health challenge to the modern world is the misuse/abuse of drugs (Nutt et al 2007). One of the more common substances that are being used is crystal methamphetamine. Crystal methamphetamine is also known as crystal meth, meth, and tina, Methamphetamine works by entering the brain and causes the release of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. The drug can be smoked, snorted, orally ingested, injected, or used rectally (Breaking the Grip, 2006). Though there is a global concern regarding the rising numbers of people who are into substance use/abuse, the focus of this paper will solely be on the intricate and complicated connection between the use of crystal methamphetamine and homosexual males. Why?The primordial reason behind this limitation is the fact that the use of crystal methamphetamine by homosexual males is a serious problem (Halkitis Parsons, 2002). It is claimed that approximately 10 to 20 per cent of gay men have used methamphetamine in the past six months, a rate at least ten times higher than the general population (Breaking the Grip, 2006. i). This claim gives further support to the numerous studies showing that the use of crystal methamphetamine among homosexual males is prevalent (Halkitis et al, 2001. Halkitis et al 2007. Kubicek et al, 2007. Purcell et al 2001). Likewise, this problem is poorly understood by many as there is this misconception that homosexual males are using methamphetamine solely for sex (Bruce et al, 2008). Though it is not denied that there is an ounce of truth in this perception but to remove it from the context, condition, and the lived lives of homosexual males who are into methamphetamine is already a possible misconstrued picture of the real story.
Gruner, 1982. Рetrоfsky, Рhilliрs Hendershоt, 1985. Рetrоfsky Smith, 1992) wаs tо restоre lоst mоtоr functiоn (Guttmаn, 1976) аnd reverse sоme оf the secоndаry medicаl рrоblems аssоciаted with sрinаl cоrd injury such аs рressure sоres, kidney аnd blаdder infectiоns, аnd bоne frаctures (Yоung, 1982. Fоege, 1985). In fаct, these secоndаry medicаl рrоblems аre the mоst significаnt рrоblems аssоciаted with sрinаl cоrd injury in terms оf bоth cоst аnd medicаl cоmрlicаtiоns. It is nоt uncоmmоn fоr а раrаlyzed individuаl tо exрend between thоusаnds аnd tens оf thоusаnds оf dоllаrs in medicаl cоsts eаch yeаr (Guttmаn, 1976. Burke, 1975. Yоung, Burns, Bоwen McClutcheоn, 1982).Рressure sоres, fоr exаmрle, hаve а yeаrly rаte оf incidence оf оver 30% (Yоung, Burns, Bоwen McClutcheоn, 1982). Freehаfer аnd Mаst (1965) hаve shоwn thаt bоne frаctures hаve аn incidence оf 9.3%. It is hорed thаt functiоnаl electricаl stimulаtiоn (FES) mаy оffer а meаns оf reversing sоme оf these secоndаry medicаl рrоblems thrоugh exercising раrаlyzed muscle аnd increаsing the blооd delivery tо the legs.Hоwever, questiоns аrise аs tо the sаfety оf the technоlоgy. In weаk, оsteороrоtic bоne, cаn роwered muscle stimulаtiоn cаuse bоne frаctures in itself? Whаt is the incidence оf electrоde burns with cоntinuоus FES use? Further, the cоmрliаnce оf а раtient рорulаtiоn fоr this technоlоgy must be exаmined. This wаs the рurроse оf the рresent investigаtiоn.The subjects in these studies were 109 vоlunteers. Eighty-three оf the subjects in these studies vоlunteered tо раrticiраte in reseаrch. These individuаls were аsked tо раrticiраte fоr а minimum оf а twо-yeаr рeriоd. Twenty-six subjects were invоlved in а brоаd-bаsed clinicаl рrоgrаm invоlving FES аndcоnventiоnаl therарy.
Reform plans from the prison officials, such as correctional educational programs, drug rehabilitation programs, policies, and support programs have reduced the rates of recidivism. Most of the prisons are offering tailoring, pottery, and furniture courses to the inmates. The studies to be conducted show a remarkable decrease in the rates of recidivism in Ohio prisons.Recidivism is a situation where an offender is imprisoned more than once because of repeating certain criminal acts. Deosaran and Ramdhanie (2003) indicate that there has been a tremendous increase in the number of recidivists overtime in Ohio prisons. This condition was associated with the problems experienced by inmates while in prisons. James (2015) comments that some offenders though released from prisons still get back to the same jails after committing the same crimes or related ones. According to Deosaran and Ramdhanie (2003), 56% of the inmates are recidivists while 39% are first-timers in prison. National prisons have a large number of younger inmates who are between 17-41 years. Recidivists are approximately 78% of the same age. Eighty-five percent of the inmates in prison are of these ages. Glaze and Kaeble (2013) postulate that 98% of the inmates are men, while approximately 2% are females. among the males, the recidivists are 56% while 39% are first-timers in prison. The females comprise of 71% first-timers with 24% recidivists. Glauze and Kaeble (2013) argue that the larger proportion in prisons committed drug-related crimes, such as Narcotics, while 27% were guilty of breaking people’s houses, latency, and other breaking crimes. Eight % of the inmates committed robbery and related crimes. Approximately 10% of the inmates committed crimes such as murder/manslaughter, assault, and rape. 3 percent possessed arms and ammunitions while 1% committed white-collar crimes. The remaining percentage committed othercrimes and offenses.
Health ability and perceived benefits did not yield any significant correlations with non-fat ice cream consumption. Most consumers still acknowledge the satisfaction that they could derive from these products, in this study, most ice cream products. Despite the knowledge that they have towards the products’ content and effects, the possibility of them purchasing and consuming it is still likely. However, taking into consideration the nature of ice cream products, such consumer actions could be considered as occasional.Ice Cream has been around the market for centuries. It has been a popular delicacy during summer seasons as a thirst quencher, alleviating the heat that makes the body dry and sweats so fast. Weir (2008) describes that Ice Cream is originally a frozen dessert made from dairy products. Such as milk and cream and are combined with other ingredients like sugars, coconut, cocoa, and other artificial flavorings to compensate for the lack of ingredients. As it is seen in the market, there have been multiple flavors or a variety of ice creams and it is all credited for the use of artificial flavoring and as well as the extensive extraction of natural fruit flavors in order to come up with new varieties of Ice Cream. In response to the issue of allergies to dairy products and being lactose intolerance, Weir (2008) cited that alternatives are used such as soy milk, rice milk, and goat milk in order for people who experience these deficiencies to enjoy Ice cream. The process of production is quite simple, with all the primary ingredients mixed and stirred slowly while preventing ice crystals from forming through the cooling process.According to Redruello (2007), Ice Cream has been an importantpart of society in terms of food consumption. Ice Cream is usually associated with kids, as they present an easy to eat dessert or snacks. In some countries, special varieties of Ice Cream which are highlighted by its weight signify special occasions for the family. Furthermore, in some studies, Ice Cream is also presented as a relaxant, credited for its cooling features that could soothe people during dry seasons. Apparently, as Ice Cream has generated multiple varieties or flavors, and this has also affected its description or definition. According to Weir (2008), in U.S. standards, the definition of Ice Cream reflects a certain kind or variety and the definition is also influenced by the quantity of the ingredients.
Studies have shown that at least 60 percent of a lecture is forgotten within 24 hours unless action is taken (Brown, 1978, p.101). Thus, many educational experts and specialists strongly recommend making notes on the same day the lecture took place. While there are different types of lectures, Brown (1978) was careful to note that lecture notes are essential if the student perceives that the lecture is worth attending. It appears that the qualifying characteristic is the student’s discernment that the lecture is worthwhile, but Brown (1978) suggests that if in doubt, it will remain beneficial to follow the steps of note-taking.Note-taking is an essential step toward student learning. Many students perceive making notes during and after lectures as a waste of time. however, studies have shown that among the many skills involved in academic success is the ability to take thorough and accurate lecture notes (Baker Lombardi, 1987, p.32). Among the findings in the study by Baker Lombardi (1987), is the strong relationship between note-taking and test performance. In addition, they also found that the notes contained less than 25% of the important propositions during the lecture, and only 50% of the intended main ideas. Two pitfalls in note-taking were emphasized by Brown (1978). First, is the inability to distinguish between key ideas and supporting points or examples, which yield notes that are disorganized without a proper cognitive map of ideas. The second common mistake is the creation of an outline based on aesthetics that are not necessarily meaningful. From these arguments, it is apparent that there is a need to standardize the process of note-taking.Brown (1978) emphasizes that of more importance than the material that is reflected in the notes, are the thoughts in the heads of the note-takers. Lecture notes as tools for learning and studying have been proven very effective and advantageous.
The retired person needs financial security that will see them through their old age without being dependent on an absent or unwilling sibling. The society as a whole needs security from control over other alien societies. The religious beliefs that one follows need protection from influence and attack from other faiths and beliefs. Politically, every individual and society as a whole needs security from attack from other countries which includes protection from unacceptable forms of governance. The religious and multiracial mix seen in many advanced societies has also given rise to the protection of individual and religious/racial sections within a society due to increasing levels of intolerance from other sections. Hence, the complexity of today’s world coupled with growing global interaction (intended and unintended) has made the issue of security quite complex and difficult to define. Old threats like direct attacks (traditional war) have sort of disappeared and are now replaced by new ones like terrorism and financial control. This paper is a review of security with regard to politics in today’s complex world. It is really an explanation as to why security in today’s world is difficult to define due to many factors.Various connotations of political security: It is interesting to note that the concept of political security has changed over the years. Ask a person a hundred years back about security and the reply would inevitably be a blatant attack from another country. Probably, the earliest or even classical notion of security was the use of military force rather than on any ideology. The classical definition of security studies is the study of the threat, use, and control of military force (Hentz Bas 3). But thisperception has changed to a large extent as the following views illustrate. In a sense, the word military force has been relegated to a position of lesser importance. David Lake (as quoted by de Mesquita et al) defines security with a dual point of view – one, freedom from the risk of death or impairment from violence by those external to the state, and two, the ability to accumulate wealth free from external coercion (Mesquita et al 498). This definition appears to give a broad picture of security, but the authors state that it should be narrowed down because of the following reason. A nation can attack another state as a deterrent to possible attacks from the latter.
This study aimed at a critical analysis of literature on whether ROP screening is painful and distressing to the infant and the role of topical anaesthetics, oral sucrose and other methods like swaddling and nesting in reducing pain during the screening. The sources included journals and MEDLINE articles from 1989-2005. Only studies, which showed a clear outcome, were included. Those studies, which included very small sample size and indefinite outcomes, were excluded.1. Pupillary dilatation with either Guttae cyclopentolate 0.5% or Guttae cyclopentolate 0.5% with guttae phenylephrine 2.5%. Weaker solutions such as cyclopentolate 0.2% in combination with phenylephrine 1.0% may also be used. All mydriatic eyedrops should be instilled at least 30 minutes prior to examination.A mixture of tropicamide 0.5 % phenylephrine 2.5 % may also be used, which is instilled 3 times at intervals of 10 minutes for 1 hour before the scheduled examination. Tropicamide has lesser side effects when compared to cyclopentolate, and thus, may be preferred (Azad V, Pal N, 2005.)The use of an eyelid speculum and scleral indentor is not mandatory for routine screening. Applying a speculum is optional for experienced physicians (Azad V, Pal N, 2005). However, they are widely used and allows visualization of the mostperipheral regions of the retina, which is important in determining whether the nasal retina is fully vascularized (i.e. zone 2 or 3). Preferably, topical anaesthetic eye drops are instilled prior to inserting the eyelid speculum. But the choice of using a local anaesthetic is personal (Azad V, Pal N, 2005.)The presence of a neonatologist is a must to handle any emergencies like bradycardia or a decrease in oxygen saturation. Care must be taken to make sure that the baby has not had a feed immediately before the exam since the baby might vomit or aspirate, especially if cyclopentolate is used as the mydriatic.
In fact, in accordance with a recent research ‘immigrants come to the United States, legally and illegally, at the rate of around a million a year. there are now over 34 million foreign-born persons living here, the largest number in American history’ (Center for Immigration Studies, 2005). The above study refers to the current immigration flow to the USA. However, immigration rates to USA were traditionally high. However, as already noticed above, the causes and the aims of immigration have been changed today in accordance with current social and financial conditions within the international community. Regarding this issue, it has been found that ‘unlike the past, many immigrants to the United States now arrive from countries with very different cultural, religious, psychological, and political traditions. a natural question, therefore, arises as to how well these millions of new immigrants are finding their place in American society and in the American national community’ (Center for Immigration Studies, 2005). It seems that the USA has developed the appropriate framework for the incorporation of immigrants within the American Society. However, in many cases, immigration does not have the expected results. More specifically, it is noticed that ‘in contrast to the success stories of a few immigrant entrepreneurs or reconstituted fragments of an uprooted capitalist class, the majority within these immigrant and refugee groups are forming part of a restructured working class found throughout the advanced industrial states’ (Bach, 1986, 139). In other words, the standard of living of immigrants in USA cannot be always expected to be improved. The final result should be regarded as influenced by a series of parameters, mostly by the existence of appropriate support in the communities that accept immigrants.
For this study forty undergraduates of age 19-22 years were selected. They were randomly assigned to two groups consisting 20 in each group. A news broadcast and a song were identified as the two auditory tasks. Control group listened to the two auditory tasks separately and answered a question paper given. Experimental group listened to the both auditory tasks simultaneously and answered the question paper. According to the accuracy of the answers marks were given. Mean scores obtained by two groups were compared using two tailed Student’s T-Test for independent samples. Marks scored by the experimental group are significantly lower than that of the control group. It was concluded that dual simultaneous auditory tasks are highly ineffective when compared to separate occurrences.According to the findings on the subject of the brain functions, simultaneous performance of dual or multiple tasks is difficult for people due to limitations of the human cognitive process. It is widely thought that the brain focuses attention only on one task at a time (Mei-Ching, 2006). However some scientists believe divided attention is nearly effective as single task or even beneficial in some combinations. According to the findings dual tasks are sometimes important to reduce the occurrence of unfavorable outcomes to an individual who is performing a critical duty such as military mission (Pew, 1995).In addition to human brain functions there can be other factors which can affect the effectiveness ofmultitasking. Eysenck (2004) reviewed many dual tasks experiments conducted in the USA and found three possible factors which can interfere with the dual task performance. The first factor is known as Task similarity. It has been evidenced that effective dual task performances occurred mostly in dissimilar task which use different sensory stimulus such as visual-auditory and physical-auditory than similar tasks (Treisman, 1973). The second factor is the Practice, where the effectiveness of conducting dual tasks was greatly improved with the train. However some studies showed they were still not effective as single tasks. The third factor was the Difficulty or the complexity of the tasks been performed. It was found that the Effectiveness of simple dual tasks was higher than complex or dificult dual tasks (Eysenck, 2004).
The sole purpose will be to conduct not only a critical evaluation but also to proclaim a sound analysis of the implications and investigations regarding the Lachman test from a methodological perspective. The investigative section will aim to provide further information regarding the Lachman test and will attempt to identify the work of others, and how they compare to the studies of the authors being discussed.After this segment, a conclusion will then be drawn upon highlighting the various points previously discussed, as well as conclude with an overall position on the effectiveness of each article in terms of how well it represents the use of the Lachman test in its proper physiological context.Both articles are similar in that they each take an individualized look at the Lachman test and apply it to a specific set of circumstances. The objective for Hurley and McGuire (2003) was to examine the influences of clinician technique on performance and interpretation of the Lachman test. The article established that clinician grip configuration was found to relate to performance and interpretation of the Lachman test. It also concluded that clinicians demonstrating proximal tibia-hand placement were more likely to correctly perform and interpret the Lachman test than clinicians demonstrating distal tibia-hand placement (Hurley McGuire 2003, p.41).On the other hand, the purpose of the Hurley, Boros, and Challis (2003) study was to examine the influence of the Lachman test performance technique on tibia displacement and strain in the anterior cruciate ligament. The results of this particular study found that tibia translation and strain behavior of the anterior cruciate ligament during the Lachman test appears to have been influenced by clinician hand positioning used in the application of force to the tibia (Hurley, Boros Challis 2003, p.97).Each study tends to follow the same pattern while analyzing the uses of the Lachman test, yet they differ in terms of the content displayed.
Of course, we understand the pain that he had to go through in the process of this scientific procedure as his friend had warned him beforehand. The writer says that in retrospect it was a humbling experience because he had sacrificed his individuality and originality to change his hairstyle and straighten it so that it looked like a white man’s. Yet Malcolm was pleased to have pulled off this experiment at the time and it undoubtedly contributed to his fame as ‘Big Red’ as well. In ‘It Can’t Be Helped’, Jeanne W. Houston and her husband James Houston write about the uprooting and relocation of the Japanese in America in the wake of the bombing on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. President Roosevelt had signed Executive Order 9066 giving the War Department authority in the western states to relocate anyone who posed a possible threat to US interests to be interned to secure locations- Japanese Americans were not surprisingly among the most likely suspects. Jeanne clearly recalls the times in which their father had disappeared and now they were suddenly being told to relocate to Terminal Island. The entire episode is explained through the eyes of a child (Jeanne was 7 at the time) and is a mixture of amusement and pity as she writes that she thought she has been sold to a Chinaman. her feelings and that of her family as they are being uprooted and her mother’s breaking of the china tea set rather than have it sold well below its worth as they were forced to leave their house in a hurry. Her family later found that her father had been imprisoned in North Dakota at a male camp for enemy aliens. Jeanne’s account is quite subjective (Houston, 2003, 359). 2. Writers sometimes try to persuade us to agree with their points of view. Choose two writers from Collection 7, and list at least two views or opinions of each writer. In Stephen King’s ‘Now you take Bambi or Snow White- That’s Scary’ he is of the opinion that parents should make their own choices as to the suitability of their kids viewing a scary movie such as his own ‘Carrie’ or ‘Salem’s Lot’. He has shown ‘Salem’s Lot’ to his kids with no adverse effects, it is hoped. Yet he is amused when sex and violence is condoned in cartoons and fairy tales such as Bambi (whose mother is killed) and Hansel and Gretel where (in a modernistic twist of the tale) he assumes that both children are left in the woods by their father due to bad economic circumstances and that they arrive upon the abode of a witch with cannibalistic tendencies (King, 2003, 482). On the other hand, the Courts have admitted as evidence studies that suggest that exposure to violence on television rubs off on children who either become desensitized to violence or are forever in tension fearing that they might be the next victims. In ‘The Man in the Water’ Roger Rosenblatt writes of an account of heroism and selflessness displayed by an unnamed man on a flight that clipped a bridge while landing near the Potomac River in Washington D.C in extremely cold weather in 1982. This man decided to take charge of the situation and help other people out of the plane and onto the safety of other rescuers who had put out ropes and other equipment to help people before the emergency services could arrive.
The number of students who work full-time jobs in addition to taking classes full-time has also increased as more and more students are finding it necessary to support or at least partially support themselves and their families as they complete their education. As a result of these trends, the question is often raised whether or not the advantages of juggling two highly stressful full-time activities outweigh the disadvantages. After all, the goal of higher education is to learn, and working full-time can only be a detriment to this objective. Working increases stress levels because it takes time away from studies and the student never seems to have the time to complete their school assignments to the best of their ability or to participate in extra-curricular activities that might reinforce what they learn in the classroom. They are working as hard as they can but constantly underachieve in both the classroom and the workplace, a distressing dilemma that over a four-year period causes great stress and many to leave school altogether. While it is recognized that working is necessary in many cases, it seems clear that students would have a better chance to reach their full scholastic potential if they were provided the opportunity to remain focused on school before work.The proof that there is a problem with too many students finding it necessary to work to get themselves through school can be found in the sheer numbers of students who must work. New studies have indicated that most students currently attending American colleges and universities are finding it necessary to hold paid employment positions while attending classes. More than three-quarters of all students claim they have to work at least part-time to help pay for their tuition and a full quarter of freshmen, who are somewhat overwhelmed just being at college for the first time, said they would have to work full-time to stay in school (Reisberg, 2000). The number of students having to work is steadily increasing. More students are in the workforce today than ever before.
FDI includes investments in physical assets such as plant and machinery and it is based on equity ownership of at least ten percent (Forfas, 2002). The main types of FDI are the acquisition of a subsidiary or production facility or participation in the joint venture, licensing, and establishing of Greenfield operations. FDI has been growing faster than the world GDP and is now a major component of foreign investment (Razin Sadka, 2005). The effect of FDI on GDP is higher than the effect of other forms of foreign investment. Studies suggest that FDI triggers technology spillovers, assists human capital formation, creates a competitive business environment, and enhances enterprise development (Tusiad Yased, 2004). The FDI inflow in China had mixed impact which ranged from an increase in GDP, expansion of foreign trade, increase in fixed investment, reduction in unemployment, technology transfer while creating disparities in income across different regions within the nation.The sudden emergence of China as the FDI recipient has gained importance. From an isolated economy in 1979, China has become the largest recipient of FDI in the developing world and globally the second, only next to the United States (Zhang, 2001) because of its proactive policies towards FDI (Fung, Iizaka Tong, 2002). China’s distinction is its enormous population and its huge size. China experienced an FDI boom for seven years from 1992-1998 and the factors that contributed to it included further liberalization of the FDI regime in China coupled with the explosive growth of the domestic economy. Another interesting feature was that most of the FDI came from Hong Kong, Taiwan, and other Asian countries and not from the western nations. The Asian FDI concentrated on labor-intensive low-technology goods like garments, toys, and shoes meant for the international market. The western-FDI placed emphasis on capital-intensive goods like machinery, chemicals, and services.
The symptoms include, among others, the presence of younger honeybees, around the healthy queen bee as the older and adult honeybees leave the hive, without coming back to it. In addition, studies have shown that the apparently visible symptom could be the absence of wax moths, or small hive beetles or other hive pests that could invade the beehives.The causes of CCD could include different virus causing diseases like American and European foulbrood, Nosema and other disease-causing pathogens, as their presence is alarming to the honeybee population. In addition, the invasive pest species also causes CCD. However, a combination of various pathogens would be responsible for CCD, rather than an isolated virus.The other major factors responsible for the large disappearance of Honeybee populations are chemicals that would be present in the beehive and the environment, while honeybee growing into a monocroppingagricultural system can also be a cause for CCD as proper nutrition is not allowed for the honey bee, to grow naturally. While these factors and other causes of CCD are described below, it is important to mention here that scientists are still trying to isolate any pertinent causes, including the use of chemicals and behavior of honeybees, responsible for CCD that has resulted in national worry as agriculture produce is getting severely affected due to this phenomenon…..(University of Arkansas, 2009)Earlier known as Fall Dwindle Disease, CCD is the dying process of healthy honeybees colonies, which makes them disappear, within a very short span of time, just around three weeks. The apparent indications are that the workforce of such colonies comprises mainly young bees and they are reluctant to consume the provided feed. After this collapse, no adult bees are left, while no invasion takes place to rob the colony of its food that still remains there.
In reviewing the title, the essential elements of research which provide complete details on the content of the research are easily apparent. The reader is able to immediately understand what the research topic and purpose is (Caldlaw, Henshaw, and Taylor, 2005). The title is also short enough to easily be readable and long enough to contain the essential titular elements. The authors of this paper have a credible academic background in the graduate and post-graduate fields of nursing. They are also affiliated with the academe and the clinical practice, and this quality has allowed them to gain the necessary background and expertise in their clinical and academic practice. They have also published researches and articles related to the journal subject of this critique. The abstract clearly summarizes the key elements of the research, from the research problem to the conclusion. These elements provide a summary of the paper, highlighting its important parts and details which help express to the reader what the research is all about (Caldlaw, et.al., 2005). The purpose or rationale of the study has been outlined and detailed by the researchers in the introductory portion of the paper. Their rationale allowed them to trace the average life expectancy of women and the experiences of women with disabilities on receiving breast mammographies. … Moreover, some of the studies included were not up-to-date, as some studies dated beyond 10 years. Up-to-date studies help ensure that the information being included in the review is still very much relevant to the current trends in the practice (Daymon and Holloway, 2002). The aim of the research is clearly and logically stated by the researchers in a separate and clearly identified heading in the paper. It is logical and rationally flows from the background information laid out on the subject matter. The methodology of research has also been identified by the researchers. The method was justified by the authors, citing the fact that due to the exploratory nature of the subject matter, the qualitative research was the better method of research to apply (Truesdale-Kennedy, Taggart, and McIlfatrick, 2010). The selection of the participants were outlined and identified by the researchers. No random selection method was made as participants were purposely chosen from a list of women meeting the inclusion criteria. This method of selecting participants is common in qualitative studies where the target sample population is usually small and easily manageable (Ritchie and Lewis, 2003). The number of respondents is small enough for one-on-one and in-depth lengthy interviews. These types of interviews are usually impractical for quantitative studies where the sample population is high. Although a more in-depth data gathering process can be carried out with each respondent, the results gained from this study cannot be generalized to a larger population (Ritchie and Lewis, 2003). This is a common disadvantage of qualitative studies. The data collection method is also auditable and
The way in which the prostitute reveals him or herself through body language and gestures reflects the complexity of the human experience as it expresses power, submission, raw reality, and control.The relationship between artists and prostitutes has developed, primarily, because of the importance of the nude in artistic achievement. In polite society, it has traditionally not been considered appropriate to take off one’s clothes for anyone other than a spouse or a doctor. Therefore, prostitutes have been used for studies in the human body because they have been willing to disrobe for money. However, the association is deeper than just business transactions. The business of prostitution is in putting forth the most intimate part of the body as a product, while the artist puts forth the most intimate parts of his interpretation of the world for the world to browse. Beverly Solomon, wife of artist Pablo Solomon describes that changes in a prostitute as they are used to pose for a piece of artwork. She says that the prostitute is given the opportunity to express themselves in ways that have a dignity that may not be available in their normal work. The artist is, therefore, is eager to find the beauty that comes through at that moment. Solomon says Perhaps the artist wants to show the thread of beauty and hopes that the soul of the prostitute is still clinging to.In looking at paintings of brothels, the way in which a prostitute is portrayed is in the angle of the body and the sensuality with which she tempts her potential clients. According to Frans, prostitution became a topic in Dutch painting in the 16th century in reference to the story of the Prodigal Son. However, the theme of prostitutes began to develop into portraying them in inns and taverns where they were shown as temptations for leering men. An example of this is Dirck van Baburen’s Loose Company (1632) which shows a woman who is almostinnocently happy with her companions, her clothes slipping away, her face radiating, and one of her male companions leering at her suggestively.
In the recent past, Dell Corporation has enhanced their consumer base in the laptop computer brand. Indeed, the company implemented one of the best marketing initiatives in the face of high technological innovativeness in the early 21st century. Through its marketing campaigns, Dell focussed on developing a consumer base composed of younger population, who preferred portable laptop computers for their daily activities, such as studies. They specifically ensured that they captured students and younger adult population. However, in the campaigns aimed at the young consumers, Dell Computers knew the significance of communicating – at least indirectly, to parents who are usually called upon to help with purchasing the products for their sons and daughters (Proctor, 2000. Baker, Hart, 2007).In the recent past, Dell Corporation has enhanced their consumer base in the laptop computer brand. Indeed, the company implemented one of the best marketing initiatives in the face of high technological innovativeness in the early 21st century. Through its marketing campaigns, Dell focussed on developing a consumer base composed of younger population, who preferred portable laptop computers for their daily activities, such as studies. They specifically ensured that they captured students and younger adult population. However, in the campaigns aimed at the young consumers, Dell Computers knew the significance of communicating – at least indirectly, to parents who are usually called upon to help with purchasing the products for their sons and daughters (Proctor, 2000. Baker, Hart, 2007). II. Goals, strategy formulation and implementationDell strives to be the most flourishing corporation in the world known for producing the best laptop computers that meet and exceed the customer expectations in the UK market. The corporation’s marketing objectives and goals are premised upon providing the customers with laptops that have new and striking features such as webcam for video chats or conferencing (Linsenbach, 2007). These features are increasingly becoming popular, especially in the UK. With these features incorporation in its laptop brands, Dell aims to be seen making the life of the users more relaxed. The strategy was been apparently implemented in the Dell’s ‘Dude’ campaigns, which may continue to be the future trend in regard to appealing for the younger population (Proctor, 2000. Doyle, Stern, 2006). The company’s targeting of the UK’s younger consumers with the laptop brands in the 1990s saw the original creation of Dell Computers Dude. The promotions captured the ‘
Goodwin notes that a number of countries in Africa like Gambia and Tanzania have benefited from tourism foreign exchange. In contrast, according to Goodwin (2008) tourism may not provide a good source of foreign exchange earnings for countries with little or no international trade. Such countries cannot take tourism as the major source of foreign exchange. Although The biggest beneficiaries of foreign exchange are the low income ones in which tourism play a role in poverty reduction (Archer et all, 2005:10) earnings may be affected. When there disasters and terrorism strikes, foreign exchange earnings dwindle in for example the case of Hurricane Gilbert in 1995 in Jamaica, Tsunami in Japan in 2011 and Terrorism in the United States in 2001. However, the countries may also benefit even in disasters and terrorism activities. Some people are very eager to go to witness the events and activities. In this case, they play a role in tourism though their reasons may not be well understood. After Tsunami in 2011, many journalists and other people went to Japan to witness and report on the happenings there. This may not be taken as tourism but to some extent it is. Tourism may play an important role in the development of various places, according to (Archer et all, 2005) local communities near tourist attraction sites find it their responsibility to make the region better through infrastructure development and provision of important facilities. Although tourists spend some money in the host countries, economic experts argue that most of the tourist expenditures do not directly benefit the country being visited. According to Goodwin, this could be the reason why countries like Gambia, Tanzania and Caribbean countries have not recorded growth and development as it would have been expected. This is refutable according to (Goodwin, 2008), who claims there are still no good enough examples of initiatives with clear demonstrable impacts from tourism. There are no case studies which demonstrate the mainstreaming of tourism and poverty reduction strategies. According to (Scheyvens, 2003), It is estimated that more than 80% of the tourist expenditures, are on provision of services in other countries other than the host countries. For example, according to (Archer et all, 2005) when individuals are traveling to other countries, they are likely to use airline companies that are in their home countries, the money paid goes to the home country rather than the host country. Some tourists may also make purchases in their home countries before they go to the host countries. However, tourism creates employment for community in different countries. local people are employed in the hotels and resorts while others sell local products to the tourist. This is experienced in the Gambia, Tanzania and other African countries that rely on tourism a lot. This has played a role in improving the lives of the society and modernization. At the same time, there are some jurisdictions that depend on tourism a lot. Some countries in Africa and the Caribbean region depend a lot on tourism, which may contribute up to a third of the
The Role Of The Financial Analysts In The Financial Sector The financial analyst career is one of the most coveted careers in the financial service industry. The modern business world requires for the investors to make right investment decisions and reduce the risks of making losses. Therefore, the financial analysts have become a critical lot in the financial sector. People are continuously engaging the financial analysts as individuals or companies in order to make the correct investment decisions. Their services are welcome for all forms of businesses including small and medium enterprises and the international companies. They communicate the financial risks involved in the business investments. This paper will discuss the purpose, summary and some of the essential functions of a financial analyst. Purpose of the Job The financial analyst is an essential profession in the enhancement of financial management in the financial sectors. The financial service industry is competitive in the market and tough to break. Therefore, acquiring the services of a financial analyst can enhance the ability of an investor to venture into the sector with limited risk. The financial analyst niche is, therefore, a core unit in the financial sector as it streamlines the financial performance of an organization. It gives the investor the pros and cons of undertaking or failing to undertake certain decisions in their operations. Therefore, it serves to enlighten the investors on the most plausible and feasible decisions in their businesses. Summary of the Job The financial analyst job is responsible for maintaining order and smooth running of a financial service organization. Rather that venturing into an unknown sector for investors, the financial analysts create awareness of the sector to the investors. They research macroeconomic and microeconomic conditions of a financial institution in order to aid in decision making. The fundamentals of the company require to be known for them to provide recommendations for the business, sector and the industry. They recommend the course of action to their bosses such as whether to sell or buy stocks from a company based on its current financial strength. The financial analyst also makes projections of performance by financial institutions hence making it easy to invest in profitable companies. Therefore, the analyst must always be aware of the current developments in the sector of their specialization. This aids in preparing the financial models for predicting the economic conditions in the future for any variables Functions of the Job The functions of the financial analysts are to make financial recommendations on feasible investments for their clients. Therefore, they obtain information of financial institutions from public records studies and company filings. The analysts use fundamental analysis principles and tactical market evaluation to determine the effectiveness of the market environment. Financial analysts with lending institutions’ clients perform analysis of their balance sheets and examine the financial audit reports in order to assess the financial stability of the institution. It is done through the evaluation of the sales, expenses, costs, tax rates and commodity prices of the company. If the risks are high, the analysts advise their clients on the next best option to take. The analysts also analyze the company’s financial data, spot the trend of the company and make its forecast. This gives a sense of direction to the investorsBibliography
Many historians and scholars hold that the domination of European rule in Africa caused African slavery and the development of African Catholicism. However, there is much evidence showing that the development of African slavery and African Catholicism occurred due to deep rooted African systems and an already established traditional form of religion. It will also provide evidence of the roots and development of African slavery. Roots and Development of African Catholicism and African Slavery Many scholars view Christianity in Kongo, especially Catholicism as a foreign religion introduced by the colonizers during the 15th and 16th centuries. In addition, these scholars often deem this form of religion as serving the interests of foreigners more than the indigenous Kongo people. The result of this assertion is that Christianity overlooked the independence of Kongo people. In addition, this caused most historians to view the deemed introduced Christianity as a form of colonization and domination by the Portuguese in Kongo. Moreover, these historians also assert that the conversion of Kongo to Christianity and the development of African Catholicism was a direct effect of westernization of Kongo (Thornton, 147). The history of religion and African Catholicism was quite different from the assertions of these historians and scholars. The conversion of Kongo in to Christianity was under a free will. Consequently, it is evident that the Kongo people and leaders highly determined the structure of the church and its doctrines as well as practices. It is also evident that the Portuguese attempted to control the church under political terms. However, this was not possible since Kongo highly controlled the activities and practices of the church. Even though contemporary studies reveal that there was substantial syncretism in Christian doctrines in Kongo, the European clergy who visited Kongo, recognized it as conventional (Thornton, 148). In the case of African slavery, there are misconceptions by most scholars as to what prompted slave trade in the region. Most of these scholars considered the roots of African slavery as a product of economic underdevelopment in Africa, in which forced labor dominated the economy rather than free labor. However, this was not the case but there was the spirit of slavery rooted deep in the African institutional and legal structures of communities of Africa. In addition, this kind of slavery occurred very differently from the form of slavery in Europe. The main reason that slavery occurred widely in the Atlantic Africa was that in African law, slaves were the only recognized form of private ownership. It became very perverse in the African society because there lacked landed private property (Thornton, 74). The incorporation of Christianity as a part of indigenous religion is the main reason it survived and hence the documentation of the cult dates from the early sixteenth century to the present day. In the nineteenth century, Christianity briefly disappeared from Kongo. However, the disappearance was not due to a lack on the part of Kongo, a failure on the part of the clergy or a resurgence of suppressed local religion. Rather, it was because of the changing definition among European clergy including Rome as to what made up Christianity, together with more chauvinistic attitudes towards non-Western and particularly colonial peoples that happened after I850 (Thornton, 148). In African law, one could only establish a claim on a product through taxation and slavery rather than through the fiction of land ownership. However, this did not make the African legal system backward or egalitarian, but only legally divergent. Due to this
Decision-making processes in the organization are as complex as is the Multinational Company itself. They rely on good information experience and consultation in making these decisions. The managers here are highly qualified and experienced. Decision making within the company happens at all levels of the organization. The Board of directors is the grand strategic decision-maker about the investments and the future growth direction. The various managers of the various stores under the company are also involved in making decisions that continually contribute to the overall company objectives (Richardson 2004, p.15). Lastly, ordinary employees are involved in making decisions concerning their respective tasks. The decision-making process involves a series of steps that are followed to ensure the decision made is the most appropriate for the situation in hand. Tesco Company operates in a highly competitive market. Its main products are mostly consumables and thus the need to make the right decision at the right time and place. To ensure this is achieved the decisions made must pass through a highly analyzed process (Richardson 2004, p. 29).The company has a well-established mission and vision statements. Management officials must first identify the objectives of every action to be made. The objectives outline the goals that the department, store or even the entire company want to achieve once the identified actions are carried out. A supervisor in Tesco Supermarkets identifies the need to increase the number of cashiers during peak hours so to improve the quality of customer service as well as reduce inconveniences and thus creating an overall good image of the company (Richardson 2004, p. 31).Once the objectives are identified, the decision-maker is required to collect as much information as possible regarding the identified problem. This determines the cause of the problem and identifies various alternatives that can solve the same problem. The managers ensure that they gather all the information about the situation. This helps them to be aware of all the aspects of the issue. The managers of various stores carry out studies to establish approximate numbers of customers that are shopping at various times of the day. They also identify the number of adequate cashiers that should serve customers at various times of the day.The analysis of information gathered identifies various alternatives available to the managers to make their decision. It also tries to find the viability of such information to eliminate the chances of making an error. Once the manager is clear about all issues, they usually choose the most viable course of action to solve the identified problem. This decision is made after evaluating all the available information about each alternative. The advantages and disadvantages of each are analyzed so to eliminate those that would not meet the identified objectives. The decision made represent the option with the least number of drawbacks and one that efficiently addresses the problem facing the department, store or the Company(Richardson 2004, p. 35).
Gingers Cures Colds, Flues, Coughs, and Sore Throats Keywords Therapeutic activity – refers to the ability of a remedial agent to restore health Anti-emetic activity – illustrates the role of a therapeutic agent to combat nausea and vomiting Spasmolytic properties – refers to the competence of a remedial agent to relieve spasms within the smooth muscles Carminative properties – is the ability of an agent to induce flatulence, which expels gas from the stomach and intestines Introduction Ginger is a rhizome of the Zingiber officinale plant and belongs to the Zingiberaceae family, which is commonly consumed as a spice or medicine (Chandra 317). South Asia is credited as a pioneer in ginger cultivation, which has since spread to the rest of the world. The rhizome is associated with numerous health benefits and is regarded as one of the world’s seven most potent disease-fighting spices, which can be consumed fresh, dried or powdered. For centuries, ginger has been recommended as a natural remedy for a wide variety of ailments including colds, flues, coughs, and sore throats. These ailments are most common during the fall and winter seasons, since cold weather conditions facilitate proliferation of the causative agents. This paper seeks to illustrate health benefits derived from ginger with regard to colds, flues and sore throats. Discussion The medicinal application of ginger dates back to 2500 years in China and India for conditions such as headaches, nausea and colds, where it was thought to warm the body and treat the cold extremities thus improve the condition of any patients (Thorne Research 331). This is a key factor in boosting the body’s immune system, which is often helpful during cold spells. In addition, it application is known to improve a weak pulse and strengthen the body after blood loss. Ginger is illustrated to soothe the gastrointestinal tract through its carminative and intestinal spasmolytic potential. This act to eliminate intestinal gas and promote relaxation of the intestinal tract during upsets. Further research into the therapeutic properties of ginger has revealed the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of its application, which have been effective in inducing cell death in ovarian cancer cells. The mechanism of ginger’s therapeutic action can be attributed to its pungent constituents as well as the active ingredients. The major constituents of ginger include zingiberene and gingerols, which are believed to produce the therapeutic effects, as well as the characteristic taste. Although, the precise mechanism of action via the proposed anti-emetic activity of ginger is not fully understood studies indicate that the spasmolytic and carminative properties of ginger have a direct effect on the gastrointestinal tract as its primary target. Although not clearly demonstrated, the mechanism involving the central nervous system cannot be overlooked. Furthermore, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol, components of ginger, have been shown to have antipyretic, analgesic and hypertensive effects, which are connected to the central nervous system. The most conventional application of ginger is in generating home remedies for common cold, coughs and sore throats. This owes to its capacity to soothe inflammation and ease respiratory congestion. Commonly taken as in tea, ginger alleviates the symptoms associated with flu. an attribute of high vitamin C content, which acts as a powerful antioxidant to boost the body’s immune system. In addition, ginger tea serves to relieve sinus pressure, a running nose, sore throat and coughs. This is facilitated by the release of dermicidin, which has antimicrobial properties against agents responsible for flu and sore throat. The analgesic effect of ginger is useful in soothing the scratchy pain and irritation associated with sore throat infections. Taking ginger helps in a temporary resolution of irritation and suppression of stimulated coughs. This is in line with the known antihistamine activity, which is critical in treatment of allergies (Rozen, n. p.). Ginger works to cleanse and heal the respiratory system through the pungent warming, action that helps eliminate mucus from the lungs, which is sufficient in suppressing stimulated coughs from infections. Similarly, ginger is regarded as a natural muscle relaxer that can relieve spasms associated with intense coughing (Rauch). Table below illustrates the Sensitivity pattern ofS. Typhito ethanol extracts of garlic and ginger Adapted from Ayogu and Amadi. In conclusion, ginger is known to be a highly beneficial plant with known preventative and curative properties to the body. and in addition ginger comprises of other components essential to the body’s growth and development. Common afflictions such as cold, flu, coughs and sore throat find homemade remedies in ginger therapy, and similarly, it aids in the growth and development by providing essential nutrients. Works Cited Ayogu, T. and E. Amadi. Studies on the Antibacterial Activities of Medicinal Plants on Typhoid Fever Organism. The Internet Journal of Third World Medicine. Volume 7 No. 2. 2009. Web. 10 Feb 2013. Chandra, Suman, Lata Hemant and Varma Ajit. Biotechnology for Medicinal Plants. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. 2012. Print. Thorne Research. Zingiber officinale (Ginger). Alternative Medicine Review. Vol. 8:3. 2003. Print. Rauch, Brigid. Ginger as a Natural Cough Suppressant. livestrong.com. 2011. Web. 10 Feb. 2013. Rozen, Annette. Top 10 Health Benefits of Ginger. Hubpages. 2012. Web. 10 Feb. 2013.
You can enjoy your time with family and can do work according to only when you want to. This flexibility helps you to plan your life in a strategic manner.It is true that a freelancer can continue studies without any problem. Being self-employed is as good as a part-time job. Moreover, you can also learn the tricks of time management and work experience that will contribute to your overall learning.A self-employed person enjoys the leverage of spending time with the family. Freelancers are under no obligation of completing a job at a particular time. instead, it can be completed at any time that seems appropriate to them. This way they have more time to look into family issues and thus can contribute to the family and social welfare.Self-employment has better growth opportunities. A person can perform more than one task simultaneously and can earn more than a conventional job. This way he can take up more work and can balance it with off periods.Another great reason of being self-employed is that you enter the world of knowledge and expertise. You will experience grossly unconventional things. which a person can ever face in his professional job. Moreover, it will enhance your current skill set and you will be able to develop newer skills that will give you a comparative edge.In addition, a self-employed person has unlimited income. It’s up to his own disposal that how much he is willing to earn. Bonuses and the extra payoff may prove a worthwhile addition to one’s income, too.Under the lights of these above facts, it is easy to infer that self-employment is currently the best option for professionals, especially for those who are creative and innovative. Therefore, I believe that self-employment deems fit and proper for professionals like me.Self-employment is not less than a business. In fact, being self-employed means one is running a virtual business. Self-employment is all about motivation as one is not an employee ofsome company and hence has no fear of being fired by the higher authorities. Consequently, this feeling can make a self-employed person, lazy.
There is a lot of important stuff you can engage in rather than thinking of cash every time. Take, for instance, years back, our parents and grandparents would spend most of their time with their family members. And because of the closeness and rapport stroked between the stay of people in this society, they were able to educate each other on character, various virtues, and how to live in unity in the world. However, in this generation, people, more so the youths, value so much money in life.Money a secondary need, and it is power. It is important, and with it, people can buy several things and items in life. For instance, you need to purchase an estate. with cash, your wish and dream will come to a reality. However, with no money, then the dreams of several people will be shattered. Do you need that car of your dream? Money is the key. The fact is that with no cash, no one will live to be healthy and wealthy. You will be full of ups and downs in life. As much as we say, cash is a secondary need. it is useful in giving persons basic needs in life. Take, for instance, it can be used to buy shelter, food, clothing, and personal hygiene products. However, everyone has his perception of cash. To you, you might view money as the most important thing ever, but for another person, money might be considered to be a by the way. As long as there is enough food to cater for both you and your loved ones, shelter to accommodate both of you, there is power, and a means of transport, then there is no need to worry in life. However, the question is, will you afford all these without enough money?Yes, you have every important thing you need in life to survive in this world. for example, food, shelter, and clothing. However, there are a lot of things that people still require. Recreation and fun, to name a few. Success is not a bed of roses. you need to work extra hard and toil to get the good things you desire. Have you ever tried questioning yourself whether it would be possible for people to pay and offsetting their bills and debts with no cash? Let us face the fact. this won’t be possible. Secondly, assume your child gets sick, how would you cater to her hospital bill with no money. And even if you have an insurance card, remember you pay for the card monthly using money. These are some questions, not rhetoric questions, but will keep on crisscrossing your mind for you to find a clear and concise solution to it. You are the determinant and answer to all the questions. Failure to finding a clear answer, all these will keep on haunting you in life.You may continue being adamant that cash is not essential for you and your family. But time will come when you will need help or donations. Are you aware that these donations will come in the form of money? And that is why if you ask many people, they will still insist that money is an important aspect of life, and indeed it is.Money is important to people in various ways. For instance, you might need money because you want to live a comfort and luxurious life. However, someone somewhere may be in dire need of cash because s/he believes that with enough money, the doors to learning will be opened hence success in bettering the career in education. As stated earlier, education is important, it is the key to success and a socio-equalizer, but you need to pay fees in the form of money to be offered with the learning services.I once interacted with some people, and they were very curious about what money is. Money is power, and with influence, people can access any important things they need. To begin with, with money, you can further your studies to any academic level. you can attend any educational institution and hospital you wish. Also, you will manage to buy you and your family members any apartment anywhere you want to. Even though money is not everything, it comes with power and can buy any important thing you will need in this life. Have you ever known that not everyone needs money to be rich, some people need money to get the minimum things live worthily? Considering that money is important for us to have a good life, it does not give people happiness. And if you ask is money the most important thing? essay, the response will always be positive.Besides looking for money to get comfort, people also need money to gain control. That is a perception that most people have developed that money is important in case they need power. Most people already have this formed opinion that cash can solve all problems in life. There is no need to exhaust yourself looking for excess money that will not be of much importance to you. Why don’t you be contented with the little you have, work to be successful, and make yourself and your family happy? In case you are not aware, most people who have dedicated a lot of their time looking for money tend to have little time with their loved ones.As one is growing up, it is important to educate that person to appreciate whatever little they might have, the importance, and challenges that come with valuing money a lot in this present world. Only a few people may deny the importance of money in life. Money comes with different controversies. some believe it can buy everything while others think money is the source of problems and challenges in life. From my perception, money is important, but I do not need much. As long as I get enough to cater to my family needs, I am satisfied. Why live a life that is meaningless with no endeavor for no reason?Let us again face reality. The money will never buy happiness. neither can it buy love. However, it is important to make our stay in this world comfortable. With no money, you may end up being a homeless beggar. But with a little money, you cannot fail to better your life. All you need is to learn the tips on how to handle and invest. You do not need a lot of money to be successful in life. all you need is knowledge and self-awareness.Money is among the best important things in life. It will be quite difficult to make both ends meet without money. You need money to buy food, to shelter, and to get dressed. You need to go to school, and there are several personal requirements which you need money to get. Even though money can never buy life, but it can better your health. How is this possible? You will be able to pay for any hospital wherever you need, any doctor, and go for the top-notch technologies, unlike for people with little or no money.As we conclude, money is an insatiable secondary need that helps us access basic needs. Its value keeps on appreciating daily. Therefore, in case you are working tirelessly to earn a lot of cash, then you have to be updated on the value of money. In the current generation, someone’s success is determined by the amount of money and investments. Money is important. it can make you famous, give you several friends, and give you every beauty the world comes with. However, as much as we are working tirelessly to get money and be rich, we should always remember to have enough time with our family.
The present curriculum with a focus on technology, and modern shallow coursework which simply trains the young to acquire knowledge for the sake of financial stability and monetary achievement, has created a vacuum which is recognized by educators, parents, and politicians as something which should be filled by value-based religious education, reinforcing the characteristics of the value-based performance. The education needs to inculcate in the pupils the desire to learn, explore and achieve guided by sound ethical, moral, and spiritual principles, which would nurture conscientious and ethical students whose character is molded by virtue and sense of community.The educational importance is of significant value, and emphasis should be made by adopting value-based religious education supported by the National Curriculum Council. This aspect should be incorporated into the training of the teachers as professional educators. The importance of spiritual and moral development along with physical, emotional, and mental development would enhance the success of the students and create a better and more harmonious community. There has been an unprecedented explosion of interest at all levels of educational concern in problems of values education. several discussion papers on the topics of social, moral and spiritual education have appeared (Carr, 83-98)The 20th-century advent of globalization has given greater emphasis to cultural identity and indirectly encouraged the incorporation of cultural and religious education within the framework of the educational curriculum. The religious educators, scholars, and academics of Britain led the religious studies movement that expanded the field of theory in religious education beyond the domination of the Christian traditions, giving it an inter-faith dimension. Prominent among these religious educators was Michael Grimmitt. ( GRIMMITT, 2000). Grimmitt proposed a pedagogy that clearly defined the exclusive role of the State and the Church, respectively in the arena of religious education.
Notably, children raised in those households lack attention, love, and support from both parents, unlike other families. The majority of families with a single parent are often unstable because it may have been caused by divorce, death, or unmarried couples. For one to be considered a single parent in this context, their children should be aged below 18 years.Understandably, these families need aid more than any other, which has raised debate over some time whether the assistance offered to them is enough. Also, people need to change their perception of children raised by single mothers or fathers. Raising a child depends on the disciplinary structure and guidance offered by the father or mother.So, they also have better chances of becoming good citizens like other children when raided up by both parents. They also have the potential to develop progressive emotional, behavioral, and social skills like any other child with time.Today, society has developed hard immunity to the sufferings of single parents. It is never a shared responsibility, where children raised according to the norms of the society by all people, but an individual duty. Fortunately, these children have also learned to cope and develop emotional strength, regardless of parenthood’s nature.Despite the developments, parents still go through a lot to ensure they maintain the balance so that children don’t feel the hole left in the family. Mostly, sole mothers or fathers have to work double to provide for the children and still manage to find time to make the family happy. Some do not even have decent jobs, but they manage to cope regardless of the difficulties. Many have tried, but the quality of parenting is still lacking. They either work for longer hours and share little time with their children or provide too little to meet the family needs.Luckily, studies have shown solid parenting has nothing to do with the parents’ number but quality parenting. For instance, children raised by an employed single parent are more mature and independent than their counterparts. Mostly, the kids take responsibility from a young age because they must think for themselves while the parent is away.Some parents also work late into the night, and these children have to take control, including doing assignments and preparing their beds. For older children who live with their siblings, they have the most responsibilities because they are the leaders while the parent is away for work. The upbringing prepares them to deal with every situation they encounter and gain experience in making important decisions. Notably, it seems like a blessing in disguise become these children learn to become more mature and independent with time.Although children from households with a single parent tend to acquire basic survival skills or become independent faster, they risk developing unconventional behavior. Mostly, the behavior requires some authority that can only be enforced by parents and teachers.If the environment back at home is toxic or uncontrolled, single-parent children tend to miss critical behavioral ethics. The emotional attention that children with the mum and dad receive is far better than the single-parent kids get from their mum or dad. Perhaps, it would also affect how the single-parent child relates to others and progress in life.Nevertheless, children with both parents are no better, especially if the family experiences constant domestic violence. A child who experiences violence in the family would also likely become violent when they grow up. Therefore, it seems one is better than two if you consider the violence factor in your arguments.After all, the belief that emotional support and behavioral transformation is only possible if both parents are present is bias. Nevertheless, some research has supported the notion that children need both parents to get the full emotional and behavioral skills. For instance, the article Single-Parent Cause Juvenile Crime alleges that children with single-parent backgrounds tend to have behavior problems when they become adults. It attributes the behavior problems to inadequate attention by the parent and economic insecurities.Nevertheless, there is no substantial evidence to suggest single-parent background contributes to most criminals in society. The author fails to highlight the plights of these households, which subject them to such prejudices. Although the disadvantaged single parent has several commitments, they still spare some time for their kids to model them into responsible people in the future.There are several testimonials of single mothers or fathers who have managed to raise their children to become prominent people in the community. However, a few could go astray, which is the typical nature of humans because children raised by both parents can also become criminals. Although it seems impossible for sole mothers or fathers, it can be done.A single-parent setup that values love and acceptance is an ideal environment to model well-behaved children. It is far better than a full family with constant arguments and bitterness, which provides a toxic environment to raise rebellious kids. Research has shown that most relationships become toxic after the first five years, which results in emotionally unstable kids who live in fear. If the couples fight regularly, then the child should live with one parent rather than two.On the contrary, children brought up by a sole parent who motivates them to develop a sense of self-worth, belonging, and love to improve their quality of life. They also tend to develop good behavioral instincts both at school and at home. So, single-parent status should never be used to victimize such families. Every child should enjoy being raised in a single-parent home as other ordinary families do regardless of their economic status.People should understand that not every family is lucky to have both parents. Therefore, we should embrace them and offer whatever support we can get towards raising their kids. It could be intangible or tangle benefits because they all help the family feel loved and appreciated. The government has also established programs to aid single-parent groups in meeting their financial obligations.They include child care support and other subsidies that enable them to take their children to school. However, the government has to do more to facilitate services offered to single parenthood families. The help needs to be substantial to relieve the family of many responsibilities like working late hours to bring a meal to the table. They also need the time to express affection and moral support to their children. Besides, they should also get the chance to raise kids that would become responsible people when they grow up.
The actual number of nurse practitioners in 2006 is estimated to be at least 145,000 (What is an NP?, n.d.). A substantial portion of the nurse practitioners in America are family nurse practitioners or FNP’s. Unlike other nurses, a family nursing practitioner is able to practice with greater autonomy. It should be noted that most of the other nursing staffs are working under the doctors and they do not have the authority to take any treatment decisions. FNP’s can treat the patients same way as a physician does even though they have some limitations in practicing certain complex treatment tasks like surgery. Since the beginning of my nursing studies, my overall career goal was to become a family nurse practitioner. I enjoy the autonomy in that field of work. I know very well that it is not easy to become a family nurse practitioner. This profession definitely involves lot of risks and matter of concerns. It should be noted that the FNP’s are working with the family rather than the individual and therefore he/ she should develop lot of skills and qualities to excel in this profession. This paper is written as a strategic plan for me to become a successful family nurse practitioner. … The confidence of the patient in the abilities of the healthcare professional is an important factor for providing effective healthcare. Such confidences can be developed only through relationship building process. The ability to influence others is the core of relationship building process. In short, to become a successful FNP, I should first improve my abilities to influence others. According to Maxwell, (2005), People who are unable to build solid, lasting relationship will soon discover that they are unable to sustain long effective leadership. Needless to say that you can love people without leading them, but you cannot lead people without loving them (Maxwell, 2005, p.8). I should develop more leadership qualities to excel in my profession. Leadership qualities will help me to establish sound relationships with the patients who come in contact with me. Grossman Valiga (2005) mentioned that no qualities were found that were universal to all leaders, although a number of traits did seem to correlate with leadership (Grossman Valiga 2005, p.2). The development of leadership qualities is a controversial topic. Some people believe that it is inherited whereas others believe that it is learned. Great man theory of leadership says that one was a leader if one was born to into the right family –usually a family of nobility- and possessed unique characteristics, most of which were inherited (Grossman Valiga 2005, p.2). On the other hand, Situational theories of leadership stress the importance of environment in shaping the leadership qualities of a person (Grossman Valiga, 2005, p.2). In any case, it is a fact that leadership qualities can be developed even if absent genetically. I do believe that I have strong inherited traits
This means that all themes that come with the results of the study are outlined and discussed in this chapter. Some of the themes that the chapter will look includes data collection, which explains how the research design was operationalized, data gathering, which explains the actual process of collecting data, data analysis, which presents and analyses data, sampling selection, which throws light on how the sample used in the study was constructed, and survey participants demographic classification, which gives the unique demographic characteristics of the participants used in the study. The results chapter of the study is expected to give an overall view of what the real situation on the ground is, as far as the issue of EMR adoption in China is concerned. This is because it is through the results chapter that what participants who are directly affected or part of the situation give out information on what they perceive about the research problem (Ghauri and Gronhaung, 2002).Gill and Johnson (2007) noted that the data collection process defines the overall plan used in for the collection of data (Hussey and Hussey, 2007). By implication, the data collection component of this chapter helps to understand how the researcher put the research design into action. As part of the plan to collect data, the researcher had to select a research approach, which would help to identify the best way to approach the whole task of collecting data. Meanwhile, Remenyi, Williams, Money, and Swartz (2008) and Hakim (2010) presented two major types of research approaches which are the deductive and inductive research approach. In the deductive research approach, the researcher sets a hypothesis, based on which data is collected to either justify or disprove the hypothesis (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2003).
Evaluating the teaching of nursing or healthcare in a higher education setting al affiliation Performance of nursing instructors: an examination of peer review tool Introduction An evaluation of tutor’s teaching methodologies and training methods is mandatory for successful nursing instructions. Nurses have varying and diverse roles imposed on their career. It is, therefore, the responsibility of the university or college’s management to ensure that quality education is given to the nurses. Instructors dedicated to teaching of nurses must perform various roles ranging from instruction, guidance to follow up of content taught. According to Bell and Mladenovic (2008), nurses’ instructors must be evaluated for the purposes of quality education provision to the nurses. In all the roles performed by the instructors, from the classroom to the clinical milieu, evaluation is very important. Though this topic has become a contentious one, the most important thing according to Bell and Mladenovic (2008) is to ensure that the demands of the public in terms of health provision are met. Public health demands can only be met if the quality of education offered to the future health practitioners is scrutinized at all levels. Research indicates that the rate of mortality and morbidity of patients in the world is increasing at an alarming rate. This survey has a great relationship with professional ability of the health practitioners. All health care practitioners must be evaluated on their ability to provide quality health care to the public. Quality health care is only possible if pressure is put on the institutions that provide educational programs in nursing. The curriculum set must incorporate all the components necessary for creating triumphant nurses, with the important psychomotor abilities. This case study will highlight the peer review as a method of appraisal of nursing instruction in educational settings. Description of how peer review training tool is used to monitor the effectiveness of teaching strategieswill be discussed in broad detail. Description and use of peer review tool Brown and Ward-Griffin (2004) argue that for teaching to be considered a successful endeavor, peer review has to be included as one of the teaching strategy. Peer review has been adopted by many institutions as a method of evaluating teaching of nursing or healthcare in higher education settings. Studies indicate that out of ten educational institutions that offer education in nursing, six of them use the peer review tool to evaluate their instructors. Peer review entails observation of the methodologies used by the instructors to evaluate teaching by peers in relation with the learning and teaching contents. The peers go through their course outline materials and other materials offered to them as a way of review of the methodologies used. Peer evaluation tools also involve the use of evaluation scales upon observation of teaching presentation. The evaluation scale assesses the instructors’ mastery of content, methodologies of teaching, incorporation of learning activities in the learning environment amongst others. Peers are allowed to record the instruction lessons and review the results at the end of the undertakings. In relation to the review of materials of instruction. peer evaluation tools undertakes to assess the projects prepared by the instructors to their students, the version of syllabus used, texts, leaflets, useful for successful teaching. Brown and Ward-Griffin (2004) indicate that this method also assesses other attributes such as the grading system used by the instructor, his or her degree of fairness while marking, and the level of professionalism of the tutor. It is mandatory to note that the peer review model only relies on the observations made by the selected group of peers. Though some analysts argue, that observations are not reliable while assessing instructors, observations provide first hand information on the instruction techniques. In the field of medicine, peer review has been documented to be very beneficial while assessing the performance of instructors in this delicate field. Bell and Mladenovic (2008) argue that, with peer review’s use in the subsequent years, nursing education will undoubtedly be a successful career. Over the years, peer review has been used as a mode of assessment, though many people term it as an outdated mode of assessment. Some even claim that peer review is very tedious and time consuming, not considering the practicability of the method. Institutions of higher learning have adopted peer observations as a productive mode of improving the quality of education offered to the nurses. Conclusion Conclusively, peer review as a tool of evaluation is the best tool that educational institutions should embrace. This tool undoubtedly highlights on all aspects of teaching that are required to produce successful nurses. A broad survey of this method from institutions that have embraced it, it is undoubtedly the most effective way to assess and improve teaching in institutions of higher learning. All minute details that concern nursing education are carefully examined and solutions derived for the missing links. References Bell,A. and Mladenovic,R. (2008). The benefits of peer observation of teaching for tutor development. Advanced Education. 2008. 55:735–752 Brown,B. and Ward-Griffin,C. (2004). The use of peer evaluation in promoting nursing faculty teaching effectiveness: a review of the literature. Nurse Education Today. 2004. 14:299–305
It credits itself solely on the basis of the Internet and it is because of the Internet that we see programs like distance learning and e-studies coming up and having their rise with each passing day. Students are being taught through the Internet and there have been glorified modifications in the name of teaching which is done through the Internet. This has all added up to the thrill of studying and attaining education, which sadly was missing in the years before the Internet actually came about. What the best thing Internet has done is to inculcate the feeling of finding the best possible courses within the nook and corners of the world and then after getting enrolled on to them through this very Internet, the whole process of education and training starts. A student needs not move to any other location in his quest of achieving more because the Internet has made it possible to bring the very best and the most convenient of knowledge right at his doorstep. The presence of e-libraries and tutorials on the Internet is also a testimony that there has been a lot of development as far as the academic world and the Internet is concerned.Internet is basically a network of networks, which is connected through different telephone network companies that are themselves linked throughout the world. These computers usually connect through a device known as modem whereby computer signals are transmitted through it. More than 50 million people are making use of this service across the globe. The main content on the net is the World Wide Web or abbreviated as WWW. There are so many sites on this web that one can sit on the Internet for ages but the sites would not finish. The Internet provides visits to different places as well as caters to what a user wants to know – just about anything. There are many search engines from where specific and precise information can be found easily and without any major complexities. It is all free on the Internet to this level.
College student life is an enriching experience as it involves not just exclusive devotion to education but also a lifelong learning experience and structures (Huang Carleton, 2003). Club and social activities are activities that students participate in during their leisure time. Leisure plays a significant role in the modern world although in the past very little attention was given to leisure and leisure activities. College life is the most important part of any person’s life. Leisure activities undertaken during college life influences students in many areas of life including job and life satisfaction. Studies have shown that there is a significant relationship between leisure participation, leisure satisfaction and life satisfaction. Activities such as participation in social clubs on campus help mould an individual towards handling larger responsibilities. This stems from the changed mission of colleges and universities as they strive towards the holistic development of an individual. Participation in activities during college life falls under extra-curricular activities which play an integral role in collegiate experience (Tenhouse, 2011). These activities complete the college’s academic curriculum and thereby augment the student’s educational experience. Students get an opportunity to interact with other students apart from class interactions. Students are at their natural when they interact at the social level. Student peers are an important source of influence on the overall development of an individual. It also influences the effective and cognitive development of the student. Participation in clubs and social activities leads to the well-rounded development of the individual, which is the principal focus of such activities.
Though the positive change and awareness of existence may not justify the tragic or terrible end of the literature, and may even prove to be contradictory to the desired end, it provides an evident space for the discussion and debate of ethical norms, which in turn, suggests that there are lessons to be learned from the story.The conceptual framework of a story, a novel, a play, or a poem, along with other literary ideas utilized by the author, provides the much-needed base for a well-developed epiphany. In most cases, the epiphany is not an apparent device, and perhaps, just closely related and attributed to the dénouement of the plot. What sets an epiphany from such climatic events and falling resolutions is that it occurs abruptly and endures briefly (Maltby 120). The process is self-contained, it occurs within the character, inside his mental constraints, within his very own thinking. Thus, in this sense, epiphanies can be talked of as the driving force behind the climax and the succeeding events in the story, and should not be paralleled with tipping points that speak of structural ideals of a story.There exists a considerable tendency in the literature to associate epiphany with Joyce’s literary creations. Gradually, with the enthusiasm of critical studies and analyses of his works, epiphanies became accepted as the central metaphor of the aesthetic theory which encompassed James Joyce’s works (Bowen 103). Joyce’s major works are thus said to be a proliferation of epiphanies, and the essence of these moments engenders the poignant conclusion of the characters’ fate.Joyce’s use of epiphany as a literary device has been the foreground on which the term achieved its popularity in literature. Literary critics and scholars who have studied his 1914 publication of a short story collection, Dubliners, recognize that there is a moment of deep self-realizationin each of his stories and that these moments create a sudden reversal in the characters’ view of themselves or the society at large.
Whether or not the use of performance enhancing drugs is ethical or not is irrelevant as it is not a criteria for election. Even if it is eventually proven that Bonds did use PEDs, this alone is not a violation of Hall of Fame requirements. If ethical and moral behavior were a factor, many existing hall of famers may need to be re-examined and removed as even the great Babe Ruth was known to abuse alcohol. Regardless of personal conduct or ethical choices, Barry Bonds has not been banned from baseball and has not violated any of the criteria for being inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. Therefore, any consideration for his nomination should be objective and consider only his accomplishments on the field. One argument for preventing Bonds from entering the Hall of Fame is that he used PEDs which are not only a banned substance, but also would give him an unfair edge making his numbers invalid. Players who have been found to use illegal substances are often given an asterisk next to their record that places a question mark on the validity of the accomplishment. Yet, this assumes his batting was based on drugs alone. It is impossible to make this determination conclusively. Even if a player used anabolic steroids, scientific studies have mixed results making it difficult for an absolute conclusion to be reached. In fact, if PEDs were all it took to become a professional athlete the use of these drugs would be out of control in the amateur leagues as well. After an intense study of steroid use and it’s affect on athletes, they conclude that although the data suggests that well trained athletes may have a greater strength gain while taking anabolic steroid compared with placebos, the data are insufficient to allow any firm conclusion about the efficacy of anabolic steroids in enhancing overall athletic performance. (Braunstein, et al. 392). These results indicate that by taking steroids, a professionally trained athlete such as Bonds may have gained strength, but this would not have had any impact on other hitting factors such as swing, eye hand coordination or the ability to determine which pitches to swing at or not. In other words, an athlete must still have talent and ability to be successful. If these drugs do assist in this, the impact appears to be minimal. Additionally, according to Hartgens, most studies prove that steroid use alone does not increase strength. Based on available well designed studies it can be concluded that the impact of enhance the effects of strength training. (528). Therefore, the use of steroids does not eliminate the need for an athlete to train and certainly would not replace a lack of ability or talent. The talent of Barry Bonds should not be called into question. Though it might be argued any edge he received from these drugs might have been cheating, it should also be considered that Bonds was not alone in taking steroids. This does not validate usage of the drugs, but it does demonstrate that even if these drugs did give an athlete an edge, it is not much of an edge if many other players are taking these same substances. In one confidential survey and testimonial of former users and coaches suggest that around 80-100 percent of national/international standard body builders , weightlifters and field athletes use anabolic steroids. (Choi,349). Though the use of anonymous individuals might be suspect, it does indicate that the use of steroi
Colonialism and African Culture in 19-20th CenturiesColonialism and African culture outline a comparative cultural studies approach in the nineteenth and part of the twentieth century. This is evident in the major texts of world literature outlined in the book, Bedford Anthology of World Literature by Paul Davis, Gary Harrison, David M. Johnson and John F. Crawford. Conrad, outlines A European perspective on African colonialism through his story in the Heart of Darkness. On the other hand, Achebe outlines African culture and responses through the story Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe. This paper outlines different perspectives of Conrad and Chinua Achebe through their story Heart of Darkness and Things Fall Apart respectively. Conrad outlines a European perspective on African colonialism in the story Heart of Darkness contained in the book Bedford Anthology of World Literature. The story of Heart of Darkness is based on Charles Marlowe, who spends his life as an ivory transporter in along the Congo River. He is a captain and is saddened when he passes the land areas and from afar, he could see black men working hard while under watch by armed men. He comes to hear of Kutz and thinks he is an icon. Latter he realizes that Mr. Kutz is a hoax. he is engaged in human treaties as opposed to Marlow’s ivory transporter job. Contrary to Marlow’s expectation, he obtains one of Kutz letters written exterminate the brutes. Kutz was an agent who was gathering information for Europe. Every time Marlow would come near the shore, the pilgrim would open fire, but with the sound of his steamer and this would make them stop opening fire. (Davis et al, 18). Marlow finds Kutz letters when he dies. He takes it upon himself to deliver them while still hiding some of the information back to his family and friends. To his fiancée, there was a note written to my intended but he tells her that Kutz last words were her name. The company that employed both Kutz and Marlow had its interest focused on the whereabouts of ivory (Davis et al, 14).On the other hand, African culture and responses is evident in Africa through the story of things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe in the book Bedford Anthology of World Literature. The story stars a leader known as Okwonko. He was well-bodied leader who was the local wrestling champion in the village. The book concentrates on the influence of British colonialism and comparison against the African culture. The text also covers Christianity and the effects it brought to the people of Igbo community. Okwonko is a leader who tries to cover his weaknesses and at all cost tries to avoid succumbing to his father’s fate. Contrary to Okwonkos character, his father was cheap and ended up in debts and lived in fear. Due to his leadership and property, Okwonko is given a son, Ikemefuna as a peace offering between communities. Things start falling apart when Okwonko takes part in the murder of Ikemefuna, despite being warned not taking part in the death execution. Okwonko fails in the end and commits suicide. He proves to be of less value than his father was. Suicide was an abomination to the Igbo society. This paper illustrates the African culture and organization before the settler’s influence (Davis et al, 16). According to Davis et al (18), a body of elders made decisions in the society. Also, the religious leaders such as the oracle of the community offered advice to the chiefs. Spiritual leaders settled any accusations in the society. The Europeans conclude that the African culture unbecoming and conclude their gods are unrealistic. The community lacked a king, and immediately the British arrive and find no leader, they establish their own leadership protocol. The British establish district commissioners to whom they communicate and dominate through the Africans. Mixed reactions are aroused as to whether to adapt to the new ways of doing things or resistance towards the same. In Achebe’s view, things in Nigeria ran smoothly until the settlers’ influence came into being. The Nigerian community feels no loyalty to the Igbo culture and thus quickly adapt to the British system that has loopholes in its management. The African culture allowed sons to seek refuge from their mothers. Okwonko commits a murder and is forced out of the society for seven years. The norm in the community was the children were the fathers, but when they were things go haywire, they turn back to their mothers. Uchendu upholds this fact and attributes it to why mothers are supreme (Davis et al, 26). In both cases, the African culture is deemed as uncouth and not realistic. A council of men among other leaders easy and well runs the natives’ way of life. The settlers either have ulterior motives to possess the land and that which comes from it or are after precious items such as ivory. Infiltration into the African way of life has been faced with a lot of resistance and has led to the loss of many lives. It is evident that before the settler communities came to Africa, the people lived in harmony but after their intrusion, disturbances ensued.Works CitedDavis, Paul., Harrison, C., Johnson, D. M Crawford, J.F. The Bedford Anthology of World Literature: Modern World : 1650-the present. USA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2008. Print.
This way, I will make the scholarship work both for me and for the rest of people in my community. My history is grim and hopeless. However, I have always loved studies. I have interacted with educated people in a number of scenarios and I have always loved their lives. My childhood role model was a district attorney who lived in my township. I promised myself while young to work hard in studies to become as successful as he was and indeed, I have and continues to work hard in my studies. The cost of high-quality education remained a forbidding factor in my quest for competitive education in leading institutions of higher learning. The scholarship offers me an opportunity to identify my interests and abilities. Furthermore, it provides me with an opportunity to work on the two in order to become a productive member of the society. As such, the scholarship is an opportunity for me to receive the education I have desired for as long as I can remember. The education I receive through the scholarship is going to help me, my family and my community in a number of ways. Among the ways the education is going to benefit me is by molding my personality into an ideal individual capable of communicating with people from various backgrounds and capable of upholding the ethical standards in any society. Education grooms people. It increases the mental capacities of an individual thereby making people more reasonable and capable of embracing peaceful ways of resolving conflicts and minimizing harm. I believe I will learn a number of humanist concepts that will enable my growth into an analytical adult capable of protecting the interests of the various publics I will interact with in future. The traits I describe above are those of a leader.
As per the website of the Four Seasons Hotel, times change, but their dedication to perfecting the travel experience never will. Four Seasons Hotel is a Canadian based hotel. It was founded in 1960 by two professionals.Their highly personalized 24-hour service, combined with authentic, elegant surroundings of the highest quality, embodies a home away from home for those who know and appreciate the best. As the company has grown from a single hotel to 93 in 38 countries, its deeply instilled culture, personified by its employees, continues to get stronger. Over more than 50 years, they have built an unrivaled depth of reliability, trust, and connection with their guestsFour Seasons is committed to maintaining the highest ethical standards, including standards intended to prevent bribery and corruption. It is committed to understanding the risks that may compromise these standards and using all efforts to ensure that those who provide services to them comprise these ethical standards.Four Seasons Hotel is a highly customer-centered hotel. Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are at the heart of the Four Seasons Hotel’s policies. Food and Beverages services are of high standards. But there is room for improvement which can eventually take the hotel on new heights in a competitive market like China.Here service quality can be defined as the ability of a hotel to provide the same service as imagined by its customer. Customer loyalty can be defined as the positive reaction of customers towards the good service quality of an organization, by visiting the hotel again and again.In this research study, the main focus is on the hidden rationales that affect the service quality and customer loyalty and their relation. This research would try to explain the theory of service quality and customer loyalty.In the past, many similar research studies have been conducted in the hotel and hospitality industry. These studies also tried to unearth the hidden rationale behind the service quality.
The approach used in leadership and management therefore determines the outcome of the various decisions made. However, all these are influenced by factors such as the immediate as well as external environment, the structure of the organisation or institution, business culture and the relationships which exist between the management and the subordinates (Marcus et al, 2003). Management and leadership are inherently dependent on each other although leadership is a component of management and success in any decision made is influenced by the balance between the two elements (Hofstede, 1991). Management styles are influenced by the leadership styles employed in the running of business entities. There are four fundamental leadership styles although there are several others which are based on the particular management approaches used. These include democratic, laissez faire, autocratic and participative leadership styles. Democratic, laissez faire and participative management leadership styles involve staff while autocratic style is purely based on the management making decisions for the business or company (Marcus et al, 2003). … Asia in specific India has been receptive to the European leadership styles compared to other parts of Asia and African countries. According to Ralston et al (1993), the increase in international affairs has led to the convergence and divergence debate where organizations take strategic positions in different ways. The authors point out that convergence thesis is where economic ideology is the main driver of cultural values for example exposure to European business leads to the adoption of European culture. Thus culture is treated as something accidental that does not have any prior planning for it to take place. On the other hand, Hosfede, (1980, 1991), Adler (2002) point out that a divergence perspective recognizes a country and its cultural differences, they emphasize that culture plays a big role in influencing the way management is conducted. Ward et al (1999) and Ralston et al (1993), indicate that when two cultures meets and equally exchange ideas and values, that is cross –divergence, this type of divergence recognizes the importance of national culture and economic ideology and the synergy between the two when an individual incorporates both national culture and economic ideology influences synergistically to form a unique value system that is different from the value set supported by either national culture or economic ideology (Ralston et al, 1997: 183). According to the Centre fro Comparative Management Studies (2011) the relationship between culture and leadership styles and agrees with the notion that culture has a small but significant impact on the leadership styles of an individual , other factors that affect an individuals leadership styles are the
African-Americans and Latinos are the victims of racial profiling in most cases. Certain officials like customs officials and airport officials also do racial profiling, disturbing the passengers. Policing targeting minorities are widespread. Thousands of complaints from African-Americans, Latinos and Asians have proved that racial profiling is a real happening. Victims of racial profiling are not only common people but also famous and rich people, celebrities, sports stars and people from all walks of life. There were cases when respected members of the society, like judges, lawyers, state legislators, and even representatives claimed that they were victims of racial profiling. This discriminatory stopping and checking by the police is disturbing thousands of pedestrians, innocent drivers, and shoppers and other helpless people across the nation. ‘War on Drugs’ as well as ‘War on Terror’ have given the police an excuse to suspect and check people whom they doubt as a terrorist or drug courier. This has resulted in several racial profiling issues. People will get humiliated and will lose their valuable time when they are unnecessarily stopped and checked by the police. Police has got a general belief that non-white people are mostly drug users and sellers. But studies (reports regarding police stops and checking) have revealed that people who are considered to be racially inferior are less likely to be having drugs or weapons with them compared to whites. Law enforcement agents are people who are having the policing authority for private or public purposes. Security guards at main offices or private institutions, police officers, and officers like airport security agents are having policing right which they misuse to create yet another racial discrimination issue. There were cases when airline pilots demanded people to disembark from the flights, as they suspected passengers because of their ethnicity. Nearly 10 million Asians (4 percent of the population) have already been victims of policing according to reports. Indians in America also had testified their complaints about stops and searches of local police. They complained about the vehicle check, (demanding license and registrations) and other checks done by police without any reasonable suspicion. Blacks as well as Latino pedestrians are stopped, questioned and checked without any reason (Juarez 2004). Non-white youths traveling in bikes are simply stopped and questioned for doing nothing wrong. There were incidents in which police dogs attacked non white civil rights protesters. Highway patrol canine units unnecessarily stop the vehicles claiming that they carry drugs. There exists a practice of threatening people of color by releasing dogs. Dogs are trained to attack and maul and are sent to attack people. Several hundreds of blacks and Latinos were attacked in different incidents. ‘Driving while black’ is a kind of policing that affects minorities. This is an act of police haunting African-Americans for traffic stops as they think they are likely to be indulged in criminal activities. Even though racial profiling is illegal, Supreme Court (according to a decision taken in 1996) permits police to stop and examine motorists (their vehicles) to see whether they have weapons or illegal drugs with them (Juarez 2004). Stopping these people frequently will result in large number of arrests,
Additionally, even the Russian government encountered deficits of approximately 9 billion US dollars after organizing the 1980 Olympic Games. Nevertheless from the subsequent Olympic Games that were hosted by Los Angeles in the year 1984, the Olympic Games were commercialised as an event. As a result, Los Angeles earned direct revenues worth 200 million US dollars and indirect revenue of 3 billion US dollars from the 1984 Olympics. With the passage of time and the rapid commercialisation of the Olympic Games, more and more cities have become interested in hosting the event as it produces big fortune for the city and impel the economic growth of the country. In the year 1992, Barcelona hosted the Olympic Games, and earned direct revenues greater than 9.5 billion US dollars in addition to indirect revenues worth 16.4 billion US dollars (Brunet, 1995). This magnitude of profitability and the enduring legacy economic affect on the city owing to the organization Olympic Games, catch the fancy of a number of big corporate houses who endeavour for the sponsorships. It is evident the financial as well as economic impact of hosting the Olympic Games is anticipated to be extensive, predominantly at the local level and to a smaller degree at the country level. The total financial consequence of the Olympic Games on the city or the nation hosting the Game is generally spread over the years. Hence, the study of economic impacts of the Olympic Games on the host city has been a popular topic of investigation for researchers. The 2012 Olympics is being held in London. It has the potential of generating huge amount of revenues as well as exhibit London on the global platform this year. The Olympic Games is expected to motivate a… The second chapter, that is, Literature Review, would focus on the review and discussion of the findings of prior studies on the benefits, particularly financial and economic, of Olympic Games. This chapter would hence discuss the researches that have been carried out by other researchers in the topic under discussion. For the better understanding of the expected financial benefits of 2012 Olympic Games on the United Kingdom, this segment of the research study would focus on the preceding Olympic Games that were held in Being, Sydney, Atlanta, Barcelona and Athens among others. In this context, the financial and economic benefits that these host nations had enjoyed would be conferred with the help of cost benefit analysis. The thorough study of the impacts of the past Olympic Games on the host nations would endow us with an apparent outlook of the expected financial benefit that the United Kingdom could potentially gain this time. The Literature Review would also accentuate on the anticipated financial scenario in the UK, subsequent to the 2012 Olympic Games in London.Chapter Three: Research MethodologyThis chapter would consist of a discussion on the selection of the appropriate methods and approaches for the execution of the research study. For a better identification of the appropriate research method for this study, this chapter would initially present a comprehensive discussion of all the research methods along with their advantages and suitability. The chapter would also discuss the strategy.
Destiny is waiting to work in his favor. A mysterious white man offers him money to find a missing white woman named Daphne Monet. That man must have been impressed by his gallant performance record in the army. Easy describes the man whose assignment he is to take up. His grip was strong but slithery, like a snake coiling around my hand (p.10). He is a gangster, DeWitt Albright. The plan is to search her first and then to take charge of her in person along with the substantial amount of stolen money. This assignment by a white gangster to a black ex-army man highlights the personal credentials of Easy and indicates the possibility of cultural transgression in that period of American history. His selection is a tribute to his individual merit and the white man must have seen the advantage in engaging a man who is trained in military discipline, as well as the arrival of the black community at the dominant site of action in Los Angeles. The assignment given to Easy has important social implications and it is a tough, calculated decision for the individuals of both the races. To highlight this aspect the author gives the true atmospheric picture of racial segregation in the post-war Los Angeles, and no segment of the society remains untouched by its evil influence. Easy had to carry out the assignment amidst a hostile background where policemen and other top authorities in the law and order hierarchy might implicate him in many types of crimes. He confronts prejudice from all sides and in every angle. Thus the assignment is tension-filled right from the word goes for Easy. Easy Rawlins, the army man: He gained varied combat experience in World War II and he was a ferocious fighter in hand to hand combat in which he killed many German soldiers. About his interactions with the white race, Easy states, ….I was used to white people by 1948. I had spent five years with white men and women, from Africa to Italy, through Paris, and into the Fatherland itself. I ate with them and slept with them, and I killed enough blue-eyed young men to know they were just afraid to die as I was.(p.9) With his accomplishments in the combat, he proved that a black man was just as capable of heroic acts as any white soldier. He had the practical experience of observing, as to how white men acted during distress. He took part in liberating Jewish survivors from the Nazi concentration camps and this experience taught how and why one should love humankind and what the price of peace was! After the war, he wanted to lead a peaceful life and completed his high school education and wished to prosecute his studies further. He got a job as the machinist in an aircraft production plant but lost it for challenging his white boss. This showed his fighting qualities and he was ready to face the inevitable to uphold the principles dear to his heart. Easy Rawlins, once he is out of the army: Once he was fired from a job, Easy Rawlins found himself in a desperate situation. One aspect of the personality that all the army men carried with them life-long was their pride, and Easy Rawlins was no exception to that trait. He had to take care of the financial commitments of mortgage and wanted to own his house.
The present research has identified that the WHO asserted that around 30% of people dying from cancer do so because of these five behavioral and dietary risks: high body mass index, low fruit, and vegetable intake, lack of physical activity, tobacco use, [and] alcohol use. These risks are external factors that can be managed, which underline the importance of diet and physical activity to reducing cancer risks. Though results for the past few decades are mixed, an increasing number of studies showed that having the proper diet and lifestyle can prevent, or even cure, a number of chronic diseases, including different types of cancer. Proper diet refers to lower fat and red meat intake and higher vegetable and fruit consumption. Western diet, on the opposite, has been regarded as an unhealthy diet because it is usually high in the animal product, sugar, and fat consumption and low in dietary fiber, due to the prevalence of fast food and processed food consumption. This Western diet has been correlated with higher cancer risks, including colon and breast cancers. Moreover, by lifestyle, this study pertains to the way that people live, including management of alcohol consumption and smoking practices, as well as physical activity levels, life satisfaction with interpersonal relationships, and sleeping habits. This research intends to know if there is a proper diet and lifestyle that may reduce cancer risks. It proposes that holistic healthy living can prevent cancer risks, especially for those who have high cancer risks due to their family history and genetic profiles. Holistic healthy living refers to a lifestyle that responds to various needs: nutrition, physical activity, sleep, and social relations. Moreover, by cancer, this proposal covers several cancers, although it recognizes that certain diets and lifestyles may be more effective for some kinds of cancers and that physical, genetic, and psychological variables can also impact, not only the successful (i.e. consistent and disciplined) adoption of healthy lifestyles and diets but also the effectiveness of a healthy living approach.
How Leaders can Maintain High Quality Performance The effectiveness of leaders can be measures in terms of their ability to achieve accurately defined goals. In a work environment, different factors contribute to ensuring that employees perform at their best. There are factors which are external to the job but are relevant in maintaining high quality performance. These factors are a conducive environment (physical condition of the organization, resources in terms of office equipment, facilities and supplies, and the policies, processes and procedures that are effectively designed and understood by the employees), appropriate opportunities for interaction and balanced time and schedule for work and rest. In terms of leadership theories, leaders can help maintain high quality performance by applying the applicable leadership style depending on the situation, the characteristics and personalities of the followers and the organizational goals. According to Martires (2004), morale boosting is related to productivity and is an important function of leadership. Studies show that high morale is accompanied by high productivity. Good leadership effects a positive correlation between morale and productivity (133). Leaders must be able to design and institute a balanced system of rewards and control, to monitor the progress of their subordinates, to appraise their performance and to motivate them towards the accomplishment of clearly defined tasks. Leaders acknowledge that the benefits of motivating, developing and training their followers contribute to high performance and productivity. Not only should leaders work towards achieving organizational goals, but also the personal and professional goals of their followers. By acknowledging that leaders are genuinely committed towards the holistic development of people, would they be able to ensure that a high quality of performance is adhered to at all times. Work Cited Martires, Concepcion R. Human Behavior in Organizations. 3rd Edition, National Bookstore, Philippines. 2004. Print.
Any person or organization may be targeted by the cybercriminals and this, therefore, calls for action against these acts in St Louis County. The crimes that are conducted via the internet platform present a huge challenge to the security agencies in St Louis as well as in the entire nation. The most widespread and common cyber crime threats include theft, hacking, phishing piracy and spamming. Due to the detrimental impact of these cyber-related activities, there is the need to come up with a cyber crime task force plan for St Louis County. The cyber crime task force plan will help identify the investigative strategies for responding to the problem. This paper identifies the techniques, equipment and organizational structures that can be efficiently and effectively used by law enforcement agencies to combat this menace.The number of cyber related crimes in St Louis County has continued to rise over the last few years. These cases have been noted to come in different forms and severity. The consequences of such computer and internet based criminal acts are very far-reaching. As a result, law enforcement in the county cannot ignore this new trend of crimes that is exponentially increasing in the county. Some of these crimes have been rated to be high profile crimes (RSA, 2012). Examples of the high profile crimes that have been witnessed include credit card frauds and data larceny. Such crimes are a big threat to the national financial health and national security. Apart from the two stated acts, other computer and internet-based activities that affect the St Louis County include hacking, computer intrusion, password trafficking, spamming and phishing (RSA, 2012). Internet scams and spam have also been gaining ground in St Louis and this is putting the residents of the county at risks.Studies and research have indicated that the majority of these crimes mainly target property or people.
In the recent times, the social scene has gone through tremendous changes, if the dating scene is anything to go by. In the past, couples could only live together if they were married. Currently however, the situation has changed. couples now live together for mutual benefits, the recent increase in the number of couple’s cohabitating can attest this argument. Increasingly, more and more people live together for the emotional and sexual benefits they acquire from the relationship, other than being married. Various factors contribute to the sharp increase in this practice, as this paper argues. Coupled with the sexual and emotional support, more people try to avoid the pressure that comes with marriage by living together, with the increase in the cost of living standards, people try to share the cost of living through cohabitation, while others use it as a means of testing the loyalty of their partners. On the other hand, there are a number of effects associated with such an arrangement. Not only does this form of lifestyle increase chances of extramarital activities, it also contributes to the high number of divorce cases. Further, there is no commitment in the relationship, with couples showing less effort in trying to make the relationship work. Moreover, it increases chances of people getting married to the wrong partners, in addition to contributing to high levels of conflict between the cohabitating partners. In this regard, this paper seeks to explore the effects of cohabitation between two individuals…. In recent research conducted, studies have shown that cohabiting couples led a happier life free from unnecessary stress and this have an equal boost on their self-esteem as compared to married couples who often time are not happy in their marriage relationship. Having discussed the few positive side of cohabiting relations, cohabiting relationship too has its own demerits. in fact many tend to perceive cohabiting relationships as being morally and religiously wrong. Some of the negative aspects of cohabiting relationship are: Studies have shown that those living together before getting married have a higher separation rate and divorce rates. thus, marriages that result from couple living together before marriage have a 50 % higher disruption rate as compared to marriage that are not characterized with premarital cohabitation. In recent studies conducted by researchers from Columbia University clearly revealed a shocking result where divorce rates of women who cohabit have an 80% divorce rates as compared to those women who do not. According to research conducted also, studies that those couples who live together before marriage are least likely to marry each other, forty percent of couples who are in a cohabiting relationship are known to end their relationship before getting married. Studies also shows that those couples living together before marriage will have unhappier marriages, this is because this couples have lower marital quality and a very great marital dissolution at any given time. this is also characterized with many separation rates in their marriages. Those living together in a cohabiting arrangement also have a high tendency of not directly avoiding to deal with some of the joint
Review There are several methods that have been used in photolithography and fabrication of molds for use in metal microstructures. LIGA is one of the most common methods that have been previously used for this purpose. this approach has some advantages in that it can be used with tall microstructures that ranged from 100µm to 1mm. The effectiveness of this method is that it has no effect on the lateral dimensional accuracy of the long microstructures making it a versatile method, and this explains why it is popular among other photolithographic methods. The limitation of this method is that fabrication of LIGA involves a considerably high cost, and lack of an x-ray synchronized source that would give hard x-rays of high intensity and with low divergent properties. Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) s another method that involves polyamide, which is sued to fabricate low cost high aspect ratio structures as compared to LIGA above. With this process, a thickness of 100µm is achieved with the aspect ratio being 10. The limitation of this process is the tediousness of modifying the RIE machine. In addition to these approaches, there are several other methods that have been used for this purpose and include the high aspect commercial photolithography with photoresists and a UV light source, and the use of a photosensitive polyamide with a UV exposure in fabricating metal molds. The research by Miyajima Mehregany (1995) involved integrating the above methods in previous studies, and solving the limitations of the studies to achieve low cost high-aspect-ration structures in photolithography. To achieve this, commercially available positive photoresists and UV exposure increasing molds were used together with electroless nickel plating. In the research, a 2-3µm line width was maintained and increasing the photoresists thickness, that the above LIGA approach in photolithography lacked. The research used electrostatic actuator micro machined at 1.5µ active gaps with a polysilicon of up to 5µm. The difference in this approach was that instead of increasing the gap height, the gap side was increased. This resulted to reduced use of high aspect ratio structures due to reduced force/torque. This is the main difference comparing this approach and the previous approaches in photolithography. Coating speed was very important in the cause of this research. A lower speed of 1000 rpm portrayed rough surfaces in the photoresists and mask-wafer spacing was small to result to a high resolution pattern. The optimum speed for high resolution was set at 2000rpm and a uniform coating, thickness and a smooth final surface was achieved after the final layer. The prebake temperatures were essential in that an extended prebake time resulted to high-resolution with diluted developer and standard exposure. The prebake temperature ranged between 95 and105 oC, with the optimum temperature being set at 100oC. After each layer, prebake was done at the same temperature to enhance drying. This was because, prebake after applying the second layer was observed to result to cracking mainly due to uneven heating in the two layers that resulted to stresses, and eventually cracking. The optimum prebake temperature of 100oC at 30 min was selected as the optimum prebake conditions after each layer. This time was important in that a short prebake time could have resulted to defects caused by the remaining solvent in the photoresis
This study was able to establish that there was a strong consensus among clients and staff interviewed that acupuncture had a beneficial impact in terms of helping patient relax, reducing his anxiety and pain. 2. Mills, E., Wu, P., Gagnier, J., and Ebbert, J., (2005). Efficacy of acupuncture for cocaine dependence: a systematic review meta-analysis. Harm Reduction Journal 2(4), pp. 1-6. In this paper, the authors systematically evaluated and analyzed the randomized controlled trials on acupuncture in the management of cocaine addiction. The authors were able to cover 10 databases using different inclusion criteria. All in all, the authors established that the meta-analysis does not support the use of acupuncture in the management of cocaine dependence. However, most of the trials had issues with a significant loss in their follow-up, thus lessening the impact of the inferences drawn. 3. Black, S., Carey, E., Webber, A., Neish, N., and Gilbert, R. (2011). Determining the efficacy of auricular acupuncture for reducing anxiety in patients withdrawing from psychoactive drugs. J Subst Abuse Treat., 41(3):279-87 This study hypothesized that auricular acupuncture can reduce the anxiety caused by withdrawal from psychoactive drugs. … lar acupuncture was not more effective than sham or control treatments in reducing anxiety and the use of acupuncture in the management of drug withdrawal is still controversial. 4. Killeen, T. and Brady, K. (1997). A preliminary study of the effects of auricular acupuncture on alcohol and drug withdrawal symptoms. Substance Abuse, 18(3). The authors set out to evaluate the impact of auricular acupuncture in reducing stress in drug withdrawal patients. About 60 patients were covered by this paper with questionnaires used after initial treatment with acupuncture. Their rate of distress was measured. The authors were able to establish that there were statistically significant improvements seen on all measures for the subjects during the pre and post testing period. QUESTION 2 Literature Review Introduction Alternative and complementary medicine has long been part of our conventional medicine practice, especially in many parts of Asia and in the African region. For the West, their focus has always been on conventional and modern medicine and the adaptation of alternative therapies has not found widespread acceptance. There are various risks involved in the use of alternative and complementary medicine, especially as its applications are not supported by scientific studies and research. This paper shall establish a critical analysis of literature on acupuncture and its impact on drug withdrawal. This paper shall provide a critical analysis based on specific literature on the subject matter. First, an overview of the acupuncture shall be discussed, along with a general description of drug withdrawal. Secondly, an overview of available literature on the subject matter shall be presented. Thirdly, a critical analysis of gaps within these studies will be discussed. Lastly, a
Despite the remarkable success of this method, the use of lifelong HBIg for hepatitis B prophylaxis has its limitations. Among others are the high cost, limited supply and parental administration. The patient needs to frequently visit the clinic too and requires laboratory monitoring. Another problem with HBIg is it’s a blood product not readily advised by physicians. If a safer non-biological alternative existed, it would have been very easy for the patients. This particular study examined 61 patients that went under donor orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The study found that the HBIg cessation a 12 months minimum after the transplant with successive administration of nucleoside and nucleotide analog agent gives an effective prophylaxis against recurring HBV infection. Despite the success of the procedure concerns still persist when applying the same procedure to patients with chronic stable renal dysfunction. One recurrence case in the study seroconverted to HBsAg while being administered oral antivirals (to treat renal dysfunction). Hence renal dysfunction does represent a complication in applying this procedure. Renal toxicity is still a matter of concern regarding the long-term usage of oral antiviral drugs for preventing HBV. This study didn’t show any change in renal functional of patients however, the focus of the study was not the renal dysfunctional, studies with larger durations and follow up should be conducted to analyze this aspect comprehensively. Moreover this study doesn’t cover interaction between hepatitis delta, hepatitis C and pre-transplant hepatitis B viremia, for the risk of hepatitis B breakthrough on our protocol. Hence the oral antiviral procedure should better be performed on low risk patients. Liver transplant recipients are at a great risk of acquiring hepatitis B after liver transplantation. The transplantation performed is a preventive measure against the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) related liver disease. This study by Saab et al. (2011) evaluates the effectiveness of the new hepatitis B prophylaxis, incorporating conversion from 12 months of HBIg along with lamivudine, to ‘combination therapy’. This was done using oral nucleotide and nucleoside analogue. During the research (between June 2008 and May 2010) 61 liver transplant recipients in total, were converted to a combination of a nucleotide and nucleoside analog. Standard deviation (or the mean) follow-up time after conversion was recorded at 15.0 (±6.1) months. Recurring HBV befell in only two patients (3.3%) at 3.1 and 16.6 months when HBIg dosage was halted. The time incidence rate for HBV relapse after terminating the HBIg was calculated at around 2.7 cases per 100 person-years. HBV relapse was estimated at 1.7% at 1 year after terminating the HBIg. The HBIg termination 12 months minimum after the liver transplantation with succeeding ‘combination therapy’ with a nucleotide and nucleoside analog, gives effective prophylaxis to fight against recurring HBV infection. The clinical associations of HBsAg findings, short of the clinical, molecular or biochemical indicators of recurring hepatitis B, require further study. One limitation of the study was it did not include a control group. All eligible patients at the center were put to dual nucleoside and
The findings of these studies also validate the author’s claim that the most widespread health related problem for the US is teenage pregnancy, a major point of which is Hispanics (Curley, 2012, p. 230). The author further contends that teenagers who become pregnant are unlikely to complete their high school or college education and, on most occasions, they drop out, and this problem is clearly stated and supported by evidence from other studies. Basch further delineates the repercussions of the problem in terms of failure to attain academic accomplishments and considerable aggravation of economic stability. He also identifies clinical problems related to teen pregnancy, which are evident from the fact that children who are born to teen mothers also experience a wide range of problems (Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2011, para.4) like chronic health conditions and behavioral problems. The author specifically narrows down his claims that economic and social costs of teen pregnancy are often high among Hispanic groups, and these costs may be both immediate and recurring for teen parents and their children. This claim is further substantiated through another study, which purports that the rising problem of teen pregnancy contributes significantly to drop-out rates among high school girls (Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2011, para.5). Teen pregnancy and childbirth cost for the US taxpayers was estimated to be $9 billion per year (Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2011, para.8) due to enlarged health and foster care cost, enlarged internment rates among the teen parent’s children, and missing tax returns from the teen mothers who receive less money as they have less education. The author also establishes the significance of the study by stating that non-marital teen births in the US affect the educational, economic, social and health aspects of such teenagers and their children. Purpose and Research Questions The author has clearly stated the objective of the study and also delineated the pervasiveness of teen pregnancy among school-aged Hispanic youth, underlying pathways through which the pre-marital teen births negatively affect educational achievement. Though the author does not put the questions explicitly in the study, it serves the purpose as the questions are related to the problem. The qualitative methods of analysis are suitable to answer the research questions as the author has reviewed the articles of several prominent authors. Literature Review The author has conducted an exhaustive and accurate analysis of this problem prevalent among the Hispanics in the US. He claims that teen pregnancy and birth rates of this race are considered to higher than in any other community and it exerts an important influence on [their] educational attainment (Basch, 2011, p.614). As a result of this, they drop out from schools, and this adversely affects their education and knowledge attainment and pushes them to the lower strata.
How this article relates to the cognitive domain is evident in the way DBS has been effectively used as a treatment tool for coming up with potential treatments that are for individuals who have mental disorders. It focuses on the part of the brain which is known as the learning and memory center – the hippocampus. By the use of electrical stimulation to the entorhinal cortex, a area which is responsible for the line of communication to the hippocampus, it led to the creation of new cells. Despite the short term existence of these cells it was found that their presence had a lasting impact as far as changes in the memory were concerned. The affective domain comprises of ones feelings, sentiments, emotions as well as outlook. More specifically it looks at an individual’s ability to receive and respond to phenomena, value and organize things as well as define their characterization. The affective domain is reflected in this article, in the way the study proposes that by the use of stimulation of the brain circuitry the end result would be enhancing new functional brain cells in specific regions of the brain. This affects an individual’s ability to process, respond, react and hence have a major impact on their feelings and attitudes. Furthermore their attention span increases due to the expansion of their memory which directly has an effect on their ability to listen attentively and organize. The behavioral domain looks at a person’s utilization of motor skills and their ability to coordinate them. The initial test subjects on which the DBS therapy was tested were rats. To check whether the new integrated cells had led to the appropriate changes in memory the authors let the animals navigate their way in a pool of water which was submerged. The key aspect of their behavior which was tested was that of any noticeable impact on their learning. This in turn looked at their perception of the situation, their readiness to act appropriately, any learning which had resulted as far as their guided response was concerned. And finally their adaptation to the situation by analyzing their behavior contributes to their behavioral domain. There are various ways that the study can be applied to the various aspects of critical thinking. 1. Questions The questions which this study proposes to answer are whether electrical simulation of the brain can lead to the birth of new cells? Can this growth of new cells be then used to create changes in the memory? Can these changes then help individuals who have diseases such as Parkinson’s or other neurologic and psychiatric conditions? 2. Purpose The purpose of this study, as defined by the author, is basicalyn answering the questions which formulate the basis of its objective. It aims to check by applying the DBS technique on subjects, which were rats, to check the impact this stimulation had on a specific part of the brain, the hippocampus, which is responsible of a human’s brain learning and memory center 3. Concepts The basic idea of the study is to come to an understanding of the clinical impact of DBS. In previous studies the effects of DBS have not been too understandable, so the idea on which the study is operational is that perhaps by the stimulation of specific brain circuitry the predicted result could be a development of new functional brain cells in certain areas of
When doing this they manage to change how they act and think. CBT appears to be more effective in treating alcohol abusers and those that are undergoing depression researchers from the Rand Corporation have noted that depressive symptoms are common in individuals who abuse alcohol or any other substance (Beck, 2009). There is a direct correlation between alcohol and depression. Fifty percent of alcoholics suffer from depression at one given point in time. Alcohol and depression haven been indicated by researchers that they do not mix well though. alcohol has been seen to be a depressant. Alcoholics use alcohol as a way of controlling their depression. When alcoholism and depression exists together they are called co-morbidity because they exist together. Alcohol and depression coexists together within an individual developing a complex situation that is very difficult to treat. Treatment cannot be done separate, and successful treatment must take into account the two diseases. This paper presents a literature review on the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment of alcohol addiction patients. Alcoholism and depression are disorders that commonly co-occur within an individual. … This study used a sample of 82 depressor and alcohol abusers. The study participants was randomized and placed under control for 12 weeks trial with a combination of sertraline combined with individual CBT. The program focused on both alcoholism and relapse prevention. Depression and alcohol outcomes were all measured during the study and over twelve weeks sertraline was tolerated by the alcohol patients and depressions was reduced as well as the rate of alcohol consumptions (Moak, 2005). Jon and Richard (2002) conducted a study to test the hypothesis that cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for alcohol dependence works through increasing cognitive and behavioral coping skills. The study used a sample of ten studies which were identified that investigated the hypothesized mechanisms of action of CBT. These studies used random sampling procedures to CBT and at least one comparison condition. The study found that though, numerous analyses of the possible causal links have been conducted to evaluate whether CBT works through increasing coping, the results indicate little support for the hypothesized mechanisms of action of CBT. The researchers thus, concluded that research has not yet established why CBT is an effective treatment for alcohol dependence. A study conducted by a group of therapists investigated the evolving work on treatment approaches for individuals with alcohol dependence and comorbid anxiety disorder, this study conducted an overview of issues related to comorbidity and its treatment, this researchers described a prototype that was combined in treating alcohol addicts usin the CBT therapy. The study found that the program is
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by recurrent obsessions and compulsions that cause marked distress and significant functional impairment (Dell’Osso, 2007). OCD is one of the more common serious mental illnesses. The shame and secrecy associated with it, as well as lack of recognition of its characteristic symptoms, can lead to delay in diagnosis and treatment. Effective psychological and drug treatments are available for the distressing, time-consuming, repetitive thoughts and rituals and the associated functional impairment. Obsessions are unwanted ideas, images or impulses that repeatedly enter a person’s mind. Although recognized as being self-generated, they are experienced as egodystonic (out of character, unwanted, and distressing). Compulsions are repetitive stereotyped behaviors or mental acts driven by rules that must be applied rigidly. They are not inherently enjoyable and do not result in the completion of any useful task. To qualify for the diagnosis, the symptoms must be disabling. OCD occurs throughout the life span and children as young as six or seven present with the characteristic-impairing symptoms. Recent epidemiological studies report prevalence rates of 0.8% in adults and 0.25% in 5-10-year-old children, although earlier studies suggested rates as high as 1-3% in adults and 1-2% in children and adolescents. The World Health Organization rates OCD as one of the top 20 most disabling diseases. The current best-validated instrument is the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), which exists both in adults and children (Heymann, 2006).
Basically, in order for an organization to remain relevant in the market for long-term basis, it is critical for the organization to find ways of developing and maintaining competitive advantage. This can only be learned from contemplation of how different markets around the world behaves and what is required to create a strategy that would keep the organization relevant even in the long run. Although the primary goal of every organization is to make profits, it is essential to study other areas relevant to keep the organization relevant in the market. The global business operation requires organizations to consider strategic areas that the customer and community are equally focusing on and define as practices of a successful organization. For instance, although definition of organizations focusing on long-term goals tends to or revolves around sustainability, other areas are critical focusing on or that foster the sustainability. Notably, issues of corporate social responsibility have been highly prioritized globally as to having played a key role in strategically placing organizations in a position to thrive in a highly competitive market. Specifically, customers and the community through which businesses operates are looking beyond what the business offers. This is critical because issues such as environmental and social are considered ideal in any business operations. In addition, governance issues have also been prioritized globally. Studies have documented that organizations that have good practices of governance tends to win the favor of investors and employees. This means that such organizations recognize employees as part of the primary assets of the organization thus according them the treatment they deserve. In this regard, global awareness means that the organization learns different ways through which such matters other than profit gaining can positively contribute to the organization. Incentives such as different and new ways of attracting and retaining competent workforce are contemplated upon. In another dimension, due to globalization, different ideas, innovations, and new ways of conducting business are learned. In fact, these issues can easily be learned by subjecting not only the organization leaders, but also the workforce in training and development programs. The idea behind such a move is to produce or develop people who can formulate and integrate multinational strategies in the organization. Globalization has effects both for local businesses as well as well as the international businesses. In a global business environment, every business in the world is competing with another business in the world, as long as they are in the same sector. For instance, a dairy farmer in America is in competition with a dairy farmer in Africa. In this regard, if a dairy farmer does fails to gain the competition which makes a dairy farmer in the Africa has, the farmer will have issues. This phenomenon can be exemplified in the trade relations between the China and the United States (China Briefing Media, 2006). Because Chinese manufacturers can achieve the highest competencies as compared to US firms, Chinese producers have taken over the US economy. If a firm in one market in the world is unable to meet the competencies in the global economy, the firm will be pushed out of the market by a firm that is far away in the world. This has been seen in numerous situations. For instance, South African farmers have been able to find way to produce low price and high quality agricultural products. The cost of production and expert for these firms have been so low that they are able to produce and exported products around the work and sell the so cheaply in the export market at they are able to
This study is being carried out in order to establish guidelines in the use and application of radiofrequency, mostly in terms of its safety and prevention of injuries. Body Causes 1. Heating of implants An RF pulse would often be transmitted by the MRI to stimulate protons through energy exchange. The pulse is an electromagnetic wave coming from the RF coils (Lin, 2008). RF power during MR scans are changed into heat within the tissue of the patient due to resistive losses (Eising et.al., 2010). This absorption of energy is specifically considered the SAR (Specific Absorption Rate). The specific effects of heating during MR scanning and burns usually refer to conductive implants and normal tissue. Most studies discuss the impact of conductive wires, including pacemaker cables, ECG cables, and metallic stents (Eising et.al., 2010). Issues in the use of aneurysm clips in the brain, cochlear implants, implanted spinal cord stimulator, metallic implants, and metal fragments in one or both eyes can also cause burns (Premier Diagnostic Center, n.d). Based on an experimental study by Nakamura et al. (2001), 55-235 volts could be induced with the RF irradiation in a metallic loop placed inside the bore of a 0.5-T scanner. A resistor which was inserted sparked and then burned out (Nakamura et al., 2001). This was seen only with the axis of loops being parallel to the linearly polarized transmitting field. For cables, heatings at 20 degrees Celsius, 26 Celsius, and 63.5 Celsius have been assessed. Assessments indicate that the heating of the ECG cable is known to cause fire. Small implants can lead to issues with the heating of skin seen in tattooed patients caused by the heating of metallic elements of the ink used for the tattoo (Klitscher et al., 2010). Implants (Wills.com, n.d.) Some reports on excessive heating or burns have also been seen for iron-based oxide tattoos and transdermal patches added with metal elements. these patches may include testosterone, nicotine, and clonidine patches (Tope and Shellock, 2002). Tattoos using ferromagnetic compounds can cause react to the MRI machine (Ross and Metava, 2011). In general, the image would somehow appear distorted following the MRI. however, the injuries usually represent burns on the patient’s skin. As such, any redness or apparent injury on the skin has to be managed medically (Ross and Matava, 2011). As seen in the image below, the ferromagnetic compounds of the tattoo caused the RF burns, mostly manifesting as burns and redness on the patient’s skin on the site of the tattoo. Tattoo with ferromagnetic compounds following MRI (Melina, 2010) Currents may be triggered by two fields. The first is the pulsed magnetic-gradient field, and the second being the pulsed radiofrequency field (Jacob et al., 2010). These two fields increase their intensity over time and may eventually cause an electromotive force through a conductive loop. Heating will then come about from the current originating from the loop. with the amount of heating based on the resistance in the conductive processes (Dempsey and Condon, 2001). The pulsed magnetic field is triggered by a large coil which encompasses the coils and is often found near the patient to be scanned. The issue of excessive heating is based on the distance of the RF coil to the patient,
It is about their experiences as they – especially the wives – fall down headlong the rabbit hole that is marriage. Jag Mundhra’s movie Provoked is based around similar themes, too. In The Disappearance, there is a seemingly perfectly ordinary couple whose marriage had been arranged together after the man had given his approval of the prospective bride. This is one thing that is quite common in the Indian culture. the man has the choice of choosing his wife whereas the girl is not given the same courtesy. When Kiranjit expresses doubt about her marriage stating that (she didn’t) even know him, an acquaintance tells her that (she doesn’t) need to (Austin and Gupta). The man in the book, too, has certain ideas in his minds regarding what his wife should be like, he wanted a partner who was a quiet, pretty girl and not brash (Divakaruni par. 8). Even though he lived in the United States, he still wanted someone who was the epitome of the typical Indian wife and not one who had too many western ideas (Divakaruni par. 8). He wanted a meek minded wife who would not interfere with his decisions but was smart enough as to not embarrass him in front of his friends. They get married within the week regardless of the fact that they do not know each other at all. Appearances can be misleading after all. The wife does seem like a spineless creature who follows her husband’s wishes but, in the end, it is she who manages to escape her empty life knowing that her son was safe. In Provoked, Deepak comes off as a charmingly romantic hero who loves Kiranjit but it is after their marriage when he starts showing his true colors, she is emotionally, physically and sexually abused for ten years (Austin and Gupta). To an outsider, the marriage written about in The Disappearance is quite good compared to the normal standards. The woman does all the housework and takes care of the son whilst the man goes out to earn money. So when she disappears, everyone thinks that she has come across an accident. For all intent and purposes, the husband does seem to have some good characteristics especially when compared to certain men who consider their wives to be their property. He lets her go out on walks daily so that she can have time for herself and is only happy to watch his little boy unlike some husbands who consider all the childrearing to be the job of their wives (Divakaruni par. 3). He is proud of himself for being an honest man and drills in the importance of the same moral in his son, too (Divakaruni par. 5). He lets her decide on how to furnish the kitchen and what places to visit. He is careful not to hurt her and imagines himself to be a good husband who indulges his wife (Divakaruni par. 10). It is not until later that the reader realizes why exactly the wife ran away from him and her child, and how the man is the same as the others but just has the ability to sugarcoat everything. Again, there are the double standards about the Indian male and female regarding the right to say no amongst other things. The husband wanted a smart wife which he got but when she mentions going back to school to school, he does not allow her to (Divakaruni par. 10). Kiranjit is not allowed to continue her studies or fulfill her mother’s dream about being a lawyer. He forbids her from getting a job as well as dressing up in American clothes even though they would have helped her fit in the strange, new land. When Kiranjit dresses up in Western clothes, Deepak tells her not to
Lyra Belacqua, the precocious 11 old year girl who is the protagonist of the story, is an orphan, placed under the care of the professors at Jordan College, indulging in the childhood pursuits of playing and avoiding her studies. Like all the children of this world which she inhabits, she has a daemon, called Pantalaimon. The daemons of people who are much older are fixed and hence do not change their shape.Daemons are the physical manifestation of a person’s soul, who take on animal forms once the character of a person has been entirely shaped, but in the case of Lyra, since she is a pre-teen and her character is not yet completely grounded and fixed her daemon has the capacity of constantly changing its shape into myriads of characters.The Golden Compass is a scintillating story of Lyra Belacqua an orphan sent to Jordon College. One day, Lyra overhears a conversation between the Master of Jordon College and a representative of the sinister religious organization called ‘Magisterium.’ They were planning to embark on an expedition to someplace in the far North. The whole plan was fabricated by Lyra’s uncle, Asriel who was actually the child’s real father.One day while hiding in a cupboard, she overhears a conversation about a plot to poison her uncle Lord Asriel, who was later revealed to be her father. When she tells him about the plot to kill him, he ascribes it to his plan to go to the frozen north, which is frowned upon by the professors. Lyras adventurous spirit is awakened and she too wishes to follow him, but before she can do that she is sent to live in London with Mrs Coulter, a high society lady, who buys her beautiful clothes and tells her tales about the North. Mrs Coulter is in fact Lyras own mother, a fact unknown to the young girl.Lord Asriel and Mrs Coulter are two of the strongest characters in this novel, and they are the ones whose influence is most seen on Lyra.
Further, it is known for its collaborative strategy by either lending its research department to other specialists from different countries. Outside of the research and collaboration with other institutions, Mayo Clinic also allots 40 percent of its own resources to research instead of medical practice as customary to other hospitals. This openness is motivated by the institution’s commitment to prioritize patients’ welfare and medical advancement. Its efficiency and reputation are carried on to its website. All of its contents are written by resident specialists or guest specialists that are certified to practice their profession. However, even with the personal credentials, content contributors refer to certified research whenever possible. Site Objectives The site serves two purposes. First, it is a business platform as it allows patients and other possible partners to look for specialists, discover studies and researchers being pursued by mayo clinic. It also aims to educate the mass market by publishing, through its newsroom, articles by affiliate doctors and specialists. It also links to different researchers that are internationally accepted. Topics cover anything from cancer research progress to diet and nutrition. The site has four major target markets: (1) Patients, (2) Doctors, (3) Medical Practitioners, and (4) Academe and researchers. Contents for each section are written by employees/practitioners of Mayo Clinic and approved by the same people who run the clinic. Each market segment is allotted their own section which makes navigation easier and efficient. Content Providers Mayo Clinic contents come from different doctors, research institutions, and other kinds of a medical practitioner. Published articles range from simple diet tips to maximize the health benefits of different food groups to breakthrough genetic research. Each article is written by authorities in the field. Most often, medical related articles are authored by resident doctors. Their contents are also continued, duplicated or expounded on Mayo Clinic’s monthly newsletter providing a more reliable and qualified reference. They also publish simplified versions of new researchers and finding. Quality of Contents Opinions and Substantiations Mayo Clinic articles are always, at the very least, written by certified doctors or practitioners in various medical fields. The author is always someone considered qualified to talk about the subject at hand. The contents are written with the same efficiency and dignity as its medical practice. Each recommendation is properly supported and balanced. The voice and opinion of the authors, however, are not compromised. Like many disciplines, medical recommendations are also dependent on a doctor’s opinion. For example, two doctors might differ on what diet to recommend a certain patient. Some doctors recommend raw food diet while others believe a balance of fiber and protein is better. Occurrences like this happen on the site and it is expected. Like any professionally written articles, all claims are properly substantiated. Maintenance Mayo Clinic is one of the well-maintained websites. Links work and dated information are not taken down but it has a clear tag that indicates it is an old information but is kept online as a reference.
Some of these particles are often directly released into the atmosphere while others are formed when they are mixed and react with other pollutants in the atmosphere. These particles often come in various sizes. Fine Particles (PM2.5). These are also known as fine particles and usually measure up to 2.5 microns in diameter. These are seen in almost all sources of fuel combustion, from automobiles, wood burning, industrial plants, and power plants. With their diminutive configurations, they are likely to deeply penetrate the lungs and respiratory system. Where large concentrations of this fine particulate matter are formed, a haze is usually apparent. Coarse Particles (PM10). These are particles which measure about 2.5 to 10 microns and are derived from various sources like natural wind, erosion of soil, or airborne residue from industrial plants. These particles are often visible to the naked eye, and can appear collectively as haze, dust, or soot. Particle pollution always presents a significant risk, however, the risk is usually greater: During calm weather when pollution usually accumulates or builds up In and around factories, especially during busy hours and along near busy roads. When smoke is emitted from wood stoves, fireplaces, forest fires, and other burning vegetation. Health Effects of Particle Pollution Who is Most at Risk The lungs and the heart are usually affected during particulate pollution. Studies suggest that the initial response to short-term exposure to particle pollution is coughing, along with minor throat irritation. Where larger particles are involved, the lung function is often reduced, along with the rate of respiration and cardiovascular function. Various studies have already been carried out associating fine particles with various health issues, including: Asthma and chronic bronchitis Acute respiratory symptoms, with coughing and chest tightness Decreased lung function, usually felt as shortness of breath Heart attacks Premature death among individuals with an existing heart or lung disease These conditions often cause issues with work and school activities. Moreover, the possibility of emergency room visits and admissions is often increased with these conditions. As for longer-term exposures, more health issues often become apparent, life expectancy is often reduced, and other health issues often become exacerbated. The following sensitive groups are often vulnerable to health issues with exposure to high levels of particulates: Children, since their lungs are still in the development stage Elderly, especially those already suffering from cardiovascular diseases Those who are asthmatic or who are already suffering from any respiratory problems. In addition, healthy adults who experience respiratory difficulties when exposed to fine particulates may also be affected by the pollution since they are likely to breathe deeply and exert more during exercise or work. Environmental Effects of Particle Pollution As was mentioned previously, significant amounts of coarse and fine particles usually create a haze which can affect visibility and compromise visual range to a significant extent. Airborne particles and droplets also usually remain in the air for long periods of time and sometimes even travel great distances. As they settle in a particular place, they may cause damage to surfaces. they can acidify lakes and other bodies of water, and cause significant damage to plants and animals. Nitrogen Dioxide
Soviet Union was considered foreign enemy in much of Eastern Europe for a long time after the fall of communism. After all, the communist Soviet Union had invaded these countries and broken their people for decades. This disturbing image has changed over the past few years. The soviet leaders endeavored to secure their power primarily against forces at home, but also against the outside world, since ideology taught them that the outside world was aggressive and that it was their duty ultimately to defeat political forces away from their borders. Soviet Union is considered as the state which followed ideology for the formation of a society that free from the evils of capitalism. Principles of socialism and Marxism in Russia have contributed a comprehensive and mutually unswerving set of ideas which helps the nation to form its foreign policy. The concept of proletarian internationalism has played vital role in the process of making Russia’s foreign policy. Historical studies have proved that Russia was considered as the foreign foe in much of European countries especially after the fall of Communism. Leninist ideologies of class struggle and war made the nation in to a land of anti- imperialists. Recent years a considerable number of far-right groups in post communist and socialist nations have considered President Putin’s authoritarian political infrastructure was a sufficient model and it paved the way for urging broad attitude towards Russia among the European countries. Analyzing the political and social history of Russia one can comprehend that Russian leaders and governments are failed to establish specific ideological base in their nation and the country have shifted its ideology. Different ideologies like Marxism, Socialism, and Leninism are played a vital role in the process of making Russia’s foreign policy. Numerous official administrative procedures have been involved in the understanding and effectuation of Soviet foreign policies. The great crisis that suppressed Russia’s foreign relation is its defective national, building ideology. Authorities have followed their passiveness in making new ideologies and principles. It is clear that after the formation of the independent Russian Federation in 1991, Russia had reached the status of a Russian nation-state under the leader ship of Boris Yeltsin. But Yeltsin’s efforts to change Russia as a land of multiethnic and non -imperial state became collapsed because of an articulate ideology. The online article entitled Domestic Factors Driving Russia’s Foreign Policy by Ariel Cohen states that. For over a decade, the Russian authorities have failed to provide a coherent and modern nation-building ideology or to overcome Russia’s nostalgia for its lost empire. (Cohen 2007). Ideologies in that time have largely encouraged the concept of collective amnesia that promotes Russian nationalism among the people. As a result of this, majority of people from Russia have believed United States as an enemy and it caused a gradual deterioration in Russia’s international al relations. In other words Russian rulers were failed to consume nationalism as an ideology to blend state and society in a healthy way. Analyzing history researcher can comprehend the fact that the aggressive nationalism had influenced the Russian efforts to follow war as a tool of foreign policy. Reader can find the two instances in the history of
This paper illustrates that Guildford’s researches highlighted that scores on intelligence tests cannot be taken as a unidirectional classification that some scholars have claimed point out the supremacy of some individuals, groups of individuals over others. Guilford demonstrated that the most inventive individuals might score lesser on a normal IQ test because of their method to the complications, which produces a bigger amount of likely resolutions some of which are innovative. Therefore, Guilford`s research permits superior obligation of the assortment of human intelligence and capabilities, without accrediting diverse value to dissimilar individuals. Thus, this shows the contributions that Guildford had on research concerning the modern human intelligence and creativity. For instance, he related different intelligent with innovativeness assigning it numerous attributes, such as fluency, which is the capability to generate a considerable number of notions or solutions to problems in a short time given. Accordingly, there is flexibility, which is the capacity to propose simultaneously a variability of methods or strategies to a specific complication. Another related feature includes uniqueness, which is the capability to generate new and primary concepts as well as amplification aspect that enables a person to classify and arrange the facts of an idea ahead and perform it successfully. The concept of fluid and crystallized intelligence Fluid intelligence is the ability of an individual to think or reason cogently and solve complications in a given circumstance, sovereign of attained information. Fluid intelligence is the capacity to examine unique issues, recognize forms and associations that underpin issues and the extrapolation of this using rationality. Research shows that this intelligence is vital for all coherent problems resolving including sciences, mathematical, and nominal problem-solving. Fluid intelligence encompasses inductive cognitive and empirical intellectual. On the other hand, crystallized intelligence is the capacity to employ abilities, understanding, as well as expertise. It does not associate with memory or facts. however, it does depend on retrieving information from the long-term celebration. Research shows that crystallized intelligence is one`s lifespan of intellectual accomplishment, as illustrated fundamentally over one`s terminology and general understanding. This advances yet, with age as experiences tend to increase an individual`s indulgence. In short, candied intellect is the accrued information, and terminology achieved from knowledge establishments and daily life. it also contains the application of skills and knowledge to solving problems. Conversely, it is illustrated that crystallized intelligence can change. This is because every new entity a person’s studies enhance their candied intellect. This type of understanding can alter by addition, deduction, or intensification where previous understanding is reviewed. It is noted that crystallized intelligence has not influence on fluid intelligence, although a great fluid intelligence can affect crystalized intelligence because a bigger ability to learn affects the amount a person knows. Therefore, both two forms of intelligence crystalized and fluid in most cases have the tendency to increase progressively all through babyhood and teenage years.
Wal-Mart’s Vision StatementTo become the world leaders in retailingWal-Mart has been in the industry since 1962. The company was started with a vision of becoming the world leaders in retailing. Over the past years the company has been able to gain the position of the world’s largest retail company and is thrice as big as its closest competitor. The company’s mission has always been to provide the customers with best products and services at reasonable prices. The company’s main values and beliefs are – respecting individuals, service to the customers and striving for excellence. The company’s signature for almost five decades has been ‘Everyday low prices’. The company’s main stakeholders are the shareholders, customers and employees (Wal-mart, 2008). This report focuses on the backbone of the company the employees. The aim is to understand the current situation of the employees and whether the company’s vision is helping the employees achieve the objectives. Wal – Mart and its Employees:Wal – Mart has wide operations spread across 14 markets, 7390 Wal – Mart stores. They company employees over 2 million associates. It is the largest employer in America. The company claims to give importance to the employee’s growth and careers. The company’s website claims to provide the employees with a competitive pay, skills development and health benefits for the employee and family. However a recent article in Business Week highlighted the fact that the company has been paying employees about $8.23 per hour, or $13,861 a year. This pay is well below the federal poverty line of $14, 630 for a family of three. Other articles and studies have shown that the company pays employees a salary which is way below the poverty line and employees have confessed that they cannot live out of the pay received from Wal – Mart alone. The average hours worked by employees is around 40 hours a week. However the pay received is very low and for some of the employees it is just enough to live out of a Dodge truck (Greenhouse, 2005). The employee’s goals however are very different. Employees benefit from a company that is making profits which in turn would mean the employees being paid higher salaries and bonuses. From the above discussion it is clear that employees do not receive any extra benefits in spite of the company making profits. A study showed that even though employees were given hikes in salary they did not really benefit from the hikes. Wal – Mart has institutes a new payment method. The company has placed a range for every job level and once an employee reaches the top of the pay range, the salary freezes and chances of pay increase is completely eliminated. The promotion system is also very poor and it has been noted that there have been employees working for almost 13-14 years in the company and have not been promoted (Gogoi, 2006). Conclusion:Looking at the above facts and discussions, it is clear that the employees do not receive the benefits they are entitled to. Even though the company’s vision statement is aligned with the needs of the employees, the actual business scenario does not cater to the employee’s basic needs. ReferencesGogoi, P., ‘The flip side of Wal-mart’s Pay Hikes’, August 14, 2006, Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/investor/content/aug2006/pi20060811_696579.htm, Accessed on 25 September 2008Greenhouse, S, 2005, ‘At Wal-Mart, Choosing Sides Over $9.68 an Hour’, Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/04/business/04wages.html, Accessed on 26 September 2008Wal-Mart, 2008, ‘About –us’, Retrieved from http://walmartstores.com/AboutUs/, Accessed on 25 September 2008
This paper shall summarize the findings of a review article (Arebi, Gurmany, Bullas, Hobson, Stagg, Kamm, 2008) that discussed the relationship of psychoneuroimmunology to the pathophysiology of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract, which affects about 10-15% of the world’s population. The characteristic features of the disease are intermittent bouts of abdominal pain, accompanied by abnormal stool frequency and/or consistency. Two main pathophysiologic mechanisms for IBD have been proposed: the first is the gut-directed model, which implicates enteric bacteria,immune activation, visceral hypersensitivity and gut dysmotility to interact and culminate in producing abdominal pain and constipation or diarrhea. The second is the brain-directed model, which discusses psychoneuroimmunologic factors leading to development of IBS. There is a strong association between psychological disorders and IBS. Previous psychological trauma, depression, anxiety and personality disorders are frequent among IBS patients. IBS patients have increased activity in brain areas for affect and attention, which are also stimulated by noxious stimuli. Upon colorectal distention, they report feeling abdominal pain and the urge to defecate at much lower levels of distention compared to non-IBS subjects. At the same time, visceral neuro-sensory activity in IBS patients is normal. This suggests that IBS patients are hypersensitive to visceral stimuli, feeling pain even with innocuous levels of colonic distention. Studies have shown an association between symptoms of anxiety and depression and higher abdominal pain ratings, despite normal rectal sensory thresholds. A plausible theory suggested by these results is that visceral sensory neuronal impulses in the spinal cord are enhanced to heighten pain perception by cortical signals that stem from psychological distress. Colonic biopsies of IBS patients have shown an increased number of inflammatory and immune cells, as well as the presence of inflammatory cytokines, such as histamine, IL-1 and -6, in the gut wall. These cytokines directly increase visceral sensation and symptom severity of IBS by stimulating autonomic neurons. The increase in cytokine levels in IBS is attributed to genetic factors, such as a deficiency in the production of anti-inflammatory proteins such as IL-10. Previous gut infections induce an immunologic response and lead to cytokine release, which can continue un-mitigated in the absence of anti-inflammatory regulation. Furthermore, studies have shown that the presence of anxiety is associated with a heightened immunologic response to infection in the gut. Psychological stress also induces an increase in the permeability of gut epithelium by unknown mechanisms, permitting greater interaction between immune cells and gut bacteria, and thus more inflammation leading to onset of pain and diarrhea. This implies that individuals with a stressful personality and a genetic deficiency in anti-inflammatory regulation, would be likely to develop IBS after minor gut infections or upon psychological stress that normal individuals recover from completely. Animal studies have helped clarify the apparent interaction between the neural system, the immune system and enteric bacteria. Gut bacteria prevent infection
School psychologists, as well as school consultants help in the prevention program by providing school leaders a way to expose several procedures of how to deal with several problems of children, more particularly, student achievement, self-esteem enhancement, substance abuse, or crisis situations within school limits (Shaw, M. C., Goodyear, R. K., 1984).Nowadays, children are more demanding than in the previous era’s. Some children rather than others cannot make it normally. They need special and supportive training to get into the stream. (Stephen J. M., Astrid M. O’ M., March 2008). For the appraisal of these children which are usually left behind, prevention programs are being conducted by many school leaders. According to school psychologists, special training programs are required to be conducted in the premature level of their studies so as to make them build up their strong character. Prevention programs are one of them to help the students psychologically as well as mentally to enhance their behavior and get to know of dealing with certain critical situations which make them brave enough to start running again among the other normal children.Program to implement primary prevention principles: Primary schools have some funding collected to support pre- level children who are not making expected progress. The main aim of Prevention Programs is to raise the standard of all children. Strategies are to be made in order to give the children additional support in achievement as well as in dealing with another critical issue like substance abuse or crises management. Primary prevention program is a significant program that brings changes in the structural framework of each educational unit. This helps the children in memorizing common practices and consistent application of positive or negative reinforcement.
The results calculated by the authors do not show any statistically noteworthy differences for commencement and duration of anesthesia between the articaine and Lidocaine solutions.It is manifested that, Lidocaine has been extensively used to produce local anesthesia. The authors agree that Articaine is an amide-type local anesthetic and is in use for the past 37 years also, they agree that Articaine is equivalent to, but not superior to, prilocaine for infiltration anesthesia. The authors state that results of comparative studies with lidocaine have been contradictory, because of the variation of epinephrine in the anesthetic agent. Lidocaine with epinephrine is the drug of choice in clinical practice in Finland but for patients with cardiovascular disorders, articaine with its lower epinephrine content is usually chosen with the intention of evading the systemic side effects of epinephrine. The authors have specified the purpose of the study to get a comparative account for the commencement of anesthesia and the duration of action of the commonly used solutions of 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine.The authors have selected twenty healthy volunteers (12 female, 8 male) with a mean age of 23.8 yr. The subjects were dental students with no history of allergic reaction to amide-type anesthetic agents and were not on regular medications and had intact lateral incisors. The authors got the protocol for the study, approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Turku and Turku University Central Hospital.The test solutions were- 4% articaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine (Ultracain® DS, Hoechst AG, Frankfurt, Germany) and 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine (Xylocaine ®-Adrenaline, Astra, S6dertalje, Sweden).Infiltration anesthesia of the upper lateral incisor was carried out twice in all subjects in such way that each subject received both test solutions.
Statistical Analysis of Employee Attitudes Executive Summary The current global business environment hasbecome quite competitive and for any organizations to have the all important competitive advantage it has to invest in its talents. There are many management theories on how to attract, motivate and retain employees but the most common approach is the contemporary school of thought which implies that there is no one method by a combination based on various circumstances. Therefore for an organization to lay down the most effective management strategy that would maximize their workforce they need to understand their workforce in regards to their attitudes, satisfaction, commitment levels, intention to stay and the environmental perspectives around the place of employment. This particular research shall look at a case scenario of about 400 employees of a firm and using statistical analysis to formulate a model that can be used to evaluate employee motivation. This model is important to the management since it would assist in the formulation of important decisions such as remuneration, working conditions, employment terms and others. A statistical modeling approach was adopted in which theoretical models of the factors that affect employee motivation are examined to find out their relationship. This is done by using statistical software Amos and SPSS. The software enables the researcher to find the coefficients of correlation matrix that would prove whether the various elements are correlated. The regression analysis enables the research to formulate and examine the hypothesis as to whether each of the examined factors is related or not related to each other. The factors being looked into were analyzed using a survey that was given to the employees that aimed to provide some quantitative feedback that would later be used in the analytical model that would be the final outcome. Before the analysis was done the data was first analyzed to find out its reliability using the statistical software SPSS. This process ensures that there variance between the data collected falls within the required acceptable range necessary to produce accurate results for modeling. Based on the data collected by the survey question, the data are then condensed into five basic elements that would be researched further in the modeling process. This involves merging various question and responses using the SPSS software. Once those figures establish a correlation matrix is then populated using the appropriate software. This then produces a table with correlation coefficient among the 5 variables that were highlighted in the research hypothesis and noted down. The next stage in the statistical analysis is to develop a structural equation model using the AMOS software. This is done with the help of coefficient figures got from the correlation matrix The Amos software was used to produce the structural equation model (SEM) that was utilized in coming up with the final model. Basically the software helps the research process by putting all the elements in perspective and analyzing how they relate to each other in the equation brought forward by the hypothesis. This software analysis therefore would assist in the prediction of the behavioral analysis of the elements in the model The research is arranged starting with an executive summary which briefly highlights the background and the problem that would be explored with the intention to solve it. The second part which is the technical report basically gives the basic procedure that was employed in data collection and analysis. It also gives a quantitative and a qualitative summary of the data analyzed and discusses their implications. The last part of the report discusses the report based on the statistical analysis and compares it with previous studies and research that have been conducted in the recent past. These comparisons are then put into perspective where several recommendations can be made to the management of the company. In conclusion, it was noted that there was a significant difference in the attitudes of employees based on their characteristics. A good example is that women had significantly different attitudes and beliefs towards the firm as compared to their male counterparts. Also the age difference also affected the perceptions and attitudes towards the firm and therefore the employee motivation to work in the firm. In general the motivations of the employee positively correlated with their intention to stay with the firm .This implies that those employees that wanted to stay longer were generally more productive. This particular research shall go a long way in explaining the phenomena regarding employee’s intention to stay at a particular workplace. This is because employee retention is key in business organization as it greatly impacts the profitability of a firm in that it cost quite a significant amount of money to keep on employing new employees and training them to perform the functions that were performed by employees that leave a particular firm. From this research it can be noted that employees can be motivated internally using both intrinsic and extrinsic reward. The model formed shows that the employee’s intention to stay is not a fixed variable but can change according to various other factors that are in play as stipulated in the discussions in this research paper.
Vygotsky suggests that learning at the social level precedes learning at an individual level, which highlights the importance of participation by the society in the learning process. The concept thrives to illustrate the role of that adults can engage in to assist their children in the learning process by participating jointly in problem-solving activities. As such, both parties are capable of establishing effective communication during the activities and the student gains understanding through a mutual perspective. Although there has been no consensus with regard to the definition of scaffolding, clear-cut characteristics exist among the numerous definitions. One such characteristic is contingency, which illustrates the adjusted and well-calibrated support accorded to the learner. The support accorded is usually oriented to accommodate the level of the student and his/her performance. As such, for offered support to be effective, the level of competence of the student must be defined and the support accorded is at the same or slightly higher level. Another common characteristic entails the gradual withdrawal of the afforded support, a concept referred to as fading. The amount of support given is reduced with time based on the response of the student in terms of development and level of competence. As the amount of time decreases responsibility for the indicated tasks is transferred to the student as he/she increases in cognitive capacity. Summary of Research Studies indicate that scaffolding strategies provide individualised instructions to students who would otherwise be lost in the learning process. This allows instructors to observe students and establish a tailored approach on the student, pushing him/her towards success. The differentiated instructions ensures that the student receives information and direction in accordance to his/her level of competence, which works to foster better understanding of concepts. Moreover, scaffolding techniques improve the acquisition of skill and knowledge owing to the support provided. This is facilitated by the opportunity to offer differentiated and individualised instructions through other students who have higher level of understanding. As such, guidance offered ensures that the learner is accommodated to build his confidence and joy in learning. This ensures that the learner does not feel left out or incompetent despite his/her learning challenges, which would increase the learner’s frustration levels. Similarly, studies illustrate the role of scaffold strategies in triggering independence among students through encouragement (Stone, 1998). It has been indicated that scaffolding engages and motivates the learner who in turn use their past knowledge to grasp new concepts. In this regard, scaffold strategies ensure that learners are not passive but active in the learning process, which goes a long way in boosting confidence levels. However, some critics argue that the scaffolding metaphor is based on task completion and cannot be effective in the learning process (Biemiller and Meichenbaum, 1998). The studies cite poor communication skills between the instructor and the learner and suggest that the learners cannot fully internalise concepts based on temporary support. In addition, measurement of scaffolding has been identified as a challenge since there are no
An important question which has come to the notice of all and sundry here is that offshore business processes can be best used for meeting demands of the customers when we discuss the subject of demand and supply. However the problems that remain within this issue are something to talk about as well. One needs to understand that a significant notion that is making rounds within business circles relies on the fact that whether or not outsourcing of jobs can tie in easily with the aspects of innovation and creativity. Recent research and studies have shown that within the US, nearly 1 million jobs have factually been reserved over a period of time. The same is mentioned as something being in duration of economic recovery for the huge multinationals as well as the corporations. A number of different issues thus surface which relate with the tax cuts and whether or not the scenario has thus hurt the job creating situations. The offshore movement as concerns to jobs has become a subject of debate within the tourism industry just like any other sector as well. (Currie, 2000) A couple of countries which stand out in this whole scenario are the Philippines and India. These two countries are the best possible areas (of strength) for setting up the call centers as there is an abundance of related talent and required skill set as well. The people within these countries take less amount of money and do the job which their foreign counterparts would do at an exorbitant rate. Also countries like Pakistan, Sri Lanka and United Arab Emirates are giving positive signals to the developed countries of the world to come and invest in the form of outsourcing with minimum possible risks.Outsourcing can pose quite a few problems for the stakeholders and just about anyone who is attached with this business. To list three of the more significant ones, we can quote the case of the organizational,educational, environmental and infrastructural aspects.
The tasks will then be separately analyzed and towards the end, an argument will be presented whether or not these tasks can be outsourced or not. In conclusion, the relationship between strategic human resource management and outsourcing human resource tasks will be studied.Strategic human resource management is a very complicated process which has not yet fully been developed. It is still being studied and we witness continuous improvements in it at all times. This is the reason why there is no one definition or explanation for what it is. However, in order to understand what strategic human resource planning is, we need to first understand the term strategic planning.Strategic planning is when an organization links all its planned decisions with the intended objective of the organization. This helps it improve its overall performance. An individual or organization sets their broad goals, describes a strategy or strategies to achieve them and identifies how it can improve from previous experiences. A strategy is developed while planning which deeply studies and analyses how this particular strategy that is devised will affect the future of the organization and attainment of organizational goals. Every detail of the strategy is given a lot of concentration and this is done by using techniques like resource allocation, cost-benefit analysis, SWOT analysis etc. It helps an organization decide how it is going to function in the future. Therefore, Strategic Human Resource Planning is linking the human resource function with the strategic objectives of the organization in order to improve performance. Scholar in 1992 describes strategic human resource management as ‘all those behaviors of individuals in their efforts to formulate and implement the strategic needs of a business’.
Employee RetentionAll these three aspects are interrelated to each other. If job satisfaction is positive then it leads to strong organizational commitment and this may result in high level of employee retention. If there is negative job satisfaction, the employees will reduce their commitment towards work and organization which ultimately results in high level of turnover rate. In this paper, details of job satisfaction, organizational commitment along with employee retention have been discussed succinctly. The paper also covers the relationship between the three factors in a precise way. Finally, the paper is enclosed with a few concluding lines about the entire topic. 2.0 Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction is the result of emotional reaction related to the specific job situation. The satisfaction is dependent on the level of outcome of the job that means whether the employees can meet the result or exceed their expectations. Job satisfaction turns to be negative when the rewards are less and this may result in negative attitude towards the job (Tella Et. Al., 2007). Job satisfaction is the affective response of an employee. therefore it can be a source or may be related to high productivity. It is a fact that the satisfied worker is the productive worker. Thus, satisfaction level of the worker is extensively related to the performance and quality of work. However, various studies have shown that satisfaction or dissatisfaction has no relation to the productivity of work. Satisfied workers may or may not be high producers and those employees who are high producers may not be interested in their jobs. Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction may not result in explicit behavior such as positive or negative influence in productivity, grievance, absenteeism, turnover and others. It may depend upon the personal characteristics of an employee that may be his or her personality and prospects for self expression lying on the job (Smith, n.d.). 3.0 Commitment Organizational commitment has been defined in various ways by Beckeri, Randal and Riegel (1995). It is considered as a strong aspiration of the employees to be a member of a particular organization. It is also defined as high level efforts that can be applied by employees for the organization and the employees’ acceptability related to the values as well as goals of the organization. Organizational commitment is associated with several factors such as personal factors, for example, age, professional periods in the organization, external or internal ascription. The other factors are organizational factors and these encompass job design, leadership style. and other non-organizational factors consist of availability of substitutes (Tella Et. Al., 2007). According to Mowday, Porter and Steer (1982), organizational commitment is considered as an attachment and loyalty. There are three components related to organizational commitment which involve identification related to the goals as well as standards of the organization, desire to be associated with the organization and finally, an eagerness to show efforts for the organization (Mowday Et. Al., 1982). Organizational commitment can also be termed as the power of the recognition of an individual and his attachment within the
Self-efficacy is perhaps one of the most explored and admired psychological determinants and mediators of academic achievement. The concept of self-efficacy arose with Bandura’s influential paper, Self-Efficacy: toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change (1977). The concept of self-efficacy emphasizes self-belief and confidence in one’s own capabilities and competence. Ever since the concept of self-efficacy took form, many studies have explored its role in educational success. It is now a proven fact that self-efficacy is an important mediator of academic achievement. This paper attempts to evaluate some studies and research evidence that support this claim. The implications of the findings of these studies for teachers and instructors are also discussed. I. The Concept of Self-Efficacy as described by Bandura A person’s belief in his/her capabilities in exercising control over events affecting his/her life is the central idea of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1989, p. 1175). According to Bandura, self-efficacy induces motivation that in turn leads to effect which then gives rise to action. Human cognitive processes are affected by self-belief, influencing thought patterns that may either aid or hinder progress. People tend to aspire higher if they have a stronger self-efficacy, and so, they tend to achieve better than those who have weaker self-efficacy. It thus acts as a strong motivator. When faced with a difficult task, people tend to either master it or avoid doing it. Those who attempt a seemingly difficult task and succeed in it, gain an increase in self-efficacy and their fear and tendency to avoid the task reduce significantly (Bandura, 1977, p. 191). Self-efficacy is an important determinant of academic performance as students whose experiences raise their self-efficacy set higher goals and are more mentally conditioned to acquire those goals. Thus, in contrast to students lacking self-efficacy, students with higher self-efficacy tend to achieve higher as they believe in their own capabilities, estimate their strengths more accurately and tend to utilize available resources more efficiently. II. Evaluation of Research Evidence that Supports the role of Self-Efficacy in Academic Achievement Many studies have explored the direct effects of self-efficacy on the academic performance of students. Some of these are evaluated here. A. Self-efficacy, learning strategies and personal goal setting Studies by Zimmerman and Bandura (1994, as cited in Zimmerman, 2000, p. 87) on high school students show that existence of higher self-efficacy as well as personal goal setting at the beginning of a term at school increased the prediction of final grades by 31%. This study also found that self-efficacy along with personal goal setting, compared to the Scholastic Aptitude Test verbal subscale, raised the prediction of final grades by 35%. Self-efficacy is not only an efficient predictor of final grades but also leads to an efficient use of learning strategies. Studies by Zimmerman Martinez-Pons (1990, as cited in Zimmerman, 2000, p. 87) on fifth, eighth and eleventh graders suggest that increase in self-efficacy leads to a significant increase in both verbal and mathematical efficiency, along with an improved use of strategy. Several studies on training outcomes suggest that encouraging students to set their own personal goals and instructing them to set proximal
Apart from this, the researcher has made use of both primary and secondary sources of information. The conduct of survey and interviews serve as the source of primary information and gathering of information from online sources relating to youth unemployment and crime rates in the United Kingdom serve as the source of secondary information for this research work. The researcher has carried out the survey of 50 individuals with the aim of understanding how youngsters in the UK perceive the relationship between youth unemployment and crime rate and whether they regard youth unemployment to be a significant reason in the increase of crime rate in the UK. Moreover, the researcher has also conducted interviews with four individuals in this research work. For this purpose, various individuals representing different organizations and institutions were interviewed. The researcher has made use of purposive sampling technique for selecting samples for both survey and interviews. Based on the information obtained and analysis through primary and secondary sources, this study concludes that youth unemployment and crime rates in the UK are positively associated with each other. The researcher has been able to support this conclusion on the basis of literature reviewed in this study. Researchers in the past have also suggested a positive association between youth unemployment and crime rates. The crime rate in society has been on the increase in the recent past. Several studies have associated the rate of increase.
Loans for After the introduction by the lawmakers on the new policies where from Arizona universities and colleges had to have an extra $2000 from their own pocket, has raised a lot of question from the public (Chandler and Michael 5). This has made students too solicit funds on their own nowadays as compared to some times back. It is reported that students seek for loans on their own and this has made them to become serious with their studies and loan repayments. It is not acceptable for students to pay extra fees, as they will not have equal playing ground with the rich students who have the money they need for education.
Therefore, it is recommended that individuals are taught about the essence of taking loans. They should also be taught they ways they can be able to apply for loans and qualify easily. They should also understand that student loans are essential for them if they are in need of it especially those that are in need of attaining their degree within four years. It is for this reason that the government should establish ways in which the loans can be given equally and there should be no extra payments for students who are looking for loans independently.
The first reason why this should be is due to the fact that the cost of college studies is expensive than it was anticipated some years back. This has been reported in public colleges whereby the tuition fees for the four years have increased with more than 10% above the annual inflation in the United States (Chandler and Michael 23). The same applies to the private colleges and the students who opt for two years studies. Secondly, it has been realized that a majority of parents do not have enough funds to take their children to colleges since the economic situation does not permit them. From the survey conducted in a majority of American homes in august 2012, there has been a reduction in the number of parents who can fund the college studies for their children. The numbers of parents who are also able to cover half of the college fees have decreased. In the same survey, the number of parents who could afford the amount needed for books and tuition was less than 30 percent (Chandler and Michael 25). This shows that majority of parents need their children to able to access these funds.
The other reason is applicable to the students themselves who imply that college life has turned out to be expensive. The people who find it easy to live in colleges are those who commute from their parents houses. The amount of money spent in colleges has been seen to be more than living in an apartment. Compared to the things one has to spend the money on, one will find college life to be expensive. Issues such as food, supplies and books tend to be taking much of the expenses for students. Moreover, these are the essential things, which students needs, and they are the expensive commodities. The other reason why the students go for independent loans is due to the reason that the state has decreased the amount of support it rendered to students. The government is not supporting most of the students and they need the money for their studies, this makes them vulnerable for seeking loans. Therefore, the firms responsible should ensure that no extra charges are imposed on the loans.
Chandler, Lana J, and Michael D. Boggs. The Student Loan Handbook. White Hall, Va: Betterway Publications, 2007. Print.
Mathies, M L, and Elizabeth I. Dixon. Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants and Loans. New York: Macmillan Reference USA. 2012. Print.
Organizational Dynamics and Human Behavior Theory Introduction Understanding organizational dynamics and the theory of human behavior can effectivelyimpact the abilities of a leader within an organization in various ways. Organizational studies are a systematic study and sound knowledge application on actions of people within an organization. People’s interaction within an organization brings about many factors into play. By understanding an organizations dynamics and human behavior, it becomes easy for the leader to predict, control and explain any issues that may arise within the organization. This will go a long way in improving organizational performance and individual commitment, satisfaction and performance too. Simms et al. (1994) note that understanding organizational dynamics and human behavior helps to better develop the conceptualization of the organization’s life, which is the main goal of all theorists of organizations.
Improving Leadership Abilities through Understanding of Organizational Dynamics and Human Behavior
Understanding human behavior within an organizational can help the leader understand the interests of his/her followers and hence effectively position them in the various labor divisions. This leads to increased productivity, besides increasing workers commitment and satisfaction. When workers are allocated in their areas of interest, they work hard leading to increased organizational performance and hence profits. This ensures that the companies are able to survive the tough economic times without major difficulties. This knowledge is also valuable in helping an organization to enjoy a competitive edge as well as well as improve it decision making. According to Shuler (2009), understanding human behavior and organizational dynamics helps a leader to build an enterprise that entails a wide analytical capability which is more important than having laboring professionals who have no sense of direction. Analytical analysis of employees’ talents at all levels provides valuable data that leaders can use to make decisions in the organization, thus generating good business results.
A business also faces various challenges from its dynamic nature. These include profits, losses, high demand for its products, and few market and product competition among others. Therefore, understanding these dynamics and their cycle in the business can effectively help a leader to predict and plan for such changes in advance. This knowledge can be used by the leader to make decision that will maximize the benefits and minimize losses as much as possible. Such results produce good financial reports for the organization, which it can use to access financial support from financial institution. The financial support can then be used to expand business investments or strengthening its financial base.
Understanding human behavior helps a leader handle his employees in the best way and these acts like a motivation to them. It promotes better understanding between employees themselves and their leaders. This helps them to work as partners who further improve organizational performance and reputation. Baron et al. (2008) explain that employee’s motivation that is derived from the understanding of human behavior gives better organizational performance than salary increase. This is because, they feel at home, and work at their own pace, making them free to handle their work. However, the leaders should measure the extent to which they interact with their subordinates and employees.
Understanding organizational dynamics and human behavior theory can be a very effective tool of improving the performance of an organization. This is because. it helps the leaders make sound decisions – decisions that will have positive effects in meeting the organization’s goals. It does this as it helps management or leaders to predict, control and plan for issues that may occur in the organization. Good performance also produces good financial outcomes that the organization can use to acquire finances from financial institutions.
Baron, Robert A., and Greenberg, Jerald. (2008). Behavior in Organizations. New Jersey:
Pearson Education Inc.
Shuler, J. M. (2009). Organizational Dynamics and Human Behavior: Just the Facts. New
York: New York University Press.
Simms, L., Sylvia, A. P, Naomi, E. E, (1994). The Professional Practice of Nursing
Administration. London: Brown and Company Publishers.
Behavior across Cultures
We are highly social beings and often interact with people around us. Hence, we are compelled to ask whether there are social behaviors that are typical for certain types of people. We are also made to consider ways in which we can take care of the infants, and devise ways in which we can work to live. As such, this study puts emphasis on observational studies to observe the everyday environment of people. And as much as there is a record of methodological standards, information given from it was considered important, but also considers the observational studies on different societies for complete analysis.
The people in different societies have ways that are common, to bring up their children no matter the odds that may be there to hinder them. This has helped most of them grow up with good behaviors.
It is not easy to work with people from different cultural societies in one organization, because you differ in every manner of behavior and on the look of things that are considered common by the organizations.
These cultures are diverse and they differ from one continent to another. This has lead to many people having problems in the societies, because they have different views on matters. Concerning the different kinds of lives everyone leads and how they do it, whether parenting of the infants to adulthood or religion or anything that concerns culture. That’s why the world should have a common culture only if it needs to move forward.
Monroe, Ruth H and Monroe Robert L. Behavior across Cultures: Results from Observational Studies
Money and Banking Money and Banking The ECO320 Money and Banking revolved around basic cash flow concepts and building blocks of an economy. The concepts include.
1. Banking is a platform that links the borrower and lenders in an economy.
2. Banking facilitates the storage of surplus assets in terms of money and other commodities of high value.
3. Profits can be invested in external opportunities, reinvested into a business for growth and development, to earn capital gains or deposited in banks.
The above concepts of money and banking will help me in breaking down other terminologies in my course. The acquired knowledge in money and banking will assist me in learning other complex concepts in my studies. Additionally, I will be able to have a firm foundation in money matters that will go far in enriching my knowledge. The concepts will also enable me to relate new terms with those in the money and banking class. I will also be able to explain the role played by money and the banking sector in the economic growth. The terminologies gained in the money and banking class will lay a foundation for my future studies in the course. I will use the concepts to deepen my understanding of the value and importance of money in my studies.
The money and banking concepts will also assist me in the day-to-day life as I engage in financial transactions. Most importantly, I will be able to make proper decisions when undertaking banking transactions. The concepts will enable me make the best out of my financial deposits in the bank. I will also be able to decide the best time to borrow or deposit money from the bank. The concepts will enable me make the right decisions whenever I undertake a financial transaction. I will also be in a better position to develop sound strategic planning and management of my both liquid and fixed assets.
Burton, M., &. Brown, B. (2014). The Financial System and the Economy: Principles of Money and Banking. Routledge.
92250 It is evidently clear from the discussion that directing film entails different aspects but all the aspects result in an action that makes the audience realize that a video is actually out for viewing. Elliott asserts that for a film director to reach his or her prime objective, he or she must have come from a long way just as far as from script cutting room all the way to the climax. There are number pathways how someone can become a film director for example. a person may start as screenwriter, actor or film editor. Film directors are such responsible individuals who need to facilitate the differences in film budget limit and the vision of the career. There is number of roles expected from a film director. The directing film assumes different approach and with regard to this, directors give a general outline of the film and letting the actors improvise the dialogue. Other directors are in control of every aspect where they demand the crew and actors to follow all their instructions accurately. Other film directors write the screenplay or edit their film and appear in their film as well. The researcher has thought of directing a film at one point or another. The researcher watched a great movie and believed he could do much better in one of his own films. The author choses this career because it is his passion career because telling a story as well as learning how to construct a movie has been one of the achievements the researcher has always wanted to attain in visual arts and film studies as a whole. Unlike the general trend in film direction, most of the new generation directors are young. In addition, unlike in the ancient time, filmmaking is both artistic and commercial venture.
41000 The researcher states that Leonardo da Vinci was a painter, inventor, engineer, etc. He was described as the archetype of the Renaissance Man. He is always compared to Michaelangelo, another artist: he is a painter, sculptor, and an architect. Giovanni Bellini is also a famous Renaissance artist, having mentored two Renaissance artists, namely: Giorgione and Titian. Leonardo da Vinci’s Madonna sketches were fast sketches, like studies. They usually focus on the face of a woman, and they are more illustrations. But his paintings are more complex, with intricate details full of meanings and characters with subtle roles in the meanings of the painting. His paintings are like puzzles. Michaelangelo’s works regarding Madonna are more famous, starting with the Pieta which features the Virgin Mary and a dying Jesus Christ. Michaelangelo’s Madonna of Bruges is also a famous artwork, but it features Mary with a baby Jesus. Bellini’s Madonnas are similar to that of Michaelangelo’s in a sense that they feature Mary with Jesus, and they highlight the maternal bond between them. Three of these Renaissance artists have the Madonna as their subjects, although they have different treatments for it. Starting with Michaelangelo as a man who sculpts (even if he paints!) Madonna figures. Leonardo da Vinci, like Bellini, likes to paint the Madonna. The major difference in their works is the composition. Bellini’s works are more standardized, and straight. His paintings are very well balanced. Leonardo da Vinci’s paintings, on the other hand, convey movement and are quite dynamic. Unlike Bellini’s paintings which are more structured and constructed, da Vinci’s lines are more fluid. The expression of the subject’s faces in these two painter’s works is also contrasting. In da Vinci’s works, the faces are more expressive, as compared to Bellini’s works.
Having said that one must understand that it is basically not easy to have management between a demanding job and taming children, not to forget the successful completion of household responsibilities as well. When one speaks to his colleagues or neighbors about the same, the result is that nearly everyone is passing through the same phase, it is just a matter of how much pressure and stress a particular individual can take, at a particular moment of time.
Especially true is the fact that spending money has become the sole criterion for success and achievement in modern times. For a number of people, the rat race for acquiring money and material possessions is a symbol of success that they have achieved and it given more importance by the society in which we live in that aims to signify people by the standards as laid down by material possessions and the amount of money that one has. This rat race brings with it heaps of stress and tension and anxious living conditions are a manifestation of what can bring a person down every now and then. This kind of intensity was studied by a number of different research studies which stated that stress forms up as the most basic cause of nearly 80 per cent of all human illnesses – which accounts for a huge statement if not a huge figure so to speak.
One must understand that stress and anxiety are in all essence mental problems and that they develop as the mind chases as .well as consistently circles around the same set of problems and concerns which could be of a common nature but in entirety keep coming back and forth until these are able to push all the remaining thoughts and create a niche in the form of a worry. What this does to the said person is to make him edgy and nervous and he starts getting hunches every now and then so much so that it becomes a part of his personality all said and done. A number of factors contribute to the said condition which includes the genetics, brain biochemistry, strenuous circumstances and routines and learned behavior to state a few. .
The beauty and challenge of managing organisations are achieving unity in diversity towards a collective goal. In this context, control becomes inevitable in the organisation because without it, the organisation will forfeit itself, as the organisation is a pre-determined social order collectively working towards one goal achieved through controlled performance (Buchanan &. Huczynski 1997, quoted ‘What is an organisation?’ n.d: 1).
With employees at the centre of the organisation, productivity can only be achieved if and only if employees perform efficiently and effectively. In this context, human resources mean “the traits that people bring to the workplace [organisation] – intelligence, aptitude, commitment, tacit knowledge and skills, and ability to learn” (Javed 2009: 3). And one of the many old ways management achieves this is through performance appraisal.
Performance appraisal can be historically traced back to Fredrick Winslow Taylor’s pioneering studies of Time and Motion, but as a system management tool for evaluating employees’ performance, it really dates back to World War II (Steel Authority of India Ltd. 2008: 3), yet, it has become an integral part of the life of organisation, that has continually evolved until today trying to respond to the rapidly changing times and needs.
Having a strong impact on employees’ working lives, performance appraisal has become not only an issue dividing management and employees into two contending sides but also a favourite topic of debate among theorists and practitioners. .
Application for a Business University
I believe that the primary goal of doing business is to enrich the quality of life of the stakeholders, re-invent the way people live and make a better world for everyone who may be affected by its operations. Having a good job with good salary, a good relationship with family and friends are some of the things that are always desired by ordinary people. However, the world’s game changers have always been people who want to change the world. My goal, both in personal life and professional career is to change or influence the world and make it a better place to live. Waking up in the morning and realizing that I have done great things is what I always want to achieve.
My family owns the biggest ceramics manufacturer in ABCDEFG. At our company, we ensure that our products are satisfactory to our customers. As the company is still expanding, I am aware that XXX MBA would help and guide me to be a better businessperson and take my family business to the next level especially in the fast growing market. XXX offers small-personalized classes which allow more interactions among the students. Teamwork is very crucial in the business world, and effective teamwork requires effective and consistent commitment and communication efforts. Hence, XXX program will greatly improve my leadership skills as I would be required to demonstrate strategic thinking, excellent collaborative skills, and self-awareness. These are important characteristic of a successful businessperson or entrepreneur.
In my undergraduate studies, I was required to take YYY, which was a blend of academic study with community service and it played an important role in developing my leadership skills. I learnt a lot from this experience, as it required development of effective communication skills between team members. I also realised that teamwork is the key to success for any project. In addition, I also learnt how to apply business concepts that I had learnt from my previous business classes to a real world business situation. This experience is helpful when doing my current MBA program at ZZZ. In my marketing class at ZZZ, I gained a lot of experience working in a team. There were five members in our team and we collaborated with each other to utilize our strengths while converting weaknesses into strengths. Each person played a complementary role to other members in our team. We all worked and contributed effectively due to our great teamwork leadership skills. We actively participated in contributing to the project and as a result, we succeeded in the project.
Successful projects require a star team instead of a team of stars. A star team will make a great team, as it gives the right people the opportunity to grow. The process of growing will then strengthen the team’s success and commitment. According to the article “The Genius of Teamwork“, “A real team is made up of people who may be unequal in experience, talent, or education, but who are equal in their commitment to working together to achieve the goals and good of the organization, each other and their customers.” That is how a star team is formed. The vital secret is more about the teams rather than the individual. Individuals must be able to work in a team, as “Great things in business are never done by one person. They are done by a team of people” (Steve Jobs).
I am a businessperson who believes that leadership requires credibility and authenticity. That means, being yourself and the person that you were meant to be. This begins with the desire to serve others through leadership and it focuses on empowering the people one leads to make a difference. It uses natural abilities, but also recognizes shortcomings and working hard to overcome them. In order to become authentic, it is necessary to develop one’s own leadership style, consistent with one’s personality and character. Throughout my experiences, I have used my strengths to compensate for my colleagues’ weaknesses. I have also recognized my weaknesses and was willing to improve them with the help of my teammates. Last but not least, through all this, I believe that everyone can learn something and grow together to become a better businessperson, entrepreneur, or leader in the future.
Specific Fatty Acids and Disease Humans have been consuming a diet that contains about equal amounts of n-6 and n-3 needed fatty acids. Over the last 100 to 150 years, there has been an increase in consumption of n-6 fatty acids due to an increased intake of vegetable oil from sunflower seeds, vegetable oil, cottonseed and soya beans (Simopoulos 23). Studies have shown a high intake of n-6 fatty acids shifts the physiologic state to a prothrombotic and proaggregatory with a symptom of increase in blood viscosity, vasoconstriction, vasospasm and decrease in bleeding time which is shorter on patience with myocardial infarction, forms of atherosclerotic diseases, type 2 diabetes, and obesity. However, n-3 fatty acids have antithrombin, antiinflammatory, hypolipidemic and vasodilatory properties (Higdon 34). Benefits of n-3 fatty acids are known for the preventive measures of coronary heart diseases. Studies have shown that during chronic fish oil feeding, concentrations of postprandial triacylglycerol decreases and this causes an increase in plasma cholesterol concentration hence a low rate of coronary artery diseases found in fish eating population.
New research findings show Leukotrienes are thought to play an important role in pathology of asthma. Increasing n-3 fatty acids intake decreases the formation of AA-derived leukotrienes (Reisman 6). A number of clinical trials have been used to examine the effects of a long-chained n-3 fatty acid supplementation on asthma. Although there is evidence that n-3 supplementation decreases the inflammatory mediators production of in asthmatic patients meaning the clinical trials have been having inconsistent results. Random control trials of the long-chain n-3 fatty acids supplements in asthmatic children and adults found no consistent effects on clinical measures including asthmatic symptoms, pulmonary function tests or bronchial hyper reactivity.
Higdon .J, Essential Fatty Acids. Linus Pauling Institute, 2005.
Simopoulos Artemis, Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease. The American Journal
of Clinical Nutrition, 1999.
Reisman J, Treating asthma with omega-3 fatty acids: where is the evidence? A systematic
review. BMC Complement Altern Med, 2006.
Reflective ment on past Performance I have significantly benefited from the program and wish to assert that thelearning experience was enjoyable as well as unforgettable. I was able to get prompt support at various times throughout the course and this ensured that I was always on the right path. Below is a breakdown in form of a reflective statement to give a comprehensive account of the learning experience.
Beginning with the online module support, it was a user friendly site that requires no illustrations to use. One only needs to log onto the site and access the needed information without a fuss. The site was also well maintained and retained its functionality at all times. This facilitated study and contributed to the preparation for the final papers.
At a personal level, the course was an eye opener to opportunities that exist for personal career growth and development. From the presentation of the course outline, it was clear that the training offered would be rigorous as well as holistic in its approach to the subject. The learning program was full of fun due to the practical activities that enabled me to learn by doing thus breaking the monotony of theory. Being able to interact freely with classmates and have meaningful discussions always made me feel valued due to the positive responses I got from colleagues. The tutors were always helpful and gave their support over and above what they were obliged to do. As a result, the course has contributed to my pursuance of the goal of attaining professional skills to ensure that I enter the job market when planned. Secondly, my goal to help disseminate knowledge has also been enhanced as I have acquired education that will propel me to teaching positions in future. Currently, I am able to share knowledge acquired through discussions with colleagues. I will build upon the training obtained to open opportunities for further studies and become a course tutor.
The course has also enabled me to practice my values in pursuance of success. Since I am a hardworking and dedicated person, I have been able to concentrate on the rigorous work so as to finish assignments in time and to read all material in the time allocated as required. I have also utilized my strengths to advance performance both in class and outside of class. In the class environment, my ability to understand learnt material and put it to practical use has tremendously improved. Each time I learn a new concept, I almost certainly evaluate how to put it into practice.
Finally, the rubric was written clearly and precisely. This enabled me to know beforehand what was required. As a result, I was able to assemble all the resources needed in good time and this ensured that I had a smooth and enjoyable learning experience. In addition, the rubric acted as a check to study activity. I used it to select the relevant material to study and plan my time depending on the complexity of a particular subject matter. By manipulating the rubric, I was able to spend my time working on the most important areas of the course and this ensured that I mastered the important sections of the course to prepare for the examinations. My success in the course is significantly dependent on the learning experience that was enjoyable and easy to accommodate.
West, R. (2000). Introduction to Communication Theory. Houston, TX: Mayfield Publishers.
ONeill, J. (2006). The Power of SMART Goals. London: Solution Tree.
West, E. (2014). Smart Goals: Succeeding Withought Willpower. New York: Createspace Independence.
Dear Sir or Madam, With this letter I would like to express my interest in studying at the New Jersey My is Sur and I am currently finishing high school in the United States. Since early childhood I was greatly interested in pediatricians, as it works with preventive medicine. Nutrition, as well as the health in early childhood seemed for me to be crucial for length and quality of my life later on. That experience gave me the understanding that my area interests are children`s healthcare system.
That is why as for now I need to choose most suitable pediatrician studying program, which will give me an opportunity to help other children, as well as to develop my skills and personality. Because of thatI would be very delighted to get my bachelor degree in Pediatricians at the New Jersey City University. I have decided to apply for this program because I am sure it would strongly enrich my future studies and help me in my prospective career.
Moreover, I consider this program to be a great opportunity for me to fulfill my needs for autonomy and competence and, moreover, it will enable me to integrate and contribute significantly to your University community. While I am still having little farther to go, I feel that the experience that I already have, will allow me to meet all educational expectations.
Thank you for considering my request. I am looking forward to hear from you soon.
ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES The articles focus on suicides among farmers and the relation in has with the use of pesticides in agricultural activities. The author states that the study shows that agricultural farmers commit more suicides than individuals do from other sectors. he also states that in some studies the exposure to pesticides results to the suicides among the farmers. For example in Australia, the rate of suicide is high and most of the suicides are related to pesticide applications, also in Colorado, the death rates among agricultural farmers is high and in most cases is associated with the exposure to the "organophosphate pesticides." Even with the many deaths associated with the use of pesticides such as OP and the chlorpyrifos, the articles sole purpose focuses centrally on how the organophosphate pesticides(OP) results to suicide among the users and their spouses in the agricultural health study (Beard, et al., 2011).
As per the methodology, the article focuses on the agricultural health studys cohort (1993-1997) who provided data on the lifestyle and the demographic factors, and pesticide use and exposure at the beginning of enrollment (1993). Most of these applicators were men with women forming the most spouses. The information was recorded systematically according to the age, the location, the sex, and the health diagnostic of the cohort. The authors also assessed the rate of exposure of each individual, the statistical methods used was the "COX proportional regression model." The main reason for choosing the model was that it would show the estimated hazard ratios, another model used in the article includes the stratifying models. In the stratifying model, the categorization was in terms of using protective gear (chemical resistant gears), the number of children, and the location (Beard, et al., 2011).
Under the Cox model, the researchers investigated both the applicators and their spouses combined, this is because the data gathered relating to the spouses was too little, hence could not be analyzed alone. Later the covariates associated with suicides in both age-adjusted and age-adjusted models and the unadjusted models, under this they used the "Schwarz Bayesian and the Akaike information criterions." Under the stratifying models the researchers compares the HRs using the two strata, these models included the race and the marital status. The marital status and the race categories include the individuals that had ever used pesticides and those diagnosed with diabetes.
The authors results collected showed that the risk for suicide was high for the participants more than 65 years of age, the divorced participants, those living in North Carolina, those participants that smoked, those participants that drunk alcohol. Many of the participants with the risk of committing suicide were men, however even with the past research associating most of the suicides with the OP, the studies suicide mainly revolved around Pyrethroid insecticides that had a higher HR (1.09. 95%) (Beard, et al., 2011). Also as per the research, most of the applicators did not show relationships between the use of pesticides and suicide.
The authors carefully analyzed the results and in most of the cases, no evidence was found proving the association between pesticide use and suicides. Through carefully analyzing the results the authors answered, the hypothesis was providing explanations for their conclusion. they provided new information contrary to what many researchers reported before. The research work in the article is significance as it changes the past understanding of how pesticides contribute too many deaths among farmers. the interpretations refute the past observations as much past research argue that pesticides use is associated with the death of farmers (Beard, et al., 2011).
Beard, J., Umbach, D., Hoppin, J., Richards, M., Alavanja, M., Blair, A., . . . Kamel, F. (2011). Suicide and pesticide use among pesticide applicators and their spouses in the Agricultural Health Study. Environmental health Perspectives, 119.
stem cells was discovered, and it was thought that we just might be on the threshold of an age of miracles (Cobb,2013).“Physiological studies have shown that pluripotent stem cells or embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into any kind of cell. When an egg is fertilized and it reaches the blastocyst stage i.e. 4-5 days post fertilization, the embryonic cells are formed. During normal growth these cells would differentiate into different specialized and help the baby grow in the womb.  .“Stem cells are self-renewing, unspecialised cells that can give rise to multiple types all of specialized cells of the body” (Grier,2006)
Stem cell technology involves the usage of this concept and derivation of stem cells from embryos such that the cells can be used for various therapeutic purposes and medical treatments. The procedure involves isolation of the embryonic cells from the blastocyst, artificial cell culturing using broth medium which allows cell growth to give rise to an embryonic cell line and finally stimulation of differentiation of these cells to form desired and specific cells and tissues as required.
The myth is embryos are killed while harvestation of embryonic stems cells. Couples opting for IVF often have 2-3 extra embryos which they do not use and initially these embryos would end up as biomedical wastes. However, now these embryos are used for research purposes for extraction of embryonic cells which may be maintained as culture sunder laboratory conditions. Yes, it does mean that the embryo will be destroys but one needs to understand that the embryo is not a baby and is only a cluster of a few cells. It lacks organs or even lacks the human form.”Induced pluripotent embryo cells are not human organism” (Huarte &. Suarez,2011) and hence ethical questions must not be raised. It rather looks like a ball than a human. Even if it was not harvested, the embryo would have to be thrown away anyways.
Many have the opinion and in order
Cultural Preferences and End-of-Life Care Culture has always been seen as a key factor in determining the ways in which different people perceive illnesses, the suffering they go through during that period up to the time of death. In recent years, ethnic diversity has increased in the US, and this has subsequently led to an increase in interactions between patients from different cultural backgrounds and different physicians. Across continents, there exist numerous varying cultures practicing different cultural beliefs or practices. Studies have revealed that there exists a difference in the way cultures address certain medical issues: telling of the truth of a patient’s whereabouts, making of technical decisions, etc. This paper studies Kagawa-Singer and Blackhall’s (2001) article and directs its attention to the Chinese-American ethnic group, outlining some of the critical issues that affect the medical process based on the patient, family and the physician while monitoring the cultural beliefs, practices and values of the patient so as to ensure maximum satisfaction at the end of life. The paper also looks into the various challenges faced by professionals in palliative care with respect to cultural beliefs and the implications of these challenges to the professionals.
Cultural Preferences and End-of-Life Care
On January 12, 2001, a perspective editor interviewed a 38-year old Chinese woman, Ms Z, who took care of her ailing mother and father with help from her elder sister (Kagawa-Singer and Blackhall, 2001). In December 1994, her mother was diagnosed with stage IIIB adenocarcinoma of the lung and underwent chemotherapies. She received constant treatment but succumbed to her end of life in January, 1996. To add to the ill-fated departure of her mother, Ms Z’s dad was diagnosed with Parkinson during the early 90s, and died in 1997 after numerous medications had been administered (Kagawa-Singer and Blackhall, 2001). According to Ms Z, the topic of her mother’s condition was never raised by any family member. In addition, her father never discussed his condition even after they had full information from the doctor (Kagawa-Singer and Blackhall, 2001). From the interview, a number of issues were of notable concern in the Chinese culture and they are addressed below:
a) Informed consent – across many cultures, people do not appreciate telling the truth about diagnosis of certain diseases such as cancer, although it is part of U.S. health care. According to Ms Z, her mother’s diagnosis was given in a statistical book for her to read, and they never discussed that topic again. This is an implication that Chinese culture does not permit the truth telling effect in end-of-life healthcare, a trend that is common in Italy, France, Eastern Europe, Asia, Central and Southern America, and the Middle East as a sign of humanity and ethical standards (Crawley, Marshall, and Koeing, 2001). This is echoed by a Korean American who claims that he hid from his wife the fact that she had cancer, which he feels enabled her to live longer than if she were made aware of her condition (Kagawa-Singer and Blackhall, 2001).
b) Decision making – According to Ms Z, the presence of her and her sister in every medical appointment was a symbol of a Chinese culture that requires one to take care of themselves and the patient and participate actively in the decision-making process during the treatment process, an argument that is seconded by Kleinman (1980). In addition, Kleinman (1980), with reference to the Patient Self-Determinant Act of the US, suggests that patients should be allowed to make decisions regarding how medical treatment should be administered to them at the end-of-life. Other cultures view decision-making as a responsibility of the family, who are to protect their patients from the difficulty of making tough decisions about their health care.
c) Palliative care – Ms Z feels that hospice care is not suitable for her dying mother and father as it is a sign of giving up or the caretaker’s failure, which is why Asians do not appreciate the practice. Research shows that ethnic community patients constitute less than 17% of the patients in palliative care and that only a few of them are Asian Americans (Kagawa-Singer and Blackhall, 2001). According to Muller and Desmond (1992), filial piety, a practice in many Asian countries, is thought to be a contributing factor to this, as it is expected that children are to take care of their parents as a way of appreciating them for the initial care they got while young.
d) Communication – The interview revealed that the Chinese culture does not permit them to talk about treatment and care up to end of life, something evident via the lack of discussion regarding the critical health conditions of her parents and their eventual death. According to Muller and Desmond (1992), the Chinese would rather not talk about it and wait for the end-of-life moment. In the Far East countries of Asia, non-verbal communication is practiced to pass such dire information so as to avoid embarrassments in cases where truth needs to be told.
Challenges Facing Informed Consent
With reference to the U.S. health care, a patient has a right to decision making, knowledge of their medical status, and type of medication to be offered (Kagawa-Singer and Blackhall, 2001). In different cultural setups, this is hindered by a number of issues which include:
i. Level of severity of the disease – some diseases are severe and hard to bear the information. According to Kagawa-Singer and Blackhall (2001), breaking the news to a cancer patient may reduce the life time of the patient as opposed to withholding the information. The physician should consult the family before breaking the news to the patient even if the patient insists to know the diagnosis.
ii. Cultural beliefs – as we have seen from the Chinese point of view, the diagnosis is not revealed publicly to the patient, but rather, it is done delicately so as not to hurt the emotional feelings of the patient and the family. Even though the patient has the right to know their health status, cultural beliefs may hinder the process.
iii. Emotional strength of the patient – some patients have the ability to take in certain things comfortably thus can easily be informed of their status. On the other hand, a patient who is highly emotional cannot be provided with such information as it may result in immediate death, hence the need for hiding the information from them (Barker, 1992).
Healthcare professionals face a tough task to ensure that a patient and their family are satisfied with the medical care being offered. However, with culture and ethnicity in their way, there results both legal and ethical implications during their duties. When one fails to abide by the family’s decision not to tell a patient the truth, they are viewed to be cruel, non-caring and ignorant (Crawley, Marshall and Koeing, 2001). This may result in anger and mistrust which may end up in conflicts. In addition, Kagawa-Singer and Chung (1994) propose that different cultures and languages brought in by different patients need to be respected. This is a challenge to health care professionals for they have to understand other cultures, and, in some cases, deviate from their standard procedures just to incorporate the culture of a patient and ensure maximum satisfaction. In some cases, misconceptions arise owing to a professional’s little understanding of a given culture. This may result in unwanted outcomes in the clinic and inappropriate relation between the patient and families at end-of-life. With respect to Crawley, Marshall and Koeing (2001), professionals have to ensure that they are conversant with the culture of their patients so as not to cause any conflicts. In addition, hiding information from a patient may be viewed as violation of the patients’ rights to know the truth which may result in legal action.
In conclusion, health care professionals who conduct palliative care should have vast knowledge of different cultures of their patients. In addition, when a patient comes into their care, they should gather enough information from both the patient and the family in regards to the do’s and don’ts of the process. This ensures that the family and patient are satisfied with the care. Similarly, the professionals should also give the family a clear outline of their treatment procedures so that both parties can come to a mutual understanding regarding the patient’s medical attention and reduce future conflicts between the health care unit, the family and the patient (Barker, 1992).
Barker, J. C. (1992). Cultural diversity: Changing the context of medical practice. West J Med.,
Crawley, L., Marshall .P., &. Koeing .B. (2001). .Respecting cultural differences at the end of life. .In T. E. Quill and L. Snyder (Eds.). Physician’s guide to end-of-life care. Philadelphia: American College of Physicians – American Society of Internal Medicine.
Kagawa-Singer, M., &. Chung, R. (1994). A paradigm for culturally based care for minority populations. J Comm Psychol., 22(2), 192-208.
Kagawa-Singer, M., &. Blackhall, L. J. (2001). Negotiating cross-cultural issues at the end of life. “You got to go where he lives.” JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(23), 2993-3001.
Kleinman, A. (1980). .Patients and healers in the context of culture. .Berkeley: University of California Press.
Muller, J. H., &. Desmond, B. (1992). Ethical dilemmas in a cross-cultural context: A Chinese example. West J Med., 157(3), 323-327.
This case study provides a different look at the situation, wherein the specificity of the supplies is what gives the product and services of WFM its value.
Following the turn of the millennium the market for natural and organic food sales shifted from niche to mainstream. Once considered excessive in terms of cost and unimportant in terms of health, WFM pioneered and developed an industry that now accounts for more than 2.5%, or $13.8 billion in US food sales annually. This product line has shown greater growth in sales than traditional grocery offerings for the last several years. Further, studies indicate that this trend will continue into the future as the Baby Boomers reach senior status, their children enter middle age and their grandchildren reach adulthood. Each of these generations has enjoyed a greater degree of disposable income and exposure to higher education. factors which both play a major role in WFM’s market demographic. With that said, at the time this study was written, their organizational objective was to reach $12 billion in revenue and have more than 300 stores in operation (Harasta &. Hoffman, n.d.). They were able to achieve only half of this objective by reaching 304 store locations domestically and another 12 internationally for a total of 316 current locations (“Our Stores,” n.d.). Unfortunately, while up 12% from 2009, they fell short of their fiscal goals reaching $9 billion in sales in 2010 (McCann, 2010). however with only half of the 2011 fiscal year gone they have significantly overtaken the half-way mark of 2010 by already producing $5.4 billion in sales (McCann, 2011).
WFM face three pivotal issues that are hindering their ability to expand at a faster pace: Increased competition, rigid target market requirements and a limited supply of natural and organic goods. .Currently, they control 47% of organic food sales in the US. however similar vendors and national supermarket chains have taken notice of the profitability of natural products and entered the market with varying degrees of success.
es helping private firms and individuals to identify crime and other insecurity problems and report them to the government officials for law enforcement. Private security officers offer private risk management consultancies, implement security approaches to protect private property against theft and fire, and also investigate frauds in private companies. There are various private security companies which carry out those security functions mentioned above.
The public and private securities have recently been seen to converge as they help each other to combat insecurity issues in the society. The success of community security can be achieved through partnership building between the private and public security. Convergence of private and public security enhances identification of opportunities for collaboration in the security sector in order to encourage innovation in problem-solving and decision making. hence making it easier for security personnel to deal with security issues and meet the needs of the society in terms of security. Collaboration between private and public security opens doors for effective problem-solving through technology and innovation. This convergence between the public and private security also enhances advanced community policing and achievement of mutual goals in the private and public sector. Therefore, the convergence between the public and private security is expected to expand and become effective over the next decade due to its benefits to the society.
The convergence between private and public and private security is a contemporary issue in security studies which has become common in many countries worldwide. The convergence between private and public security refers to the collaboration and partnership building between the public and private security personnel. It involves bringing together the activities of private and public security personnel in order to encourage innovation and technological advancement in the security sector.
82000 Since gay parenting has a significant influence over the sexual orientation of the children, many people are prejudice with regards to lesbian and gay parents. As part of protecting the best interests of the children, gay parents often loss physical custody or being prohibited over the right to adopt children (Appell, 2003). On the contrary, Tobin and Mcnair (2009) argued that empirical evidence proves that there is really no concrete evidence for considering the sexual orientation of parents in assessing their capability to adopt a child. There are some studies revealing that lesbians and gays are not allowed to foster care or adopt children for the reason that gays are considered mentally ill making lesbians less maternal as compared to women who are heterosexual. It is also possible that the type of sexual relationship that gays and lesbians have usually allowed them little time to be involved in the actual parent-child interaction. On the contrary, the study of Vanfraussen, Ponjaert-Kristofferson, &. Brewaeys (2003) revealed that the parent-child interaction among lesbian couples is fairly the same as compared with the heterosexual parents. In reality, there is no single empirical study that can prove that lesbians and gays are not capable of becoming a good parent. In line with this, there are several studies showing no significant difference between the way lesbians and heterosexual women could rear a child nor there was any difference in the mental health condition of the two groups of individuals.
Studies suggest that, in the last century or so, almost every medical breakthrough that is relevant to both the animal and human world has had significant contributions from animal research. Such breakthroughs range from antibiotics, chemotherapy, blood transfusions, and organ transplants among others (Jessen). These experiments have contributed significantly to the quality and length of human life by handling some of the most difficult moments in human life known as disease and health conditions and complications. The above is due to the potential use of animal research in treating heart diseases and cancer, where it has contributed by bringing chemotherapy as an option in controlling and getting rid of cancer in humans and some animals. Due to animal testing and research, there are numerous lives saved from pain and loss since the research conducted provides an avenue to clear any anguish caused by disease.
In addition, research on animals allows humans to come up with new vaccines or means of preventing diseases and some conditions that cannot be handled through any other means. This is especially so for the military, where animal research allows them to protect themselves from infection with malaria, Japanese encephalitis and Ross River fever (McGregor). The use of animal research, therefore, implies that without animal research, it would be virtually impossible to beat the spread of some of these diseases or even receive treatment for them.
In addition to health, animal research has allowed humans to wipe out some of the sufferings that humans face across the world. This is following the use of animals in experiments, where humans are not used to finding cures for painful diseases and conditions such as arthritis. This ensures that humans do not have to go through the same pain when suffering from the condition.
The scarcity in terms of infrastructure, education standards and some vital factors has instigated the door to be unlatched for the foreign universities. The Cardiff University (UK) in particular has been considered as the frame of reference in view of the spectacular learning ambiance. Cardiff University is not only known for the outstanding ranking in the UK but also for the global reputation in the research field and teaching. Having vast experience in the Cardiff University, it is really a wonderful opportunity on my part to deliver some worth mentioning narration of the education on the steadfast role. MBA by far is the most intriguing and lucrative post graduation course in recent years. It would really be an injustice to compare it with the other academic and professional course. The popularity that it has gained is enormous but definitely not valueless as it strives to blend just the right mix of the professional attitude in the future to be managers. MBA course tends to converge towards the professional atmosphere after the studies by enforcing the practical implementation of theoretical knowledge. It integrates the essence of the Cardiff Business School in Vidya Vikas University to reinforce a very strong global foundation for the business school in Indian territory.
Part One starts with the evolution of the education system in India. This basically gives a brief history of Indian education system gradually transcending to the higher education system. Then the dissertation deals with the evolution of the global context with special reference to the US and UK education scenario, as the Church played a critical role in the development of education abroad.
The debate on the legalization of marijuana to be used as a medical substance has lasted for a very long time whereby there are those who are for the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes, and there are others who strongly are against its legalization. The argument on either side is based on the benefits and risks associated with such a move whereby those who think that legalizing marijuana for medical use is beneficial to support its legalization, however, those who think that it would be riskier to legalize marijuana oppose the move. In order to understand the raging debate over legalization of marijuana, it is critical to understand the different views expressed by both sides and it is only after establishing the underlying points and issues that we can be able to have an insight into the debate surrounding marijuana in the USA.
There are advantages of marijuana as espoused by the supporters of its legalization whereby the scientific studies have proved that marijuana has some medical value. This is not a new idea because marijuana has been used in the past for medical purposes in the treatment of various ailments classified under therapeutic and palliative groups. In addition to that, smoked cannabis is not only safe but is also effective in the treatment and management of diseases and conditions such as. nausea, pain, AIDs-related weight loss, and palliative care diseases. Nevertheless, marijuana usually makes a person feel high, or have a sense of well being that is why it is abused.
Both diagnostic medical sonography and the nuclear medicine technology are similar to one another in the sense that both sonography and nuclear technology are used in the study of medicine as a tool for diagnosing and screening of various diseases (i.e. signs of malignant bone lesions, bone infections, or any kind of stress that can causes pain on the patients (Archive, 2015), appendicitis (Gjelsteen et al., 2008), pelvic pain, suspected for adnexal masses, or the presence of ectopic pregnancy (Busse, 2010. Gjelsteen et al., 2008), and various cancer diseases such as breast cancer, (vans &. Bates, 2005), nasopharyngeal carcinoma (Gao et al., 2014), large hepatocelluclar carcinoma or malignant hepatoma (Hill &. Hill, 2014), and ovarian cancer. The only difference between diagnostic medical sonography and the nuclear medicine technology is that diagnostic medical sonography is using a special type of technology that emits no ionizing radiation that could harm the patients’ current health condition. Based on the term nuclear, the nuclear medicine technology emits different kind of ionizing radiation which could negatively affect the patients’ health condition when excessively exposed to radiation (i.e. 131I, 90Y, 18F, and 67Ga, etc.) (Eckerman &. Endo, 2008. European Pharmacopoeia, 2005).
characteristics of the past and current studies published online. Often times, a scientometric analysis can be performed as a way to evaluate the work performance of a specific research group or universities, a country, and a group of researcher or scientist (Dutton and Jeffreys, 2010, p. 45). In line with this, the main idea of my dissertation is to conduct a scientometric analysis of scholarly productivity in diagnostic medical sonography vs. nuclear medicine technology.
In general, a scientometric analysis can be performed to analyze and measure the usage of journal publications, its credibility and current position as a research institute (Reber &. Brossard, 2013).
Case Studies and Ethnography Case Studies and Ethnography ARTICLE ANALYSIS WORKSHEET Use this worksheet to better understand the articles you review.
APA Reference of Article or source: Author last name, initials of first and middle names (if provided), (year of publication). Source, (volume), issue, pages
Hopson, R. &.Dixson, A. (2011). Intersections, theories, and meanings of race, racism, and educational ethnography. Ethnography and Education 6 (1), 1-7.
The research problem is to assess the relationship between race and its impact on education. Secondly, the article aims at evaluating the role of race in education by assessing the history of education and the changes that have taken place presently (Hopson &.Dixson, 2011).The findings will, therefore, be applied in the education setting presently. Ethnography will help provide a deeper insight on the various responses to the racism question in different settings.
The previous research that has been done on this topic has found that race has impacted education as seen from the research conducted in Italy, Scandinavia and USA. The race factor has played a major role in the policies set and the practices adopted in the education sectors of the selected countries. With the immigrant populations increasing especially the Blacks, as crisis has developed as seen in the ethnography research (Hopson &.Dixson, 2011).
The research question is to what level does the complex nature of race intersection and theories impact on schooling and education?
How many participants were in the study? 3
How were the participants chosen/recruited? Purposively. The USA, Italy and Scandinavia have been said to have unique characteristics as it has an interesting way of marginalizing and repressing its learners who are immigrants especially the minorities (Hopson &.Dixson, 2011).
Were the participants separated into groups?
How did the researcher collect data from the participants?
Behavioral Observations (qualitative and quantitative)
Archival data from records (educational, medical, census, etc.) (quantitative)
How did the researcher prepare the data to be analyzed? (Check all that apply)
Providing a rich description of observed behaviors (qualitative)
Tabulating and summarizing behaviors observed. (quantitative)
How did the researcher analyze the data?
Determined meaning of observed behaviors (qualitative)
The results of the study were in line with the objectives stated. The research question was well answered. The authors bring a clear picture of the implications of race on education.
Implications of this research lead to a deeper engagement in ethnographic research in an attempt to evaluate the complex nature of the intersections of race, theories, and their implications in the general education sector (Hopson &.Dixson, 2011). In the real sense, it is vital to note that race issues play a major part in the education sector. Its place cannot be ignored.
Future research should be focused on assessing the changing nature of racism in the education sector so as to understand the contemporary trends. The authors put it as post racism in education (Hopson &.Dixson, 2011). This point of study would allow for an easy understanding of the issue as well as the most applicable solution to racism in education.
Hopson, R. &.Dixson, A. (2011). Intersections, theories, and meanings of race, racism, and educational ethnography. Ethnography and Education 6 (1), 1-7.
Retention of those skilled employees is equally important because such specialist personnel is in short supply and a Company may find it difficult to replace the experience and training of individual employees, especially the more skilled personnel.
The human resource department has a very important role to play in today’s globalized context. The recruitment of skilled employees enables an organization to benefit fully in the knowledge economy. The retention of these employees is equally important because they are not easy to replace. The human resource department is responsible to ensure that skilled employees are retained within the organization. Thus, the topic of this research study is:
Research has explored techniques that are effective in the successful recruitment of employees, and how skilled employees can be motivated by the HR department to join a firm. According to Buchen (2006), HR professionals are described as those individuals who are in a leadership position, with the responsibility for recruitment and retention of employees, staff training and structuring of organizational strategy. Marrow (1993) has defined employee commitment as his or her desire to remain associated with the organization. But employee commitment is an area where more research is required, with more professionals, so that the studies possess more generalized validity (Carmeli and Freund, 2004).
Earlier studies have mostly focused upon the personalities of leaders and how they impact upon their followers, rather than focusing upon how the HR department can improve services within the firm. While leadership does play an important role in the success of an organization, and impacts upon employees, the continuance of employee commitment can be enhanced through the Human Resource Department. Research studies have touched upon the subject of employee commitment, but a gap exists in the research, in defining how HR services influence the commitment of employees.
If a tumor remains in one place and shows limited growth, it is commonly considered to be benign. “Cancer that originates from lung cells is called primary lung cancer. Primary lung cancer can start in the airways that branch off the trachea to supply the lungs (the bronchi) or in the small air sacs of the lung (the alveoli)” (Hong, Tsao 2008). Instead, if cancer originated elsewhere and metastasized to the lungs, it is called “secondary”. These two types of cancer are taken as different forms of cancer from diagnostic and treatment perspectives
Lung cancer is generally classified into two main types based on the outlook of cancer under a microscope: Non- small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Non – small cell lung cancer is the type found in the majority of cases diagnosed, whereas small cell lung cancer with lesser cases. “Since lung cancer tends to spread or metastasize very early after it forms, it is a very life-threatening cancer and one of the most difficult cancers to treat”(Stoppler).
The main cause of lung cancer can be related to smoking and inhaling carcinogens in tobacco smoke. “Air pollution, particularly smoke from fossils, appears to increase the risk of lung cancer but its effect is small compared with that of cigarette smoking”(Williams 20). Several studies have shown that lifetime exposure to smoking can lead to the development of lung cancer. The reason for smoking being harmful is that tobacco contains an exorbitant amount of chemical agents, including carcinogens which cause cancer.
The studies have also shown that radon is the primary cause of lung cancer among non – smokers. Overall it can be said that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer. Radon is tasteless, odorless and invisible gas produced by the decay of naturally occurring uranium water and soil. . .“Although the progeny of radon is now a well- recognized cause of lung cancer, radon itself has again become a topic of controversy and public health concern because it has been found to be a ubiquitous indoor air pollutant to which all persons are exposed”(Health Effects 22) . .
ISLAM s Discussion The Pillars of Islam” Christians pronounce and translated YHWH into Yahweh that supposedly mean the samething. God Almighty was the name the early Hebrews used in reference to EL Shaddai while El, Eloah in singular and in plural Elohim means God especially in reference to non-Hebrews who worshipped small gods and deities. Allah, which many Muslims believe to be their God, is a wrong reference to be the real God people worship. Allah is a middle eastern moon that is worshipped by many people to date. While Muhammad was recruiting his servants, he came across a group of people who worshipped this god and recruited them in his camp. This tribe eventually used their god as their tribe’s name. Jehovah is a name that was used to curse out demons and therefore should not be used in reference to God. ‘Jeh’ means a seductress demon while ‘hovah’ is a Hebrew name that means ruin. German translators mis-transliteration while translating the Latin word Jahweh. Therefore, YHWH is an acronym that comes from Hebrew from the words Yodh, He, Waw, He.
According to all the religions, every prophet coming under God establishes itself as the way. Historical studies of religion does not show any relationship of these prophets neither does it show any common interest except for the fact that God almighty is the greatest and His established laws through the prophet must be followed. According to Christians, Jesus was given the 10 commandments that I supposedly the way to the Lord. The Muslims have the 5 pillars and they are from prophet Muhammad and they believe he is the way to the Lord. Every religion has his own way and prophet leading to God.
Discussion 2: “Jihad and Peace”
The Islamic goal is to submit to God. Through submission, God intensifies His love for humankind. It is also however, important to notice that the word Islam in itself means submission or surrender. A quote in Quran says “We believe in Allah and that which is revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, and Isaac and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which Moses and Jesus received, and that which the prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have surrendered (2:136 Arabic Muslim hood). Peace (Al-Salaam) which is a secondary root of Islam has no point of Islam. The Quran makes it clear that Islam is all about submission to God.
Differences between greater Jihad and lesser Jihad
Greater Jihad is a fight in the spiritual real that aims at every, Muslim to keep upright with God. Many Muslims do not know about this but only understands the lesser Jihad that involves the physical war against the enemies of Muslim (Peters, 2005).
If you could clear up one misunderstanding represented in the media about Islam, what would you correct?
That Islam is not about all about war and terrorism but it is a religion that strongly loves God and God gives respect life since it. The West is always against Muslims for the fact that Muslims engage in lesser Jihad as they try to neutralize the enemies of Muslim. The physical battle fought by Muslims in the world is what the West dislikes. It is however very difficult to convince the West about lesser Jihad but constant education and publication of the Quran concerning jihad can help limit and reduce the perception of the West against Muslims.
Peters, R. (2005). Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. New York: Markus Wiener Publishers.
Water Supply Jacksonville Florida Water Supply Jacksonville Florida I live in Jacksonville Florida. The water supply of Jacksonville Florida comes from the Floridian aquifer. This represents one of the major sources of water in the United States. Affirmatively the underground water supply is well protected from contamination by chemicals by the Hawthorne formation. The Hawthorne is a thick layer of clay that does not allow the seeping of pollutants. There are 115 Floridian wells that their water is pumped to a reservoir (Jacksonville Electric Authority, 2014). The reservoirs are located at one of the 36 treatment plants in the region.
In the year 2014, the Florida department of environmental protection performed a detailed assessment of the water system for potential contaminants (Jacksonville Electric Authority, 2014). The potential contaminants are the major grid with 49 sources and the Ponce de Leon grid with three sources. However, further studies on the potential pollutants portrayed a lower to moderate rate of susceptibility.
The water in the region is hard water. The question is what is hard water? Affirmatively water can be described as hard water if it contains high levels of minerals that are dissolved. The minerals are such as magnesium and calcium. However, hard water does not pose a health risk, on the contrary, calcium and magnesium is important to human health (Jacksonville Electric Authority, 2014). Most individuals use the magnesium as antacids or common supplements. Hard water may leave spots on utensils. however, this can be removed by use of vinegar.
Conclusively the water supply in Florida is safe for the health of the residents. Considerably the hard water in the region does not pose any health implications. Nevertheless, the spots it leaves on utensils can be removed by use of vinegar. The aquifers are the major sources of water in the region with treatment plants used to increase the safety of the water.
Jacksonville Electric Authority. (2014). 2014 water quality report. Jacksonville: Jacksonville Electric Authority.
lt, the existence of such evidences is considered a rarity and must be evaluated for its authenticity, credibility, and basis for furthering assimilation knowledge. Rifa’a Rafi’ al-Tahtawis An Imam in Paris is one such document which is considered to be a comprehensive record of European society observed and narrated by an Arab. It is a descriptive narrative of the Middle Eastern scholars view of the West which has been used by many for the basis of constructing modern Egyptian collective memory. In the following report the researcher shall investigate how effective has al-Tahtawis An Imam in Paris been in endorsing collective memory of Egyptians, and its endorsement of Egyptian modern identity. The report shall explore how al-Tahtawis knowledge has helped Egyptians in streamlining and coming to terms with the Western culture through education, intellectual leadership and collective memory.
During the early 19th century Muhammad Ali, an Egyptian ruler was motivated by the knowledge of its influential neighbor Europe and its impact on the world. Muhammad Ali devised a program for sending students to France or Italy to bring back Western knowledge to the Egyptian community. Muhammad Alis mission was to assimilate the knowledge fields, language, logic and arithmetic of the West to the East (particularly Egypt) to better comprehend European society. He was of the view that adaptation to European civilization would benefit the 19th century Muslims in becoming more intelligent in worldly history, and streamline their own perspective of the same. Among those who went on the mission to Paris, Rifaa Rafi al-Tahtawi was perhaps the most knowledgeable, who benefitted from the program, which was evident from his book or record of the French state (al-Tahtawi 32).
From his description of the French state, al-Tahtawi learned much from the studies, discussion and knowledge gained from reading of the various fields. Al-Tahtawi describes the French as a modern state, with
The disease burden caused by rotavirus is so huge that intervention needs to be taken. Each year rotavirus causes 114 million episodes of gastroenteritis patients, necessitating primary health care and hospitalization.
Studies done recently indicative that 41 % of diarrhea in children is mostly caused by rotavirus. If it is controlled, then a bigger portion of hospitalization cases on diarrhea will be reduced drastically, and subsequent deaths cabbed. To this effect, studies have been done on how the virus can be put into control in causing all this epidemiological diseases. The vaccines that were introduced have played an integral role in handling the havoc and the capability of this virus to human population diseases. Rotavirus vaccine has been one of the major breakthroughs in the field of medicine especially pediatric medicine (Bhojwani, 2009).
The microscopy of rotavirus is usually done under electron microscope staining procedure. The integrity and the result largely depend on the type, pH and the time of the stain. The three aspects must be put into perspective for the positive finding during observation. Prior to microscopy, the virus must first be isolated, cultured and stained before it can be viewed on the electron microscope.
The cultivation of the virus sound technical but also interesting in doing it. The isolation of the virus is done on the stool taken from the human being who is suffering or suspected to have the virus. For example, avian rotavirus strain, CH2, is cultivated in embryonated eggs. It can be done on the yolk sac, amniotic, allantois in combination with membrane of inoculation. After cultivation, the virus will multiply in huge numbers given the multiplying capability. It is from this inoculated culture of the chicken rotavirus virus that a sample undergoes examination via the electron microscope (Parashar et al., 2009).
The virus appears as a wheel where the spikes seen are the virulence factors that the virus uses to
The new approach was based on assessing the risk in business as well as process level risk while performing the audit and as such, the fundamental process of performing audit took a new turn to accommodate the changes that are perceived to take place in the 21st century.
There are many studies including Humphrey, Jones, and Khalifa that assess the impact of this approach on the actual audit engagements and as such discussed at length as to what is being done and what is required further to make this practice more effective to cater to the needs of the modern business practices. Further studies also indicated the overall effectiveness with which this new methodology has been implemented by the audit firms while conducting the audits.
Business Risk Approach was believed to be initiated by the large firms that were under constant criticism from various quarters for their failure to critically assess and identify the failures of the firms like Enron. Thus business risk approach is not considered as feasible for the smaller firms that may not have the required expertise and depth to conduct appropriate business risk audits of their clients.
The trends in the audit industry indicated that there is a gradual increase in the costs of executing the existing practices because the overall complexities of doing business have increased to the manifold in the current times. The greater cost on the imparting necessary knowledge and skills to audit staff as well as the more focus on the use of more value-added services, audit, as a profession integrated critical changes into itself to cater to the more challenging requirements of the new business entities that become more vulnerable to the risk owing to more volatile nature of the business. (Eilifsen, Knechel, &. Wallage, 2001)
Business risk is generally described as the risk that the business will achieve its intended objectives.