Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome as Public Disease

One of the major epidemics that has affected millions of people around the world is AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). I believe that AIDS is the disease which holds vital importance for all of mankind. It is a disease which is brought into the body by the human immunodeficiency virus. This virus drastically reduces the natural immunity of the body and makes the patient susceptible to numerous infections.
One of the major reasons in my choosing this disease is the manner in which it spreads. Unfortunately, its spread is very directly linked with many of human being’s pleasures. Sex and drug abuse are phenomena which haunt even the most developed societies. To add to their unique challenges, HIV attaches itself with different modes of transmission. These modes range from many forms of sex (oral, vaginal etc) to use of contaminated needles. The virus also is transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and even breast milk can cause infection (Woodward, 104).
All these things create a very scary picture of the disease. AIDS is a disease that continues to spread in different parts of the world at an alarming rate. World Health Organization (WHO) comes up with frightening statistics every year which reveal that millions of people are killed every year due to AIDS. Tens of millions are affected by it and they live under a cloud of fear and shame. The region that seems to be most affected is the continent of Africa (WHO, 5).
People need to be informed about the importance of safe sex and marital faithfulness. There is no intention of limiting people’s sexual freedom but discretion and control should be practised. Another way of slowing down the spread of AIDS is through needle-exchange programs (Chiras, 276).&nbsp.

Inflations in UK

(Davies, 2012). The Inflation is stated as a percentage. For example if the CPI is 2%, it means that we now have to spend 2% more on the same goods and services than we were doing earlier. Consider the price of a Cinema Ticket. Suppose it was £10 last year and the CPI is 2%, this means we will now have to expend £10.2 for the tickets this year. (2% increase in price) (Davies, 2012)
CPI measures the changes in prices for Consumer goods and services only, whereas RPI includes mortgage costs taxes and interest payments. CPI accounts for consumer choice as well. It formulates that with a change in price, a consumer shall move to a cheaper alternative or go for a substitute product. For example, if the price of Tea increases too much for the liking of a consumer, he may opt to consume Coffee if it is available within his price range. The Government and Bank of England use CPI and RPI to fix interest rates, if inflation is expected to rise beyond a certain level, the Government may increase interest rates in order to curb inflation.
The Office of National Statistics (ONS) collects several prices of goods and services. It weighs how much we spend on the relative products every month and then these prices are combined to produce a composite index which is the Rate of Inflation.
The Inflation in UK in January 2014 was recorded at 1.9%, with the average Inflation between 1989 till January 2014 being 2.8%. It recorded a High of 8.5% in April 1991 and a low of 0.5% in May 2000. (Taborda, 2104)
The following table represents the history of Inflation in UK over the past decade. As we can see from this table, the highest Rate of Inflation was recorded in Sept. 2011 and Sept. 2008 at 5.2%, and the lowest at 1.1% in Oct. 2009 and March April Oct. of 2004.
As we can see from the 2 graphs, controlled inflation is good for the economy. The BOE has set the benchmark for controlled inflation at 2%. At

Forum 3 rape and sexual violence

Rape and Sexual Violence Research Paper Institute Introduction The history of women being raped during wars can be traced back tothe eleventh century and continues to paramount levels even today (Hagen &amp. Yohani, 2010). In a cultural perspective rape can be seen as expressive of the dominance, oppression and the inequality that women suffer (Hagen &amp. Yohani, 2010). During war rape is utilized as a tool of war against families and communities, used to tear them apart and inflict psychological damage to counter resistance (Hagen &amp. Yohani, 2010). The long-term consequences on the individual victim, and families make this crime the most violent war tool (Hagen &amp. Yohani, 2010).
Example of Rape during the Bosnian War
Inger Skjelsbaek (2006) in her research, narrates the story of a woman who was raped during the Bosnian war. Danira was raped during the war more than a hundred times over, she was raped by military personnel and by groups of them (Skjelsbaek, 2006). She states that they were never the same men and hated the Muslim women (Skjelsbaek, 2006). Danira asked them to kill her as she did not want to go back to her family after going through the ordeal (Skjelsbaek, 2006).
The Military personnel who raped her and many others with her, were not held accountable for the war crimes and did not undergo any punishment whatsoever. Despite the fact that rape is held prohibited under the ‘Geneva convention’. committing rape during war is a crime punishable by death or under the ‘Article 120 of the American Uniform Code of Military Justice’ the perpetrator can be imprisoned (Stuhldreher, 1994). Rape cases during war go unpunished due to two main reasons. first for not being reported and secondly for rape being treated as a war weapon (Swiss &amp. Giller, 1993. Keith, 1997).
Rape within Military Ranks
Recently female army personnel being raped by their colleagues or seniors has become an ‘occupational hazards’ with a drastic increase in the number of occurrences (Meleis, 2013). Statistics in the documentary ‘The Invisible War’, reveal that females serving in the military in the war zones of Iraq and Afghanistan are less likely to be killed in battle and more likely to be raped by a military colleague (Meleis, 2013). Almost 20, 000 people in service are each year raped or sexually assaulted and the victimizers manage to get away with it (Kitfield, 2012). In 2011, 883 cases in the marines and Navy were reported for sexual assault and for the army the number was 1,695 (Wilkinson &amp. Hirschkorn, 2013). Not only women but also men suffer at the hands of the sexual victimization. The number of men being treated for Military Sexual Trauma is above 40% (Wilkinson &amp. Hirschkorn, 2013).
Sexual assault can result in disciplinary action against the military personnel. They can result in monitory fines, suspensions or even a court martial (Wolf, 2012). But the rate of prosecutions in the military are extremely low, due to being not reported, discouraged to be reported and also non-action. It is estimated that 14% of people who experience a sexual assault report it and the rate of prosecution is even lower. 2011 saw a total of 3,192 cases of sexual assault reported, 1,518 were deemed suitable for disciplinary action. of which only 191 convictions in the form of court martial were seen (Wolf, 2012). No record of sex offenders in the military is kept that could lead to alerting the soldiers and reduce the number of cases. also pointing out that rape and sexual assault are not treated as a serious crime by the department of defence to be kept record of (Wolf, 2012).
Nonexistent Law Implementation against war time and war zone rape and sexual assault against the enemy indicate how lightly this violent and heinous crime is taken and is manipulated to harm the army. Which can sometimes give the officers and commanders the false impression and sense of security of not being accountable for such a crime and in turn leads to a high rate of rape and sexual assault against the soldiers (men and women) in ranks of the same forces.
References
Keith, S. (1997 March). Rape as a Weapon of War. Peacework, 270/9. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/docview/194512030/13DE359DCC8742145E8/1?accountid=8289
Kitfield, J. (2012). The Enemy Within. National Journal. [Electronic Version]. Retrieved on 7 May 2013 from http://www.nationaljournal.com/magazine/the-military-s-rape-problem-20120913
Kristine, H. &amp. Yohani, S. (2010 Dec.). The Nature and Psychological Consequences of War Rape for Individuals and Communities. International Journal of Psychological Studies, 2/2, 14 – 25. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy2.apus.edu/docview/840751608/13DE359DCC8742145E8/4?accountid=8289
Melesis, D. A. I. (2013). Rape within the Ranks. Dean Meleis. [Electronic Version]. Retrieved on 7 May 2013 from http://deanmeleis.blogspot.com/2013/04/rape-within-ranks.html
Stuhldreher, K. (1994 March). State Rape: Representations of Rape in Viet Nam. The Vietnam Generation Big Book, 5/1-4. Retrieved from http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Texts/Scholarly/Stuldreher_Rape.html
Swiss, S. &amp. Giller, J. E. (1993 August 4). Rape as a Crime of War A Medical Perspective. The Journal of American Medical Association, 270/5, 612 – 615. Retrieved from http://www.womens-rights.org/Publications/JAMA%2093.pdf
Wilkinson, M. A. &amp. Hirschkorn, P. 1998. Pentagon battling military rape ‘epidemic’. CBS News. [Electronic Version]. Retrieved on 7 May 2013 from http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-18563_162-57566084/pentagon-battling-military-rape-epidemic/
Wolf, N. (2012). A Culture of Cover-up: Rape in the ranks of the US military. Guardian. [Electronic Version]. Retrieved on 7 May 2013 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/jun/14/culture-coverup-rape-ranks-us-military

Unemployment in UK

The history of unemployment in the UK tells that during Great Depression the rate of unemployment was very high in the country. It reached to the level of 25 percent but after that time, unemployment rate used to remain at a low level and with the help of different policies and strategies the government of the UK succeeded to attain more or less full employment level until the 1970s. However, after an oil prices fluctuation in the 1970s the unemployment rate was also badly affected and gradually it began to rise. The recent rise in the unemployment rate is highest during the last decade and the country is facing the worst situation with respect to unemployment crisis in the country (Pettinger, p2, 2009). The following table shows the United Kingdom unemployment rate during last three years and it is clearly seen in the table that unemployment rate is continuously increasing in the country with each passing year.
The recent statistics also show that the unemployment is recorded at the highest rate in last eight years. The rate of unemployment is rising at an alarming pace due to which the year 2009 is also expected as a stagnant year for the economy of United Kingdom. (Monaghan, p1, 2008) The country while responding towards the global financial crisis is witnessing worst situation of unemployment and there is a high level of concerns and worries at all level regarding the rise of the unemployment rate. The following chart shows the current situation of unemployment in the country that is expected to rise even more.
Unemployment is closely related with the economic development of a country. When an economy faces recessions, the rate of unemployment also increases. Thus, the economic recession is the major cause behind the high rate of unemployment in the UK and it is expected that if the UK will face deep economic recession in 2009 then the unemployment will also reach the level of 3 million.&nbsp.

Introduction to Emergency Planning and Operations

Running head: INTRODUCTION TO EMERGENCY PLANNING AND OPERATIONS Introduction to Emergency Planning and Operations Introduction to Emergency Planning and Operations
It is important for small businesses to develop Emergency Response Plans considering the social and economic impacts that disasters and setbacks can have on people’s livelihoods. Some of the most common emergencies that require a response plan for businesses include fires, bomb threats and medical emergencies.
Fire Emergency Response Plan
Fires are among the most frequent disasters in the US, ranking besides weather related and health related events (Poyzner, 2011). A fire Emergency Response Plan must avoid duplication of roles among the involved people and lack of clarity in the steps to be taken since this may cause confusion, inefficiency and even risk to lives. The plan should clearly define the personnel, facilities, procedures and communication channels and procedures to be undertaken, while at the same time being tiered to the National Response Framework (National Response Framework, 2009).
The Concept of Operations to be followed in case of a fire emergency is as follows. the first step is to evacuate everyone from the building and from the vicinity, gather them at fire assembly points and account for everyone, meanwhile, the fire brigade should be called. if it is safe (small fires), put out the fire using fire extinguishers and fire blankets. If the fire gets out of hand close the door and keep everyone away from it. When the fire brigade arrives it is important that they are informed of your involvement (Emergency Management Plan, 2008).
Bomb Threat Emergency Response Plan
The threat of terrorism is very much with us today, with statistics indicating that the bigger proportion of the population feel that the country is unsafe especially after the September 11 terrorist attacks (Bergen, 2011). It is thus imperative that even small businesses develop an Emergency Response Plan to counter bomb threat eventualities. Such a plan should not contain actions that will antagonize the caller, and at the same time actions that will create panic among the public since it will only make the operations difficult. The National Response Framework (2008) requires that the support and incidents annexes be followed in such a case.
In case one receives a call warning of a bomb placed in premises, the action plan should be as follows. keep the caller on the line as long as possible, attempting to write as much information as possible and ensure you inform the security department. ask questions such as the time set for explosion, appearance of the bomb, location, type of bomb and name of caller. avoid divulging the news to the public to prevent panic. in case of evacuation follow the right procedures. notify security about any suspicious packages (Bomb Threat, 2011).
Medical Emergency Response Plan
According to Poyzner (2011) medical related emergencies are at the top spot of all emergencies reported hence this is a critical issue for any organization. Some of the problems that may find their way into a medical emergency response plan include performing medical procedures by untrained individuals and raising alarm and panic. The response doctrine developed by the National Response Framework (2008) indicates that emergency measures should take into consideration tiered action, unified, efforts and engaged partnerships.
The correct course of action for a non-first aider is to stay away from the casualty and instead immediately seek for first aid help. In case of a life-threatening situation one should call for emergency services with an ambulance. Correct reporting of the situation once medical help arrives is important to ensure effective response (Emergency Management Plan, 2008).
Conclusion
Small businesses can undertake Emergency Response Plans that will make their premises much safer to operate in and visit. In all the emergency cases that might arise including fires, bomb threats or health related issues, the response plans should beware of integrating certain mistakes in their procedures. They should at all times also cooperate with the doctrines of the National Response Framework.
References
Bergen, P. (2011). The FP survey: Terrorism. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/01/02/the_fp_survey_terrorism?hidecomments=yes
Bomb Threat. (2011). Bomb Threat (Code Purple) Risk Management (AS/NZS 4360). The University of Adelaide. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from http://www.adelaide.edu.au/security/emergency_services/procedures/bombthreat.html
Emergency Management Plan. (2008). ‘Charles Darwin University’. no. 6.4.01. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from http://www.cdu.edu.au/governance/documents/EmergencyManagementPlan.pdf
National Response Framework. (2008). ‘Department of Homeland Security’. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf-core.pdf
Poyzner, M. (2011). ‘North America Disaster Timeline’. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from http://www.mapreport.com/subtopics/n/d.html

Country cultures

28/09 Country cultures The work of Geert Hofstede continues to be analyzed in the manner in which he approached country cultures. According to Hofstede, “culture is a source of conflict than synergy. cultural differences are a nuisance at best and more of a disaster” (Hofstede 12). Organizations are turning their focus on global virtues in order to enhance teamwork among employees as a means of realizing success. Hofstede gathered and analyzed information from different cultures and made conclusions using similarities and differences which enabled him come up with the five dimensions of culture. He conducted his research amongst employees of IBM which he believed had a national representation of all cultures. In this discussion, I am going to discuss Hofstede’s approach to country cultures using his proposed model.
The diagram below illustrates a comparison of culture indicators of Canada and China as proposed by Hofstede.
First, there is the power or distance dimension. This dimension addresses the extent of inequality in the society and the level of acceptance in a community without power. In this dimension, when there is a high score of power/distance (PD) it implies that the community acknowledges unequal dispersion of power in the society and that people accept their placement as dictated by running systems. A low indication of PD sends signals that power is well distributed among members of a community and that people perceive themselves as equals. In relation to Canada, the PDI is approximately 40 according to Hofstede statistics. This is slightly lower than fifty percent implying that there is unequal distribution of power though not to a large extent. The PDI of China is 80 which indicate existence of high levels of unequal distribution of power compared to Canada.
The second indicator is Individualism (IDV) which refers to the level at which people maintain ties with others in the community. A big score of IDV implies that there is loose bonding among individuals in the community. In countries which are characterized by a high IDV, there is low indication of interpersonal connection among people and people shy away from sharing except for immediate family members and friends (Hofstede 101). A community that has got low IDV indicates that people have strong cohesion among themselves. I addition, people respect and value each other. Canada’s IDV index is placed at eighty percent which is high score. This is an indication that there exists loose bonding among people in Canada compared to countries like China which has a score of 20. This shows that bonding among Chinese people is high compared to Canadians.
Masculinity (MAS) is another index described by Hofstede which refers to the manner in which people in the community stick to and value customary roles of men and women. In countries that have a high score of MAS, men have the characteristic of toughness, bread winners and forceful in their decision making. On the other hand, low MAS imply that men and women share roles in all tasks without a limitation. Canada has a fifty percent score in MAS indicating that there is equal sharing of roles without limitation to female or male orientation. A score of fifty reveals that there could be some sectors of work that could be set aside either for men or women though it is not strongly followed. China’s MAS score is 70 which is slightly higher than Canada’s implying that people are more masculine than Canada and males are likely to succeed in their dealings compared to women.
Uncertainty/avoidance index (UAI) describes the extent to which members of the society get anxious when faced with complex situations. A high UAI implies that members of this society try to avoid uncertain situations using all the means possible. People strongly follow rules and orders which are set collectively. Low UAI means the differences are valued in the community and people have the liberty to discover what they think is the truth. Canada has a UAI of fifty percent indicating that there is a balance on what people believe is the common truth and what individuals think for themselves. China has a score of 30 which implies that people are freer to find their own truth compared to Canada.
The last dimension is the long term orientation (LTO) which refers to how members of the society place emphasis on what have been the long term traditional values compared to the short term values. Countries with high score of LTO indicate that people are committed to meeting societal obligations so as to avoid embarrassment. Canada has a low score of LTO (20%) which means that anything is expected from people in this society due to the freedom to express themselves and their ideologies. China has a score of approximately 120 which clearly shows that people are committed to meeting what the society demands of them which is not a big issue in Canada.
These dimensions do not illustrate individual behavior but the averages of a collective group of people. Hence, the scores should not be used to conclude the behavior of an individual person.
Works cited
Hofstede, Geert (2001). Cultures Consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Print.
Hofstede, Geert. Hofstede, Gert Jan (2005). Cultures and organizations: software of the mind (Revised and expanded 2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. Print.

COMPARE THE RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF A UK ADULT CITIZEN AND A REFUGEE OR ASYLUM SEEKER BOTH LIVING IN THE UNITED KINGDOM IN TERMS OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL SECURITY

Health and social security of refugees and asylum seekers in UK Health and social security of refugees and asylum seekers in UK Refugees and asylum seekers are a diverse group of people that are subject to forced migration and have fled due to political instabilities in their countries (COSLA, 2007). They are victims of a wide range of problems due to their migration status. The United Kingdom provides them with a registration procedure, which helps them to enjoy rights equal to the other citizens. Prior to confirmation, the nation provides them with a temporary registration. In spite of these efforts of the government, there are some clear differences between the rights and responsibilities of the natives and those of the Asylum seekers. This essay compares the rights and responsibilities of Asylum seekers and adult U.K citizens in terms of health and social security.
The United Kingdom adult citizens exercise their rights and responsibility of contributing to the issues of health and social securities by voting and raising public opinions to the government. In contrast, the contribution of asylum seekers in these issues is minimal due to language barriers. The government tries to involve them by providing them with channels to communicate and give their decisions regarding the issues affecting them (NRIF, 2006: CRC, 2004). For instance, the ‘English for Speaker of other Languages’ program aimed at teaching English to this group of people (ISE, 2005: Ragu, 2008). This effort aims at improving their communication abilities so that they can be able to take up their rights and responsibilities.
All adult citizens of U.K. have an absolute right to the National Hospital Services (NHS), which includes free medical treatment and care. On the other hand, not all Refugees and Asylum seekers receive this facility (Aspinall &amp. Watters, 2010, p.23). Those asylum seekers who have not received permanent residence confirmation from the government cannot access this facility. They have access to the medical services but at their own cost (Palmer &amp. Ward, 2007). Those who have received confirmation enjoy national health services (NHS) without any payment (Crawley &amp. Crimes, 2009).
All adult citizens in U.K. have the right to register with a general practitioner of their choice free of charge. If a general practitioner cannot register them, he or she should give a substantial reason in writing to explain the cause (CIC, 2007). Contrary, refugees and asylum seekers may apply with general practitioners (Lee, 2006: Refugee Council, 2005). However, the general practitioners have the right to consider such applications and decide whether to accept them or reject them (CRC, 2004: Greenslade, 2005). In a research by Bhatia and Wallace (2007), it is clear that there are many barriers. In rare cases, they receive only a temporary registration (Aspinall &amp. Watters, 2010, p.20). For this reason, the asylum seekers cannot receive special medical care.
During pregnancy, adult female citizens have the right to access maternity services from midwives, general practitioners or even obstrecian based in hospital. Their cases are given immediate attention. On the other hand, asylum seekers face a lot of problems while trying to access these services. According to the law, the asylums seekers have the right to maternal care and antenatal services (Department of Health, 2007: Feldman, 2006). Nabb’s research (2006) proves that health sectors highly regard maternity care in the United Kingdom and that it is organized and efficient. However, access of these services by this minor group is a rough process due to social factors such as communication barriers (CHAI, 2005: Bhatia &amp. Wallace, 2007: Crawley and Crimes work 2009).
All adult citizens in the United Kingdom have a right and responsibility to work for their nation. After retirement, they get social security funds as a benefit. On the other hand, asylum seekers have the right to apply for jobs, but there are many obstacles to qualification (Lee, 2006). As a result, they cannot obtain any social security funds. This is the major cause of destitution of this minor group (Coventry Refugee Centre, 2004). In fact, poverty is always increasing amongst this group of people in the United Kingdom.
In summary, it is clear that the United Kingdom has in its best tried to defend the human rights and responsibilities of refugees and asylum seekers in their territory. They have strived to ensure that the gap between the adult citizens and these immigrants is minimal. However, there exist significant differences in these issues in that the adult citizens are more privileged than them. The whole integration process faces many challenges such as the existing language barrier, ignorance from refugees and failure in implementation of the law.
References
Aspinall, P. &amp. Watters, C., 2010. Refugees and asylum seekers. A review from an equality
and human rights perspective. Manchester: Spring publishers. Retrieved from.
Bhatia, R. &amp. Wallace, P. 2007. ‘Experiences of refugees and asylum seekers in General practice: A qualitative study’ Commission for Healthcare Audit and Inspection.
CHAI, 2005. Review of maternity services provided by North West London Hospitals NHS Trust. London: Healthcare Commission.
Commission on Integration &amp. Cohesion (CIC). 2007. Our Shared Future. London: Retrieved from :&lt. http://collections.europarchive.org/tna/20080726153624&gt. Convention of Scottish Local Authorities (COSLA). 2007. Asylum and Migration
Statistics. Retrieved from: Coventry Refugee Centre, 2004. Destitution and Asylum Seekers: A Human Rights Issue.
Coventry: Coventry Refugee Centre.
Crawley, H. A &amp. Crimes, T., 2009. Refugees living in Wales: A survey of skills,
Coventry Refugee Centre, 2004.Destitution and Asylum Seekers: A Human Rights Issue.
Coventry: Coventry Refugee Centre.
Department of Health, 2007.Human Rights in Healthcare – A Framework for Local Action.
London: Department of Health and The British Institute of Human Rights.
Feldman, R. 2006. ‘Primary health care for refugees and asylum seekers: A review
of the literature and a framework for services’. Public Health
Greenslade, R. 2005. Seeking Scapegoats: the coverage of asylum in the UK press. Asylum and Migration Working Paper 5. London: Institute for Public Policy Research.
ISE, 2005. National Statutory Context for ESOL Delivery for Asylum Seekers. Aspire
Partnership. Retrieved from:
Nabb, J. 2006. Pregnant asylum seekers: perceptions of maternity service provision.
Evidence-Based Midwifery.
National Refugee Integration Forum. 2006. Rebuilding Lives – Groundwork: Progress
report on refugee employment. Home Office.
Newbigging, K &amp. Nigel T. 2010. Good practice in social care with refugees and asylum seekers. Britain. Social care Institute of Excellence. Retrieved from:
http://www.scie.org.uk/publications/guides/guide37/files/guide37.pdf
Lee, J. 2006. Social Exclusion, Refugee Integration, and the Right to Work for
Asylum Seekers. Refugee Council. Retrieved from: Palmer, D. &amp. Ward, K. 2007. ‘Lost”: listening to the voices and mental health needs of
for advisers. London: Metropolitan University.
RAGU. 2008. Refugees &amp. asylum seekers: An education, training and employment guide
for advisers. London: Metropolitan University.
Refugee Council. 2005. Tell it like it is: The truth about asylum. Retrieved from:
Ward, K. &amp. Lagnado, J. 2008. Supporting disabled refugees and asylum seekers: opportunities for new approaches. London: Metropolitan Support Trust.

Article critique

Democracy in the current world is spreading very fast even entering into the countries that was against it in the past like china and Serbia, but Arab countries have refused to accept democracy. The Arab leaders have continued with their dictatorship even as many countries accept democracies. Most of this Arab leaders gain power through killing their predecessors and they end up running the risk of being eliminated also. For example, leaders like Gamal Nasser, Anwar Sadat, and King Hassan II gain power through violence and once in power they have all escaped several assassination and Sadat end up being a victim. In countries where democracies has taken root, fighting for power has been replaced by voting, but in Arab countries that has embrace democracy, elections are always ricked by the dictators and make the people believe that they have won. In Arab countries where democracy does not exist, they believe that democracy is not compatible with the Islam religion. The democracy that exists in some few Arab countries that believe in democracy is just a theory but it is not there in practical. Corruption and dictatorship goes together since in their institution, promotion is provided only for the rich, highest ranking and best paid jobs are offered to few known individuals who are loyal to their leader.
Tunisia and morocco are well known in human rights violation. For instance, in a human rights meeting that was held in Tunisia, morocco deny the human rights watchdogs to attend the meetings by confiscating they passports. Those who want to speak out about dictatorship in Tunisia have been discredited and dishonored and if you come up with a slight diversion of opinion against the government you will be disposed. The people’s brains have thus been weakened, emptied of all principles, thoughts and desires. The intellectuals who remain defiant from the rules are silence in the name of respecting Islamic culture. These governments set up good government structures operating under different designations, this will be used to filter all what is heard, seen, read, and written within the country.
These dictators view information as an enemy, all information coming from abroad into the country through internet are censored. Some like Saudi Arabia have resorted to limiting the number of internet subscribers, Iraq and Libya are not connected to the World Wide Web, and Syria which was connected has blocked the site. These dictators use power to enrich themselves leaving the population poor, according to the recent statistics on the 10 wealthiest head of states, 7 out of 10 was found to be Arab leaders. Even with the current financial crisis they continue to enrich themselves. Research has shown that corruption gave rise to Islamism in Arabia, Saudi Arabia and Algeria. Due to how they handle leadership, they feel so in secured such that they spend billions of money in buying military weapons, they also get involved in purchases deals such that for any purchase of military weapons, the royal family receive 30-40% commission, for example, a country like France spend 4% of their GDP in the military while Saudi Arabia spend 30% of their GDP in military. These dictators believe all the laws are in their side. Though repression, every citizen have been made to applaud the leader. When these countries gain independence, the people were told that they are now citizens not the subjects, this caused a stir in mid 20th century, but these were not to be due to dictatorship. Most of these countries relies on food from foreign countries. Those with money invest abroad hence they end up exporting work and importing unemployment.

Information Management and Statistics Component A

This paper discusses how chase bank manages their data so as not to hurt their dear customers in the human resources department. It also deals with how the organizations gears towards tight security for their customers’ information from online data warfare which has been growing each day. Further, it will review the ethical issues involved when there is data loss of any magnitude. In addition, this paper will evaluate the laws and the set regulations which are aimed at protecting organizations, and in particular banks, from this menace.
Electronic commerce depends entirely data and its security which emanates from how it is managed in the organization and the way customers perceive the organization as far as the issue of data security is concerned (Agnes, G.M 2004). Personal data held by chase bank is under threat from many unauthorized users and their numbers have been rising daily. Credit cards data, identity card numbers, account number as well as social security card numbers are some of the forms data which is most targeted. In this regard, the human resources department has come up with some procedures to manage data and to provide the needed security.
First, it is the obligation of the human resources department to ensure that only the well qualified are employed and allowed to see customer’s data. In chase bank, the human resources department uses databases in the management of data about there employees and about customers. The use of a database is an effective way of storing data about a certain aspect at once. Databases in the bank allows for instant changes in the data thus affecting the whole database and not just changing file by file. The database is administered by an expert who engineered it. he has become part of the data management team. Further, through the IT department, the human resources

Flaws of the Employment System in the United States

The white settlers adopted superiority complex hence crediting them with civilizing them. The false notion came to be known as the white man’s burden. It was used to justify Europeans taking land away and enslaving the natives. This became a system of exploitation and discrimination as naturally-occurring differences became apparent. It became a system of denying people access to rights, representation or access to resources as it was institutionalized to affect virtually every aspect of life even the judicial system.
Though progress has been made in the eradication of racial discrimination in employment, there is still some ground to be covered in eradicating the rampant prejudice. The situation is worsened by the statistics that are still a characteristic of modern day America which show that black people who have been arrested, charged or served a jail term can hardly get employment. The statistics show that one in every three black men has to be incarcerated in their lifetime, one in six Latino and one in seventeen Caucasian men. Disciplinary actions still are harsher for the black comparatively. The immigrants’ rights are not guaranteed as natives while per capita employment levels comparatively show that blacks are four-times less employable than the whites (“American Law Reports: Annotations and Cases” 115).
Most of the big companies as is presently constituted in its ranks show that the majority of top management is white-dominated. Even if, there is an equal opportunity in hiring upward mobility is still a problem as most of the blacks remain in the same position for long a time. On the contrary, the white counterparts are being promoted to take positions of responsibility. They are segregated into the lowest level positions and still earn less than the white counterparts even if they are in the same job cadre.

Why is prison overcrowding a growing concern in the US

The challenge is costing tax payers more money, in US, there are many people behind bars than any other country in the world.
According to current statistics by Wagner and Sakala (2014), it is estimated that between 1.4 million to 2 million people in US are in prison. The numbers of people released in jails inclusive of local jails are approximately 688,000. Collection of all information provides a clear perspective of number of prisoners in United States. According to the authors, the U.S. hold 2.4 million people in all states prisons including 1719 states prisons, 2259 juvenile correctional centers, 79 Indian jails, 102 federal confinements, military, immigration and civil confinements. Crowding of correctional facilities is quite significant to prisoners, tax payers and the officials working in confinement centers. An analysis of the topic is important, measures taken to correct problems arising from crowding or overcrowding of state prison can only be done by a study of the topic. This makes it quite significant to every citizen in US. They provide views on how to tackle such difficulties.
The crowding effect in US correctional facilities started in early the 1980s due to an increase in criminal activities such as drug use. The war on drugs with tough policies increased the number of inmates in the U.S. Research shows that the U.S. has the highest number of inmates in the world. they are currently higher than prisoners held in Russian and South Africa. Prisons in the southern part of the United States have more inmates that any other region. The state of Alabama contains the highest number of prisoners than any other state. Despite the highest number of prisoners held in Alabama, they also have small number of staff. However, federal prisons in the U.S. saw a decline in the number of admission of prisoners in 2009. There was an increase of prisoners by 430%, which saw the number of prisoners rising from 294,000 to

System Thinking/Soft Systems (PROPERTY PRICES)

are some of the major causes of the unstable rise in the prices of property in Britain.
With a support from the current macro – economic growth which has been some what remarkable in the past year as the GDP had an interminable growth in the year 2006 (OECD Economic Outlook, 2006) also supported by a perpetual rise in the investment and an auxiliary rise in the consumption (OECD Economic Outlook, 2006).
This constant growth in the property prices also has its drawbacks. some of these drawbacks are incompetency regarding property purchase and loath for having kids. The demand for housing has also increased tremendously due to the increasing net immigration figures estimated between 250,000 to 400,000 concluded on basis of figures available for each of the years ranging from 1997 – 2007 (Office for National Statistics, 2007)
New Immigrants that move to the U.K., the figures of new net immigrants is estimated at about 250,000 to 400,000 concluded on basis of figures available for each of the years ranging from 1997 – 2007 (Office for National Statistics, 2007)
Divorced couples: Once a couple gets divorced one of them will have to move out and search for a new home, but the good news is that in the year 2005 – 2006 the divorce rates were down by about 4.5 % (National Statistics “U.K.”,2006) , which if remained constant may not decrease but slow down the property boom.
The instability in the property prices usually arises due to sudden demand or supply in the property which are normally caused by change in the figures pertaining to net immigrants, divorce rates and death rates. This is the reason to why the property prices in various different areas of the U.K. have such a huge amount of variation.
Net immigration cannot be stopped as under most circumstances the immigration is also necessary for the development of the country due to the fact that major companies extract good

Violence in Families

VIOLENCE IN FAMILIES The debate on gender-based violence has been raging across the world and women have felt the brunt of it more than men. There have been significantly high reported and unreported cases of women experiencing abusive marital relationships. One question that has been asked for critical research by scholars is the reasons women either stay or leave an abusive relationship. Research findings and factual evidence which is supported with statistics gives an insight into the diverse reasons that make women cling to their marriages despite frequent battering and emotional abuse by the partners (Zinn, Eitzen &amp. Wells,2011). A critical evaluation of an article Why women stay in abusive relationships: Facing the stigma by Hope Gillette dated Jun 20, 2013. it is notable that this is a complex problem. The structure of the society in regard to gender roles plays a centre stage in this issue. Statistical analysis awards over 70% to expectation of the abused women that the husbands will probably change. This is a great motivational factor that ties the woman to the husband despite battering (Hope, 2013). This concept explores the complex socio-economic twist in which women find themselves despite regular violence they suffer in the hands of their partners. The article also emphasizes love and the socio-economic insecurity which is likely to characterize leaving the relationship. Although there are many other factors, the article and other texts explore the stigma of abusive husbands.
To mitigate this social challenge in the modern society, there is need to offer counseling as the ignorance and conservative culture among womenfolk has been the main obstacle. To measure the level of understanding in as far as the vice is concerned, the researcher must underscore the existing statistics and observed behavior among the children and women who are likely to be experiencing the problem. A mixed intervention between counselors and strict legal structure would significantly help women against the widespread abusive husbands as the article stipulates.
References
Hope Gillette (2013).Why women stay in abusive relationships: Facing the stigma.Saludify.
Retrieved on 20th June 20, 2014 from: http://voxxi.com/2013/06/20/women-stay-abusive-relationships/
Zinn, M. B., Eitzen, D. S., &amp. Wells, B. (2011). Diversity in families. Boston: Allyn &amp. Bacon.

Affects of Poor Nutrition on Childrens Behavior

In 2003, Africa had an estimated 200 million children and adults that were under nourished according to the Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations (The State of Food Insecurity in the World, 2003). Malnutrition is the reason for 55% deaths of children under 5 years of age globally. Out of 2.9 million deaths annually in Africa, approximately 0.1 million were as a result of malnourishment (Benson &amp. Shekar). Several statistics are available that show the severity of poor nourishment and to what extent is it prevalent in the world today.
According to UNICEF, millions of people Worldwide suffer from varying degrees of brain damages and stunted growth due to different deficiencies. In Sub-Saharan Africa, every third child is underweight and about 20% are found to be stunted (Bekele, 1998).
According to research, proper nutrition is a major determinant of a child’s growth starting from as early as the intrauterine period. when the child is in the womb of the mother. Therefore, proper intake of nutrients begins before birth with the mother who bears the child. It is essential for the mother to take a nutritionally balanced diet which has a direct impact on the child’s growth and development. Absence of proper nutrition intake during pregnancy can have a permanent and irreversible impact on the child. Therefore, breast- feeding determines a major chunk of child’s cognitive and other development per se. If the mother herself does not take a healthy diet, it is going to effect the child’s growth negatively. Iron being an important part of brain tissue determines the speed of nerve impulses. which means deficiency of iron in the infancy period is likely to cause permanent damage to brain cells. This results in poor motor skills and abnormalities in behavior. It is also noticed that poorly nourished children find it hard to fight diseases or infections and so they are often found in poor health and

Saudi Arabia profile

Saudi Arabia profile Saudi Arabia profile (Maps related to Saudi Arabia, n. d) Saudi Arabia is not only one of the major countries in Middle East, but also a prominent member of Arab world or Islamic world. Saudi has a land area of 2.15 million Sq. kilometers and a population of over 28.7 million as per the UN statistics 2010. More than 7 million of the Saudi population is foreigners. The population growth rate is Saudi is around 1.8%. More than 90% of the Saudi population are Muslims and Arabic is the official language (Saudi Arabia, 2011). Riyadh is the capital and most heavily populated city in Saudi with a population of 4.3 million followed by Jeddah (3.4 million), Makkah, (1.6 million), and Dammam (1.6 million). As in the case of many other Middle Eastern countries, majority of the land area are deserts with some rugged mountains in the southwest. Hot and humid climatic conditions prevail in Saudi throughout a year with an exception of only few months.
78.8% literacy is reported in Saudi as per the 2010 statistics. Saudi males are more literate (84.7%) than Saudi females (70.8%). Infant mortality rate is 11.57 deaths/1,000 live births according to the 2010 statistics. Women dominate in life expectancy rates in Saudi with 78 years against 74 years of the males.
More than 35% of the Saudi workforce are from foreign countries and service sector is the major revenue source in Saudi (63%) followed by industry (25%) and agriculture (12%). 2010 statistics show that GDP of Saudi is $623 billion and annual growth rate is 3.8%. Per capita of Saudi population is one among the bests in the world with an attractive figure of $24,200.
Gold and oil are the major natural resources or revenue sources of Saudi. Before the discovery of oil sources in Middle East, gold mining and fishing were some of the major revenue sources of Saudi. Hydrocarbons, uranium, coal, phosphate, and tungsten are some other natural resources of Saudi Arabia.
Surface water sources provide 10% of the Saudi’s drinking needs whereas 84% provides by ground water sources. Desalinated seawater not only used for the drinking needs (5%), but also for generating electric power. Even though the climatic conditions are not so good for agriculture, dates, grains and vegetables are cultivated at some parts of Saudi Arabia.
As in the case of majority of the other Middle Eastern countries, export of petroleum products is the major revenue source of Saudi Arabia. Petroleum and petroleum products export of Saudi worth around $253 billion whereas its imports (manufactured goods, transportation equipment, clothing and textiles, processed food products) worth only $99 billion. In other words, Saudi’s imports are very small compared to its exports which underline the major reason for Saudi’s rapid progress. In short, oil accounts for more than 90% of the countrys exports and nearly 75% of government revenues and more than 95% of all Saudi oil is produced on behalf of the Saudi Government organization. Saudi ARAMCO.
Saudi’s social culture is undergoing severe criticism from the westerners now because of some of the controversial laws with respect to religious freedom and women activities. No Muslim can accept conversion to another religion in Saudi and it is illegal to spread any other religion in Saudi. Because of the domination of religion in politics and social life, Saudi females forced to limit their activities within their home. Two of the most sacred places of Islam. Makkah and Madina are situated in Saudi Arabia.
References
Maps related to Saudi Arabia, (n. d). Retrieved from
http://www.lonelyplanet.com/maps/middle-east/saudi-arabia/
Saudi Arabia, (2011). Retrieved from
http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/middle-east-north-africa/saudi-arabia

National Database for Police Killings

When I attempted to search the internet for the number of civilians killed yearly by the police, I realized that there were no official or valid statistics. Presently, I believe that this could be because police departments do not want this information released and this may also have influenced the media.
I only became aware of this lack of reporting on civilian deaths at the hands of police after the shooting of Michael Brown and yet, reading some news reports made me realize that the issue of a national database for police shootings has been ongoing for some time. Why, then, is there such a dearth of information on these deaths in mainstream media. From the media sources that I analyzed, the most prevalent repetitions were "justifiable homicides" and lack of a database to track all civilian deaths at the hands of the police. For example, Lowery (p.1) in the Washington Post notes that there were at 461 "justifiable homicides" carried out by the police, which he defines as the killing of felons by police when on duty, while he also notes that no one knows for sure how many civilians are killed overall by the police.
On truth-out.com, the writer also notes that that the only police killings that are reported are those that the police consider justifiable, in this case noting that only those instances that can be justified before juries are reported both by the police and the media (Markus 1). Moreover, this story also mentions the absolute lack of reporting on the number of civilian deaths at the hands of the lethal police force. Indeed, most of the reports about the issue of police shooting keep repeating the same thing. that the death of civilians at the hands of police is grossly underreported both by police databases and by the media as well. Benzkofer (p.1) in the Chicago Tribune also covers the same issue and repeats that reports on civilian deaths are completely lacking in the media, which, again, mostly covers the case when the killing of a civilian is justified. He adds that Chicago had a police censor who ruled over the media with an iron fist to ensure that they did not report "damaging" reports about civilian deaths at the hands of the police.

The Economic Causes of the Current Level of Unemployment in the UK

The level of unemployment varies with economic conditions and other circumstances” (InvestorWords.com). From a European perspective, unemployment is “A measurement reflecting the number of people actively looking for, but unable to find work” We can say that unemployment is normally limited to the wage economy. It is a situation when there is no work to do, neither in paid employment nor in self-employment to be done for profit and livelihood. In official statistics, an unemployed person is one who is ready to take employment when offered and is searching for it.

Measuring unemployment is not easy. generally, it is taken as the workforce ready to work at the offered wage rate. Defining a term and making computations are two different concepts. A number of methods have been formulated to measure unemployment.

The method of Claimant Count has been in use in the 1980s and 1990s. It is based on the counting of unemployed persons, availing benefits of remaining without a job. Those claiming benefits and those registered in employment exchanges should be counted carefully to avoid double counting. The method of claimant count has its own benefits and limitations. First, it is possible to count all those who are unemployed. there is no scope of committing an error in counting. Secondly, it is a cost-effective and recurrent resource for gathering data (www.bized.co.uk).

The Labor Force Survey takes into consideration samples of households, asking all people of work age to provide the data whether they are employed, unemployed or economic activity. This data is computed to know the exact number of unemployed, employed and underemployed. The biggest advantage of this computation method is that it adheres to global computing parameters. Statistically, it is possible to compare data among countries and different time periods (www.bized.co.uk).

Cyclical unemployment is due to a lack of demand for all those who want to work. Keynesian economists stressed specifically on this type of unemployment arising from disequilibrium in the economy.

Critical Reflection on the Use and Understanding of SEN Data

Thankfully, SEN is very well-regulated in English law and every child – including those in independent schools – is covered equally”(Summersgill, 2009). Data are used to analyze and monitor the academic, social and behavioral progress of these children with special needs. It is a basic component of special education and it is necessary to measure the effectiveness of therapies applied to the student with special needs. SEN Data is an important aspect of the educational process. There are various ways a co-coordinator can collect data to assess the progress of the students. One type of data is student performance data in which data comprise information on individual students. They include information on school previously attended, courses are taken, scores attained, current classroom assessments, grades, diagnostic assessment, programs enrolled in, participation in projects and extracurricular activities of the students, etc. The program for special educational needs is conducted in schools at all levels. SENCO approaches schools and collect data and study them exclusively to benefit the students.

Data is a very crucial element in the Special Education Need program. It allows the student performance appraisal and assists in the progression of the educational standard of the student.“Data are raw ingredients from which statistics are created”(Erickson).Data are produced and collected in various ways and also used by different parties like teachers, SEN coordinators, and Government officials. Teachers analyze the data in order to improve the learning capacity of the students. The primary subject of data is dominating student and their learning process.

Even though students are the focus of the process it also includes people who support students in the learning process. These are teachers, principals, parents, school management, school communities, etc. The sources of data can be various like simple observations, questionnaires or surveys.

The Rental Apartment Agency Industry

In addition to apartment rentals, we will be providing additional services, which will not be considered our main services, such as car or limo rentals, student admission, translations, and immigration attorneys. We will be targeting people who are coming from the Middle East to start with, then we might expand the business to target a larger segment in the future. You can find more information about targeting and segmentation in the Segmentation section.
According to the reports for the Texas medical centers, “The Texas Medical Center is the largest medical center in the world with one of the highest densities of clinical facilities for patient care, basic science. The Texas Medical Center receives 160,000 daily visitors and over six million annual patient visits, including over 18,000 international patients.”
These visitors would definitely need to find the right one or two-bedroom apartments to stay in. We conducted a site survey. Our sample was not too big, 50 Middle Eastern patients and 10 students, and we found the following results:
The demand for this service is increasing every year. More patients and students from the Middle East are coming to Houston as mentioned previously because it has some of the best hospitals and schools in the world. The following figures show statistics about the number of patients’ families who come to Houston from Saudi Arabia, Qatar, the Emirate and Kuwait who we managed to get from the consulates and the medical attaches offices.
On the other hand, the supply is not great. There are very few new firms that enter this industry. Those who already exist are not providing good quality service or customer service, and they are met with too many complaints to be successful. Also, there is no single firm who can provide all of the many services that we are providing. (More information about competitors can be found in the Competitors section.)

“Proctor &amp

Gamble" Proctor &amp. Gamble Compared to FY the performance of Proctor and Gamble in FY is better. The total revenue of P &amp. G was 84167 million dollars whereas in 2012, it was 83680 million dollars. The net income or profit of P &amp. G in FY 2013 was 41739 whereas that in 2012 was 41780 million dollars (Stock analysis on net). From the above statistics, it is evident that the future of the company is promising. However, it is necessary for the company to expand its business more in emerging markets such as India and China. It should be noted that these two countries are the most rapidly emerging economies as well as the most heavily populated countries at the moment. Both top and bottom line products suitable for these counties should be developed more by P &amp. G. The company should think about merger and acquisition strategies to create new business in these countries.
P&amp.G has 300 plus brands sold in more than 180 countries at the moment. Even though majority of these brands are performing well, some of them are performing below par. The company has 22 billion-dollar brands and 19 half-billion-dollar brands (P &amp. G Media kit, p.4). 70 to 80 brands account for 90 percent of P&amp.G sales and 95 percent of its profit (Monk). In other words, around 100 brands perform insignificantly for P &amp. G. P &amp. G believes that the time and efforts given for the sustainment of these underperforming brands can be better utilized for the development of better performing brands. In my opinion, P &amp. G’s strategy will be successful since the closure or the restructuring of underperforming brands would help the company to allocate more resources to the better performing brands and thereby monopolize concerned markets. Therefore, investors need not worry too much about the brand restructuring strategies of P&amp. G.
A.G. Lafley is the Chairman, President, and Chief Executive Officer of Procter &amp. Gamble. It is believed that Lafley was rehired mainly because of the inefficiency of Robert McDonald, the predecessor of Lafley. Under the leadership of McDonald, the company failed to win in emerging markets because of its poor organizational structure, marketing problems, and bloated overhead (Nisen). Lafley on the other hand is believed to be an expert in increasing company value through various strategies. His leadership style is highly motivating and his business principles are highly effective in modern day market. His book “playing to win” helps organizational leaders to learn some important lessons about the importance of every day actions, and strategies built around business elements that are capable of bringing success. This book helps leaders to understand where to play and how to win in tough situations (Lafley and Martin)
P &amp. G’s hiring process consists of total assessment of the applicants with the help of sound resume screening, multiple interviews, and multiple tests. The ultimate aim of the hiring process is to identify the best talents from the employment market (Hiring process, your steps to success, p.2). The company conducts many behaviour based interviews to get more insights about the candidate. These interviews will test the behaviour as well as the skills and capabilities of the candidates. Numerical reasoning test is conducted with the help of numeric and logic based questions among college students in order to identify their reasoning skills. It is important for me to improve my verbal as well as nonverbal communication skills to be considered a serious candidate at P&amp.G. It is believed that more than half of the actual message is communicated through nonverbal means. Moreover, nonverbal means of communication helps the interviewer to assess the behaviour of the candidates properly. Therefore, I should improve my communication, especially the nonverbal communication skills more to get a job in P &amp. G.
The major advantage of working at P &amp. G is the prestige it gives to an employee. Even though the work climate could be demanding, employees in P &amp. G is getting a decent salary and other benefits. I believe that I will not get enough opportunities for work life balancing while working in a big company like P &amp. G. At the same time, the experiences received from a company like P &amp. G would definitely help me in my future endeavours.
Works Cited
“Hiring Process, Your Steps To Success”. Web. 28 October 2014 https://www.pg.com/en_US/downloads/careers/PGHiringProcess.pdf
Lafley A.G. and Martin, Roger L. “Playing to Win: How Strategy Really Works”. Publisher: Harvard Business Review Press (5 February 2013). Print
Monk, Dan. “Procter &amp. Gamble Co. (PG) Plans Major Restructuring Of Its Brand Portfolio”. Web. 28 October 2014. http://www.wcpo.com/money/local-business-news/procter-gamble-co-pg-plans-major-restructuring-of-its-brand-portfolio
Nisen, Max. “Heres Why Wall Street Loves The Return Of P&amp.Gs Old CEO”. Web. 28 October 2014.
“P &amp. G Media Kit”. Web. 28 October 2014. http://www.pg.com/en_US/downloads/media/PG_brochure.pdf
Stock analysis on net. “Procter &amp. Gamble Co. (PG)”. Web. 28 October 2014. http://www.stock-analysis-on.net/NYSE/Company/Procter-Gamble-Co/Financial-Statement/Income-Statement

Female Circumcision

e statistics are very important because they show the prevalence of FGM worldwide. they reveal that the fight against FGM must be waged more fiercely because it is far from over. In Kenya, for example, 38% of women have been subjected to some kind of FGM. in some parts of the country (like Kisii) this figure rises to 97% (Wangila 27).
Female circumcision and the removal of female genitalia are thought to be almost 2,000 years old (Female genital mutilation: report of a WHO Technical Working Group, Geneva, 17-19 July 1995 103). In fact, some scholars speculate that it may even be older than Islam. Its exact beginnings have not been properly documented, but there is no dispute that it has been around for centuries. FGM basically involves the intentional alteration or causal of injury to parts of the female genitalia out of reasons that have no medical basis whatsoever.
In the Islamic world, female circumcision is less prevalent (compared to Africa) and is limited to certain communities that try to justify it by employing the Quran. Among Jews, it has only been documented as practiced by Ethiopian Jews (Falasha), but currently it is also limited among them (Gruenbaum 93). Currently, there are few (if any) known religious sects that advocate for female circumcision anywhere in the world.
This involves the forceful reduction in size (or narrowing) of the vaginal opening by creating some kind of seal to cover it (Female genital mutilation 1). This seal is created by excising and adjusting the position of the outer, or inner, labia, with or without necessarily removing the clitoris.
Apart from these three procedures, there are others that are not usually classified as circumcision but also involve alteration or causal of injury to female genitalia. These include (but are not limited to) piercing, cauterizing, scraping, pricking and incising the genital area.
Female circumcision can leave a girl scarred for life. The procedure is often carried out without sedation and

I don’t have a topic yet

The second chapter describes the thesis objectives, methodology and the formulated hypothesis. The third chapter presents a review literature on agriculture in Ghana and historical trends of data mining. The fourth chapter presents the analytical part of this thesis. The fifth chapter constitutes the results and discussions pertaining to this project. Chapter six contains the conclusion and finally, chapter seven contains the list of references used in this thesis.
Data mining refers to the analysis of data to discover the hidden patterns through the use of hidden methodologies. Though the concept has been in place for quite a long time, it only became more prevalent after the advent of larger data sets inside organizations. Big data sets resulted into explosion in the utilization of extensive data mining techniques because of the increasing variation and size of the nature and content of the stored information. From the larger data sets, obtaining simple and straightforward statistics from the system under use will never suffice in good decision making hence the need for discovery of the hidden patterns.
The present economy is increasingly becoming information based. This state has brought about changes in the operation environment for businesses or organizations. Consequently, it has also changed the manner of collection and analysis of business data. Bearing in mind the widespread embracement of information technology, a greater percentage of data is collected in the online and real time environments that bring forth large volumes of data. Experts can be in a position of aggregating such time ordered data using a desirable time interval, producing great volumes of time series data that is equally spaced. The data can then be explored followed by analysis through the use of multiple important tools or methodologies that are developed using modernized time series analysis.
The storage or

A Plague Upon Us

The root cause of these diseases is necessary to be found and eradicated to avoid the emergence of an epidemic in other parts of the world.
An epidemiological study is required to find out the characteristics of the epidemic in the African region. First of all, it is very important to identify the primary case and find out where the disease started. This can be done by studying the epidemiological statistics of the affected areas such as the number of people affected and the mortality rate. Also, it very important here to understand the Ice Berg phenomenon which helps identify cases with no signs and symptoms. It is also important to identify those at risk e.g. family, close relatives and those who have been in contact with the affected patients. It is important to identify the causative agent of the disease, find out its incubation period and quarantine those at risk at least for the incubation period of the disease.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Media Event

PART I: The Best Kept Secrets Movie The Best Kept Secrets chronicles the efforts of a heroic woman called Janet Mino, a special education teacher who has devoted her entire career to working with students with special needs. It is set in the John F. Kennedy School, in Newark, a school for students with special needs. This movie begins with the arrays of sobering statistics that Newark is the poorest city in the US and one in every forty nine children have special education needs as a result of living with autism. It features the efforts of Mino, their teacher with twenty years in the field, to help the male children to be independent after school. Her main objective is to find them suitable jobs or protective environment after graduation. This is to prevent them from landing in the streets.
The director of this movie, Samantha Buck, demonstrates sensitivity in a dramatic way to those students with special needs as the camera keys rove in on Mimo’s reactions. Ms. Mimo is the star and a protagonist with a bright face that does not hide anything as she focuses on the audience’s emotions. The camera lingers on the students who have grown with frustrating experiences longer than comfort. The “Best Kept Secret” film is exemplary in the sense that, it never seeks to hide any truth from the framework of the narrative.

PART II:
Special Education Laws and Special Education Court Cases
This section will explore two Special Education Laws websites, and two special education court previous cases. The first website is wrightslaw.com (http://www.wrightslaw.com/caselaw.htm). This website explores various cases from the U.S Supreme Court, Courts of Appeals, District Courts, and Noteworthy Cases.
The first case mentioned in this website is the case of U.S Department of Justice Verses Day Care Centre in Oklahoma. The case was filed with the U.S Department of Justice. The statement of the case alleged that, the Camelot denied the person the right to participate in field trips, hence violating the Americans with Disabilities Act. The case was settled on the November 27th, 2013, the child in question, with Down Syndrome and toileting issues. The court ruled that, Camelot shall not discriminate any child on the grounds of disability. This includes full participation and enjoyment of goods, services, privileges, advantages and accommodation.
The second website is the special education advisor.com (http://www.specialeducationadvisor.com/special-education-laws/brief-history-of-special-education-court-cases/). The case was heard by the Supreme Court. The case was between the Board of Education of Hendrick Hudson Central School District verses Rowley, 458 United States. 176. The school district had decided to find an interpreter for Amy Rowley, who was a bright student, but deaf. After the parents lost the case in the District Court, they finally won the in the U. S Court of Appeals. The Supreme Court provided the disabled children with access to public schools.
Work Cited
“Special Education Caselaw”. Wrightslaw. 7 July, 2013. Web. 5 January 2014.
“Special education Advisor”. Brief History of Special Education Court Cases. 2010. Web. 5 January 2014.

The Concept of Total Quality Management

One example of such organizations with ideal TQM environments was Xerox under the leadership of David Kearns, who served as its CEO from 1982 to 1990. What Kearns did for the downward spiraling company became a landmark in the history of quality management. Henceforth, this essay will endeavor to examine Kearns’ role as a quality leader in Xerox, his management approach and the applicability and certain processes of such approach, and finally, the issues that followed Kearns’ administration.
David Kearns’ assumption as Chief Executive Officer (CEO) in 1982 was not without eventualities. Before bringing quality into the forefront of management, Kearns had to confront “skepticism and resistance” (Pfeffer, 1992, p.317). There was already a fixed mindset among top managers that Xerox was a world-class corporation and therefore need not change. Kearns said of his time as a leader: “One of the main things I learned at Xerox is that radical change in any organization is incredibly painful. In the language of change theorists, we were moving between several different states” (Kearns &amp. Harvey, 2000, p.79). When statistics finally provided evidence of the company’s bad performance, Kearns and his management team formulated an integrated bottom-up and top-down TQM approach focused on increasing customer satisfaction and striking a balance between quality processes and quality outcomes. The approach was governed by the Leadership through a Quality policy which revolved around four areas or goals where quality must be directed: customer, employee, the business, and process. This holistic policy “radically changed” Xerox’s business outlook. Throughout the whole ordeal, Kearns’ thought of himself as the “captain of a sinking ship.” When he became CEO, he believed Xerox was already on the brink of going under due to unsolved internal and external problems&nbsp.(Novgorod State University, n.d.. Kretchmar, 1992).&nbsp.

Importance of Service Encounters

Service industries make a huge part of economies. It is safe to say that every single person consumes services at one point or another. The Australian Bureau of Statistics recently published a report that 75% of workers in developed nations are employees in service industries (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008). Albeit service industries are a crucial part of any economy, Koepp (2007) has made an observation that the quality of service is on the decline.
For the customer, the most important thing is the quality of the service encounter. Notably, most employers don’t train their employees sufficiently on how to handle customers professionally and discreetly. These employees may be demotivated perhaps because of underpayment, high turnover or job dissatisfaction which eventually translates to poor customer service.
The unfortunate thing for most of the employers is that they fail to grasp the solid understanding of how best to improve service encounters with potential or present clients. They often assume that employees need to learn how to smile at, welcome and serve customers. As much as this is important, more emphasis needs to be on the employees themselves. When staff members are well taken care of, great service delivery is almost impossible. In the quest to improve the quality of service encounters and ultimately save the firm from spiralling downwards, effective management of the complex behaviours of employees needs to be maintained at an all-time high. Customers judge the quality of the services offered to them through service encounters ultimately affecting the overall judgment of the service provider.
So I am on a flight heading to New York City to visit a relative. Once the seatbelt light is turned off, a man walks to the front where the cabin crew members are and proceeds to take the microphone to make an announcement. He introduces himself as the CEO of the airline and goes ahead to say something along the lines of, “Thanks for choosing to fly with us especially with the highly competitive market in this country.&nbsp.

How to Promote NonSmoking in a Group of Smokers

82000 In accordance with the above, the expansion of smoking as a common daily activity for millions of people cannot be doubted. In fact, smoking has been closely related to all aspects of daily life. For this reason, in the above survey it has been found that ‘in 2006, 59 percent of smokers felt that it would be difficult to go without smoking for a whole day’ (National Statistics Online, UK, 2008). Although the above statistics refer to Britain, it has to be noticed that smoking is not related to a particular country. In a similar survey conducted in USA it was revealed that in the specific country ‘an estimated&nbsp.25.9 million men (23.9 percent) and&nbsp.20.7 million women (18.1 percent) are smokers’ (National Health Interview Survey (NHIS),&nbsp.2005, National Center for Health Statistics, in American Health Association, 2008). It is clear from the above statistics that smoking is a severe problem the expansion of which cannot be easily controlled. The specific problem has a series of consequences that are not limited to the damages of health but they can also take the form of the financial damage the person involved (cost of cigarettes – the cost of treatment for diseases developed because of smoking). For the countries around the world, smoking has been proved to be a severe problem leading to a continuous increase in the cases handled by the hospitals and other medical treatment providers internationally. As an example, for England, the cost of medical treatment provided to smokers has been proved to be extremely high. In a relevant survey, it has been found that ‘in England, 364,000 patients are admitted to NHS hospitals each year due to diseases caused by smoking. this translates into 7,000 hospital admissions per week or 1,000 day. for&nbsp.every death caused by smoking, approximately 20 smokers are suffering from a smoking-related disease’.&nbsp.

Critical Review of 4 Papers about Education

The author argues in this article that the real problem between races in Great Britain goes beyond individuals that discriminate and hate one another base don race. He argues that institutional racism is a real problem. Part of the problem is that Citizenship Education has been touted as the cure for the nation’s racial strife. The author argues that Citizenship Education does little more than making people feel good because it looks like the government is doing something to address the problem. In reality, the author contends that Citizenship Education acts as a placebo. He argues that it is impossible for the institution to eliminate racism if the institution itself is racist.

Much of the author’s foundation for argument is based upon the findings of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry. Stephen Lawrence was an 18-year-old black college student. He was murdered by a group of white youths that have never been convicted of the crime. The subsequent report identified failings, bias, and racial hatred not just in individuals but also in the institutions that should have brought Stephen Lawrence’s murderers to justice. The author then goes on to back this claim up with some powerful statistics. The white-black discrepancy in achievements in national standardized tests is discussed. AS are the shocking statistics that show white and black students begin their public educations in Great Britain scoring equal on standardized tests but from the preteen years onwards, black students begin to lag farther and farther behind. The author points to this as a clear indication of institutional racism. He then concludes his argument by showing the failings of Citizenship Education as something that ignores the institutional role in poor race relations. By focusing on interpersonal relationships, Citizenship Education fails to address the inherently unfair situation minority students encounter by being part of the public education system.

A Problem of Food Wastage

As one problem is solved, a myriad of others are created. the production and consumption of more food have come to a problem of food wastage.
Research work has proved that about one-third of the food produced for people’s consumption is wasted or lost. This represents a missed opportunity for better global food security. Food wastage takes place during production and the transmission channels. According to Stuart,
Total food wastage is about 1.6 Gigatonnes for primary food products and 1.3 Gigatonnes for the edible part of the food. This is a lot of wastage given that total global agricultural food production is estimated to be about 6 Gtonnes” (Stuart 3).
Most of this food is wasted during harvesting, storage and transportation phases. The United States is one of the nations that waste a lot of food in the world. Out of the total food produced, 34 million tons go to waste annually(Stuart 6). About 97% of this food waste ends up in incinerators and Landfills. Total food waste in the United States is approximated at 14% of the total American Municipal solid waste. Since 1974, food waste in the United States has increased by about 50% and it has now exceeded 1, 400 kcal per person per day according to Stuart (6). This food wasted has been estimated to have a monetary value running into billions of U.S. dollars annually. Households in America have also been very wasteful whereby 25% of the food that is brought in each household goes to waste. There is enormous food waste at the retail level. While about one-third of the food produced globally goes to waste, 40 percent of the food produced in the United States goes to waste. A large portion of this waste is caused by consumers. About 25 million Americans can be fully fed if this waste is reduced by 15 percent. Going by the statistics, it is beyond doubt that a lot of food goes to waste in the U.S. If this wastage can be reduced, many people can benefit from the amount that is saved.

Macro Economic Policies used by the British Government and the Bank of England

The reports from the office for national statistics have reported the gross domestic product rose by 0.2 percent in the quarter ending June 30th, which brought down the annual GDP rate to 1.6 percent from 2.3 percent in the first quarter this year (Duncan, 2008).
The United Kingdom is one of the most developed countries in the world and has made a mark for itself throughout the world. The United Kingdom comprises England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The capital of England London is rated as the world’s most expensive city. According to Professor Bean’s (Bank of England chief) bleak assessment, the United Kingdom has seen an undisturbed and unbroken expansion for over sixteen years and as mentioned earlier the country is starting to face recession. Almost every country has been facing an economic slowdown since the market crash in the 1970s however there have been strong efforts from almost every economy to ensure the economies get back into stable positions. United Kingdoms has held the fifth position in the global economies however the risk of the recession since the 1990s is now growing for the country and the living costs are also growing along with this. This has made it difficult for the Bank of England to cut down the interest rates and is causing a lot of issues with the Labour governments’ handling the economy as the public is extremely dissatisfied with the growing interest rates (Reuters, 2008).
It has been noted by economist James Knightley at ING that the growing credit crunch and the rising food and energy prices are disrupting the growth of the country and there is no solution to this by the fiscal and monetary policies. This slowdown was triggered by the biggest drop in the construction sector during 2005. This resulted in a drop in the decline in the building industry which converted the decade long housing boom into slums. The government, however, did its bit by contributing to the infrastructure projects which helped the industry stabilise and get back into action.

Financial Econometrics

ables fall into 3 general classes, namely: location statistics (eg, mean, median, mode, quantiles), dispersion statistics (eg, variance, standard deviation, range, interquartile range), and shape statistics (eg, skewness, kurtosis)”.The descriptive statistics gives the overall description of the data by providing the measures of central tendency, and the measures of dispersion.
statistics. According to Petty( 2015) “A logarithmic price scale is plotted so that the prices in the scale are not positioned equidistantly. instead, the scale is plotted in such a way that two equal percent changes are plotted as the same vertical distance on the scale. The log returns basically is auto – correlated while the case is different with log prices. The log return are usually preferred in quantitative analysis as it gives a better insights in to aspects like normalization and classical statistics. Here the data stream for the 20-year period of January 1995 to December 2014 is used to calculate the log price and log return.
Also a graph representation for the log price and the log returns is formulated in order to deliver a quantitative analysis of the specific data of the company. Here, histogram is used to represent the graph of the statistical data in a visual form
The above analysis explains the descriptive statistics of the log prices and the log return of the data. From the log return, we can observe that the mean value of log return is 5.740008, with a standard deviation of 8.558659. The mean of log prices is 334.934 with the standard deviation of 0.024659. The skewnes of the variable log return is equal to 0.2427 which is a negative value implying that the value of the log return is negatively skewed. The value of kurtosis of the log return is equal to -1.02302 which is a negative value. This implies that the data of log return has a low distributed or low peaked about the mean. The skewnes of the variable log price is equal to -0.785038 which is a negative value

English as Todays Global Language

According to statistics, about one-quarter of the world’s population is already fluent in English and this number is constantly growing: the beginning of the XXI-st century, it was more than a half-billion people. Any other language, for the speed and magnitude of the proliferation, can not be compared to English.

The reasons that language becomes the first international, then global, have nothing to do with the number of people who speak it, but rather depends on who are those people. There is an inextricable link between language dominance and economic, technological and cultural dominance of the people speaking this language.

In the absence of any power of the people, no language can not become a means of international communication. Language does not exist separately from people who speak it. Language exists only in their heads, ears, hands, and eyes of its users. When they succeed in the international arena, their language thrives. (Soler, 2008)

These arguments seem to be obvious, but they need more time to pay attention because in the past few years other misleading views about the causes of a global status of English have emerged and have spread completely. Very often it is possible to hear statements about the English language that has received such wide distribution in the world because of grammatical structures which are simpler than in other languages or because of the fact that the English words do not need to add a lot of different endings, in English, it is no need to remember the difference between male, female and middle-born, so it is easier to teach. Many people talk about the similarities between the English vocabulary with the vocabulary of other languages, particularly French. Indeed, more than half the English words are borrowed from French and the English lexical point of view is actually the Romance languages than German. Another frequent argument is that English is a very democratic language, where there is no system of class differences.

The Chancellor of the Exchequers Budget Statement Claim

The Annual Growth for UK GDP was 3.8 % in 1999. In The ‘UK GDP’ Published Accounts (Chained Volume Measure £1million) presented for the 3rd Quarter of 2006, published on 21.12.2006, the Overall GDP stood at £301.1 million, signifying a 0.7change since the last Quarter and 2.9 since the last year. (http://www/statistics.gov.uk./CCI/nscl.asp?ID=5900). The office of National Statistics revealed that UK GDP during the period grew by 0.4% from the previous quarter and 2.1% on a year-on-year basis. Both were downward revisions from rises of 0.5% and 2.7% respectively (http://www.forbes.com/markets/feeds/afx/2005/06/30/afx2117553.html). Whether this change of 2.9 measures to a “strong and strengthening” proponent, as ascribed by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, is a contentious issue.
Employment rates have changed in these years and some sectors reported an increase in employment while other sectors show a fall in the number of employment opportunities. In the context of the Labour Market, the employment rate was 74.5% and the unemployment rate was 5.5%. “The number of unemployed people increased by 197,000 over the year to reach 1.70 Million” (Http: www/statistics.gov.uk./CCI/nscl.asp? ID=5900 2006). Thus we find that the UK government has not been able to exactly control unemployment, which is a significant indicator of economic growth since the increase of job opportunities leads to higher earnings and consequently, more money in circulation.
Consumer expenditure accounts for 2/3 of the total UK’s domestic expenditure. The government expenditure reported an increase in this year’s expenditure and continues to rise at a steady rate of 0.7% in the 1st quarter of the previous year. As the Keynesian Theory has propounded, “if free market forces are not capable of regulating the level of economic activity, there is a clear case for state intervention” (Nellis, Parker. 1996).

The Issues of Medicating Kids

The Issues Of Medicating Kids
Doctors and the pharmaceutical industry have made people believe that there are myriad pills that virtually cure all types of diseases. Statistics shows that there is a large consumption of pills per day, a trend that is worrying especially among children. Gavin, an 11-year-old fifth grade student takes an average of 17 pills on a single day and 119 tablets per week. The overwhelming question is whether it is healthy or rather advisable to consume such large quantities of pills. The question is augmentative, and it is the objective of this paper to explore the case for and against consumption of large amounts of pills for medication purposes (Park, 2011).
Rob Gorski, the father to Gavin, says he cannot do without medicating his son with pills. Clozapine, one of the pills administered to Gavin, help him reduce the hallucinations and imaginary voices he hears. Lithium, on the other hand, is useful in stabilizing Gavin’s moods. Failure to take the drugs results in sleepless nights and uncontrolled impulses. Rob is not comfortable with the pill medication he administers to the son. In fact, he was reluctant at first and wrestled within before he started the medication. According to Rob, it is impossible for them to stay without administering the pills to the son. Rob argues that without the medication, their son’s quality of life of deteriorates. The above is an example of a genuine reason that justifies the use of pill medications because the child, Gavin, has an extreme condition (Park, 2011).
Readings reveal an increase in the use of behavioral drugs by children. Most of the children however do not suffer from extreme health conditions. Intellectual disability and related behavioral disorders are some of the reasons that necessitate their uptake of pills. The trend is worrying, and experts warn that this is dangerous because there are instances where misdiagnosis appears. Children exposed to multiple drugs are susceptible to drug abuse as well as other side effects. Pavuluri, a doctor and pediatric at the University of Illinois, cautions that drugs ought to be administered only in extreme cases where injury and hurt may result from such neglect. However, the medication is appropriate for children who have attained five years. Pavuluri further adds that people should visit pharmaceutical after behavioral therapies are done (Park, 2011).
Mental illnesses justify the use of pills for medication. Gavin, for instance, has a schizoaffective disorder. The pills help him distinguish between hallucinations and reality. Without the pills, Gavin loses all fear and can boast of flying outside the window or even rushing head-on towards vehicles. According to the father, the drugs are quite beneficial to their son’s life. Additionally, administration of pills may be beneficial to patients contemplating committing suicide. According to Pavuluri, such situations substantiate the use of pills. She advises the doctors to use milder forms of pills for non-emergency cases (Park, 2011).
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an emerging diagnosis among children. The diagnosis of ADHD has made many people administer drugs to their children. Experts however warn that not all ADHD cases that require medical treatment. Parents can study skills that will enable them to enable their children overcome interruptions without necessarily having to use pills. Poor child-rearing and family issues play a central role in defining a child’s behavior pattern. Experiences like the loss of a precious one in a family and insulting relationship within a family are such examples. Therefore, it is improper to medicate pills for behavior resulting from poor parental relationship (Park, 2011).

Reference
Park. (2011, May). Little people, lots of pills: Experts debate medicating kids – CNN.com.

Photography and Graphic Design

Given that this is a career that needs a creative mind, it is also important to note that it has evolved with technology. These are my key reasons that inspired me to take a career in photography and graphic design.
Years ago, artists and graphic designers got inspired by earlier painters and ideas from art origins. Art such as medieval architecture, early paintings were an inspiration to artists and graphic designers in the 19th century (Kleiner, 2009). The same paintings and architecture inspired the modern-day graphic designer and photographer. Some of the early painters or pioneers were Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti, an Italian painter, architect and Leonardo da Vinci also a painter and architect (Kleiner, 2009). Therefore, this shows that cultural influences were equally critical in making the history of photography and graphic designs.
According to the report made by the U.S Department of labor, graphic designers in the year 2006 held about 261,000 jobs in different fields (2008, p.305). Out of these jobs, 25% of them were self-employed as full-time or part-time freelancers. Latest Bureau of labor statistics from the U.S Department of labor shows that in 2012, there were 136,300 jobs, held by photographers.
The current employment trends related to this career only depend on photographer designer’s professional experience, education level and the size of the firm hiring. The employment statistics also show a photographer graphic designer’s career is also projected to grow by 4% by the year 2022 (U.S Department of Labor, 2008).
The general duties of photographer and graphic designers revolve around their use of creativity, technical expertise, and skills composition.

The Security of Payments in ECommerce

The Internet can be considered as one of the most revolutionary inventions of the last century [2]. It is used by different people for different reasons. some people use it to communicate with the other end of the world, some use it to increase their knowledge with the vast information available online [1]. Another area that has made a prominent name in the World Wide Web is E-commerce. E-commerce, which is the process of business transactions on the web. is preferred for its simplicity and ease [3]. However, one of the factors that cause a great degree of concern for customers and merchants is the level of security involved with these business transactions [4], [15]. The mode of payment in e-commerce transactions is through ‘credit cards’. which have established more opportunities for businessmen but at the same time introduced new problems in the whole process of selling goods.
The fear of fraud in online business transactions keeps on increasing every year due to the increase in the respective crime [8], [39], [40]. According to National Consumers League statistics for the year 2007. millions of dollars were lost in e-shopping transactions and have exposed the weakness of the credit card payment system [5]. Credit card fraud and identity theft [11] are the two most prevalent security risks.
In the past, many efforts have been done to secure online transactions and make this medium a trusting one. During such efforts, the protocol of Secure Electronic Transactions (SET) was developed to secure credit card information from several kinds of attacks present online [6]. Secure Socket Layer (SSL) also helps in providing a secure environment as it provides an encrypted medium to transfer credit card information [7]. The use of biometrics has also been proposed by one of the researchers. this proved helpful to prevent identity theft and any false authorization regarding the credit card information.

Fashion and Consumer Culture

82000 The essay "Fashion and Consumer Culture" concerns the consumerism and fashion. Factors include religion, beliefs, climate, gender, and economic and cultural situation, among others. Though fashion may change as dictated by society, clothes are more than just about warmth and protection. In fact, clothes have become a representation of particular cultures that create them. Clothes are considered consumer goods. But then again, more than being consumer goods, it defines the cultural class that wears them. It is one of those consumer goods that are being used as tools for social mobility as stated in the ‘Conspicuous Consumption’ theory by 19th Century economist and sociologist Thorstein Veblen. In his book ‘The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study in the Evolution of Institutions, he says that luxury goods are tools to display economic power, and that such display of discretionary economic power is a means of attaining or maintaining a particular social status. Moreover, as an elaboration, these consumer goods have become tools to provoke envy from other people. Ultimately, consumer goods, and fashion is one of them, is a means of displaying a buyer’s superior socio-economic status. In the article ‘Consumption and the Consumer Society’, it says that the average United States resident consumes 275 lbs. of meat, uses 635 lbs. of paper and uses energy equivalent to 7.8 metrics tons of oil. Forty-five years ago consumption was about half of current statistics. In the U.S. there are 2 persons.

Critically evaluate evidence obtained from a range of sources demonstrating how it can inform practice

In Wales, the National Health Services (NHS) holds the mandate of providing a functional framework that guides the entire social and health sector address the health needs of all the different groups. NHS also sets the required standards of health care that the people of Wales should enjoy (National Service Frameworks, 2012:1). The organization came into place in order to address the issue of inconsistency that had prevailed concerning the availability of and access to healthy care. Therefore, the organization has the special mandate of ensuring that a level of consistency does exist. In order to make its goals a success, the body sets up assessment measures of determining the rate at which the departments and organizations involved meet their goals. Moreover, NHS has multiple programs that foster implementation of its goals. Upon defining the desired health standards, it becomes easy for the body to recognize and address the issues that arise (Pierson, 2011:243). However, despite its efforts, the organization lacks the capacity of handling all the health issues of the people of Wales (Pierson, &amp. Thomas, 2010:185). The government of Welsh government has monitors and regulates the care delivery systems to its people (Welsh Government, ‘Bill’, 2012:20). It does this by designing policies, setting of standards, and inspection of service delivery programs and provision of funding to the local authorities. An independent committee looks into the delivery of social services in Wales and presents reports on the areas that need improvement (Independent Commission, 2010:8).
According to recent statistics, a third of people in Wales live with a permanent condition reducing the quality of life that they lead. Moreover, a fifth of the entire population had disability issues in 2010 and the prevalence keeps increasing. Other researches indicated that the chances of disability increased with age. This translates to the fact that the

SPSS

PSY 870: Module 4 Problem Set 2 × 3 Between s Factorial ANOVA: Study Environments by Gender This study investigates whether study environment affects academic performance. In addition, this study investigates whether sex of student "moderates" the effect of study environment on academic performance (that is, do males and females differ in how much benefit they get from studying in certain environments).
During the first half of the spring semester, 120 male students and 120 female students in grade 10 at a public high school in a large metropolitan area in the southwestern region of the United States were randomly assigned to one of three study environment: study in front of the TV, at the library, or in the food court. The students could ONLY study in the environment to which they were assigned during the research period. At the end of the 7-week research period, mid-term GPA was computed for each student. A change score was computed for each student: each students spring midterm GPA was subtracted from his or her GPA for the preceding fall semester. The difference was each students GPA Improvement score. The GPA improvement score was used to measure academic performance.
Directions:
Using the SPSS 2 × 3 ANOVA data file for Module 4 (located in Topic Materials), answer the following questions. NOTE: Helpful hints are provided here for you to use while answering these questions. There is no separate answer sheet/guide to use while doing this assignment.
1. What are the two independent variables in this study?&nbsp.What is the dependent variable?
Independent variable:
Study environment
Sex
Dependent variable:
Academic performance
2. Why is a two-way between-subjects factorial ANOVA the correct statistic to use for this research design?
Then two‐way between subjects ANOVA is used to analyze the results of a between subjects factorial design with two independent variables (factors). The two‐way ANOVA tests three hypotheses: the main effects for each of the two factors and the interaction effect
3. Did you find any errors that the researcher made when setting up the SPSS data file (Remember to check the variable view)?&nbsp.If so, what did you find? How did you correct it?
No errors are observed in setting up of the data file. the data is coded and appropriately entered
4. Run Descriptive Statistics on the dependent variable data. What do the skewness and kurtosis values tell you about whether the data satisfy the assumption of normality?
Descriptive Statistics
N
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
Std. Deviation
Skewness
Kurtosis
Statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Std. Error
Statistic
Std. Error
GPA Improvement
240
-.10
1.00
.2867
.24781
.652
.157
-.063
.313
Valid N (listwise)
240
The data is positively skewed while the kurtosis value is -0.063 and is platykurtic. The assumption is not satisfied.
5. Perform a between-subjects factorial ANOVA on the data.
Multivariate Testsb
Effect
Value
F
Hypothesis df
Error df
Sig.
Environment
Pillais Trace
.785
867.008a
1.000
238.000
.000
Wilks Lambda
.215
867.008a
1.000
238.000
.000
Hotellings Trace
3.643
867.008a
1.000
238.000
.000
Roys Largest Root
3.643
867.008a
1.000
238.000
.000
Environment * sex
Pillais Trace
.000
.099a
1.000
238.000
.753
Wilks Lambda
1.000
.099a
1.000
238.000
.753
Hotellings Trace
.000
.099a
1.000
238.000
.753
Roys Largest Root
.000
.099a
1.000
238.000
.753
a. Exact statistic
b. Design: Intercept + sex
Within Subjects Design: Environment
6.
a. What do the results of the Levenes Test tell you about your data? What does this mean in terms of interpreting the outcomes of the ANOVA?
Multiple Comparisons
GPA Improvement
LSD
(I) Environment
(J) Environment
Mean Difference (I-J)
Std. Error
Sig.
95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound
Upper Bound
Front of TV
Library
-.2200*
.02758
.000
-.2743
-.1657
Food Court
.1175*
.02758
.000
.0632
.1718
Library
Front of TV
.2200*
.02758
.000
.1657
.2743
Food Court
.3375*
.02758
.000
.2832
.3918
Food Court
Front of TV
-.1175*
.02758
.000
-.1718
-.0632
Library
-.3375*
.02758
.000
-.3918
-.2832
Based on observed means.
The error term is Mean Square (Error) = .030.
*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.
The results are statistically significant
b. What do the results of the Tests of Between-Subjects Effects tell you? Was there a significant main effect of Environment on GPA improvement? Was there a significant main effect of Sex on GPA improvement? Was there a significant interaction effect of Environment X Sex on GPA improvement? Report the results for each of these questions providing the actual F-value and p value using the following format: F(df1, df2) = 0.785____, p = .__000_ or if the p is shown as .000, write it as p &lt. .001. an example of this formatting is F(1, 400) = 15.4, p = .02).
Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable:GPA Improvement
Source
Type III Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Corrected Model
7.557a
5
1.511
49.675
.000
Intercept
19.723
1
19.723
648.189
.000
envir
4.696
2
2.348
77.173
.000
sex
.081
1
.081
2.651
.105
envir * sex
2.780
2
1.390
45.688
.000
Error
7.120
234
.030
Total
34.400
240
Corrected Total
14.677
239
a. R Squared = .515 (Adjusted R Squared = .505)
For environment,
F (2, 239) = 77.173, p &lt. 0.05), significantly related to academic performance
For sex (2, 239) = 2.651, p = 0.105, not significant related to academic performance
c. Use eta squared to provide effect size/proportion of variance accounted associated with each F-value. If the F-value for a main effect and/or for an interaction effect is statistically significant, what is the eta squared (2) value associated with that outcome?
HINT:
Report eta squared, 2. ignore partial eta squared that SPSS can provide. You have to calculate eta squared yourself. It is not given to you by SPSS, but you can use what SPSS provides to calculate it. Eta squared is calculated by using the values in the column headed "Type III Sum of Squares" from the table with the results for Tests of Between-Subjects Effects." To compute eta squared, which would be notated as 2, take that sources Type III Sum of Squares and divide it by the value for Corrected Total in the same column. For example, if the Type III Sum of Squares for Environment had been 4.5 rather than 4.696, you would divide 4.5 by 14.677 to get the effect size for Environment. If the Type III Sum of Squares for Sex had been 2.0, you also would divide that by 14.677, etc. Interpret these eta squared results for effect size using the following guidelines from Cohen (1988):
.01 ~ small
.06 ~ medium
.14 ~ large
For environment, 4.696/14.677 which gives 0.319956394 and hence considered large
For sex, its 0.081/14.677 = 0.005518839 and hence considered small
d. If the result for the main effect of Environment was statistically significant, what did you find out when you performed post hoc tests (Tukey HSD) to look at possible statistically significant differences in the pairs of means for Environment groups?
GPA Improvement
Environment
N
Subset
1
2
3
Tukey Ba,,b
Food Court
80
.1350
Front of TV
80
.2525
Library
80
.4725
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.
Based on observed means.
The error term is Mean Square(Error) = .030.
a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 80.000.
b. Alpha = 0.05.
The results are confirmed as being statistically significant. It is more better to study in the library than in front of TV or food court.
e. When you have a factorial ANOVA and the interaction effect is significant, does the researcher give much attention to any significant main effects when interpreting the results of the study?
Yes, these are important in further explaining the findings of the research.
7. Citing the results of your statistical analyses, what is the conclusion you can draw (and support) regarding research question that was posed in this research (see problem statement)? Write a results section for this study that expresses and supports this conclusion.
HINT:
Use the sample write-up of the results for the Two-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA example that is in the textbook to see what you should report and how to say it. Just substitute the correct language and values for the analyses you have done for this problem.
There is a relationship between academic environment and academic performance but not sex

Exercising Facilities at the Workplace

This is more than a third of the population and excludes children and teens. The report further states that in 2008 alone, $147 billion was spent on obesity-related health complications and that obese people were spending at least $1400 more on medication than their normal counterparts.
As highlighted by the above statistics, many Americans are not exercising as they should. They are leading unhealthy lives and exposing themselves to obesity-related health risks such as cancer, heart diseases, and type 2 diabetes. I formulated this research to investigate the advantages of setting up exercise facilities at workplaces and also to come up with ways of encouraging people to regularly visit them. This will reduce the obesity rate in the country and the health risks associated with it.
I recently witnessed two colleagues discussing a move by their company management to set up a physical fitness facility at the company’s premises to encourage workers to live healthy lifestyles. I was struck most by the agility and enthusiasm that the two exuberated as they discussed the matter. Prior to this incident, I had never envisioned a gym within a working premise.
Fitness sections should be constructed in every workplace as a way to encourage people to exercise regularly. The management will, therefore, be forced to allow workers to exercise during working days since most of them will be unwilling to show up at work during the weekends. However, the sessions will only be possible during off-peak hours such as lunch breaks and in the evenings when everyone is breaking for home.

Tuberous sclerosis

92250 The most common drugs to control brain and kidney tumors are mTOR inhibitors such as sirolimus and everolimus. Screening tests such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an ultrasound scan, spirometry, echocardiogram and blood tests can help to identify tumors connected with tuberous sclerosis. Appropriate diagnostic and treatment plans are quite necessary for successful health care and support of patients with tuberous sclerosis. Tuberous sclerosis the other name tuberous sclerosis complex(TSC) is a genetic disease. It is characterized by the formation of benign, noncancerous tumors in the different organs of human body such as kidney, lungs, brain, heart, eyes and skin. Benign tumors formed in the human body when function of cell growth is damaged. Abnormal quantity of cells formed an extra mass surrounded by outer layer and cause different negative health defects. The statistics show that the most common benign tumors caused by tuberous sclerosis occur in the brain and in skin in 9 causes between 10. kidney and eyes 8 cases between 10. in kidney 8 cases out of 10 and more rarely in the lungs 4 cases between10 especially in women. Tumors in the brain can cause different neurological defects and abnormal brain function. The most common disorder of the nervous system during tuberous sclerosis is epilepsy. It is a long-term neurological defect that characterized by repeated spasms, convulsions and loss of consciousness. Tumors in the brain can cause different neurological defects.

The Policy of Deportation and Detention in Greece and the UK

THE POLICY OF DEPORTATION AND DETENTION
IN GREECE AND THE UK
Seeking to explore European immigration policies with respect to asylum seekers and refugees in comparative perspective, I propose to analyze the policies of deportation and detention in Greece and the United Kingdom, respectively. European immigration is an important issue which is receiving more and more attention in light of global economic flight from the poorest regions of the world and the humanitarian crises forcing people to abandon their lives and seek a better life. Along with the United States, Australia and Canada, the European Union remains one of the most sought after destinations for migrants from around the world and both Greece and the United Kingdom receive their fare share of migrants, both legal and illegal. This is an understudied field of scholarship and I hope to bring my extensive analytical skills to your university in order to pursue my studies. The following will provide a summary of my proposed research questions as well as the intended methodology.
Research Questions
Through an exploratory analysis of the immigration policies of both Greece and the United Kingdom, central questions I hope to address include the following: how do the immigration policies of Greece and the UK differ with respect to illegal migrants? Alternatively how are their policies the same? What roles do deportation and detention play in the immigration process and how have Greece and the UK applied these measures in an attempt to stem the flows of migration, both legal and illegal? What role does the European Union play in dictating immigration policy and what does Brussels have to say with respect to the deportation and detention of migrants? These questions and many more will be explored in this comparative analysis of the immigration systems of both Greece and the United Kingdom. Utilizing data from the UK Border Services as well as from the Greek national authorities, this analysis will integrate raw concrete data with scholarly research in the field of immigration studies.
Methodology
A comparative exploration of immigration policies in the twenty-first century will benefit significantly from an amalgamation of the latest scholarly research on the subject of British and Greek immigration trends and policies with tangible demographics obtained through the respective immigration authorities of each national government (EU statistics may also be used in this endeavor). Accordingly, the basis of this analysis will largely be qualitative but this analysis will most certainly benefit from quantitative data on immigration trends and issues. A mixed qualitative/quantitative research framework will provide the primary methodological underpinnings of this analysis. We will utilize the best scholarly research in the field, including peer-reviewed journals and books published by university presses.
Issues and Available Research
Immigration remains an important issue in a global world and the rights of migrants are rarely brought to the fore. Principle issues included in the study of deportation, detention and disposition are the respect for human rights and the inaliable rights of individuals seeking a better life, regardless of race, creed or nationality. I will also explore the refugee/asylum seeker process in each respective country. What does the literature say about the rights of migrants and their abuse as part of the European immigration process? In “Used, Abused, Arrested and Deported”, Dina Francesca Haynes examines the maltreatment of migrants in to the EU and argues for legislative change to combat their maltreatment at the hands of traffickers and malicious immigration authorities. In “The Deportation Machine: Europe, Asylum and Human Rights” Liz Fekete examines the human rights of migrants through a race and class-based lens. Furthermore, in Citizenship Today, Aleinikoff et al. provide a succinct analysis as to why people choose to immigrate abroad and explores the ethical and moral issues associated with transnational migration. Seeking to address these questions and many more, my research intends to provide a holistic approach to analyzing an important social phenomenon which is seeped in complexity and intrigue. This is an understudied field of scholarship and I hope to bring my research project to your institution and thank you for taking the time to consider my application.
References
Aleinikoff, T.A. et al. 2001. Citizenship Today: Global Perspectives and Practices
Washington: Brookings Institution Press.
Fekete, L. (2005). “The deportation machine: Europe, asylum and human rights”,
Race &amp. Class, Vol. 47, No. 1, 64-78.
Haynes, D.F. (2004). “Used, Abused, Arrested and Deported: Extending Immigration Benefits to Protect the Victims of Trafficking and to Secure the Prosecution of Traffickers”, Human Rights Quarterly, Vol. 26, No. 2.

Inferential Statistics (m4c)

It is claimed that a new drug is developed which provides the same level of efficacy as the currently used cocktail of multiple drugs in treating AIDS. Problem is to set up an experiment and select subjects to test the efficacy of the new antiretroviral drug.
Antiretroviral drug treatment guidelines have changed over time and there is no unique guideline for all countries. Treatment regimen prescribed is also different for different groups of patients. For example, drugs prescribed for pregnant women in a developing country may be different from drugs prescribed to adults and adolescents in a developed country (World Health Organization Guidelines). Therefore, identification of the population among whom the new and the current combination of drugs are to be compared is necessary. Let the population thus selected be the adult and adolescent population in the United States.
There are literature considering differential effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy among patients of different gender and race. (King et al., 2008. Campo, Alvarez, Santos, &amp. Latorre, 2005). However, part of the difference may be attributed to availability of the drug, following the prescribed regimen and lifestyle, rather than any inherent difference in genetic composition. Nevertheless, it will be a good policy at the initial stage to limit the experiment among adult and adolescent Caucasian males to protect against possible confounding effects.
Once the population is identified, a sample of specific size needs to be selected. The sample size will depend on the power of the testing procedure, which is outside of the purview of the present consideration. Current guidelines recommend start of antiretroviral therapy when the disease has progressed to WHO Stage III when CD4 cell count is less than 350/μl. This may be taken to be the baseline criterion for inclusion. Also, the standard guidelines for adherence to the protocol, testing for baseline resistance etc must be satisfied to be included in the drug testing.
It is of singular importance to compare the new drug against one specific drug combination. The preferred regimens may be any one of the following
emtricitabine,&nbsp.tenofovir&nbsp.and&nbsp.efavirenz
emtricitabine,&nbsp.tenofovir&nbsp.and&nbsp.raltegravir
emtricitabine, tenofovir,&nbsp.ritonavir&nbsp.and&nbsp.darunavir
mtricitabine, tenofovir, ritonavir and&nbsp.atazanavir
Any one of these regimens needs to be chosen for the new drug to be compared against. Ideally this experiment would be a matched case-control study. Two HIV/AIDS patients with very similar profiles with respect to advancement of disease, CD4 cell counts, age, sexual orientation and other possible factors that may have bearings on the disease are to be randomly assigned either to the cocktail drug regimen or to the new drug regimen. However, there may be ethical consideration to such assignment. Without informed consent of the patients they may not be assigned to a new drug therapy.
As antiretroviral therapy is to be continued life long, it is difficult to arrive at a definite conclusion regarding efficacy of the new drug within a definite period of time. One way to deal with that is to compare count of CD4 cell counts for patients under existing and new drugs from time to time and monitor the disease’s progress or retardation. Naturally, count of CD4 cells is the dependent variable, which depends on the effectiveness of the drug.
It needs to be noted that the new drug may be more efficacious at the beginning of the regimen and may, in the long run, be bioequivalent to the existing regimen. Alternatively, the effect of the existing regimen may taper off at some point where the new drug may continue to be active. Therefore, the experiment may have multiple end-points and one or more end-points must be clearly noted in the protocol.
References
World Health Organization (2011). HIV/AIDS Guidelines. Accessed on Jan 27, 2011. .
King, W. D., Minor, P., Kitchen, C. R., Ore, L. E., Shoptaw, S., Victorianne, G. D., &amp. Rust, G. (2008). Racial, gender and geographic disparities of antiretroviral treatment among US Medicaid enrolees in 1998. Journal of Epidemiology of Community Health, 62, 798-803.
Campo, R. E., Alvarez, D., Santos, G., &amp. Latorre, J. (2005). Antiretroviral treatment considerations in Latino patients. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 19(6), 366-374.

The Issue of Retention and the Cost of Education in Colleges and Universities in U S A

Due: Research Paper, Statistics Introduction U.S.A universities and college fees have caused a lot ofmixed reaction nowadays. Parents with college or university going students in today have to dig deep into their pockets in order to meet the rising higher education fees.
In recent studies conducted in various universities in U.S.A, the average cost of pursuing a higher education in the public universities is more than $27,000 per year. This is excluding the top end universities such as Cornell and Columbia. The top end universities in the year 2010 to 2011 total fees budget including accommodation, food and books totaled to $55,862 and $56,253.
In addition the government owned universities and colleges are cheaper than the private owned. The average fees required for tuition in the private universities in a year is $20,000. In a 4 year term, that would total to $80,000. While in the private institutions is more than $40,000 per year. The wide fee difference between the two sector universities has resulted to increased undergraduate intake in the public universities. The government run colleges and universities have enrolled 70% of the total undergraduate intake a year, with the colleges enrolling half of the country’s full time undergraduates. But not all the public colleges charge minimal amount, colleges such California, fee rate is the same as top end private universities. The rate of graduation in public colleges and universities has fluctuated from 70% to 60% in the past ten years. This is due to the low availability of resources in the public universities as compared to public. The graduation rate in the private universities and the top universities has increased from to 50% to 80% this due to the high level of education offered as well as the selective nature of the private universities however, the number of graduates in public universities and colleges is still high when compared to the private owned.
The difference in the fees rate charged in the two sectors means that some education accessories are only available in the high end universities and vice versa. In today, only time will tell whether the two education sectors will reach a point and charge tuition fee regardless of access and quality.
Works Cited
N.p. “Student information, How much does it cost,” 11 May. 2014. Web. 29 Feb. 2012. ‹http://topunivesrities.com/›.
N.p. “Trends in College Pricing.” College Board. 11 May 2014. Web 2013

The differences between Americas mass incarceration rates compared to one other country

This essay compares US and Canada incarceration rate and the costs, in an attempt to provide viable recommendation on how the government should conduct its incarceration.
Incarceration refers to the arrest of suspected criminals before their conviction and to confine them from the public. Incarceration in US was started as a security measure that aimed at safeguarding the public from potential criminals. The US imprisons many types of criminals including drug offenders and non-violent offenders. This situation is different in Canada as the government imprisons only those with high risk of violence. Statistics shows that the US has five times higher the rate of incarceration as compared to Canada. Approximately, the US incarcerates about 750 people per every 100 thousand which is much than the rate Canada which about 117 people per every 100 thousand individuals. In total, there are about 1.6 million prisoners in America. 90% of the prisoners in the US comprise young males at the age bracket of 20 to 30 years. In Canada, 70% of males of young age are in prison, and the rest is composed of women. By race, the percentage of blacks and Latinos in prison is much higher than that of the whites. Per every 100 thousand people in US, 3,074 blacks, 1258 Latinos are imprisoned while only 459 whites are victims (Cox, 2012). This is different in Canada where the ratio of whites to blacks in prison is fairly balanced. From the statistics, it is clear that the incarceration rate is much higher in US and more biased than the case in Canada.
Evidently, the US spends a lot in maintaining their prisons as compared to Canada. Many scholars have come up to criticize the hefty spending of the US in maintaining prisons. The average cost of maintaining a prisoner is between $20 thousand and $30 thousand each year. Canada prisoner maintenance cost is much lower by 30%, which ensure that the nation spends little on incarceration. This shows that the US

Week 12 Environmental and Socioeconomic Issues

your s Week 12: Environmental and Socio-economic Issues In Week 12, Prof. Norris completed the environmental LCA subject and introduced the concepts of non-point impacts, ecological damage and resource depletion. He also discussed the socio-economic pathway to healthy impacts, the listed categories of impacts, and the concept of life cycle attribute assessment.
Citing an example of non-point impacts, he explained that extracting clay from the earth has no environmental significance for the earth per se and hence will not figure in any of 18 impact categories. But clay extraction has multiple impacts on the environment if one considers the process involved. These impacts are captured in the supply chain for extracting clay and consist of fuel usage, equipment operation, land occupation and land transformation and water pollution. While the flow of natural clay into the economy is not considered as significant resource depletion, the unit process environmental impacts are significant.
Discussing resource depletion, Prof. Norris explained that the earlier methods of calculating depletions were inaccurate and resembled attempts to weigh frogs, literally. Just as frogs do not keep still while being weighed and keep jumping, it was very difficult to estimate existing resources, usage and left over balance since new discoveries of resources are also to be considered continuously. If one product life cycle uses one mega joule of coal and another
(your last name) 2
product life cycle also uses one mega joule of oil, both have same consequence in terms of fossil fuel depletion, as per the methods used in the 1980s. However, since then the method has been improved. For instance, as we use the established resources (proven reserves) of coal or oil and move to next one, they tend to be smaller, deeper, less assessable and more expensive to extract. The EcoIndicator-99 focuses on the fact that it takes more energy to extract usable resources (whether fuels or minerals) from lower quality deposits. In other words, he explained, the future generations have to pay a higher price to get lesser resources, if we deplete them now by reckless usage. The EcoIndicator-99 developed the scenario for quite far into the future for predicating the energy cost of extracting resources/substitutes in future.
The next aspect is the ecosystem damage and its measurement. The recipe developers focused on biodiversity as an indicator of ecological impact since it is extremely difficult to figure out the relationship between human consumption and loss of species. Therefore, instead of consumption-related studies, we take a more universal view of the ecological pressure from human activities on different ecosystems. All our activities put pressure on the species, both in the animal and vegetation worlds, leading to depletion and/or extinction. Even if they survive, we are making ecosystem less healthy, less diverse, less functional, and less productive. Ecoindicators help to inform us of such ecosystem damage.
Prof. Norris then discussed the social-economic interrelations. Consumption drives economic activity which causes pollution and resource depletion. Consumption also generates employment and incomes, providing livelihood for many. Businesses pay taxes, which are turned into public investments into infrastructure, human development, technology, etc., all of which
(your last name) 3
can be beneficial. Thus, he explained that the traditional LCA methods of environmental impact assessment should be combined with the beneficial impact of economic activities. There is a risk of applying LCA methods only and avoiding an activity to save, for example, climate, but this decision may adversely impact other forms of pollution like water pollution. Therefore, the traditional LCA should be expanded through adding data on economic activity in each unit process and reducing the risk of shifting burden from environment to other impacts in supply chain. Citing the example of the burden of disease, among the 155 risk factors for human health and disease, unsafe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene account for 45%, indoor smoke from solid fuels for 32%, lead exposure for 11%, urban air pollution for 7% and climate change for 5%. These statistics clearly point out the limitations of LCA method. Hence, improved economic conditions can reduce the risks of exposure to risk factors, even though the related economic activities have other environmental impacts and solution lies in new pathways of socio-economic activities.
New pathways of socio-economic activities start from selection or redesign of products and processes, leading to reduced levels of activity in supply chains – from resource extraction through end-of-life cycles. These should reduce emissions without impacting employment, and economic growth. Improved economic activity in a sustainable manner can lead to improved health and reduced illnesses.

Compare the Boston with PA and answer the following questions

Comparison of Boston and Pennsylvania Boston is one of the oldest cities in the United s. Besides being the largest city in Massachusetts, it is the capital city as well. Pennsylvania on the other hand is a state situated in the Great Lakes region in the United States. This paper gives a comparison of the Boston and Pennsylvania with regards to population, composition of the land, average income, lifestyle, protection of the natural biodiversity, environmental pollution and conservation as well.
Demographically, Boston has a population of 617,594 as per the 2010 United States Census. Boston also anchors a large metropolitan area known as the Greater Boston. Thus, the Greater Boston region is a home to 4.5 Million people. The city’s population density is 5,203 people per square mile. On the other hand, basing on the 2010 United States Census, Pennsylvania has a population of is 12,742,886 people (Sapp and Solomon 81-82).
With respect to land composition, Palo Alto has a total area of 25.8 square miles.1.9 square miles is covered by water while 23.9 square miles is covered by land. On the other hand Pennsylvania covers a total of 46,055 square miles of which 1239 is covered by water whereas 44,817 square miles is covered by land.
In terms of average income, as determined by the 2000 U.S Census statistics, the average income for the Bolton city is $39,629. The average family income is $44,151. The per capita income of the city is $23,353. In addition, 19.5 percent of the population as well as 15.3 percent of families live below poverty line. On the other hand, Pennsylvania has a Gross State Product of $570. It has an average per-capita GSP of $39,830.In terms of poverty, 4.8 percent of the population and 3.2 percent of families live below poverty line (Sapp and Solomon 84).
With regards to lifestyle, Boston has one of the highest living cots in the United States. It is an international hub for reputable higher educational and medicinal centers. The city has been ranked third in the United States as per livability rankings. On the other hand, the people in Pennsylvania like mushroom and wine. The quality of life in the state is incredible as well. It is also a religious center with the notable churches being the Roman Catholic and protestant churches.
The two cities have taken various initiatives in enhancing a reduction in environmental pollution and promoting environmental conservation. In this purview, it is apparent that Boston has always been in the frontline to ensure environmental conservation. This is bolstered by the Boston Conservation Commission (BCC), which protects and preserves open space and natural areas of the city. This includes natural parks and wetlands. The Commission is also charged with the mandate of administering the Massachusetts Wetland Act, the Conservation Commission Act as well as the Massachusetts Rivers Protection Act. The commission is credited with the enforcement a myriad of conservation restrictions on various properties and places with Boston. The BCC also owns a variety of natural area and open spaces within the city. Thus, environmental conservation as well protection of the natural biodiversity has always been guaranteed in Boston hence a sustainable city to live.
On the other hand, Pennsylvania has also undertaken various initiatives to ensure environmental conservation. This includes the establishment of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. This department is charged with the responsibility of administering and ensuring adherence to Pennsylvania’s environmental law and regulations. It has put measures in place to ensure a reduction in air water and soil pollution, proper litter disposal and promote the use of advanced energy which is less pollutant.
There is also the Pennsylvania Environmental Council which enhances the protection and restoration of the natural environment. It partners with the government, private sector, communities as well individuals with the quest of improving the quality of life through environmental conservation. Their efforts towards conservation of the environment and protection of the natural biodiversity in Pennsylvania are palpable. Thus, Pennsylvania is sustainable for living.
Works Cited
Heatley, Michael. American Cities. New York: Chartwell Books, 2007. 45-49. Print.
Sapp, Rick, and Solomon, Brian. Great American Cities Past and Present. Richmond Hill:
Firefly Books, 2010. 81-86. Print.

Human population

1250 07 October Human population: A population pyramid is a highly effective tool which holds great potential to help experts examine and record population statistics very closely. It helps to identify the population structure and also makes it quite easier to make assumptions about a country’s future prospects. These pyramids lend so much validity and sense to the statistics for social scientists and policymakers. Though pyramids help to understand statistics, it is claimed by Rosling that making wise investments in improving the lives of the most socially disadvantaged people can greatly help to keep a check on population growth. He claims in his lecture that even in 1960 when world population was 3 billion, 2 billion was made up by the developing world and 1 billion was made up by the industrialized world. This highlights the need to work on living conditions of the poorest to control population control. Jackley also stresses on the need to improve the lives of poor people to control population and poverty, both of which are very serious issues. Microfinancing is one way to do that which is about lending small amounts of money to people who are faced with really tight financial conditions. Even a little amount of capital can bring enormous changes. Jackley has witnessed herself that only an amount of $100 can change the entire business trajectory of a suffering person in a country like Kenya or Uganda. Dr. Ehrlich also comments in a video that it is impossible to have a good future without stabilizing world population. So many horrible famines have already struck countries like China and India in the 70s due to overpopulation.

Qualified Teaching


Qualified Teaching
Introduction
Education is a lot dependent on teachers. Teaching may not be the best paid profession but it has tremendous appeal for those who wish to take it up as a profession. And there are ways to improvise economically even in the teaching line. There are ways of doing it, such as increase fees with increasing demand and begin working online.
Teaching happens in many places. Earlier, it was normally confined to schools and universities. Now it happens more ubiquitously as this is the information age and students look for knowledge more than qualified teaching.
Qualified teaching
Qualified teaching naturally comes with graduation. Training to be teachers is imparted in colleges so the teachers are better prepared to face students the whole year round. However, now not all teachers are qualified. They may be graduates in different spheres of work areas. But nowadays, teachers abound in the area of their profession. An engineer could switch over to teaching science and mathematics. An accountant could start all over as teacher of economics, statistics and accounts.
Let us take the case of a teacher who specializes in teaching English as a Second Language (ESL). In the beginning, it will be difficult to fathom the method or syllabus to be used for teaching the language. Actually, there will be no need for elaborate textbooks. It is possible to make do with one text book and one grammar book. There is also need for a text book that has basics as well as some exposure to advanced language. It is necessary to build a method. There will be students from diverse backgrounds. And each student will have his and her own knowledge level in the language to work from. It is necessary to go through several books on the subject. Finally, the teacher settles to one conversational textbook and a grammar textbook.
It is good if the conversational textbook has more information in it that needed. But it must be simple and clear in its presentation, and the first half of the book must consist of the needed texts. The other half must be exercises in conversational practice which the students could handle on their own and only reverting to the tutor for portions they do not understand. The grammar text books used in the fifth to seventh grades serve the purpose of teaching grammar. They covered the complete grammar portion.
Knowledge
Knowledge is the key ingredient in ESL. It is easy to teach ESL among non-graduates or undergraduates. But it is altogether different when it comes to teaching ESL to students who are appearing for management and PhD courses. The syllabuses for these studies are advanced and it is necessary to get an idea about these syllabuses so as to integrate ESL with the subjects taught for management and PhD.
The fees for teaching ESL to management and PhD students are naturally high. They may go up to four times the normal fees.
Online teaching
This is the information age. Online teaching has become the norm and not the exception. However, the teaching here involves addressing the complete needs of the students. It is not the chapter-by-chapter teaching involved in regular teaching. Students require the complete solution to a question or a problem. The remuneration is very high in online teaching. Conversely, there are penalties should the solution not meet with the student’s requirement.
Conclusion
Teaching is a noble profession. It involves discipline and knowledge. The teacher may not be qualified. But the teacher must keep abreast of the latest developments in the subjects he or she is teaching. The student must be able to digest the solution to the question. The teacher must develop skills that meet this purpose.
Sources:
Educational Services, Bureau of Labor Statistics, United States Department of Labor, http://www.bls.gov/oco/cg/cgs034.htm
Varian, Hal R. How to Build an Economic Model in Your Spare Time, December 1994, Current version: 25 July 2009, http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/~hal/Papers/how.pdf

Social research methods

61500 Different types of statistics can be used to serve different purposes of the research. While descriptive statistics can be used to describe the data, statistical model can be used to forecast data. Researches that are aimed at finding relationship between variables can make use of statistical techniques such as correlation and regression. Difference between Descriptive and Inferential statistics, purpose of each and applications Descriptive statistics: Descriptive statistics can be defined as the set of tools and techniques that can be used to describe the quantitative features of a collection of data (Mann, 1995). The main purpose of using descriptive statistics is to summarize a data set. Statistics such as measures of central tendency, measures of variation, graphs, and bar charts etc are examples of descriptive statistics. The three most important types of descriptive statistics are: measures of central tendency, dispersion and distribution. While distribution is an indication of the frequency of specific values of a range of data variables, measures of central tendency such as mean and median are aimed at finding the center of the entire data set (Levin and Rubin, 2007). Measures of dispersions such as range or standard deviation are an indication of the spread of data set. Inferential statistics: Inferential statistics are the set of tools and techniques that can be used to draw inferences about a population from a small sample of data (Lane, 2011). The various examples of inferential statistics techniques include t-test, Analysis of Variance, Correlation analysis, regression analysis, factor and cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis etc. There are two types of inferential statistics: estimation testing and hypothesis testing. While in estimation testing, the confidence interval of a particular parameter is calculated using the sample, hypothesis testing is generally used to compare certain parameters in two or more samples or comparing a sample parameter to a specific value. A hypothesis can be defined as an assumption about a population parameter (Stattrek, 2011). The null hypothesis can be defined as the hypothesis of no difference or the hypothesis of status quo (Bajpai, 2009). The alternate possibility is called the alternate hypothesis. Hypothesis testing can be used by researchers to test certain theories that they want to prove. Frequency table and bar chart a. Ethnic origin Ethnic origin (5 groups) Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid White 3746 91.1 91.5 91.5 Mixed race 35 .9 .9 92.3 Asian 179 4.4 4.4 96.7 Black 87 2.1 2.1 98.8 Other 48 1.2 1.2 100.0 Total 4095 99.6 100.0 Missing -8 16 .4 Total 4111 100.0 Table 1: Frequency table for ethnic origin As can be seen from the frequency table, the most common ethnic group is White. The next highest frequency of ethnic group is Asian with 4.4% of the data items. Another way of representing the data is using a bar chart. The graph below shows the bar chart for the data set: Figure 1: Bar chart for ethnic origin b. Education level The frequency table for the variable education level is shown below: Education Level – 2000 Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Higher Degree 147 3.6 4.6 4.6 First Degree 450 10.9 14.0 18.6 Teaching qualification 47 1.1 1.5 20.0 Other higher qualification

Heart Disease Causes and Preventitive Measures

41000 Information from various medical journals, the Center for Disease Control, and other relevant sources shall be collated into the material for this paper in an effort to create a concise and easily understandable information sheet relating to Heart Disease for the lay reader. The results of the research done on this illness is quite enlightening and informative. Heart Disease is an easily controllable illness once the patient takes the time to actually help his medical professional treat the illness. It requires certain changes in the life of the patient that, once successfully implemented, can result in a long and satisfying life for the Heart Disease patient. Heart Disease: Causes and Preventative Measures The human body is a wonderfully complicated machine that requires very little effort to maintain its tip-top running condition. However, there are instances when, due to either the aging process or congenital defects, that it encounters life threatening situations. One of the major life threatening illnesses that affects a human is Heart Disease. Heart Disease is the collective term for all illnesses that affect the human heart. As disease affecting a person, it has many major sub-illnesses that include diseases of the blood vessels, heart rhythm problems known as Arrhythmia, heart infections and congenital heart defects (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2013). More commonly referred to as a Cardiovascular illness, heart disease occurs when there is a noticeable constriction of the major or minor blood vessels leading to the heart that can cause hardening of the arteries. Coronary arteries of the heart tend to build up fatty material and plaque over the decades. The narrowing of the arteries in the major and minor blood vessels causes an inadequate blood and oxygen supply to the heart that could result in the slowing of the heart beat or stopping of the heart in some cases (“Coronary Heart Disease”, 2013). Of all the illnesses known to man, heart disease is the only illness that has the ability to affect the overall biological system of a person. However, it affects men and women differently due to the biological make up of the different sexes. While the misconception exists that Heart Disease tends to affect mostly the males of the human species, women are also affected by the illness. There are nearly 500,000 women who will die from cardiovascular illnesses of its complications every year. Statistics tend to show that 40 percent of women will not survive their first heart attack (Riccioti, H., 2003). This particular number of women affected by heart disease has been shown to rival the number of men affected by the same illness with the United States Center for Disease Control releasing the following facts and figures pertaining to the population of America affected by the illness (“Heart Disease Morbidity”, 2011): Number of noninstitutionalized adults with diagnosed heart disease: 26.5 million Percent of noninstitutionalized adults with diagnosed heart disease: 11.5% Heart Disease is not an illness that is limited in scope in terms of the way it affects the human anatomy. Instead, it has

“Social Work &amp

Disability"61500 This research will begin with the statement that еhe statistics revealed by the World Health Organization approximate the number of disabled persons in the entire world to stand at 600 million. This translates to about 18 percent of the global population. Taking into account that aging has a direct correlation with the number of disability cases, this percentage is more likely to shoot higher with the aging of the baby-boomer generation. Social workers lend their services to those people with disability, their families as well as the communities. Their role in minimizing the adverse effects of the disability are well evident especially on matters pertaining to direct practice, community development, policy advocacy, research, and many other spheres. There is no doubt that the anti-discrimination policies against disabled persons are a product of these social workers. However, despite the enormous effort put in place by social work organization, families and carers of disabled persons still contend with a myriad of challenges. The case study of Mr. Shanono informed the search strategy for relevant data. This exercise relied on secondary data as its primary source of information. Information for this study was obtained through electronic databases such as EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, and the WorldCat. The procedure entailed searching for key terms such as disability, social work, and the impact of disability on the families. The data obtained from the research was recorded, analyzed, and a report written.

Elder Abuse Issue

3750 Before going into the details of the social issue of elder abuse, it will be relevant to attempt at providing a fair definition or meaning of the term “elder abuse.” Simply speaking, elder abuse primarily pertains to doing something or perhaps failing to do something that could lead to harm to an elderly person or may result in harm or risk to an elderly person who is helpless or unprotected or is unable to defend oneself (Elder abuse, 2012). There is no denying the fact that the term “elder abuse” has various dimensions. Elder abuse includes within its ambit all sorts of emotional, sexual or physical abuse (Elder abuse, 2012). Neglecting or abandoning of an elderly person by an individual or individuals who are responsible for the upkeep of that elderly is also considered to be a variety of abuse (Elder abuse, 2012). Elder abuse has a financial aspect too. Misappropriating or using any money or property belonging to an elderly person without one’s consent also amounts to elder abuse (Elder abuse, 2012). As the name of this issue that is “elder abuse” discernibly suggests, it is the elderly people who are most impacted by this form of abuse. Practically speaking, it is next to impossible to quantify as to how many older Americans are being abused, exploited or neglected (Statistics at a glance, 2012). While various studies have suggested that this social evil has harmed thousands of older people, sadly, there is no national statistics that could be used to ascertain its magnitude (Statistics at a glance, 2012). This happens owing to a variety of reasons. Firstly, there is no standard definition of elder abuse and many a times it gets extremely difficult to ascertain as to which acts constitute elder abuse (Statistics at a glance, 2012). Besides, in the absence of a uniform reporting system, the available statistics tend to vary a lot (Statistics at a glance, 2012). Also, little effort has been made to assort comprehensive national data related to this issue (Statistics at a glance, 2012). Due to various factors, the issue of elder abuse could be expected to get more salient with time. In a post-industrial civilization, owing to various factors such as being unable to earn or being unable to extend a physical contribution in the familial or societal context, the status of the elderly has rapidly deteriorated in the social hierarchy (Shenoy, 2006, p.1). Besides, with the breakup of the joint family system and the influx of the era of nuclear families, young people prefer to live apart from their elderly (Shenoy, 2006, p. 1). However, the problem is that many a time this living apart also amounts to totally abandoning or an abject neglect of the older people by the young. Besides, there also are demographic facets to this issue. The number and proportion of the elderly is fast rising in the American population (Shenoy, 2006, p. 1). Being relatively physically frail and in some cases owing to an age related compromising of the physical and mental faculties, many a times the elderly people are not in a position to defend themselves or report instances of abuse. Elder abuse can happen in any setting, be it the home, hospitals, nursing homes or in the community. The first and foremost approach towards dealing with this issue is to enact laws against elder abuse. Already 50 states have enacted laws against elder abuse and have put the mechanisms in place to report the instances of

The Exploitative Nature of Beauty Pageants

Reflective Essay about Persuasive Speech
I was quite confident when going to deliver a speech on the exploitative nature of beauty pageants. I had chosen this subject because there are companies in my community that have begun to sponsor beauty pageants for very young girls. I researched on this subject and acquired statistics demonstrating the malevolent influence of beauty pageants on young vulnerable girls as well as mature women. I was also able to locate and speak with a number of former beauty queens who were quite frank in giving the details of how their lives had been affected by their participation in the beauty pageants. My friends were somewhat skeptical about my choice of topic because they are all models. Moreover, all the information I got about what life really is like for a beauty queen convinced me that the benefits of the title ‘beauty queen’ are far outweighed by the drawbacks caused by it.
My aim was to inform my audience, which consisted of young women and men in their twenties and thirties about the many emerging beauty queen competitions in the area and convince them that these pageants were destructive and would ruin the self esteem of any woman or girl that agreed to participate in them. I had done a lot of research and documented my discussions with former beauty queens who gave me permission to use their stories. I was able to use such information in my speech with astounding success. I also mentioned the dates on which I had conducted the interviews so as to demonstrate how recent the issue is.
Usually, I am quite nervous before delivering a speech. However, this time I was pleasantly surprised to find that I was excited and could not wait to deliver my speech. particularly when I saw the gathering audience. Corporate workers and a large group of models sat at the front while the youth occupied large spaces in the back. My model friends and I had sat up arguing about the reasons why beauty contents are destructive, and I was still charged from that experience. I launched into my speech with gusto, though I tried to avoid speaking too fast in order to cover all the points in my speech. I asked a few models I recognized in the audience about what they did o a daily basis to maintain their low weight. This sparked immediate discussions among the audience members. with some shouting answers and others murmuring about anorexia. From the stance adopted by nearly all the members of the audience, I could tell that my subject was very interesting. Even before I had finished my speech, I could hear murmurs of assent as well as dissent. Once my speech was finished, different people peppered me with questions while others asked for clarifications on particular points.
I quite enjoyed delivering my speech to this audience. The interest displayed in my choice of subject encouraged me and made me less nervous about delivering the rest of the speech. In preparing my speech, I realized that there are different stages to speech writing. I wrote my original speech in one sitting because it was a subject of immense interest to me. Moreover, as I engaged in arguments with my friends on this subject, I restructured it so as to make a clearer argument. I tried to argue on the basis of issues such as emotional and physical health, which are acceptable to all members of the audience. I also tried to convince the male members of the audience that changing any erroneous perceptions of female beauty would contribute towards the eradication of common disorders such as anorexia among women and girls.

Week 2 workshop

Answer A. Frequency Table The frequency table is a method of counting the number of occurrences of a particular value in a given data set. The table below shows the frequency table for the income of the corporate customers:
Salary
Count
100000
1
200000
2
300000
3
400000
2
500000
1
B. Measure of Central Tendency
It is evident from the frequency table that the salary of corporate customers follows a normal curve. The same is shown with the help of a histogram:
For a normal curve, the best measure of central tendency is the mean. The mean is computed by summing the observations and dividing by the number of observations (Keller, 2012). There are no outliers here and the frequency graph is not skewed. Moreover, salary is generally a continuous variable. Hence mean (average) is the appropriate measure for measuring the central tendency. The average salary of the corporate customers is $300,000.
C. Additional salary points of $500,000 and $600,000
The frequency graph with addition of new salary points of $500,000 and $600,000 will affect the skewness of the frequency distribution. The graph is now positively skewed from mean as shown in the diagram below:
The appropriate measures of central tendency for skewed distribution are either mean or median. Median is a more appropriate measure for highly skewed distributions. The skewness of the graph that we have plotted is not very high. Hence the best measure of central tendency is the mean. The average salary of the corporate customers is now $345,455.
Answer 2
Gender is an example of nominal data. It can take either of the two values: Male or Female. Mode which is the value which has the highest frequency in the given data set is the best measure of central tendency in this case (QuickMBA, 2010). The mode of the distribution will tell us whether the data has more males or more females which is an appropriate measure for central tendency.
Answer 3
The three key different measures of central tendency are Mean, Median and Mode. All the three are not the best measures for all types of distribution. They have different values for differently skewed distributions. For a symmetrical distribution, all the three measures converge on the same value. Mean is the most sensitive measure to skewness (Levin and Rubin, 2009). In case the distribution contains outlier values which impact the skewness of the distribution positively or negatively, the mean moves from being the highest (positively skewed distribution) to being the lowest (negatively skewed distribution). In any distribution, median is always in the middle of mean and mode. Median is the least sensitive measure for skewed distributions.
Answer 4
Standard deviation and variance are both the measures of dispersion. Standard deviation is the square root of variance. Variance is the average value of the squared difference of the each value and the mean. Since variance is calculated after squaring, all the differences take positive value. Moreover, larger differences get more weight and are more suitable in cases where there are more outliers. Standard deviation is of the same unit as the data. Variance of the sum or the difference of uncorrelated random variables is the sum of their variables which makes it useful.
References
Levin, R.I., &amp. Rubin, D.S. (2009). Statistics for Management, 7th ed. New Delhi: Pearson Education Inc.
Keller, G. (2012). Statistics for Management and Economics, 9th ed. Mason: South-Western CENGAGE Learning
QuickMBA. (2010). Central Tendency. [Online]. Retrieved from: http://www.quickmba.com/stats/centralten/

Choosing and Using Statistics

This is an indicator that the points have a linear trend. The slope of the graph, 0.39, means that for every unit increase in performance in calculus, a student will attain a corresponding improvement of 0.39 in statistics. The y-intercept means that the minimum statistics marks that an acalculous student can score are 47.317.
Multiple R, defined as the coefficient of correlation is an indicator of the strength of the relationship between marks of the two subjects while R squared measures the proportion of the data that is explained by the model (Dytham, n.p.).
The distribution is skewed. This is because of the results obtained from descriptive statistics. The value corresponding to skewness is 0.131, as obtained from excel. This means that the values are slightly skewed to the right (Dytham, n.p.).

MPH502Introduction to Public Health (Module 2 CBT)

http www.cdph.ca.gov/Pages/Default.aspx California Department of Public Health Which jurisdictions has a clear mission ment published on their site? Was the mission statement, if any, based on the IOM (Institute of Medicine) definition of public health?
The department has a positive vision that envisages “Healthy individuals and families in healthful communities” and has a clear mission statement that is based primarily on the IOM definition of public health and states that the department is dedicated to optimizing the health and well-being of the people in California and, while carrying out their mission, they reach out to diverse groups as well as external stakeholders to ensure both internal and external collaboration. The department invests in its staff and rewards competence while fostering policies and programs that promote fairness, social justice, equity, and cultural competence.
2. How did these sites present their emergency preparedness for Bioterrorism, Pandemic Flu, SARS etc.?
This site presents a very professional approach to tackle emergencies as H1N1 flu outbreak and has an excellent video posted on the site on H1N1 prevention by Dr Mark Horton, Director of California Department of Public Health.
3. Describe the way each site presents information related to immunizations for children and adults.
This site has separate and easily detectable and dedicated links for immunization for children and adults. The information provided in these links is also easily intelligible to all cross sections of the society.
4. In your opinion were there any essential services neglected?
I do not think they have neglected any essential service.
5. Did any of the jurisdictions provide an assessment of their public health related health problems? If so, what type of assessment?
In conformity with The Government Modernization, Efficiency, Accountability, and Transparency Act of 2005, this site also posts information about all proposed regulations, administrative proceedings, meetings, hearings and clearly explains how the public can participate and comment on all such issues.
http://www.acphd.org/
Alameda County Public Health Department Website
1. Which jurisdictions has a clear mission statement published on their site? Was the mission statement, if any, based on the IOM (Institute of Medicine) definition of public health?
The mission of this department is to work in partnership with the community to ensure that optimal health and well being of all people is achieved. The department also recognizes that residents are more than mere consumers of public health services and is thus committed to collaborating with medical service providers, County departments, City agencies, community-based organizations, schools, civic groups, foundations, religious organizations, families to address myriad health and safety issues impacting individuals and populations in our county. Such an inclusive approach most surely echoes the IOM definition of public health.
2. How did these sites present their emergency preparedness for Bioterrorism, Pandemic Flu, SARS etc.?
This site has a well designed section right on the home page dealing with emergencies that can very easily be detected by anybody that visits this website.
3. Describe the way each site presents information related to immunizations for children and adults.
Vaccination and immunization schedules are easily available in several languages in this website. Such a multilingual dissemination of crucial and relevant information is most surely a welcome departure from routine procedure of government departments.
4. In your opinion were there any essential services neglected?
I do not think they have neglected any essential service.
5. Did any of the jurisdictions provide an assessment of their public health related health problems? If so, what type of assessment?
This website has a separate page dedicated to data, reports and Public Health statistics useful for residents, clinicians, community-based organizations, grant writers, school districts, policy makers and academia.
http://egov.ocgov.com/ocgov/Health
Orange County Public Health Department Website
1. Which jurisdictions has a clear mission statement published on their site? Was the mission statement, if any, based on the IOM (Institute of Medicine) definition of public health?
Though the mission statement echoes sentiments expressed in IOM’s definition of public health by declaring that the primary objective of the department is to make Orange County a safe, healthy, and fulfilling place to live, work, and play, today and for generations to come, by providing outstanding, cost-effective regional public services, the basic problem with this website is its rather complicated design that discourages a visitor to probe into greater detail.
2. How did these sites present their emergency preparedness for Bioterrorism, Pandemic Flu, SARS etc.?
This site does not have an eye catching and easily detectable panel that displays such details.
3. Describe the way each site presents information related to immunizations for children and adults.
Though it has a central panel displaying latest news on public health related issues, it does not have a viewer friendly design of locating information about immunizations.
4. In your opinion were there any essential services neglected?
This site, in my opinion, has all the details covered, but in such an unimaginative way that only a patient researcher would be able to extricate that information and it most probably will put off an ordinary citizen in search some emergency tips.
5. Did any of the jurisdictions provide an assessment of their public health related health problems? If so, what type of assessment?
I was not able to locate a dedicated page that dealt with such information.

International Public Relations application excercise

I decided to obtain an MSc in public relations because this educational arena will assist me in developing my PR skills that will be required when I will be serving as a public relations officer for a particular organization. This course will not only provide me with theoretical knowledge related to the field of public relations, it will even assist me in applying this theoretical knowledge in the practical settings. MSc in public relations will assist me by teaching me how to use relations with media to conduct effective and efficient PR campaigns and will develop my consultancy skills through different coursework and assignments.
2. Currently the female gender is leading the industry of public relations. out of the 100% of the workforce of the public relations industry, 85% are females as stated by the Public Relations society of America. In accordance to the statistics of Orange County, women are the owners of well established PR agencies and they are mainly leading in niches such as boutique. The academic literature falls short of explaining the reason why the PR industry is led by the female gender and why the female gender is the most preferred industry by women. Certain practitioners of the industry believe that women have the characteristics and skills required to make it into the PR industry.
Women do not only lead the professional side of the industry, they even lead the educational side of the industry. In the US, over 60% of the individuals who enroll in different kinds of PR educational programs are females. According to a PR professor of the Cal State Fullerton and a member of the society of American Public Relations is of the idea that women have the required skill set that are highly desirable in the PR industry. He stated that females are better public relation representatives as during their educational life they perform better in listening, observing and communication. These

Water Supply Situation

The World Bank and USAID have been involved in the water supply sectors of the given countries to a large extent. hence they provide credible and reliable data on the water supply situations in these countries and thus justify the use of these sources.
Improvement of Water Provision in Somalia
Introduction
Water provision is a serious problem in most developing countries, and it is even a worse scenario in Somalia. This is a country that has been war-ravaged for the last two decades. To generate effective recommendations for water provision in Somalia, it is first necessary to establish the water supply situation, and then compare water provision systems that are considerably effective in countries with a similar situation like Somalia’s. This study explores the water provision solutions that have been implemented in Mozambique and Ghana and use them to generate recommendations for the water supply crisis in Somalia.
Water Supply Situation in Somalia
According to the Advanced Blue Revolution Initiative, Somalia lacks an official water supply and sanitation system (ABRI 2009, p. 1). A large population obtains water from boreholes and shallow wells. The shallow wells are usually located near settlements, and the condition of this water is alarming due to nearly latrines seeping health hazards to groundwater. cholera and diarrhea outbreaks are common, and ABRI statistics indicate that less than 29% of the population has access to clean and sustainable water sources. It might be necessary to point out that the urban water supply system that existed in Somalia before degeneration into conflict was already constrained, poorly funded and mismanaged, and became inoperable after the civil crisis. This is the basis that informs the choice of comparison countries. Mozambique has an experience of nearly 20 years in the war, and Ghana is muted as a model for other developing countries in efforts to curb most of their challenging problems.
Water Supply Infrastructure in Mozambique
A brief background on Mozambique’s water provision system indicates that it was rendered useless after a 20-year war (1974-94), by the end of which only approximately 30% of the population had access to clean and reliable water supply according to the International Development Association (IDA 2007, P. 14). After the war, the Mozambique government pursued a delegated management framework (public-private partnership) for its water supply system and cooperated with international aid agencies for capacity-building. In the framework still in place to date, the government owns the water provision assets while the private sector manages the operations.
A closer look at the water provision strategy indicates that those who were charged with the responsibility of water supply and management were made to understand all the underlying issues. The National Directorate of Water ministry was reformed, and the workforce trained to manage huge and efficient sustainable water supply systems both urban and rural. Formal/official bodies were set up. a regulatory body and an asset-holding body to streamline water provision and involve the private sector in the management of water provision. The private sector invested heavily in water supply and thus big water supply projects tapping into the available water sources and efficient provision systems were set up. In several cities, large rehabilitation works could thus take off, with several cities now able to claim all-day round water supply. The government seeks to maintain a balance between consumer and commercial interests.
Water Supply System in Rural Ghana
Information on Ghana indicates that, in the mid-90s, the country faced a water provision crisis, with only 35% of the population accessing clean water. Water-related diseases such as diarrhea, skin diseases, and intestinal worms were in the top five of the most debilitating ailments in the country. The government’s approach was based on the involvement of the community in water management. In this strategy, the government (and financial and aid partners) provided the capital to establish community water provision and sanitation systems that are effective in their specific cases (IDA 2007, p. 12).
The government-community approach has resulted in over 2000 communities managing water and sanitation provision systems that they formulated and took part in building. At the interface (government and community) is the Community Water and Sanitation Agency, which is the official body charged with management and coordination of the strategy at the national level. The program of funding utilizes a large scale decentralized model through which grants for water provision systems are supplied to the communities and schools through the respective District Assemblies. Massive 3000 water provision committees and 41 water boards were formed and have received the necessary water provision training to balance community ideas with the proven policy in community water projects and sanitation systems.
Recommendations for Somalia
Rather than choose one water provision system over another, the strengths from both can be integrated to suggest an effective water supply system for Somalia. The points that can be highlighted from the two are. cooperation between the government and the private sector as well as the community. For professionalism, the government is given an oversight role while experts are left to manage. Training should be carried out and ensure water management is in capable hands as well as balance commercial interests with consumer interests. Other issues to sensitize key stakeholders on including the importance of a framework for water provision and water supply based on the available resources (though nationally managed, systems are based on what is locally available). Based on these ideas, the following are the recommendations for Somalia:
1. A government-community framework should be established for water provision (in light of the absence of a formidable private sector). The transitional government should empower the community to manage water supply systems such that the instability does not affect this essential service whether or not the rebels interrupt government efforts.
2. Adequate and proper training in water provision and sanitation should be undertaken for those in charge of water provision. Water provision policy-making cannot be left to individuals without requisite knowledge.
3. Water supply cannot be delinked from sanitation. A long term intervention should be aimed at winding down the community wells and drilling boreholes in safe distances from the sanitation facilities, with accompanied proper supply systems to compensate for the distance. The short term intervention entails proper treatment of water drawn from these wells before it is ready for use.
4. Water provision should be pegged on available resources. While boreholes and wells are ideal deep in the mainland, the many coastal towns can benefit from treatment systems such as desalting of seawater.
5. It is obvious that some of the interventions require massive capital outlay. hence the transitional government should seek assistance from financial partners and development agencies while at the same time working towards a solution to the country’s political crisis.

Health final project

The hazards of obesity can lead to several problems that affect your health, including diabetes heart disease, sleep apnea, cancer, high blood pressure and gerd.
The danger with these diseases is dependent on how long you have been obese, what other health conditions you may have as well as connections with your overall health. If you want to ensure that you remain healthy, then fighting obesity can help you to overcome further health complications.
The epidemic is one which is now by different types of obesity. The diagnosis is based on how much body fat an individual carries, compared to the percentage of muscle in the body. If this goes over recommended levels by a certain amount, then you also fall into a specific type of obesity. You can measure your obesity level through the following chart.
If you are overweight or obese, you can easily find a cure to prevent future problems and diseases. By beginning to fight obesity, you will be able to enjoy life, prevent health problems and can take yourself out of the statistics of obesity.
While the percentages are high for those that are fighting obesity, the epidemic can be overcome. The first step is to understand obesity and the several factors which cause the problem by following the following checklist:
If you want to know more about how to overcome obesity, then you want to start by not being alone. The rise in the epidemic has led to several support centers that are willing to help you understand more about obesity as well as how to overcome this problem. You can begin by visiting the OAC, or the Obesity Action Coalition.
This website can help you to understand the complexities of obesity, as well as how to overcome the problem. By working with others who understand obesity, you can easily begin to overcome obesity while moving into a healthy lifestyle.
To start overcoming obesity, you can look at

Republic of Korea Cultural Landscape

51250 An extremely high value is placed on education in South Korea. In 2005 The New York Times reported that students obsess about the university they will attend, and their rank in their high school class which will determine that, throughout their high school years. To this end summer school is a de facto if not a de jure responsibility and most students also attend private classes in the evenings. In summary, The New York Times states, “In a country where every teenager’s existence seems centered on entering a top university, which can determine one’s future here much more than in the United States, such conformity is to be expected.” (Onishi, 2005) Education is more highly valued in South Korea than it is in the United States.&nbsp.His fact is reflected in education statistics. The overall literacy rate is 97.9% and English is widely taught in junior high and high schools. Also, the school life expectancy rate (total years spent in school from primary to tertiary – college or university – education) is extremely high. For males, school life expectancy is 18 years and for females, it is 16 years. In neighboring China the rate is less than 60% (11 years) of the rate in South Korea. (“Korea, South”, 2010) Overall, the South Korean population is highly educated, highly literate and fluency in English is widespread. As the previous comments on education imply, Koreans hold a positive view of work that both explains and follows from the extraordinary priority they attach to education. Education is vitally important because it is a key determinant of employment.&nbsp.

Design and Methodology

RES:531 Topic: Issues of Drugs In Public Schools Prepared By:ChimaOkoro SUBMITTED: August 20th To prove whether or not teachers and in public schools should be tested for drugs use, a research should be undertaken. The research would be undertaken using a qualitative research methodology. According to Lapan, Quartaroli, &amp. Riemer (2011), a qualitative research methodology is a research method that focuses on neither explaining cause and effect nor drawing conclusions beyond the research setting. The first step in this research would be the review of relevant literature. This would help to identify the variables that will be used for this particular research topic. After reviewing literature, the research design that will guide the investigation will be identified. In this particular case, the design that will be used for this research would be the analysis of secondary data. This is because for this kind of research design, there are very few research ethics that are involved. The main source of data in this research would be the internet and other library resources would supplement it.
After selecting the research design, the next process would be collection of required data from their sources. Data sources for this particular research will be scholarly books, peer reviewed journals, published research papers, information from nonprofit organizations, and information from government agencies. This information would be obtained either from the library or internet sources. Since the sources of information are many and wide, it is necessary to select a sample. A sample is a portion of the sampling frame used in a research because of impracticability of using every item in the sampling frame (Buglear, 2012). Therefore, before starting the process of data collection, a sample of sources of information would be identified. In this particular research, the sampling frame consists of all sources of information that could provide data related to this research topic. After collecting the data, the next step to be undertaken would be data processing. According to Babbie (2010), data processing methods available for qualitative research are coding, writing memos, and mapping concepts graphically. These are the methods of data processing that would be used for this research. After the data processing, the research conclusion will be drawn from the analyzed and interpreted data.
The data collected in this particular case would represent the variables identified for this particular research topic. Data collected in this research will be qualitative and non-numerical. This is why it would be processed and analyzed qualitatively. The collected data will contain information from a wide range of information sources that would be identified in the selected sample. This is because the sample would comprise a variety of information sources ranging from published research papers to government information sources. To select the sample from the sampling frame, a systematic sampling technique would be used. In this type of sampling, the accessible elements of a population are arranged in a list and then a Kth element is selected from that list (Brass &amp. Brass, 2011). If a simple random sampling would be used, some inaccessible sampling units might be included in the sample. However, with systematic sampling technique inaccessible sampling units would be avoided.
The selected design for this research would be very useful in answering the research questions. First, it would enable collection of as much data as possible, which would provide sufficient information for drawing conclusions. Moreover, it would remove the chances of violation of research ethics that might be encountered for this type of research topic. As a result, the facts obtained regarding the research questions would be accurate and well elaborated. Therefore, the conclusions drawn from the research concerning the research question would provide a reliable solution to the research problem. The type of research design selected for this research would also enable collection of data on several variables. This would enhance comparison of research findings since the variables would be related in one way or the other.
References
Babbie, E, R. (2010). The Practice of social research.Lanham, MD: Rowman&amp. Littlefield Publishers.
Buglear, J. (2012). Stats meansbusiness. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann.
Brass, C. H., &amp. Brass, C. P. (2011).Understandable Statistics: Concepts and Methods. Mason, OH: South-WesternCengage Learning.
Lapan, S. D., Quartaroli, M. T., &amp. Riemer, F. J. (2011).Qualitative Research: An Introduction to Methods and Designs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &amp. Sons Publishers.

Written analysis

there were a lot of mothers who killed their children since their biological father was a Tutsi and there were many more people who killed their relative just because they were of the Tutsi community (Reed, 2014). The deaths of thousand of Tutsi and Hutu community member were a major drawback that occurred during the genocide. The militia killed women and children mercilessly for no reason during the genocide.
For Kagame to fully support the reconciliation campaign I would strictly adhere to his beliefs and philosophies in order to gain his support while at the same time sensitizing him to be less ethnic-based and biased.
The president, Paul Kagame, is believed to be an economist due to this fact, I would present the economic statistics of a united country compared to the economic statistics of an unstable country like the present day Sudan to portray the need for reconciliation and the economic benefits it would have on his country.
The pitch would contain a detailed and well laid out presentation of the statistics and the economical possibilities that would, in no doubt, be guaranteed if he accepted to fund the campaigns. The use of visual charts and diagrams would be of great importance in laying out the data and statistics for easier understanding of the economic comparisons between a stable and unstable country.
I would empathize on the effects the genocide caused on the people, by clearly demonstrating the effects the genocide had to all the communities in Rwanda including his own ethnic community will have triggered his soft and caring self thereby persuading him to fund the reconciliation campaigns.
As an antagonistic journalist and a reconciler, I would greatly emphasize on the need of peace talk that would facilitate the reconciliation process. I would greatly emphasize on the president, Paul Kagame, the need of a peaceful country and the productivity it brings to the economy to have a united people to govern. I would emphasize on the need of a

The Influence of Stress on Stress

In fact, numerous data prove that stress has a profound influence on one’s health and is connected with a significant diversity of health problems.
To start with, it is essential to discuss what is usually implied under the term stress. As a whole, it is difficult to find a single definition of this phenomenon as different authors suggest different definitions. Yet, it is generally agreed that stress is multifaceted and integrates reactions of different systems of a body. According to Cotton (2013, pp 28-30), stress is the integrated reaction of the body, “comprised of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.” It is also suggested to view stress as a sum of mental, emotional, and physical strains or tensions, resulting from a person’s interactions with the environment that are “perceived as straining or exceeding one’s adaptive capacities and threatening well-being”. ("Stress,") A research conducted by the American Psychological Association in 2014 reports that 77 and 73 percent of questioned people regularly experience physical and psychological symptoms of stress correspondingly and 33 percent admitted living with extreme stress. ("Daily Life,") Subsequently, the statistics of stress occurrence grounds the need to list stress among the current health concerns.
The conditions of modern life are quite favorable for the existence of a continuous influence of a variety of stressors on an average person. As any irritants, they can be chronic and persistent or acute and short-term. Subsequently, the nature and intensity of a stressor will influence the reaction of the body and the extent to which this reaction can be regarded as destructive for a person. According to DSM IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), a stressor is any life change or event that can be&nbsp.associated “with the onset, occurrence or exacerbation of a mental disorder”.&nbsp.

World war II

July 3, The Treaty of Versailles’ Short-Term Peace and the U.S. During and After World War II Britain, France, and the United States of America dominated the peace conference in Paris in 1919, while the Germany was not invited to partake in it. Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles (“the Treaty”), the Allies forced Germany to accept responsibility for World War I, which included economic reparations of £6,600 million to the Allies, a price that the Germans saw as too high and difficult to pay, particularly after the Treaty created loss of territories, industrial resources, and unemployment (“Economic Effects”). Specifically, the Treaty gave the Allies the right to confiscate German land and to significantly reduce the German army, navy and air forces (“What was the Treaty of Versailes?”). It also demanded Germany to return Alsace and Lorraine to France and some parts of Prussia to Poland. The depression of the 1930s worsened the economic conditions of Germany, thereby creating highly dissatisfied and vengeful Germans. Thus, the Treaty played a large role in the causes of World War II (WWII) by planting seeds of discontent and anger in Germany that Adolf Hitler exploited to start WWII.
The major players of World War II are Germany, the United States, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, and the Soviet Union. When WWII broke in Europe, President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s initial reaction was to stay neutral with an isolationist policy, as he grappled with the effects of the depression on the U.S. economy (“Biography”). After France fell in 1940, Roosevelts foreign policy started to change. Congress passed a draft for military service and Roosevelt signed a “lend-lease” bill in March 1941 to allow the nation to supply aid to countries that were at war with Germany and Italy (“Biography”). America remained neutral, to some extent, though it became the “arsenal of democracy” as its factories provided war armaments (“Biography”).
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor changed America’s neutrality, however, for it forced the U.S. to engage in war. Roosevelt led the creation of “The Declaration of the United Nations” that formed a “grand alliance” against the Axis powers on January 1, 1942 (“Biography”). He executed his powers as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces by working closely with his military advisers, overriding them when he thought it was crucial, choosing principal field commanders and contributing to the decision-making process for wartime strategy (“Biography”).
WWII had positive social and economic effects on the U.S. during and after the war. The U.S. economy was significantly stimulated by the war (West). The depression ended as new industrial complexes were established across the U.S. (West). During this time, women and minorities played a large role because they provided productive work through working in traditional (i.e. sewing and care giving) and non-traditional (i.e. factory work even in male-dominated industries, such as sheet metal work, journalism, and healthcare) jobs (O’Neill). Statistics of women employment showed: “Between 1940 and 1944, the number of employed women rose by half, reaching a high of 19 million, and, for the first time in American history, married women outnumbered singles” (O’Neill). Minorities also enjoyed greater acceptance as soldiers during WWII compared to WWI though discrimination continued (O’Neill). In addition, since the war did not physically destroy the U.S. compared to other Asian and European nations, the American economy dominated world trade and commerce after WWII (West). Moreover, the U.S. had years of military development that shaped its position as the new leading military power in the world (West). In other words, after WWII, the U.S. became a stronger world power.
Works Cited
“Biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt.” Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, no date. Web. 1 July 2014. .
“Economic Effects of the Treaty of Versailles.” The Holocaust Explained, no date. Web. 1 July 2014. &lt. http://www.theholocaustexplained.org/ks4/the-nazi-rise-to-power/the-german-economy-c-1919-29/economic-effects-of-the-treaty-of-versailles/#.U7TKhJSSzNt&gt..
ONeill, William L. “Minorities and Women During World War II.” Excerpt from, A Democracy at War. New York: Macmillan, 1993. Web. 1 July 2014. .
West, N. “Effects of World War II.” No date. Web. 1 July 2014. .
“What was the Treaty of Versailes?” The Holocaust Explained, no date. Web. 1 July 2014. .

Child Labor in India

It drops the children on the way, while the nearest village is 1 km. from the factory, the farthest one is about 20 km. The bus… reaches the last village from 8 to 9 p.m. The bus starts from that village between 3 to 4 a.m. with the last child and proceeds towards the factory. It reaches the factory premise around 6 a.m. The sleeping children are thereafter dumped into a hall to sleep up to 7 a.m. After that… they have their breakfast and start work” (Browne et al. 2005: 1).
After almost six decades of Independence and more than a decade after India joined the United Nations Convention on Child Rights, children in the country persist to be the most abandoned segment. Statistics show that India has 17 million child laborers, which is the highest in the world. Illiteracy regarding the fundamental rights of a child has resulted in a trouble-free violation of laws intended to safeguard and motivate children (Fan 2004). In homes, outside the safety of their houses, and in sweatshops, children are being oppressed and abused by many.
More than half of the laboring children, or 54%, are in the agricultural sector and mainly others are employed either in construction work, which is 15.5% or in a domestic occupation which is 18%. Approximately 5% are in manufacturing occupations, and the remaining, which is about 8%, are dispersed across other types of occupation. The table presents a gender-based division of working children and their educational circumstances. Please keep in mind that the data are for children in the age bracket of 5-14 years (Narayanan 2006, para 2).
Child labor in India is a serious and depressing problem. Children below the age of 14 are compelled to work in glass-blowing, pyrotechnics and most generally, carpet-manufacturing companies. While the Government of India discloses about 20 million children laborers, other NGO’s approximate the population to be near to 50 million. Most widespread in the northern section of India, the use of child labor has turned out to be a legitimate practice and is perceived by the local citizenry as fundamental to surpass the extreme poverty in the area (Murshed 2002).

Health in the UK the solution for adult obesity

The available statistics on obesity among the adult population in UK unveils facts on the rapid spread of the same. Earlier, women in UK were easily affected by obesity and related health problems. But now, situation is different and men in UK are not safe because they also face the problem of obesity and related health problems. This proves that male adults must be more serious and conscious about the rapid increase of obesity among them. Korbonits (2008, p.118) states that ‘obesity is a growing healthcare problem with 20% of UK’. So the rate of obesity among the people in UK shows rapid growth. Stomach obesity is most common among male adults but less common among female adults. Pryke (2006, p.120) states that ‘Three- quarters of the UK adult population are now overweight with 22% of adults in the obese range’. One can see that the rate of obesity among UK adults is showing rapid increase. Besides, UK has the highest rate of obese population among the European countries. So, one can see that statistics on obesity in UK reveals the seriousness of obesity related chronic diseases and other problems in the society. From a different angle of view, adult obesity is related to child obesity because children are deeply influenced by the food habits of their parents. When parents are not aware of the importance of dieting and exercise, there is high possibility for obesity as a serious threat.

Adult obesity leads to a number of internal and external problems like health and psychological. One can see that many serious diseases like diabetes, stroke and BP are deeply rooted in obesity. Wilson (2010, p. B1) makes clear that spending on health care is increasing because a number of health problems are seen among the people who face the problem of obesity.

Week5

Due Q. Are we in danger of ignoring a slowdown in the BRIC nations when one or all of the BRIC countries come to a halt?
As the so-called BRIC nations (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) continue with the struggle of easing their policies to rebalance their economic growth prospects in the face of a sluggish global economy, it must not be lost that their efforts are directed towards a storm generated elsewhere. The most obvious reason for the gloomy growth momentum in these countries is the ever worsening economic effects of Euro debt crisis, which seems to be exporting lack of market confidence at their doorsteps owing to the general lack of economic leadership from the aging industrial countries. The slowdown is further aggravated by their internal challenges associated with structural problems as well as the massive uncertainty surrounding the fiscal policy cliff in the United States to boost the global economy after an almost fatal trap in the 2008 crisis (Bluford and Samantha 1).
The BRIC countries combined have been a dynamic growth powerhouse with a sizeable contributory effect to the world economic expansion over the past decade. The combined share of the BRIC’s input to the global GDP was at 8 percent in the year 2000. By 2010, their influence hit a new level high of 25 percent. a clear pointer that their slowdown now will obviously be more detrimental to the global turnaround than it would have been years back, more so after the 2008 financial meltdown followed by another credit crunch in Europe. With an average weighted real GDP growth of 8.1 percent in 2010 slipping to a respectable 6.5 percent in 2011 and a further expectation of a downward trend of 4.87 and 4.70 in 2012 and 2013 respectively, it is admittedly clear that the severity of the economic slowdown in the BRICs to the global economy is greater than the previous projections (Bluford and Samantha 1-4). However, coming to the point of a complete halt would be an exaggerated scenario. The BRIC nations are simply on the verge of coping with the global slowdown, which seem to have caught up with them late than expected. Notably, 2009/2010 growth elements in the BRICs were driven by economic woes elsewhere. The latest statistics are but confirmations of a reshaping economic growth towards sustainable levels.
Work cited:
Bluford, Putnam, and Samantha Azzarello. BRIC Country Update: Slowing growth in the face
of internal and external challenges. CMEGroup, 25 July 2012. Web. 30 Sept. 2012.

Descriptive Statistics

Using Descriptive Statistics Statistical analysis of data provides objective and comparable means of understanding the trends seen in the sample and consequently in the population (Frankfort-Nachmias &amp. Nachmias, 2008). The most basic type of statistical analysis is the use of statistics that are descriptive of the sample collected (Patten, 2005). These descriptive statistics help in understanding the most common and the most distinctive traits of the data collected, as well as helping in the use of other statistical techniques that can help in making estimates about the population (Patten, 2005).
For the data presented. the descriptive statistics help in understanding the extent of spread of scores, the aggregate score s of groups of participants, and the most representative scores in different groups(Frankfort-Nachmias &amp. Nachmias, 2008). For the control group, it is evident that the scores on both variables – Depression and the number of candy bars eaten – are higher than the group receiving CBT. The control group had a Mean score of 5.3 and a Median and Modal score of 5 for candy bars eaten. The range of the scores was 4 and variance was 1.79 while Standard Deviation was 1.34. The CBT group had a Mean and Median score of 1.5 and Modal scores of 1 and 2. The range of the scores was 3, with a variance of 1.17 and a Standard deviation of 1.08. For the whole sample, the Mean was 3.40 and mode was 5 while median was 3.50 while range was 8, variance was 5.2 and Standard deviation was 2.28. For both the groups. the Mean, Median and Mode are quite close and this may be interpreted to mean that these groups are somewhat normally distributed, though the CBT group is a bimodal group with two adjacent modes. For all three measures of central tendency, the Control group had higher scores as compared to the CBT group. The control group also had higher scores on all measures of dispersion, showing that there was more variability in the control group’s scores than the CBT groups. The measures of variability were highest for the whole sample showing that all participants together had more variance in their scores.
The same trend was noticed for depression scores with CBT group scoring lower than the control group. The control group had a mean score of 72.2, a median of 74.5 and a mode of 72. The range of scores was 32 with a variance of 87.57 and a Standard deviation of 9.36. The mean score for the CBT group was 40.8, the median was 40 and the mode was 35. Although the control group had similar mean, mode and median showing a relatively normal distribution, the CBT group was more skewed towards the higher side. The range of scores for the CBT group was 26 with a variance of 59.96 and a standard deviation of 7.74. The CBT group again had less variability as compared to the control group. the mean for the whole sample was 56.75, median was 53.5 and mode was 35, showing that the sample data is indeed skewed(Patten, 2005).The higher mean and lower mode show that although many participants got lower than the median score on depression. there are some participants with very high scores. The range for the scores was 57, which was just short of the range for both groups put together. This shows that there was very little overlap in the dispersion of scores for the control group and the CBT group. The variance was 337.67 and standard deviation was 18.38. These measures are high since they consist of the scores taken from two groups that have provided very different scores, and so variability for the full sample is much higher than for either of the two groups.
This data provides us with a detailed picture about the differences in the scores of participants in the two groups, and about the distinctions in the manner in which the scores for these groups differ for the two variables. But this data only describes the sample and not the population. It is not possible to estimate what are the trends in the population based on these statistics (Frankfort-Nachmias &amp. Nachmias, 2008).
References
Frankfort-Nachmias, C &amp. Nachmias, D. (2008). Research methods in the social sciences (7th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.
Patten, M. (2005). Understanding research methods: An overview of the essentials (5th ed.). Glendale: Pyrczak Publishing.

Property Cycles The UK Experience

82000 Generally, it could be stated that the property market is characterized by continuous and radical changes. The specific issue has been examined by Pain et al. (1994, 53) who noticed that ‘the behavior of the personal sector has changed markedly over the past 15 years, coinciding with a period in which overall consumers expenditure proved extremely difficult to forecast with any degree of accuracy’. Because of the above phenomenon, the national economy – which is closely related with the property market – faces severe turbulences by achieving a significant level of growth when the prices of houses are increased and having severe losses in periods that the prices of houses are decreased because of the lack of monetary resources available that they could help the enhancement of the property market. In relevant research published by National Statistics Online (2007), it was revealed that ‘a feature of homeownership in the United Kingdom is the relatively large number of homes purchased with a mortgage. approximately three-quarters of house purchases are financed with a mortgage loan facility’. This means that consumers in Britain cannot afford the purchase of a new house and for this reason, they seek the support of the financial institutions. However, if taking into account the fact that borrowing cannot be increased on a continuous basis (such a fact could lead the national economy to severe damages) it is clear that the real potentials for growth are not many for the UK property market.On the other hand, the property is often chosen by investors globally as a profitable solution, especially for a long term investment. In this case, the funds gathered could be used in order to stabilize the economy. However, not all properties are offered for such a pay-back unless perhaps those that are cited in certain (usually too expensive, in terms of the price of the house/ building) areas.&nbsp. &nbsp.&nbsp.

The Extent to Which Victims of Domestic Violence Get Protection from the Criminal System

The statistics do not report exact happening on the domestic violence as per the National Organization for Women (2007) report. This suggests that much women violence occurs in households but is not fully covered by the National Statistics bureau. The organization reported that about 2million women face domestic violence but the statistics failed to capture this.
The paper thus reviews the extent to which victims of domestic violence get protection from the criminal system. The police take charge of the criminal activities in the society and protecting all the people from all forms of violence. It also examines federal case law and other situations where police are in charge of responding to the incidents of domestic violence. It also examines the reasons for the liability to damages caused in the process of arresting the domestic violence perpetrators. In 2005, it was reported that the supreme court in Town of Castle Rock v. Gonzales (545 us 748) barred police from arresting the perpetrators of domestic violence. This was revealed especially when statutory law provides alternatives for dealing with that act of injustice.
Domestic violence is a situation when one adult in the society or a relationship takes advantage of the power and misuses it to control another. It emanates through the establishment of fear and control in a relationship by the use of violence and other forms of abuse. The violence emanates from sexual assault, physical abuse and even threats. The number of women who face domestic violence is more than the male who faces the same violence. Durant and Miguel explain that domestic violence is normally linked to the violence against women especially those who are in their matrimonial homes. This makes it a barrier to the women empowerment, bearing consequences to women’s health, strength and even their activities
The article on police response to domestic violence victims contains new and significant information relevant in&nbsp.addressing and justifying the publication.&nbsp.

Published Piece of Research

The research article is carefully chosen as there have not been many previous studies on the media constructions of identity theft in the United States. The reviewer is also attracted by the specific content analysis and newspaper article studies employed by the researchers for the purpose of the study. The paper tries to make a critical review of the selected research article by applying the basic tenants of research methods.
The introductory part of the research seems concise and precise, and it focuses specifically on the media portrayal of identity theft in the United States. The researchers identify identity theft as a typical 21st-century phenomenon due to the rapid growth of technology and information systems. Special efforts are taken by the researchers to bring in the shocking data on identity theft from reliable sources like the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2006) and the Javelin Strategy Research Group. However, the researchers purport that there have not been any significant studies on the media representations on identity theft in the United States- an area that needs more research and studies.
The aims and objectives of the study, as well as the scope and importance of the research, are very clearly defined by the researchers. The purpose of the research is to “explore how the media portray identity theft and how the media have characterized identity theft offenders and offenses over the past several years” (Morris and Longmire, p. 2-3). Factors such as the delay in identifying and reporting identity theft (under-reporting), the freshness of the nature of the crime and vagueness in the official classification of identity theft (which the researchers term as ‘ambiguous criminal justice attenuation or classification’), lack of clear legislation in this regard, lack of clear cut definitions on identity theft and then trans-national&nbsp.nature of the crime have all, according to the researchers, increase the scope and significance of the study.&nbsp.

Contributions to the Payment of the Mortgage

The courts have wide discretion3 to redistribute the assets of married couples without having to take into account beneficial ownership. There is no such statutory provision for cohabitants. they are subject to the equitable rules of resulting and/or constructive trusts and/or promissory estoppel and may have no redress despite having made substantial contributions to the maintenance of the property and/or indirect contributions to the payment of the mortgage.

This is aggravated by the lack of certainty in the law with regard to measuring the acquisition and quantification of beneficial interests. The ‘justice’ received turns on the initial pleading of the claimant and the manner in which the household budget was allocated4. Typically a claimant who seeks estoppel will have a broader range of remedies available from the court than someone who seeks to establish a constructive trust based on indirect contributions. This has led to inconsistency in judgments, which undermines the certainty of the law, with a subsequent increase in litigation and costs5.

The Law Commission speculated on introducing a ‘statutory trust’ where registered beneficiaries would earn a pro-rata proprietary interest rather than a personal right to be repaid the value of their relevant contribution(s), subject to evidence of gifts or loans6. Unfortunately, it was felt that the scheme would not reduce the evidential burden and that it did not offer enough remedies. In particular, the scheme did not fully address the lost economic opportunities following the breakdown of a relationship where the contributions were not-direct. Other commonwealth jurisdictions have different approaches but the same issues of uncertainty and obscurity.

It is submitted that the focus on the ‘family’ home is too narrow given the statistics on cohabitation and the many diverse forms which have evolved. A broader approach to shared rights in accommodation is&nbsp.called for.&nbsp. As demonstrated in the Law Commission’s review of other jurisdictions waiting for the courts to develop greater flexibility will necessarily be slow, strapped as they are by an Executive still focusing on the ‘family’ -&nbsp. hence displaying a lack of understanding of the social issues – on one hand, and judicial precedent on the other.

What is the Point of Vaccination

&nbsp.Foremost, I would inform the client that clinical scientific data has not produced concrete evidence showing that administration of vaccines results to specific side effects such as allergies, sudden infant death syndrome or autism (Mackay and Rosen 1044). Moreover, the chances of adverse side effects to the daughter are very minimal owing to past statistics. For example, the chance of adverse side effects in most vaccinations such as paralysis in oral poliovirus vaccine is estimated at about 1 vaccine recipient in a million (Mackay and Rosen 1044).

Foremost, certain vaccines for diseases, such as the poliovirus vaccine, are heat-labile (Mackay and Rosen 1044). Consequently, they are difficult and expensive to administer in certain areas since several doses are required. Moreover, the polio vaccine lacks the benefit of a simple test that indicates the success of vaccination. Consequently, this has contributed to its persistence in other areas such as Africa. In addition, the Global Alliance for Vaccines faces the daunting task of increasing global childhood vaccination rates to 90% and over (Mackay and Rosen 1045).

A) Conduct a STEEPLE analysis of the the UK supermarket sector and evaluate which of these contexts are the most important to the organisations involved This section should include a focus on the microeconomic environment (the product market the labo

Tesco has occupied 30.5% in terms of grocery retail in the market, whereas Morrisons has 11.7% followed by Asda with 17.1% and Sainsbury’s with 16.1% (Butler, 2012). As UK supermarket sector is based on both grocery and retail outlets, the rate of sales for both the products base have made certain impacts on the growth of the market scenario. The rate of sales in retails had enlarged by 5.4% in September 2011 as compared to September 2010 (Office for National Statistics, 2011). Non-retailing counters and automotive fuels selling capacities have improved to 15.5 and 2.8 percent respectively from 2010 in the year 2011 (Tesco Plc, 2012).
The paper intends to discuss on STEEPLE Analysis of the UK supermarket sector and evaluate the factors in the market which would impact in the organizations operating in the market. Moreover, the discussion also focuses on the assessment of the HR practices of one of the leading companies in the UK retail market, Tesco.
STEEPLE analysis is an instrumental analysis through which changes in the environment can be determined in correlation to the operations in the business sector. The analysis is based on different factors such as social, technological, political, economic, ethical, legal and environmental which have an impact on the operations of business in the UK supermarket sector.
In relation to the social factors, it is observed that there is a change in the buying pattern of different materials by the customers which significantly relates to the dimensions of lifestyle changes, alteration in income distribution and changes in living conditions. With the influence of these factors customers in the UK are favouring one-stop shopping of products (Randall &amp. Seth, 2011). A crucial issue in context is that there is a noticeable certain change in terms of social wants with the change in time because increasing number of customers nowadays are desiring to keep themselves abreast with the latest fashion and

How the Content and the Time Spent Watching Television Influences Childhood Obesity

An understanding of the contribution of viewing television to obesity will help in formulating strategies of regulating what children view and the number of hours they spent viewing programs.
The prevalence of obesity is increasing at alarming rates. Statistics indicate that obesity has reached triple its rate 30 years ago in children. Data from America shows that the number of the 6-11 year old obese children went up from7percentage to 20%. For adolescents, obesity rates increased from 5% to 18% over the thirty years period. As evident, the last thirty years have presented alarming rates of obesity among teenagers and children. Being overweight denotes having more weight than the recommended healthy weight in relation to one’s height. Being overweight eventually leads to a condition whereby an individual possesses excessive levels of fat. The two conditions arise when the intake of calories is higher than calories utilization. An individual with these conditions presents a caloric imbalance (Boulos et al, 2012).
These conditions present multiple health risks during youth or in advanced stages of life. Obesity increases the chances of having high cholesterol levels in the body, a situation that contributes to high blood pressure and cardiovascular health disorders and diseases. In addition, being obese or overweight increase the risk of prediabetes, a condition that presents increased glucose levels posing a greater risk of developing diabetes. Overweight and obesity conditions beginning at childhood or adolescence may progress until adulthood. This makes the adult at risk of developing multiple non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, heart diseases, stroke, cancer, diabetes type 2 (Boulos et al, 2012).
Psychologists have concentrated on establishing the causes of obesity. Several studies indicate that the levels of television watching in terms of content and total time spent watching contribute to the

Marketing Plan 1

But due to more responsibility and pressure people are relying heavily on the business of movers. The customer do not have to take any pressure or tension all he needs to do is pay the amount and the furniture will be taken care of by Daycare 24 hours and the furniture reaches the said destination.
Analyzing the population of New Brunswick which constituted of 756,000 as on 2012 and with immigrants of about 260000, the target customer of Daycare 24 hours would be the immigrants who took up residence in Canada and is expected to increase by 0.7% (Statistics Canada, 15). In addition, the permanent residence are also the target customers as with shift in job or due to any transfer they have to travel and the need of movers will be required by them. Therefore targeting these two sectors, Daycare 24 hours will be able to generate awareness and create a market value in Canada.
In proceeding with the product, the company might face various challenges such as tracking the potential customers, R&amp.D, customer satisfaction which forma an integral part of service. Apart from the challenges, creating an appropriate marketing mix is also essential. The marketing strategy which Daycare 24 hours plans to adopt is of focus strategy targeting the niche segment of moving furniture from Saint John, NB. Daycare 24 hours would adopt the focus strategy either through differentiation strategy or with cost leadership strategy to fit the customers need and serve them

Detailed Proposal

Generation Y is gradually replacing the baby boomers at a high rate – a factor that has grappled many people. They have changed the whole world making things at a totally different manner passing the boomers known as echo boomers. the exact origin of the term remains unidentified. The millennial generation was born in a period from 1982 to 2001. Contrary to generation X, generation Y change with varying brands and offer trust to institutions and authority. Consequently, they remain connected with technological advancements mainly using the social media for various commitments. Notably, generation Y is exceedingly careful to tread in the footsteps of their parents and forefathers, such as those social trends of divorce and separation. It is this regards that the generation use tactics of delayed marriages with only the fortunate marrying at an early age (Ferguson and Brohaugh 80). According to statistics, 67% of generation Y have access to Facebook and make updates on consistent individuals from either their smart phones or their technological advanced devices.
The number of students owning phones and electronic devices in generation Y remains high and is modulating gradually. As due to the emergence in technology 59% of students visit Facebook during class time a factor that is different from the generation X, which had respect for various class activities. In addition, due to the advancement in technology 75% of generation Y uploads photos through mobile phones with an 80% of the same people using successive electronic devices simultaneously. For instance, they watch TV using their phones at the same time. To further trigger surprise, 93% of teens have access and ownership desktop, as well as laptops, with others accessing the internet through their phones. This, therefore, proves the advancement in technology that generation Y enjoys. Apart from using

References check

References check Twenty five percent of adults aged 65 and above occasionally fall down every year. These falls may result to moderate to severe body damages or even early deaths in an elderly person. Fortunately, these falls are part of public health challenges that can be tackled.
The incident of an elderly person falling in a hospital setting is a question mark on nurses’ duties. Was the fall preventable? This article has reviewed some articles that elaborate more the issue of falling patients. The nurses should be trained to spot people that are susceptible to falling down. The nurse should be aware of their problems regarding vision, the medicines they are taking or their general body balance. These articles have concentrated much on the aging population and they are as follows.
Nursingworld : An online platform that represent, educates and advocates nurses in the U.S
www.nursingworld.org/FunctionalMenuCategories/AboutANA.aspx : this is a platform that provide nurses with general guidance on taking care of most patients with illness such as falling in elderly people.
Creative programs improve expertise in gerontological nursing. this article not only talks about the ill aged patients, but the need for nurses to become proficient while handling falling patients: www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/TAN/2003/JanFeb03.aspx&nbsp.
Falls and fractures. this is a reviewed article that guide nurses in dealing with the falling effect in elderly people: http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/falls-and-fractures
Falls in the elderly. this is a an article authored by George F Fuller. the article has elaborated much on early stages that takes place while aging that causes falling in elderly people. The article digs deeper into what constitutes to falling in aging patients: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0401/p2159.html
Exercise and Physical Activity. this is an article from National Institute on Aging which is part of National health institute. The article provides physical exercise guidance to those approaching old age and those who are already elderly and have falling problem: http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/exercise-physical-activity/introduction
Theres No Place Like Home – For Growing Old. this is an article that provides guidance on places to get help in case an elderly person is having falling problem. http://www.nia.nih.gov/health/publication/theres-no-place-home-growing-old
Home Safety for People with Alzheimers Disease. this reviewed article that talks much on taking care of patients with Alzheimer’s illness: http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/home-safety-people-alzheimers-disease/introduction
Preclinical Alzheimer’s disease and risk for falls. this article has pin pointed out statistical figures regarding Alzheimer’s disease that is connected to falling: http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/announcements/2013/06/falls-may-be-sign-future-alzheimers-disease-cognitive-decline
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Web–based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) [online]. Accessed August 18, 2014. an online platform that can be queried to give statistical data on issues to do with falling.
National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS), National Center for Health Statistics. Available at: www.cdc.gov/nchs/hdi.htm. Assessed August 18, 2014. the articles gives statistical information on surveys that have been done regarding falling in elderly people.
Accidents or Unintentional Injuries. this is an article from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: the article contains statistics about falling patients basically in the United States of America.
Geriatric Times. this is an online journal that provides updated information that is clinically related to falling in aging population: www.geriatrictimes.com/
ASA Connection. this is an online electronic newsletter which is promoted by the US society about falling. The updates includes newly initiated research, policy development and timely announcement and events: www.asaging.org/asaconnection/enews.cfm
Social Gerontology &amp. the Aging Revolution. this is a social impact depiction of an aging population in the current society and the problems they face in reference to falling. www.trinity.edu/~mkearl/geron.html
Heal Your Brain: How the New Neuropsychiatry Can Help You Go from Better to well. this is book that is dedicated to help individuals having anxiety and depression disorders in relation to falling.
All these articles address matters to do with falling at different levels and in different communities. they are all focused to have a better falling handling approaches by the end of it all. Some articles contain statistical data regarding falling in aging population and they can be used as reference sources in case information is needed.
Some articles reveals universal decline in mortality and fertility that triggers population aging. Most of the analysis uses three major indicators. life expectancy at birth and the ages of 60, sixty five and 80, and the rate of survival to ages of 65, 60 and 80. These articles address the proposed changes that should be done in order to enhance quality life for the aging population.
Analyzing PICTO
Population/ Patient Problem: the patient is an elderly person having falling problem.
Intervention: the plan is to have the patient under maximum care and therapies to reduce falling.
Comparison: the alternative is to come up with new measures that can improve care.
Outcome: the outcome is to have the patient well taken care of and adopt to care.
Time:&nbsp. Time may vary depending on the patient’s condition.

AFFORDABLE HEALTH CARE

How Does Our Society Prevent Another Rosalyn Schwartz Apparently, the case of Rosalyn Schwartz, reviewed in Gregory Pences “Medicine and Inequity: Accounts of the Cases that Shape and Define Medical Practice” is one of the most striking instances of inequity in the health care. The case of that victim of American health care, who did not received timely medical help and due to the absence of medical insurance is notorious of the bug in the system. The dramatic outcome of Rosalyns breast cancer ascertain the need to seek ethically righteous solution, which would fit into the Aristotelian concept of the distributive justice. Thinking of the possible strategies and reforms to mitigate the problem, I came up with the accurate suggestions and critical thoughts on Medicare, which I would share within the following reflection.
As it has been mentioned in the case, the Rosalyns preexisting condition of ulcer restrained her from receiving due to the few compounding circumstances: first, she was divorced, second, her annual salary at the gift-wrapping company of $19,000 was insufficient to cover medical care and the employee did not provided any sort of medical coverage for her, the last, but not the least, a “relatively innocent” disorder, an ulcer, made so far expensive medical insurance to cost like a sort of luxury. Obviously, if Rosalyn was not rejected at first, her cancer would not metastasized into womans hips and she would not break her fragile hip bone. The woman died a decade after her surgeries.
In the aftermath of Rosalyns case, it may seem that costly medical advantages seem to be a kind of unattainable service even for those, who are, like, Rosalyn, in desperate need for emergent medical assistance. It is impossibly cruel to make someone suffer, witness how their health state progressively deteriorate. What make things feel even worse, is that getting sick for average middle-aged employed American citizen is a sort of fatal disaster.
Rosalyns case seems to be outrageous, if observed through the lens of distributive justice theory. That concept is related to the fair distribution of existent resources amidst diverse members of the society. That justice is grounded on the total amount of goods to be allocated, the procedure and distributive pattern. In the health care settings, like in any other field, distributive justice is expected to work for the good of patients.
Allocation of medical services, thereof, should be based on the criteria of need, equity and equality. Currently, the United States of America maintains a patchwork system of five programs, namely, Medicare, CHAMPUS/Tricare, employment-sponsored coverage and private medical insurance. However, there are roughly 18,000 Americans who did not fall into any of the mentioned categories. Even such complex medical system make these citizen devoid of the essential care, which, crucially, guarantees their basic human right for life.
In the aftermath of the following case one should consider a few facts. All things considered, the efficiency of the American medical system can be questioned even further, if to look at the example of Canada and some European countries. In Canada, for instance, medical coverage for every individual, without exception, is subsidized on the alcohol, gasoline and cigarettes taxation. The average cost per person is around $2,000, while we pay as much as $6,280 and leave 50 million of our population, devoid of medical help. To conclude, the following statistics and real-life example of Rosalyn Schwartz one should acknowledge the necessity of adopting health care policies that are Canada or other European countries run. At least, AmeriCare is need of reformation, it should be all-inclusive and just.
References
OBrian, W. Distributive Justice and the Harm Principle. SSRN Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.1503963
Pence, G. (2004). Classic Cases in Medical Ethics. Boston, Mass.: McGraw-Hill.

Representation of Obesity in the Media

It is necessary to say that the media focuses especially much attention on the issue of obesity in those countries where it is an acute social problem, too. First of all, this is a matter of discussion in the media of the US. According to statistics of 2014, approximately two-thirds of adults in the US are overweight or obese, which makes obesity rates of this country among the highest in the world. The situation in Australia and New Zealand is quite similar. It is often compared to the health crisis in the US. As a result, obesity became one of the most frequent health issues discussed in the media, at least in these countries. Even despite so high obesity rates in the US, people in this country are extremely prejudiced against those who are overweight or obese. This is obvious that the media is due in no small part to this fact.
Very often, the image of people who are obese is quite negative in the media. Popular television shows, for instance, portray them either as comedic, lonely characters, or freaks (Whyte, 2010). The Drew Carey Show, a popular American sitcom, may illustrate this. Its main character, Drew Carey, often expresses disappointment about his own weight. One of his co-workers, Mimi, is portrayed as a large unattractive woman. Obese people are also shown as awkward, slovenly, obnoxious, and even stupid. In media, it is hardly ever possible to come across a successful lawyer, doctor, or businessman who is overweight or obese. At the same time, however, the situation is drastically different in real life. In fact, people whose weight is normal are a minority today.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Corporate Governance in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

ance and the Role of Auditors in the KSA 26 Synthesis of the Review 28 Chapter 3: Methodology 30 Introduction 30 Research Approach 30 Research Design 30 Specification of Variables 31 Hypotheses 33 Sampling Technique 35 Methods and Materials 36 Reliability and Validity 36 Data-Collection Procedure 36 Ethical Considerations 37 Method of Data Analysis 37 Conclusion 38 Chapter 4: Results and Discussion 39 Introduction 39 Results 39 Discussion 60 Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations 65 Conclusions 65 Recommendations 67 List of Tables Table 1. Independent and Dependent Variables 31 Table 2. Demographic Traits 32 Table 3. Research Questions with Corresponding Alternative Hypotheses 33 Table 4. Descriptive statistics: Evaluations of corporate governance (Internal Auditors) 40 Table 5. Descriptive statistics: Facets of the auditor’s role influenced by corporate governance (Internal Auditors) 42 Table 6. T-test: Facets of the auditor’s role influenced by corporate governance (Internal Auditors) 43 Table 7a. Coefficient of determination: Evaluations of corporate governance vs. overall success of corporate governance as regards the auditor’s role (Internal Auditors) 44 Table 7b. One-way ANOVA: Evaluations of corporate governance vs. overall success of corporate governance as regards the auditor’s role (Internal Auditors) 45 Table 7c. Beta coefficients: Evaluations of corporate governance vs. overall success of corporate governance to the auditor role (Internal Auditors) 46 Table 8. Descriptive statistics: Evaluations of corporate governance (External Auditors) 47 Table 9. Descriptive statistics: Facets of the auditor’s role influenced by corporate governance (Internal Auditors) 50 Table 10. T-test: Facets of the auditor’s role influenced by corporate governance…
Following the major recent scandals involving accountants and their tendency to restate earnings, as well as the collapse of Enron and WorldCom, various calls for reform have been made, particularly in the field of management, external auditing and corporate governance (Brown 2005. Deakin &amp. Konzelmann 2004). Research that delves into the matter at hand has highlighted the importance of the so-called “corporate governance mosaic”, which generally emphasises the critical role of the interactions among the important parties involved in financial reporting (Ali 1999). Moreover, researchers have given attention to how the corporate governance initiative of organisations significantly affects the processes related to financial reporting and auditing. It has likewise been argued that the auditors, together with the board of directors, must work hand in hand towards the betterment of the auditing process in accordance with the principles of corporate governance (Cohen, Krishnamoorthy &amp. Wright 2007. Dewing &amp. Russell 2004).
Strong corporate governance positively affects the quality of financial reports in a sense that it minimizes the incidence of fraud, fewer restatements and lower earnings of the management (Cohen et al. 2007). The nature and strength with which organisations carry out their initiatives pertaining to corporate governance significantly affect the audit process. Furthermore, actors involved in the advancement of corporate governance initiatives are also likely to be more responsible in ensuring that financial reporting is of high quality (Abbott, Parker &amp. Peters 2004). Finally, it is also through the proper adoption of the principles of corporate governance that auditors are enabled to solve their disputes with clients. The relationship of corporate governance and the role of the auditors has indeed been the subject of many studies (Abbott, Parker &amp. Peters 2004. International Organisations of Securities Commissions). Additionally, researchers who have undertaken studies in relation to the topic have all underscored the fact that the corporate governance system helps in preventing the collapse of corporations. The relationship between the two is also based on the role of auditors in ensuring the quality of the financial reports (Krishnan n.d.). In view of this, this research aims to look into how corporate governance influences the role of the auditors in the context of companies in the KSA.

Classic airline and marketing solution

Moreover the management is not able to come to a consensus to resolve the problems. In order to overcome the hazards, this company needs to figure out strategies and plans.
Identifying challenges
The first step in order to resolve issues is to identify the challenges. One of the main problems faced by this airline is reduction in airline stocks. There is lack of unity among the employees and this has lead to low morale. One of the main problems is that the Chief Financial Officer and Chief Executive Officer of this airline focuses less on marketing and at the same time wants more consumers to use this airlines. Around 20% of the members have stopped using the Classic Reward Frequent Flyer Program. This program is one such programme which recognises the efforts of frequent flyers by allowing them to redeem free tickets on miles. However one of the alarming statistics is that the average number of flights per member has declined to more than 20%. This translates to the fact that Classic Airlines is slowing losing its loyal customers. One of the major challenges which is being faced by all departments is that this company is 15% reduction in costs over the next 18 months.
Perspectives of stakeholders and ethical dilemmas
The major problems which Classic Airlines is facing are dissatisfied customers, low moral and unity among workers and competition from rival airlines. In order to get this organization back to track urgent strategic decisions need to be formulated with special attention to efficiency, innovation, efficacy and customer service. Classic Airlines expects to provide better quality services at the same airfare and this means that the marketing department needs to extensively and aggressively market the product to attract more customers. Framing the problem Classic airlines must focus on all aspects to ensure that they have better growth and profitability. To achieve this, the organization must be able to forecast market potential and future demand. This can be attained by focusing on long – term marketing goals which can help to reduce challenges. Classic airline must employ internal marketing strategies so that the internal customers are satisfied and work together as a team. Internal marketing suggests that in order to be successful an organization must also emphasise on its internal customers or employees. Service organisations must ensure that the employees have the skill, attitude and commitment needed to meet up with growing customer demands and also sustain loyal customers. In internal marketing employee development is done through training, communication, recruitment, management, coaching and leadership. The company must understand the four elements of services. namely inconsistency, intangibility, inseparability and inventory. These are also known as the four I’s of the services. When discussing the marketing mix of the services the four P’s are important. In order to pursue major marketing goals in the target market, the marketing mix which consists of product, price, promotion and place must be used. The Classic Airlines should offer its customers, competitive prices, invest more on promoting products, improve the quality of the products, enhance the CRM system, and implement new and innovating marketing plans and strategies. The above

What are the main demographic and social trends currently affecting the UK economy and other countries in Europe Describe the macroeconomic impacts of these trends and outline the types of measures that governments might take to deal with them

But the net effect is an overall declining population in Europe. From an economic perspective the problem is specifically the declining working population. Vladimir Spidla (2007), European Commissioner for Employment Affairs made a stark comparison that whereas “today, there are four people of working age for every person over 65, by 2050, this ration will have dropped to two workers paying for one pensioner”.
The problem of population shrinkage is particularly acute in the Scandinavian countries. According to a report published in the Guardian News &amp. Media (2008), although Germany is currently the biggest country in the EU, it is likely to shrink. France’s population is likely to grow. It is said that 14 of the 27 EU countries will “have smaller populations in 50 years’ time”. The number of older people aged over 65 roughly doubles, in the UK to nearly 19 million, as does the number of over 80 years of age in the UK. The number of deaths in the EU is expected to outnumber births from 2015. Net migration is likely to be “the only population growth factor” but only for some years after which it will be insufficient to counter negative growth. Of the bigger EU countries, the UK has the highest birth rate with 1.77 children per woman as at 2004 (Office for National Statistics). So it has a stronger population growth as compared to most of Europe. The current population of 61 million is projected to increase by 25% by 2060 (Guardian News &amp. Media, 2008).
The main causes of population decline are believed to be changes in family patterns and lifestyles such as more women being educated and working, fewer marriages and greater use of contraceptives. Ironically, rising prosperity is creating such conditions that are lowering fertility. More and more couples choose to defer having children and see them as affecting their careers.
Greater immigration has been a phenomenon to counter

Important Change management in Abu Dhabi police department

This model was developed through cooperation between the police, city departments and the community. The community policing structure contains police officers, community relations officers, neighborhood watches and other parties.
Over the fifty-three years since its establishment, the Abu Dhabi Police Department has seen expansion in both structure and scope. A major motivation to modernize and re-structure the ADP has come from the rapid growth in the population of UAE, especially that of Abu Dhabi. According to 2006 statistics, the UAE population was estimated at 2.94 million, with a growth rate of 6.5%, while the Abu Dhabi population was estimated at 1.5 million (Abu Dhabi Department of Planning and Economy, 2009). This high growth rate has been due to rapid economic growth, which has attracted large-scale immigration from neighbouring Arab countries, the Indian sub-continent, and the Far East.
Economic development led to the adoption of advanced technologies even by criminals, who have undertaken ever more sophisticated crimes related to trade, drugs and money laundering. In addition, changes in lifestyles led to weakening of family ties and resulting in many people living alone and isolated. As a result of these changes, the ADP realized that it would have to change its traditional approach in order to improve its performance in preventing crime. More specifically, ADP has made an effort to initiate a Community Policing Program that will engage the mutual participation of the police and the public in crime prevention.
To initiate a closer and more casual relationship between the ADP and the local public. Police work does not begin only after theft or other crimes have occurred but should be preventive in nature and include the involvement of the community. More interaction between the local public and the

Why despite the inclusion of (severe/capital punishment) as a punishing measure in a society crime rates continue to grow A criminological analysis of rape

Every seventh woman is raped by her husband, and every fourth female college student is raped or threatened to be raped (Cease 2010). The statistics is threatening, given the growing number of laws against rape, including capital punishment measures. For this reason, there is an urgent need to understand what gaps in the current law make it difficult to reduce the number and the scope of rapes in the society. It is necessary to identify and understand a causal link between the law and the extent of sexual crime. In simplest terms, the proposed research will identify possible gaps in law that make it possible for individuals to commit sexual crimes without the fear of being punished for them. The researcher expects that the research will become (a) the first step in the subsequent observation of the rape law in America and the world. and (b) will provide recommendations to help the society improve the state of rape law and, as a result, to reduce the scope of rapes and sexual assaults against women.
The research question is “Why despite the inclusion of severe capital punishment as a punishing measure in a society crime rates continue to grow? In connection with the research question, the following issues become the object of the research analysis:
The statistics of rape and sexual assault is the major justification for the proposed research. More importantly, the current state of literature does not provide a single relevant answer as for why laws do not work to improve the crime situation in the context of rape and sexual assaults. The main purpose of the proposed study is to create a precedent, which combines criminology and legal studies and provides a comprehensive overview of the possible reasons of the growing sex crime.
It would be fair to say that the current state of literature does not provide a single relevant answer as for why the inclusion of severe punishment and capital

Bacholer of education (birth5) organisations commuities and communicationliterature review

a as a whole, closely looking at its road networks and reasons for road congestion before delving into ways to avoid cause of accidents by children including the use of restraints.
The capital of the Greater Western Sydney, Parramatta is considered as the region’s business services centre and is undoubtedly quite busy. According to the most recent census conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2006) the city had a population of 18,448 people. It is therefore inevitable that, just like every other busy city in the world, Parramatta is cumbered with the problem of traffic congestion. People in Parramatta use various forms of transport including. road, rail and water. Road remains the busiest as people cycle while others walk with others travelling by bus. As a result of this exceeding congestion, Parramatta has the slowest commuter times as well as the highest levels of city pollution, eventually affecting family life and the economy as a whole.
The particular areas of weakness that greatly accelerate congestion include a shortage of entry points into the city, nine major choke points at the converging points of west-east roads, few full length west east arterial roads (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2002). Round abouts are also fairly common in the city hence is another cause of congestion. In general, Sydney’s inner west suburbs are well known for having the worst traffic congestion and Parramatta is one of them. Although accidents are less common, the city is also home to many families hence it is dangerous for children. Currently, Parramatta is going through a development program that will focus mainly on transport within the area to encourage economic growth.
Traffic management on all roads in New South Wales, of which Parramatta is part of, is managed by the Roads &amp. Traffic Authority (RTA) but the body delegates its duties to City Council of Parramatta to regulate transport locally. The city council resurfaces roads,

History of Newark City

Notable contributors of the slow but steady recovery of Newark include the establishment of the New Jersey Performing Centre (NJPAC) in the 1990s and the recent renovations of the Hahne and Company building in downtown Newark.

In the late 1920s, many skyscrapers were built in Newark illustrating how the city was growing at a high rate. The city’s population increased rapidly with most people inhabiting most parts of the city and the neighbourhoods. In 1938, the city’s budgets fell from $57.8 million to $45 million in 1944 indicating a small and slow recovery from the 1930’s Great depression. Newark’s’ decline was attributed to the wave that drove people to build massive housing and commercial projects. As a result, a lot of money was eliminated in circulation particularly in Newark’s activities. The Great Depression is believed to have caused manufacturers to leave the city with the jobs.

Statistics show in the 1950s the white population declined with high margins while the black population increased rapidly until 1967. It has been found out the white investors left the city’s commercial buildings and left the African Americans struggling with the substandard housing conditions, unemployment and poverty. The sharp decrease in industrial jobs caused increased poverty rates in the 1940s and 1950s. Crime and violence increased in downtown Newark where murder, homicide, theft and rape cases were consistently reported to the Newark Police Department. The good Newark’s image was destroyed with most curio shops, café and art collectives being closed down during the post-World War II era.

The Newark riots of 1967 caused a significant decline in the recovery of Newark City in terms of economic growth, controlling crime and violence, as well as, the City’s image.&nbsp.In July 1967, a white police officer beat an African American citizen known as John Smith after he violently resisted arrest.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Frequency Distribution Graph

More so, descriptive statistics establishes the mean, mode and median central tendency useful in measure of variability that includes the minimum and maximum numbers, variance, kurtosis and degree of skewness (Tochim &amp. Donnelly, 2006).
Significantly, histogram and frequency distribution graph provides information for finding the central tendency and measure of variability. As a result, descriptive statistics deals with the frequency distributions, average, variability and transformed scores to be plotted in the histogram hence providing pictorial information of the scores. Therefore, it is important to interpret the frequency distributions for the variables and changes in the descriptive statistics. More significantly, descriptive statistics present how scores are centrally inclined and vary within the histogram. As a result, the scores of both genders are represented in the histograms, and a representation of the distribution of the scores is created. In addition, it provides information of each genders mean, mode, median, degree of skewness, kurtosis and minimum and maximum numbers in the scores provided.
More extensively, the scores of male remain concentrated around the average point of the curve, most appearing number and the middle number of their scores. As a result, it gives descriptive information on the scores of male that are asymmetrically distributed given that the left side of the polygon is less than the right part hence its asymmetrically distributed. Nonetheless, the females scores are normally distributed because the right side of the polygon is equal distributed with the left as a result, it remains symmetrically distributed. More so, the peak of males score is sharper hence, the kurtosis remains positive. On the other hand, the female scores are distributed normally, and the peak is less sharp hence, the scores are not concentrated around the mean As a result, the scores have been presented based on the

Sweatshop Oppression

Kindall Jones ENC1101.AM3 Hills February 24, Sweatshop Oppression: Ravisankar #2 Groups such as against Sweatshops (USAS) have significant effects on the working conditions in foreign countries. The groups can influence working conditions by refusing to buy cheap clothes made by companies that oppress workers. According to an article in “The Nation” Statistics show that university students buy almost $ 3 billion on sneakers, sweatshirts, caps t-shirts and sports uniforms embellished with the institutions name and logo annually. Since renowned brands do not want to lose this wide market, they put pressure on their workers to work for more hours and less pay. The working conditions of these workers are deplorable (Ravisanker Rajeev 87). Workers are often compelled to work for longer hours without a break and prohibited from joining trade unions. The pressure put on workers influenced by high demand for cheap clothes, by groups such as the university students.
Therefore, if all the university students refrain from buying cheap clothes from these companies until the workers conditions improve, the management will make the needed improvements. For example, USAS seeks to influence universities to obtain their clothes in factories that respect the rights of workers especially the freedom to join trade unions (Ravisanker Rajeev 87). Therefore, USAS and other student groups have a significant effect in improving the actual working conditions in foreign countries.
The groups can help improve the poor working conditions by joining the efforts of other humanitarian associations that hold campaigns to condemn workers’ exploitation. Since most sweatshop companies target students as their major consumer, efforts to condemn abuse of worker’s rights will have an impact on management of these companies. Students can use their universities’ procurement department to air their dissatisfaction with the poor working condition. Students can maximize on the advantage and the fact that the universities buy clothing items such as sports clothing from companies that make them cheaply (Miller, 98). The students can use the university to give an ultimatum to these companies to change the poor working conditions or the universities will stop buying from them. Losing the huge client base that universities offer these companies is a huge risk that the companies may not be willing to take. They may thus consider revising the work condition and allow workers their rights and freedom to form unions (Ravisanker Rajeev 87).
USAS and other human rights group, labor rights activists and student protests can have impact on the poor working conditions in foreign companies by approaching supply chain distributors such as Nike, Adidas, Champion and Gap that buy clothes from oppressive companies (Ravisanker Rajeev 87). The students can appeal to the distribution companies to speak against exploitation of labor and advocate for a change in working conditions. Companies such as Nike and Adidas supply clothes meant for young students in universities. Working with the students to end oppression at work place is a good way to build their brand image (Park 57).
Therefore, students can convince these companies to approach their suppliers and advocate for a safer working environment for their workers (Ravisanker Rajeev 87). Failure to this, the students may threaten to stop buying clothes from the distributor, who in turn will stop buying from the suppliers. In addition, students groups can influence other students to stop buying clothes from any business that is associated with the oppressive cloth manufacturers until the working conditions are improved. Through this, all the stakeholders in the clothing business will work together to stop the abuse of human rights or risk losing their biggest clients in casual wear.
Works Cited
Miller, John. "Why economists are wrong about sweatshops and the antisweatshop movement."&nbsp.Challenge&nbsp.46.1 (2003): 93-122.Print.
Park, Eunsung Eric.&nbsp.Responding to the voices of sweatshop workers: An ethical model for justice in the era of globalization. Drew University, 2011. Print.
Ravisankar, R. Sweatshop Oppression.&nbsp.Practical Argument, 86-87. Print.

Linear Regression and Regression Analysis

Linear Regression and Regression Analysis Regression is a technique in statistics that enables estimation of the relation existing among variables. The technique seeks to estimate the strength of the relationship between one variable with another or a set of variables. However, when applying this technique, the statistician makes assumptions with regard to the variables and their relationship. Regression is based on the assumptions that there exists a linear relationship between the involved variables and that they have an additive relationship. There are many regression techniques one of them being linear regression. Linear regression refers to an approach that involves modeling the relationship that exists between a dependent variable Y and explanatory variable(s) X. The model for linear regression requires that the variables take up the relationship illustrated below:
Therefore, regression analysis is the process of determining the parameters that make up the equation defining that defines the relationship between the variables. This forms the basis for further evaluation of the variables through an in-depth analysis of the basic components of the equation that would result into a line of best fit. Regression analysis is defined on basis of the goal of conducting regression, which is to develop a line of best fit for the variables under investigation (Kahane, 2001).
1.
The goal of using the technique is to establish the relationship and strength of the relationship between two or more variables. This technique is applicable in criminal justice in a number of ways. Regression analysis is useful in evaluating the relationship existing between various aspects of criminal justice. By acknowledging that there are events that take up the position of being determinants of the outcomes of other variables, this technique can be applied in Criminal justice. The regression analysis is pertinent in determining the relationship among variables as a basis for evaluation of the best practices and structures to adopt with regards to the criminal justice system. For instance, upon establishing the nature and strength of the relationship among variables, it is possible to evaluate the impact of specific changes on one to the other. This analysis is important in developing an understanding of the different ways in which improvements can be made to one of the variable in order to change the other (Williams, 2009).
2.
There are many ways in which regression analysis is applicable to criminal justice. For instance, when conducting a study on the relationship between criminal activities and age of the criminals, it is useful to establish their relationship. One of the ways in which the technique has previously been applied is in evaluating the effectiveness of introducing new restrictive laws. For example, when an agency introduces gun-restrictive laws, it is of paramount significance to conduct an analysis of the level of crimes in the different places where the laws are in force. Additionally, regression analysis can be used in evaluation of the best option when developing policies (Walker &amp. Maddan, 2005). For instance, when evaluating expansion needs of the correctional facilities in the country or a specific demographic unit, regression analysis can effectively guide in decision making. This would involve taking the crime rate, arrests and the average number of people jailed every day in an effort to evaluate the future needs of the correctional facilities. This forms the basis for evaluation of the number of inmates that the facilities can accommodate in future. Therefore, the outcomes of the analysis would positively contribute towards determining the feasible changes to make.
References
Kahane, L. H. (2001).&nbsp.Regression basics. Thousand Oaks [Calif.: Sage Publications.
Walker, J. T., &amp. Maddan, S. (2005).&nbsp.Statistics in criminology and criminal justice: Analysis and interpretation. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Williams, F. P. (2009). Statistical Concepts for Criminal Justice and Criminology.&nbsp.
NJ: Upper Saddle River, Pearson Prentice Hall.

Markiting

This is where the reader learns, what he has already anticipated from the title. The body should fully justify the topic, and this article’s body does just the same. This piece truly gives its readers, what it promises in the title. The reader gets to know the about the ‘failed bid’ of ‘Sharon Angel’ in the first paragraph.
Each paragraph contains a strong topic sentence, which connects it with the last paragraph and smoothes way for the next one. The very first line of the article. ‘Is a vote worth $97?’ invites the reader to find out, what is the story behind it.
This article also uses strong action verbs where appropriate, to move the audience along with the flow. This article, although written in past tense, provides an interesting account of the mid-term elections, and keeps the audience hang on to every word.
This piece of writing also has an element of honesty. The writer has justly manifested what he/she believes to be the truth. This article contains integrity of opinions and feelings. It is also open and direct. It is neither lengthy nor ambiguous.
This is a reader-friendly article. It is written in a kind of informal style, and immediately puts the reader at ease. It does not contain too many, too hard words, nor does it beat about the bush. It contains simple and short paragraphs making it easier to understand. This article is very edifying, providing complete information in easy terms that even a layman would understand.
The theme of the article was kind of methodological, and required statistics and facts. It was not a fictional topic, where one could depict one’s opinions and thoughts. The writer made effective use of research to provide accurate facts and figures to clearly describe the ‘most expensive midterm election in U.S. history’.
The writer has also provided the visual representation of the elections, and clear, concise tables that summarizes all the figures that could not be

Health Promotion Activity

Also the organization would have low employee turnover as the employees appreciate the organization’s concern about their wellbeing (Infinite Wellness Solutions, 2008)
At present numerous health issues need to be addressed and selecting one among those is a challenging task. However, in recent times obesity has garnered the attention of everyone as this medical condition leads to many complications such as cardiac problems and diabetes. There have been a lot of studies which have demonstrated the prevalence of the condition in most of the families in America. Statistics reveal that in 2003-2004, the risk of overweight percentage in children and adolescents was 33.6% with the percentage of overweight children being 17.1%. This is a considerable increase when compared to the results of the year 1999-2000 (Ortiz, 2006).
The prevalence of the condition has increased in the recent times due to the fast pace of life, increased consumption of junk food and lack of physical activity. However, this condition can be brought under control with lifestyle changes and support and would offer a lot of positive outcomes for both the employee and the organization.
After identifying the problem that needs to be addressed the next step is to garner the support of the management. The organization should understand the significance of the health promotion activity and should be able to allot adequate funds for the implementation of the same. The next step would be to set goals for the activity and then form a health promotion team or a planning committee (Infinite Wellness Solutions, 2008). Goals need to be established in order to proceed and accomplish what you hope the program will do. It serves as a sort of framework identifying the current situation and the future course after the implementation of the program.
A person would head the committee and would focus primarily on the activity, strategies for making the program work and to meet the

Correlation of Core Financial Data of EasyJet and Macroeconomic Environment

Special attention must be paid to Ryanair’s statistics since it is the largest low-cost airline in Europe and Easyjet’s’ closest competitor. From the above data, it’s evident that in terms of average load factor easyJet was ahead of Ryanair during the period Jul’07 to Jun’08. But Ryanair flew 12 million passengers more than EasyJet. While Ryanair leads in terms of a number of daily flights i.e. 1099, easyJet is a close second with 1045 daily flights.

Table. 2. points out that Ryanair covered 712 routes and 145 destinations with 5981 employees, while easyJet covered almost half the number of routes i.e. 340 and 88 destinations but it had 6500 employees, i.e. more employees than Ryanair. Therefore it can be inferred that operational efficiency or productivity-wise Ryanair leads at least in certain parameters.

As of December 2008, EasyJet had a 22.98% market share in terms of passenger numbers, while its load factor was 84.6%, whereas for the same period Ryanair has 27.85% market share in terms of passenger numbers, while it had a load factor of 81.1%. EasyJet served 27 countries as of December 2008 whereas its closest competitor served 26 countries. (ELFAA member Statistics, December 2008).

The above table shows that in the year 2007 easyJet made a profit of £152.3 million on revenue of £1797.2 million, whereas the company could make a profit of only £83.2 million on much larger revenue of £2362.8 million in the year 2008. In May 2008 it was reported that if there is a hike of $1 in price per barrel of oil, the company’s profit comes down by £2.5m (Wearden G., May 2008). Therefore the drop in profit in spite of higher revenues in 2008 could be attributed primarily to the increase in the price of oil or aviation turbine fuel. The data also points out that the current assets of the company had a healthy rise of £248.6 million in the year 2008 over 2007.

8 7

08.07 Keystone Predator Lesson Solutions to questions for the Otter site The Sea Otter Research and Conservation Program’s main mission is the conservation of Otters from extinction considering that they have been considered as under threat of extinction owing to their mass killing by hunters in the 1920s. Subsequently, the Program seeks to offer intensive care to Otters that are recovered and wounded. thus, enabling them to acclimatize to new surroundings and conditions. The general mission can be summarized into the rescuing, treatment, provision of care and releasing of Otters that are injured or stranded back to the wild (Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation 1).
2. In reporting a stranded Sea Otter, one follows these steps:
a. Avoid touching the Otters or catching it as one may get hurt from the animal’s bites, besides being illegal.
b. Restrain all other persons and pets from the Otter. Subsequently, avoid covering the Otter with anything like a blanket as the same may cause to overheat quickly.
c. Contact the respective agencies to report the incidence of the stranded Otter, who will then come and rescue the stranded animal.
3. A Sea Otter’s coat is unique to the sense that it is two-layered and comprises of more than one million hairs in a square inch. This coat is significant to their survival since it is what provides them with protection against extremities of the ocean life. For instance, the coat is waterproof. thus, able to provide them with insulation and good grooming in combination with the natural oils from their skin (Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation 1).
4. The diet of a Sea Otter mainly comprises of organisms such as crabs and clams that it hunts with the help of its skin flaps beneath its front legs.
5. Current statistics shows that there is an approximate amount of 2,800 Sea Otters currently that live along the California and Big Sur Coasts.
Works Cited
Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation, Saving Sea Otters. 2014. Accessed on 08/09/2014: http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/conservation/research/saving-sea-otters#report-a-stranded-otter
Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation, Southern Sea Otter. 2014. Accessed on 08/09/2014: http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/animal-guide/marine-mammals/southern-sea-otter

“T &amp

m wk3&amp4" T&amp.M 3 Assignment Person A -3 Z Score 20 T Score 200 CEEB Scores 55 IQ Score -3 Percentile Person B +2 Z Score 60 T Score 600 CEEB Score 115 IQ Score
85 Percentile
Person C
+3 Z Score
80 T Score
800 CEEB Score
145 IQ Score
100 Percentile
The Normal Curve
The normal curve is one of several models of "hypothetical distribution of various scores. There is a continuum from one end to the other with an equal amount of scores above and below a midpoint (Brock, n.d.). The distribution of these various deviations are derived form a midpoint so that a specific percentage of scores are between each area of the curve. The normal curve can be used to help psychologists better understand how to place an individual in a career or in a classroom.
Significance/Use of the Normal Curve
The normal curve is often used in a variety of settings including education and psychology. As an example, IQ scores are an example of how the normal curve is used. Many people would fall within the standard deviation between 85 and 115 (Brock, n.d.). Other IQ scores would be higher or lower on the normal curve. The curve was once used in classes where teachers took the highest score on a test and then made a bell curve to give students a better chance of getting a good grade on the test. As an example, if the highest score was 95, then some students would score As at 95, and others would get Bs or Cs in the lower percentages.

References
Brock, S.E. (n.d.). Descriptive statistics and psychological testing. California State University. Retrieved Sept. 21, 2010 from http://www.csus.edu/indiv/b/brocks/Courses/EDS%20245/Handouts/Week%2010 /Descrptive%20Statistics%20and%20the%20Normal%20Curve.pdf
Gregory, R.J. (1996). Psychological testing: History, principles and applications. 2nd Ed. MA: Simon &amp. Schuster

Contemporary Challenges in IR

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For Turkey identify and critically evaluate the key economic political and technological factors that have enabled it to become a Rapidly Developing Economy/Emerging Economy

Turkey has demonstrated its potential as one of the fastest rising economies in the world due to its impressive annual increase in GDP. For instance, the country recorded 8.5 per cent rise in 2011 GDP statistics released on April 2nd revealed that Turkeys GDP increased by 9 per cent in 2010 followed by a further 8.5% in the year 2011(see graph 1). These rates provides a solid argument to justify the inclusion of the country into MIST by Jim ONeill of Goldman Sachs to demonstrate the country’s continued economic growth together with countries such as South Korea Mexico and Indonesia. Countries under MIST categorization have the the potential match development rates recorded by those recognized as big emerging economies (BRIC) (The Economist, 2012). The current rate of Turkey’s FDI means its closest rival is China, followed by other rapidly developing countries such as Brazil, India and Russia. Demonstrating the shift of development from core greatest developing countries recognized under BRICs other countries with potential to report even faster growth rates.
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Use of descriptive statistics in my job as HR professional

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Contribution of Management of Information Systems to Information Systems

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