Omparison of Different Dentification of Subcultures

Abraham Maslow, a famous psychologist, suggested that all people have an internal motivation for belonging in order to reach their fullest potential (Changingminds.org, 1). This viewpoint offers that people in group subcultures will model their behaviors after others in the group as a means to find this belonging. This is very noticeable in The Vermonter group but occurs far less in the International group. Vermonters are very particular about their fashion and where these fashions are purchased due to their own stereotypes about the local shopping options and their focus on advertisements. Many students in this group enjoy retail magazines and regularly discuss the different trends and styles found within them. In some instances, it seems that this is the only social topic that some members have in common. The Vermonters are definitely a popular culture-oriented group that enjoys entertainment and considers issues of wealth, fashion and personal image. This group often looks to one another to validate their opinions, both male and female, but the method by which this is done in The Vermonters is quite different. Females regularly ask one another about their opinions on a new fashion item or social opinion while male students generally look for quality discussion through humor and studies.
&nbsp. &nbsp. &nbsp.The International group does not appear to have this same connection to popular culture because their individual viewpoints on issues of media and television did not show that these items were important to the International student group. Students in this subculture were not observed discussing pop culture and fashion/commercial issues at any point in the research. This could suggest a group that is focused mainly on studies or simply do not have the same consumer values as the local students.
&nbsp. &nbsp. &nbsp.There is a specific organizational culture which exists at Champlain College which begins at the leadership level. The college obviously has a long-term goal of creating students with many different talents (sociology, psychology, etc).

An Analysis of the Celebritized Snoop Dogg

The process of producing a celebrity undergoes a different kind of ‘commodification’. Celebrityhood, as it is specifically called, is a process in which people are transformed into ‘commodities’, that is, to be manufactured and consumed. The production of celebrities is facilitated by various forms of media, such as television, film, newspapers, magazines, the Internet, and others (Couldry 2003). The objective of this study is to analyze the mechanism of celebrityhood through an inclusive examination of one contemporary celebrity. for this case, the gangsta rapper Snoop Dogg. The study will attempt to discuss how Snoop Dogg was ‘celebritized’ across a range of media by applying the fundamental theories and concepts covered in the discussion on the sociology of celebrity.
Primarily, the paper will examine the systems of celebrity production relevant to Snoop Dogg’s rise to fame. Then, the concepts of cultural industries and cultural intermediaries will be taken into account so as to thoroughly analyze the various components that facilitated the production and consumption of Snoop Dogg as a celebrity. The next section will discuss the production of fame mechanism, involving the rise of celebrity journalism, tabloidization, and celebrity scandal. Finally, the paper will wrap up the discussion by providing sociological analyses of the ‘celebritization’ of Snoop Dogg, using the relevant theories of sociological imagination by C. Wright Mills and the ‘powerless elite’ by Alberoni.
The production of Snoop Dogg as a celebrity was facilitated by a variety of medium, namely, stardom and the movies, magazines, newspapers and tabloids, reality television and most importantly, the popular music’s star system. Snoop was introduced to stardom through the assistance of other famous rappers, such as Dr Dre, who gave Snoop’s biggest musical break (Haggins 2007). However, stardom presented Snoop differently as a rising celebrity to the public.

The Greatest Prime Minister in Canadian History for Promoting Ethnic Diversity and Communities was Pierre Elliott Trudeau

My Canadian Studies research argument is that Pierre Elliott Trudeau was the greatest prime minister in Canadian history for promoting ethnic diversity in communities.
Introduction
Changes into the contemporary time frame in Canada have occurred because of ideologies of different leaders. A leader that has altered the course of history is Pierre Elliott Trudeau, the prime minister of Canada, who was in leadership from 1968 through 1984. One of the objectives of Trudeau was to create policies that promoted diversity within various communities, specifically with an agenda which pressured minority groups to become a part of the social, economic and political realm in Canada. Trudeau did this by coining the term multiculturalism, which was associated with was based on a sense of integration based on social initiatives within different communities. Declarations and policies which were centered on creating a diverse community were then made under his jurisdiction (Wood, Gilbert, 2005). The continuous agenda of Trudeau and the way in which he promoted multiculturalism is one which continues to be used today with initiatives through the policies and political actions which were first implemented by Trudeau.
The concept of multiculturalism was pushed by Trudeau because of the changing climate and environment in Canada and the world. Trudeau came into power after World War II and through various world revolutions based on cultural diversity and ethnic equality. Canada was also experiencing a large amount of immigrant pressures from other regions, specifically which began as an offset from World War II. The social pressures of this time were based on the desire to offer minorities the same potential as others in society while integrating opportunity. Trudeau followed these social pressures and stigmas with his own vision of creating an ethnically diverse set of communities through policies and procedures expected in society (Driedger, 2001).
Premise 1: The social demands in Canada before and during the 1960s pressured Trudeau to promote multiculturalism in the community.
When Trudeau came into power in 1968, his main agenda was to promote the concept of ethnic diversity. From the 17th century, Canada had a large influx of immigration that came into the country. Before this time, there were also diversity promotions in terms of both Aboriginal land and those who had found the contemporary nation of Canada. As this grew and continued to divide, ethnic communities began to be more visible within the Canadian territories, specifically because of physical and racial differences. The largest influx came during the World Wars, based on those from Europe that began to migrate to America from the war. Asian communities also began to establish during this time. As the racial differences were noted, it was also expected that a change in the ethnocentrism and division between communities be erased. The 1960s pressured this, specifically because of the need to change accommodations in Canada for ethnic diversity while allowing minorities to have the same equal opportunities as those within Canada (Forbes, 1993).
The complexities of the ethnic diversity can be traced back to the 1700s in Canada. French and English Canadians created the terms of democracy which were based on different hierarchies and policies which were within society. Through specific policies, an autocratic monarch was created. The immediate change in society was to divide those within specific regions while creating a sense of differences through ethnicity, community, physical features and background. The divisions which were a part of this caused the political structure to form based on the hierarchical structure and monarchy. The complexity created was based on the outside forces from Europe which created the system and which promoted division within the community (Trudeau, 1958). The perspective which Trudeau held was to break down the boundaries which were created in society.
The concept of ethnic diversity, as well as the terms of multiculturalism, became important in the social stigmas of Canada. The pressures that were surrounding from the immigration and wars, as well as the alterations in society, also led to the desire to a specific sense of leadership to be in place that would change the divisions within communities. The social desire that was arising during the time of Trudeau were then able to create meaning out of the initial development of multiculturalism, specifically to establish a different series of concepts related to what it meant to integrate ethnicity into the community.
“Multiculturalism has acquired many meanings. As policy, it variously thought of as designed to foster immigrant integration, improve race relations, reduce communal conflict, encourage good citizenship, support national cohesion, and enjoin cultural assimilation” (Karim, 2009).
The social meaning that was based around ethnic diversity then became the driving force of creating policies during Trudeau’s time. The different conflicts which society desired to resolve during this time, specifically which were linked to the concept of citizenship and national change, then became the basis for acquiring new political policies. Trudeau was able to take a sense of leadership in the pressures to develop new perspectives of good citizenship and assimilation within the community (Karim, 2009).
The changes within society and during the time of Trudeau were then furthered by the perception that was a part of each of the cultures in Canada. The attitudes toward equality began in 1948, specifically with Canada’s changing attitudes toward immigrants, changing cultures and the ethnic diversity that has grown. The philosophies began to accumulate in society as early as the 1950s and were based on creating a country that was a melting pot for immigrants. The main objective was to have a place which was more welcoming for ethnic diversity, specifically for immigrants as well as native cultures which persisted in holding onto their cultures. Race, ethnic and religious differences were already accepted into the communities by the 1960s with the belief that immigrants and natives could keep their original culture while accommodating to society. It was the attitude of creating and supporting a melting pot that Trudeau held to when moving into political influence (Stevenson, 2010).
Premise 2: Trudeau used both political policies and expected actions within communities to promote ethnic diversity.
When Trudeau came into power, there were driving forces that were based on the melting pot that were already within society. Trudeau was able to use this to create policies and to gain support from the community. The main role which Trudeau held was to promote ethnic diversity within communities and to allow the political arena to value the main components of this diversity. Even though social realms were promoting the melting pot, politics were not open to the liberalization of the area to enhance minorities and ethnic diversity. When Trudeau came into power, there was a lack of structural basis to promote ethnic diversity within communities. The beginning of Trudeau’s power was based on creating a sense of optimism with the idea of liberalized policies and social progress. The ideologies were juxtaposed with an economic crisis, which led many in society to question the politics and which demanded changes within society. Trudeau used these two elements to establish liberal policies based on opening a future that provided more opportunity to all individuals. The agenda was able to confront the social pressures and the economic alterations which were required during this time. Creating the idea of liberalism then allowed Trudeau to establish a set of policies and a framework that changed Canada into a set of territories into one which promoted ethnic diversity and which unified in terms of a national identity, as opposed to one which was based on smaller communities (Laxer, 1977).
The first problem which arose when Trudeau came into power was the October Crisis, which occurred in 1971. This occurred after two government officials were kidnapped in Quebec. The result was the force of militia action by the Canadian Forces, specifically which altered powers among civilians throughout Quebec. Many begin to criticize this move, specifically because of the War Measures Act, which gives citizens the right to have civil liberties. The result was a set of violent outbreaks with those who were interested in liberalism, changing powers within the government and having limits with what the militia could do in response to specific crisis situations. To gain order, Trudeau responded by setting in motion specific policies and options that liberated Quebec and Canada and which ensured peace by recognizing the civilian expectations within society (Just Watch Me, 1999).
The turn – around from the October Crisis led into a series of policies and declarations which were designed to show both a sense of liberalism a well as peace among the nation. Trudeau began in 1971 with the term multiculturalism, which stated that a nation should be open to multiple cultures, all which were able to freely express the traditions and values that were descended from the past. The Declaration of Multiculturalism was made in 1971 which declared two segments to the making of Canada. The first was a unified national agenda, specifically which was based on the policies of the land which individuals were designated to follow. The second was a promotion of immigrants, aborigines and citizens of Canada that were able to freely practice culture and various lifestyles within Canada. The agenda that Trudeau set with this declaration, as well as with the policies which followed, were based on providing equality to all while ensuring that cultures could continue to be recognized for their own ethnicity within Canada (Lammert, Sarkowsky, 2009).
To establish the liberalism and ideas of promoting ethnic diversity that the society demanded, Trudeau continued this same foundation throughout his career. By 1980, Trudeau had moved from the basic Declarations and policies to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The sections in this guaranteed equal rights to all citizens. The charter states
“Every individual is equal before and under the law and has the right to equal protection and equal benefit of the law without discrimination and, in particular without discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental or physical disability” (Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1).
The equal rights move into specific types of rights which are applicable to both those of aboriginal and immigrant cultures. The charter includes an understanding of minority rights and stated that there was the need to promote official languages of Canada while establishing regional languages which cultures could keep. Educational rights, multicultural expressions and the practice of keeping specific cultures were also guaranteed with these ideas of liberalism. The charter specifically announced how aboriginal rights and immigrant laws could be maintained, specifically to establish a sense of peace among different categories of individuals while creating and establishing a national identity Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1).
The Charter which Trudeau put into place was then furthered with continuous action to promote ethnic diversity and to ensure liberalism and equality among the citizens of Canada. The Charter led into other promotions which were easily implemented. There was an expectation of policies and actions to take place after the Charter, specifically which would promote ethnic diversity while allowing Canada to remain an established national identity. The Charter is one which is still used today in the understanding of multiculturalism, liberalism and equal rights and became the height of Trudeau’s leadership.
The establishment of the Charter led to other concepts of ethnic diversity which continue to propel forward. There are now several types of diversity and levels of multiculturalism which are a contribution to the community, specifically from the policies which Trudeau implemented. The creation of multiculturalism and the Charter led to the Canadian model for diversity which is based on a tri-partite structure. The structure consists of ethnic responsibility and diversity with specific types of communities, including Aboriginals, Francophones and immigrants. The importance of the legal frameworks which followed Trudeau’s implementation of this structure is one which broke the old agendas in the legal processes and began to change the way in which ethnic diversity was approached. Before this time, the political hierarchy created divisions with treaties and separation acts with the Aboriginals and native Indians. Trudeau was the first to break this through the Charter and with references to the Constitution. The objective was to create cultural preservation while supporting the differences in the community. The foundation which Trudeau laid in terms of the tri-partite structure propelled forward ideas of community into sets of diversity policies in the community, all which became rooted in liberal – democratic values (Kymlicka, 2005).
Premise 3: Coining terms such as multiculturalism and ethnic diversity into different documents allowed different ethnic groups to slowly become a part of Canadian society.
The approach which Trudeau took in response to society with the policies developed then created new definitions and an understanding of ethnic diversity. The definitions were established by perspectives which he created in relation to the term of multiculturalism. The term is one of the most essential in the establishment of ethnically diverse communities throughout Canada. Even though Trudeau’s main objective was to set specific standards and policies in relation to multiculturalism, others were able to redefine what this meant and how it could be applied to given situations. The concept of multiculturalism in terms of Trudeau was based on the passing of bilingualism first, which established both English and French as the national languages of Canada. The Official Languages Act was followed by the statements of Trudeau about multiculturalism, which established that all Canadians should be shown equal worth. The recognition of diversity. however, was attacked by specific groups, specifically through the Francophone elite. Trudeau responded by creating three categories for multiculturalism, including the Aborigines natives, immigrants and those who had established the country. The result was a reinterpretation of multiculturalism, which included social justice, inclusiveness and empowerment of the nation (Klid, 2003).
Changing the objective of multiculturalism and the way in which the term can be used is one which continues to change with Canada’s policies and belief in liberalism. Trudeau was able to establish a strong basis which defined the concept of multiculturalism and the identity of the nation. The agenda was furthered with interpretations that could be made from the policies in which he initiated as well as the alterations used to respond to given situations. The view of multiculturalism was able to allow those during Trudeau’s time more support to create more ethnic diversity in communities while establishing stronger ties with the policies and declarations which were a part of the decisions. By creating a constitutional multicultural state, it provided a different identity to Canada based on assimilation and pluralism based on diversity. The term of multiculturalism, as established in 1971, then became one of the most integral parts of Canada and the way in which policies and societal responses were attributed to the term. While there may be some clashes of culture, Trudeau’s terms and actions were able to implement a different understanding of equal distribution of power and the ability to keep the social identity of Canada alive (Khan, 2010).
The most important component of multiculturalism that came from the political realm was based on the ideologies established from this. The change from Trudeau’s announcements and Charters to multiculturalism led to shifts in how many looked at Canadian culture. Social status, incorporation of diversity in communities and the celebration of ethnicity slowly became a part of Canadian identity. Individuals in society began to associate with multiculturalism by identifying with the changes that Trudeau had incorporated into the community. The social stigma which arose from this began to change the functions in society while creating a sense of celebration and tolerance within the community. This was followed by an understanding by the community that was based on the belief in equal rights, liberalism and democracy. Multiculturalism was able to move beyond the aspects of policies by the government and became a term that created the identity of Canada in terms of an alternative culture and a liberal society (Bisoondath, 1994).
The importance of multiculturalism was built with the foundations of Trudeau. however, the establishment with identity and culture is one which is continuing to lead to changes within society. The discourses which are now associated with multiculturalism are coming not only from the policies and foundation by Trudeau. Now, the term is one which has established questions of how society should work in terms of diversity while working toward a true sense of equality among those in society. The discourse and practice of establishing communities that are multicultural in nature is the term and identity that is most pertinent to Trudeau’s work. The incorporation into modern society is one which is able to provide new and alternative perspectives that are a part of the works of Trudeau. The establishment is one that is now leading to urban spaces and revitalization of communities that are interested in creating more multiculturalism and who desire to stand with the liberal freedoms that were an offset of the Charter by Trudeau. From the current discourses, it can be seen that Trudeau promulgated a new foundation in society based on multiculturalism. Defining this term and using it in policies and Charters then led to a new foundation within society (Wood, Gilbert, 2005).
Conclusion
The focus on Trudeau and the way in which he approached ethnic diversity is one which is pertinent today and in terms of Canadian studies. The actions which were taken by Trudeau were important not only because of his identity in creating ethnic diversity. There is also a direct relationship to what was occurring in society before and during Trudeau’s leadership time frame. There is also a direct association with how his different policies and declarations were able to alter Canadian history, both during and after this time frame. Trudeau was able to lay a framework in terms of diversity that moved Canada into new policies, actions, economics and social values. More important, the changes which he made showed how Canada had evolved as a nation through immigration and accepted lifestyles within the nation. The challenges which Trudeau met were valuable specifically because of the way in which they associated with lifestyles, social movements, culture and political values within Canada.
While there is strong evidence over the values and changes which Trudeau made in terms of ethnic diversity, there are also several counter arguments that don’t believe in the leadership of Trudeau as changing the ethnic diversity of communities. While there is a direct relation to the term of multiculturalism and the Charter created by Trudeau, it is believed that these were related to responses from external sources, as opposed to Trudeau’s leadership. The same concepts in the United States and Europe, as well as alterations which were occurring to move into the contemporary time frame, all directly impacted the necessary movements toward ethnic diversity. More important, there is a direct relation to the idea of the melting pot which Canada accepted as early as 1948, which shows that the concept of ethnic diversity was occurring before Trudeau’s time.
Even though there may have been outside sources which altered ethnic diversity, it would have not been brought into political realization or a sense of realism without Trudeau’s continuous promotion of the terms of ethnic diversity. The definition of Multiculturalism in 1971 by Trudeau is what began this. The Charter was also one which was initiated by Trudeau and would have not been recognized or made outside of his leadership. The objections to this show the same fallacy, specifically by the Francophone elites who opposed diversity. Before this time, there was also opposition to terms of ethnic diversity which divided communities. This was seen in Canada’s history with divisions among communities, beginning with the aborigines of the country. The actions and commitment which Trudeau showed throughout his term as Prime Minister then show direct evidence to his ability to offer the most prominent terms and commitment to ethnic diversity.
The observation of Trudeau’s commitment to ethnic diversity is one which leads into a larger picture about Canada and the evolution which has been created over time. The creation of multiculturalism from the beginning of Trudeau’s time as prime minister was based on bringing peaceful commitments in society and to assisting with diversity that could help in the economy and with those in varying communities. The ability to have bilingualism and multiculturalism then began to spread with attitudes in society and in the political realms of Canada. Today, the terms and expectations are expected within the cultural values and political realm of Canada and are continuously displayed in other regions, such as Europe and the United States (Lammert, 2009). The affiliations which Trudeau made with multiculturalism and the approach toward creating a diverse Canada then became pertinent in recognizing how both equality and diversity can create a stronger foundation for society and a nation.
Bibliography
Secondary Sources
Bisoondath, Neil. (1994). Selling Illusions: The Cult of Multiculturalism in Canada. Toronto: Penguin Books.
Driedger, Leo. (2001). “Changing visions in ethnic relations.” The Canadian Journal of Sociology. 26 (3), 421-451.
Forbes, HD. “The Challenge of Ethnic Conflict Canada: From Bilingualism to Multiculturalism.” Journal of Democracy 4,no 4, (2008).
Khan, Asad. 2010. “Multiculturalism is Failing Canada, Needs a Review.” Winnipeg Free Press (October), 2010.
Klid, Bohdan. (2003). “Multiculturalism is About Inclusiveness, Social Justice and Empowerment, Says Former Director of Canada’s Multiculturalism Program.” University of Alberta: Canadian Institute of Ukranian Studies.
Lammert, Christian, Katja Sarkowsky. (2009). Traveling Concepts: Negotiating Diversity in Canada and Europe. New York: Verlag.
Laxer, James, Robert Laxer. (1977). The Liberal Idea of Canada and the Question of Canada’s Survival. New York: Lorimer.
Trudeau, Pierre Elliott. (1958). “Some Obstacles to Democracy in Quebec.” The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science. 24 (3).
Wood, Patricia, Liete Gilbert. (2005). “Multiculturalism in Canada: Accidental Discourse, Alternative Vision, Urban Practice.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 29 (3), 679-691.

Primary Sources
Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Canada Act, 1982.
Kymlicka, Will. (2005). “Ethnocultural Diversity in Liberal States: Making Sense of Canadian Models.” The Art of the State.
Stevenson, Garth. “Contrasting Images: ‘Multiculturalism’ as Conceptualized in Canada and the United States.” Presentation to the Annual Meeting of Canadian Political Science: Brock University, 2010.
Miscellaneous
Just Watch Me: Trudeau and the ‘70s Generation. National Film Board of Canada. Directed by Catherine Annau, 1999.

TOPIC Philosophy of Sociology

Arguably, the contemporary society has been divided along several lines that it appears impractical that the world will at one time achieve real freedom. Accordingly, it has become difficult to forecast what concepts of the society will make it be regarded as a free world. Currently, it is hard to claim that the world is free as there are a number of factors that are still determining how we act in the universe. Everyone in the world appears to have been colonized by a particular concept that consequently inhibits the possibility to act freely. Even as much as the colonized individuals would wish to gain their liberty and act with some degree of independence, the colonizers would persistently force their way into the colonized (Asad, 2013). In this regards, attaining a truly free society appears like an illusion. Nevertheless, the liberationists lay emphasis on the need to achieve a truly free society. The ideologies of liberalists are that the society can get rid of the current compartments and thereafter develop a society where every individual is allowed to make free choices and decisions.
With the primary focus being the need to attain a society that is functionally and truly free, there is a need to discuss what elements in the society make the society be considered as entirely free. Consequently, the aim of this paper is to examine how a truly free society would appear. In order to attain a truly free society, there would be a need to emancipate everybody in the society towards a particular socioeconomic and political level. This paper shall also discuss some of the ways in which individuals who perceive themselves as oppressed can emancipate themselves in order to attain parity in the society. Putting into consideration the role that the government plays in the liberation or segregation of the society, this paper shall investigate the type of government that would be appropriate for a truly liberated society.
Notably, the current

QL3 Inconvenience Facts Project

QL3 INCONVENIENCE FACTS PROJECT According to the chart provided in the inconvenient facts project, a person’s salary is based on merit. This may sometimes be used to back up a statement that people with the biggest salaries always get more than the rest because they earned it. Regardless of race and gender, all the participants income in the data collected tend to rise with attainment in education. It is essential to realize that despite all sexes going to colleges, the men seem to have a benefit of income proportion. This is because for all people who have attended college regardless of race, the men have a higher income than that registered for the women. Statistics show that education is essential in attaining a higher income because the white male who have nine years of education or less registered lesser income than females who attained associate’s degree. This information is an exception since earlier information stated that men had higher incomes than that of the women (Jurajda). Both Black and white women improve their income by going to college. However, it is essential to realize that there is a small difference on the income whereby the income of the Black women increases at a higher margin. For this reason, the black women appear to improve their earning power through a college degree to a greater extent than the white women.
In each and every society, there are numerous discrepancies between the ideal world and the real world. These indifferences are more often than not referred to as inconvenient facts since they are pieces of evidence that often offer contradiction of what someone believed and what they always want to believe. The empirical data on the income earnings of various groups in the chart support what a lot of people believe. First, almost all income for all women is lower than that of their men. Secondly, the different races in the world have different achievements and this is predicted in the varying of the income according to different races. Lastly, the higher the education level the higher the income and this is well depicted in the data provided hence confirming that the empirical data provided in the chart on the income earnings support what a lot of people believe. However, it is essential to realize that not always do what people believe in takes the ideal course. This is because some people with the big gets salaries do not always get more just because they have earned it as it is expected by all people. As most people can confirm, education requires hard work and perseverance. Regardless of race and gender, all the educated people have good and big paychecks. For this reason, the data provided indicates that hard work and perseverance can be the key to big paycheck (Jurajda).
Despite acquiring similar education as the males, females continue to gain lower income, as shown in the data. These gender income disparities can be explained using various sociology concepts and theories since they tend to explain the origin of gender wage gaps. Inequality in pay between male and females remain evident and can be explained by both structural and cultural basis of wage gap. Glass ceiling can be used to explain since it refers to the unseen and unreachable aspects that keep women from attaining same wages despite qualifications and achievements. Another one is the labor market segmentation that consists of different groups with little or no crossover capabilities which may result to the difference in wages between male and female. Cultural theory of devaluing and revaluing women’s work shows that all female’s wages average pay is less than men’s. The last theory t explains this is the cultural capital theory that refers to social disparities that create wage differences like education, intellect, and physical appearance. This theory tries to explain why women have lower income than men.
Work cited
Jurajda, Štěpán. Gender wage gap. New York: Centre for Economic Policy Research,
2001. Print.

A Reading and Referencing exercise

Referencing Exercise Referencing Exercise There are six journal articles selected for examining the module, “British Education Past &amp. Present.” Paul J. Devereux and Wen Fan’s article, “Earning returns to the British education expansion” is relevant to the subject as it talks about British Education System between the years 1970-1975. The study from UK education system showed that with the rise of education there was 8% increase in wages seen and percentage of women who received education also increased substantially (Devereuxa &amp. Fanb, 2011). The article, “The returns to Higher Education in Britain: Evidence from the British Cohort” is written by Richard Blundell, Lorraine Dearden, Alissa Goodman and Howard Reed. The article uses British birth cohort panel data to generate an understanding of how education and level of qualifications have an impact on earnings of the person in the long run (Blundell et al., 2000).&nbsp. The article, “learning styles and academic outcome: The validity and utility of Vermunt’s inventory of learning styles in British Higher education setting” is written by Dr. Elizabeth A. Boyle, Tim Duffy and Karen Dunleavy. The study was conducted in British University and provided examination of how Vermunt’s integrated model of learning provides varied academic results as they are based on the different learning styles (Boyle et al., 2003). Binsardi and Ekwulugo have written an article, “International marketing of British education: research on the students’ perception and the UK market penetration”. The article talks about education in UK and perception of international students about it. Moreover, it provides analysis of UK performance in the market with respect to their education system (Binsardi &amp. Ekwulugo, 2003).&nbsp. An article by Philip Brown, “The third wave”: education and the ideology of parentocracy “ talks about the different eras of schooling and education system and how children have shifted their priorities based on abilities and efforts to their parents’ wishes and consent resulting from ‘ideology of parentocracy’ (Brown, 1990). The last article relevant to the module is, “Testing the Relationship between Education and Political Participation using the 1970 British Cohort. “Mikael Persson writes the article, and it talks about education system of British Institutes and its effect on political participation. The data is extracted from British cohort study showing how the education system has evolved and how individual’s cognitive ability is being used. However, the study concludes that there was no significant impact of British education system on any political participation (Persson, 2014).
There are four books being used in the module. The first is an e-book by Trevor Corner (2002) titled, “Learning opportunities for adults.” The book talks about the significance of adult education. There are comparisons of the authors self-work in education sector with his colleagues that are present in other countries. The book is relevant as it talks in details the different methods of adult education that were carried in UK that can be used for further learning. The book, “Social Identity and Intergroup Relations” by Henri Tajfel (2010) provides examination of how British education system is perceived, there are details of qualifications of lecturing staff in UK, advantages and disadvantages of British system of education etc. Another book titled, “An introduction to the Study of Education” by David Matheson (2014) explores historical and sociological aspects of British Education with a focus on primary as well as secondary education and lifelong learning. It contains key insights and background of education system in the UK. The last book that can be used for the module is, “What is Quality in Higher Education” by Diana Green (1993). The book contains models from British Higher Education, and the discussions are based on findings from national research project, which was specially designed so that assessment methods of education can be tested for best quality.
List of References
Binsardi, A. &amp. Ekwulugo, F., 2003. International marketing of British education: research on the students’ perception and the UK market penetration. Marketing Intelligence &amp. Planning, 21(5), pp.318 – 327.
Blundell, R., Dearden, L., Goodman, A. &amp. Reed, H., 2000. The Returns to Higher Education in Britain: Evidence From a British Cohort. The Economic Journal, 110(461), pp.82–99.
Boyle, E.A., Duffy, T. &amp. Dunleavy, K., 2003. Learning styles and academic outcome: The validity and utility of Vermunts Inventory of Learning Styles in a British higher education setting. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(2), pp.267–90.
Brown, P., 1990. The ‘Third Wave’: education and the ideology of parentocracy. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 11(1), pp.65-86.
Corner, T., 2002. Learning Opportunities for Adults. London : Routledge.
Devereuxa, P.J. &amp. Fanb, W., 2011. Earnings returns to the British education expansion. Economics of Education Review, 30(6), pp.1153–66.
Green, D., 1993. What Is Quality in Higher Education? London: McGraw-Hill Education.
Matheson, D., 2014. An Introduction to the Study of Education. New York: Routledge.
Persson, M., 2014. Testing the Relationship Between Education and Political Participation Using the 1970 British Cohort Study. Political Behavior, 36(4), pp. 877-897.
Tajfel, H., 2010. Social Identity and Intergroup Relations. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Social concepts

Our Identity is a Basic and Common Social Concept Social concepts we have studied within the room are actually very familiar and very common inour daily lives. They are not foreign ideas rather they are actually our comfort zone. Strange as it may seem, each individual understands various sociological concepts without the need of an academic learning. One of the most important and basic sociological concept is culture. Culture has always influenced our actions and behavior since it is basically the primary link we have with our group or society. How we live and how we believe in certain things are shaped by our culture. Culture, as a sociological concept, is our way of life (Levin, 2008). Culture is basically the influential root of all other concepts such as social status, social institution, norms and identity (Stoley, 2005). Culture is not all encompassing as we still belong to different subcultures. Basically, as we grow up, we are socialized into the dominant culture’s way of living. As we mature, gain knowledge, and develop our own identity, we begin to see that there are also different values and norms depending on each subculture. One example of a subculture is the youth subculture. Within this subculture, the members have a different set of values or priorities, such as friendship and intimate relationship.
In connection to the concept of culture is the concept of norm. Every culture has its own set of norms and values. The values that the culture propagates influence the actions of its members, thus creating the norm, or the normal and accepted behavior within the society (Kirby, et. al., 2000). Because we have different cultures and subcultures, we have different sets of values and norms, as well. It doesn’t mean that we have similar norms all over the world. An example of this is the norm of marriage. In other cultures, such as the American culture, marriage can be dissolved through divorce. In most Catholic cultures, divorce is not readily accepted as they think of marriage differently, that it cannot be dissolved by man’s laws. Another example is having a patriarchal or matriarchal society. This doesn’t mean that one culture is right and the other is wrong. It just means we have a wide variety of values and norms that we believe in. This indicates that human nature is not at all simple. It is a complicated nature as it can vary depending on how one is socialized and how one accepts changes or at least tolerates that there are different sides to a pyramid.
With culture and norms, we create an identity of our own (Giddens, 2006). Who we are is greatly impacted by how we are brought up and with the social environment we grew up in. This concept is very important for our individual growth and success. Our identity is the combination of our culture, norms, values and the choices we make as we go through our lives. As each one belongs to a culture, a subculture or a group, each individual creates his own identity with a piece of how and what he believes in based on that culture, subculture and group he belongs to. Our identity is not fixed. We change from time to time. Although we have a strong sense of who we are, we can still change as we encounter various people from different walks of life and from different cultures and societies. This makes human very interesting as even if we have a strong sense of identity, we can still adapt to different social temperatures.
References
Giddens, A. (2006). Sociology, 5th ed. MA: Polity Press.
Kirby, et.al. (2000). Sociology in Perspective. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers.
Levin, J. (2008). Sociological Snapshots. CA: Pine Forge Press.
Stolley, K. (2005). The Basics of Sociology. CT: Greenwood Press.

Issues in Contemporary Sociology Sexuality and Gender

While sexuality and gender roles appear to be synonymous, subtle differences in connotation exist between the terms as used in sociological studies. A person’s sexuality is innate in, or emanating from within, him or her. it refers to the sum total of his/her attitudes and preferences as determined by his/her sexual orientation. One might say one’s “sexuality” makes that person heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, or asexual, depending on the partners he or she is (or is not) attracted to. However, unlike sexuality, gender roles are imposed from without, in the form of a variety of social influences. Starting from the socialization phase of childhood and adolescence, gender roles exert influence on people’s actions throughout their lives. When one feels ill at ease, or even resentful, of gender roles, and internal conflict may result [Gender Roles Forum, 2008]. Gender roles vary over time, and as they evolve they, in turn, create social upheavals and reforms that spawn profound changes in society and the nation in general.
In post-Victorian society, the regulatory framework has evolved such that gender roles and, consequently, attitudes towards sexuality have essentially been redefined. Storry and Childs [2002] provide the following timeline of important developments in British history which indicate the trend towards an increasingly permissive outlook, until the 1970s:
Anxieties about the sexual mores of the younger generation certainly preceded the so-called sexual revolution of the 1960s [Storry and Childs, 2002]. The sixties and the seventies saw more liberal regard towards abortion, divorce and sexual discrimination. Likewise were new reforms given impetus on the issues of obscenity and censorship and homosexuality. The import of these developments was not lost upon the new Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, who was elected into office for the first time in 1979 and re-elected in 1983 and 1987.

The Social Workers Responsibility

Through my studies in sociology and literature as an undergraduate, I realized that scholastic research can add considerable insight into the processes by which society operates. Indeed, by studying and reading sociological texts I became more observant of the injustices in the world. After learning about discrepancies in social classes, I was inspired to read a famous sociology book by Mitchell Duneier’s called Slim’s Table: Race, Respectability, and Masculinity. The book is about the working-class culture of black men in Chicago. Upon reading I thought that it was an excellent analysis of this particular sub-culture. Throughout the semester I continued my studies in sociology and the insight I gained from the course has given me a completely new outlook on the role of the social worker and the pressing need for individuals to ensure social justice for the downtrodden members of society.
Another instance that drew my attention to the discrepancy of social justice in the United States was my study of the 20th Century Civil Rights Movement. In a speech at an event commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education Supreme Court decision, Bill Cosby offered an impressionistic indictment of the ills he found within contemporary culture and poor Americans to collectively engage in a process of increased social responsibility and personal agency. Cosby argues that while oppressive social structures and racism were the once the predominant reasons for the achievement gap, with the advancements of the Civil Rights movement — as exemplified in the Brown vs. Board of Education decision – today, progressive developments in African-American education and financial security will occur by turning the microscope inward and taking personal responsibility. “It’s not what they’re doing to us. It’s what we’re not doing. 50 percent drop out.” Cosby states, “It’s not about the money. It’s about the money. It’s about you doing something ordinarily that we do – get in somebody else’s business…What the hell good is Brown vs. Board of Education if nobody wants it?”

Ethnicity and Gender Effect of Education

Theories in sociology attempt to explain this function of education and the three most important theories are the functionalist, interactionist and Marxist perspectives on the function of education. (Burgess, G.R and Parker, A. 1999. Education. Pp.180-190).
The functionalist perspective on education finds its origins in the views expressed by Durkheim at the beginning of the twentieth century. These views of Durkheim laid stress on the significant manner in which could ensure an individuals commitment to society and in that manner contribute to the creation of social solidarity. According to Durkheim the contribution of the teaching of history could go along way in bringing about unity in society. For instance, by giving stress to British history in the curriculum of educational institutions in Britain unity of British society could be achieved, Contribution to this perspective of the functions of education were further contributed to by Talbott Parsons in the middle of the twentieth century by his concepts on the manner in which divisions of labour were a result of the teaching of specialised skills. Teaching institutions provided the basis between the ascribed roles of the family and the achieved roles of the larger society and were thereby responsible for the occupational roles that resulted. Parsons concept included the functioning of schools as open to competition or based on meritocratic principles and thereby led to the allocation of roles appropriate to the skills and merit. This meant that education resulted in the most talented in society benefits with the most important positions and in that manner got the best rewards.
According to the functionalist perspective, there exists only one set of values that need to be taught by the education and these set of values are those that belong to the ruling class or the elite class. This means that the functionalist perspective is blind to the possibility that there are other sets of values in society and these can&nbsp.be transmitted through education.

What is sex and what is gender What are the sociological arguments for distinguishing between the two Illustrate your position

What is sex and what is gender? What are the sociological arguments for distinguishing between the two? Illustrate your position. Even though sex andgender is more or less the same thing yet they are distinguished in more ways than one. Sex is the relation of two individuals with each other through a sexual intercourse while gender is the basis of his or her masculinity and femininity. The male gender is different from the female gender due to the physical characteristics of both these genders. What is most important is the link of sex and gender within the domains of the sociology. It is significant to note that both sex and gender are perceived differently because they are seen as entirely opposite things. There are certain sections of the society which feel offended if the word ‘sex’ is used. They would use the term gender to distinguish between males and females. The word ‘sex’ would therefore be substituted by gender as it is very respectfully substituted to suit the sociological settings (Quina, 2000).
My position is that sex and gender is more or less the same thing and could be used interchangeably. They can be related to the males and females but should not be seen differently from one another because they are two sides of the same coin. Hence it would be fitting to suggest that sex and gender are similar and have absolutely no opposite views with one another. The society needs to become liberal with its acceptance of the word ‘sex’ so that it does not have to be substituted by gender each time the former is made use of.
Works Cited
Quina, K. Sexual Communication in Relationships: When Words Speak Louder Than Actions. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 2000

What is International Political Economy

International political economy International political economy is defined as the basic efforts necessary to break down the barriers that bring disparity within the disciplines of politics, sociology, economics and their procedural methods of analysis whose aim is to unraeven a deep understanding of international besides, world issues and events. International political economics embraces three basic elements namely. sociology, economics and politics in giving adequate description and accurate explanation on how problems that are felt globally cannot just be explained with just a specific discipline (Rowland 108).
With respect to international political economy, the world is presumed to be very complicated and has several interdependencies among individuals, social groups or maybe nations. Initially, different kinds of elites gave constant reminders why everywhere across the world was actually interdependent for each other. However, all the current relevant issues faced by nations are related in one way or another to the international political economy making it very versatile in dealing with issues across the borders. Politically, international political economy focuses on the use of state powers in the distribution of resources within the society. Politics has been known to have a norm of collective choice characterized by competition, which draws conflicts amongst different people, trade organizations, governmental and non-governmental internationally. Comparatively, economics is just concerned with the distribution of resources which are otherwise considered scarce amongst the nations, people or states through the market process controlled by the forces of politics (Rowland 108).
It is considered very essential to engage in the study of international political economy since it helps in the understanding of crucial international market events to analyze the conditions of their existence and how to manage the situations, which has led to such conditions. More to the point, it is considered as a vital element by both private and public employers during recruitment since it becomes very easy while dealing with somebody who understands international and global context of human activities especially for those who have communication links across the borders. Moreover, international political economics broadens the understanding of life in relation to human beings across the globe. It also helps to understand the vents of the past, current and make projections about the future (Rowland 108).
One of the major political values enjoyed by both the state and the market is the feeling of security. Through international political economy, most states feel more secure from physical threats like violence or outbreak of epidemic diseases simply because they cannot just affect individual economy, but would be felt as a collective responsibility. Markets basically constitute the sphere of human action, which pertains to human interests, but controlled by the forces economic competition. For this reason a state, which is known for the production of a specific product for instance, Toyota would find its market niche globally (Rowland 108).
Because states, markets and society have been found to be perusing different goals in the economy especially in terms of security and culture, it has brought several dilemmas to the explanation of international political economy in relationship to the societal market and the state.
Works cited
Rowland, Maddok. The Global Political Economy in John Bayless and N.J Rengger, eds, Dilemmas of World Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Print

Current Event Reflection 5 Education Religion or Politics

Current Event Reflection 5 Singer, N. Regulators Weigh In on Online Educational Services February 25, New York Times Online educational systemsLink: http://bits.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/02/25/regulators-weigh-in-on-online-educational-services/?gwh=658323445CC91EC0B44CAAD89B71BB89&amp.gwt=regi
With the current advancement in technology, it has found its way into school systems. Having been in a school where current technology is highly applicable, I have experienced a lot. The article relates to use of technology in schools to collect student’s information. The current use of online educational systems attracted my attention to this article. Most institutions are using online education systems but there is no guarantee of students information collected. Confidentiality of personal information is important. Parents and legislators are concerned about the safety of information collected by schools. Their concern is whether it is federally protected from sharing or selling to other vendors.
Sociology is study of human social behavior and tries to refine the theoretical understanding of social process. For example, the parents and legislators concern in this article is caused by some social dissatisfaction. They are not convinced about the safety of their children personal information. According to the textbook, sociology focuses on social class, social satisfaction, religion, law and sexuality. This issue falls under both social satisfaction and law. Parents are dissatisfied hence the reason for their concern. They also want the federal government to regulate schools on use of online educational services.
The social conflict theory is applicable in this case. It relates to struggle between two segments of the society. There is conflict between parents and schools over online educational systems. Schools are adopting technology at a high pace that makes legislators and parents feel their children confidentiality is threatened. Parents think that the government should come in and intervene. The introduction of technology in the society is causing conflict. People behavior seems to changes due to technological threats in the society. The education system, the society and technology are in struggle to come up with a solution to underlying problems.
This article has an impact on the world at large. With so many schools opting to adapt technology in education, confidentiality is important. Confidentiality of personal information is a right of every human. When schools require collecting such information from students, they need to engage students. Other institutions using online educational systems or intending to should treat confidentiality of information as a priority. Governments should also regulate the use of this information and adoption of online education systems. Ethics issues should be addressed and rules set. Parents and other concerned parties should be part of such decisions and information collected should have a limit.

Family Human Sexuality Health Care

[Teacher’s Sociology Family, Human Sexuality, Health Care. From a sociological point of view, family is a basic unit structure of society which can be defined in numerous ways depending on the culture of each individual. The community one lives in sets the standards for what family is a primary group and the key functions members of the family perform. The principles and values set in the community define family through sociological perspectives. The major principles which are used include gender roles, nuclear family and industrial capitalism. The nuclear family consists of only the children and parents. These families have however decreased over the years in the United States. Historical analysis shows that pre industrial nuclear families were tied together by kinship into the family which an individual was born in, the family of procreation, which is founded upon matrimonial agreements. The family also includes members of the spouse’s family. In other cultures the nuclear family may extend to numerous individuals due to the practice of polygamy and polygyny. The family can also be extended through common residents, when two or more families live together. This is known as extended family, and is practiced through out the world, particularly in India.
The family has a diverse role in society as an individual gains his principles form this institution and spends a majority of his life with his or her family. Some the major functions of family include, satisfaction of sexual needs and desires. Sex is a natural instinct and each individual needs to satisfy his or her sexual urges. This requires people to live together, in addition, sex and family in the sense of husband and wife is method of reproduction an procreation which is essential for human survival. The family is also a protective environment for the young and is used to give them the fundamentals of life and lessons for the future. The family is essential in building one’s character and esteem. The family also teaches the child social norms and the behavior which appropriate and acceptable in society.
However, in recent times there several problems which the institution of family is facing today. These include absence of father or mother figure, lack of discipline, lack of communication, balance of work and family, negative media influence and materialism(Issues facing family today, n.d).The absence of a father or mother figure can be attributed to the following, divorce and gay marriages. This deprives the child of certain attributes that are only possessed by a particular sex. Studies have been carried out and show that absence of one sex among the parents results in adverse effects and psychological problems in children (Issues facing family today, n.d).
The paper shows the value of family to society and its sustainability of the human race. It also helps maintain social norms which monitor each individual’s morals and values. The absence of the family institute would result in an uncivilized population and may result in extinction of the human race as procreation would be limited or uncontrolled which can lead to the spread of terminal diseases.
Works Cited
Biblical Foundations. Issues facing family today.n.d. Web. April 9, 2013

Sociology theories

164000 Later on, another functionalist, Emile Durkheim advanced the arguments in functionalism through his likening of society with the body of human beings (Appelrouth &amp. Edles, 2008). Discussion According to Ferrante &amp. Ferrante-Wallace (2008), functionalism argues that society comprise of various parts, which play a central role in enhancing its survival. The argument of functionalism is that, just like the components of the human body depend on each other, so are the components that make up society. To functionalists, therefore, society is like a system that has various components. Each component must contribute to the wellbeing and the survival of the entire system. Functionalists identify the role played by each of the parts that make up society. Some of the components/parts of society identified by functionalists include the government, religious institutions, the economy, health institutions, the judiciary, family, and school, among others. The government provides the structures necessary for availing essential services needed by the public. For example, amenities such as schools and education are a provision of government. Religious institutions (such as church) serve to maintain morals in society and ensure that people uphold acceptable norms of behavior. Economic institutions serve the financial needs of the population while healthcare institutions provide health services to the populace. The judicial systems such as the judiciary and other law enforcement agencies ensure that people maintain law and order, and provide security. Schools teach children and impart good morals in them. this helps in making children citizens who will obey the law (Appelrouth &amp. Edles, 2008). Functionalism sees society as basic unit used in analysis, and whose parts cannot be understood in isolation. Rather, the various parts that make up society can be easily understood in relation to how they relate to the entire system, as well as based on how they relate to each other. Thus, the contribution that the parts make to the whole is of central emphasis in functionalism. Functionalists also contend order can be regarded as the condition that dominates society. Consensus and stability reinforces this order, which means that there should not be conflict resulting from coercion. Failure to meet the functional prerequisites leads to a state of instability/disequilibrium in the entire system. In order for the system to go back to equilibrium, there has to be a state of balance in the dysfunctional parts (Delaney &amp. Madigan, 2009). Advantages One advantage of functionalism is that it provides an understanding of the roles played by the parts of society. The arguments raised by the theory can be termed as factual since every part contributes immensely to the survival of the whole. The other advantage of functionalism is its discussion of the effects of the dysfunction of some parts of society. Based on this, societies can strive to maintain peace, order, and stability in order to avoid imbalance in the system (Appelrouth &amp. Edles, 2008). Disadvantages or Critique Functionalism has faced criticism based on its explanation that people within a certain society tend to share common values. This may not be so since some members of society may have formed a subculture that rebels against the values of society. The theory can also be termed disadvantageous because of its explanation that social harmony in society results from social institutions. This

Human Organ Supply and Its Relation to the Social Stratification Theory

41000 Those who benefit are the rich who can afford to pay for the surgery and the cost of human organs. On the other hand, although some transplants were out of the donation coming from willing donors or were as a result of accidents which allow for the recovery of human organs from an accident victim to be transferred, there have been reports wherein the poor became the victims of this “transaction”. This is linked to the Social Stratification Theory. Those who have little in life become the victims, while those who are in the upper class or society look towards the poor for their source of human organs. How Sociologists Have Recognized Social Stratification People are identified, classified, perceived, and understood in a way that society has given corresponding positions for individuals, races, organizations or communities. The moment a person’s status in society is known, he or she is treated with actions or reactions that are known to be fit for the person. According to Davis and Moore. Novick and Cullen Social stratification is a set of verifiable, interrelated thoughts, understanding, and behaviour among people whereby members of society consider positions or status and identify themselves in one of those categories. Davis and Moore were described by Novick, S. and Cullen, J. (1979, p. 1424) to have considered the differences as necessary for critical reasons. They proposed that inequality characterizes the groups or class wherein each person belongs or identifies him to be a part of. Furthermore, they believe that the maintenance of functions and positions is necessary in order to have stability. From the point of view of Davis, Kingsley and Moore, Wilbert (1970) difficult jobs must necessarily receive higher incentives in terms of higher compensation. The inequality is based on the fact that every individual has a different set of talents. Some talents are more valuable other talents, just as some functions have greater value in society than the other functions. Because of scarcity and difference in value of some talents, rewards or compensation to acquire the people with valuable talents are greater while other talents are offered smaller rewards. According to Joseph Turek The book edited by Joseph Turek was entitled “Income Inequality and Social Stratification”. It gathered insights from various sectors (socio-economic, political, sociology, and philosophy) to clarify the variety of human differences which result in social stratification. As a result of differences in a person’s status in society, there is also a disparity in the income or compensation which leads to the formation of rich and poor. According to Wendy Bottero The book entitled “Stratification: Social Division &amp. Inequality” is about “Who gets what.” It also describes the fact that the present time inequality gives some people better choices in life. “Money, power, or influence give those who possess them greater control over the external forces which affect us all, and open doors which might otherwise be closed.” (Bottero 2005, p. 3). The Demand &amp. Critical Importance of Human Organ Donation A. Gap Between Supply and Demand The Economist (2008) reported that 7,000 Americans died due to absence of organs needed by patients. Out of 10 people who needed a kidney transplant, only one found a replacement kidney. There was a projected growth in the number of people who have to undergo dialysis and replacement of kidneys. 500,000 Americans in 2010 needed the transplant. In the UK, Nadey Hakim, an Ex-President of the International College of Surgeons, believed there was no other option for organ transplants because without it, the patient will die early although they can live longer if a replacement is made available for transplant. Kidneys are the most in

Contemporary Issues in Learning UK

The UK’s Department for Education and Skills (2003, p.4) points out that our education system is still weak when it comes to vocational offerings and still provides a narrow academic track. About 50% of these young people do not get at their schools five good GCSEs, especially in English and mathematics. In addition, many still leave school without passing any GCSE. These negative statistics have an impact on the social and economic sectors of the country. For the country to be competitive, young manpower must show high levels of educational standards.
The changes implemented in our educational system are oftentimes based on research and theoretical propositions advanced by analysts, critiques, and people who work for the educational system itself. Many of these theories that have shaped and continue to guide the system were developed a long time ago. Some have given birth to newer theories, while some were results of criticisms and deviations from certain ideas.
According to Reid (1978, pp. 10-12), Structuralist Sociology states that all individuals play a part or a role in society. This perspective on sociology is based on two theories: Consensus Theory (the most common example of which is Structural Functionalism) and Conflict Theory (reflected in many theories including Marxist Theory), which are not mutually exclusive. Consensus Theory states that norms are important because these are the consensus or shared values and beliefs of people. Conflict Theory states that society is created by the interests of people, but the levels of interests and access to resources are not the same for all groups, which leads to the existence of conflicts in society. Meanwhile, Interpretative Sociology, on the other hand, states Reid (1978, pp. 13-14), emphasizes the importance of a man who is an active component of the processes in sociology. This perspective implies a more dynamic, incomplete process. It is only by knowing the views of people and their reactions to certain situations can be understanding and achieved.&nbsp.

To demonstrate how the field of’globalisation studies’has moved on

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY: TO DEMONSTRATE HOW THE FIELD OFGLOBALISATION STUDIES HAS MOVED ON al Affiliation) Annotated Bibliography
Sassen, S. (2008). Neither global nor national: novel assemblages of territory, authority and rights.&nbsp.Ethics &amp. Global Politics,&nbsp.1(1-2), 61-79.
The author of the journal article is Sasskia Sassen from Columbia University at the department of Sociology in USA. In the article, the author engages in an indepth insight regarding the proliferation or influx of normative orders that were once ruled by state normativity. Furthermore, the article asserts that the influx of normative orders have equally shifted from the sole normative framing as a logic. To this end, the author reiterates that the change in dynamics have been due to the shift to ‘centrifugal multiplication of specialized assemblages’ from ‘centripetal articulation of nation states.’ The sources of information in the article are based on library research on books , journal and projects. Furthermore, Sassen has utilized internet based research on drawing information pertaining to globalization of institutions, authority, territory and rights. To this end, Sassen draws several conclusions in the article. Foremost, the author contends that denationalization and global dynamics distort existing systems and meanings. In addition, the author believes that sovereign authorities of states are partially disaggregated whenever the unitary structures of states conform to a globalized structure. In addition, the author is quick to point out opportunities for exit that are available for the disadvantaged due the weakening of centripetal nation dynamics. Furthermore, the author asserts that denationalization dynamics, such as inclusion of human rights paradigms, post significant consequences. These include the disassembling of bits and pieces of the nation state and state machinery as containers. In general, Sassen concludes that there are political and normative implications of centrifugal dynamics that arise out of globalization.

The Various Elements of British Social Structures

A professor of sociology at Warsaw University, he suddenly found it necessary to locate a new home and position when communist authorities questioned the value of his lessons. From Warsaw, Bauman went on to lecture at the universities of Tel Aviv and Haifa until 1971 when he traveled to England and accepted a permanent post at the University of Leeds (Decjusza, 2000). He has also been a visiting professor at Berkeley, Yale, Canberra, St. John’s and Copenhagen. Throughout, and especially after his retirement from Leeds in 1990, he has written numerous books and essays, identifying and introducing the concept of postmodernism, turning in recent years to new terminology that describes a liquid culture. To understand the impact he has had on the world of sociology, it is necessary to understand what he meant by postmodernism, itself requiring an investigation into modernism, and to understand how and why he has recently adopted the new concepts of a liquid society.
Before one can gain a perspective of what Bauman meant when he discussed postmodern, it is necessary to understand what he meant when he defined a modern society. “Modernity is a project and not only a period, and it is, or was a project of control, the rational mastery over nature, the planning, designing and plotting which led to planomania and technocracy” (Beilharg, 2001: 6). The basic concepts of modernism were to take a hard and fast look at various social processes to determine the universal truths of existence. These could then be canonized and applied across all cultures, individuals and time periods as a means of progressing toward a more ideal civilization. The tripod upon which the theory rested was economic, political and scientific rationalization (Mourad, 1997). Economic rationalization would bring&nbsp.all the forces of nature into the understanding and control of intellectual processes.&nbsp. In a similar fashion, a political rationalization would subject and control the governing bodies as well as the value systems by which the ‘correct’ society would measure itself and others.

Is it correct to claim that the study of politics constitutes a science Discuss with reference to case study research

d the various studies concerning man and his multifarious activities like philosophy, economics, natural sciences, history, psychology and of course politics. The Renaissance saw the enquiring minds of Europe and no doubt earlier, where advanced cultures existed (pre-renaissance), delving into studies in various disciplines that were analysed and documented, until the latter half of the nineteenth century and the dawn of the twentieth century saw the thrust towards making studies of most disciplines empirical, meaning that information had to be gained by experience, observation or experiment2.
Studies conducted had to follow certain set criteria and measurements to be valid. In the modern state, for proper planning, such was the demand. Many North American political scientists, notably Jon R Bond, believe that a ‘hard science of political behaviour’ is possible and someone would come along and do for political science what Newton has done for physics3. In an essay on this subject by James W. Skillen, he quotes Bond as saying that, ‘the beginning of scientific enquiry is the fact/value dichotomy’ and that ‘the core goal of scientific methods is hypothesis testing and theory building that would yield quantifiable results’4. Indeed, one cannot dispute the fact that without such empirical studies, in terms of politics, economics, sociology and natural sciences amongst others, that planning commissions of various authorities worldwide would have been successful in the implementation of their programmes. Much of the developed and developing world relies on these studies to implement development programmes with a view to pre-empting failure. Statistics, objective data, all factual and tangible rule the day.
However, the question of how accurate we are, when the human element is involved is a question for debate. Here is a discipline that is dependent on so many vagaries of man. Kenneth Minogue, in his book Politics, aptly encapsulates this when he

(Risk Management Global Perspectives on Risk) Q Globalisation has led to a significant degree of convergence in markets and in business practice As a consequence of this the risks associated with international business operations have decreased

arkable growth has been observed in such form of trade or exchanges that had been observed not only within the traditional international trade of goods and services, but was also observed in the exchanges of country currencies, in various capital movements and many more. One aspect featuring the extent in globalization has been the volume in international financial transactions that peaks over $1.2 trillion every day as per the New York currency markets (Intriligator, 2003, p.4). Globalization has also led to greater openness within the international economies resulting in integration across worldwide markets. A second aspect of globalization has been the liberalization of trade and other different forms in economic liberalization. This has resulted in reductions in the trade protection norms thus establishing a more free world trading system (Intriligator, 2003, p.5). The third aspect of globalization has been the changes as seen in the institutions where the organizations had wider reach apart from the technological advancements and the wider horizons for the managers that were facilitated by the advances made in communications (Intriligator, 2003, p.6).
An assumption seen across industry analysts is that globalization has led to an increased convergence in the traditional national economies, labor regulation and ability for tax capital (Drezner, 2001, p.1). The globalization concept says that an increased trend in bringing together the lower economies of the world by increasing world trade would contribute in capital mobility as well as the global operations in the multinational companies that would propel technological changes, even out the wage and productivity differences across economies. The term “convergence” has been found to have an ambiguous definition. As had been mentioned by Daniel Drezner “the scholarly work on this subject is spread across multiple disciplines, including law, economics, political science and sociology. The problem leads to a

Durkheims Social Facts with Webers Bureaucracy

Social facts are a unique subject matter, according to Durkheim. This separate category of facts “consists of ways of acting, thinking and feeling, external to the individual, and endowed with a power of coercion, by reason of which they control him” (Durkheim, 1982: 4). Weber’s views were different, he firmly opposed the idea “that history had some ultimate end, and seriously doubted the possibility of human liberation through a socialist revolution” (Hughes et al, 2003: 55). According to him, the organisational form of rationalisation is that of the Bureaucracy, and this too contributed greatly to the meaninglessness of modern life, with the individual becoming increasingly insignificant within the vast administrative structures. Weber perceived Bureaucracy as an “iron cage” resulting from industrialism, stifling unique human qualities in both socialist and capitalist societies.
The two scholars differed in their purpose and approach to sociology. Durkheim extended the study of science to the study of social facts, whereas Weber attempted to provide existing social studies with a better foundation. Hence, Durkheim consistently expressed his belief that social facts had distinctive properties which must be recognized in order to make the study of society more scientific. On the other hand, Weber did not pioneer a new field, his work treated old themes and known materials with new precision and from the standpoint of new questions. Durkheim’s and Weber’s different definitions of “social facts” and their divergent sociological studies of religion reveal the differences in their perspectives (Bendix, 1989).
Similarities in the work of the two social scientists include the fact that both Durkheim and Weber refer to ways of anthropomorphising society, that is, they provide a human form to society. In their individual ways, they emphasise the knowledge that both Social Facts and Bureaucracy theories respectively, dominate lives and therefore society is seen as a living thing, as seen in the&nbsp.comparison.

Sociology Written Review

This review however is limited by the fact that the chapter is merely a small part of the author’s entire book and many of the points and issues taken refer to some other parts or chapters of the book. Nevertheless, Pusey is more than emphatic on the debilitating effect of orchestrated economic reforms on the Australian community life.
The fundamental premise of the author in this chapter is, as previously stated, that the economic reforms being undertaken by the Australian government is not good because instead of making these reforms suit the needs of the Australians, it is the people who bear the brunt of the effects of these reforms. This is ultimately bad because it tends to weaken the very foundation of society which is community life. To illustrate his point, Pusey utilised the different impressions and experiences of 400 middle class Australians (hence, the title The Experience of Middle Australians) of several aspects of modern Australian life like membership in voluntary organisations, crimes, the Australian social and economic structures, the media and institutions and people they give their trust to.
The control group of 400 middle class Australians, according to the data gathered by Pusey, constituted highly mobile individuals, who have moved around most of their lives, due to labour markets which necessitated frequent relocation of homes. Pusey interpreted this as causing the dissolution of “associational density” which characterises communities. This is certainly true especially if one’s concept of community is that of a communal association of old and long-time friends, neighbors and associates. However, the opportunity of meeting and associating with new neighbors and striking new acquaintances can be viewed from a positive perspective. This allows a person to broaden his perspectives and besides, if individuals are open to association with other individuals

Is social class still a useful concept for understanding the divisions in society

82000 Social class is the most widely used term in sociology which refers to the primary structure of social stratification broadly used for defining the modern capitalist societies. Social stratification has given rise to inequality in the society. It clearly defines the privileges that are enjoyed by the most advantageous individuals (Fulcher and Scott, 1999). However, Haralambos and Holborn suggest that social inequality is the most prominent feature of all the human societies. From the beginning of the formation of the human societies, this system of social stratification has prevailed as the most important component of the human societies. According to Bilton et al, (1994), traditional Indian caste system, feudalism and other societal systems based on caste and status are the most highlighted and the distinct societal structures. In human societies, individuals are classified on the basis of their economic power, distribution of wealth and other materialized advantages they enjoy. These factors have given rise to the development and division of social classes. According to sociologist Karl Marx, to understand the structure of social strata it is highly important to know what constitute social inequality in a system. For Karl Marx, class stratification was of important value and he thoroughly argued that all societies were established on the basis of class system except for the most primitive ones (Fulcher and Scott, 1999). Karl Marx further adds that all class struggle has always existed in the history of all the societies. According to Marx and Engles (1848), class struggle is the important component and almost all the societies go through this phase of struggle. Marx has always classified the structure of the society on the basis of class system. According to him the society is divided into two basis classes. the capitalist class. This class possesses the capacity of production and the working class which possess labor power. The labor class sells their services to the production class in return of wages. Marx has highlighted the exploitation caused by the capitalist class to the working class in terms of the wages paid to them which is just a fraction of their services they put in making and raising the value of the products they sell in markets. Marx believed that the capitalist class earns their profits and other benefits at the cost of laboring class. Labor class is deprived of their fundamental rights and benefits by the capital class as they hold power, wealth and prestige over them. He further believes that this trend would eventually lead the capitalist class to turn into a communist society which in other words, it will be the downfall of the capitalist class. According to Marx, economic structure is the important element in structuring the social classes. However, Haralambos and Holborn (2004), different groups in the society are emerged from the rise of different classes and hence, this has given rise to inequality in the society. Marx Weber also agrees with the opinion of Karl Marx that competition in market to gain economic resources and other benefits among individuals that has further given rise to different social classes. According to him, other factors also play an important role in the better understanding of composition and division of class system in the society. According to Weber, the class system is divided into four types in a capitalist society (Haralambos and Holborn, 2004). Bocock and Thompson (1995) highlights the Weber?s idea in which he agrees with the opinion of Karl Marx that the division of major classes is between the capitalist cl

Reference groups

Reference Two examples of my own reference groups are my college dormitory mates and my football team. The former is an informal referencegroup since my classmates have no authority over me, whereas in the latter case my football team including myself are under the authority and direction of the coach and quarterback who stipulate when I must attend practice, what players will play in different situations and what plays will be used in games. On the other hand, while my classmates have no authority over my behavior, I want to feel part of the group so I wear similar clothes, study about the same amount, and hang out with them at parties and consume about the same amount of alcohol so that the others consider me part of the group as I display similar norms, behaviors and attitudes.
Three examples of the sociological significance of the concept of reference groups are the family, religious organizations and celebrities. Such groups are sociologically significant because they influence vast numbers of people to behave in similar ways.(Williams). For example, the formal family is the reference group an infant interacts most with in early life. Therefore the family is the institution charged with the responsibility of nurturing the child not only physically by providing adequate food and shelter, but also with socializing societal norms so that the child learns what his/her society consider to be right and wrong behavior. The importance of this socialization can be seen in the lack socially acceptable socialization when parents are absent, abusive or they are incapacitated by alcohol and/or drug dependency. Formal religious institutions can be very sociologically significant especially in populations considered disadvantaged. For example, in Muslim culture mosques can exert tremendous influence in either curbing unrest by teaching their members to accept their situation or they can foment strife by fostering anger towards Western values and encouraging people to join terrorist groups such as ISIS. Celebrities, an informal reference group can influence behavior especially among adolescents as they are role models encouraging by example their fantasies of mimicking their glamorous, successful and wealthy lives and selling their endorsed products .For example, girls starve themselves trying to develop model like figures in the hope of becoming movie stars. Boys become addicted to working out trying to become wealthy adulated athletes. In both cases few will achieve this sought after success, but this reference group is sociologically significant in influencing adolescent aspirations and norms.
Work Cited
1). Williams, Yolanda “Reference Group in Sociology Definition Examples &amp. Types” retrieved from stidy.com/academy/lesson/ reference=groups-in-sociology-definition-examples-types/htm.
.

Socal and developmental psychology

In today’s modern world where there are hundreds of different brands selling the same products, it has become essential for the manufacturer to know the psychology of the consumer in depth, in order to stay in the competition. It should not be surprising to know that in the developed countries the costs of manufacturing are much less compared to the costs of marketing the products (Hansen &amp. Christensen, 2007, p.18). However, manufacturers and brands have realized that to sell the products, they need to convince the consumers of their idea and gain their confidence. Hence, understanding the psychology of the consumer has become extremely important for the manufacturers and service providers (Hansen &amp. Christensen, 2007, p.17). Different studies and theories in the field of psychology, management and sociology have been developed to explain how the consumer makes choices (Hansen &amp. Christensen, 2007, p.18). These theories help people in the field of marketing and advertising to understand the way consumer behaves and takes decisions. On the basis of these theories, manufacturers design their marketing strategies and persuade consumers to buy their products. One such important theory of persuasion is the ‘Elaboration Likelihood Model’ which explains the likelihood of receiver getting pursued on the basis of his involvement in the message.
Petty and Cacioppo (1986) presented the ‘Elaboration Likelihood Model’(ELM) to explain how consumer processes the information while forming their attitude towards the product (Hansen &amp. Christensen, 2007, p.59). According to ELM, “elaboration likelihood is determined by an individual’s motivation and ability to elaborate” (Sher &amp. Lee, 2009, p.139). ELM suggests that the involvement of the consumer depends on different important factors of the communication and hence, these factors are responsible for the amount of consumer’s engagement in the communication (O’Keefe, 2002,

Functions of Deviance

Task Functions of Deviance Deviance is defined as actions or behaviours which are perceived to be different from the expectations of the society. Individuals within a society are expected to conform to the norms which form the guidelines governing the behaviours of other within the same society (Clinard and Meier, p 5). The understanding of deviance can enable one to define what constitutes the norm within a society and that which is not. As a result of deviance within the society, different elements within the same societies are understood on the basis of the social normal and standards which have been established within the society. This results in reality becoming elusive as people act on the basis of the social expectations while ignoring the need to act in a certain manner.
As a result of the established standards within the society, the interactions that occur between different people are based on their perceptions of the norms. Due to the differences which cause deviance, people are able to impact positive changes upon others following their interactions within the society. As change begins to set in upon the behaviour of people, certain negative elements within the society become eliminated and this can enable people to refrain from committing crimes (Clinard and Meier, p114).
Due to the role which deviance plays within the society, it would be extremely difficult to have a society without deviance. This is mainly because people think differently and there are individuals who must question why some actions are considered norms within the society. A society without deviance would be relatively dull, as the activities which people undertake would become routine and similar. Their lives would become monotonous due to the lack of challenges as everyone conforms to standards like machines.
Works cited
Clinard, Marshall, and Robert Meier. Sociology of Deviant Behavior. 14th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

Social Stratification

Sociology Discussion 5: Social Stratification Questions Q Briefly, explain the social construction of reality and how it applies to social stratification
Social construction of reality is a sociology theory that explains how a group of people develop a mutual understanding of the realities in their environment. Social construction examines social behavior of people in relation to each other and how they institutionalize these behaviors and make them their tradition. Social stratification is a ranking process where people categorize themselves hierarchically using the resources that they control.
Social stratification and leadership are forms of social constructs of reality. This is because societies form a tradition to respect and follow the rule of certain people whom they have institutionalized as leaders in the society. It was the task of the privileged black people to champion the rights of other black people, but this is not what is there in reality (Hooks, 2000).
Q. 2. Describe how race or gender is a social construction
Gender is a social construction of reality. In different societies there is segregation of roles between men and women. Through this segregation of roles, societies define behaviors and character expected from people who carry out different roles. Evidence of gender being a social construct comes out clearly as children grow. When a child is a toddler, the treatment for female and male children is relatively the same. However, as they grow up, the society introduces rules specifying different roles for female and male children.
Race is a social construct which was used to discriminate against people of different races. As noted by Hooks (2000) early historic scholars suppressed the information of early African explorers because of the fact that they were black. Race is a social construct in that society’s group people based on the color of their skins.
Evidence of race being a social construct comes because despite people of different color pigmentation having similar body features such as blue eyes or black eyes these people are usually not grouped as same race.
Reference
Hooks, B. (2000). “Chapter 8: Class and race.” In Where We Stand: Class Matters London: Routledge.

Explore the different types of media domestication using Roger Silverstone’s media domestication theory

It allows for analysis in its economic, social, and sociological concerns. The approach to media domestication is a consideration of the practical as well as the symbolic dimensions for the adoption while using the necessary technologies. It shows how the elements of meanings of different things coupled with their respective materiality, have equal importance in the understanding of how technologies form part of daily life. It remains a consideration of the social theory through highlighting the various negotiations, control and power challenges, rule breaking, and making accompanying any introduction for technologies for different social settings (Silverstone, 2005).
Such a domestication approach endures roots within the social studies of media use even though this is well informed through gender studies of household technology, everyday life sociology, innovation and consumption studies, which are widely considered the study components of the mass adoption in mobile phones, internet, and computers. As part of the technological approach towards an understanding of how media technologies come to be, domestication theory highlights the importance of innovation users with the works done through individuals and communities through making technology do practical work outside the standard intentions within the community. This work strand links to the responsibility end and lead users (Bilandzic, Patriarche &amp. Traudt, 2012). In innovation processes, the domestication studies create a general institution through the use qualitative methods while the ethnography and long interviews explore the importance emerging technologies meanings and changing routines that are usually not accessible to quantitative techniques. The domestication approach applies different concepts in distinguishing different prospects for the process. For instance, the appropriations process includes bringing technologies into households and local social contexts. However, the lead domestication

Brief description of a time when you were deviant or describe deviance that you witnessed

Brief of deviance that I witnessed To be deviant is to behave in a manner that does not adhere to the widely acceptable social or cultural norms (Clinard). An example of deviant behavior is murder. It violates the cultural norms that it is unacceptable to kill another human being. To understand deviant behavior one is required to study the social and cultural norms that guide the expectations of members of the society. However, it varies from class to class and culture to culture. They are said to be contextual.
An instance of deviant that I recently witnessed is a theft case at a local shop. This instance was driven by sociological pressure. The inability to secure demands that an individual is in need of can lead to such kind of behaviors. The case witnessed included a man who seemed to be in need of a handset that he could not purchase. He therefore took advantage of the unrest that was caused by a public demonstration down the streets. He walked into the shop and when he realized that no one was looking at him, he picked the handset and put it in his pocket.
The attendants realize and alerts the police who then arrests the individual. Therefore, the act means a violation of enacted laws this might include participation in any criminal acts. The wider expectations are that the relationships, values, commitments, norms, and beliefs should encourage us not to break the law. We should internalize and tie ourselves into the moral codes so as the propensity to commit deviant acts. However, the social structures may also pressure individuals to commit a crime. The strain, frustration, or stress in a body of an individual so as to achieve societal goals might lead to crime. The theft incident, for example, was due to the in ability to secure a handset.
Works Cited
Clinard, M.B &amp. Meier, R.F. Sociology of deviant behavior. 1968.

Sociology Research Proposal

The American September 11, 2001 World Trade Centre tragedy was one of severe calamity which claimed many lives. The 9/11 event was followed by another act of terrorism on July 7 in London: A bombing in 2005 which claimed 56 lives. These two activities dominated much of media attention worldwide creating a linkage of a particular religious group in these two activities. The method by which media reporting of these terrorist activities is presented often portrays Islamic-based or Muslim groups in an unfavourable light, creating questions as to the credibility of reporting the events as being somewhat biased. Media reporting often fails to report terrorist activities with objectivity, leaving Australian citizens with a one-sided viewpoint regarding the Islamic faith as a whole, likely creating a level of unsubstantiated discrimination against this entire religious group.
This proposed study is designed to examine the reporting methods and media portrayal of Islamic terrorist organizations which might be competently attributed to Australian social discrimination against Muslim individuals. It is proposed that this link can be established between media and Islamic discrimination through analysis of media content within the period followed by the September 11 and July 7 terrorist tragedies.
The recent increase in global terrorist activities and the method by which terrorists have conducted many of their hostile activities have attracted attentions of individuals from media and society as a whole. Repetitive press linkage of one particular religious group has given rise to the interest behind this research. The aforementioned American and British tragedies have boosted the over-generalization of the Muslim community as a whole by the media worldwide. Even more specific, Australian media has taken an active interest in the portrayal of those in the Islamic faith as being generically linked to terrorist

Sports in society

Sports in Sociology to insert Unit of Affiliation Due Sports in Sociology In the world of sport, man has internalized the concept of supernatural intervention as the basis of success. Thus, this reflective treatise attempts to explicitly contextualize ideas and beliefs surrounding religion and their influence on success as claimed by athletes around the globe. Besides, these comments are categorized into themes attributing success to supernatural influence.
Reflection on religion as influential in performance and achievement through intervention of a supernatural power has existed since the beginning of the ancient world. Man has always believed in existence of supernatural power and established religion to practice the art of worship of the supernatural being (Higgs, 1995). Across the globe, the main religions include Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism (Forney, 2011).
In the famous interview with Jonathan Edward, a British jumper and Olympic champion, he declined to participate in the World Championship in 1991 because it was held on his worship day on Sunday. Later, he confesses of strong belief in God who is the source of his success. Besides, the NFL quarterback called Kurt Warner advised a fellow team member to seek religious intervention since the Lord is with the team. Specifically, he points his finger to the sky after every score to appreciate the supreme power. He argues that faith and religion in part of his career and that his team depends on God’s endorsement to flaunt. Nathan Scheelhaase and Tim Tebow, Illinois quarterbacks, share the same sentiments with Kurt Warner that religion is an identity concept. Besides, the former NBA Mutombo Dikembe and MBL Jeff Kent have deeply religious state of mind.
Interestingly, these athletes have internalized the influence of religion and the vital role played by supernatural power in their success (Arnold, 2011). As a matter of fact, Edward boycotts a major event since it clashes with day of worship. Besides, Kurt Warner always kneels down in the field before every game and attributes success to God.
References
Arnold, P. (2011). Religion and Sports. New York: University Readers.
Forney, C. (2011). The Holy Trinity of American Sports: Civil Religion in Football, Baseball, and Basketball. Georgia: Mercer University Press.
Higgs, R. (1995). God in the stadium: sports and religion in America. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
Links to interview articles
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sport/article-433499/Edwards-jumps-job-crisis-faith.html
http://garciamedialife.com/2011/11/30/athletes-and-religion-seems-to-be-working-for-the-broncos/
http://www.dailyillini.com/index.php/article/2011/10/for_some_illinois_athletes_religion_is_a_central_part_of_their_identity
http://www.patheos.com/blogs/friendlyatheist/2011/12/03/bleacher-reports-25-most-religious-athletes/
http://bleacherreport.com/articles/962060-the-25-most-religious-athletes

Critical article review

Sociology article review By Lecturer’s and Globalisation now gives a second encounter between the global issues and sociology as interpreted by latest theories of sociology. Ideas brought forth by a group of thinkers lies significantly to their social location, that is, from sociology of knowledge. Contemporary sociological thought therefore bears unique significance to globalisation theories which name the world-as-a-whole, their object of knowledge, including in principle the global south and providing a way of social theory overcoming its most devastating historical limitations.
The scope of sociology at its establishment in the 19th century current evolutionary speculation, and later as an academic discipline was unquestionably global. The evolution of the advanced in every institution type from the primitive is well traced in Spencer’s “Principles of Sociology.” Theorists considered learning about the more primitives and not learning from the more primitives to give them a worldwide grid placement thus data mined from the colonised served as social theory.
At collapse of evolutionary framework, the global scope of sociology ceased. The intellectual arena of sociology was occupied by a different enterprise during the 1920s and 30s. It had its focus on social differentiation and problems within the metropole society. Anthropology became a new discipline handed over from the study of primitive society in English-speaking universities. The new sociology became fertile in methods of study of immediate environment and was closely associated with the rise of welfare capitalism. These were best moments of the quantifiers who invented modern survey methods and the Chicago School.
A nation-state boundaries was commonly taken as ‘society’s’ boundaries from the 1940s to the 1970s. Comparative sociology of national societies was a typical formulation of development. Theories addressing the cluster of nation-states that stood for industrial society and post-industrial society were a step behind sociology. The same territory was disputed in post modernity debates, societal risk, and reflexive modernisation with most participants taking notice of the cluster of industrial, post- industrial, modern or post-modern countries was also the metropole. Metropole refers to the group of raw material and capital-exporting economies majorly former imperial powers with proceeding post-colonial extensions and connections and communication. the centre of intelligence and military networks.
Worldwide economic restructuring, neoliberalism rise and the crisis of metropolitan welfare state saw the existence conditions of sociology changed and it seemed to enter its own crisis of relevance by the 1980s as globalisation too gained popularity management theorists and global journalists generating a research literature in economics. Generally, in economics and business journals, globalisation referred to capital markets integration.
Sociological theorists, mainly in the United States and the United Kingdom in 1990, picked up the term and the contemporary relevance of sociology by making globalisation one of its pillar topics was re-established by remarkable burst of writing.
The idea of global society from the first wave of theoretical work was the basis of most sociological thinking about globalisation. The idea that there was a new intensity of links across distance among people, regions or social entities among people and that boundaries were rapidly breaking down built the concept of global society. This idea’s declarations which might be termed as the concept of abstract linkage are highly characteristic of globalisation literature.
Reference
Cornell, R. (2007). The Northern Theory of Globalisation. Sociological Theory 25(4). 368-385.

Why have interactionist approaches proved so popular for social researchers Give examples

As a result, all sociological theories that have a sense of interactionism in them provide scholars with a tool and platform to study societies and individuals in a more productive way.
As Atkinson and Housley (2003) say, although there are so many sociological theories that have been developed over time, those that have integrationist approaches tend to have a better way of understanding the society. Interactionism in fact can be seen, in a sense, as the unifying theory of sociology (Reynolds &amp. Herman, 2003). Most schools of thought in sociology seem to appreciate the fact that people interact with each other in a way that helps in shaping and determining their attitudes, character and even their consciousness. This is the best explained by interactinist theories, of which there are many. The other thing that is necessary to note with regard to the internationalist theories is that they differ from earlier approaches in that they are more practical and provable than the earlier theories.
With interactionism, it is easy to measure and determine various aspects of the social equations. This can be best seen in ethnomethodology. This method of understanding the society looks at the people in their context of action and then tries to determine why and how people think in the way they do. By not necessarily developing a complex theory, ethnomethodology looks at social interactions as an almost automatic mechanism which drives actions and thoughts as well as the rationality of people (Flynn, 1991). Based on this fact, it can then be seen that consciousness of the same people is determined by the processes in the human societies in which they live. Earlier sociological theories were complex and had no easy way of measuring the various variables thus making them more of pseudo-scientific.
As the field of sociology has advanced, more scholars have seen themselves gravitating towards the interactionism because of the practicality. As Garfinkel has put

Gender Influences Entry into Entrepreneurship

92250 The paper tells that since ages various strategies are being adopted in order to rectify the inequality existing among the genders In this regard, it has been further acknowledged that women are essentially considered as the key source pertaining to ideas, innovations, and abilities among others. However, it has been determined that the scholars of entrepreneurship endure limited understanding with respect to the underlying factors along with the relevant decisions being made. In fact in the recent discussions, it is ascertained that leadership associated with the entrepreneurship reflects the characteristics of a gender. With the advent of modernization, the world has faced numerous challenges. The entire global economy has undergone major changes after the year 2008. The financial crisis, which the world faced during this period, has accelerated the interests of the people associated with entrepreneurship. In keeping with theories associated with entrepreneurship, it does not reflect any kind of universal explanation. Nevertheless, entrepreneurship includes diversified approaches in order to describe the behavior of an entrepreneur. Sociology, psychology, economics and regional science among others are few approaches associated with entrepreneurship. Apart from these, the other theories associated with entrepreneurship have been discussed as innovation theory, motivational theory based on the achievement and the acquired needs theory. The basic characteristic of the economic theory includes the presence of favorable economies. It has been discussed that economic along with entrepreneurship growth is analyzed under the economic theory. Correspondingly, economic incentive acts as one of the key motivators related to the entrepreneurial activities. In this regard, it has been further determined that the economic incentives mainly incorporate taxation policy, raw material and industrial policy among others.

Why might Livingstone and Lunts approach to infotainment be criticized from Habermas perspective on the public sphere

These realizations led to the postulations that communication had two dimensions with one dimension covering the overall communication of human beings and the other dimension covering the characteristics of communications that result from dynamics that influence communication at a given time and space (Outhwaite 2006, p.98). Therefore, communication is not a new concept.
The current approaches to communication involve the works of Jurgen Habermas who approached communication using post-modernism and argued from a philosophical perspective. Herbamas concept of communication is that it should involve a deliberate action between the communicating parties to create harmony through a process known as rationalization. In essence, communication involves actors who take it upon themselves to create harmony and to solve problems through the process of communication. In essence, communication seized to be just an avenue for people to exchange ideas but an active tool that can be used to solve the problems outlined by the English Philosopher Thomas Hobbes (Outhwaite, Habermas: a critical introduction 2009, p.70). Habermas outlines that communicative action is not just communication but that it uses the tools of communication (Outhwaite, Habermas: a critical introduction, 2009). In essence, Habermas implies that for communicative action to take place both parties have to be active participants. A central postulation to Habermas analysis of communication is that communication has to be rational. The concept of rationality is not new in the field of philosopher and sociology dating back from the times of philosophers like Plato and Rene Descartes. Although rationality is also still surrounded by controversy in terms of definition, the paper will approach rationality as concerning sound mind and reasoning.
Communication in the contemporary world has taken a dynamic dimension beginning with the mass production of print media and cable television which has been the major

CONSENSUS PERSPECTIVE VS SOCIAL CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE

Consensus Perspective Vs Social Conflict Perspective The central interest of sociology is to study people, groups interacting with each other for a common thread. Consensus perspective and social conflict perspective are two basic sociological theories that are used in the modern society.
Consensus perspective
The consensus theory is one of the infamous sociological theories. This perspective originated from a sociologist who was known as Emilie Durkheim. Durkheim argues that social facts dictate the context of the society. Social facts are customs, belief systems, and institutions which continue to exist because they are useful to the society: such as education. Members of society are constrained by social facts through their way of thinking, acting and feelings (Ritzer, 23).
Moreover, belief and moral codes are passed from one generation to another as they are shared by individuals who make up the society. He says that collective conscience and social stability can only be achieved through consensus that consists of “common beliefs and sentiments. Without this consensus, social solidarity could be impossible as human being will not integrate with each other” (Ritzer, 25).
Durkheim argues that collective conscience restricts individual to behave in accordance with the societal norms. His argument is based on the fact that the society is composed of various parts or institutions which are integrated to form it in order to produce social order. According to consensus. contract comes as a result of the consensus or the meeting of minds. Of any contracting parties without consensus there is no contract and hence it continues to be important and very essential to most of the approaches to contract law (Ritzer, 24).
Apparently, most of the participants in the development of this theory tend to think that the growth and the history of consensus theory give a greater knowledge of the foundations of modern contract law. In addition they view the history consensus theory as a testing ground for dissimilar conceptions.
Social conflict perspective,
The social conflict theory was developed in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to the association of two fathers of sociology who were known as Karl max and Max Weber (Ritzer, 28).
The social conflict perspective is one of the major sociological models of understanding the social world. Mainly, this perspective has got three components. First, is that it has conflict which is common and continuing in the society. Second, is that the society is comprised of several classes of populace who have contradictory values and interests. Third, is that the conflict that is present in the society occurs between the dominant and the subordinate who have stiff competition over scarce resources.
In this perspective, Karl Marx uses two groups to explain the phenomenon. the dominant class and the subordinate class. To him, a class is a group of individuals with similar positions in the market economy in which they compete to gain and by virtue of that fact receive similar economic gains, thus a person’s class position is basically his market position (Ritzer, 38).
The bourgeoisies own and manage the means of production in the society which include the distribution of their products. The other group is the proletariat. In essence the dominant group belongs to the capitalist while the subordinate group is the working class (Ritzer, 36).
Additionally, Max Weber asserts that the society is a ground of conflict and struggle between these two classes of people. However, unlike his colleague Karl, Max argues that these societal groups are many as they posses varying degrees of social power. Hence social conflict is inevitable in the society.

Works cited:
Ritzer. George. Handbook of social theory. London U.A.: SAGE. 2003. Print.

Sports Management

Sports Management Sports Management Research Problem The research article selected for this analysis bears the “Management training and national sport organization managers: Examining the impact of training on individual and organizational performances” authored by Millar and Stevens (2012). The article begins by denoting the research problem, which is neglect of sports managers’ development and performance outside the field compared to their field performance. The authors note that sport systems, in Canada, lack proper mechanisms to equip sports managers with administrative skills and overall organizational capacity. The article therefore, clearly defines the research scope by emphasizing the necessity of professional improvement strategies for sports managers like HR training.
Literature Review Discussion
The literary analysis in Millar and Stevens’ (2012) article primarily revolves around the theoretical concepts of training transfer. This framework encompasses supporting concepts like the learning theory, individual performance, and overall organizational performance. The article also addresses factors that mediate training transfer including motivation to move, extant training design, as well as, organizational climate. This theoretical model clearly covers the most significant study areas in the research. For instance, theory on learning and its outcomes, which has its roots in psychology and sociology, provides insight into how individuals gain or build new ideas. The rest of the theoretical information also forms a crucial background on the factors capable of contributing towards or impeding sports managers’ learning ability and subsequent administrative proficiency.
Research Hypotheses
Unlike most quantitative studies, which simply have the research and null hypotheses, Millar and Stevens’ (2012) investigation has several, since it examines more than one mediating factor. For instance, H1 stipulates that managers’ learning heightens after training, while H2 asserts that learning level is highest immediately following training. H3 and H4 denote the positive correlation between individual performance and learning, while H5 and H6 draw a similar analogy between organization performance and training. Finally, H7 indicates that motivation to transfer, organizational climate, and training design mediate the link between management proficiency and individual performance. Though not explicitly outlined, the null hypothesis contravenes these research suggestions.
Methodology Analysis
The study adopted a quasi-experimental and longitudinal design, characterized by three measurement stages including pre-training, after-training, and the second post-training. The study involved 36 participants including volunteers and managerial staff selected randomly from six national sport organizations (NSOs) in Canada. During the first phase, there was a response rate of 100% to the survey questionnaires issued. However in the second stage, 35 out of the 36 respondents took part in the survey hence a 97% response rate. In the final phase only 22 participants responded to the survey questions resulting in a dismal 64% response rate.
Statistical Analysis Discussion
Millar and Stevens (2012) used internal consistency estimates and descriptive statistics for all mediating variables and research outcomes. The scholars also applied repeated ANOVA analyses to compare learning levels, organizational and individual performance. There was also use of paired t-tests to evaluate differences between pre and post-training average scores for various training outcome measures. Links between learning and performance variables were examined using Pearson’s correlation analysis, while bootstrapping technique of compound mediation was utilized to establish whether organizational climate, transfer motivation and training design influence the association between understanding applicability and performance.
Study Conclusion and Recommendations
Millar and Stevens (2012) conclude that the research findings are indicative of the fact that training enhances sport managers’ learning and performance capacity. They also deduce from the results that training improves NSOs’ organizational performance. The general assertion of the article is that training sport managers equips them with administrative skills for overall individual and organizational performance.
Study Opinion and Research Implications for Sport Management
The number of participants was small, limiting the generalizability of the study to mainstream sports organizations. However, the statistical tests carried out, like bootstrapping, account for effects of limited sample size thus allowing for credible statistical conclusions. These research findings bear significant implications for sports managers and sport organizations alike. This is because the results show that training individuals within favorable company settings goes a long way towards improving their managerial capacity for the benefit of the company involved.
Reference
Millar, P. &amp. Stevens, J. (2012). Management training and national sport organization managers: Examining the impact of training on individual and organizational performances. Sport Management Review, 15, 288–303.

Individuals Can Use Leisure and Tourism to Form and Express Their Identity

“The issue of identity is omnipresent in discourses on tourism – not only in academically informed discourses on tourism, but also in discourses from inside the tourism system, i.e. the local participants – as the contributions by Bras, Schlehe, Senft, and Venbrux exemplify.” (Dahles H, Meijl T, 1999)
Everyone has the right to rest on a daily, weekly and yearly basis, and the right to the leisure time that enables them to develop every aspect of their personality and their social integration. Clearly, everyone is entitled to exercise this right to personal development. The right to tourism is a concrete expression of this general right, and social tourism is underpinned by the desire to ensure that it is universally accessible in practice.
Studies of leisure and tourism can be located within the social sciences – we can understand tourism and leisure from psychological and sociological approaches. Psychology seeks to understand the individual – in tourism most studies surround the issue of motivation. Sociology seeks to understand societal influences on individual behaviour.
Two main strands of sociology – structuralism (consensus and conflict theories) and social action theory (interactionism, phenomenology). Rise of consumption society – leisure and tourism as forms of consumption.
Anaemic primacy given to lifestyle in participant accounts: Some would look at me as a bum. I would feel a bit sorry for them if they look at me like that. What’s really developed in my real lifestyle. (Max, English, 40, 17 years of lifestyle travel [LT])
Travelling was so much introduced to me as a baby that it became much more of an option as a way of life. There’s no year in my life that hasn’t involved travel. This type of movement and constant change is very much a part of me and my lifestyle. (Tamara, Canadian/Indian, 34, 17 years LT)
“Young people’s increased leisure opportunities can actually keep them in their parents’ house because they spend their money on entertainment, rather than setting up an independent home.” (Jones, 2009)

Contomporary issue in accounting

Therefore, the existence of the manager-stockholder conflict is undeniable and there are legal as well as business methods of resolving such conflicts. The range of conflicts may be as simple as the corporate social responsibility of the firm to as complex as ethical issues that come up when the management seeks to defraud or cheat its shareholders outright. An understand of such issues becomes important for all students of management, finance, and even sociology since many corporations of the world have budgets which exceed the budgets of sovereign nations in the world today. To better understand these issues, real world examples from companies such as Enron, Apple Inc. and GE would be necessary. Of these, the case of Enron stands as a prime example of what disasters can result when the management gives itself and the results it wants to have priority over the shareholders and stakeholders of the company.
Enron had a problem of vision as described by Welch (2005). Enron was created in 1985 when Kenneth Lay’s small company named Houston Natural Gas was merged with the parent company of Nebraskan-Northern Natural Gas named InterNorth. The new entity was named Enron and before this merger, both firms were dealing with the distribution of oil as well as electric energy. They were also involved with the construction, expansion and the maintenance of power plants, pipelines and other similar energy related infrastructure (Thomas, 2002). Under the new company, Kenneth Lay became the Chief Executive Officer and his vision of the company was quite different from what the shareholders might have wanted at the time.
This is because Lay wanted to expand the company rapidly into new markets while creating new markets from scratch as well. Of course a successful vision of the CEO would have meant increased value for the shareholders as the stock price would have been maximized and success of the company would have meant job

Sociology of deviance labelling

69).
It is a view supported by culture theory whereby the adaptation to a given human environment is an inevitable process for the success of the marriage. Primary deviance, thus, starts to show when the woman notes discrimination based on her tribe from the family of her husband. Alternatively, primary deviance means that an individual embraces the first steps of internalizing forms of deviant identity without alteration of accepted self-concepts of society (Slattery 2003, p. 144). Consequently, by integrating primary deviance, it implies that the marriage happens without the knowledge of the family. In other words, the deviance enables the couple to adapt to material as well as social processes caused by the dynamics of culture and nature.
On the other hand, materialization of secondary deviance will emerge when the family begins to label the girl as from another tribal family instead of viewing the couple as a unit. The family, therefore, is made aware of the violations of societal norms stipulated by the husband’s culture that will result in the labelling process (Anleu 2005, p. 77). Aspects of the labelling process include unwanted categorizations that elicit deviance and stigma in the targeted victim. Overall, labelling is meant to distort social identity and self-concept of an individual to prevent her from questioning consequences of stigmatization in the marriage.
Interestingly, there are numerous ways in which I was seen as deviant in the family set-up of my husband’s household. First, my primary deviance started when the family refused to acknowledge our marriage because of existing tribal differences. It shows that my deviance emanated from the social construction of reaction of the husband’s family and not action to formalize the marriage. Contrastingly, cultural values and norms play an integral role in

Causes of Appearing Delinquency and Crime

Criminal Justice Criminal Justice According to Durkheim’s “The Nature of Man”, any individual is a combination of two aspects. On one side is the aspect of self (the social self), which looks to society. This is a product of the cultivation and socialization of human potentials. On the other side is the primal self (egoistic self), which is deficient without society. This is full of impulses with no natural limits (Lily, Cullen, &amp. Ball., 2011). According to this view, provisions of social solidarity rooted upon highly advanced functions of social regulation and social regulation let the more primal self to fully humanize in a life shared by many others based on a moral ground. Many sociologists and different schools of thoughts have written texts about this. Nonetheless, unless social solidarity is advanced or maintained, crime and delinquency will arise.
The Chicago School has had a lot of influence with regards to crime and delinquency. Notably, the Chicago school had developed after World War One with its emphasis on urbanization and immigration as the main drivers of social change, which led to the rise of social crime due to social disorganization. Notably, the rapid urbanization and industrialization synonymous with the 20th century were followed by massive tides of immigration to the US. However, the Chicago school had lots of ideas with regards to social order and human nature, which led some criminological theorists toward control theories that did not take conformity for granted as the natural order (Lily, Cullen, &amp. Ball., 2011). Some say that the human offspring depends on other humans within the family setting for a long time.
Reiss’s Theory of Personal and Social Controls also tackle issues dealing with delinquency. In one of his articles, Albert J. Reiss defined certain terminologies pertaining to criminology studies. According to him, personal control was the individual ability to desist meeting needs in approaches that clash with the rules and norms of the community. Social control, on its part, was the ability of social institutions and groups to make rules or norms effective (Lily, Cullen, &amp. Ball., 2011). According to him, delinquency comes about where there is a comparative absence of internalized rules and norms that govern behavior in line with the social system norms synonymous with legal penalties. Reiss also reiterates that conformity arises when an individual accepts roles and rules or when the individual merely submits to them.
Moreover, Nye’s Family-Focused Theory of Social Controls expounds of the Chicago school. F. Ivan Nye is one of the leading figures in sociology. He was also much under the influence of the Chicago School. However, he sought to clarify the reasons as to why criminal behavior and delinquent are not more common. Nye focused on adolescents as he considered the family unit to be the most essential agent of social control over such. The family is able to generate control, internalized control, direct control, and indirect control via other means of need satisfaction (Lily, Cullen, &amp. Ball., 2011). Others like Reckless came up with containment theory that sought to explain why conformity continues to be the general state of affairs despite the criminogenic pushes and pulls. According to his argument, delinquency or crime needs the person to break through a mixture of inner and outer containment, which together appear to wad the individual from the pushes and pulls (Lily, Cullen, &amp. Ball., 2011).
Reference
Lily, R. J., Cullen, F. T., &amp. Ball., R. A. (2011). Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences. Los Angeles, C.A: Sage Publishing.

Hobbes and Rousseau on the Creation of Political Authority

The Ideas of Hobbes and Rousseau are important for all students of political science, history, sociology and even literature because their ideas have formed the basis of almost all modern western democracies.

Hobbes was the earlier of the two philosophers and outlined his ideas concerning a social contract in his magnum opus titled Leviathan. Hobbes suggests that the natural inclination of mankind breaks men into strong and weak. The strength of a strong man may come from his physical abilities or his mental prowess but in either case, he has an advantage over the weak. However, this advantage to the strong is not so great that they stop fearing death and if a person is faced with death s/he has to avoid it by whatever means possible (Williams, 2006).

In fact, this threat of death can come from a combined force of weaker individuals as well therefore the natural world creates a constant struggle and war between all individuals. Wherever such a state exists life would be brutal, hard and very harsh. Of course, the clear situation where such a state exists is the situation of war where every man has to fend for himself. Hobbes suggests that all men have a desire to disengage from war if they have to face their own deaths. Therefore, it is the fear of death which leads human beings to form civil societies that function under some form of authority (Williams, 2006).

This authority takes away some of the freedoms enjoyed by man in his natural state and in turn gives men a state of internal peace within the society and protection if another groups attacks the same society. To function as an accepted power, the authority must be a ‘Leviathan’ which represents absolute power within that group. Additionally, the authority needs to be strong in order to wage war and defend the people if necessary from outside aggression (Williams, 2006). Fundamentally, Hobbes would function very well as a citizen if he gave up a few of his naturally granted freedoms in exchange for security, peace and protection from outside influences.

Sociological Imagination and Religion

Mills was the very first to claim that “the modern age is being succeeded by a postmodern period” (ibid, 107) because of the collapse of the two most important political ideologies of the contemporary period, namely, liberalism and socialism. Yet, the treatise’s foremost contribution is related to its exceptionally famous title, which implies that sociology at its finest can provide an ingenious, imaginative and sympathetic recognition of human diversity. Hence, the distinctiveness of Mill’s framework is best described in terms of its significance. He argues that the Enlightenment principles of universal knowledge and religion can be obtained through the classical convention in the field of social science and by relying on the general academic carrying out a role as a driving force of social change and political analysis (Hamilton 2001).

For scholars of meaning the course of secularisation in modern industrial societies is challenging, which is the same case for every assumption that situates the origin of religion in the human circumstance. In the case of Berger, if religion offers the safeguard against estrangement, then how is secularisation achievable? Several theorists such as Luckmann have plainly endeavored in rejecting that secularisation is occurring at all. It is a delusion created by the collapse of conventional forms of religion. Instead of these forms, nevertheless, new forms are developing consistently, these thinkers claim. Even though he has altered his perspective more in recent times, for a greater part of his profession, Berger, however, has never rejected the realities of secularisation and was for several decades one of the primary scholars of this phenomenon (ibid).
The downfall of religion in modern times has been envisioned by several thinkers, particularly those thinking and writing in the nineteenth century. These theorists, such as Tylor, Marx, and Freud, all predicted religion to weaken as science emerged to preoccupy the manner of thinking of modern societies. Some, who perceive religion in more&nbsp.purposeful terms.

Own Sociological Theory

Every individual in society is just like a link in a chain. Even a single weak link in a chain can destroy the total strength of a chain. the same way even a single antisocial element in a society can weaken the cohesion or strength of a society. In other words, for the proper functioning of a society, all the individuals should be equally stronger. Sociologists work for achieving the above objective. In this paper, I briefly explain my own sociology theory.

My sociology theory has not developed overnight. So many factors such as intelligence, religious principles, teachings of prominent sociologists, my own experiences in the family and society, etc influenced me a lot while developing my sociological perspectives. Out of the so many factors mentioned above, I think, ultimately my own intelligence and wisdom was the single most important factor which helped me to develop my own views about society and social interactions. During my childhood, I waited for instructions from my parents to behave in a particular way. But when I grew up, intelligence started to control my activities. For example, during my childhood, I was a strongly religious person. But as I grew up, I started to attract towards atheism. I was a great admirer of atheism for around 3 years. But I was not adamant in my views and was ready to make compromises. I became a believer again as my intelligence started to function properly. I have realized that in nature every activity is following a pattern and in the absence of a superpower or a controlling power, it is difficult for nature to survive for such a long period. I have realized that a fan will stop functioning whenever the power is switched off. In other words, I have realized that our nature or universe will become dull or inactive if no power or energy existed behind it. In short, intelligence started to control my thoughts when I grew up. I have started to analyze the prominent social science theories critically as a&nbsp.result of intelligence development.&nbsp.

The Impact of the Repeal of Dont Ask Dont Tell Policies

Through aggressively taking down the level of sexual harassment and eliminating sexual displays of dominance, the military can become a more solid and unified organization in which men and women are safe and honorably treated with respect.
The following study through secondary research will examine the nature of the ‘don’t ask don’t tell’ policy and the ways in which the repeal is a necessary measure. Through understanding the ways in which the sociological nature of the military will undergo changes, this will be related to the ways in which the repeal of the law will impact military families. The sociology of integrating homosexuality into society will be examined, and then assessed in consideration of the unique environment of the culture of the military. With respect to family culture, the nature of the changes will look at any impact that might occur.
The following research paper will discuss the nature of the ‘don’t ask don’t tell policy, creating a background for the controversy and then relating the information to the effect that the repeal of this policy will have on military families. As the issue is intertwined with those who support political factions that support the ‘family values’ platform, the new policies and philosophies that will be included in the sociology of military life will have some form of impact on families within the military. The paper will be structured with a history of the military philosophies on homosexuality and the consequences of those philosophies.

Pay for Performace why it is a good Idea

1117). The relationship between compensation systems and organizational performance has attracted attention in the modern competitive business environment. The primary subjects addressing compensation systems include administration, economics, sociology, and strategic human resource management. Pay for performance is the best approach for enhancing efficiency and effectiveness in modern organizations through motivation enhancement, maintenance of focus on productivity, and efficiency in operations.
The primary focus of this paper is to analyze the use of pay for performance systems in organizations including the system’s contribution to improvement of efficiency and effectiveness. Pay for performance is believed to enhance worker performance because workers strive to earn extra income by improving their productivity. The paper examines the aspect regarding the compensation of employees, focusing on the relationship between remuneration and worker productivity. Pay for performance is actually one method of remunerating employees, but based on their contribution to the organization’s overall improvement (Kim, Sutton &amp. Gong, 2013, p. 48). Remuneration has been established to be direct proportional to worker productivity because employers make payments to workers from the money they earn for the companies.
There is a positive correlation between compensation systems and organizational performance, which has attracted widespread attention in the modern competitive business environment. For example, The Affordable Care Act broadens pay-for-performance efforts in hospitals by establishing a Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program. Effective October 1, 2012, hospitals were rewarded depending on how well they performed on a set of quality measures as well as on how much they improved in performance relative to a baseline (US Institute of Medicine,

Gender and Sex in an African Society

The invention of women demonstrates, on the contrary, that gender was not constructed in the old society of Yoruba, and that organizations in the society were determined by relative age. A meticulous epistemological and historical account of an African culture embracing its own terms, this book makes an argument that is persuasive based on the culturally dependent context that interprets social reality. It calls for a gender discourse preconception and categories on which such studies can rely. Moreover, the book bares the hidden assumptions in thoughts of different cultures. It is a truly comparative sociology of the Western tradition and African culture that will change the way gender and African studies proceed.
&nbsp.Oyewumi’s analysis advances greatly into the postcolonial mapping of the European distinction that has been developing in the recent decades. It traces how Western visual privileging insures that biological determinism and social constructivism cannot be mutually exclusive in cultures of the West. Gender categories were one kind of new tradition that European colonialists institutionalized in many African cultures including the Yoruba culture. Contemporary Western feminism has continued to extend their empire. Oyewumi enables the reader to envision what is hard to imagine within Western feminism world after gender. The book makes a huge contribution to not only feminism and African studies but also to philosophy, social theory and sociology in general. In Male daughters and female husbands.

Behaviouralism as Valuable Approach to the of Politics

Derived from “polis”—a Greek word—which refers to the city-state, politics is identified in terms of the state or government and denotes power. Thus, politics deals with both the state and power. On the other hand, Political Science deals with the power that is customarily the legitimate power (National Institute of Open Schooling n.d.).
Politics and the state have been traditionally associated with each other—a fact that differentiates politics from other social sciences, for instance, sociology and economics. consequently, subfields of politics—political sociology and political economy, for instance (Garner 2009). On the other hand, Political Science deals with those aspects of individuals in society which relate to their activities and organizations devoted to seeking of power, resolution of conflicts and all these, within an overall framework of the rule and law as laid down by the state (National Institute of Open Schooling n.d.).
The systematic study of politics was started by Greeks philosophers in the 4th century BC. Aristotle referred to politics as a “master science” that encompasses not only the state or government but also of families, properties and other social institutions. On the contrary, the ancient Romans take into account the legal aspect of politics more crucial for their power which eventually leads political science to become a part and was subordinated by the religious order of the Church during the Middle Ages. A German philosopher of the 19th century named Karl Marx introduced the Marxist approach which observes politics as a study of two conflicting social classes—the rich and the poor or the exploiters and the exploited. However, the Marxist approach has another view—the liberal view—which considered politics as an endeavor for resolution and adaptation to result in rule of order and justice. Moreover, in the 20th century when the Second World War was over—most&nbsp.probably in the 1920s, Political Science had taken a new dimension—the ‘behavioral approach’

Why do people commit suicide Discuss in relation to Durkheims work

Credited as the father of Sociology, Durkheim is accredited for making tangible contributions in Sociological research. His work on suicide remains to be one of the works that have changed the manner in which the theme has been understood in the society, as well altered the manner in which sociological research has been carried out in Sociology. This is to mean that Durkheim is of the opinion that suicide can be discussed on a social science point of view. Additionally, suicide can not only be discussed on a biological and psychological point of view but based on social facts.
This paper shall aim at discussing the social causes of suicide, and the degree to which these facts can be ascribed or related with social issues. With the backing of arguments of other scholars who second the propositions by Durkheim, this paper shall also endeavor to assess the weight of these propositions in regard to social facts that cause suicide. The work shall also weigh the critics of the propositions by Durkheim, and whether they neutralize the facts or not. Finally, the paper shall take a stand on suicide and Durkheim.
In the work compiled by Bryant (2003: 840), a huge percentage of persons who commit suicide are indicated to have suffered from depression. This has been linked to mood disarrays among these personalities. Due to tragic events such as death of loved ones, a lot of persons tend to suffer from depression, and ultimately suicidal attempts Bryant (2003: 840).
The middle aged, whites and men are the most likely victims of suicide as evident in the work of Smith (2012: 1) who carried out his research from random interviewees. This relates to this group of persons not having the ability to act impulsively in times of predicaments in their lives.
The family also plays a huge role regarding suicide rates (Sigelman &amp. Rider, 2011: s3).This relates to marriage, family size and suicide rates. Bryant (2003: 840) adds on to argue that suicide rates are high

What Problems Does the Jury Face When Science Enters the Courtroom

The proponents of science hold that science is a way of life that is based on solid facts, data and experimentation. That is why scientific theories and dogmas enjoy much higher levels of veracity and credibility as compared to other academic disciplines. So much so, that scientific approach towards research and experimentation has been incorporated within the ambit of other disciplines and fields of enquiry like sociology, history, economics, jurisprudence, psychology, etc. The fact is that science has infiltrated every aspect of life and human existence and today there exists practically no social institution or concern that is devoid of scientific methods and approaches. Especially in the realm of law, science has brought about an unprecedented change and revolution. In the 21st century, scientific evidence is legitimately welcomed and accommodated in all the courts of law and it holds credibility and veracity about which there exists no doubt. The scientific community has also promptly responded to this new challenge and responsibility by developing new disciplines like forensics that specifically cater to the realm of law and the techniques like fingerprint evidence, DNA fingerprinting, etc hold an almost unchallenged recognition in the courts of law.
With the digitization of the economies and scientific orientation of the means and ways of production, the courts of law are often required to contend with the litigations that require considerable amounts of scientific data and inputs. There is no denying the fact that the courts in the West have over the centuries, incorporated certain cardinal instruments within their frameworks and the jury is one such integral aspect of such legal frameworks. For good or for bad, the litigations requiring scientific data and discussion are not devoid of the decisive influence of juries and the concerned scientific evidence furnished in such cases is as much open to analysis by the jury as by judges, lawyers, litigants and other parties involved.
The entrance of science in the courtrooms has given way to a plethora of questions, apprehensions and doubts.&nbsp.

Political Sociology

Political Sociology: A merger occurs when functions of two different organizations are integrated in such a way that one organization becomes a partof another. Integration of programmatic and administrative functions of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) with the Department of Trade and Foreign Affairs by the Harper Government is an example of a merger. In this case, we see an inclusive political institution operating in support of an inclusive economic institution which is considered a key to sustain prosperity. According to Acemoglu and Robinson, similar looking nations differ on grounds of the nature of political and economic institutions which can be either inclusive or extractive. Extractive institutions focus on extracting resources from many to advance benefits of a few, while inclusive institutions focus on creating a level playing field to maximize benefit using the same resources (Acemoglu and Robinson, 2012). In light of the approach taken to political and economic institutions by Acemoglu and Robinson in their book Why Nations Fail, both authors are expected to applaud the Harper government’s move because one organization was folded and merged with another to save resources and gather more skills in one place. Much has been written about the benefits offered by mergers. It is this success of mergers in many nations which has inspired many political leaders to take a closer look at this profitable strategy (Tschirhart amp. Bielefeld, 2012). A merger can prove to be a significant opportunity in times of economic contraction. It can help to solve the crisis. The Harper government is an example of an inclusive political institution which is important for sustained prosperity. Collaboration of two separate organizations signifies a shared-power approach to many issues encountered by them. It is impossible to sustain growth under extractive institutions because such institutions replace the old with the new in the economic realm. Acemoglu and Robinson would applaud this move because instead of replacing the old with the new, a merger occured leading to political and economic stability. It is argued in Why Nations Fail that nations become rich owing to more inclusive political institutions (Acemoglu and Robinson, 2012).
References:
Acemoglu, D. amp. Robinson, J.A. (2012). WHY NATIONS FAIL. New York: Crown Publishers.
Tschirhart, M. amp. Bielefeld, W. (2012). Managing Nonprofit Organizations. John Wiley amp. Sons.

Sociology The Clashes / Conflicts between Hong Kong and China

78). And if they are one, why do they have continuous conflicts? Hong Kong still maintains their police force, currency, passports though the mainland, the Chinese government, manages the military of Hong Kong and also the diplomacy with other foreign countries. At the same time, the principal lands have also gone so much interest in the politics of the Hong Kong (Goodstadt, 2005 pg. 61).
China also is the country considered to have the highest population in the world, located in Eastern side of Asia. The country has over 22 provinces, two special administrative regions, four directly administered municipalities, and five autonomous regions, Hong Kong being one of the special administrative regions. Hong Kong was colonized by the British Empire during the opium war but at the time of Pacific war, Hong Kong became under the Japan’s rule (Metzger, 2004 pg. 118).
Samuel P. Huntington in his book The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order said that In the emerging world of ethnic conflict and civilizational clash, Western belief in the universality of Western culture suffers three problems: it is false. it is immoral, and it is dangerous. Hong Kong adopted most of the British culture forgetting their culture. Later, the city war recaptured by the British, who took control up to 1997 when they handed it to the mainland China (Chan et al., 1994, pg. 177). Even though being a special administrative region of China, for the next 50 years nothing will change because of the basic law adopted by the two countries. It, therefore, means that for this period of 50 years, everything will remain the same in Hong Kong as it was under the British Empire.
As a result of the Opium War in the mid-19th century, Hong Kong was once occupied by the British army and then later taken over by the England. Being considered as part of the Qing dynasty empire, Hong Kong

Organization Behavior and Learning

1750

The researcher states that the origin of empowerment as a form of theory was traced back to the Brazilian humanitarian and educator, Freire. He suggested a model for liberating the oppressed people of the world through education. Parpart, Rai, amp. Staudt, are of the view that empowerment is an alternative approach to social development in local, grassroots community-based initiatives. Lincoln, Travers, Ackers, amp. Wilkinson, observes that empowerment has been used across a broad variety of disciplines like community psychology, management, political theory, social work, education, women studies, and sociology. The concept of empowerment is conceived as the idea of power ie. either gaining, expending, diminishing, and losing power. The traditional concept of power was an isolated one, where it was held or used at the expense of other people. Empowerment has brought a new dimention of power. In recent times its has been shown that power can be strenthened through sharing with others. In this sense, power sharing is multidimentional and helps people be incharge of their lives. A review of literature, that was conducted by the researcher shows little discontent in the application of empowerment in the workplace. For its benefits, it is assumed that empowerment is a universal solution appropriate to all organisations in all circumstances. Section 2 of this paper explores key terms, concepts, and theories of empowerment. Section 3 concludes with a discussion of the key concepts established in the paper.

How does critical theory challenge traditional notions of objectivity

Criticisms of critical theory to traditional notions of objectivity Objectivity The virtue of objectivity hasbeen very controversial among various scholars. In essence, different scholars have come up with different principles to explain objectivity. Generally, objectivity can be described as the practice of being impartial when giving judgment to things that revolve around us (Gelmon, Billig, amp. International Service-Learning Research Conference, 2007).Many models have been developed to criticise the traditional notion of objectivity. The critical theory is among the concepts that have emerged to criticise the philosophy of objectivity (Freedman, 2000).nbsp.The critical theory borrows from sociology and humanity to evaluate and explain life issues.
The critical theory holds that the philosophy of objectivity is irrational since it can never exist in the real world situation (Goldstein, 2001). In essence, the supporters of the critical theory argue that human beings can never portray perfect objectivity since everyone has some degree of prejudice. The issue of rationality, as described by Max Weber in his works, raised heightened concern with critical theory philosophers. Malott (2011) states that Weber holds that objectivity builds rationalism in people’s thinking and decision-making capabilities. However, Weberian objectivists critique discredits this argument by asserting that objectivity results in accumulation of power by just a few individuals, and it does not give a uniform ground for airing personal views (Bonefeld, 2014)nbsp.. In essence, the critical theory pictures objectivity as a crude weapon to eliminate marginal voice from the dominant culture.
In summary, the philosophy of objectivity has been criticised from different perspectives. In essence, most scholars view objectivity as a threat to the minority groups since they are left with no say. A critical analysis of the practice of objectivity depicts several flaws that have not been given credible explanations.
Reference list:
Bonefeld, W. (2014).nbsp.Critical theory and the critique of political economy: On subversion and negative reason. New York: Bloomsbury Academic.
Freedman, C. H. (2000).nbsp.Critical theory and science fiction. Hanover, N.H: Univ. Press of New England.
Gelmon, S. B., Billig, S., amp. International Service-Learning Research Conference. (2007).From passion to objectivity: International and cross-disciplinary perspectives on service- learning research. Charlotte, N.C: IAP/Information Age Pub.
Goldstein, P. (2001).nbsp.Communities of cultural value: Reception study, political differences, and literary history. Lanham [u.a.: Lexington Books.
Malott, C. (2011).nbsp.Critical Pedagogy and Cognition: An Introduction to a Postformal Educational Psychology. (Critical Pedagogy and Cognition.) Berlin: Springer Netherland.

Family Sociology

According to the NSCFC (2010), the family system in UK has undergone many solid changes during the past fifty years. According to their statistics, fifty years ago only 25 percent of people above thirty were single, however this percentage has reached to 55% in 2007.
The discipline of Sociology views the family as being the basic unit of society (Bernardes, 1997). The idea of nuclear family is quite powerful. it includes the correctness of gender specific roles and also the responsibility of parents regarding the well being and upbringing of children (Muncie, 1995. cited in Bernardes, 1997).
Immigration, technological development, economic pressure, homosexuality and increased broken and displaced families have created great diversity among the UK family system (Diversity in families and households, 2010). Ethnic families are more extended as compared to British families that are more nuclear. Separated and reconstituted families are also common in which children from different parents have to live with their step siblings. In secularized countries, the family is more cohabitation based than legal marriage based and homosexual co habituation is also common (Cheal, 2002).
According to Bernardes (1997), it is a common perception among people that a family consists of a heterogeneous couple, with a small number of healthy kids, where the women have the primary task of care taking and may be occasional supportive income source and the men have the real bread winning task.
Women having young children are usually financially dependent on men and are not a part of the paid work world at all (Allan, 1999). As soon as a baby is born, the women are forced to stay at home and care for the young one, while men are expected to earn enough to provide for the family. This snatches the privilege of being paid for work from the women despite the fact that they work at home as much as men do

An Introduction to the Social Sciences

250

The official and the most likely reason for the US war on Iraq is not aligned with the author’s claim that war occurs because of a lack of understanding of each other’s behavior. There was also no justification for what Hitler’s and his Nazi party was doing prior to World War II, thus not understanding the Nazi culture was not a justifiable excuse for the US and its allies not to have gone to war with Germany. Sociology can be defined as the scientific study of human society and social behavior (NesSmith, pg. 5). The author of the article had a lot of good ideas about the importance of sociology to our society. An innovation that has helped global society connect more has been the internet. The internet allows for instant communication from people from different parts of the world and provides its users with a vast database of information that can be used to learn about other people’s culture.nbsp. The culture of each nation across the world is different, but these differences are what make the planet a unique and interesting place to live in.

Social Thought and Social Change

Several theorists have contributed to the comprehensive view of social change, not confining the understanding of social change as associated with globalization alone. Of these theorists come three of the pillars of sociology, whose thoughts have been applied even today. These theorists include Karl Marx, Max Weber, and Emile Durkheim. Their concepts might have some strands of divergence, yet these concepts were converged to forming a single praxis for academic integration.
According to Daniel Bell (1999 cited in Kalantzis amp. Kope, 2008), a sociologist from Harvard University, post-industrial society is a term coined to refer to new principles of innovations, new modes of social organization, and [the emergence of the] new classes in society… [highly featuring] the codification of theoretical knowledge and the new relation of science to technology. In addition, the post-industrial society is also characterized by a rapid-growing service sector with a focus on information dissemination and modern technological drives that utilize extensively human knowledge and not human muscles (Bell, 1973, p.127). During Marx’s time, the dominating classes involved in the production system are the proletariats and the bourgeoisie, with the latter own the means of production. In the post-industrial society, a large and a growing number of workers are working not in factories of goods production but in service industries, all of which are using their intellects and technical capabilities instead of physical strength. This class of workers, most are professionals, are what Bell calls the new class.

Social Positions Statuses and Conflicts

Social Positions, Statuses and Conflicts There is evidence that the normal structure of any society is to the development of conflict. Such conflict results from the defined social positions and statuses that different people are bound to occupy. The societal structure is also keen to define the expectations of each social position or status. The role of such social positions is to primarily present a definition of an individual in relation to social space and determine the level of interactions with different people. The society has multiple of these positions and has established varying attributes that define each of the positions. An individual does not only hold one social position, but numerous statuses. Each status has its obligations and set responsibilities that must be met by the individual said to occupy such a social position. Moreover, each social position has a distinct level of power and is associated with a range of potential interests. This only means that two people occupying different statuses are unlikely to share common goals and aspirations because of the differences in interest associated with each status. This paper will explain this occurrence and present different life examples (Kornblum amp. Smith 89)

When all the people in a society seek to abide by the obligations that define each status, conflicts tends to emerge. For example, a mother and her son each belong to different positions. At the position of a mother, it is natural to exhibit interest in seeing one son become successful by making the right choices. On the other hand, the son may have a completely different interest that involves seeking autonomy and pursuing his goals without interruption. This may include marrying the girl of his choice without prior considerations of her character. Both statuses present each individual with a legitimate interest. However, as each person acts according to the obligation defined by the status, they are likely to have a conflict (90).

Sometimes meeting the demands of an individual status can prove challenging because there might be a conflict between the responsibility that define two positions held by one person. For example, as a doctor (one status) I am expected to respond to emergencies during the night. As a father and a husband, I am also required to be at home with my family. Evidently, both cannot be done at the same time, resulting in a status conflict. Sometimes, I make efforts to finish up my emergencies in the shortest time possible so that I can rush home and see my family. However, I always find them sound asleep. This is an evident status strain because I struggle to meet all the obligations through prioritization (91).

In other cases, the conflict may result because of pressure exerted by two different members within one social role. As a doctor, I am supposed to attend to a patient with immediate effect. However, I receive a summon from the doctor in charge. This makes it difficult for me to fulfill both responsibilities at the same time because of the resulting role conflict. Although the doctor in charge has more power and needs to be obeyed, the status of the patient would be a determining factor in solving the conflict. Therefore, I would be relying on ethical principles to solve the conflict. In some situations, I am compelled to create a balance between the responsibilities resulting from two members of my role set. However, I do not achieve the very best in each case. For example, I have to attend a parents meeting in my daughter’s school on the same day scheduled for my son’s graduation. These responsibilities conform to my status as a father. I chose to pass by my daughter’s school and get a briefing of the meeting and proceed to attend my son’s graduation, but I arrive late (92). This is what sociologists have referred to as role strain.

Work Cited

Kornblum, William, and Carolyn D. Smith. Sociology in a Changing World. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

Territoriality

With territoriality comes the sense of a safe-home basis wherein there is protection from enemies among humans and protection from predators among animals. in actual fact there is also protection from exploitation where one’s territory is free from invaders with ulterior motives. Space nonetheless goes beyond the physical and tangible social environs, it is said to be connected to behavior. Most times than not as humans, we often create surroundings and environments that are aimed at suiting our respective wants and needs. this eventually does have an impact on how we end up behaving. Additionally, there is often a direct relationship between ownership of space or a definite territory with power. such that power is expressed through the monopolization of space wherein some families have acres and acres of land in a prime area whereas the less fortunate or powerful are dispensed to adverse and hostile environments.
Alongside monopolization is ownership of space which reflects power through the setting of boundaries that then decide who is allowed in and who is not. Boundaries irrespective of their importance do create a sense of exclusion which is a bit risky as it breeds conflict between the included and the excluded. There are various forms of human territories in sociology. body territory, home territory, public and interactional territory. In this paper, however there will be a discussion on the observations made from the social interactions that go on in the interactional territory as well as in the body territory.
It refers to any area or piece of space in which a social gathering may convene and take place. in every given interaction there is often some sort of boundary in place, though not too obvious nor officially set from the beginning to the end. For instance, in a party there are certain boundaries that

Fashion the punk movement

PUNK MOVEEMNT The punk Movement In many societies across the world, there is always some kind ofpractice that begins and runs across generations (Basson 2007, p. 70-1). this is a common case in fields like music, ideologies as well as fashion. Sometimes there could also be some forms of expressions, art, dance and literature that begins and is preserved by generations that come and go.
Punk movement is an example of a culture that has been prevalent in different societies, the subculture is usually characterised by anti-establishment views as well as the promotion of people’s freedom. Many young people have been known to embrace this kind of culture and can be seen the kind of fashion they put on (Feixa, 2006, p. 159-60), the literature that they prefer to be associated with as well as music.
Origin
Punk movement if not a subculture of the modern societies, its history spans several decades ago. The subculture is known to have begun long ago in different countries including the United States of America, UK as well as the larger Australia. It is believed that the culture started in the 1970s, however, the exact place that the subculture is said to have its roots remains a subject of controversy.
Those that have made a research on the origin of this culture say that in the beginning, the punk had an abundance of antecedents and great influences on people that choose and adopted it. The sub-culture has been expressed as a bricolage, characteristic of many young in the western realm.
It is believed that the subculture began to grow and diversify expanding to other countries, something that led to its proliferation of different factions, for instance new wave, street punk, hardcore punk among other factions.
Is the punk culture new?
The punk culture has modified itself to very many other forms, something that has made other people to doubt whether the culture is re-inventing itself or it’s a another different culture. The truth of the matter is that punk subculture is not new, with new generations adopting it, they only change the way it is viewed. This is by adding or reducing some of the things that are practiced by preceding generations.
It is important to note that the concept of the culture is the same, what a particular generation may find trending may not be an actual indication that succeeding generations will follow suit (Huq 2006, p. 123). For example, punk culture has been evident in the kinds of fashion that young people prefer to wear, yet the kind of fashion may not be in line with preferences of modern generations. Currently, the subculture has seen young people preferring to change their hair styles in certain ways, something that was not present in previous societies.
The future of Punk subculture
In future, punk subculture is expected to take different forms. this is because of the fact that human preferences are dynamic and cannot be easily predetermined (OConnor 2003, p. 4-6). From the time the subcultures was established there have been several changes in terms of factions that describe the culture, something that promises huge changes in future.
At the same time, every succeeding generation comes with its own preferences in terms of music, literature, fashion, art among others. The generations also prefer having their own values and different ways in which they enjoy their preferences. This situation prompts creativity and innovations into the present and future subculture (Savage, 2005, p. 98). This means that future, the subculture is bound to have a very different perspective in the way generations will want to enjoy its experiences, at the same time, it is also projected that it will reach many other societies because of the effect of information and technology that continues to revolutionize many societies across the world.
Bibliography
Basson, L. 2007. Punk identities in post-apartheid South Africa.nbsp.South African Review of Sociology. Vol 38, No. 1, pp.70–84.
Feixa, C. 2006. Being a punk in Catalonia and Mexico. Routledge, New York. pp.nbsp.159–60.
Huq, R. 2006. European youth cultures in a post-colonial world. Routledge, New York.
OConnor, A. 2003. Punk Subculture in Mexico and the Anti-globalization Movement: A Report from the Front.nbsp.New Political Sciencesnbsp.Vol 25, No. 1, pp. 7-10.
Savage, J. 2005.nbsp.Teenage: The Creation of Youth Culture. Viking. England.

Texts 2

The model somehow mixes the inner and outer sings as well as many disciplines which can be seen by explaining that sociology, psychology and economics are major disciplines whereas parks and recreation, agriculture and transport are not the fields of study but are included as major disciplines in the model. The model actually is a puzzle between major and minor disciplines (Tribe, 1999)
Also, we can say that marketing and business represent themselves as a problem. Marketing in general is considered a business function, it uses principles and guidelines from sociology and psychology as well as uses some of the business principles. Marketing is studied as a sub major in business and also, law is included in the business studies. So we can include these two as sub majors in the major discipline of business. techniques required in business studies are derivative partly from the disciplines that contribute to them and partly from the world of business practice. Henkel’s analysis clearly explains aforementioned theories and states that in an alternate form that the validation of a part of its knowledge is outside of its academy (tribe, 1999).
Tourism and business studies are the two emerging fields of studies and both of these fields collide or cooperate with each other in one way or the other. Hence, Tribe forces on the fact that there needs to be a new formulation of re interpretation of the model presented by Ritchie and Jafari since we need to incorporate business and marketing in the their model.Accommodating all the disciplines and departments under one heading of tourism studies is rather confusing and very difficult. We can say that we now need to divide the field of tourism studies into multiple fields, at least two and one of these two fields can be called tourism business studies whereas rest are still to be identified or incorporated into other fields of tourism studies.
A tourism business study is a field of study mainly inspired from business

The Concept of Holism in Nursing

Holism has been integrated into already a large majority of disciplines – science, philosophy, sociology, economics, psychology, educational reform, and even medicine. nbsp.Treats the organism not only as part of the ecological system but as a greater ecosystem, named the universe. In alternative medicine, a holistic approach to healing recognizes that the emotional, mental, spiritual and physical elements of each person comprise a system, and attempts to treat the whole person in its context, concentrating on the cause of the illness as well as symptoms. Examples of holistic therapeutic systems are Acupuncture, Chinese medicine, Indian Head Massage, Naturopathic medicine, and Reflexology.
This particular study focuses on how the concept of holism is integrated into medicine, specifically nursing. The paper presents the concept of holism is integrally linked with the goals and objectives of nursing and can be compared with prominent nursing theories such as Dr. Jean Watson’s caring theory, Hildegard Peplau’s Theory of Interpersonal relations and other existing theories. The study also discusses how the concept of Holism possibly embodies the concept of healing as well as the concept of caring. These issues are then placed within a wider philosophical context. The second part of the paper presented definitions of Strong and Pragmatic holism. The study has argued that the Pragmatic theory of holism is the theory of holism most compatible with nursing theory and practice.nbsp.

Lombroso

Sociology of Crime: Lombroso I agree with Lombroso’s first two types of criminology, which that there are the criminals that are born into alife of crime due to inherent traits and pathological factors and the criminals that can be considered criminally insane, which is to say that they have disorders that cause them to commit crimes. I do not agree with the criminal type known as ciminaloids. This criminal type states that people who have no special or mental characteristics will engage in crimes under certain circumstances due to their mental and emotional makeup. I disagree with this criminal type because I believe that, regardless of mental and emotional makeup, more often than not people find some other way to express this mental and emotional state.
The theory that I deem to be more relevant in today’s society and in criminal justice is the theory that states that criminals are born into a criminal life. If parents and family members before has engaged in criminal activity, there is a good chance that a child born into that family will do the same. Sometimes, especially in regard to criminal activity, it becomes difficult to break that chain of criminal activity. Unlike Beccaria’s concept of free will, when a child is born into a family with a criminal background, they often have no other choice.

Juvenile delinquency

It is one of the saddest realities of America. the extreme increase in juvenile crime is worrying us all. There is growing awareness in America aboutthe treatment and laws of children who committed criminal acts because they have a history of being treated like adults and processed through the same courts, jails and prisons says Musick (24). In United States, it has been a respected idea to treat the juveniles, who rape, rob and kill, differently. Macko pointed out that, People who have become victims of these young felons are angry and are calling for changes to be made in the juvenile justice system.
The American government has taken a lot of steps to lower the crime rate amongst the juvenile. The first jail for such offenders was opened in 1825 and by the year of 1875, there were forty juvenile prisons. (Musick, 24). Chicago Reformers also worked a great deal for such children by opening the state reform schools. Musick says that, by 1900, thirty-two states passed compulsory attendance laws (25). Juvenile courts were another effort by the legislators.
The history shows that the legislation has been influenced through out to make the changes concerning the juvenile delinquency. The government always tried to look into the reasons which cause such horrifying situations. There are many reasons, which influence the legislation again and again to change its approach towards the juvenile criminals. Immaturity, drug addiction, severe poverty, and abuse, which can be physical, mental or sexual, are the most obvious causes so far. Musick writes that, by the middle of twentieth century, news about neglect and abuse began to influence children’s laws (28). Macko writes that, Unfortunately, statistics prove that such youths are disproportionately affected by social problems linked historically to crime. These social problems include: the breakdown of the family, poverty and poor education. Homicides can become another basis for it. Macko estimates that, The United States averages, currently, about 21,000 homicides per year. Musick stresses on homelessness, current pattern of father abandonment and dual wage earnings (37,) which are getting the children to indulge in criminal acts. He also points out that, Quality child care is expensive and scarce. Hart wrote that, Juvenile sex offenders pasts might go public to stop them from committing crimes. A federal law in July 2010, however, could compel states to reveal the identities of many young sex offenders on a Web site for at least 25 years wrote Hart (2009.)

The legislators are taking a tough measure as the problem continues. McLellan stated that , California is on the verge of totally changing how it deals with juveniles. Egelko made the headline, A judge can sentence an adult felon to life in prison under California’s three strikes law because of past convictions in juvenile court, where there are no jury trials, the state Supreme Court ruled Thursday. McLellan wrote that, In California, 257,829 kids were arrested in 1994 for felonies, misdemeanors and status offenses such as truancy and curfew violations. The state Legislature, is dealing with sixty pending bills related to juvenile justice reform and they vary from minor tinkering to sweeping reforms (McLellan). Presently, the heated topic in the media is of abolishment of death penalty of juveniles and is considered a restricted category. Musick conclude that, there will be no shortage of problem children in the US for some time to come… In sum, Children’s law, juvenile courts, and social service agencies have not eliminated dependency, neglect and abuse (37-38).
Bibliography
1 Macko, Steve. Kids with no hope, no fear, no rules, and no life expectancy… EmergencyNet NEWS Service Daily Report. 18 May 1996. 21 July 2009. 2 Musick, David. An introduction to the sociology of juveniles. Albany: SUNY Press, 1995.
3 Bremner, Robert Hamlett. Children and youth in America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971.
4 Hart, James. Juvenile sex offenders pasts might go public. Kansascity.com. 7 July 2007. 21 July 2009. 5 Egelko, Bob. State high court: Juvenile crimes are strikes. San Francisco Chronicle. 3 July 2009. 21 July 2009. 6 McLellan, Dennis. Speaking Up. Los Angeles Times. Edward Humes.com. 24 April 1996. 21 July 2009.

Vitual communities and social media q1

Virtual Community and Social Media Social media is one of the significant instrument and tool for collective action. For instance, it is widely known that the social media participants undergo recruitment through social ties. Specifically, collective actions are beneficial when the population is connected via social media rather than in situations where there is no social connection. Therefore, the collective action asserts that overcoming the problem of free riders need the potential contributors for be highly organized. The organizing potential and the social ties are dependent. This is normally common on the density and frequency ties. The computer simulations and the mathematical analysis extend formal collective actions in treating the social networks and the organization of costs.
A common good is highly non-rival, majority of people will be served when the specific good is served (Kollock, 202). Just as the concepts of the common, using the internet undergoes the strategy of the commons. This is because the use of internet just like any other common good does not have the controlled guidelines in consuming it. Internet is one of the common goods because it can be accessed with the consumption regard. Similarly, the internet can be damaged when it is abused during consumption . Assuming the members of the public are restrained using the bandwidth. The use of the internet as a common good will benefit everyone in an efficient and effective means of exchanging and carrying on with the discussions. Unfortunately, some of the users of the internet reasons on the basis that the using bandwidth does not affect what other can access, thereby using the common resource without any restrictions. There are concrete solutions that deal with the social dilemma’s core characteristic (Kollock, 202).
Social media can be defined as one of the situations where the rationality of an individual results to collective irrationality (Kollock, 183). The best strategy for social dilemmas either is not always evident in risky exchanges as a defect or cooperates. Each of the social dilemmas has pair of options as their outcome. This can either be cooperate to cooperate, cooperate to defect, defect to cooperate, and defect to defect. The social dilemma occurs because the payoffs have dissimilar relationship, which are defined as reward, sucker’s payoff, temptation, and punishment. Therefore, if one is worried about being the topic, important interaction cease to exist. However, provided people are keen in making comments that are relevant to the threads, other people can free ride on the restraint that posts their opinions indiscriminately. Therefore, the reasonable behavior of a person leads to instance where each person is worse than they actually are.
If a member experience a constraint in using the bandwidth, the use of online sources will benefit every individual as one of the efficient and effective means of exchanging information and continuing with the discussions. The collective outcome of many individual reaching this rational is quite disastrous. This is because other than overusing the bandwidth, the users faces the social dilemma, There is always that temptation of free riding, asking question and not getting answers, gathering information and failure to distribute them and reading discussion without making contributions. The goal of a group is dependent on the ongoing and active contributions to those that chose to participate. If anyone is not worried being online, therefore, there is less meaningful interaction that might occur online.
Works Cited
Kollock, Peter. Social Dilemmas: The Anatomy of Cooperation. Annual Review of Sociology 24 (1998): 183-214. Article.

2 Egoism and Altruism

Psychological Egoism Vis-À-Vis Self-Interest Perhaps one of the most controversial issues in sociology is the issue of psychological egoism. It is quite difficult to depict which act is purely altruistic and which one is psychologically egoistic. According to psychological egoism, at least some form of self-interest drives all our acts (Surhone, Timpledon, nbsp.amp. Marseken, 2010). There are two great examples of people who acted not out of self-interest but due to their love for others. The first example is Mother Teresa. Whereas Mother Teresa dedicated all her life in support and care for humanity, it is hard to argue that all that she did was out of self-interest. In fact, she is considered as one of the most selfless people to ever have lived. She dedicated her life in service to humanity. The same case happens to many of us when we do voluntary or religions based work. Nelson Mandela spent countless years in prison not for altruistic motives but for the love of his country.
Although the above altruistic acts are certainly done out of love, psychological egoists might claim that the acts are driven by indirect gains such as ultimate gratification, promise of good life after death, as in case of Mother Teresa. Service to church, for instance, could be claimed to be an act of self-interest since we want our actions to be right with God. Serving the community could be interpreted as a form of leveraging security and assistance from the same society in case of any in eventualities in the future.
Reference
Surhone, L.,nbsp.Timpledon, M.,nbsp.amp. Marseken, S. (2010). Psychological Egoism. New York: VDM Verlag Dr. Mueller e.K..

How Do We Know What We Know Quiz

TOPIC: How Do We Know What We Know? The five social realities. traditions, media, expert ities, personal experience, and common sense can be used to study societies beliefs and their customs in the deeper way (Barkan, 2014). Tradition is a significant social reality that helps in understanding the way of living of different society. Tradition explains many their social tie, different clans and tribes within given societies. Expert authorities like government provide information on culture in statistical analysis. The information states have on their location, population and level of civilization. It helps in expounding cultural, economic and political life of different societies. When one explore different areas, the experience acquired living among different people provide concrete information than the written sources in the media. The media provides insight information on activities and way of living in different communities. The media briefly outline what is one expect when were live among these communities. These social realities supplement the information we have, what we think we know and having common sense, we can derive the fact about the social, economic and spiritual life of any given society on earth.
Amueshas, also called Yaneshas is an ethnic group in the Peruvian Amazonian forest. According to the media sources, Amueshas is a small group that is almost 2.9% of the registered indigenous inhabitant of the Amazonia of Peru (speedlook.com, 2015). The media sources state that Amueshas communities are located high altitude borders of River Picis, Cacazu, and Yurinaqui. Amueshas are dominant in Yaneshas communities. Their language group is Arahuaco. The westerns arrived in this region in the 16th century as missionaries and meet this group. The western intermingled with them and established a stable co-existence with this group. Western attempted to colonize these communities by consolidating them in towns and possessing their properties. Amueshas grouped itself and formed trade union that help to regain lost possessions’. The invasion of the white resulted in the change of life habits of Amueshas. They were hunting for obtain a daily meal, but this have changed. This group has diversified into agriculture and other forest activities as a source of income. Their tradition is one way that would help in knowing their way of life before the colonial era. The way this group has preserved it language would personal experience on customs. Expert authorities have always considered the minority groups in the Amazon forest as hunters. The information has changed with media updating on the way the communities have diversified. Amueshas, who rely most on the forest in their economic activities, one would use common sense to think that it is only forested fruit, and animals provide food to these communities. However, if you consider having a person experience in life, you will notice the change. The food and means getting water have diversified.
The western life has assimilated in Amazon communities. Since colonization, the minority groups in the region have changed their lives gradually adapting the lifestyle of visitors. Many of the cultural activities done in the past are now extinct because of formal education obtained from missionaries. Traditional modes of clothing are neglected and embrace the western’s life. Using tradition, there is a noticeable change in these ethnic groups. From the media sources, these communities have changed their economic activities and adopted new methods. Amueshas are even more civilized people who have gone to the extent of forming trade unions from been hunters. Common sense can tell the change in these communities have been influenced by the westerns.
What new learning did you acquire from completing this assignment? Sociology is not giving information that we already know, but it lays the facts that one can see from society. The social realities researchers the information of human societies and give firm reasoning why the group or individual behave the way they behave.
How will you apply new learning to your life? This information has help that I appreciate the diversity of people cultural, economic and spiritual lives. This study is not providing information to different communities and the way they live but also how we can help others. The study has left a significant role to play, to champion on better lives in these communities. Ask the government and communities to make reforms and policies that make the lives of people in minority groups better. I will advocate for better cultural, social and spiritual life regardless of one society or community.
How will you use new learning to make the world a better place for yourself, loved ones, and Sacred Others? Take an initiative to inform other on the diversity of different societies. Teach on appreciating and accommodating the differences in our cultures.
Reference
Barkan, S. E. (2014). Chapter 2: Eye on society: Doing sociological research. In Sociology: Understanding and changing the social world, comprehensive edition (version 1.1) (pp. 20-22). Washington, DC: Flatworld Knowledge.
speedlook.com. (2015). Amueshas. Retrieved May 1, 2015, from speedlook.com: http://www.myetymology.com/encyclopedia/Amueshas.html

Journal response

Journal Response Journal Response Socialism has its roots deep in our society. Freedom depends on the society stability, socialism in relation to economy, political and social standards. In my opinion, a socialist society can secure freedom. Dictatorship affects the government system. From my understanding, egocentrism and close of ideas are the main causes of government dictatorship. Luxemburg emphasized on political freedom and economic sociology. For us to achieve a stable society free from corruption, the states should implement socialism. The transformation of egocentrism, mass initiative in place of inertia and idealism are the first steps to achieving a socialist society.
Unstable governments induce poverty. Socialism focuses on a centrally planned economy. Lack of freedom in the society agitates poverty and insecurity. Rigid and unproductive government sprouts from dictatorship and lack of socialism, economic underdevelopment, devastation of war and reject from other countries affect the application of socialism.
Socialism depends on the people’s contribution and inputs. Lenin focuses on the mass participation in the social economic and political roll of their government. From my understanding, cold war accounted for economic socialism and political authentication. Socio- economic policies influence freedom and dictatorship of any regime. British and the Anglo-French had capitalistic rivalry because of their difference in ideologies that brought about rivalry. Introduction of socio- economic policies and unity helped end tension between the two (Luxemburg 1961).
In conclusion, socialism secures freedom. In-cooperation of socialism links to the end of poor government regimes and cold war. Public opinion and democracy mobilize freedom and socialism, mass involvement and decision making in socio-political matters benefits the economic growth.
Reference
Luxemburg R. (1961) the Russian revolution, and Leninism Or Marxism. University of Michigan, press.

Cultural Economic and Institutional Inequality in the US

Cultural, Economic, and Institutional Inequality in the United States
This research paper will seek to answer the research question: what are the main reasons for cultural, economic, and institutional inequality in the United States? To answer this question, the paper will be guided by the disciplines of sociology and public policy. Using sociology, the paper will explore inequality in the United States with regards to its causes and results using concepts and theories that help in understanding equality. Social inequalities sustained by various institutions, including labour markets, education, and the criminal justice system (Pontusson 23), which will also be covered under the sociology field. While using the public policy field, it will be possible to have a deeper understanding about how the political economy in the US is organized. Within these fields, the focus will mainly be on the wealth and poverty in the United States with regards to public policy, as well as social inequalities in the US with regards to sociology.
This research will be important to a wider audience because there has been a significant increase in cultural, economic, and institutional inequality in the United States since the mid 70s. The United States for a long time has been one of the most unequal countries among the developed countries in the world. However, the cultural and economic upheaval that started in the seventies acted as a stark departure from the movement that had sought to push for more equality after the Great Depression and into the Second World War (Pontusson 41). The push for equality had been a core feature of public policy in the thirty years after WWII and its reversal consequences of this reversal should be of importance. In addition, this research paper is important because it will deal with a pertinent issue in American society today. Despite the magnitude with which inequality has risen in the United States, it seems that political discourse only refers obliquely to inequality in the United States. Debate in the public arena, neither acknowledges the scale and widespread nature of inequality in the United States, nor does it discuss why these sustained, and sudden changes have occurred in a serious and focused manner (Pontusson 42).
This research paper will seek to expand, on policy recommendations, to reverse the trend of economic inequality in the United States, providing an alternate view of the period after World War 2, particularly the last thirty years. The reason that the target for this paper is policy is because the rising inequality in America has come as a direct result of policies designed to cause inequality. In turn, these policies can be traced to the shift in the late sixties and early seventies against workers in the political discourse in favour of big employers (Pontusson 44). This policy continues today and, in order for inequality to be checked, the policies have to be changed. In arguing for the change of policy, the paper will also seek to challenge the assumption that inequality has historical roots in the United States and that it is essential for the American Dream to remain alive. This assumption holds that, inequality is what drives the economy as Americans work to bridge the gap. Finally, this paper will fill the gap in literature regarding the shift in polices in the seventies and their results on inequality today, specifically with regards to those policies touching on institutions, the US economy, and cultural recognition.
Works Cited
Pontusson, Jonas. Inequality and Prosperity: Social Europe vs. Liberal America. Ithaca, NY [u.a.: Cornell Univ. Press, 2012. Print.

Do Student Backgrounds affect Schooling Outcomes

Do Backgrounds affect Schooling Outcomes? America is becoming more diverse than ever. The views from the various ethnic backgrounds vary considerably concerning their dissimilarity to other students. Studies show that a high proportion of pupils face segregation because of their racial background. Although white students usually report fewer cases of different backgrounds inside their classroom, there are still numerous instances of people from other races and ethnicities. Therefore, ethnic and racial backgrounds affect school outcomes (Sadovnik, 2007).
Diversity with respect to school and classroom parameters such as the syllabus and the composition of the student body are related to better outcomes in education. Such circumstances also groom students to feel at ease with students from other ethnicities and racial backgrounds. Such attitudes ensure that the benefits extend to the local community, while also helping the students improve their grades. They improve by focusing on their studies instead of the differences between them (Telles amp. Ortiz, 2008).
Diverse school environments offer equal opportunities for success to all the students. With the equalization of these opportunities, students can focus on attaining higher aspirations in their studies. Such a perception of opportunity among the students should be spread equitably in schools with diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds. The result, therefore, is that in the diversity of the school, the opportunity is seen as more equal within culturally diverse environments (Sadovnik, 2007).
Concerning student encouragement to get a college education and take demanding courses, teachers should give the same level of attention to all their students regardless of their background. In the United States, teachers should focus particularly on students of Hispanic origin. In the same way that tutors inspire their students from different ethnicities and racial backgrounds to attend college, they should also encourage them to take challenging courses. In summary, schools should initiate steps to address these differences, thereby reducing the achievement gap (Sadovnik, 2007).
References
Sadovnik, A. R. (Ed.). (2007). Sociology of education: A critical reader. Routledge.
Telles, E. M., amp. Ortiz, V. (2008). Generations of exclusion: Mexican-Americans, assimilation, and race. Russell Sage Foundation.

2DISCUSSION QUESTION

First Enquiry Physical handicap is the failure to coordinate specific body functions such as sensation, movement, coordination, speech or movement but excluding mental impairment or disability (Tomlinson et al., 2012). Over time, matters to deal with ethical or unethical considerations have sparked debate over time from lawyers, religious leaders, and even politicians. In my case, I think Maude is behaving unethical in one way and ethical from another perspective. When parks her car in a place reserved for the handicapped, she violates the right-based ethical reasoning. Although Maude has a constitutional right to park her car in place properly designated for her, she has no right parking her car in a place reserved for handicapped whether in hurry or not. Therefore, she is not respecting the rights of others i.e. the handicapped. However, from another perspective, I think Maude is acting ethically. Going by the definition of physical handicap, I think Maude is physically handicapped, given that she parks her car at this place whenever she is in a hurry implying loss of memory coordination and sensation. However, given that she has not been diagnosed with this condition, I can authoritatively conclude by saying that she is acting unethically.
Second Enquiry
Ethical issues involving minors has become a contentious issue in the world today. An act can be described legal but unethical. Legally, the 16-year old girl should not be put on the pill, but what remains a puzzle is whether the doctor’s action is ethical or not. Under the policy statement about ethical issues involving children, the policy statement states that, drugs may affect children in a different way from adults (Watterberg et al., 2013). Parents have the responsibility of bringing up their children in an ethical manner. thus, from a religious perspective, the doctor should have denied the girl the accessibility to medical pill with or without the parents’ approval because this violates Christian beliefs. However, the law provides for confidentiality of the doctor-patient privacy and, therefore, a doctor should under no circumstance share any information of his or her patient with anyone be it a minor or an adult. However, the girl being a minor she is deemed not able to make an independent decision concerning her health status and, therefore, the doctor acted within ethical lines in contacting her parents.
Works cited
Watterberg, Kristi L. Policy Statements on Planned Home Birth: Upholding the Best Interest of Children amp. Families. Pediatrics 132.5 (2013): 924-926.
Tomlinson, Sally. Sociology of Special Education (RLE Edu M). Routledge, 2012.

Sigmund Freuds Theory

Sigmund Freud’s Theory
As the originator of Psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud distinguishes himself as an intellectual giant. Sigmund Freud was one of the trailblazers of modern day pychology.He pioneered new techniques for understanding human behavior and his efforts resulted in the most comprehensive theory of personality and psychotherapy ever developed.
According to Freud the human mind is like an iceberg. Which is always hidden in the unconscious. Freud alleged that the conscious level of the mind was similar to the tip of the iceberg which could be seen.
According to the theory, defense mechanism are used by the ego to protect an individual from anxiety. Suppression is when information is pressed down into the unconscious. This fact is unwelcomed and finally will cause anxiety, the truth may be drastically distorted.
Psychoanalysis is also a therapy. It is based on the observations that individuals are often unaware of many of the factors that determine their emotions and behavior. The treatment of Psychoanalysis demonstrates how these unconscious factors affect current relationships and outlines of the behavior, traces them back to their ancient roots, indicates how they have transformed and assists individuals to deal better with the realities of adult life.
Freud did describe his concepts of the ego id and the superego. The most primitive part of our personality is the id. Freud believed that every human had life and death instinct.it is the superego which represents the values and standards of an individual’s personality. It punishes the ego with feelings of guilt.
Citation
Feist, J., amp. Feist, G. J. (2009). Theories of personality (7th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Zondervan, A. A. (2005). Sociology and the sacred an introduction to Philip Rieff’s theory of culture. Toronto [Ont.: University of Toronto Press.

How do no fault divorce law and fair property settlements work against women in divorce proceedings

How Do No-Faults Divorce Law And Fair Property Settlements Work Against Women In Divorce Proceedings? There are two kinds of divorce: fault and no-fault. No-fault divorce is a split up in which the termination of a marriage does is not caused by the adultery, brutality, or neglect. According to Parkman (2000), most countries have legalized such divorces, and the rest haven’t, since they argue that such divorces snuffle the communities’ social foundation – the family – without specific reasons for doing so. No-fault divorces’ grounds include living separately for a long time without interruption. Parejko (2002) states that marriage is dissolved when one of the spouses wants to dissolve it. This is mostly when the spouse has lost interest to the other party and no longer values him or her. In such kind of divorce, women are the most affected, since their husbands may choose to leave them at any moment. Women are affected psychologically, since they believe to have lost their dignity and have been used by the men.
Eisler (1998) argues that in most cases men tend to have different ladies in their life, so after using one of them they choose another one, abusing the rights of these ladies. Such kind of laws makes men go for polygamy and those ladies who cannot tolerate such actions choose to move out of the marriage. No-fault divorce laws suggest that spouses who have been living separately for six months can agree to separate, and this may make the spouses who have separated on the basis of work divorce, which is unfair to women, especially those whose husbands work far away from home. This is where men look for other wives, while they are away from home, and threaten to divorce the wife who stays at home, according to Tischler (2011). In this kind of divorce, women may be forced to sign a divorce agreement in case they have no underage children. If no agreement was entered and the spouses have underage children, they have to be separated for duration of a year before the formal divorce can happen (Tischler, 2011). This is an act of neglect, and it promotes irresponsible behavior among men, especially during this one year, making women the oppressed ones. Women have to provide for these children all alone, which may be hectic, particularly if they do not have a stable source of income. This kind of law does not advocate for child support by both parties.
Miller (1995) states that in no-fault law property settlement favors the men, especially if they are ones with the highest income. Most women are left to settle the debts of their men, since in most cases women are involved in the support of their men when someone wants to collect the debts. During divorce, women who have invested much to buy household equipment end up losing it. Husbands may claim the ownership of the property, especially if there were no formal documents to show who has actually bought the item. There is no equitable distribution of fiscal and non-financial contribution of each spouse to the welfare of the family. The distribution does not depend on the duration of the marriage.
In conclusion, no-fault divorces lead to the increase in domestic violence. These divorces harm women by failing to take into account the non-monetary contribution they made to their marriages. Parejko (2002) states that this divorce permits the spouse who is displeased with the marriage to attain a break-up simply on this ground. Such kind of divorces should be discouraged or modified, so that the welfare of women is put into consideration. Women are affected socially, psychologically, and emotionally by divorces. They lose their dignity and some end up being single for the rest of their lives.
References
Eisler, R. T. (1998). Dissolution: no-fault divorce, marriage, and the future of women. San Jose:
To Excel Publisher.
Miller, K. (1995). Fair share divorce for women. Philadelphia: Carey
Parkman, A, M. (2000). Good intentions gone awry: no-fault divorce and the American family.
Lanham: Rowman amp. Littlefield.
Parejko, J. (2002). Stolen vows: the illusion of no-fault divorce and the rise of the American
divorce industry. Collierville, Tenn: Instant Publisher.
Tischler, L, H. (2011). Introduction to sociology .Australia. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage
Learning.
.

The Gramscian approach to understanding civil society and how this might be relevant to how the world bank works with NGOs through its lending programme

The Civil Society Unit of the Bank is directly charged with overseeing the carrying out of the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and related projects. This report is compiled on behalf of the unit with the aim of shedding some light on what considerations and choices are made in conceptualizing such projects. The unit believes that whereas some of the concerns leveled at the Bank are genuine and well founded, the vast majority of them are based on lack of information on the theoretical framework of carrying out the projects (The World Bank, 2005, 4).
The main approach used by the Bank in dealing with civil society in general is grounded on the Gramscian approach originally postulated by Italian scholar Antonio Gramsci. This paper aims at shedding light on this approach so as to allay some of the criticisms that may be based on misinformation about the approach.
The post Marxist or Gramscian approach to the understanding of civil society is grounded in the works of sociology scholars Karl Marx, Georg Hegel and Gramsci. It came up in opposing response to the liberal democratic approach which was mainly propagated by philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville. Both approaches aimed at explaining the nature and role of civil society. The development of civil society dates back to Roman Empire in which it was known by the Latin term societas civilis. The term refers to the range of organizations, groupings and societies that operate outside the formal government. They include registered NGOs and more informal groupings such as pressure groups and other small movements (Mcllwaine, 2007, p 5).
According to Liberal Democratic Approach proposed by Tocqueville and others, Civil Society is a mainly autonomous sphere of liberty incorporating an organizational culture that morphs into both political and economic democracy. It is therefore a productive force and a useful

Sociology of Communication

Communication begins at birth as we begin to learn how to signal to our caregivers what we need and they begin to interpret the signs we send. This process continues throughout childhood as we first learn to mimic our parents and then begin to learn from the greater world around us – neighbours, friends, the stories we hear, the television we watch, the things we learn in school. As we become involved in the process of communication within the public sphere, we both reflect and contribute to the greater discourse of the human race, allowing these ideas to shape and define us at the same time that we are helping to shape and define these ideas. By the ‘public sphere’ we mean first of all a realm of our social life in which something approaching public opinion can be formed (Habermas, 1974). Thus, mass communication often brings about shifting versions of reality depending upon who is doing the telling and how we choose to interpret the message. This process contributes to our concepts of racism as it develops within different groups, to our changing definitions of women and finally to the various ways in which we see the truth.
Sociological studies have demonstrated how concepts of race and discussions of race shift and change depending on the context in which they are considered. This is the focus of Nina Eliasoph’s study into everyday racism (1999). What she discovered was that white people have a greater tendency to speak out about race when in a smaller, more intimate crowd than when they are in a larger, more general group setting. The significance of this is that racism is evident in both settings as individuals either choose to stand on their principles or blend into a larger group as a means of identifying themselves within that group. This is perhaps better explained by Walsh, how people look at the world is grounded in where they place themselves in relation to others.

Bureaucracies

BUREAUCRACIES [Insert al Affiliation] The contemporary society is dominated by colossal and impersonal secondary organizations. As many organizations continue to mushroom, mainly to take advantage of the growing global economy and amass profits, people continuously see what max weber idealized as bureaucratic organizations. However, people are complaining about the bureaucratization of organizations on the grounds that they are unfriendly, slow in responding to issues, highly bound by rules and often difficult to navigate. According to max weber, a bureaucracy is a formal organization that has explicit rules, has a hierarchy of authority, is impersonal, and has specialization (Johnston, 2010). In lieu of this, therefore, present-day large companies such Facebook, Amazon, or General Motors can to a certain extent be considered to be bureaucracies as they contain and portray most of the features of what Weber idealized as a bureaucracy.
As bureaucracies, these companies have a hierarchy of authority where there is a chain of common to be followed (Rubin,nbsp.1986). While departmentalization has also been common in these companies, powers are vested on offices where seniors in those offices have the authority and power to supervise and control the juniors. For instance, employees in these companies are assigned duties by the shift manager who in turn answers to the store manager who also answers to the regional manager. The chain continues until it reaches the CEO who is in turn answerable to the board of directors who eventually answer to shareholders. In these companies, this chain of command is observed, and decisions must rightly be channeled.
Large organizations can also be perceived to be bureaucratic as they practice division of labor and specialization. Each individual performs the tasks they are specialized in (Johnston, 2010). Apparently, departmentalization has made specialization real as you will find the production departments engaging only in production while the marketing and procurement departments engaging only in marketing and procurement respectively. This is an important feature of bureaucracies and all large companies including Facebook, Amazon, or General Motors endorse it.
What’s more, these companies, as bureaucracies, have explicit rules that guide conduct of employees. For instance, General Motors, like many other large companies, has a handbook of the rules and regulations that stipulate how employees are expected to conduct themselves in the course of duties. All official functions are continuously organized and bound by certain rules whole violation leads to dire consequences on the part of the violators.
However, large companies today lack impersonality and meritocracy that makes it hard to consider them as purely bureaucratic. Impersonality requires that individual feelings are excluded in professional dealings. Disparagingly, large companies have often been observed operating in a way that portrays nepotism and favoritism by taking into consideration personal feelings and experiences. In Facebook, for instance, when an employee is absent may be due to illness or other emergencies, some managers have often been seen being more concerned with the subjects’ sickness or situation instead of only being concerned with the fact that they are absent. Similarly, meritocracy requires that promotion and hiring be grounded on verified/supported and documented abilities and experience (Johnston, 2010). However, in many companies, people are hired or promoted based on nepotism, the CEO’s random choice, and economic or political affiliation while their competency is overlooked. This has been a challenge that has hampered efficiency and the attainment of equal opportunities for all.
In conclusion, large companies can be considered to be bureaucracies as they have explicit rules, have hierarchy of authority, and specialization. However, they lack impersonality and meritocracy that make it hard to consider them as pure bureaucracies.
References
Johnston, K. (2010). Bureaucracy — Max Webers six characteristics of the bureaucratic form. Retrieved from http://www.bustingbureaucracy.com/excerpts/weber.htm
Rubin,nbsp.F. (1986). Introduction to sociology, a Canadian focus, second edition, Basic sociology, a Canadian introduction, second edition. Scarborough: Prentice-Hall Canada.

Imagine you are working for a community center that offers health wellness and relief services to all community

Question

Imagine you are working for a community center that offers health, wellness, and relief services to all community

members. The clientele is diverse and everyday you see people from all walks of life. One morning, a young man, Jeff, comes to the center for assistance. Jeff’s shoes and clothes are ragged, his hair is unwashed, and he’s thin. He stops to speak to Mary, the new front desk assistant. You notice Mary’s facial expression and realize that she is put off by Jeff’s appearance. She rudely sends him off towards the social services office.

Later that morning you walk by the social services office. You see that Linda, the manager, has found Jeff a sandwich and some coffee. Linda is sitting beside him and helping him fill out paperwork. She touches him arm briefly before standing up to greet another client.

Reflect on what you know about social structure (which is made up of social institutions like the economy, family, and government). Explain how social structure plays a role in the lives of clients like Jeff.

Think about the interaction between Mary and Jeff. Explain how Mary’s treatment of Jeff may impact his experience at the community center.

Think about the interaction between Linda and Jeff. List one potential positive outcome from Linda’s treatment of Jeff.

Sociology

Re Text Ch 10 Essentials of Sociology A GiddensWhat is true &amp

not true about

Question

Re: Text Ch 10, Essentials of Sociology, A. Giddens

  1. What is true not true about

racism?

  • What is stereotype?
  • What is true not true about residential segregation?
  • What group has the lowest high school graduation rate?
  • What is true not true about the Civil War?
  • What did the 1964 Civil Rights Act do?
  • Which group has lived in the US longer than all other immigrant groups than Anglo-Saxon, yet faces segregation poverty?
  • Is it a primary explanation that only class disadvantages is the reason for racial inequality? in addition to class, what else is important?
  • *I am looking for short, brief, answers only. THANK YOU!*

    Sociology

    Re Text Ch 10 Essentials of Sociology A GiddensWhat is true &amp

    not true about

    Question

    Re: Text Ch 10, Essentials of Sociology, A. Giddens

    1. What is true not true about

    racism?

  • What is stereotype?
  • What is true not true about residential segregation?
  • What group has the lowest high school graduation rate?
  • What is true not true about the Civil War?
  • What did the 1964 Civil Rights Act do?
  • Which group has lived in the US longer than all other immigrant groups than Anglo-Saxon, yet faces segregation poverty?
  • Is it a primary explanation that only class disadvantages is the reason for racial inequality? in addition to class, what else is important?
  • *I am looking for short, brief, answers only. THANK YOU!*

    Sociology

    Imagine you are working for a community center that offers health wellness and relief services to all community

    Question

    Imagine you are working for a community center that offers health, wellness, and relief services to all community

    members. The clientele is diverse and everyday you see people from all walks of life. One morning, a young man, Jeff, comes to the center for assistance. Jeff’s shoes and clothes are ragged, his hair is unwashed, and he’s thin. He stops to speak to Mary, the new front desk assistant. You notice Mary’s facial expression and realize that she is put off by Jeff’s appearance. She rudely sends him off towards the social services office.

    Later that morning you walk by the social services office. You see that Linda, the manager, has found Jeff a sandwich and some coffee. Linda is sitting beside him and helping him fill out paperwork. She touches him arm briefly before standing up to greet another client.

    Reflect on what you know about social structure (which is made up of social institutions like the economy, family, and government). Explain how social structure plays a role in the lives of clients like Jeff.

    Think about the interaction between Mary and Jeff. Explain how Mary’s treatment of Jeff may impact his experience at the community center.

    Think about the interaction between Linda and Jeff. List one potential positive outcome from Linda’s treatment of Jeff.

    Sociology

    Re Text Ch 7 Essentials of Sociology A GiddensWhat is stratification?What is social

    Question

    Re: Text Ch 7, Essentials of Sociology, A. Giddens

    1. What is stratification?
    2. What is social

    prestige? Achieved status? Ascribed status?

  • What was wrong with Marx’s view on stratification?
  • What is Max Weber’s view on stratification?
  • What social class are you in if you make $115,000 a year just with high school?
  • What social class is a family if the father makes $32,000 his wife makes $15,000?
  • What is surplus value?
  • What are the effects of technology on stratification?
  • Upper Class important facts
  • How does the government determine the poverty line?
  • Social Security Medicare important facts
  • What is Charles Murray’s view on dependence culture? What is culture of poverty?
  • What is the most distressing sign of stratification in the US?
  • What is social mobility? Name 4 types of social mobility.
  • What does cultural capital mean according to Pierre Bourdieu?
  • *I am looking for short, brief, answers, THANK YOU*

    Sociology

    Re Text Ch 7 Essentials of Sociology A GiddensWhat is stratification?What is social

    Question

    Re: Text Ch 7, Essentials of Sociology, A. Giddens

    1. What is stratification?
    2. What is social

    prestige? Achieved status? Ascribed status?

  • What was wrong with Marx’s view on stratification?
  • What is Max Weber’s view on stratification?
  • What social class are you in if you make $115,000 a year just with high school?
  • What social class is a family if the father makes $32,000 his wife makes $15,000?
  • What is surplus value?
  • What are the effects of technology on stratification?
  • Upper Class important facts
  • How does the government determine the poverty line?
  • Social Security Medicare important facts
  • What is Charles Murray’s view on dependence culture? What is culture of poverty?
  • What is the most distressing sign of stratification in the US?
  • What is social mobility? Name 4 types of social mobility.
  • What does cultural capital mean according to Pierre Bourdieu?
  • *I am looking for short, brief, answers, THANK YOU*

    Sociology

    Weber discusses the characteristics of the kind of social organization he sees as dominating modernity

    Remember

    Question

    Weber discusses the characteristics of the kind of social organization he sees as dominating modernity. Remember

    that Weber sees this rationalized organization as one of the greatest inventions of modernity, but he is also concerned about how these organizations will change the experience of the individual in modernity.

    1. In what respects is bureaucracy impersonal? What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of this impersonality?

    2. Through most of human history, kinship has been the foundation of social organization. Why is kinship missing from Weber’s analysis of bureaucracy? On what other basis are people selected for bureaucratic positions?

    3. Why does bureaucracy take a hierarchical form? Do you think formal organization must be hierarchical?

    4. Discuss at least 4 characteristics of bureaucracy as presented in the Max Weber writings.

    Sociology

    Imagine you are going to start a social movement Give a name to your movement Then give a mission statement

    Question

    Imagine you are going to start a social movement. Give a name to your movement . Then give a mission statement

    for your movement or organization that describes the goals and purpose of the movement, and how it will contribute to society. After this, please identify and share the potential barriers your movement may encounter while attempting to meet its goals.

    Sociology

    Imagine you are going to start a social movement Give a name to your movement Then give a mission statement

    Question

    Imagine you are going to start a social movement. Give a name to your movement . Then give a mission statement

    for your movement or organization that describes the goals and purpose of the movement, and how it will contribute to society. After this, please identify and share the potential barriers your movement may encounter while attempting to meet its goals.

    Sociology

    Weber discusses the characteristics of the kind of social organization he sees as dominating modernity

    Remember

    Question

    Weber discusses the characteristics of the kind of social organization he sees as dominating modernity. Remember

    that Weber sees this rationalized organization as one of the greatest inventions of modernity, but he is also concerned about how these organizations will change the experience of the individual in modernity.

    1. In what respects is bureaucracy impersonal? What are some of the advantages and disadvantages of this impersonality?

    2. Through most of human history, kinship has been the foundation of social organization. Why is kinship missing from Weber’s analysis of bureaucracy? On what other basis are people selected for bureaucratic positions?

    3. Why does bureaucracy take a hierarchical form? Do you think formal organization must be hierarchical?

    4. Discuss at least 4 characteristics of bureaucracy as presented in the Max Weber writings.

    Sociology

    1 …

    Define material and Non-material culture.

    What happens when people accept material culture such as, new

    Question

    1. Define material and Non-material culture. What happens when people accept material culture such as, new

    technology (cell phones) but then society struggles to adjust to the impact that material culture has on that society?

    What is this adjustment period called? Discuss how cell phones have helped AND harmed society.

    .the textbook is ( Schaefer. Sociology in Modules 4e ebook – Richard Schaefer.4e)

    Chapter 17

    Sociology

    1 …

    Define material and Non-material culture.

    What happens when people accept material culture such as, new

    Question

    1. Define material and Non-material culture. What happens when people accept material culture such as, new

    technology (cell phones) but then society struggles to adjust to the impact that material culture has on that society?

    What is this adjustment period called? Discuss how cell phones have helped AND harmed society.

    .the textbook is ( Schaefer. Sociology in Modules 4e ebook – Richard Schaefer.4e)

    Chapter 17

    Sociology

    Which of the following is

    not
    a characteristic of critical race

    Question

    • Which of the following is not a characteristic of critical race

    theory?

  • Critical race theory has its origins in the United States civil rights movement.
  • Civil rights legislation effectively reduces the experience of subtle, business-as-usual forms of racism.
  • The best way to document ongoing racial inequality is to learn from those who have lived through discrimination and oppression.
  • One of the main premises of critical race theory is the belief that racism is ingrained in American society.
  • Sociology

    Which of the following is

    not
    a characteristic of critical race

    Question

    • Which of the following is not a characteristic of critical race

    theory?

  • Critical race theory has its origins in the United States civil rights movement.
  • Civil rights legislation effectively reduces the experience of subtle, business-as-usual forms of racism.
  • The best way to document ongoing racial inequality is to learn from those who have lived through discrimination and oppression.
  • One of the main premises of critical race theory is the belief that racism is ingrained in American society.
  • Sociology