se assumptions have undergone many changes and today ship management is a specialized area and involves a wide variety of functions some of which are:The first three areas are the ones traditionally focused upon, while the fourth area has been professionalized gradually. The last two areas are comparatively new functions and of these, health, safety, and environment have great social implications and they constitute major components of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). (Corporate Social Responsibility and the Bottom of the Pyramid. Abstract Dynamics).CSR itself is composed of two areas, namely Social Responsibility and Social Contribution. (Corporate Social Responsibility and the Bottom of the Pyramid. Abstract Dynamics). Social Responsibility means complying with laws and regulations, respecting social precepts, and being ethical and fair in all business activities. In the context of ship management, it implies making all efforts for safety in navigation and cargo operations and ensuring environmental preservation. Social Contribution means being Good Corporate Citizens who contribute to the betterment of society and serve society.Maritime operations necessarily involve many countries and cultures and it is essential that the business should comply with local laws and regulations and respect their ethical and moral standards, culture, tradition, and customs. (Social and Environmental Report. Copyright(C) 1996-2007 Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd. All Rights Reserved). Thus the social component of ship management is much more pronounced when compared to others.Ship management business managers have traditionally been concentrating on running their business in the most profitable manner, but in the process, they often used to cut many corners. History is replete with examples of ship crew and entire ships falling prey to many catastrophes caused by faulty management. Over the course of time, the human aspect of ship management, particularly relating to working conditions of crew, came to assume greater priority.
Hawthorne, not apprehensive with the causes of committed sin, seems to overlook the outcomes of practicing so. For Hawthorne, sin has a conditional perspective by an individual’s strength of feeling in the way of life he has to go. By his view, an individual should only feel guiltiness when he acts against the creator, nature morally and subjected to the highly exercised social code or general standards of morality. Indeed all three main characters –Hester, Dimmesdale, and Pearls- in Hawthorne’s Scarlet Letter are characterized by the psychological schisms that are based on the perception of their sin.Unlike Dimmesdale, Hester is an evil in society’s eye. Though Hester has been abandoned by society because of her adultery, she never perceives her adultery as an offense against God. She consciously avoids such feeling of being isolated from the creator as she believes her disloyal act not a typical sin against the creator. Hester Prynne is treated by the society of the time as a great sinner, an outcast an object of ridicule, and contempt. This attitude of society makes her feel that the scarlet letter A is burning on her bosom. In all her intercourse with society, there is nothing to give her the feeling that she belongs to it. She awakens only horror and repugnance in the minds of the townsfolk whose words of scorn and hatred often fall upon her like a rough blow upon an ulcerated wound (Hawthorne, 2005, p. 45). When strangers looked curiously at the scarlet letter, they branded it afresh into Hester’s soul while an accustomed eye had like wish its own anguish to inflict. (Hawthorne, 2005, p. 67) It is extremely painful for the readers to read about the way Hester Prynne is treated by this puritanical society and there is no doubt that Hawthorne’s own sympathies are on the side of Hester. The attitudes of even the leading citizens like Governor Bellingham and the Reverend Mr. John Wilson, towards Hester’s guilt show patriarchy.
This can be seen in Down and Out in Paris and London. While Orwell believed that the ruling regime was responsible for all the social ills in these and other European nations and cities, he also believed that it was the pole that was responsible for the necessary change to set the records straight. Orwell had also witnessed the evils of war, and how war, and the Russians revolution, as well as the socialism in Russia, had affected so many people. This goes in line with what Joll (199) discusses in his book, about how the German invasion of France affected the economy of France. As Clark (1-17) says, the effect of war in Europe was enormous. According to (Lecture Notes: The Origins of world war one), world war I was to change the nature of free markets and lead to a more globalised regulation. While not saying it directly, what Orwell was highlighting the evidence that there was a need for change and this change was to come from the people. He also goes to great pain to display the level of poverty in Europe and especially in Paris and London. Reasonably, he was able to show how life was difficult for so many people living in the two cities. Orwell was also showing the daily struggles of a citizen who, despite being let down by his government, continues to put his trust in the government, and hoping that all thins will be well in time. For instance, in chapter five, he talks about an encounter with his friend Boris who had lost his job as a hotel scribe after being sick for some time. Boris was sick for some time and after returning from the hospital, his was sucked from his job because he was sick. What Orwell is trying to indicate in this chapter is not only the levels of poverty but also the point of job insecurity, not even for white collar workers.
For proponents of the human rights issue, the matter would appear to be rather open and shut in terms of challenging constitutionality and this issue impacts decision-making at the social level, even if this practice is discouraged in the rule of law. This division seems to maintain the gay marriage and its constitutionality while this divisional approach exists.Consistent with the rule of law, however, the Department of Justice has long followed the practice of defending federal statutes as long as reasonable arguments can be made in support of their constitutionality, even if the Department disagrees with a particular statute as a policy matter, as it does here. (lawlib.state.ma.us, 2).In defense of those who uphold the constitution as a foundation on which to mold new social policy, leadership recognizes that policy on gay marriage stands and will remain defended providing there are no significant grounds on which to proclaim the act unconstitutional. Federal support for the program without claims of unconstitutionality put this issue much into state-level hands, with federal level support in the objective if the goal is to uphold this civil rights matter.The mid-tier court system that governs and shapes these policies is currently made up of very conservative judges and a blend of more liberal decision-makers (Chemerinsky, 3). Division at this level and lack of solid ground on which to claim opportunity for repealing federal policy halts the progress of ensuring adequate legal protection for gay marriage. Under this system, challenges to decisions made at the district level are put forward to the Supreme Court in the pursuit of discretionary review. In general, gay marriage will likely be decided at the highest levels of judicial scrutiny providing that a resolution (either for or against) is determined at the inferior levels of justice.States that allow gay marriage include California, though its momentum is continuously challenged.
We at Humanitarian Agency value human dignity and acknowledge the right of every human to live a dignified life, without being deterred by social or economic circumstances, that all humans may realize their destiny. The Humanitarian Agency will be the most accommodative, welcoming, and friendly human services agency of our time, which will facilitate reunification and resettlement of Philadelphia foster care children back to their families indiscriminately.This agency recognizes that achieving dignity for all humans requires embracing diversity. that all children may have an opportunity to live and grow with their families themselves to the fullest, without being hindered by the socioeconomic and material status of their families. The needs of the Philadelphia foster care children and their families with dignity, respect, and compassion.The safety, privacy, and dignity of the Philadelphia foster care children and their families stand as the basis of our interaction. Economic inadequacy shall never stand in our way to offering the reunification and resettlement facilitation to the Philadelphia foster care children back to their families, without discrimination on whatever basis. The privacy and confidentiality of all the children and their families shall be observed at all times, while seeking informed consent from them before engagement in facilitating the reunification (NOHS, 2015). Therefore, this agency commits to respecting the rights of the clients to engage and disengage with the agency at any stage, and at will.Human service practitioners should recognize the vulnerability of clients in need of emotional, psychological or mental interventions, and desist from taking advantage of such vulnerabilities (Manning, 2003). Thus, the Humanitarian Agency commits to treat every client with dignity, while desisting from engaging in any activities that may cause or increase harm to the clients or exploit theirvulnerable situation.
Psychometrics is part of our coursework and personality, and aptitude tests are part of psychometrics. Psychometrics is helpful in people management and understanding ourselves which is also part of what we learn. Even though there is no uniformity in personality categorization and types of questions, a provision for an insight into the human psyche. Personality tests help in assessing what is right in regard to a particular scope. They are also crucial when making career decisions and family decisions that are jumbled up.Personality tests are not credible. Most people are not sincere while giving their responses. We do respond to what we want to be and not what we are. Respondents lie intentionally to fit their answers on what suits them or their psychologists. Most people respond to what they wish to be true and not what is true.Some of the questions in the personality test are very transparent. I can easily figure out what the psychologists want to measure in me. I can, therefore, intentionally lie and give fake personality traits that I do not really have.There is also the problem as well as a setback of social desirability bias. Since the personality test is based on self-report inventories, my responses can easily be affected. While filling out an inventory, I might easily state what I would wish to be true rather than what is true.Some questions on the personality test are beyond my understanding. Since the test requires that I answer all the questions, I can easily give false answers so long as I finish the test that reduces its credibility.With the requirements of fishing the whole test, I at times don’t remember all the aspects of the experiences asked in the test. It makes the test have answers that are not correct and thus not giving the true value of the expectations.
The Parental Role in Children’s Development There are several theories of child development including psychoanalytic, learning, cognitive, and socio-cultural that offer insights into the forces guiding child development. Most developmental scientists use multiple theories to guide their thinking about the growth of children. Most psychoanalytic theories depict development as a succession of stages through which all children advance. For Freud, child development consisted of five psychosexual stages in which a particular body region is the focus of bodily satisfactions. the center of pleasure shifts as children progress through different developmental stages. American psychoanalyst, Erik Erikson, proposed series of psychosocial stages of personality growth that more strongly emphasize social influences within the family. The cognitive theory was developed by Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget, who was interested in how children thought and constructed their own knowledge. Piaget theorized that children proceed through four distinct stages of cognitive development- the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete-operational stage, and the formal-operational stage. (Thompson, 2009) Learning theorists emphasize the role of environmental influences in shaping the way a person develops. In their view, child development is guided by both deliberate and unintended learning experiences in the home, peer group, school, and community. Therefore, childhood growth is significantly shaped by the efforts of parents, teachers, and others to socialize children in desirable ways. Mead proposed that infants and children mimicked adult/parental behavior and gradually adopted some of these behaviors as their own. Development and family The family determines a child’s race, class, religion, language etc. all of which contribute greatly to the child’s self-concept. Of the many different associations we form over the course of the life span, the bond between parent and child is among the most important. One of the most important tasks of childhood is to develop and maintain socially competent relationships within society. There are dramatic differences in the experiences children have within social situations. some are easily accepted and liked by peers, while others experience problems and have difficulty in assimilation within society. There are four main parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and disengaged. Authoritative parents are both nurturing and demanding. they are firm, but they control with love and affection, rather than power, and they are liable to explain rules and expectations to their offspring instead of just asserting them. Authoritarian parents are highly demanding, but they are less nurturing. authoritarian parents are usually strict disciplinarians, often relying on physical punishment and the withdrawal of love to shape their child’s behavior. Indulgent parents are nurturing, but not particularly demanding. they have few expectations of their children and enforce little discipline. Disengaged parents are neither nurturing nor demanding. They are usually neglectful or unaware of the child’s needs for both love and discipline (Steinberg 2001)Conclusion Parents have a definite role in influencing the development of children. Authoritative parenting is better than most other parenting styles in aiding the development of social competence in children at home and in society.Bibliography Steinberg, Laurence. (2001). Parent-child relationships Encyclopedia of PsychologyAccessed on: 4, July 2009
The popular media article from Time Magazine entitled Behavior: One Child, Two Homes celebrates the prevalence of court rulings that more divorced parents now have joint custody of their children. Until the 1920s, separating married couples were aware that one repercussion of their divorce is that children stay with their father, being the head of the family. Eventually, the crucial role of the mother in child-rearing was raised by mothers themselves, and this belief caused a turnaround in the court decision for children to stay with their mothers.Advocates of joint custody criticize that the default ruling that children stay with their mothers is based on outdated sex roles that mothers stay home and care for home and children and fathers cannot adequately nurture their children. However, the reality at present is that more and more divorced women work outside the home and fathers are encouraged to take on a more active role in parenting and other domestic responsibilities.The article claims that courts have agreed to joint custody rulings, but most judges still believe that there is more stability for children staying in a single home than shuttling from one parent’s home to the other. On the other hand, recent research reports that there are positive effects of joint custody in children compared to those who stay with just one parent. One study reports disruptions in the children’s social and school life to be associated with father absence. Another found that divorced men with joint-custody have happier, closer relationships with their children and fewer problems with ex-wives than noncustodial fathers.The article contends that joint custody works only if parents can detach their child-rearing practices from the bitterness caused by the divorce. It relates how children eventually adjust to the new arrangement over time as long as the parents maintain cooperation and understanding.
Things set apart and forbidden—beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them (Elementary Forms for Religious Life, p. 44). Nearer to the end of the book Durkheim revises and secularizes his definition as, first and foremost, a system of ideas by which men [sic] imagine the society of which they are members and the obscure yet intimate relations they have with it (p. 227) (Townsley, 2004).Emile Durkheim placed himself in the positivist tradition, meaning that he thought of his study of society as dispassionate and scientific. He was deeply interested in the problem of what held complex modern societies together. Religion, he argued, was an expression of social cohesion. His underlying interest was to understand the basic forms of religious life for all societies. Durkheim saw totemism as the original form of religion. The totemic animal, Durkheim believed, was the original focus of religious activity because it was the emblem for a social group, the clan. He thought that the function of religion was to make people willing to put the interests of society ahead of their own desires. One of the major functions of religion according to Durkheim was to prepare people for social life.Durkheim thought that the model for relationships between people and the supernatural was the relationship between individuals and the community. He is famous for suggesting that God is society, writ large. Durkheim believed that people ordered the physical world, the supernatural world, and the social world according to similar principles.Durkheim’s first purpose was to identify the social origin of religion as he felt that religion was a source of camaraderie and solidarity. It was the individual’s way of becoming recognizable within an established society. His second purpose was to identify links between certain religions in different cultures, finding a common denominator.
We know that one thing, where people differ in their personality. The basic approach of identifying personalities is to find out the underlying dimensions which reflect the child’s behavior and then to identify what caused the child to behave in this manner. Perhaps it could be the consequences of recent happenings and experience or it could be other reasons pertaining to the environment or happenings of earlier times, the memory of which is still clear in the child’s mind.Now, these temperaments can be inherited from the parents. According to Hinde, all behavior has a genetic basis. Thus the three dimensions, Emotional, Activity, and Sociability may have a significant genetic component. According to research done, it is seen that both genetic and environmental influences the development of a child. Thus personality results also from the experience that people encounter during childhood where individual differences are concerned like intelligence. Intelligence has been understood to manifest itself in early adulthood rather than in childhood. Thus Dunn and Kendrick point out that children’s behavior is not independent of the situations in which they find themselves. In particular, the behavior is influenced by the social concept that is the people who are present with the child. It is noticed that a child who is very low in adapting to situations will have an aversive experience. This is because of the erratic pattern which the parents had in caring for their child. The same child if cared for by parents who are regular in their routine in bringing up their child will be well suited or better suited in adapting itself to situations. Take the case of Noel or that of Margie. Noel had behavioral problems. His parents separated and he and his sister moved in with his mother’s boyfriend and his two sons. Noel hated the atmosphere. he stole and destroyed many of the toys belonging to the sons of his stepfather. Margie is aged ten.
Essentially, researchers have concluded that exposure to the aggressive content in video games produces similar results (Weiten 2008, 263). Stephen Johnson (2006) argues however, that video games by their very nature have the capacity to engage motor skills, memory skills, and a whole array of skills that function to promote cognitive development (19). It, therefore, follows that in the debate over the utility of video games it is entirely unfair to subscribe to the argument that video games are entirely bad for our youth. The fact is, video games can be good for everyone, particularly the young child.It is essentially argued that the very thing that attracts individuals to video games produces ill effects. As the argument goes, video games are particularly appealing because it creates an isolated culture of simulations where images create microworld permitting the individual to create and engage in an artificial existence (Provenzo 1991, 83). Not only can this create an altered state of mind which might to similar conduct, but it also functions to promote social occlusion (Sheff 1994, 25). On the other side of the debate, it is argued that video games promote cognitive development because it engages and develops a wide range of skills including, the ability to solve problems, recognition of patterns, hypothesis testing, skills relative to estimation, and many others (Sheff 1994, 33).One of the biggest concerns about video games is the amount of time that children spend playing these games. It is estimated that 64 percent of children in the US spend at least two hours a day playing video games (Sheff 1994, 3). Time spent playing video games means time spent away from social interaction with others, an important part of child development. The repetitive nature of the video game also has the capacity to influence the way that children develop both physically and emotionally.
The story of romance moved around Eve Tarrant and Wade O’Mara. Eve, debutant of the year, who decided she needed a break from London’s social circle. She volunteered her services to a far-flung place in Africa, to help the nuns in their noble mission to nurse the poverty-stricken locals. After a short while, the town was attacked by insurgents and rebels. Everybody was forced to vacate, some on foot and some by plane. Eve found herself in a situation that she would have to trek the jungle to reach Tanga, the nearest airstrip with the help of a mercenary, Major Wade O’Mara.Her jungle adventure was more than she asked for. The major, who was in charge of her safety, was strict and brute, a hardened man who was focused on his mission to get them back to the civilization alive. There in the jungle, Eve had the chance to see the Major’s other side, a caring, passionate man with a strong will to survive. The brute soldier found the lady had more substance than any other woman he has met in his colorful years. The jungle, with all its madness, was not a place to find love. and the situation that surrounds them: Wade, a mercenary old enough to be her father was married with a son almost as old as she. Eve, rich, pampered and from the world of the high society. Wade was strongly attracted to young Eve, as was Eve to Wade. On their last night together, Eve begged Wade to make love to her. Wade refused with a torn heart. On their final leg of the journey to Tanga, Eve had passed out from a raging infection-induced from a thorn puncture earlier.She woke up much later – back at home with her guardian and a gap in her memory. She could not remember the details of her jungle adventure. Someone had happened to her in the jungle. But she could not remember that person. Eventually, through life’s funny coincidences they reunite and her memory is restored. Wade had been able to conveniently determine that his wife had abandoned him.
The widespread use of drugs, purportedly for recreational purposes, originated during the hippie era of the sixties when it emerged in direct violation of the existing rules and norms of society at that time. This kind of deviant behavior within the United States has evolved into widespread drug use by adolescents, which may be classified as deviant behavior along with the normative perspective because it is still in violation of the largely Christian ethic that still governs the country. The normative definition of deviance refers to the rules or expectations for adolescent behavior that are shared by society, which is being openly flouted through the violent behavior generated by drug use. Simmons (1965) examines different norms and when the violation of norms would be considered deviant. Murders, for example, break a legal norm that is based upon moral considerations. However, drug use would constitute the violation of a social norm, especially in adolescents who will not be deemed to be old enough or responsible enough to handle the effects of drugs and could slip into deviant criminal behavior.The normative perspective is also relevant within a particular social context because it provides an explanation for crime in particular groups or neighborhoods. As Wolfgang and Ferracuti (1967) point out, criminal behavior is more prevalent among African American individuals who are in low-status occupations and who live in slum areas and they attribute this trend to the value systems that exist among this particular group. There is pressure from peers within this group on individuals to engage in criminal behavior in order to appear strong and in tune with the norms and values of the group. Many adolescents may resort to criminal behavior and drug use, even when they are not personally comfortable with such behavior, merely to be in sync with the rest of the group and the prevailing values and norms within that group at that particular time.The normative approach, therefore, lends itself well to an examination of drug use among adolescents, since drug use has been linked to criminal activity (NIJ, 1996).
Realtors can now sell real estate via email, advertisements, and websites. On the other hand, various retailers can have less risk of inventory and logistics as they sell their goods through commercial websites such as E-bay, Amazon, and the like. And as more people and more people rely on the internet for their basic needs, the more the world has become smaller with each passing day. Individuals across different continents can easily send and receive letters through electronic mails (emails) provided by Yahoo!, MSN, Gmail to name only a few of those companies who rely on advertisements to run their free services.Despite the tremendous impact of the internet on commerce, thus the term e-commerce was born, there is yet to have a comprehensive analysis on the conditions and effects of e-commerce on various forms of social actions within the organization, from planning, implementation, assessment and evaluation, and most especially with its end clients.Action research and its principles may only be one of the few research methodologies that could be utilized in fast-tracked e-commerce, but its significance could not be over-emphasized. Known to be used in educational, agricultural, and in some business practices, action research questions the validity of knowledge so that it can develop a genuinely well-informed action (Torbert, 2001). There are various forms of action research that can be utilized for this paper. For purposes of discussion, this paper shall only be limited in discussing the principles of action research, its strengths, and weaknesses, as well as the application of its general principles using e-commerce as an example. This paper does not attempt to resolve or unravel any issues that have plagued action research but allow readers to be informed and critical on the principles presented.According to Curry (2005), action research ‘is focused on problem-solving through inquiry into human problems in a real context.’
With the massive number of inmates in Nazi concentration camps, a main social structure developed, but many individual splinter social groups formed as well. This paper will investigate the main social group while taking a look at some of the splinter social groups. The different treatment of men and women in Nazi concentration camps will also be examined.Temporary prisons, which later became concentration camps, in Germany, originated around 1933.1 Concentration camps were used at first to hold political prisoners. German citizens were arrested and defined as political prisoners after being caught in riots initiated by Nazi supporters.2 The Nazis came into power creating a dictatorship. With this shift of power, more and more perceived enemies of the Nazis were sent to the concentration camps.In the beginning, the gas chambers were not utilized. Mass shootings and burials were performed by special Einsatzgruppen units.3 The need for change came after the German Einsatzgruppen soldiers started showing negative psychological symptoms. Ernest Klee uncovered an affidavit from Gustave Fix, a member of Sonderkommando i6, which said there were numerous men who were no longer capable of conducting executions and who thus had to be replaced by other men.4 Yet, with the mental breakdown of Nazi soldiers, the Nazis formed another plan to rid themselves of their enemies. concentration camps with a high death rate.Germans were very efficient. The routine could vary slightly, but concentration camp life as ordered by the Germans followed a faithful path. Survivor after survivor retold several key elements of arriving and surviving in a concentration c Jewish arrivals came from prisons, whereas criminals and other inmates came from local jails. Whether packed into overcrowded trains or trucks, the transportation to the camps was treacherous, many died along the way.Upon arriving in a concentration camp, men and women were separated. children went with the women.
Questions on who was to be responsible for certain things arose due to need of clarity and commitment (Singh 23). Norming During this stage, members worked cohesively, with active acknowledgement of each other. The interpersonal relationships grew positively with members solving team issues together. Each member asked questions on the tasks, while at the same time, preconceived notions about each other changed due to the facts that were presented. Members shared information with each other freely and tasks concerning the race were explored without any individualism (Singh 24). Perfoming The team managed to evolve itself towards the fourth stage. Members were able to work independently while at the same time, they were able to work as a unit. Production was at the peak with individual tasks being handled effectively. Interdependence in terms of personal relations was observed. Group identity was complete, the morale and loyalty was high and also intense. Problems were solved due to the high productivity rate (Singh 24). Adjourning During this stage, the tasks were concluded with task termination and the end of relationships. During this time, members recognized each other’s participation and achievement towards the success of the task (Singh 24). Big Five Personality traits Members of the team were observed to show their big five personality traits. Some members who were very curious, creative and ready to embrace new ideas showed Openness. Some members were aware of their feelings and their beliefs were unconventional. Team members who were organized punctual, achievement oriented and systematic showed conscientiousness. These team members were always dependable as they showed a distinct preference when it came to planning ahead of their schedule. A member who was talkative, outgoing, and social showed extraversion. The member showed constantly positive emotions full of energy and vigor. Agreeableness was quite common with some team members who were very tolerant, sensitive, trusting and warm. These members wanted to get along with others and they showed high levels of friendliness, and compromises for the team. Neuroticism was clear with a member who showed anxious and irritability and moody behaviors (Singh 37). Conclusion Working as a team was quite enjoyable and eye opening. There are several lessons that were gained from the experience. Unity was key to the success of the team. When members of the team agreed on an issue without any problem, the task ahead was successful however, whenever there were conflicts, a lot of time was wasted and this led to little achievement. Through teamwork, it was possible to learn more about others. Tolerance was a great lesson, which was achieved from this exercise. Team members had different personalities and each one had to tolerate other members to make sure that the tasks were a success. Members who were a nuisance had to be asked to cooperate to realize the task ahead. Challenges due to leadership and task allocation were common. Some members felt that the tasks that they were given were too much or too little. However, appointing one person as a leader helped to create authority over issues. Due to time factor, the team leader consulted with members to avoid any conflicts before allocation of tasks. Members were also asked to be open and frank when it came to deciding
propagates the interests of the shareholders based on the argument that they are the owners of the company thus their property rights ought to be protected. Therefore, the directors must run the company in the interest of the shareholders.Basis of determining business relationships: As per the shareholder’s theory, corporate relationships are determined by legal or implied contracts. Thus, it recognizes accountability towards those parties with whom an explicit legal agreement has been entered into. This vastly limits the scope of accountability.On the other hand the stakeholders’ school of thoughtThe escalation in the value of shareholding: the shareholder’s theory endorses the objective of generating higher returns to the investment of the shareholders. Whereas the stakeholders’ take is that, the corporation should strive to yield higher social returns to all the parties involved with it.The objective of wealth creation: escalation in the value of shareholding will result in greater wealth creation. therefore, it is consistent with the traditional corporate objective of profit maximization. The proponents of the shareholder’s theory maintain this. However, the other view is that when the interest of the stakeholders is taken into consideration then there shall be fairer distribution in addition to wealth creation, which will promote the general welfare of society.The Tinged Shareholder’s theory contains a reconciliation of the main ideas of the two schools of thought. It makes allowance for moral and social obligations and at the same time retains the director’s fiduciary duties and holds them responsible to the shareholders. The conflicting grounds of the normative and instrumental approaches are blurred in this theory. The traditional profit-maximizing objective of the shareholder’s theory is maintained while incorporating the corporate social responsibilities as well, therefore it is consistent with moral duty.c) I find the stakeholder’s theory rather convincing.
The first part of the country was occupied by the Germans and was directly under their control. The Germans ruled the zone centering in Paris. The other area was still a free land under the control of the government of the country of France in which they had the right to rule that freely without the intervention of the German government. The free zone of the country was ruled by centering in Vichy. 1The French government of the free area of the country ruled from Vichy was named the Vichy France. The Vichy government of the country was to maintain law and order in the country as well as protect the Free State against the resistance of the German forces. 2The rule consists of period of four years. Though it was a free state it was under the shadow of the German rule and hence under the influence of the Nazism theories and beliefs. In the summer time of the year 1940, a series of what were called anti-Semitic measures were introduced in the area of Vichy France as it had its existence in the defeat of the country in the hands of the Nazis’ armies followed by the set of the collaboration policies that was urged by the country men of France during the period of the defeat. The German people, more specifically the then ruler of the country, Adolf Hitler was dead against the co existence of the Christians and the Jews in the same society. They had the feeling that the Jew were not socially suitable enough to live and enjoy the same facilities as the other people of the country could. They were considered the people of lower caste and social strata and hence forced out of the country and sometimes even punished severely without any guilt on their part however only for the reason that they were Jews by birth. The Jews were the people who were blamed by Hitler for the every misfortune that Germany experienced in previous periods and hence Adolf Hitler undertook a campaign to drive the Jews out of the country of Germany. This campaign of Hitler ultimately culminated in the holocaust3. Since the Vichy France had been ruling the country with the shadow of the Germans they also undertook campaigns in prosecution of the Jews from the country. Information from both the German government sources as well as the documents available from the Vichy France government provided trace regarding the vicissitudes of cooperation of France and Germany regarding the issue of the dealings with the Jews. The Vichy France government was proved to be the eager partner with the German in the persecution of the Jews.4 The Campaign in the Vichy France started in the summer of the year 1940 in which the government of the country with all its power and energy rested in their hands prosecuted the Jew residents out of their own homeland. The Jews of the country were driven out of Vichy France and from different public as well as private spheres of life of the country. A law was enforced in the region which clearly defined the identification of the Jews. Special discriminatory measures were imposed for the Jews of the Vichy France by the government of the region of the country. The Jews were thrown in certain special camps within the country and their movements were restricted within those particular camp areas and certain specific regions outside of that however only in certain reassigned times. In the summer of the year 1942 the final solution of the problem regarding the Jews residents residing in France were provided by the German government. There raised cases of arrest of the Jews of the country along with certain internments and deportations of the Jews in areas of Poland. All these incidents happened in Vichy France under the administration of the French government of the country and with their complicity. The frequencies of these incidents were
Mutual benefit is got through Recreational fishing because it provides a wide range of benefits that involve environmental, social, psychological, and economic aspects. In the same way, people in the fishing industry derive mutual benefits which are both economically and environmentally satisfying. In enjoying these mutual benefits one has to follow certain policies that are ‘enforced by the RecFish Australia code of conduct’ (2001) which express people’s responsibility towards the environment and the respect of the stakeholder.While the Australian domestic markets keep expanding and the demand for Australian seafood keeps escalating, there is an urgent need for seafood resources to be cultivated and harvested in a systematic sustainable manner, so that the right amount of stocks could be maintained and there are flexibility and viability in the fish industry that has an employee population of about 80,000 workers. In such a scenario there is no doubt that there are pockets of emerging themes such as exploitation of the market and also criminal activities.Even though there appears to be stringent rules and regulations guarding the rights of others, yet there is a lot of organized illegal activity that takes place which involves either barter or cash transactions.Efforts are on to prevent illegal harvesting and trade practices by the Australian fisheries management authorities who have helped to control such activity to a great extent thereby lending their support and cooperation to all the other stakeholders and other organizations involved.There are a lot of opportunities for stakeholders as well as other organizations to help them develop their options and clarify their choices. One of the main platforms for such activities is stakeholder dialogue meetings that are carried out on a regular basis.The NSW is the Primary Stakeholder who has great importance for a number of reasons. One of the main reasons is framing the rules and regulations of the fishing business which includes all departments and other stakeholders too. Though all stakeholders do not have equal representation within the dialogue, yet they have every right to voice their opinions on any issue that is affecting them.
Conceptualized by Mark Blaug forty-five years ago, this is embedded in the economic theory of human resources in the form of human capital theory (Blaug, 1976:827). There have been many advances and breakthroughs since then in the field of human resource economics. Historically, human resource development (HRD) has referred to developing human resources in order to increase economic productivity and therefore a nation’s wealth that is, very closely linked with economic outputs. So, in the development context, the meaning of the terms of human resources development and human development are very much interconnected. Theories of human capital formation and human resource development have often been described as strong in analyzing the supply side in relation to its approach to manpower and planning and education (UN:1990). However, one man’s supply is another’s demand. In fact, human capital theory is basically demand-oriented but it views demand from the level of the individual. So this theory is now being applied or has the potential to be applied, to a number of areas of human resource analysis, where, previously a supply orientation tended to prevail. This new focus on the demand for human resource development may be one of the most important developments in developing countries to emerge from the economic theory of human resources. As UN’s Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) in its report pointed out, The human capital revolution in the economics of human resources in last quarter century has had a major impact on policy-making and planning for human resource development in the developing countries. In many ways, it may be said to have initiated interest in planning for human resource development.There can be little doubt that the impact of continuing developments in the economics of human resources will be an equally potent source of new approaches to human resource development in the next twenty-five years. As human capital is the workforce behind economic growth, it is the position of this writer that support for the workforce or labor, be given not only for the company’s gain but also for the advancement of the individual in terms of knowledge and skills in order to be able to keep up with the changing times and the demands that come with them. Several articles/works were read and taken into consideration in the making of this paper. Gary S. Becker, in his article The Human Capital, discussed education, training and health as the most important investments in human capital and the industry’s increasing reliance on them. Patrick Fitzsimons’ Human capital theory and education discussed the Human Capital Theory as the most influential economic theory of Western education, setting the framework of government policies since the early 1960s, and its recent reformulation which stressed the significance of education and training as the key to participation in the new global economy. F. John Reh’s article New Employee Training – Is It Worth The Investment presented arguments of training new employees in terms of its cost in the part of the employers and the gains that they will get from them.
General job satisfaction, work environment, compensation and payments or benefits, workload and schedule, recognition and responsibilities are some of the factors that would motivate employees to work better and improve general company performance.Employee motivation has been found to be closely related to compensation, work environment, and has a significant influence on company productivity. People could not be forced to work and any coercion can only lead to conflict. Thus to improve company performance, employees will have to be adequately motivated and in this context, we can discuss Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory or Mc Clelland’s theory of achievement motivation. An understanding of the motivational dynamics is important for improved company performance although employee compensation seems to play a significant role within the environment and performance criteria.It would be interesting to discuss to what extent employee motivation could be increased or decreased with added compensation and how incentives, bonuses or pay levels could affect the motivational processes at the workplace. Job performance is seen as a function of ability and motivation and some of the factors that have been identified as important in the motivational process include one’s own advancement in the field and in the job, type of work done and enjoyed by the employees that relate to job satisfaction as well as the company reputation or position of the company that could motivate individuals to keep up the competitive edge. Building up a sense of morale and corporate social responsibility lies at the bottom of increasing employee motivation although the direct factors that seem to affect motivation are in fact largely related to pay benefits and compensation in the form of recognition and material incentives. Company performance is in fact related to how much the employees are compensated and paid for their efforts and this is also largely related to the extent of motivational factors that work in favor of the employees or the company.
Understanding management theories is vital to managers who are concerned with practical issues such as efficiency and productivity. They provide managers with a theoretical perspective on the nature and responsibilities of management within a changing environment. Current management theories and practices do not just suddenly appear. They are the outcome of an evolutionary process. It could be said their origins can be traced as far back as biblical times through to the Greek and Roman civilizations and to the management practices used by Frederick the Great of Prussia in the 15th century. This was known as the pre-industrial period of management thought.But it would be more accurate to say that contemporary management theories have their foundations in the late 18th, 19th and mid-20th centuries. Known as the modernist period, it is the time of the industrial revolution, a period of significant economic, social, and technological change. These changes challenged the existing pre-industrial order of how business was conducted. (Cole, 102-109) Previously, businesses were small craft or cottage industries producing products by skilled and semi-skilled artisans who had inherited their skills from previous generations. Consequently, labor productivity was generally low and the quality of goods produced varied significantly.The industrial revolution challenged and changed this way of producing goods forever. The emergence and use of mass production techniques and a revolution in transport changed how goods could be produced, sourced, and marketed within a country. These changes were also complemented by the growth of large-scale businesses like the Dutch East India Trading Company. These changes in turn provided business owners with the problem of how to manage such changes knowing that technology could increase the productive efficiency of their business. In other words, there needed to be a change in the organizational structure, processes, and practices to take advantage of such technological and economic changes.
The subculture way of life is true to its original setup and has more freedom in undertaking any activity. The Theory of subculture tries to define subculture as a way that proposes that those living in the urban settings are able to find ways of creating a sense of belonging to the community despite the prevailing alienation and anonymity. The acquisition of status within the subculture entitled that one had to be exclude from the rest of the society and the group responded to it by showing hostile reception to other outsiders. The subculture became so substantive, distinctive and showed independence. The members solely depended on others for social contact and validation of their beliefs and way of life thus in the process have tried to eliminate the issue of disparities in the social status. The culture of capitalism is involved in the shaping up of societal behavior. This later gives people the right to identify themselves with a certain faction of people (Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars 200). This is deep rooted because of the values attached to money tend to dictate the association of people in the society. To ascertain their incorporation in society they have involvement the media and commerce related activities. METHOD The subcultures have a defined way of doing things with a certain affiliation to a particular group creating lots of social division and conflicts especially to the youth and teenagers. Identified with specific and peculiar ways of life, most of the students identify themselves with the subculture groups of their choice. This is a close way of creating a bonding between the affiliates of that subculture. Whilst the subculture discourages individualism the main stream culture continue to fan this ethical animosity. The mainstream culture is about trying to achieve the status quo and control of power in the society. It leads to people being engraved in doing things that will satisfy their ego. A pattern of doing something is dictated by the a certain group and if you want to be associated with the group following what it does is bound to underline the status quo and bring out a sense of identity to the individual. When the person does not conform to the cultures of the mainstream is considered as an outcast and a sell out. The involvement of a person in the mainstream culture needs one to be repacked that he or she fits in the status quo. SUBCULTURE The indicators of subculture are identity, commitment, autonomy and consistent distinctiveness. The influence of student athletes has led to the formation of subcultures in the schools and colleges. Just like the players formed subcultures among themselves because some of them receive full scholarships but do not perform according to expectations of the team. Those that have no scholarships in the process gang up against those the student athletes citing their little contribution to the team while the student athletes seclude them as they feel they are superior. This in the end will have a detrimental effect on the overall performance of teams. In addition there is contrast of opinions regarding the payment of the student athletes with less regard to the regular students. To cap their outstanding performance they receive many other benefits that other regular students can not be accessed of. The college sport departments fan this wide gap between the regular stude
275). The worst-hit was to the larger cities due to dense populations that more readily spread the disease and because of poorer sanitary conditions than in the urban areas. The plague would visit an area, last for about a year, killing about one-third of the population, and move on. … Most historians believe that between 1347 and 1351, at least one-third of Europe’s total human population (20 to 30 million people) died (Piccolo, 2004). Deaths alone were not the lone byproduct of the Plague, however. It also affected the economic, social, and political landscape of this large region of the world.The sector of the population that was most impacted was the lower classes because they were more likely to live in unsanitary conditions and had limited means by which to protect their health. The massive decrease in population produced negative effects on the European economies beginning with a predictable surplus of products and food supplies. Prices fell greatly which allowed those that survived the Plague to enjoy more wealth which stimulated the economies in the respective regions. However, when more money is being circulated, inflation is generally the byproduct which caused prices to steadily rise, causing economies to again suffer (Boccaccio, 1977, p. 3).The reduction of populations caused the available labor force to decline which caused prices to further rise. Workers now realized the opportunity to demand more pay which inflated costs to consumers even more. Prices steadily increased which necessitated government action to prevent labor wages, thus prices of goods and services to become unaffordable to the lower and middle classes. The effects of regression on the rural economy were far-reaching. Labour was scarce and wages rose rapidly. In England and Castile and elsewhere legislation was attempted to fix wages, but without success (Nohl, 1926, p. 20). This legislation attempted to reaffix wages back to levels at which they were prior to the Plague. Workers, especially peasants who were finally making a decent wage, rebelled violently to the pay reductions and though the intent was sound, its affects were disastrous.
First off, one of the most significant attributes among people is their color of skin. It is a standpoint for racial conflicts and discrimination, therefore. Thus, humanity is well driven by analyzing characteristic features of individuals in relation to physical attributes, but not those which are more vital. It is all about, an individual’s reason, passion, talent, use for the society, etc. Black or white, Asian or Indian, – all these attributes make a huge part of the contemporary society run into misconception in possessing different things and stratum within the society. Living in America, many of individuals urge to create their identities in close relation to their physical attributes. In fact, it is taken for granted today, and no one can refuse that a person’s appearance is the core attribute to get well in this life. It is a credit card of an individual letting him/her know if he/she can go another step in the social stratification and in the career ladder as well. This is the truth of contemporary life. The society believes in this assumption just because it was delivered from one generation to another throughout the history of the United States. Such impulses are so strong that it seems impossible to fight them or somehow reduce. Even with the African-American president, the situation has changed not a jot. As an Armenian, I feel responsible to pay everyone’s attention to the topic that is not new for everyone living in a multinational country. It is really difficult to pay people’s attention to more reasonable and constructive decisions while communicating the ethnical equality which makes all individuals and citizens united and, therefore, strong in the national idea. However, communicating ethnicity is not suffice, as the ethnic option is conceptualized in individual rather than collective terms (Fong and Chuang 308). Thus, a person himself/herself chooses to either humiliate or defend somebody as it concerns with one’s viewpoints on life and social inequality. To say more, racial identity as well as racial discrimination is a result of the historical development of the mankind. In this respect the era of colonialism, expansion, and enslavement imprinted and allegedly justified the winners and the losers of the ethnical race, so to speak. Individuals in majority are likely to put constraints for those in minority in order to make the presence and performance of the first pure, and genuinely more authentic. Unfortunately, the vast majority of contemporary people are perpetually haunted by various stereotypes regarding their identity. It seems taken for granted that African Americans and other minorities should stay behind the scenes of the national dialogue on equal rights just because they do not fit into a so-called divine image of a civilized person. In turn, it hurts and, frankly speaking, destructs people’s self-esteem and identity (Burke 85). Thus, social forces are still ineffective in, first, discussing and, second, solving the problem of misunderstanding widely spread over different ethnical communities nationwide. It is a challenge for the nation. it is a challenge for every ordinary individual being a part of the nation as well. Strange as it may seem, a man’s appearance is a prerequisite to estimate his/her talents, goals, and preferences. However, it sounds
These elements include underachievement determination, central nervous system dysfunction etiology, process involvement, presence throughout the lifespan, specification of spoken language problems as potential learning disabilities, specification of academic problems as potential learning disabilities, specification of conceptual problems as potential learning disabilities, specification of other conditions as potential learning disabilities and allowance for the multihandicapping nature of learning disabilities (Reiff, Gerber Ginsberg, 1993, pp. 114-115). With such a wide base of elements, ranging from physical to performance deficits, it should not be surprising that the definitions themselves are so widely varying as to make it difficult to establish a working stance. However, the Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities offers a broad definition of the term that can be quickly understood by outlining it as a condition in which there is a presence of a significant intellectual impairment and deficits in social functioning or adaptive behavior which are present from childhood (2003). Working from this definition, it will be shown how various social policies enacted since 2001 have been effective in assisting people with learning disabilities and their families overcome some of the major challenges that arise when the learning disabled child makes the difficult transition into adulthood as well as some of the deficits this program has yet to overcome.To understand the scope of the problem, it is necessary to understand how many people in the UK are currently affected in their daily lives by some sort of learning disability, whether it is mild or severe, simple, or complex. Although there remain no reliable official numbers regarding the prevalence of learning disabilities, primarily because of a lack of agreement among agencies regarding an ‘official’ definition as to what exactly constitutes a learning disability, it is estimated that there are approximately 580,000-1,750,000 individuals currently living the UK who suffer from some sort of learning disability, including approximately 230,000-350,000 people with severe disability (Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities, 2003).
In 1973 the United States Supreme Court voted 7 to 2 to overturn a Texas law against abortion on the grounds that it was too vague and deemed abortion is a fundamental right guaranteed by the United States Constitution. The ruling effectively legalized abortion for women in America and ignited a divisive political spark that has had social reverberations that continue to emanate in the 21st century. It decided that a woman has the right to an abortion, up to a certain time limit in her pregnancy and that the woman’s right to terminate her pregnancy outweighs any rights the unborn fetus might possess. The ruling has been controversial from the beginning and has split the country down the middle, with those who support the ruling on one side, and those who disagree with it on the other. While the exact ramifications of the decision are as strongly contested as the decision itself, a number of themes have been consistently identified by scholars and cultural analysts as significant social effects on society as a result of the court ruling.The question for the Supreme Court ruling of this kind is to determine the meaning of the term liberty. The justices don’t simply, or at least shouldn’t, define liberty any way they want since they are not legislators or members of the executive branch. Because the justices are judges, their role is quite different. When called upon to decide whether a federal or state law is constitutional, they are being asked to decide whether the law at issue is at odds with our highest law, the Constitution. This is why, in explaining the constitutional decision to the world, the Supreme Court is obligated to justify its result by citing the part of the Constitution at issue and engaging in legal reasoning as to its meaning and how it should be applied. What will not do is to make a political appeal such as the American people want.
This paper argues that the media unnecessarily and irresponsibly represents the threat of terrorism particularly since the 9/11 terror attacks on US soil. In other words, the media engages moral panic in reporting and informing the public of the threat of terrorism. This paper is therefore divided into two main parts. The first part of this paper sets out the theoretical underpinnings of moral panic. The second part of this paper identifies how the theoretical underpinnings of moral panic are manifested in the media’s coverage of terrorism since the 9/11 terror attacks on the US. Moral Panic This paper analyzes the degree of moral panic used in the mass media in its coverage of terrorism following the 9/11 terror attacks. In this regard, moral panic is used within the theoretical structure espoused by Stan Cohen in 1973. According to Cohen (1973, cited in Critcher, 2003) every now and again, societies are seized by moral panic. To this end, moral panic is characterized by six essential features. First there is a condition, episode, person or group or persons who are defined as a threat to societal values and interests. Secondly, the nature of the perceived threat and the individuals or groups involved are represented in stylized and stereotypical fashion by the mass media…. Finally, the condition then disappears, submerges or deteriorates and becomes more visible.9 According to Critcher (2003) Cohen was describing a chain reaction instigated by the media’s exaggerated coverage of deviance among a group of young people who had come together on England’s east coast in 1964. The youth were identified as Mods and Rockers. At the gathering, the youth became bored and a number of minor altercations took place and the police were involved. The headlines in the Newspapers bored catchphrases such as wild one, 97 arrests and terror.10 One editorial demanded that government take action and another newspaper explained friction between the two groups.11 Another incident allegedly involving Mods and Rockers occurred shortly after the first incident in other coastal towns. The newspaper carried essentially the same types of exaggerated reports as before. The spillover effect was evidenced by the judiciary’s treatment of those who had been arrested. Many were denied bail, others were subjected to excessive fines for minor offences such as obstruction and those facing more serious offences were incarcerated. Local business representatives, citizens and politicians called for harsher consequences. Thus, according to Critchena whole new social problem had been defined.12 A series of legislative interventions were observed with the passage of the Drugs (Prevention of Misuse) Act and the Malicious Damage Act. Other interventions included the police actively turning young people away from resorts on the coast. Anyone failing to take the police advice would be arrested. By 1966, gatherings on the coast diminished and
Advancements and reforms were also evident, the society being encouraged to adhere to the law. This made it possible for people to trade without fearing fraud or breaches of business agreements. Capitalism was also encouraged, and this led to the growth of the economy and industries – to the revolution in the economy. The 18th century transition from the economies based on manual labor and draft animals to a more machine manufacturing system changed the speed and quality of goods produced3. Textile was a crucial commodity during this period, and mechanization of the textile industry and steel manufacturing and the increasing use of refined coal bolstered productivity of the existent industries. With the production of more goods at a faster and more efficient rate, there was a need for the creation of a transportation system to complement these developments. Transport networks, including the railway, canals and roads, were enhanced. This facilitated for the movement of goods from the industries to markets, expanding the economy. With the expansion of industries, the economy shifted from agriculture and became more inclined towards industries. This led to the resettlement of individuals to the industrial centers and, consequently, the creation of urban settlements4. The use of machinery during production enabled manufacturers to produce identical goods, which were precisely made and were cheaper. For instance, gun parts were previously uniquely made to fit one gun, so they could not be reused on another. The use of machinery enabled manufacturers to duplicate the parts, making them fit in any gun of its type and making… This report approves that housing was a social problem during the industrial revolution. The living conditions in the era were significantly contrasting between the classes. The factory owners and wealthy industrialists lived in regal quarters with luxurious accommodation. This, however, was not the situation for the poor workers who lived in pathetic conditions of squalor . The influx of workers put a strain in the available amenities, leading to the formation of slums in the industrial regions . This was characterized by poorly constructed houses to accommodate the workers in the new industrial centers. The people lived in cramped regions in housing units that were inhumanely small. They were also required to share toilet facilities. The workers lived in dirty environments, and the hygienic conditions were unimaginable poor. This paper makes a conclusion that the industrial revolution was a significant occurrence in the history of humankind. This is because the event changed the social, economic and political situation globally and its impact is evident in the contemporary world. The advent of industrialization led to the migration of people to the industrial centers and, consequently, to the creation of cities. The changes, however, led to social challenges, which included housing for the workers, child labor and other social problems. These social changes have played a significant role in shaping the social situation of the modern world.
There is a need to recognize the thesis statement being advanced that- Other people cannot avoid pain, it is everywhere. As we delve into the core of pain, we see that there is consensually a broad array of examples that can prove the relevance of the thesis statement. For instance just to highlight a few is the universality state that pain bears, what do I mean by this? well looking deeply into the lives we lead one will replay resonate on the fact that race pays dividends to this.I draw my example from the slavery that accosted the black community in many parts of the world. One could say that pain at times is individually instigated. An example of this is when the whites in South-Africa subjected blacks to slavery. However much the blacks tried to improve on their lives they always failed to the condemnation posed as pain, they had been instigated pain by whites, universally, it affected the entire black race since regardless of what you brought to the bargaining table, as long as you were a black it was as good as pointless.Apart from race, we also need to acknowledge that pain exists everywhere in the simple things that bathe our very lives, such as health, economy, and generally the social statutes we have. According to theologizes the concept of Christ suffering is a clear prelude that the human race, in general, can never evade pain, in the physical advancement it articulates to the – Pain is everywhere ( Biss, 26). Eula conforms to the fact that pain is immeasurable. this he says is the clear reverend to the fact that it exists everywhere.Notably, the lives we lead are a gold mine for the pain of the harbour. According to Dante’s Inferno the magnification of pain is via the many constraints we face. For instance, the magnitude that cambers the health sector is a show of pain being everywhere. No place on earth can broadly stand out and proclaim that it’s a free-disease place. This shows that any human is vulnerable to the pain caused by diseases.
The case is based on the law of contract. Mead, Sagar and Bampton defines a contract as an agreement, between parties, that is enforceable in law. An agreement must however fulfil certain requirements for it to be considered as a valid contract. One of the essential elements of a valid contract is an agreement between the parties to the agreement. This is brought about by an offer by one party or parties that is then accepted by another party or parties. In making an offer, a party undertake to be bound by his or her terms if the other party, to whom the offer is made, accepts the offer in a legally prescribed manner. Acceptance of the offer completes the agreement of the parties over the subject matter. Another essential element of a contract is existence of consideration. This is defined as the sacrifice made by the party to whom a promise is made for the benefits derived from the offeror. With exemption of a promise made under deed, a contract is only enforceable if it is supported by consideration.Further, a contract is legally enforceable on its parties only if there existed an intention, by the parties, to create a legal relationship. This element distinguishes contracts from social agreements in which parties make informal commitments. Official arrangements are however generally regarded to create legal relations between parties. The parties must have also entered into the agreement with free consent, an element that protects parties from imposed agreements. Free consent in a contract is evaluated with respect to vitiating factors that include mistake, misrepresentation, duress, undue influence, and restraint of trade (Gil, 2005, p. 127, 128). The presence of any of these factors, depending on the aggrieved party, makes an agreement into a contract either void or voidable. While a void contract is not enforceable ‘ab initio’, a voidable contract is enforceable at the discretion of the offended party (Goldman and Sigismond, 2010, p. 123). Capacity of the contracting parties and legality of the subject matter of the contract are also essential in determining enforceability of a contract (Mead, Sagar and Bampton, 2009, p. 44).Another principle that arises in the case is breach of contract that is induced by a party’s failure to perform according to the terms of the contract. Conditions, as terms to contracts, go to the root of the contact and can form grounds for termination of a contract by an aggrieved party. A warranty is on the other hand a term that is not very essential to a contract and breaches can only institute damages and not termination of a contract. In the case of Hochster v De La Tour, 118 Eng. Rep. 922 (Q.B. 1853), it was held that an aggrieved party can repudiate a contract even before commencement of the subject matter if one of the parties has breached a condition to the contract (Emanuel, 2006, p. 250. Goldman and Sigism
The Kingdom: A Review The paper is about the movie The Kingdom which was shown in 2007 directed by Peter Berg and starring Jamie Foxx, Chris Cooper, Jennifer Garner, Jason Bateman and Ashraf Barhom. Although the story is similar to real events, the plot is similar to events in real life but is it focused on the adventure of a team of FBI agents who went to the kingdom of Saudi Arabia to investigate the bombing in the residence for foreign workers. Through the course of the story there are different issues and elements that can be observed. One of the important elements of the movie is the introduction which presented a history of events related to the issue in the Middle East. After the discovery of the oil in 1933, the first company of Arabian and American oil, ARAMCO had been established in 1938. War then started and different problems happened. In 1973 the oil embargo occurred and lasted until 1974. Also, in the 90’s Saudi Arabia became the top oil producer in the world while US became the top oil consumer. Terrorism then rocked the world after the said period. This became the connection of the movie to reality. The plot presented a fictitious compound, Al Rahmah in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia where foreign workers are living with their families and where the main focus of the movie which is the bombing occurred. Through different situations caused by different groups, the 4 FBI agents pursued the search for the people responsible for the bombing. Through the process a friendship had been established with the local military official Al-Ghazi. The attacks continued even when one of the officers had been taken by the group. The movie presented the different social issues such as clashes of culture, traditions, religion and beliefs. The clash of culture and traditions can be observed in the minute details in the movie. One is the amount of respect given to the leaders of the country such as the Prince. Another is the scenario when the female NBI officer was asked to cover her body as a sign of respect to the Prince and the sign of following the tradition in the nation. The clash of religion and beliefs is considered as one of the main focuses of the movie since the group responsible for the bombing wants the leaders of the country and the elites to hinder foreign influences and to continue the exclusivity of the religion and the beliefs of the people. The whole movie teaches the importance of one’s relationship to another which can influence the life of that person. The first is friendship which became the driving force for Agent Fleury to persistently go to Saudi Arabia even at dangerous situation to search for the people responsible to the death of his friend. Another is the established friendship is with Coronel Al-Ghazi who became the driving force of the group in pursuing the real leader of the group. The most powerful scene in the movie is the part wherein the leader Abu Hamza was about to die and he whispered something to the grandchild’s ear. Upon explanation this is the same phrase Fleur whispered to Mayes to calm her down which is we’ll kiss them all. Just like friendship, revenge and inculcated anger is also a driving force in a person’s interaction with another. In conclusion, The Kingdom teaches that the action of a person or a group, may it be positive such as strong friendship or hatred, transcends the social factors such as nationality, race, religion and cultural background. In the movie for example, violence is not related to these factors as observed by the fact that both sides committed actions against the other without the focus on the different factors. Work Cited Peter Berg. Dir. The Kingdom. Perf. Jamie Foxx, Chris Cooper, Jennifer Garner, Jason Bateman and Ashraf Barhom. 2007. DVD. United Pictures, 2011.
Angelou has very vivid memories of life at Stamps, Arkansas, where she and her brother Bailey were brought up by her intelligent grandmother. Though she led a reasonably good life, at least as compared to the life of other African Americans, she was constantly in pain which emanated from the ill treatment the minority blacks faced from their white counterparts. At the beginning of the book, Angelou discusses the continual labor of African Americans in cotton fields. This toil lasted their entire lives. In the end, however, what they received from these toil was hardly enough to sustain them or their families. Consequently, they were always in debt. The blacks continually complained of foul play in the fields. For instance, the weights used were faulty, and this ensured they never had their fair share. This narration sets the tone for the rest of the book. it explains just the type of suffering that Angelou and her fellow African Americans had to endure in Stamps, Arkansas. However, it is much more for Angelou since she has to constantly bear the thought of rejection. Before Angelou and her brother came to Stamps, they had lived with their parents until she was three years old. After that the parents sent them to live with their grandmother in Stamps. Angelou never understood why they had done it, but she believed that the parents had sought to get rid of them. She was particularly concerned by how they had been sent to their grandmother. Angelou’s search started at age three and seemed to last her entire life. This was until she was aged seventeen where she concludes the book. It is this search that forms the background of this discourse. This paper traces Angelou’s search for her identity as a girl, a daughter, and an African American. It is this search we trace throughout the novel that makes her the strong lady. This discourse also seeks the input of other resources beyond Angelou’s book to examine how a purposeful search for identity and need to rise above adversity strengthens character. Her life is not an ordinary life. She is without parents at age three. Besides, she has to live with a grandmother who contends with the insults and insubordination by whites every day. The other person close to her is Uncle Willie who has a disability and, being an African American, has to continually contend with racism. It is in these difficult circumstances that a young child has to define her identity. In a normal setting, it is the parents who help in building a child’s identity. Without them, this is not an easy task (Arciero and Guido 98). The only option is to constantly search for one’s identity amidst those one lives with which is quite challenging when the situation is as unfair as the one that Angelou finds herself in. One’s moral identity and understanding of morality (justice and care) exist in tandem. The more one identifies with a moral standard, whether as an act of will (such as committing oneself to a religious tradition) or as an act of insight (such as seeing someone suffer a social injustice and being deeply moved by the experience), the more that standard (and the identity, which is the internalization of that standard) will direct one’s attention and flavor and filter one’s perception and interpretation (Flanagan and Ame?lie 78). At the same time, the more able one becomes to understand whether actions are moral or not, the more likely it is that morality will figure in self-evaluations and become tied to self-esteem. Identity, then, contributes to development by its demand of the corresponding focus and practice, and the focus and practice contribute to one’s sense of mastery of morality. According to Aristotle, you are what you repeatedly do
Seen in the larger context of the plot, it is noteworthy that the two defendants whom the lawyers voicing the two specific speeches are trying to protect stand a potential chance of getting convicted owing to the jury possibly being biased with respect to their race and ethnic identity. Hence, no wonder, the two speeches are indeed moving texts that intend to persuade the jury against succumbing to the prevalent racial biases and prejudices. Yet, there is no denying the fact that both these speeches tend to differ in their structure, form and content, and the strategy they resort to while trying to move the conscience of the jury. While the speech mad by Atticus in To Kill a Mockingbird is expansive, elaborate and emotive, the speech made by Charlie in the defense of Reverend Andrews is more factual, terse and tactical. The speech made by Atticus in To Kill a Mockingbird does indeed have an organic structure with a beginning, middle and an end. The character of Atticus systematically moves about to make an impression on the jury by making his speech to be placed at the end of his systematic enunciation of the facts and the available evidence before the jury. This strategy has a twin fold advantage in the sense that it not only segregates the two pivotal issues involved in the concerned trial that are the technical aspects associated with the trial and the larger issue of racial bias that could have a detrimental impact with regards to the defendant. Hence, without any doubt, this approach allows Atticus to methodically and systematically bring to fore the simmering issue of racial prejudice in the court house, which was not only till now being sidelined or taken for granted, but is also bound to have a decisive impact on the trial. The character of Atticus astutely adapts one’s mannerisms and body language to suit the gravity of the situation as is evident from, … he did something he didn’t ordinarily do. He unhitched his watch and chain and placed them on the table…. In terms of content, the speech made by Atticus could be regarded to be emotive, while at the same time being factual in the sense that it lays bare the incidence and prevalence of racism in the society of his times, while urging the jury to rise above such narrow considerations, so as to decide the case while taking into consideration the available factual evidence. Commensurately, while making this speech, Atticus comes out as an authoritative speaker who has a firm grip over the social undercurrents of his times as he says, She has committed no crime, she has merely broken a rigid and time honored code of our society…While doing so Atticus rises above the role of an ordinary lawyer intending to protect one’s client to be a voice of reason and sanity, not only having a firm grip over the essentials of the law of the land, but also symbolic of an attitude that supports an objective and unbiased approach towards legal issues that he believes to be the guiding principle behind the law that he intends to uphold. It goes without saying that Atticus is amply aware of the mindset of his audience that is the jury and hence had tailored his speech to usher in a voice of reason and fairness into an opinion that had already been presumed to be calcified and crystallized, in an informal if not in a solemn manner. The speech made to the jury
Resource dependence theory is related to the institutional theory in the way that resource dependence affects the setup of social norms, rules, structures, and schemes set up by the institutional theory. The social exchange theory postulates that a person while involving in a material exchange also expects some non-material favors such as recognition, acceptance etc. People enter into exchange relationships for this purpose. This theory is related to the institutional theory as it affects as well is impacted by the social structure formed by the intuitional theory. An employee expects certain recognition and incentives from providing his services. This expectation is affected by the structure in which he is working. It also impacts the relationship between the boss and the subordinate. The social exchange theory is related to resource dependence theory as both the theories attempt to define the dependency of a person on other for exchange of either material good or non-material behavior. Once a person enters into an exchange relationship, he expects certain things in return to the services renders by him. A perceived completion of this expectation will lead to satisfaction. This satisfaction may lead to a continuation of the social exchange relationship setup. Every person expects fairness in the relationships he enters. So, if he enters into a relationship that makes him give more than what he earns, he might feel dissatisfied with it and may discontinue the relationship. Thus, equity theory is related to the expectation-confirmation theory. It is also related to social exchange theory as it
Philosophers have exhibited efforts towards defining the critical subject of finding meaning in life. Whereas some philosophers highlight that life presents absurdity and meaninglessness, others have been highlighting aspects that present meaning to life. Camus presented his description of the absurdity in life and how this cause suicide. On the hand, Walker sought to describe how religion was critical in presenting life with meaning. This paper will summarize the views of these philosophers and reflect on them.Summary of Camus Article on Absurdity.Albert Camus was a philosopher who sought to explain the absurdity that is evident in life. According to him, life is an irrational experience that presents no meaning at all. After highlighting his conviction on the absurdity of life, he embarked on addressing the most critical question ‘why not commit suicide?’ He then embarked on presenting the issue of absurdity and suicide. According to him, answering this question required an individual to choose distinctly whether it was a worthy venture to stay alive (Pojman, and Lewis 547). He also highlighted that the majority of the approaches to the suicide issue have considered it a social phenomena. In his view, the decision to commit suicide emanated from the heart, although the person remained unaware of the surging problem. In such ignorance of the issue, the undermining effect that surrounded thinking about a certain issue overwhelms the undermined person culminating in suicide. According to him, suicide translated to a confession by a person that there was no valid reason for facing life. People who committed suicide often indulged in undermining thought that gave them the conviction that life lacked meaning. In elaboration, choosing a voluntary death meant that the person had deciphered the ridicule inherent in the habit used to validate the existence (Pojman, and Lewis 548). Usually, a person resulted to committing suicide if there was evidence of the uselessness accompanied by suffering. In such a state, the person only experiences agitation resulting from the habits defining existence, and such agitation often becomes overwhelming. The absurdity of life is the sole cause of suicide according to Camus. Sometimes, a person seeking adjectives of describing the world only find negative ones, and this has become a familiar occurrence. Such a world presents deprivation of illusions and lights that serve to make people have a sense of belonging. The deprivation results in alienation of human from the world they live in. Apparently, as Camus explained, the alienation then triggers a separation of a person from life causing absurdity. This pattern is evident in people who contemplate suicide. Camus sought to elaborate the exact point where by absurdity caused suicide. For many people, collapsing of the stage that they base their lives on brings about weariness. This kind of weariness has the potential of triggering consciousness that causes the person to question why things happen. Such consciousness serves to highlight a high level of indifference in the future persuading the person to concentrate on the quantity of life rather than quality. He defined meaning in life as having a focus on the quality of life. Moreover, Camus also developed his argument on how presented the potential of teaching people. He then highlighted that life presented the same number of experiences for people of the same age, but the individual perception of the opportunities determined whether life presented meaning or absurdity. For those perceiving meaning, they concentrated on quality scales, while lucidity caused these scales to fade. Camus then proceeded to present a myth that served as an analogy to the absurdity in life. He used the myth of Sisyphus to illustrate the meaningless ventures of life (Pojman, and Lewis 550). Sisyphus had received a mandate from the gods to push a certain stone up a mountain, and watch it roll down, compelling him to repeat the
For this purpose, a detailed program and proposal has been developed that will help in understanding the research approach pertaining to the role of Transportation Security Agency in safeguarding millions of lives amidst skies (Special Investigations Div (2004)The thesis aims at highlighting the role of the Transportation Security Agency in Protecting American Skies. It also aims at assessing and analyzing the proposed initiatives along with identifying the overall benefits, advantages and significance in the social environment.The thesis has been designed in a systematic manner covering different issues pertaining to the transportation security agency in the global environment often laced with a number of challenges to deal with. The thesis has been divided into different chapters and each chapter offers a deep insight over the subject matter in an illustrative manner.Over the years, there have been a number of issues pertaining to the safety and security of people across the world while traveling through railways, airways and waterways. Governments across the world have been developing effective strategies and governing bodies to safeguard the interest of millions of people located n different parts of the world. With terrorist attacks haunting the peace and life of people, effective security and safety measures became a basic and important need in the social environment. The 9/11 terrorist attack was a major setback for the government of the United States questioning its security and safety policies. The creation of the Transportation Security Agency was in response to the September, 11, 2011 attacks.This clearly shows that the government was either complacent or a little worried about the safety and security of its people. Terrorist attacks can happen at any time and in any part of the world.
However, the author has not provided any logic regarding the reason for his transformation into a monstrous pest like creature. The story revolves around a very painful scenario in which the main character is a normal salesman who suddenly converts into a scary monstrous pest one day and then faces a life that separates him from his family, his closest ties weaken and he is seen with hatred by his own family, let alone the society. They stay away from him, fear him, are scared of him and consider him as a burden on the family (Kafka, 2008). Analysis and evaluation in context with today’s world The novel is believed to be closely associated with the author’s own life who lived in fear of his father who was harsh with him. In the novel also, the impact given by his father’s presence represents that he saw his son with disgust and repugnance especially after his transformation due to which his father had to resume work again. Gregor felt like a burden on his family after transformation and even though his sister was initially his caretaker and helped him cope with the situation, it was just short lives and even she started getting repulsive from him later. The story is a classic that is linked to the humanities and social sciences phenomenon in terms of religious and extremist interpretations as well as the general state of humans which can also be linked to them in today’s world (Kafka, 2008)…. in the world is shown in the novel probably portraying that the world is harsh and selfish even if it comes down to ones very own family who begin considering you a burden if you do not have anything to give to them in return for the relationship ( Sokel, 2002). Illustrating a very gloomy life that the main character had after the transformation, the novel relates to a truthful version of how individuals are treated if they are different, dependent or socially unacceptable in some respect. Gregor not only faced isolation at home but also felt a social seclusion and unacceptability. Moreover even his own mother could not comply with the responsibility and fearless feeling if unconditional love for him. He was considered as a burden by his sister who began to stay away from him. He is considered inferior and feels extremely frustrated about his state regarding which he can’t even do anything. Ultimately his end is what makes him free from all this isolation and loneliness along with the inferiority that he had to face because of the metamorphosis (Gray, 2005) Conclusion In today’s world, this book seems of great relevance even though this masterpiece was written around a hundred years ago. It relates to the societal isolation that people face due to being different from usual or being less useful than others, suffering from disease/illness/loneliness/religious sectarianism or any other thing that differentiates one person from the society. The fact is that as the book portrays, ultimately everyone is a selfish and even a person’s closest family and friends are not bothered enough to care in a situation where someone becomes a burden. The world believes in give and take relationships, be it in the case of families and friends, work and professional settings or
Since trauma is considered as a ‘rip’ in the normal phase of development, the resilience also requires some kind of resumption in the development. Let us discuss in brief about the trauma narrative and how it explores the feelings, responses and the capabilities of the survivors to bear with the witnesses. In addition, we shall discuss the recovery process for different kinds of trauma from the perspective of a therapist and their therapeutic alliance with the patient. People, who experience catastrophic events or horrible situations in their life, suffer from predictable psychological disorders. These disorders, when predicted earlier could be treated efficiently with the coping strategies and techniques of the recovery process. The fundamental stages of recovery are establishing safety, reconstructing the trauma story, and restoring the connection between survivors and their community. (Herman, 1997, p.3). After resilience, the memory of trauma gives the patient a sort of self esteem and helps in establishing control to overcome the trauma. The major focus of this study is to bring into light the deepened feelings of the traumatic victim and to explore their trauma’s boundaries and memories that hit their senses. … These intense and varied feelings and traumatic memories greatly influence affected individual’s persona lives as well as their social relationships, often in an undesirable way. It is discovered that when these intense feelings as well as the memories of trauma are put into words, it alleviates fear as well as mental agitation caused due to the traumatic event. As human beings, our inner sense always creates a visible and invisible bonding with the humans, we know or we may not know. When acknowledged and validated, it gives a sense of satisfaction and fullness to one’s life. Consequently, when this is disturbed, it leads to a wide range of emotional ups and downs that is responded through their feelings and actions. In a study, it was observed that the mother-child relationship, in the early developmental stage, contributes greatly to one’s emotional troubles and the way they cope up in life. When a mother is not empathizing to the needs of the child, it creates a sense of unworthiness towards the child. This leads to depression and low self-esteem, and sometimes could act as a catalyst for extreme actions, in the future years of the child. Often, the unexpressive thoughts of a child hinder her life emotionally leading to stressful emotions. As stated by Jelinek (2009, p. 275), A person who does not speak could easily be thinking. Mother demands that Erika reveal her thoughts, rather than let them eat into her. The response a person creates toward their trauma depends highly on different aspects such as age, maturity and emotional stability. For example, a child may respond to his/her trauma at school by refusing to go to school while a child in adolescent stage may argue with the parents against going to
The representation of death and decay, involving the house, the town, and Emily herself are shown through her relationships with the male characters of the story. Emily symbolizes the victimized generation in South America after the civil war. She also stands as a metaphor of changes in womanhood and the society. This paper is a critical appreciation of the story. The central character in the story, Emily Grierson, stands as a symbol, representing a tradition. She is given the responsibility of upholding that tradition. The unknown narrator in the story calls her a fallen monument. Faulkner deliberately takes a woman to represent a fading tradition. Her emotions are shaped by her community which is responsible for creating such female victims. As Abby H. P. Weslock has written in her brief note on feminism, A feminist critique, however, reveals Emily as a casualty of patriarchy and literally of her own father and lover (Abby 245). She is both an idol and a victim because she is admired for keeping the tradition and also victimized for doing her duty. At the surface level, the story is about death, murder, and the changes in the social conditions during a transition period in America. However, at the bottom level, the theme is love and passion. Emily very desperately needs a man. Her passions were suppressed by the conventions of her society in which she lived, and she had absolutely no control over the situations. The narrator comments that even with insanity in the family she wouldn’t have turned down all of her chances if they had really materialized (Faulkner). The only white light in her life is seen when Baron steps in, but that too does not last. The denial of this only chance drives her into insanity, turning her into a murderer. We remembered all the young men her father had driven away, points out the narrator (Faulkner). Emily, therefore, lives as a representative of those who made her pace between social obligations and physical passion. She is a fine example showing how one’s passions turn into psychic illness. In short, her case is that of necrophilia. The attitudes of the people in the town serves as a contrast to Emily’s options in her life: she is a sort of hereditary obligation upon the town (Faulkner). In other words, the attitudes of the people are patriarchal. Emily lives an isolated life, no visitor had passed since she ceased giving china-painting lessons eight or ten years earlier (Faulkner). It is important to note that her miseries are not the result of her actions in life. In fact, she has no choice to act. The imagery used by the narrator to show the quantum of her isolation is: She looked bloated, like a body long submerged in motionless water (Faulkner). The story can, therefore, be called a sexist text, because, basically it deals with the victimization of female sex. However, the narrator remains neutral to the old and new attitudes, leaving the readers to decide who wins, whether man or Emily. Robert Crosman observes that If there is a battle between the sexes in A Rose for Emily, the reader must decide who wins (Robert 361). Faulkner thus very cleverly involves the readers too with his skilful narrative techniques for judging Emily’s actions in the old mansion. A second closer look at how the tradition of patriarchy has made her insane is imperative. The story, A Rose for Emily
Frankenstein’s Monster with an oversized muscular body, yellow skin, teeth of a pearly whiteness, [yellow] watery eyes, shriveled complexion and straight black lips invoke the image of ferocious cannibal that eats up human beings. In contrast to these visual symbols, the humanly quality of the monster is expressed through behavioral ones. Indeed the behavioral symbols such the monster’s longings for a female monster, its rescue of the peasant girl, its remorse upon the killing of the creator Frankenstein, etc generate the monster in a human fashion. Indeed these two opposing sets of symbols together conjure up a newborn baby with a traditionally horrifying monstrous appearance. Again there is another symbol of the peasant girl that serves as a foil to the monster’s ugly appearance while propounding that the monster himself is as harmless and innocent as the girl is. Behavioral Symbols of Humanization in the Monster’s Character Shelly’s monster is not the conventional evil. … From the very beginning of his existence, the monster has been deserted by his creator because of his horrible appearance. Being abandoned by his creator, he tries to adapt himself to human society. But he realizes that he is doomed because of his ugliness since society is grossly obsessed with his ugly look. Therefore he takes revenge on his creator killing him and his relatives. All of these murders that Frankenstein commits considered as the reflection of the society’s attitude towards him. Also, he murders Victor’s wife and his best friend, only when Victor deceives him by destroying the female monster. Mary’s Conception of Social Evil and Injustice In the novel, Mary advocates that a monster or evil is man’s own creation. The monster also gives what he receives from society. Mary proves that the monster is the reflection of human society’s behavior. Though the Monster often shows generosity and sensitivity, society has denied acknowledging it.
The aggressive amount of tax imposed on the alcopops reduces the purchasing power of people and thus discourages the people to drink more and more of a product. Positive externalities exist when the marginal social benefit of production and consumption is more than the marginal private benefit.An externality is an effect of a purchase or consumption decision of a particular product by one party on the other party who has no choice but to live with that. The imposition of higher tax rates on alcopop products results in the elimination of negative externalities of alcohol abusers. With the imposition of higher tax rates on alcopop products, the marginal social benefit would be higher than bore and the marginal private benefits of the alcopop producers will reduce. Thus, discourage the consumers to consume more and more of a product who have to pay more for consuming the product.This effect has been shown in the above diagram in which it is clearly shown how I’m position of high tax rates on the product can affect the consumption and production of products causing negative externalities. In the above diagram social benefits are increasing and the high tax rates have also brought the demand of the product down, therefore, now excessive drinking will be avoided by people because it will become too expensive to afford. The advantage of the imposition of higher tax rates is that it provides incentives for removing the negative externalities of excessive drinking, increases social efficiency, and also increases revenue for the government.The demand for products like alcopops is most of the time inelastic as those customers who are addicted to these products will not compromise on the consumption of these products, it doesn’t matter how much price they have to pay for the getting hold of the product. This means that the consumers will still buy the product at higher costs despite the increase in the cost of the product.
Time and again, sociologists have studied societal behaviours and have coined different names for different societies. With the advent of the era of advanced modernity, societal thinkers went into further depths and coined even more comprehensive titles such as Affluent societies, Civic Societies, Open societies etc. One of the most prominent societal thinkers of this new modern era is Ulrich Beck. INTRODUCTION TO BECK AND RISK SOCIETY The German sociologist coined the name of Risk Society in his book ‘’ Toward a New Modernity’’ to explain that this era of advanced modernity is overwhelmed by the underlying risks that form an integral part of the future of these societies. Beck uses the term to identify societies that are risk averse and try to find out systematic methodologies to deal with risks induced by the modernisation itself. The term risk society is also analysed through the paradigms of a theoretical framework. This frame comprises of three interrelated ingredients: Individualization, Risk and reflexive modernity. The underlying basis of Beck to his argument is that modern society is exposed to a plenthora of risks and uncertainties. These uncertainties can include nuclear radiations, global warming, highly endemic diseases, invasive species and many other virulent phenomena (Adam, 2000). CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF BECKS THEORY: The historical theoretical work on societies centered around the distribution of world resources. Particularly those of the beginning of the modern era but with the new concept of risk aversiveness, Beck has given new paradigms to the societal risk theories. He argues that today, the focus of societies is not on the distribution of resources but on the distribution of risks and machinations of modernization, the risks prevalent in the contemporary scenario. He furthers his stance by saying that many potential risks are extricated from the concepts of boundaries and so these risks cannot be equitably distributed. Everyone therefore is equally at risk. Hence the concept of social classifications identified by the historical sociologists are no longer relevant according to Beck because risks cannot be equitably distributed and so all social classes are dissolved leading to individualization of the social actors. INDIVIDUALIZATION: According to Beck since all countries are equally exposed to the risks identified earlier, all entities, organizations, institutions and governments stand at the same level and so they are individualized at their own domains. Thus they have to take charge of the responsibilities and work on solutions to mitigating these risks. These individualized social actors identify the risks generated from technological innovation and new discoveries and they undertake action such as social movements and awareness campaigns to pressurize the innovators in being safety complaint. On the basis of this idea of individualization, Beck illustrates the vision of ‘New Modernity’. He portrays a society where personal experimentation and cultural innovation are cherished at the back of high potential uncertainties. Beck considers both regressive and progressive elements to individualization REFLEXIVE MODERNIZATION Beck criticises modernity by attacking the presuppositions of the theory of modernity related socialization. He is of the opinion that many sociologists confuse modernity with industrialism. He finds progress in the overrated social theories which align linear
From this paper it is clear that arenowned sociologist in French and a guiding figure in the same language, Durkheim was born to Jewish parents in the Eastern part of France where his father was a prominent rabbi in the district. Durkheim did not have very strong views on power as compared to Karl Marx and Max Weber, neither was he actively involved in politics. He was an advocate of a state-oriented, idealistic and non-Marxian type of power and politics. Karl Marx is best renowned as a revolutionary communist whose work on power and the state has inspired many such communal regimes. Max Weber is regarded as one of the leading theorists of the twentieth century.This research study outlines thatMarx and Durkheim’s views on religion will greatly show the power struggle in our society because religion divides the society into two constructs. According to Marx, religion is used to justify and safeguard the classes in our society and consequently also used to ensure the domineering ideologies prevalent in our society. Religion plays an imperative role in shaping the beliefs and values that exist in our social construct and also contribute to acts that build up our social order. For instance: the rich are capable of making wealthy donations to the church as opposed to the poor and gradually, the beliefs of the church will be shaped as per the interests of the ruling class.Marx formulated the concept of alienation, which is a condition in which the men are held in power or dominated by the forces of their own creation.
Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behaviour acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of the human group, including their embodiments in artefacts (man-made objects). the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e., historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values. culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, on the other as conditioning elements of further action.Material culture or objects are tangible evidence of social representation and an indication of intellectual engagement with the self and the environment. it forms social relationships and connections amongst societies. It also facilitates identity construction of self and society within the contexts of space and time. Henri Giroux (1988) stated.…Culture is also a form of production that helps human agents, thorough their use of language and other material resources, to transform society. In this case, culture is closely related to the dynamics of power and produces asymmetries in the ability of individuals and groups to define and achieve their goals (Cited in Baldwin, et al., 2006, p.188).Material culture refers to the psychological interpretation and meaning that all physical objects hold in the environment. Things have to mean something specific to people in a particular culture, they shape a distinctive identity which can nurture only in that socio-cultural setup.We understand the meaning of culture from objects of a special culture as people learn to form things as they perceive from their culture. Making of an object is in the consequences of certain behavioural patterns adopted by cultural influences. Archaeologist estimate and compare different aspects of culture by examining the material records like artefacts of cultures.
Broudy for assistance. She notes that Kim had shown her cuts on her body and confessed that she was fed up with her condition. While Kim had revealed that her father was involved in her condition, Mary suspected domestic molestation or ‘self-infliction’, concerns that she communicated to Ms. Broudy. Broudy determined to help but Kim was not willing to open up. As a result, Broudy reported the matter to the school principle and counselor but they took no action. Kim’s parents were equally unconcerned about her condition. Possible action for Ms. Broudy Ms. Broudy’s position identified her as a custodian to students while within the school’s premises. She also had a moral obligation as a member of the society to ensure others’ well being. A number of ethical issues therefore arise to determine possible courses of action for any person in Bourdy’s position. She was for example bound by ethical principles of respect for the dignity of persons, responsible caring, and responsibility to society (Pope and Vasquez, p. 93, 94). As a result, Bourdy was under ethical obligation to protect any of her students from any form of bodily degradation such as molestation or physical abuse. The duty of care and social responsibility also required her to protect students from possible ‘self-inflicted’ harm. … My decision to talk to Kim and finally report the matter to the administration would be supported by consequentialist theory that values impacts of a decision or an action. This is because if successful, such actions would help Kim out of her problem. I would also consider reporting the matter to law enforcement agency if the school failed to help Kim (Strike and Soltis, p. 158- 160). Neglect or abuse Possibility of neglect Neglect defines failure to provide for and protect a child from harm. Based on the facts of the case, if the parents were not involved in abusing Kim, then they were responsible for negligence. This is because the parents had evidently failed to take actions to protect their child from her source of harm. The injuries having been on Kim’s wrist suggested that the parents were aware of what their child was going through but did not bother to seek a solution. Similarly, their response when called upon by the school’s administration also indicated lack of interest in protecting Kim from her problem. While her mother did not even comment on the matter, her father disregarded it. Kim’s parents were therefore negligent for failing to protect her from her deteriorating condition. They, contrary to Mary and Broudy’s actions, communicated lack of social responsibility, disregard to other people’s welfare and lack of the moral doctrine of utilitarianism. The parents were as a result neglecting indicators of Kim’s problems that remained unsolved (Pope and Vasquez, p. 93, 94). Difference between neglect and abuse While abuse involves direct infliction of harm to a person, neglect relates to failure to ensure a person’s safety from harm. Neglect is therefore an act of omission while abuse is an act of
. . because I don’t think you should be guaranteed anything other than opportunity’.In my view, Gatsby from the ‘The Great Gatsby’ lived an American dream. He went to every extent to meet his loved one and could cross every limit that could bring him closer to his love, Daisy. American dream leads to live life with full enthusiasm, depending upon the opportunity available. McCandless of ‘Into the wild’ was not a follower of American dream. Infact he was against the materialism of American dream and that is the reason why he left the world of materialism and went away from human intimacy. So Gatsby is the one who lived American dream. As it is assumed by reading the novel that the career of Gatsby is kind of mysterious. Although he was born to a rich person, his wealth came in inheritance as well as Wolfshiem. So his notorious reputation explains the fact that he believed in pursuing his goals by any and every possible way. Gatsby threw weekend parties every week in this hope that Daisy will visit it. As the observer of the novel, Nick said ‘I believe that on the first night I went to Gatsby’s house I was one of the few guests who had actually been invited. People were not invited – they went there’ (chap 3, page 41) There are other instances in the novel which tell that after loving Daisy, Gatsby had forgotten himself and his other goals. The meaning of life and happiness changed for him. ‘[Gatsby] wanted to recover something, some idea of himself perhaps, that had gone into loving Daisy. His life had been confused and disordered since then, but if he could once return to a certain starting place and go over it all slowly, he could find out what that thing was.’ (Chap 6, page 111-112) His life lost the idea of his own identity and he started living for achieving his love. In pursuit of single dream, he passed a good part of his life. ‘Gatsby himself didn’t believe [her call] would come, and perhaps he no longer cared. If that was true he must have felt that he had lost the old warm world, paid a high price for living too long with a single dream (chap 8, page 162) The above quote tells that despite losing all hopes, he still had a ray of light in his mind which would keep him stick to wait for his loved one. He asked Nick to bring Daisy to his weekend party some day and he was amazed when she came. Daisy also remembered him and their love affair started again. This thing justifies the American dream, which is an ironic phase for living a selfish and individualistic life. A person becomes so much addicted to his own interests that sometimes his other relations do not remain important. For Gatsby, it was not important that Daisy was married. It has been mentioned that the lifestyle of the people living in the Mid-east not materialistic and individualistic. Everyone had his own social community, extra marital affairs were common and they used to enjoy parties and clubs. They were luxurious people who worked for their own comfort. ‘I see now that this has been a story of the West, after all – Tom and Gatsby, Daisy and Jordan and I, were all Westerners, and perhaps we possessed some deficiency in common which made us subtly unadaptable to Eastern life.’ (Chap 9, page 177) The people who migrated from east also adopted the lifestyle of Middle West people. In other words, Gatsby was already an American dream follower and his suburbs had made him more focused towards his goal. Although it is said in the
Being a mother in the modern world implies being capable of juggling amid family life and career life. It involves bushel of stress and sometimes results in a lot of guilt especially if the mother cannot meet the dubious societal expectations. The mothers are supposed to bear babies but requests for maternal leaves are sometimes viewed with resentment. Modern women and particularly mothers are overstrained with idealistic expectations of motherly perfection. The unrealistic expectations are inflicted by the society or they impose on themselves. The standards set for the woman to meet are unrealistic and detrimental to the mother’s personal and professional existence. A professional mother is expected to fulfil obligations such as breastfeeding without taking advantage of artificial options available. A mother who chooses to wean their children in less than two years feels guilty and inadequate since the society views such attempts with condescension. The pressure to meet the societal expectations of motherhood and retain their own identity as professionals harries modern mothers. This paper focuses on how the modern demands of motherhood has challenged and undermined the identity and status of women in the society. The working mother has no choice but to act perfect and not grumble on her shortfalls to avoid being perceived as amateurish. They also have to avoid talking of any hitches they may be going through to make the word believe they can effortlessly manage between their career life and family life or else they will be disparaged (Fay, 2012). Mothers are supposed to make sacrifices on their careers, be homemakers, and become dependent on their husbands for financial needs in order to meet the societal expectations and standards. Mothers who choose to employ house helps are branded as incompetent mothers. Any misbehaviour on the children is blamed on the mother. After giving birth, the mother is supposed to ensure she retains her youthful look or else the husband is free to be unfaithful if they are discontented with their wives. Unlike in the1950s when women did not have to work modern women have to manage both their career life and find time to be with their children as well as husbands. Lack of government policies such as paid family leave make it impossible for most mothers to breast-feed their children since most have to work in order to support their families or supplement their husband’s earnings. However, they still receive great criticism if they choose other options such as taking their children to daycares to create time to meet other obligations. Women face great challenges principally those who chose to engage in politics as they are subjected to chauvinist jokes. A woman who chooses to dedicate her life in politics is labelled a bad mother irrespective of whether she has proved otherwise (Fay, 2012). Modern women have to balance between work, love life, and family. Demand such as taking care of babies particularly breastfeeding binds women to be homemakers. The women schedules are rigid such that it is almost impossible for them to nurse their babies and work at the same time. Having a proper social life is almost impossible for some mothers. Women have to keep apologizing to their bosses for being mothers especially when their motherhood commitments such as childbearing cannot allow them achieve their obligations at work (Badinter, 2012) Some people like Badinter blame the problem on the aspiration women to be liberal mothers. She claims modern mother can somehow be blamed for the strain they have to undergo as they try to prove to the society that they are capable of being career women and practice traditional motherhood. She claims that contemporary motherhood undermines mother’
The establishment of a market economy and the introduction of an ‘open door’ policy in China have necessitated the need for internationalising Chinese law and there is an increased stress on legal assimilation or transplant, which is to be based on market-associated legal mechanisms. There is a fear in some corners that legal transplantation may end up westernising Chinese law, but to be an economic super power, there is a necessity for China to modernise its law. Much Chinese literature has stressed the need for harmonising or assimilating China’s law with that of international conventions and practices and transplanting into China western laws on market-associated mechanisms. The main objectives of economic and structural reforms and the freedom of productive forces are the main criteria for internationalisation of Chinese law6. Legal transfusions have been carried out around the globe. The rest of Asia has benefitted from the import of laws from China and many South–East Asian nations have imported Islamic laws into their legal systems. There exists corroborative evidence that East African nations have benefited from the transplantation of Indian legal rules. The latest legal developments in Mozambique and Namibia have an influence from South African laws. And today, the close relationship between Africa and China could trigger a new transmission of legal models to support business transactions7. Laws that are consistent with the pre-existing social order or with the local atmosphere are more probable to be successfully transplanted and implemented. A nation is likely to derive economic advantage from a successful legal transplant, but this does not depend the legal rule’s country of origin but whether it is the most apt to resolve a given… This paper stresses that the PRC government does not refer the international human rights accords as an instant legal source but rather as a reference point of legislation. This connotes that PRC does not want to imitate the exact treaty provisions in its national human rights law but may prefer to fine-tune the substance of international human rights provisions to suit with the Chinese or local scenarios. The author of the paper talks that other human rights deficiencies include, as discussed above, included coerced confessions, restriction of the right to be promptly charged or released and lack of client-lawyer privilege. Freedom to assemble and establish trade unions falls short of ICESCR provisions. It is suggested that a radical change within the Chinese political system is needed to introduce the Human Rights Law in tune with international human rights treaties. Legal adoption of international human rights laws in China should be tailored to the needs of the Chinese one-party system with enhanced safeguards for the ordinary citizen within an authoritarian rule-of-law government is the current need. This report makes a conclusion that if China really wants a total legal transplant of the international human treaty provisions into its HRL, it should endeavour to implement the following: it should fine tune some chosen laws to the prerequisites of the ICCPR. produce a reliable understanding of the Constitution that is unfailing with the ICCPR. introduce a constitutional amendment to include the norms of the ICCPR. and insert a rule in its ordinary statutes or in its Constitution that requires a prior application of the ICCPR.
Thus, the campaign in Indiana to get PAS legislation on the ballot should focus on these aspects. One should take into account the possible counter-arguments that could be raised by the opponents of PAS. It should be kept in mind that there are strong oppositions from the part of physicians, legal commentators and sociologists as many hold that physician-assisted suicide is nothing but willful killing. The opponents also may argue that it is more significant to protect and preserve human life. Therefore, it is imperative that the campaign for PAS should postulate that such patients who cannot fulfill social responsibilities and societal expectations would cause social instability and as such, Physical Assisted Suicide can be permitted in exceptional cases where the patient leads a miserable life and has no hope for recovery from the deadly disease or illness. This paper seeks to convince the audience/readers that PAS is worthy of being legalized in Indiana and in doing so the paper throws light on the specific characterizations of Indiana voters as well. It can be identified that the Indiana voters have remained reluctant towards legalizing PAS in the past. The Indiana Code §35-42-1-2.5 ‘prohibits assisted suicide’ by law and it has been brought under the general homicide laws (Legal Status of Assisted Suicide/Euthanasia in the United States). However, the emergence of such controversial cases as Terri Schiavo, Barbara Howee, and Nancy Cruzan has prompted many to rethink of legalizing PAS. Terri Schiavo had to remain in ‘persistent vegetative state’ for 15 years until she was permitted for PAS on March 31, 2005. Barbara Howe was totally paralyzed and breathing with a ventilator for many years. and Nancy Cruzan, an auto accident victim, had also to remain in persistent vegetative state for a number of years (Jost 423). Undoubtedly, anyone who has witnessed the sufferings, misfortune, agony and frustration experienced by these patients as well as their intimate relatives will think in favor of PAS. In this respect, the Oregon’s Death with Dignity Act has rightly recognized the personal rights of patients. however, it is quite unfortunate that the Supreme Court ruled that there are no fundamental or constitutional rights that support any arguments in favor of physician-assisted suicide (Park 283). Indiana, too, can follow the example of Oregon if the Indiana voters show empathetic feelings towards the suffering and pathetic persistent vegetative state of many of its brothers and sisters. While PAS is opposed for moral and ethical reasons, it is high time that the Indiana voters realized the factors that favor PAS. One needs to understand that the demand for PAS is strongly rooted in human rights theories and the concept of patient autonomy. PAS can also be regarded as quite ethical and moral as the termination of life occurs at the request of the individual himself when the physician realizes that ‘to continue letting this individual live, would be more harmful than dying’ (Center for Bioethics: University of Minnesota 41). Similarly, there are sound arguments that the patients have the right to die with dignity rather than leading a death-like miserable life. In physician-assisted suicide, the choice to end one’s life rests completely on the patient himself or his/her family. The Indiana voters need to have a thorough understanding of the arguments
This play is credited for having launched the popularity of the icon Marlon Brando.One of the lead characters in the play is Blanche Dubois who is a representation of a haunting and beautiful thing of the past. Dubois character is very much the opposite of Stanley, her antagonistic brother-in-law. While it is true that Dubois past is filled with bad memories ( from being evicted from a house to living with a homosexual husband) Dubois has an endearing quality that made me admire her despite her social snobbery – her humility. Blanche uttered the wordsI had always depended on the kindness of strangers( Scene 11) as she was ushered in the mental institution after a nervous breakdown. Who wouldn’t fall apart after being raped by her own brother-in-law? Her humility is adorable since she speaks of the irony of her situation where strangers are more accommodating to her than that of her own kin. While most critics would view Blanche Dubois as someone with a personality disorder since she is very much attached to her past, I admire Blanche to admit during her lowliest moments that she always relied on people who are considered strangers. Another instance where this endearing quality is shown is when she dated Mitch. She was putting her hopes on this stranger who never said anything about her hurtful past which is why she uttered the famous words Sometimes there’s God — so quickly( Scene 6). In short, Blanche is endearing for her sincerity and need to be appreciated as she is, as she was and will be. Her statement about strangers comforts her knowing that the sanitarium might even be a safer place for her to protect her fantasies.On the other hand, Dubois most self-destructing quality is her emotional immaturity as seen by the choices she makes in choosing men. First, she marries a man who is homosexual and yet worships him so much. She lives in a fantasy world and would rather not face the reality.
Extreme cases predicate that unconditional obedience to authority figures, i.e. parents, leaders of states, spiritual leaders or other such figures may not give convincing results. In fact, such an unconditional obedience incorporates negative elements into the society where they undermine rationality and rather undertake behaviors deemed desirable by authority figures, no matter how absurd they are in reality. Thus, it may be concluded that unconditional obedience to authority can reap devastating effects not only on the individual but also on the society in general, as experienced historically at repeated intervals of time. Social Oppression on women is one classic example of such a case where the women are manipulated by the social constructs of the society while men consider themselves to be the sole arbiter of authority. However, opponents to the position argue that unconditional obedience is the essence to the systematic flow of the state or an institution, without which it wouldn’t be able to function.As discussed above, unconditional obedience must in all cases be questioned, as it is a direct attack on one`s intellectual capacity to make decisions. Though it is agreed that obedience is an essential ingredient to discipline, but at the same time an individual must be equipped with the skill set to question the decision and even defy them if they seem unfit to the human mind. In this context, the concept of male dominance, especially in the Eastern societies where it is incorporated into the minds of the people that men must be given authority to implement decision while women must comply. The entire concept of male dominance in this context is bizarre to a rational individual or rather any individual with even the minimalistic understanding of morality and ethics.
The Overcoat: The narrator of The Overcoat is anonymous and his/her voice in the story is digressing. The narrator’s attitude towards Akaky is compassionate and humorous, yet the narrator brings a condescending perspective to the story. His fellow workers persecute Akaky because they are very materialistic. They only respect people who possess material that they are impressed with. Akaky maintains a downtrodden and poor image. The coat he always keeps wearing before obtaining the overcoat becomes worn off to transparency. His fellow workers do not approve of his poverty and therefore, torture him. In reply to their witty statements, Akaky calmly retorts, Leave me alone! Why do you insult me? (Gogol, 2006, p. 5). Akaky maintains a very intimate relationship with his work as a civil servant. He keeps immersed in work all the time. He remains so busy in copying all the time, that everything else is non-existent for him in his life. He lives an empty life and cares only for work. He does not even take care of his personal hygiene. Prior to obtaining the overcoat, Akaky maintains an introverted image. He is essentially a person with no hope for materialistic success or socialization. Soon after he obtains the overcoat, his colleagues take notice of that and make compliments on the overcoat. This raises the self esteem of Akaky manifolds and changes his social life drastically. The overcoat lends Akaky a new identity that he can proudly carry in the social circle. This improves his relationship with peers and he becomes optimistic about his career and future. Therefore, buying a new overcoat turned out to be an extremely fateful decision for Akaky. Upon having his overcoat lost, Akaky approach a Very Important Person upon the advice of a fellow clerk that works in his department. In the story, The Most Important Person represents the people in power. Accordingly, his attitude is the portrayal of the way a common man is treated by those in power in the society. Gogol portrays the Very Important Person as a high-ranking general who is used to belittling the people under him. He does so in an attempt to become more important and prominent. The Very Important Person is quite central in the story because the theme of the story fundamentally revolves around materialism. The Very Important Person does not treat Akaky with respect because he appears to be poor. The most significant comic element of the story is the appearance of ghosts after the death of Akaky. The ghost approaches people and tears away their coats. The ghost even steals the cost of the Very Important Person who later becomes remorseful of the way he had treated Akaky when he had approached him for help. The ghost takes revenge of Akaky from the materialistic world in a very funny way. Though, the death of Akaky is the most tragic of all events in the story. Although no religious elements are directly involved in the story, yet by advising against materialism, the story preaches the teachings of religion. This was a wonderful story. The story holds the message for the audience that it is very wrong to deal an individual according to his looks or financial status. I feel that the author has conveyed a very important message that particularly applies to the materialistic world we live in today. References: Gogol, N. (2006). The Overcoat. Objective Systems Pvt. Ltd.
To that extend, advertising is to be viewed as a general approach and tool at the disposal of corporations and marketers aiming at influencing potential consumers’ perceptions and creating, sustaining or expanding demand for the products or services promoted. (Ayanwale et al., 2005). To that extend, Hensel and Dubinsky (1984) explicitly state that the role of advertising is actually two-fold. In more detail, ads aim at increasing awareness of the brands and persuading consumers for the benefits attached to it, on the one hand, and shaping cultural beliefs, notions and perspectives on the other hand.The rapid growth and the expansion of advertising campaigns literally bombarding potential consumers and prospective audiences is an admittedly underlining fact. Marketers are focusing on providing advertising messages that will eventually catch the attention of the buyers and attract their interest. in an attempt to maximize the effectiveness of advertisements in provoking the audience’s interest, marketers are very often using sexual appeal messages. Today, it is reported that a respective 65% of the total advertisements (on television and print media) feature some kind of implicit or explicit sexual appeal messages directed (Jung, 2006). Even more, it should be stressed that the majority of those specific ads are non-sexual product/services related. this actually highlights the fact that sex appeal has merely become a promotional tool applied in virtually every product category regardless its relevance or suitability (Adoimatis and Jonson, 2008. Bel, 2005). This portrayal of sex in advertising has long been a debatable issue in raising critiques and concerns that it negatively impacts the consumers’ perception of self, culture and social context.There have been various researches conducted upon the issue of the effects and the risks entailed in the sexual appeal advertising upon children and teenagers.
Little Italy is surrounded by China Town, Fisherman’s Wharf and Russian Hills. This neighborhood is still famous for largest number of Italian restaurants despite the fact that immigrants belonging to other regions are also now living in this locality. This locality therefore is considered as a mix of Italian as well as other communities which have been living in this area. Both these localities present a unique mix of social and cultural diversity in a country which is dominated by White people. The fact that both these communities have been able to establish themselves as the leading communities of immigrants outside their own home countries demonstrate that people tend to live together with those who share same culture and value. This paper will discuss both the localities and attempt to discuss culture of both the neighborhoods besides discussing as to what are different symbolic interactions taking place in these localities. China Town China Town in San Francisco was established in 1848 and has gradually emerged as the largest locality outside Asia where Chinese people are residing. It is also one of those ethnic enclaves1 which have been able to retain most of its cultural roots. It is also the oldest China Town in North America and portrays the cultural diversity and richness of China in a place which is not even remotely linked with China culturally. It has remained highly instrumental in providing cultural support to the Chinese immigrants who have migrated to US during different phases of time. It is however, critical to note that Chinese have been targeted for structural inequality through different exclusion acts passed by government. … This simple fact has actually allowed immigrants living in Chinatown to maintain a critical cultural link with their roots. It is because of this similarity that social control 3is relatively higher in China Town. This also ensures compliance with the norms 4which are required to live in Chinese dominated society. This has also further slowed down the absorption of Chinese people into the mainstream American culture also. The overall mix of population in this locality indicates a very different and varied level of population. Some families are recent arrivals in the locality as well as in North America whereas some are living since their last two or three generations. This has resultantly created a locality where modern North American culture actually mixes with the old Chinese social and cultural values. The underlying generations of immigrants living in the locality therefore present a very rich picture of how Chinese people have actually evolved over the period of time in North American Region. A simple visit to this locality indicates a lot about the cultural diversity of the locality and what Chinese cultural actually is. During immigration of Chinese in North America, China Town served as a place where Chinese people can actually everything they need. Right from work to social and cultural support, China Town served as a hub for Chinese people to be at home while away from home. Located in a place which is considered as prime real estate location, China Town grew organically and now is considered as one of the culturally rich area in San Francisco. China Town is also a well knit community with residents effectively integrated with each other. Since residents share same culture and
As Ella, Marcello, Masoko, and Sam compete for a place that will increase the state of their personal goals, different approaches will define their methods of competition.Ella seeks to attain a promotion at work because it will increase her ability to satisfy her basic needs. Her motivation for seeking the promotion is based on biological needs according to her interpretation of survival tactics. Ella recognizes that in order to continue to maintain her ability to maintain a healthful state of existence, she will need to acquire the sustenance that is crucial to fulfilling those needs. In other words, she cannot eat without being able to purchase the food.Marcelo wants this new position because it will help him to fulfill needs that are relevant to the psychosocial theory of motivation which is concerned with growth in his development in his life. He can find identity through this position as well as take on new responsibilities that can increase his productivity and expand the impact that he can have on the world. This position can give him a basis from which to move forward until the end of his life comes and he can accept a good end because he doesn’t regret the choices he makes interactions he must make with his world. He will attain a certain control over his environment that was previously not available to him. In working to raise his status, he takes on more responsibilities which will require a higher level of performance, however, his ultimate goal will be to gain a certain amount of control and comfort within that level of control. It is Masoko’s need to compete with his fellow workers and to succeed because of social expectations will push him to relieve the anxiety that failure to compete might otherwise cause him.
Factors like social support, responding to signals and maintenance of proximity for security and protection, for secure attachment and non responsive isolation and separation for insecure attachment are discussed. Separation and related individuation influences and occurrence to enforce self actualization, and character development as part of the psychological development are also elaborated. Keywords: Childhood, Attachment, Separation, Individuation, Self Actualization, Attachment Figure, Caregivers, Sensitivity, Signals, Interactive, Infancy, Emotions, Psychological Development Introduction There are many stages expressed in infancy and childhood development, right from birth, having an impact on the youth and adult life of an individual. In the psychological development of a child, several differences could be exposed when a child is brought up close and away from their mothers or caregivers, simply because it involves their psychological perspective, influencing their future behaviour. A child begins receiving natural care right from the womb, but once born, she or he becomes exposed to the nature of the diverse environment, which needs care and love for survival. The birth itself is the first separation though a biological birth that do not coincide with psychological birth. Certain children are born only to express particular behaviours and reactions, which do not relate with those of other kids born by the same parents. hence using unrelated ways to negotiate their environment or seek attention from their caregivers, because they come with their core self present at birth (Bettmann and Friedman, 2013). The attachment of a child to its caregiver is an evolutionally necessity that contributes to the child social, cognitive, and emotional development. It begins with maternal availability to provide the mother love at the infant age, increasing interest of the things in the environment, pride of association to a family, and the general well being (Karen, 1994). Although several people would deny this, the fact is demonstrated by infants who are deprived of mothers love through there low levels of interaction. Each child has needs that the caregiver is expected to fulfil, and most of the time when she/ he cries or smiles among others, is trying to give out a signal, which the caregiver should strive to respond to. The emotional bond changes with children growth towards identification of an individual character. After birth, the child seems to attach to any person at their exposure, later they develop particular preference of a single attachment figure, after learning to distinguish primary from secondary caregivers, simply because they realise the special preference offers the necessities for secure attachment. Factors that Contribute to Secure Attachment Maintenance of physical proximity The infants have a desire to be close to the attachment figures most of the time, since they feel that their needs are met. Maintenance of the proximity promotes the emotional security as well as infant’s literal survival (Wallin, 2007). That is why you will find them crying, crawling, and clinging to them, when been handed to other persons other than them. They feel no attachment to the other party, and their emotions are disturbed. The proximity also brings perspective of ‘
There have been claims that challenging behavior is responsible for exposing the tough in an advanced group level which have the effects of resulting into maturity or segregation from the learning category (Similarly, Simmons Ward 1998).There were also establishments that there are some behaviors that can never be classified easily by the educators such as distractions, chatting as well as the non verbal maltreatments. Nonetheless, there is a different suggestion from Oliver (2003) that, the categorization of behavior appears as challenging throughout diverse schools. According to this scholar, the challenging behavior is developed socially. There is need for evaluating the matter of challenging behavior amongst individuals since it has attracted different theories and approaches from scholars. Therefore, this piece will look at the dissimilar theories that expound on behavior. Specifically, the piece will attain its baseline points of arguments the works by Bandura, Skinner, Vygotsky, and Watson. The piece will evaluate the Cognitive Behaviorist theory and Social Learning Theory. It is also significant to show how each theory takes care of the needs of the child and this paper will respond to that concern. Reasoning from the behaviorist context, there is a realization that behavior could be learned or modified (Skinner 1904-90), the writer affirms this stipulation through the work entitled, ‘Operant Conditioning’. The scholar proceeded into highlighting that children operate on the environment through engagement in particular identifiable activities due to the results of such behaviors. Skinner outlines that any stimulus leading to the repeat of a particular behavior emphasizes that particular behavior. The response would vary from return, reward, attentiveness as well as social assistance. The situation instance to elaborate this suggestion would follow for instance, if a particular child, let us name him Tim confesses to another that he gets pleasure playing with the other named Carol of late. If Tim invites his playmate for dinner in addition, this would invoke the application of the Skinner’s suggestions. It can be proposed that support in the construction of the scenario would be a smile in spite of the situation, a word of praise for an outstanding behavior. Skinner upheld that particular rewards for such behavior reoccurrence on a different instance or instances. Even though support contributes to the increment in frequency of the behavior, it does it in a dissimilar manner. This situation may arise in the instance when we prefaer promoting a behavior in the child contrary to demanding the behavior in that person. In case something is happening and the child request the parent to stop it in a polite manner and it is done, then the alternate behavior is reinforced. For instance, the child requests for changing of a video clip. If the parent execute the child’s desire then the parent is strengthening the aimed behavior, that of requesting in a polite way. It can be argued that both positive and unhelpful support, when used appropriately can enhance the frequency of the ideal behavior. Major values of conventional habituation were contoured by the work of Ivan Pavlov (1819 -1936) where an unbiased stimulus brings about a response if put together with a stimulus that already has that response. Rewarding a student for positive a behavior exhibited enhances that behavior. For instance, if a teacher
This paper stresses that marriage is as a consequence of idleness. In this case the nubile women lack something to do in the society and thus are a major source of strife and jealousy. Due to such circumstances, they have no other choice than to get married. However, the most common scenario is that, in all the societies, the access to women is institutionalized so as to reduce competition intensity among the parties involved. It may include the payment of bride price or conduct certain ceremonies depending on the norms and culture that is maintained by the people. This discussion stresses that divorce cases have increased widely in all phases of life. In the traditional society, divorce was not allowed. Marriage cases were solved by elders who made decisions on the course of action. Where the wife did not give birth, the husband was allowed to marry many wives. Polygamy was allowed and the first wife had to choose a second wife for her husband. In the modern era, this has greatly changed due to the introduction of religion among other factors. Divorce cases have increased currently and even being endowed by the courts of law. Disagreements within the family however small have led to break-ups within the family structure. Others separate basically due to financial factors and influence of friends when they think they cannot take it anymore. Religiously, divorce is not allowed as most religion emphasize on the sanctity of marriage. Traditionally, succession in marriage after a death of a spouse was taken by the other and later passed to the children. Currently, legal action which involves the use of wills and trusts has altered this course of life. Various provisions have been enacted including the retaining of one’s property in case of divorce instead of owning half. Social Definition of Marriage and Divorce In every society, there exist rules of conduct and rites of passage which in most cases have to be adhered to for efficient running of the society. The way of life in most societies to a great extent shape individuals and determine the behavior of the people as well as their way of life. Societies are involved in different activities in different zones which explain the different culture experienced in various parts of the world. The varieties of behaviors experienced bring us to the aspect of societal issues like: marriage, divorce, circumcision, family and culture which are social in nature. In many traditional societies, marriage has been considered to be important as it relates to continuity. The basis of the study rotates around the marital institution, its impacts and its contribution to the society. The methodologies involved include the use of written and non- written sources. Use of interviews, questionnaires as well as direct observation is rampant in the drawing of the conclusion herein. Marriage is a social and legal union made between people that create kinship ties
In Jackson’s story this brutality of mankind underlies masked beneath the rituals and norms of social celebration, whereas Connell envisages this brutality in a wild world where no laws prevail, but the power of muscles. In both stories, the central characters, like Tessie Hutchinson in Lottery, Rainsford and General Zarrof in the Most Dangerous Game are sportively desirous to inflict pains and deaths on their victims. These characters cannot realize what the victims feel until they themselves become trapped in their own actions. Also both Jackson and Connell propound that the gap between the victims and the victimizers remain unfathomable since the victimizers ultimately remain triumphant and the victims remain unheard and subsequently are put to death. Both Jackson and Connell significantly have depicted the distance between the victimizer and the victimized in their stories. The victimizer or the hunter will never feel the victimized or the hunted. Even if they find themselves in their victims’ position, they will remain unheard. Jackson’s protagonist Mrs. … So far she has acted as a part of her community, the collective victimizer that celebrates its members’ death. But this time, she herself is going to be the victim. She as well as her objection to the unfairness of the ritual will remain unheard, as she herself has not paid heed to other victims. Connell also portrays this distance between the victimizer and the victimized. For Rainsford and General Zarrof hunting is The best sport in the world (Connell). When Whitney comments that hunting is a sport only for the hunter, not for the jaguar, Rainsford objects, Who cares how a jaguar feels? (Connell) This refusal of Rainsford that the jaguars or the hunted have understanding and The fear of pain and the fear of death is almost ironical, since he himself becomes terrified and appalled at Zarrof’s man-hunting game. Indeed Zarrof is Rainsford’s own mirror image. Before being Rainsford’s victim, Zarrof wishes to play with him, since man-hunting is his favorite game. Forced by Zarrof he participates in his man-hunting game and eventually becomes triumphant over Zarrof. Still he fails to understand a victim’s fear for life and kills Zarrof. Even nearing to death Rainsford’s failure to perceive his victim’s death, ultimately turns him into a beast. Indeed he figuratively admits near the end of the story: I am still a beast at bay (Connel). Rainsford’s self-acknowledgement of his beast-like image obviously refers to the dark savagery that dwells in modern man’s heart. This existential savagery of human being is also evident in the Lottery. Referring to the collective savagery, Amy Griffin says, [Jackson] wanted to dramatize graphically the pointless violence in
Therefore, one should learn a particular ability when playing tennis to improve his or her life. It begins by discovering the fundamental techniques and skills applied in the game and how interested played can become professional. The forehand stroke ability, for instance, involves using either the right or the left hand in ball control coming from the opponent during the game. This ensures that a player is not outwitted when controlling the body and it is common for tennis matches. As a result, Malcolm Gladwell in his article The Physical Genius observes that most tennis players possess that innate brilliance that is only manifested through their hands when they play. Comprehending the mental skills in tennis is also a great step because it enhances the ability to concentrate when one is on court off the court (Roetert Ellenbecker 90). It equally boosts motivation in overcoming difficulties such as when one faces a challenging match and still expects to win.Possessing a unique ability in playing tennis is critical because it transforms an amateur into a professional. It also instills strict discipline and dedication when approaching difficult issues that expect eventual success and glory. Playing the game is also important because it helps us reduce stress and enhances our social skills when constantly interacting with other players. Tennis is equally suitable for all persons irrespective of the skill levels and only requires a little practice to enjoy oneself with like-minded individuals…. Comprehending the mental skills in tennis is also a great step because it enhances the ability to concentrate when one is on court off the court (Roetert Ellenbecker 90). It equally boosts motivation in overcoming difficulties such as when one faces a challenging match and still expects to win. Possessing a unique ability in playing tennis is critical because it transforms an amateur to a professional. It also instills strict discipline and dedication when approaching difficult issues that expect eventual success and glory. Playing the game is also important because it helps us reduce stress and enhances our social skills when constantly interacting with other players. Tennis is equally suitable for all persons irrespective of the skill levels and only requires a little practice to enjoy oneself with like-minded individuals. A boost in the muscle flexibility, strength and even tone is another reason to play tennis. Overall, this will result to better health while increasing one’s bone density and even reaction times (Roetert Ellenbecker 123). It will also augment the metabolic function especially when one a person is continuously playing with other others such as three times a week is motivated to embrace failure as chance to try again. Playing tennis means a lot to those who cherish the sport. Such persons, for example, want to teach others the rules and regulations of the game. People also establish new acquaintances who become friends and this often nurtures communal love. It also sharpens social skills in our daily life because it becomes easier to chat up total strangers when is in need of urgent help. Likewise, it backs Gladwell’s assertion that most good players understand the direction of the ball
Pastoral service entails self actualization as it is a profession that gives a person the responsibility to act as a moral object to the society (Niklas 29). This aspect portrays one of the major roles of pastoral care apart from providing service to other people. Pastoral care also entails instilling a moral responsibility to through acting as a role model to the society. Many pastors, catechists and priest take up the role of the mirror in the society. For many students the essence of identity is professionalism. However vocation is a concrete factor influencing self identity as it is inspired by the desire to offer services to the community during the pastoral service. Pastoral care can therefore be referred to as a social service as well as a calling that pictures the pastoral minister as a role model as well as a servant to the society. Ethics in Pastoral Ministry Pastoral ministry has a broad application in the church than the council. Initially, the term minister was only reflected to preachers in the protestant churches. Pastoral role had not been internalized and understood by many people in the society hence the term was used to focus on the ordinary meaning thus ignoring the deeper aspect of ministries. Currently, pastoral ministry has reflected on the bigger picture of pastoral identity which is service not only to the church but the entire community. The church acts as a symbol of pastoral service as being ordained only ushers people into the pastoral service but does not play the exact role in pastoral care. Catholic churches have strived to portray this notion through the roles that priests, clergymen and nuns play in the church. In the catholic community, the church is a symbol of the society. In this case, priests, clergymen and nuns act as servants of the societies in which they administer in church. Pastoral ethics are inspired by the moral character of a person. Priests, catechists and pastors have a moral obligation in a society as they are seen as model s of ethical values since their work entails the practice and teaching of good deeds in the society. However, ethical conduct does not come from the moral obligation but the virtues of a person. Virtues underscore the visions, roles and objectives of a pastoral minister. Pastoral minister are given the moral obligation of leading by example thus the moral values of a society are immensely contributed by the moral practices of a pastoral minister. There are many cases around the world relating to the morals and ethical conducts of church leaders. Many priests, catechists and pastors engage themselves in immoral behaviuors thus leading to the big question which is where or not to moral and ethical laws of conduct to religious leaders. The basic solution to this situation is to instill and enforce professional ethics to the religious leaders in order to limit them to the service of the society through the spreading of moral values. Professional ethics entails the use of professional duties to identify moral ethics. Priests, pastors and catechists have the duty of spreading the word of God to the people thus is expected to practice the content they preach to the society. This aspect makes religious leaders to be the reflection of moral character in a given society. When a person is ordained, he or she is given the
The two grant programs run by the National Foundation under which it can provide a grant to the PEACE are the Small Grants Program and the Investor Program. Both programs have different budgets. The Small Grants Program offers a one-time grant of $5,000 to registered charities and Investor Program offers a grant of $150,000 a year for 3 consecutive years for any of the program objectives through Supporting Families Program. The program is built on firm footing by PEACE. it has analyzed the needs of the end users for whom the welfare program has been initiated. It has specifically outlined the geographical area where the needs of the affected people match with that of the National Foundation programs to rehabilitate the affected community members and support the relatives of the victims of domestic violence. PEACE has been providing such services for a long time and has a reputation for its clear vision, strong leadership, and solid financial footing. PEACE is well aware of the needs of the Portland community. Members of the community have been involved in social crimes like domestic violence against women and children. The focus of the agency has been on educating the Portland community against such wrong social practices. In the last five years, there have been many incidents of road rage implicating community members in criminal cases. Needs of the affected community are identical with the mission and visions of both the organizations, the National Foundation, and PEACE. These needs are reflected in the aims of PEACE – to improve the standard of life of such families that have one of their family members in prison. The National Foundation’s program, Supporting Families, also supports young people involved with the criminal justice system through a rehabilitation program designed to provide the skills, create confidence in the community, and establish personal support networks to help them in leading a normal life.
According to Aristotle, people must assume the highest value, which must be desirable for its own sake, rather than being a mean for the achievement of some other goals. Bearing the character of welfare or the highest good, it determines the measure of the perfection of a person and social institutions. This paper provides the analysis of the basic features of professional ethics and its influence on the major life spheres of the person.The everyday life brings us situations, interesting for consideration from the ethical point of view. Since ancient times people tried to find out what is considered to be right and wrong, but it can be clearly seen, that there is no definite answer. Professional ethics is an integral part of the preparation of every specialist. It is a system of moral principles, norms, and rules of behavior of the specialist, considering the features of his professional activities. Codes of ethics are established by professional groups for the purpose of protecting consumers, providing guidelines for practitioners, and clarifying the professional stance of the organizations (Corey, Gerald, 2010, 11). The contents of any professional ethics consist of the general and the particular principles. I consider the professional ethics as a set of moral values, which must be determined, in the process of execution of person’s work duties. First of all, I keep the principle of professional solidarity. It means that the working staff functions as a united team, supporting and helping each other. The professional solidarity of the working team is a very important feature. It brings people together, gives them self-confidence, helps to find a place in life and contributes to the successful solution of complex problems at work and beyond. A sense of group solidarity on a professional basis performs the positive role for all its members.
This case had been by parents of Topeka city and called for the Board of Education to reverse racial segregation since educational in these schools were unequal (Miller, 3). The Mendez case of 1947 challenged segregation in education successfully. It involved Mexican-American California farmers who took their children to a local school but were rejected by the administration (Straum, 1). The parents had to take their children to a separate school reserved for Mexican Americans. The Plessy case legalized the establishment of separate schools for different races. These schools were supposed to have equal facilities but the races would never mix. The Brown and Mendez cases challenged racial segregation in the educational sector in Kansas and California states. Racial segregation in the education center has existed for several years since the legalization of separate public facilities in the ruling of the Plessy vs. Ferguson case. Racial segregation is a violation of the Fourteenth constitutional amendment that gives every child the full protection by the law. The separate public facilities were supposed to have equal resources. … These conditions undermine student achievement and can be blamed for the small number of Latinos and Africans in higher learning institutions (Camille and Siebens, 5). White schools have qualified teachers, appropriate learning materials and environment, and adequate facilities. According to the educational report, majority of the students in colleges and universities are white (Camille and Siebens, 4). Blacks and Latinos have the lowest number in the overall number of citizens who have a bachelor’s degree, masters, doctorate or professional degree. This can be termed as the racial opportunity gap that disadvantages African American and Latino students. Asians have the highest percentage of people with bachelors, masters, professional, and doctorate degrees among nonwhite citizens. This opportunity gap greatly undermines the educational and career life chances of California Black and Latin students. This crisis can be attributed to under qualified teachers, little access to learning materials, and few instruction days due to overcrowding. Racially segregated schools have lower API scores compared to those recorded in white schools. The state emphasizes the use of standards-based tests to evaluate schools, which requires sophisticated teaching, learning materials, and uncrowded school buildings (ULCA, pp.8). According to Strum, segregated education is damaging to Mexican-American children on the grounds of psychological, social, and pedagogical costs (Strum, 1). The struggle between Mendez and Westminster provided Latinos with equal educational opportunities in public schools. These students were considered to be white but experience a language deficiency. The ULCA report indicates that most segregated schools have few text books and
The sun was shining brightly from the blue skies. I took my seat and sat quietly for about an hour. While staying in the woods I heard different sounds. Some of them included: Whistling of birds on the trees Occasional chirping of crickets Slight whistling of the pine trees Sounds that were made from human beings that I heard included. A slight cough from the male student that was seated with the lady. The lady’s giggling sound. A cacophony of voices from students playing basketball from the court on the west side of the woods. The soft sound of my breathing. Part C: A string of thoughts raced through my mind while I was seated in the woods. In one case I thought of reading a book, unfortunately, I had carried no book with me. I also yearned for a mobile computing device like a laptop, a tablet or a Smartphone to browse through my social media profile pages. I also began to think of the term’ lonely’ and what it might really mean for people that do not have anyone to talk to or confide in. I also imagined a world where other people do not live but only one person lives. A world where there is only one person. I was imagining of how such a solitary dweller would be going about his life. I also reflected on my life and what I would want to do with it after finishing my undergraduate degree course. I had always harbored this ambition that one day I would love to travel the world. I tried to bring into vivid reality, what it would mean for me going on African nature trails and camping. I also thought what nature of sounds would be in the world had human beings not invented automobiles and established industries. At the beginning of my stay there, I found it challenging to stay seated in the woods doing nothing. But as more and more thoughts went through my mind, I began to realize that I was getting more comfortable staying there.
Weber (72) argues that transformation in modern society has contributed to varied changes. thus, he emphasizes on the work ethic. He asserts that capitalism is nowadays common in society, and this is associated with capitalism in society. Many people in developed nations have become capitalists because of industrialization. Capitalism is associated with issues of inequalities because the rich tend to be richer, whereas the poor remains to be poorer. The industrialists face the problem of inequalities when trying to employ a pre-capitalist workforce. The labourers spend less time in the production process, in the capitalist society, but this displaces many people in the workplace because of the use of machines. thus rendering many of them jobless. The capitalism in the industrialized society arises because of rational decisions for economic advantage. In the proletarians and communism theories of Marx, he reveals that inequalities arise due to different social classes in society (Marx par.1). These classes struggle with their competitors to achieve independent existence. The same phenomenon contributes to the division of labour, which can only be eliminated by the ownership of property and labour itself (Marx par 4). The division of the labour process is common in contemporary society. This arises because of increased industrialization process. thus creating personal powers into material powers. Hence, the issue of communism is essential because the community plays significant roles in the abolition of labour division.
Biestek (1957) called this principle of self-determination, which underscores the importance of each person to make his or her own decision (as cited in Furlong, 2003, p. 178). In effect, this principle forms the cornerstone of a social worker’s role while carrying out an assessment or formulating a case. Based on Ruthie’s case study, the appropriate model of assessment to use would be the systemic approach. Dean and Poorvu (2008) noted, A systemic perspective focuses specifically on the systems in a client’s life such as the family, workplace, church, or community (p. 600). In the case of Ruthie, it is important to focus on her family since the systems in a family can affect the functioning of an individual. In addition, her background indicates that her upbringing and her life as an adult have influenced her ways of life. Therefore, the systematic model is the appropriate assessment model to use in Ruthie’s case. Lowe (2004) noted that the systemic model is crucial in understanding the interactive processes (as cited in Dean Poorvu, 2008, p. 600). In line with this, a systemic model that focuses on family systems is useful for understanding Ruthie’s case it will enhance the capacity of the social worker to learn about the family systems that led to Ruthie’s behavior by assessing her family. … Bisman and Hardcastle (1999) identified the importance of pursuing a theory in order to explain confusions experienced in life (as cited in Bisman, 1999, p. 241). In this case, it is crucial to draw a pattern of Ruthie’s life in order to assess her behavior and provide solutions to her behavior. Bisman (1999) noted the ability of different social workers to assess the same client using various theories and models. In this regard, Ruthie’s case requires the systemic model of assessment since understanding her family’s development and her transitional life cycles will provide an understanding to her behavior. In addition, this model is the most appropriate since a multigenerational genogram will be important in Ruthie’s assessment. In support of a systemic model, Dean and Poorvu (2008) noted that the model focuses on observable and external patterns as well as articulated stories (p. 600). In this case, Ruthie’s family patterns and story provides a basis for the use of this model during her assessment. Furthermore, Dean and Poorvu (2008) indicated that the model focuses on a client’s story during the assessment. For Ruthie’s case, her story is crucial in designing a genogram that will help a social worker carry out the assessment. Besides, it is evident that Ruthie’s case is problem-saturated. For this reason, Dean and Poorvu (2008) indicated that a problem-saturated case, like the one for Ruthie, requires assessment by the systemic model since the model helps the client replace it with stories of strength and resilience (p. 600). In effect, strength and resilience are two properties that Ruthie requires in order to move her life forward and become more productive at work. Consequently, these two
According to a sourcerace is a biological subspecies , or variety of a species, consisting of a more or less distinct population with anatomical traits that distinguish it clearly from other races (Diffen) There are some opponents to this theory too. They feel that this definition does not depict the reality associated with genes and gene variation due t gene mutation today. Perpetually all humans are ninety nine percent identical today. There are no strikingly spectacular differences. The only conspicuous differences that appear to the naked eye are due to the differences between males and females. Broadly speaking, the entire animal kingdom is very homogenous. Biologists who refute the claim that races are based on morphological features claim that the assumption that human races are based on anatomical traits is false. They claim that anatomical traits do not cluster distinct groups of people. It is further explained that some human races appear the way they do because of the natural environment surrounding them. for instance, in areas near the tropical latitudes, there are people with darker skin color to protect them from sun’s harmful ultra violet radiation. Thus, the dark brown skin color is primarily found amongst the Africans and the Indian sub continent. However the popularly held belief is otherwise. As it goes-Racial groups are thus based on biological classification of people. This classification could be according to human features, skin color or other morphological features. One is automatically classified by virtue of external forces into a racial group. One does not have any control on the racial group that becomes one’s identity. Racial groupings and concept of race have been a very controversial topic because of its ability to influence the social hierarchy of the society. Ethnicity on the other hand also incorporates the social characteristics of an individual within the society that he lives in. Some of the social characteristics that are a premise of ethnic classification include one’s language, culture, religion, tradition, tribe and nationality. Race is externally assigned by the people around us. However ethnicity is not externally assigned by other people. Ethnicity is the onus of an individual. however he wants to go about it. It is apparently a conglomeration of humans who have similar cultural characters and follow the same religious faith. Some of the very common ethnic groups include the likes of the Chinese, the Indians, the Asians, the African Americans, the American Indians, the Japanese etc. Ethnicity has also been broadly defined to incorporate a group with loose identity that has nothing in common. For instance the German Americans and the Irish people. On the other hand, there are some ethnic groups which are very strongly related. They share the same language, the same traditions and the same culture. A lot of people misunderstand a minority and term it as an ethnic group to. One should know that a minority is not an ethnic group. Ethnic groups can be both a majority as well as a minority. It depends on the perspective in which it is taken and considered. For instance the people of Mexico in America. In their state, they may form an overwhelming majority but the government recognizes them as a distinct group. Some other examples of ethnic groups include hunters, gatherers, pastoralists. Thus a racial group is based on shared biological traits while an ethnic group is based on shared cultural traits. Ethnic groups differentiate between themselves on the basis of time period while racial groups distinguish amongst themselves on the
As a result, Ali and Zahra decide to share Ali’s converse. Zahra’s wears it to school for her morning class and races back to Ali, so he can wear them to his afternoon class. The pair bicker and clash like any other siblings, but yet stick together and help each other in solving their predicament. I. Family ties and Social Network The shoes are symbolic of the family’s poverty which slowly unravels and emboldens the many challenges on a daily basis throughout the course of the movie. Due to this reason, the children do not get their parents involved in the matter, which would have only added to their financial troubles. The only way they can coordinate is by exchanging notes and taking advantage of their parents’ illiteracy. Ali’s concern for his sister and family’s financial condition highlights the significance of family values in the Iranian society. Despite their young age and innocence, Ali realizes the magnitude of his irresponsibility and therefore tries his best to make up to his sister and faces all sorts of mishaps. The film not only focuses on family values and importance, but also depicts a strong sense of trust shared by all members of the community. The people are considerate and greatly concerned for the wellbeing of everyone else. When Zahra and Ali finally discover that her pink shoes were actually picked up by the blind trash scavenger, who gave them to his young daughter. they actually give up their entire plan of retrieving those shoes. The aforementioned aspect clearly portrays that the siblings are endowed with the same kind of consideration for others as their community members. They can relate to the other girl’s situation which then causes them to continue with their previous arrangement. Community spirit is an integral theme of the movie, which is clearly deeply instilled within the young children, who despite their own financial hardships are capable of empathizing with the other girl as well. The consideration within the community is further evident when Ali’s teacher tries to save Ali from getting in trouble with the principal when he fails to reach school on time. The community spirit and filial piety is truly heartwarming especially with Ali, who begins to accompany his father to the suburbs, where he helps him talk to the rich residents of the area to help him get work. It is shown that Ali fully understands his responsibility as a son and assists his father as much as he can. Ali understands that his father works hard to get his children educated and it is the fulfillment of these filial duties that end up becoming a crucial turning point in the plot of the movie. (Ebert, 2011) II. The divide between the rich and the poor As poverty is a recurring theme in the movie, it further juxtaposes the lifestyle of the rich and poor to demonstrate the ever-increasing schism in the society. While the main object of conflict is the missing pair of shoes, which is an object usually taken for granted for the privileged ones but in Ali’s household, they are a valuable possession. Besides the plot, the filmmakers have made use of great cinematography that has played an exceptional role in portraying rural life. The scene where Ali and his father are actually riding towards the suburbs, the camera shifts from the medieval streets and dirt roads, to the high rises and beautiful bungalows situated in Northern Tehran. There
Thus today a major demographic change can be seen, and it is changing every moment. To comprehend the ultimate impact of this change, one has to view retrospectively the ethnic composition that has been there. The natives of UK are profoundly acclimatized to the dynamics of their society. Societies, today, are influenced in their disposition by many factors. Society by its very definition speaks of its composition and their general and characteristic disposition. It is this understanding that helps in reconciling such groups into a consolidated national edifice. This paper is accentuates Black Ethnic Minorities (BEM) in UK and explores opportunities, available to them, through lifelong learning in making strong communities. To understand the topic, a compositional analysis of BEM in UK is needed. In sequel to this, understanding of lifelong learning opportunities, available to them, is to be made. This understanding will, in turn, help in evaluating how these lifelong opportunities are contributing in building strong communities in UK. Rather being specific, a generalized view of the community problems that are being report will be discussed. Characteristics of learning programs and especially lifelong learning programs and initiatives will be viewed. … First issue is the involvement of local people of an area and promoting social inclusion. This factor, in the case of BEM, lags behind the aboriginals due to natural tendencies. It is actually the main factor in building up of social cohesion, as awareness and lifelong learning go hand in hand. This cohesion in its true spirit can help in building a strong community that is permissive and pluralistic. The learning opportunities that are being provided in UK are now considered to be attached to many strings. A lenient learning and lifelong learning aid to these BEMs can bridge this divide (Local-Level.org.uk.). Second factor is the promotion of citizen empowerment and establishing a strong democracy. As social scientists predicted that democratic processes will become more like other biogenic needs of any locale, the BEMs cannot be ignored once they get integrated in the complex of our multiethnic environment. BEMs that are still vying to comprehend the environment of UK, need establishing of community learning organizations. This is the way that can provide for a more consolidated community where the need of democratic locale shall be fulfilled. Third factor is the stimulation or sensitizing a locale with the responsibility of neighbourliness. It is during this epoch that the sense of community has been lost and intermingling has been retarded due to many factors like divides between ethnicities. The ostracizing of ethnic minorities has been all because of low level of stimulation and sensitivity of the aboriginals in their locale. This in turn helps in giving air to group factor. A strong community has to be interdependent not only in economic domain but also in the cultural and social
Government or public sector corruptions define the corruptions in the government agencies political process. This involves misuse and wrong allocation of public funds for private gains. Political corruption defines the misuse of recourses or political power by police, elected political leader or government officials. Police corruptions are a particular form of misconduct done by police to have personal gains, financial benefits, career growth etc. The common form of police corruption is accepting bribes, flouting the code of conduct of police in securing the convictions of suspects. Judicial corruptions involve the corruption which is related to the misconduct of the judges. This process involves in giving improper sentencing to the criminals, receiving bribes, bias in hearing arguments etc. Union corruptions mean the use or domination of employee benefit plans or union for personal advantage or gain by using violent or illegal means. This is known as Labour racketeering.Corruption is there for a very long time and it will be present until some effective ways are discovered to combat it. Since corruption has very important effects for the growth of any nation it calls for worry. It has a different impact on nations and people. In politics, it influences the law and the democracy. In public organization, democratic system people may lose their right when some person among them uses the power for his personal interest. In economy, it has a strong impact on both the individual and community. Corruption can put any organization or nation in the extreme darkness (Jonge 48).Social – It discourages people to work together for a common cause as it influences them to fulfill their personal gains. It results in social inequality and widens the rich-poor gap in the society. Day by day the rich become richer and the poor become poorer. This results in the increase in poverty and lack of basic needs.
41000 The social class was very important in shaping voting behavior in Britain in the 1950s and 1960s such that Pulitzer considered it as “the basis of British party politics, all else is an embellishment of detail”. Social class, in this case, is divided into middle-class (ABC1), skilled working class (C2) and semi/unskilled working class (DE). People from a similar social class vote in a similar way considered the “natural way” of voting (Fairclough 50). It is believed that the working class votes for labor party while middle-class votes for the conservative party. From 1974 to 2010 election data, this distinction emerges. The middle class voted for the conservative party from 1974 to 1992 in huge numbers as compared to the labor or Liberal Democratic Party (LD). The Conservative lead over Labour party in 1974, 1979, 1983, 1987 and 1992 consecutively were: +37, +35, +39, +36, and +32. However, in the elections that followed, the conservative party lost some support from middle-class who shifted to labor party as evidenced by results. There was no significant change for LD as support remained at the 20s. Fairclough (50) attributes this to class dealignment or deviant voters since they did not vote for a natural class party. De-alignment occurs when middle-class votes for a labor party and working class votes for the conservative party. As regards geographical mobility, when middle-class workers live in residential areas inhabited by working-class, they tend to vote the same way as the working class.
Austerity measures are steps that are taken to reduce government spending and induce more funding for development projects. These include cutting employment budgets, streamlining important sectors such as reducing funding of the health centers to allow people to pay for such services directly, and the overall reduction of government spending on recurrent expenditures and concentrate the same on development expenditure aimed at stimulating the economic development. Currently, there are divided views concerning implementation of austerity measures.
There are some analysts who view implementation of austerity measures as the best way through which economic depressions can be solved. The IMF and World Bank are some of those who advocate for austerity measures in such economies (Chiranga, 1).On the other hand, there are those who vehemently oppose any decision regarding implementing of the austerity measures in these economies, and these include social groups and employee rights activists. It would be important to understand the effects of austerity measures in an economy to better make an informed decision regarding the austerity measures. These measures lead to government cut on spending in the sectors mentioned above, and this may lead to increased unemployment. Economic depression also results when the spending by individuals and private sector has depreciated meaning that cash for development and goods consumption in the market gradually decreases.
Currently Greece has been grappling with a serious economic depression that resulted to massive demonstrations in the country. Greece has been living beyond its means even before joining the Euro, and the huge debt that has accumulated has resulted to a serious economic strain (BBC News, 2011). The Greek government after joining the Euro adopted a lavish life where the government went on a spending spree and borrowed heavily from the financial lenders (BBC News, 2011). The public
Also, the paper will review the criticisms that have been generated towards the two assumptions.
While ontology is associated with the nature of an event, epistemology is about the way people understand such an event (Gioia, 2003). The classification of the two assumptions, therefore, can be based on an individual’s belief considering that objective existence is inherent in the world, or because the reality of an event is based on a mediated social understanding. In this sense, prior to human judgement, objective ontology presumes that natural and social reality occurs independently (Johnson and Duberley, 2000: 180). In view of this assumption, objective epistemology takes into consideration the causal inter variable relationships, and assumes that the reality does not originate in an individual, but rather from sensory experiences. Having said this, the manner in which an individual understands an event is acquired from measurement, touch, taste, or observation (Johnson and Duberley, 2000). Furthermore, the epistemology of objectivity seeks to generalize theories by making a very important presumption that the theory applies to all people in the world regardless of the context and circumstances. A good example of a research that best shows a theory-approach alignment is one conducted in by Cooper and Sobol (1969) investigating seniority and employment testing as a criteria for hiring and promoting employees. In this paper, the theory being used is the disparate impact theory while the approach is basically a case study complex, while epistemology is constructionism coupled with positivism. By analyzing the various cases where the use of seniority and testing were deemed to be violating the fair employment laws, Cooper and Sobol (1969) went on to suggest that depending on who is analyzing the cases may take different meanings because of their constructionist approach. They
Doll’s House The Doll’s House is one of the representative stories of Katherine Mansfield. The story basically deals with the manners and behaviors of the aristocratic family. The writer laughs at the social discrimination caused by the difference in the economic status of families. The author succeeds in establishing the connection between the upper class and the lower session with a “lamp’. The setting is a middle class family. The story starts when Mrs. Hay sent a doll’s house to the Burnell children. The attractive Doll’s House attracted the other children towards the family except Kelveys, but got a chance to listen to the stories about the cage. The Kelvy girls represent the lower class. Lil and Else are not accepted in the society, even among the children. Kezia, the youngest of Burnells is the protagonist of the story who establishes a bridge between the lower and upper section of the society. Aunt Beryl can be treated as an antagonist who always looks down upon the classes beneath hers.
The story is filled with symbols. Kezia stands for her childhood purity. Te relation to the lamp in the story is a symbolic relation to the other class. The lamp stands for peace. The writer conveys the beautiful message that the minds of children are free from class consciousness. The poor children, even though they are thrown out of their house, they are overjoyed with the glimpse of a higher social class trough the lamp.
In the words of an advertiser, publicizing a performance of the play: “He achieves a life without ‘lendings’ – the accumulated material possessions we cling to for meaning – or the need of them” (Bardeweb.net, Date Unknown).
Throughout the play, the inversion of good and evil so apparent in Lear’s mind comes to permeate the characters and the action of the play. Only in the very final scenes is order restored, the evildoers punished, and at least for the time being, can good triumph. But good and the restoration of order have come too late for Lear and Cordelia (from: Theatrehistory.com, Date unknown). As a comment on the social context in which Shakespeare wrote the play, this restoration of order was threatening not to arrive, until the ascension of James I to the throne of England, and presenting the hope that England and Scotland would be unified (Jones, 1977: 212-215).
Before the ascension of James I, the threat of civil war was widespread. Shakespeare alludes to this several times in “King Lear”. Muir (1947:64-66) comments that Shakespeare believed that personal immorality in the ruling class is a disease that spreads evil throughout society, in extreme cases causing it to fall apart. By the close of the play, Britain is rescued from the evil in its leadership, represented by the two sisters, civil war in Britain is avoided, and the French invasion caused by Lears lack of judgment is defeated by Albany. While Shakespeare does not oversimplify the state of society, it may very well have been that an Elizabethan audience would have understood the positive end of the play to reflect the future under James I. The unfolding of Lear’s story, however, serves to emphasize Shakespeare’s understanding of human psychological, social and political events.
Lear’s mistake is to divide his wealth, land and power between his
51250 Community provides what such students expect in real world. For instances a minor should be ready to be put in a normal school setting, the playground and home. on the other hand, an adult should be put in a grown-up setting like a bank, a store or an office. Gauging such a student’s skill in every perspective from educational to physical outdoor skills. Any skill that requires integration. For instance, assessing personal and social skills individually from independence and liability would create room for redundant effort, and potentially resulting in reinforced focus on isolated skills. The embracing of continuous keeping of records for such students at all stages. Such a method would result in more accurate and reliable progressive or retrogressive efforts on the part of the student. Those students with severe hurdles have a higher variability in their skills from those without disabilities or minute disabilities on a daily basis. As such, seasonal skills could only be visible with time. The institutions dealing with such students should include, as a mandatory measure, supports and adaptations, and train the students to use them. The school system should avail devices, trained personnel and any other necessary support to enable the learners to function as independently as possible. Such a recommendation has been proved worthy in practice in Kentucky in that it drives effective school and classroom practice (Kleinert, Kennedy, &. Kearns, 1999). On a personal note, of the above suggestion, I would be of a higher degree of agreement with number (ii). In a situation whereby an individual is disadvantaged, there always is the possibility of his/her worth in other life sphere. Just like it is said that disability is not inability, it has been proven over time that individuals with physical or mental challenges could still have a great unexploited talent. For instance, in Olympics there is the Paralympics category. There also are the Special Olympics for physically and mentally challenged athletes. The Most Beneficial Recommendations Recommendation number (IV) would be much realistic and would bear much expected positive results without having to continuously strain for such results. It would be highly ignorant when there is a standard meant to be attained in terms of result over a given period. Only those individuals who possess a high degree of irresponsibility and inhumane nature would set a goal for a disabled individual and not provide an environment that would make such a goal either realistic or easily achievable for such an individual. Assessing Students with Cognitive Disabilities In as far as dealing with a challenged student is concerned, there should exist laid down and visible lucrative incentives in the society for them and this could be achieved only when they compete with the other not challenged individuals. It should not just be in sports but also intellectually. Disabled individuals who achieve such targets, for example, a very lucrative and well paying job in the society, act as role models and inspirations to the others. Zatta’s article on Alternate Assessment for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities :Implication for Educators, would be best to be termed as a much sought educational tool needed by any reformist wanting to transform the way the significantly cognitive disabled students are assessed and
Drawing from the unfolding events in the book, I have learnt that my father is the best teacher for me. I can easily identify with many of the chapters in the book. The book presents a family context that is relevant to the contemporary world. Social class differences are easily identifiable all over the world. In this regard, the parent-child relationship is fundamental in learning the good, and further differentiating that good from the bad. My father teaches me what straight ways of life are characteristic of, and I can relate his concepts with those of the book with ease.
My relationship with my father has had its difficulties. At times we agree and at others we do not. When my father and I disagree, I consult this book for the way forward. After reading some paragraphs in the book I only end up realizing that my father was right. This book, therefore, acts as my conflict resolution agency, where disagreements become agreements. This is a scenario that not only intrigues me but also enhances my relationship with my father. .
Rather, it explores the possibility and feasibility of strange equations between newly acquainted humans. For example, when Fin moves to the old building left behind by Henry (upon the latter’s death), he suddenly finds himself forming an intricate network of social interactions. In this newfound social atmosphere, there are opportunities for creative exploration as well as for personal bonding. The former is attested by the joy Fin derives through observing and studying trains and the latter is borne by the close personal bonds he develops with Joe and Olivia. The most distinct character of this independent film is the lack of sexual interest in any of these relationships. This is a far cry from conventional Hollywood fare whose plots are woven around the sexual/romantic interest of the lead characters.
The Station Agent is simultaneously inspiring and thought-provoking. For example, the film shows the transformation of a physical disadvantage person’s attitude toward life and other humans. This way it poses key questions to the viewer as to how they view their own predicaments in life. Fin’s near-death experience on the rail tracks is an imploration to the audience to seize everyday moments and make the maximum out of them. This subtle and implicit dialogue that the director Thomas McCarthy strikes with the viewer makes The Station Agent a truly one-of-its-kind independent film.
The paper is written to inform the reader about this drug from the categories of the DSM-IV through the issues of treatment.
According to King, Davison, Neale and Johnson (2007), substance related disorders are defined as disorders in which drugs such as alcohol and cocaine are abused to such an extent that behavior becomes maladaptive, social and occupational functioning are impaired and control or abstinence becomes impossible. Reliance on the drug may be psychological as in substance abuse or physiological as in substance dependence or addiction.
According to the DSM IV TR the following is the criteria for substance dependence and abuse: A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by three (or more) of the following, occurring any time in the same 12-month period:
7. The substance use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance (for example, current cocaine use despite recognition of cocaine-induced depression or continued drinking despite recognition that an ulcer was made worse by alcohol consumption).
One of which outlines whether substance dependence is. With physiologic dependence (evidence of tolerance or withdrawal) or Without physiologic dependence (no evidence of tolerance or withdrawal). In addition, remission categories are classified into four subtypes:
1. Recurrent substance use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home (such as repeated absences or poor work performance related to substance use. substance-related absences, suspensions, or expulsions from school. or neglect of children or household).
4. Continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated
Social responsibility is how an organization or business understands and behave towards social, cultural, environmental, or even economic societal expectations. Social responsibility is crucial for organization success. Social responsibility means going beyond the legal requirements and understanding other impacts the business may have on the wider society. This paper focuses on the importance of social responsibility in business or organization growth.
The organizations must be more socially responsible by reacting positively to the needs of stakeholders as well as other groups that may or may not be affected by operations of an organization. Social responsibility contributes to a positive impact on the corporate by the society hence improved performance. In the recent past, customers have become more sensitive of not only the quality of products and services they receive but also the means used by organizations to produce the products (Aras and Crowther 494-496). Organizations demonstrating any form of inhumanity in goods production such as child labour, discrimination, or environmental degradation face the possibility of lacking a good market for their products. Operations of various organizations create social problems thus it is important that they address such problems to retain their acceptability. Social responsibility also helps the corporate gain long-term favourable environment for their operations, products, and services (Aras and Crowther 566).
.Corporate social responsibility may fail to recognize by society but lack of it is easily noticed results in negative repercussion. .
The stakeholders listed in this study may not be a comprehensive list of Wal-Mart stakeholders as those not mentioned are not affected by the case in Mexico.
The table below provides the stakeholders affected by the case together with their stakes, attributes, and responsibilities of Wal-Mart towards them with the strategies and actions (Carroll &. Buchholtz, 2014).
It is evident some other stakeholders of Wal-Mart including social activists, local government, businesses operating near Wal-Mart, communities where Wal-Mart stores are located, among others. The reason is that they are not affected by the Mexico case. The reasons for selecting and classification of the different stakeholders in the manner depicted in the table, and Wal-Mart’s specific avenues for dealing with the case are provided in detail in the proceeding sections of the paper.
The first consideration entailed the ranking of the stakeholders beginning with those most affected by Mexico case through the consideration of the typology allowing for the determination of the most important stakeholder to be dealt with in the Mexico case. The stakeholder importance order includes the dealing with the definitive stakeholders, followed by the dominant stakeholders, and lastly the dominant stakeholder since three types of stakeholders were identified in the case. The definitive stakeholders consist of employees, shareholders, customers, and the US government owing to the direct impact of the case on these stakeholders and dealing with them first hand would allow for a clear and faster resolution of the case.
Wal-Mart employees are involved in the daily running of Wal-Mart operations giving them the power and legitimacy and they hold an interest in the company being their employer and through the employment contract they have a right in the case. The poor conditions of work, poor payments and unpaid overtime, low benefits, not promoting female
Common liberal thoughts place a considerable amount of value on factors like the constitution, free and fair elections, democracy, free trade, rights and freedoms of human beings and the separation of the church from the state among other issues.
Classical liberalism advocates for the establishment of a society that works towards promoting the freedoms of individuals and recognizing the importance of universal human dignity. In her book, Ellen Grigsby correlates the values stood for by classical liberalism with the Republican Party of the United States (Grigsby, 96).
One feature of classical liberalism is that there is particular emphasis on the economics of the free market. This is a market that operates without undue interference by the government, allowing the market forces to determine prices of basic and general goods and services. The government role is limited to being constitutional, and the creator and enforcer of the rule of law. Another feature of this form of liberalism is that the government and other social structures and arrangements are the creation of human beings, justified in the promotion of justice among the government systems and the population at large, establishment of order and the enhancement and protection of human beings’ natural rights.
In addition, this form of liberalism posits that the rights and freedoms of individuals are inherent (Grigsby, 96). These inherent rights include but are not limited to life, property and liberty. This theory recognizes that all individuals possess inherent worth and dignity. Another major feature is that whilst every human being enjoys equal dignity and rights, inequality of humans in interests, talents among other qualities is considered an indispensable aspect of the human state.
Traces of classical liberalism can still be seen in the society today, although individuals who subscribe to classical liberalist ideals are termed as conservative in the contemporary
Such permission can only be granted by the local communities like the Ogoni. The social perceptions towards the foreign companies operating in Nigeria deteriorated as communities became displaced and their resources forcefully are taken to accommodate the oil fields.
The societal perceptions of the oil-led development in many countries have many consequences. Some of these consequences include slow growth, inequality, and unemployment. Countries that depend on oil production are characterized by poor governance, high rates of corruption and high instances of conflict. This has added to the notion that foreign companies are exploitive and unfriendly. Norway has used the benefits of North Sea petroleum to develop its economy. Nigeria and Angola have been suffering from poor management of the same resource.
In Nigeria, the disparity between poverty and oil wealth is notable (Parker 2006). The same trend has been observed in Venezuela. Foreign companies like Shell-BP for partnerships with domestic elites with an aim of protecting their interests. The multinational has been blamed for the inequalities created by the oil-led development. In the Niger Delta region, exploration began in 1958. The compensation of the land acquisition in the delta region has aided only a small group of people (Apter 2005). The environment and the local economy remain devastated. Gas flaring has permanently destroyed food crops and the only source of livelihoods for the local communities (Parker 2006). Barren farmlands and destruction of drinking water have created tensions between the local communities and the foreign mining companies. Thousands of villagers have been killed through explosions and raptures.
It is in the remembrance of a loved one that death event is organised and celebrated, though it is manifested into the colours of grief and sorrow. Rather than confiscation, an ‘invisibility’ of sorts sets in, items being dispersed or located within secular ‘non-death’ settings where their significance remains vital only for the bereaved.
The social celebration of death depends upon the relationships death set up as a tool for memory and material culture. Death can be understood as a life crisis which is estimated by some conjuncture of changes where transformations of the physical body, social relations and cultural configurations are set up by the society. A dying experience, death and the response of the society towards death acts as a phase of transition involving loss and adjustment (Peveto &. Hayslip, 2005, p. 1), therefore death is treated differently in every culture, religion and race. Examining the ways in which memory comes into play, death provides the opportunity to analyse various aspects of the process of dying, mourning and grief. Facing death, either of the self or of others, has come to entail ritualised social practices that mobilise domains of material objects, visual images and written texts.
In the West death experience is counted towards attending a diverse range of materials, which are not only associated with death in historical and contemporary contexts but are also concerned with the issues of metaphor, temporality, and social space, all of which impinge upon and shape memory as a cultural process and a social experience. The process of recognising death develops anthropological and historical perspectives that we find in memories at work in visual images of death, in textual forms and in rituals which we trace as interconnected fields, related in their focus on the body, its structures, capacities and limits.
We celebrate memory of our loved ones through the material
123000 There was a time in society when having children out of wedlock was taboo, so much so that young middle or upper-class girls who got pregnant were expected to give their children up for adoption. . Nowadays hardly anyone cares if you are an unwed mother. There was a time in society when having children out of wedlock was taboo, so much so that young middle or upper-class girls who got pregnant were expected to give their children up for adoption. . Nowadays hardly anyone cares if you are an unwed mother. The above examples are also results of actors and social actions. . Whether or not we agree, society dictates our behavior. . These above-mentioned people do not have to necessarily believe in their own behavior, but in order to remain in the society that they are used to, they must conform. . . The Sociological Perceptive consists of three paradigms (1) symbolic interaction, (2) functionalism, and (3) conflict theory. . Sociologists take into account the different factors that cause action. .  .Symbolic interaction is how actions are governed by symbols. . That is, a man wears a wedding ring on his ring finger is assumed to be married. . Is he more married, or less .2married than the man who does not wear one? . No, society expects him to wear a wedding ring on his ring finger to tell people that he is married. . According to the functionalist, the input of all the agencies in society is needed in order for it to function as a whole. . Society is interdependent, it is held together by the contributions of all its institutions. . Functionalism promotes order, stability, and productivity. .  . The conflict theory focuses on the negative and blames society for inequality. . It encourages revolutions in the name of justice. .  .It contends that the rich and powerful enforce their order on the poor. . . Sociological imagination and sociological perceptive are concepts employed by a sociologist to describe how society is influenced by norms, values, and institutions. . As a student I am one unique person, however, I make up a social group, a group of students who has the same interest– to complete this course and do it well. . When this course is finished the faculty may use the results of this class to determine how successful this online course was, or whether or not they should make changes. .  .This school, like other institutions, has confirmed the expectations of society. . .
Several activities go around in the child neighborhood. for example, there are manufacturing companies, construction companies, street clubs, schools, colleges and shopping malls among others. Most of the families that stay in the region love intermingling with each other, that is evident by the several social and support groups in the area. Children are often taken for a get-together party twice in a month, a place where they get to play and extensively interact with one another. The preschool that Brian attends is a private institution that is sponsored by the Catholic Church. Most of the children in the preschool mare aged between 3-4 years and they attend the school two days in a week and three days in a week respectively. Brian has a got a dog pet named boxy, which he stated that he loves its company and plays with it a lot. In essence, Brian is a charming and active child in the family who is dedicated to performing activities that are within his reach.
.After obtaining consent from Brian’s Parents and permission from the school administration to perform my follow up on Brian, I began my case study at home and in school. In school, Brian is in the middle range of height among other pupils and sits in the front, the middle row in class. It can be stated that Brian is physically fit, this in relation to the various activities that the child is performing. For example, Brian can run around the classroom, arrange toys, push some objects that are about 3kg, jump and play some wrestling games with friends for a couple of minutes. A child who is physically fit is the one who can perform such activities. moreover, there is no physical deformity that Brian has.
.Gross motor activities are those activities or movements that involve the use of the large muscle in the body such as of the hands, thighs, legs, and neck. It is imperative to note that the development of Gross motor activity begins as soon as a child is born.
82000 The story reflects the social status of China during the early years of the 20th century and seeks to depict the perception of intellectuals regarding the situation (Larson 116). The protagonist of the story manages to surpass the level of the common people in society. In his childhood, he felt a strong connection with his community and home. He experienced the feeling of belonging to the entire society. However, as he reveals, the prevailing circumstances compelled him to move to a distant land in order to rebuild and enhance their lives. The situation described in his home area makes it evident that residing in his home area translated to a high level of futility. This futility compelled him to seek a promising future elsewhere. Apparently, he also intended to improve the circumstance of his family. These intentions prompted him to leave his old home and venture into a new area, cutting him off from his community. On his return, he felt a strangeness that he had never experienced in the preceding years when he had lived in his old home. Since he had lived away from home for a remarkably long time, his old home had changed immensely, and at one point it seemed beyond his recognition. The situation of the people had not changed much. Suffering still prevailed, and the people struggle to access necessities (Larson 116). However, the perspective of the protagonist towards his old home had changed after he had found a better. This highlights the fact that societal intellectuals experienced a form of dissatisfaction concerning the social status of their old home. They recognized the need for change but realized the hindrances that stood in the way for change. When Hsun met his old friend Ju-ntu, he became more aware of the inherent difference that had developed between them over them.
102500 Communicating online is a way of publishing one’s thoughts to the world. Comm states that “the low cost of publishing online has had another effect: We aren’t being talked to by professional writers and publishers anymore. we are talking to each other” (2). The result is that available content. critiques, recommendations, and expose articles, as an example, can be written by those without a vested interest creating professional looking content from those who are not within the professional sphere of interest. According to Thomases as he quotes a blog called Telecrunch written by Brian Solis, “The new media economy will embrace a shift in content creation and revenue generation from a top-down model to a bottom-up groundswell” (69). Through Twitter and other publishing forms like it on the internet, the people have more than just their purses from which to voice their opinions and affect the future of the market experience of business. The global world has become a consumerist society, connected in ways it has never been connected before this time through the use of the internet. Twitter is a perfect example of how the socialization of the world has become part of a consumerist based society that reaches most people in most countries. Zaccai explains the consumerist society, specifically in regard to relative status, as an evolutionary extension of survival. the higher the status, the more likely it is to survive. As an extension, consumerism has become a resource from which identity is now formed, the consumption of specific goods creating a sense of identity as associations with others who consume those goods is established (49). .Communicating online is a way of publishing one’s thoughts to the world. Comm states that “the low cost of publishing online has had another effect: We aren’t being talked to by professional writers and publishers anymore. we are talking to each other” (2). The result is that available content. critiques, recommendations, and expose articles, as an example, can be written by those without a vested interest creating professional looking content from those who are not within the professional sphere of interest. According to Thomases as he quotes a blog called Telecrunch written by Brian Solis, “The new media economy will embrace a shift in content creation and revenue generation from a top-down model to a bottom-up groundswell” (69). Through Twitter and other publishing forms like it on the internet, the people have more than just their purses from which to voice their opinions and affect the future of the market experience of business. The global world has become a consumerist society, connected in ways it has never been connected before this time through the use of the internet. Twitter is a perfect example of how the socialization of the world has become part of a consumerist based society that reaches most people in most countries. Zaccai explains the consumerist society, specifically in regard to relative status, as an evolutionary extension of survival. the higher the status, the more likely it is to survive. As an extension, consumerism has become a resource from which identity is now formed, the consumption of specific goods creating a sense of identity as associations with others who consume those goods is established (49). .
This theory proceeds from the perspective that business environments are socially determined. Therefore, the levels of success of business enterprises are directly proportional to the level of attachment that exists between the social order and the company’s actions and reactions.
On this score, some of the issues that have been used to determine the course of action are mostly tied to the capacity to relate to issues of general interest. Multiple perspectives agree on the fact that legitimacy theory harmonizes the relationships and connections between the society and the business in ways that provide synergies that enable the sustainability of the business environment (Buys, 2010, pp. 55-61). Other theorists suggest that the proper adoption of this theory has the effect of easing the chain of supply as the streamlined social environment provides the necessary support for easing the processes of the firm.
This study shall engage the theory of legitimacy in understanding the reactions that followed the 2000 Concorde Crash. Air France reacted in various ways to the tragedy but this paper will concern itself with the formal responses as obtained from press releases, official comment, news reports, and other kinds of responses that followed the disaster (Buyck, 2010, p. 67). The assumption is that the responses could be reduced into the company’s demonstration of an underlying commitment to the service of certain values, mores, ethics, and traditions that regulate its policy framework and on which its operational framework is based. Essentially, the reactions by Air France to the disaster could be interpreted as an outward manifestation of its framework as understood within the aspect of corporate management.
The case in point for discussion concerns the disastrous crash of the French Concorde flight also known as Air France Flight 4590. This paper will limit itself to some specific responses of the management of Air France to the 2000 crash of the Concorde.
Topic- Case Study metro nap energy pods 5 Google has employed a number of strategies to help its employees deal with the work stress. There are many facilities such as provision for lunch, dinner, car wash facilities, yoga meditation etc that helps the employee to divert from the work stress. Google also uses the Metronap energy pods to provide short naps their employees. These strategies can make a person to look at work related stress in a positive light. This can motivate them to work for longer hours. The lucrative perks can help the company to recruit the right employees who are ready to put in extra work.
5.2 Short naps can boost the overall system in a human body. This is necessary for the people who work for late hours or at night. Quick short naps that are provided by the Metronap energy pods can help to revitalize the body and thus remove stress.
These energy pods can help to remove hindrance stress as by taking short naps in the ambience inside the energy pods, it helps the individual to overcome the stresses that can reduce his progress levels.
5.3 Individual’s with type A behavior patterns have the tendency to produce results at a high speed. The energy pods can be beneficial for them as the pods energize the body which would enable these individuals to work with greater efficiency.
The positive effects of the energy pods can be promoted by the social programs. These should highlight the people about the benefits of quick small naps in a day which is provided by the Metronap energy pods.
As mentioned in the introduction, many people have already transferred from place to place and a lot of those people, the so-called immigrants, have already decided to stay and work on the foreign lands they have gone to. Hence, the main effect of this social move on achieving success in other places, the employment of the multicultural population has been the resort to supporting the lives of the said immigrants. Hence, the workforce of every company making up the business industries is at times having the same worries on how to face the challenge of dealing with and managing people who are widely different from each other.
Understanding this particular factor suggests that Lael Matthews is indeed facing a particular management dilemma that practically subjects her to a decision that needs to be made abruptly and systematically understanding the fact that this particular decision would directly affect the organization as a whole. Having this responsibility established right upon her shoulder, it could be observed how important her decision is going to be in connection with the growth of the organization that she is standing for. To know how complex the matter is, the definition of the entire situation shall be presented below.
There are three managers vying for the promotion that is to be given to only one particular candidate. Among the candidates included three major personnel which included Liz, Roy and Quang Yeh. All particular individuals have had their own chances of serving the organization for quite some time and had been able to find ways to improve the progress of the business for some certain ways in their own remarkable ways.
Liz, for example, is a 34-year-old African American woman who has a child and has at least served the company for at least 4 years. She has been noted though to have a high energy level. Practically, the basic reason behind the nomination of Liz for the promotion is the fact that she is an African American woman and that her promotion would boost the confidence of the people working for the organization.
One very important point that Patti makes in the post on Machiavelli’s advice is the fact that he clearly identifies that social life in those days is entirely different from what prevails in the present generation. Indeed, when considering advice made by a person for application in another situation, it is always important to be on the lookout for the setting within which the advice was given. According to Patti, social life in the days of Machiavelli was clearly based on a person’s individual appreciation and understanding for life, without looking much into the interest of other people around. To this end, power became the highest priority for a city state’s survival (Cunha et al., 2013. Harris, 2010). It was very right that Patti looked into the effects of such a situation on the people involved in power such as the prince and other people around. Clearly, the end was very disastrous and met with much destruction instead of construction (quote).
In today’s generation, however, much of a leader’s actions cannot be based on his will and thoughts about living alone. Today’s world is more of a social unit where the actions of one leader at one end of the world greatly affects all people across the globe. I, therefore, disagree with Patti for heeding to Machiavelli’s advice that even in the 21st-century leaders can apply force in some instances to get their principles warranted. As the world becomes a global village, there are bodies that check acts of violence and crime that happen in other parts of the world and try to stop leaders from being dictators (Becker, 2007). The best resolutions leaders should endeavor to use should thus be those that are based on the principles of peace and dialogue.
Response to Wittner Jones
Wittner gave a very vivid background to leadership between the two times in question, namely the Machiavelli era and the 21st-century era. In the background, we realize that in the Machiavelli era, Princes, and for that matter leaders were law-makers and possessed sovereign power (Galie &. Bopst, 2006). However, in today’s world, real power is given to the ruled rather than the ruler (Hub Pages, 2013). This is so because of the widespread of democracy in most parts of the world, where leadership is vested in the will of the people. To this end, I would perfectly agree with Wittner that the opinion held by Machiavelli that the end justified the means for a leader can no longer prevail in today’s generation of leadership. Indeed as the world becomes one through regional and global bodies such as the United Nations, leadership is expected to follow set of principles that give credence and regard to the respect of fundamental human rights (Nahavandi, 2012).
With the notion stated above, leaders who want to have their own way out with the rules will surely fail because they will be seen by the international worlds as going outside of the accepted order. There are clear examples with 20th century and 21st-century leaders who through wicked leadership such as the one advised by Machiavelli had to face global justice by being a drag to the international court of justice. In effect, I agree with Wittner on the fact that leadership in today’s era cannot be well-executed while holding on to the advice of Machiavelli because the world is becoming a more people-centered place rather than a leader centered place (Nahavandi, 2012).
According to Zamora, there are some inherent benefits of adults including leisure time and activities in their lives. Similarly, there are some negative impacts of not including leisure time in adults’ lives. Additionally, some factors determine the choice of play or leisure activities that will satisfactorily suit people’s plans and produce the most benefits to an individual.
This discussion will investigate the concept of leisure as discussed by Dulce Zamora, and outline some of the discussed benefits and limitations of including, or not including leisure time and activities in adults’ lives. Zamora recalls childhood behavior, activities and the role they play in the refreshing human mind. For instance, he says, “Remember creating mud pies as a child? Think of, how slimy the damp mud sensed between your fingers, and how you enjoyed designing the parties,” (Dillard 5). Alternatively, how about the moment you cycled your bicycle for hours about your environs, halting only when you felt exhausted.
Although, the moments of extreme fun when one could move around without restrictions may appear far away, and imaginary with the present day’s never-ending list of activities to perform, it may be achievable to bring back most of the childhood fun and enjoyment and integrate it into today’s adult busy schedules. Before wondering out how to incorporate leisure time into the busy schedules, it may aid to realize what you are attempting to fix, (Charlotte 10).
Experts suggest that, for anything to be attractive and pleasurable, freedom of choice and the view of control are crucial aspects. For instance, an individual who loves cooking of gourmet may not find enjoyment in making a meal that he feels attached to doing. Similarly, individuals who feel they should fix leisure time into their schedules may be hitting the goal.
Dingwell argues that individuals tend to go to extremities and fill even their vacation time with multiple activities and tasks they believe they should take part in, for instance, sports, parties and other social activities. Instead of concentrating on the crucial activities, they recommend ways, to relax, and having sympathy for ourselves. .
Factors that impede the integration of Muslim immigrants in Western countries In the early post World War II period, there was mass immigration and general acceptance of Muslims in Europe as guest workers. This was particularly the case in France between 1945- 1973. Things have however changed in terms of Muslim immigrants’ integration in western countries. The obstacles to this issue are created by both immigrants and the receiving societies. The increasing cases of terrorism conspiracy associated with Muslim radicles explain the observed resistance against the Muslims in western nation. It has been observed that most of the Muslim immigrants groups up to form the greater terrorism network that keep expanding with increasing following and agents assigned in different countries (Cesari 87). This is the case of France which in recent past experienced violence perpetrated by Muslims affiliated terror groups against the Jews institutions. Some outlawed groups like Salafist influence in mosques and prayer rooms in France and enumerated 541 activists is seen as their infringement on security rules hence resistance towards integration.The 9/11 terror attack in the US has equally portray Muslims as a threat to peace and security hence the challenges of integration experienced by the Muslims community (Cesari 87).
The societies in western nations practice liberal lifestyle that significantly diverges from the Muslim culture which is more reserved. In USA for instance, the young generation leads a very vibrant secular lifestyle and this is likely to compromise their observation of the Muslim conservatives. The Muslim immigrant community living US has therefore found it really challenging to integrate in the big social culture of the liberal society. This is one major obstacle posed by the receiving society against the efforts of integration by the Muslim.
Cesari, Jocelyne. Why the West Fears Islam: An Exploration of Muslims in Liberal Democracies. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Internet resource.
When comparing legislation with common law, statutes can change the set norms of common law but the common law can not overturn or change statutes. it can be modified by a later statute. There is a common belief that law is straightforward. actually it is not so. There are three rules being practiced by judges to interpret statutes (UK Law Online).
The golden rule – when literal interpretation leads to silliness, it is improvised to a less obvious meaning. Otherwise also, there could be policy implications arising out of literal interpretations.
The mischief rule – It defines the issue the Act was meant to resolve and decides on the interpretation which best suites the issue. Law Commission reports and Hansard – the journal of debates in Parliament – can also be consulted to decide the problem before the Act. Smith v Hughes (1871) LR 6 QB 597 is an example of the mischief rule (UK Law Online).
The literal approach is the default position that honours Parliamentary Sovereignty. It demands that judges enforce law and not make it. The purposive approach, based on the golden rule, is preferred in Europe and the ECJ while the literal approach of statutory interpretations is the preferred choice throughout in the UK (legal Easy, 2006).
In certain particular social policy implementations, the like of outlawing of sex discrimination, judges need to be flexible by using a more purposive approach (the golden or mischief rules) There is the case example of Pickstone v Freeman  2 All ER 803. The above approaches have wider applications. There are certain other rules of interpretation, which come under two sub categories (UK Law Online).
Rules of Language – The “eiusdem generic” rule – a Latin phrase, which means of the same kind: It states that normal words follow particular examples for getting meanings, and are not that general or ordinary after
Facilitating such a procedure, will regularly lead to proper services of greater quality with augmented user satisfaction and compliance. Nevertheless, the extent and level of operational service user contribution in improving and changing services is unreliable. This can be both improvement and change in immediate services and in the attitudes and cultures of the staff and agencies who provide those services. Furthermore, user participation in education, training, and research are also significant for service improvement and change. The word service user is used to consist of the individuals using the social and health care services as patients.
Additionally, they can also be guardians, parents and carer. In addition, the term is used to denote to the communities and the organizations that symbolize the benefits of individuals. Lastly, it states that members of the community and public who are potential users of social care interventions and health care services. According to Biskin et al. (2012), current policies describing the procedures of how care should be implemented ensure that ethnicity, race, religion, sensory, sexuality, disability, culture, language, age, and impairment should not interfere with service delivery. The Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE) was formed by the government in the year 2001 to increase social care services for children and adults. This is achieved through noble practice and assisting to embed it in daily social care provision. SCIE works to improve the professionalism and skills of social care users through their user-friendly, targeted, and tailored resources. It also involves service users, providers, practitioners, policy makers, and carers in promoting and advancing noble practice in social care.
Furthermore, SCIE circulates knowledge-based noble practice guide. Apart from its repetition in several nationwide policy and strategic documents, it is
51250 Still new to the city, entering into this unfamiliar situation compounded my generalized anxiety. I knew nothing about modeling and this soon became abundantly clear. . “Hi” I sheepishly said. He seemed preoccupied and instructed me to go with his assistants to an adjacent room. Everyone at the studio moved confident and efficiently as if this was the industry standard. As I walked into the adjacent room I was surrounded by a group of people who measured my size and then hold up a dress. I could feel the eyes of the other people in the room staring intently at me waiting. Slowly I felt a thrust of blood shoot throughout my face, as I nervously tightened my hands into fists as if it might stabilize my embarrassment. They were going to undress me. . I wasn’t sure if I should leave or submit to the process. I knew that I felt such an acute embarrassment at not being aware of this part of the photography session that I nearly passed out. Was I being violated? Did this happen to all models? Whether it was the pressure of the social situation or simply a naïve trust, I turned around and let them remove my clothing and fit me with the ew dress. Once I had the new dress on the embarrassment exited my face and knees and I quickly regained my composure. As I walked back into the studio, the photographer and camera crew were there waiting. “Beautiful,” he said upon seeing me. He took a series of photographs and then they ushered me back into the changing room.
Anxiety and Depression The article "Friendship Ties in the Church and Depressive Symptoms: Exploring Variations by Age" tries to examine the relationship between friends in the church and depressive symptoms (Swenson, 2008). It has three hypotheses in which it attempts to relate age, church-going and stress or depression levels. The data provided by the nationwide study reveals that older people do not have more friends in the church as compared to the young people. It shows that having friends in the church reduces depression levels amongst the adults only (Swenson, 2008).
My reaction to the findings is supportive. Old people are few in churches due to massive push or roles they have in the society. Church consumes a considerable of the time which is thought to productive time. Wealth creation is a major call for any person. Most people do have time for their families as they consider money as the greatest assets while still alive. I agree with low number of old people in the church since churches experiences fluctuating or reducing number of goers as family income decreases. For the people who go to church, they have much of their depression relieved. I agree that church going reduces depression in the old people. That is because church-going creates a break in the cyclic or periodic flow of days as people converge together and make time for one another to share their problems.
Reduction in depression levels for the church going older people is high as compared to the church going children since problems of the children are different as compared to the old people. I agree with all of them. My personal life experiences help illuminate on agreement on the findings of the research, since when attend church services, I feel closer to people who give me hope, help me in solving my problems that range from finances to social problems. In the church, I am assured of a new close relation which is the church even in case where my relatives are far away from me. Church is highly important in reduction of fear, doubt and many other things that cause depression. I can integrate my biblical faith and principles regarding Jesus’ life while in earth. he was persecuted, humiliated and killed for my burdens. My counselling client does not have any reason to feel depressed as Jesus took them all.
Swenson, D. (2008). Religion and family links: Neofunctionalist reflections. New York: Springer.