Democracy Voting Behavior Models

41000 The social class was very important in shaping voting behavior in Britain in the 1950s and 1960s such that Pulitzer considered it as “the basis of British party politics, all else is an embellishment of detail”. Social class, in this case, is divided into middle-class (ABC1), skilled working class (C2) and semi/unskilled working class (DE). People from a similar social class vote in a similar way considered the “natural way” of voting (Fairclough 50). It is believed that the working class votes for labor party while middle-class votes for the conservative party. From 1974 to 2010 election data, this distinction emerges. The middle class voted for the conservative party from 1974 to 1992 in huge numbers as compared to the labor or Liberal Democratic Party (LD). The Conservative lead over Labour party in 1974, 1979, 1983, 1987 and 1992 consecutively were: +37, +35, +39, +36, and +32. However, in the elections that followed, the conservative party lost some support from middle-class who shifted to labor party as evidenced by results. There was no significant change for LD as support remained at the 20s. Fairclough (50) attributes this to class dealignment or deviant voters since they did not vote for a natural class party. De-alignment occurs when middle-class votes for a labor party and working class votes for the conservative party. As regards geographical mobility, when middle-class workers live in residential areas inhabited by working-class, they tend to vote the same way as the working class.

An causal argument

Austerity measures are steps that are taken to reduce government spending and induce more funding for development projects. These include cutting employment budgets, streamlining important sectors such as reducing funding of the health centers to allow people to pay for such services directly, and the overall reduction of government spending on recurrent expenditures and concentrate the same on development expenditure aimed at stimulating the economic development. Currently, there are divided views concerning implementation of austerity measures.
There are some analysts who view implementation of austerity measures as the best way through which economic depressions can be solved. The IMF and World Bank are some of those who advocate for austerity measures in such economies (Chiranga, 1).On the other hand, there are those who vehemently oppose any decision regarding implementing of the austerity measures in these economies, and these include social groups and employee rights activists. It would be important to understand the effects of austerity measures in an economy to better make an informed decision regarding the austerity measures. These measures lead to government cut on spending in the sectors mentioned above, and this may lead to increased unemployment. Economic depression also results when the spending by individuals and private sector has depreciated meaning that cash for development and goods consumption in the market gradually decreases.
Currently Greece has been grappling with a serious economic depression that resulted to massive demonstrations in the country. Greece has been living beyond its means even before joining the Euro, and the huge debt that has accumulated has resulted to a serious economic strain (BBC News, 2011). The Greek government after joining the Euro adopted a lavish life where the government went on a spending spree and borrowed heavily from the financial lenders (BBC News, 2011). The public

Organizational Theory

Also, the paper will review the criticisms that have been generated towards the two assumptions.
While ontology is associated with the nature of an event, epistemology is about the way people understand such an event (Gioia, 2003). The classification of the two assumptions, therefore, can be based on an individual’s belief considering that objective existence is inherent in the world, or because the reality of an event is based on a mediated social understanding. In this sense, prior to human judgement, objective ontology presumes that natural and social reality occurs independently (Johnson and Duberley, 2000: 180). In view of this assumption, objective epistemology takes into consideration the causal inter variable relationships, and assumes that the reality does not originate in an individual, but rather from sensory experiences. Having said this, the manner in which an individual understands an event is acquired from measurement, touch, taste, or observation (Johnson and Duberley, 2000). Furthermore, the epistemology of objectivity seeks to generalize theories by making a very important presumption that the theory applies to all people in the world regardless of the context and circumstances. A good example of a research that best shows a theory-approach alignment is one conducted in by Cooper and Sobol (1969) investigating seniority and employment testing as a criteria for hiring and promoting employees. In this paper, the theory being used is the disparate impact theory while the approach is basically a case study complex, while epistemology is constructionism coupled with positivism. By analyzing the various cases where the use of seniority and testing were deemed to be violating the fair employment laws, Cooper and Sobol (1969) went on to suggest that depending on who is analyzing the cases may take different meanings because of their constructionist approach. They

Preparing a Critique for the short story The Doll’s House

Doll’s House The Doll’s House is one of the representative stories of Katherine Mansfield. The story basically deals with the manners and behaviors of the aristocratic family. The writer laughs at the social discrimination caused by the difference in the economic status of families. The author succeeds in establishing the connection between the upper class and the lower session with a “lamp’. The setting is a middle class family. The story starts when Mrs. Hay sent a doll’s house to the Burnell children. The attractive Doll’s House attracted the other children towards the family except Kelveys, but got a chance to listen to the stories about the cage. The Kelvy girls represent the lower class. Lil and Else are not accepted in the society, even among the children. Kezia, the youngest of Burnells is the protagonist of the story who establishes a bridge between the lower and upper section of the society. Aunt Beryl can be treated as an antagonist who always looks down upon the classes beneath hers.
The story is filled with symbols. Kezia stands for her childhood purity. Te relation to the lamp in the story is a symbolic relation to the other class. The lamp stands for peace. The writer conveys the beautiful message that the minds of children are free from class consciousness. The poor children, even though they are thrown out of their house, they are overjoyed with the glimpse of a higher social class trough the lamp.

Shakespeare’s playKing Lear

In the words of an advertiser, publicizing a performance of the play: “He achieves a life without ‘lendings’ – the accumulated material possessions we cling to for meaning – or the need of them” (, Date Unknown).
Throughout the play, the inversion of good and evil so apparent in Lear’s mind comes to permeate the characters and the action of the play. Only in the very final scenes is order restored, the evildoers punished, and at least for the time being, can good triumph. But good and the restoration of order have come too late for Lear and Cordelia (from:, Date unknown). As a comment on the social context in which Shakespeare wrote the play, this restoration of order was threatening not to arrive, until the ascension of James I to the throne of England, and presenting the hope that England and Scotland would be unified (Jones, 1977: 212-215).
Before the ascension of James I, the threat of civil war was widespread. Shakespeare alludes to this several times in “King Lear”. Muir (1947:64-66) comments that Shakespeare believed that personal immorality in the ruling class is a disease that spreads evil throughout society, in extreme cases causing it to fall apart. By the close of the play, Britain is rescued from the evil in its leadership, represented by the two sisters, civil war in Britain is avoided, and the French invasion caused by Lears lack of judgment is defeated by Albany. While Shakespeare does not oversimplify the state of society, it may very well have been that an Elizabethan audience would have understood the positive end of the play to reflect the future under James I. The unfolding of Lear’s story, however, serves to emphasize Shakespeare’s understanding of human psychological, social and political events.
Lear’s mistake is to divide his wealth, land and power between his

Alternate Forms of Assessment for Special Population

51250 Community provides what such students expect in real world. For instances a minor should be ready to be put in a normal school setting, the playground and home. on the other hand, an adult should be put in a grown-up setting like a bank, a store or an office. Gauging such a student’s skill in every perspective from educational to physical outdoor skills. Any skill that requires integration. For instance, assessing personal and social skills individually from independence and liability would create room for redundant effort, and potentially resulting in reinforced focus on isolated skills. The embracing of continuous keeping of records for such students at all stages. Such a method would result in more accurate and reliable progressive or retrogressive efforts on the part of the student. Those students with severe hurdles have a higher variability in their skills from those without disabilities or minute disabilities on a daily basis. As such, seasonal skills could only be visible with time. The institutions dealing with such students should include, as a mandatory measure, supports and adaptations, and train the students to use them. The school system should avail devices, trained personnel and any other necessary support to enable the learners to function as independently as possible. Such a recommendation has been proved worthy in practice in Kentucky in that it drives effective school and classroom practice (Kleinert, Kennedy, &amp. Kearns, 1999). On a personal note, of the above suggestion, I would be of a higher degree of agreement with number (ii). In a situation whereby an individual is disadvantaged, there always is the possibility of his/her worth in other life sphere. Just like it is said that disability is not inability, it has been proven over time that individuals with physical or mental challenges could still have a great unexploited talent. For instance, in Olympics there is the Paralympics category. There also are the Special Olympics for physically and mentally challenged athletes. The Most Beneficial Recommendations Recommendation number (IV) would be much realistic and would bear much expected positive results without having to continuously strain for such results. It would be highly ignorant when there is a standard meant to be attained in terms of result over a given period. Only those individuals who possess a high degree of irresponsibility and inhumane nature would set a goal for a disabled individual and not provide an environment that would make such a goal either realistic or easily achievable for such an individual. Assessing Students with Cognitive Disabilities In as far as dealing with a challenged student is concerned, there should exist laid down and visible lucrative incentives in the society for them and this could be achieved only when they compete with the other not challenged individuals. It should not just be in sports but also intellectually. Disabled individuals who achieve such targets, for example, a very lucrative and well paying job in the society, act as role models and inspirations to the others. Zatta’s article on Alternate Assessment for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities :Implication for Educators, would be best to be termed as a much sought educational tool needed by any reformist wanting to transform the way the significantly cognitive disabled students are assessed and

The Book Intrigues Me

Drawing from the unfolding events in the book, I have learnt that my father is the best teacher for me. I can easily identify with many of the chapters in the book. The book presents a family context that is relevant to the contemporary world. Social class differences are easily identifiable all over the world. In this regard, the parent-child relationship is fundamental in learning the good, and further differentiating that good from the bad. My father teaches me what straight ways of life are characteristic of, and I can relate his concepts with those of the book with ease.

My relationship with my father has had its difficulties. At times we agree and at others we do not. When my father and I disagree, I consult this book for the way forward. After reading some paragraphs in the book I only end up realizing that my father was right. This book, therefore, acts as my conflict resolution agency, where disagreements become agreements. This is a scenario that not only intrigues me but also enhances my relationship with my father.&nbsp.

The Station Agent

Rather, it explores the possibility and feasibility of strange equations between newly acquainted humans. For example, when Fin moves to the old building left behind by Henry (upon the latter’s death), he suddenly finds himself forming an intricate network of social interactions. In this newfound social atmosphere, there are opportunities for creative exploration as well as for personal bonding. The former is attested by the joy Fin derives through observing and studying trains and the latter is borne by the close personal bonds he develops with Joe and Olivia. The most distinct character of this independent film is the lack of sexual interest in any of these relationships. This is a far cry from conventional Hollywood fare whose plots are woven around the sexual/romantic interest of the lead characters.
The Station Agent is simultaneously inspiring and thought-provoking. For example, the film shows the transformation of a physical disadvantage person’s attitude toward life and other humans. This way it poses key questions to the viewer as to how they view their own predicaments in life. Fin’s near-death experience on the rail tracks is an imploration to the audience to seize everyday moments and make the maximum out of them. This subtle and implicit dialogue that the director Thomas McCarthy strikes with the viewer makes The Station Agent a truly one-of-its-kind independent film.

Substance disorders

The paper is written to inform the reader about this drug from the categories of the DSM-IV through the issues of treatment.
According to King, Davison, Neale and Johnson (2007), substance related disorders are defined as disorders in which drugs such as alcohol and cocaine are abused to such an extent that behavior becomes maladaptive, social and occupational functioning are impaired and control or abstinence becomes impossible. Reliance on the drug may be psychological as in substance abuse or physiological as in substance dependence or addiction.
According to the DSM IV TR the following is the criteria for substance dependence and abuse: A maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by three (or more) of the following, occurring any time in the same 12-month period:
7. The substance use is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance (for example, current cocaine use despite recognition of cocaine-induced depression or continued drinking despite recognition that an ulcer was made worse by alcohol consumption).
One of which outlines whether substance dependence is. With physiologic dependence (evidence of tolerance or withdrawal) or Without physiologic dependence (no evidence of tolerance or withdrawal). In addition, remission categories are classified into four subtypes:
1. Recurrent substance use resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home (such as repeated absences or poor work performance related to substance use. substance-related absences, suspensions, or expulsions from school. or neglect of children or household).
4. Continued substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated

Importance of Social Responsibility in Organization Development

Social responsibility is how an organization or business understands and behave towards social, cultural, environmental, or even economic societal expectations. Social responsibility is crucial for organization success. Social responsibility means going beyond the legal requirements and understanding other impacts the business may have on the wider society. This paper focuses on the importance of social responsibility in business or organization growth.
The organizations must be more socially responsible by reacting positively to the needs of stakeholders as well as other groups that may or may not be affected by operations of an organization. Social responsibility contributes to a positive impact on the corporate by the society hence improved performance. In the recent past, customers have become more sensitive of not only the quality of products and services they receive but also the means used by organizations to produce the products (Aras and Crowther 494-496). Organizations demonstrating any form of inhumanity in goods production such as child labour, discrimination, or environmental degradation face the possibility of lacking a good market for their products. Operations of various organizations create social problems thus it is important that they address such problems to retain their acceptability. Social responsibility also helps the corporate gain long-term favourable environment for their operations, products, and services (Aras and Crowther 566).
&nbsp.Corporate social responsibility may fail to recognize by society but lack of it is easily noticed results in negative repercussion.&nbsp.

Stakeholder analysis WalMart in Mexico case

The stakeholders listed in this study may not be a comprehensive list of Wal-Mart stakeholders as those not mentioned are not affected by the case in Mexico.
The table below provides the stakeholders affected by the case together with their stakes, attributes, and responsibilities of Wal-Mart towards them with the strategies and actions (Carroll &amp. Buchholtz, 2014).
It is evident some other stakeholders of Wal-Mart including social activists, local government, businesses operating near Wal-Mart, communities where Wal-Mart stores are located, among others. The reason is that they are not affected by the Mexico case. The reasons for selecting and classification of the different stakeholders in the manner depicted in the table, and Wal-Mart’s specific avenues for dealing with the case are provided in detail in the proceeding sections of the paper.
The first consideration entailed the ranking of the stakeholders beginning with those most affected by Mexico case through the consideration of the typology allowing for the determination of the most important stakeholder to be dealt with in the Mexico case. The stakeholder importance order includes the dealing with the definitive stakeholders, followed by the dominant stakeholders, and lastly the dominant stakeholder since three types of stakeholders were identified in the case. The definitive stakeholders consist of employees, shareholders, customers, and the US government owing to the direct impact of the case on these stakeholders and dealing with them first hand would allow for a clear and faster resolution of the case.
Wal-Mart employees are involved in the daily running of Wal-Mart operations giving them the power and legitimacy and they hold an interest in the company being their employer and through the employment contract they have a right in the case. The poor conditions of work, poor payments and unpaid overtime, low benefits, not promoting female


Common liberal thoughts place a considerable amount of value on factors like the constitution, free and fair elections, democracy, free trade, rights and freedoms of human beings and the separation of the church from the state among other issues.
Classical liberalism advocates for the establishment of a society that works towards promoting the freedoms of individuals and recognizing the importance of universal human dignity. In her book, Ellen Grigsby correlates the values stood for by classical liberalism with the Republican Party of the United States (Grigsby, 96).
One feature of classical liberalism is that there is particular emphasis on the economics of the free market. This is a market that operates without undue interference by the government, allowing the market forces to determine prices of basic and general goods and services. The government role is limited to being constitutional, and the creator and enforcer of the rule of law. Another feature of this form of liberalism is that the government and other social structures and arrangements are the creation of human beings, justified in the promotion of justice among the government systems and the population at large, establishment of order and the enhancement and protection of human beings’ natural rights.
In addition, this form of liberalism posits that the rights and freedoms of individuals are inherent (Grigsby, 96). These inherent rights include but are not limited to life, property and liberty. This theory recognizes that all individuals possess inherent worth and dignity. Another major feature is that whilst every human being enjoys equal dignity and rights, inequality of humans in interests, talents among other qualities is considered an indispensable aspect of the human state.
Traces of classical liberalism can still be seen in the society today, although individuals who subscribe to classical liberalist ideals are termed as conservative in the contemporary

Societal Perception Of Foreign Business In Nigeria

Such permission can only be granted by the local communities like the Ogoni. The social perceptions towards the foreign companies operating in Nigeria deteriorated as communities became displaced and their resources forcefully are taken to accommodate the oil fields.
The societal perceptions of the oil-led development in many countries have many consequences. Some of these consequences include slow growth, inequality, and unemployment. Countries that depend on oil production are characterized by poor governance, high rates of corruption and high instances of conflict. This has added to the notion that foreign companies are exploitive and unfriendly. Norway has used the benefits of North Sea petroleum to develop its economy. Nigeria and Angola have been suffering from poor management of the same resource.
In Nigeria, the disparity between poverty and oil wealth is notable (Parker 2006). The same trend has been observed in Venezuela. Foreign companies like Shell-BP for partnerships with domestic elites with an aim of protecting their interests. The multinational has been blamed for the inequalities created by the oil-led development. In the Niger Delta region, exploration began in 1958. The compensation of the land acquisition in the delta region has aided only a small group of people (Apter 2005). The environment and the local economy remain devastated. Gas flaring has permanently destroyed food crops and the only source of livelihoods for the local communities (Parker 2006). Barren farmlands and destruction of drinking water have created tensions between the local communities and the foreign mining companies. Thousands of villagers have been killed through explosions and raptures.

To what extent is death socially orchestrated

It is in the remembrance of a loved one that death event is organised and celebrated, though it is manifested into the colours of grief and sorrow. Rather than confiscation, an ‘invisibility’ of sorts sets in, items being dispersed or located within secular ‘non-death’ settings where their significance remains vital only for the bereaved.
The social celebration of death depends upon the relationships death set up as a tool for memory and material culture. Death can be understood as a life crisis which is estimated by some conjuncture of changes where transformations of the physical body, social relations and cultural configurations are set up by the society. A dying experience, death and the response of the society towards death acts as a phase of transition involving loss and adjustment (Peveto &amp. Hayslip, 2005, p. 1), therefore death is treated differently in every culture, religion and race. Examining the ways in which memory comes into play, death provides the opportunity to analyse various aspects of the process of dying, mourning and grief. Facing death, either of the self or of others, has come to entail ritualised social practices that mobilise domains of material objects, visual images and written texts.
In the West death experience is counted towards attending a diverse range of materials, which are not only associated with death in historical and contemporary contexts but are also concerned with the issues of metaphor, temporality, and social space, all of which impinge upon and shape memory as a cultural process and a social experience. The process of recognising death develops anthropological and historical perspectives that we find in memories at work in visual images of death, in textual forms and in rituals which we trace as interconnected fields, related in their focus on the body, its structures, capacities and limits.
We celebrate memory of our loved ones through the material

Sociological Imagination

123000 There was a time in society when having children out of wedlock was taboo, so much so that young middle or upper-class girls who got pregnant were expected to give their children up for adoption.&nbsp. Nowadays hardly anyone cares if you are an unwed mother. There was a time in society when having children out of wedlock was taboo, so much so that young middle or upper-class girls who got pregnant were expected to give their children up for adoption.&nbsp. Nowadays hardly anyone cares if you are an unwed mother. The above examples are also results of actors and social actions.&nbsp. Whether or not we agree, society dictates our behavior.&nbsp. These above-mentioned people do not have to necessarily believe in their own behavior, but in order to remain in the society that they are used to, they must conform.&nbsp.&nbsp. The Sociological Perceptive consists of three paradigms (1) symbolic interaction, (2) functionalism, and (3) conflict theory.&nbsp. Sociologists take into account the different factors that cause action.&nbsp. &nbsp.Symbolic interaction is how actions are governed by symbols.&nbsp. That is, a man wears a wedding ring on his ring finger is assumed to be married.&nbsp. Is he more married, or less&nbsp.2married than the man who does not wear one?&nbsp. No, society expects him to wear a wedding ring on his ring finger to tell people that he is married.&nbsp. According to the functionalist, the input of all the agencies in society is needed in order for it to function as a whole.&nbsp. Society is interdependent, it is held together by the contributions of all its institutions.&nbsp. Functionalism promotes order, stability, and productivity.&nbsp. &nbsp. The conflict theory focuses on the negative and blames society for inequality.&nbsp. It encourages revolutions in the name of justice.&nbsp. &nbsp.It contends that the rich and powerful enforce their order on the poor.&nbsp.&nbsp. Sociological imagination and sociological perceptive are concepts employed by a sociologist to describe how society is influenced by norms, values, and institutions.&nbsp. As a student I am one unique person, however, I make up a social group, a group of students who has the same interest– to complete this course and do it well.&nbsp. When this course is finished the faculty may use the results of this class to determine how successful this online course was, or whether or not they should make changes.&nbsp. &nbsp.This school, like other institutions, has confirmed the expectations of society.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Gross Motor Activities

Several activities go around in the child neighborhood. for example, there are manufacturing companies, construction companies, street clubs, schools, colleges and shopping malls among others. Most of the families that stay in the region love intermingling with each other, that is evident by the several social and support groups in the area. Children are often taken for a get-together party twice in a month, a place where they get to play and extensively interact with one another. The preschool that Brian attends is a private institution that is sponsored by the Catholic Church. Most of the children in the preschool mare aged between 3-4 years and they attend the school two days in a week and three days in a week respectively. Brian has a got a dog pet named boxy, which he stated that he loves its company and plays with it a lot. In essence, Brian is a charming and active child in the family who is dedicated to performing activities that are within his reach.
&nbsp.After obtaining consent from Brian’s Parents and permission from the school administration to perform my follow up on Brian, I began my case study at home and in school. In school, Brian is in the middle range of height among other pupils and sits in the front, the middle row in class. It can be stated that Brian is physically fit, this in relation to the various activities that the child is performing. For example, Brian can run around the classroom, arrange toys, push some objects that are about 3kg, jump and play some wrestling games with friends for a couple of minutes. A child who is physically fit is the one who can perform such activities. moreover, there is no physical deformity that Brian has.
&nbsp.Gross motor activities are those activities or movements that involve the use of the large muscle in the body such as of the hands, thighs, legs, and neck. It is imperative to note that the development of Gross motor activity begins as soon as a child is born.

The Role of Chinese Intellectuals in Social Reform

82000 The story reflects the social status of China during the early years of the 20th century and seeks to depict the perception of intellectuals regarding the situation (Larson 116). The protagonist of the story manages to surpass the level of the common people in society. In his childhood, he felt a strong connection with his community and home. He experienced the feeling of belonging to the entire society. However, as he reveals, the prevailing circumstances compelled him to move to a distant land in order to rebuild and enhance their lives. The situation described in his home area makes it evident that residing in his home area translated to a high level of futility. This futility compelled him to seek a promising future elsewhere. Apparently, he also intended to improve the circumstance of his family. These intentions prompted him to leave his old home and venture into a new area, cutting him off from his community. On his return, he felt a strangeness that he had never experienced in the preceding years when he had lived in his old home. Since he had lived away from home for a remarkably long time, his old home had changed immensely, and at one point it seemed beyond his recognition. The situation of the people had not changed much. Suffering still prevailed, and the people struggle to access necessities (Larson 116). However, the perspective of the protagonist towards his old home had changed after he had found a better. This highlights the fact that societal intellectuals experienced a form of dissatisfaction concerning the social status of their old home. They recognized the need for change but realized the hindrances that stood in the way for change. When Hsun met his old friend Ju-ntu, he became more aware of the inherent difference that had developed between them over them.

The Use of Twitter the Purposes of the Social Media and the Success of a Business

102500 Communicating online is a way of publishing one’s thoughts to the world. Comm states that “the low cost of publishing online has had another effect: We aren’t being talked to by professional writers and publishers anymore. we are talking to each other” (2). The result is that available content. critiques, recommendations, and expose articles, as an example, can be written by those without a vested interest creating professional looking content from those who are not within the professional sphere of interest. According to Thomases as he quotes a blog called Telecrunch written by Brian Solis, “The new media economy will embrace a shift in content creation and revenue generation from a top-down model to a bottom-up groundswell” (69). Through Twitter and other publishing forms like it on the internet, the people have more than just their purses from which to voice their opinions and affect the future of the market experience of business. The global world has become a consumerist society, connected in ways it has never been connected before this time through the use of the internet. Twitter is a perfect example of how the socialization of the world has become part of a consumerist based society that reaches most people in most countries. Zaccai explains the consumerist society, specifically in regard to relative status, as an evolutionary extension of survival. the higher the status, the more likely it is to survive. As an extension, consumerism has become a resource from which identity is now formed, the consumption of specific goods creating a sense of identity as associations with others who consume those goods is established (49).&nbsp.Communicating online is a way of publishing one’s thoughts to the world. Comm states that “the low cost of publishing online has had another effect: We aren’t being talked to by professional writers and publishers anymore. we are talking to each other” (2). The result is that available content. critiques, recommendations, and expose articles, as an example, can be written by those without a vested interest creating professional looking content from those who are not within the professional sphere of interest. According to Thomases as he quotes a blog called Telecrunch written by Brian Solis, “The new media economy will embrace a shift in content creation and revenue generation from a top-down model to a bottom-up groundswell” (69). Through Twitter and other publishing forms like it on the internet, the people have more than just their purses from which to voice their opinions and affect the future of the market experience of business. The global world has become a consumerist society, connected in ways it has never been connected before this time through the use of the internet. Twitter is a perfect example of how the socialization of the world has become part of a consumerist based society that reaches most people in most countries. Zaccai explains the consumerist society, specifically in regard to relative status, as an evolutionary extension of survival. the higher the status, the more likely it is to survive. As an extension, consumerism has become a resource from which identity is now formed, the consumption of specific goods creating a sense of identity as associations with others who consume those goods is established (49).&nbsp.

2000 Concorde Accident

This theory proceeds from the perspective that business environments are socially determined. Therefore, the levels of success of business enterprises are directly proportional to the level of attachment that exists between the social order and the company’s actions and reactions.
On this score, some of the issues that have been used to determine the course of action are mostly tied to the capacity to relate to issues of general interest. Multiple perspectives agree on the fact that legitimacy theory harmonizes the relationships and connections between the society and the business in ways that provide synergies that enable the sustainability of the business environment (Buys, 2010, pp. 55-61). Other theorists suggest that the proper adoption of this theory has the effect of easing the chain of supply as the streamlined social environment provides the necessary support for easing the processes of the firm.
This study shall engage the theory of legitimacy in understanding the reactions that followed the 2000 Concorde Crash. Air France reacted in various ways to the tragedy but this paper will concern itself with the formal responses as obtained from press releases, official comment, news reports, and other kinds of responses that followed the disaster (Buyck, 2010, p. 67). The assumption is that the responses could be reduced into the company’s demonstration of an underlying commitment to the service of certain values, mores, ethics, and traditions that regulate its policy framework and on which its operational framework is based. Essentially, the reactions by Air France to the disaster could be interpreted as an outward manifestation of its framework as understood within the aspect of corporate management.
The case in point for discussion concerns the disastrous crash of the French Concorde flight also known as Air France Flight 4590. This paper will limit itself to some specific responses of the management of Air France to the 2000 crash of the Concorde.

Metro Nap Energy Pods

Topic- Case Study metro nap energy pods 5 Google has employed a number of strategies to help its employees deal with the work stress. There are many facilities such as provision for lunch, dinner, car wash facilities, yoga meditation etc that helps the employee to divert from the work stress. Google also uses the Metronap energy pods to provide short naps their employees. These strategies can make a person to look at work related stress in a positive light. This can motivate them to work for longer hours. The lucrative perks can help the company to recruit the right employees who are ready to put in extra work.
5.2 Short naps can boost the overall system in a human body. This is necessary for the people who work for late hours or at night. Quick short naps that are provided by the Metronap energy pods can help to revitalize the body and thus remove stress.
These energy pods can help to remove hindrance stress as by taking short naps in the ambience inside the energy pods, it helps the individual to overcome the stresses that can reduce his progress levels.
5.3 Individual’s with type A behavior patterns have the tendency to produce results at a high speed. The energy pods can be beneficial for them as the pods energize the body which would enable these individuals to work with greater efficiency.
The positive effects of the energy pods can be promoted by the social programs. These should highlight the people about the benefits of quick small naps in a day which is provided by the Metronap energy pods.

Dealing with Diverse People in the Workforce

As mentioned in the introduction, many people have already transferred from place to place and a lot of those people, the so-called immigrants, have already decided to stay and work on the foreign lands they have gone to. Hence, the main effect of this social move on achieving success in other places, the employment of the multicultural population has been the resort to supporting the lives of the said immigrants. Hence, the workforce of every company making up the business industries is at times having the same worries on how to face the challenge of dealing with and managing people who are widely different from each other.
Understanding this particular factor suggests that Lael Matthews is indeed facing a particular management dilemma that practically subjects her to a decision that needs to be made abruptly and systematically understanding the fact that this particular decision would directly affect the organization as a whole. Having this responsibility established right upon her shoulder, it could be observed how important her decision is going to be in connection with the growth of the organization that she is standing for. To know how complex the matter is, the definition of the entire situation shall be presented below.
There are three managers vying for the promotion that is to be given to only one particular candidate. Among the candidates included three major personnel which included Liz, Roy and Quang Yeh. All particular individuals have had their own chances of serving the organization for quite some time and had been able to find ways to improve the progress of the business for some certain ways in their own remarkable ways.
Liz, for example, is a 34-year-old African American woman who has a child and has at least served the company for at least 4 years. She has been noted though to have a high energy level. Practically, the basic reason behind the nomination of Liz for the promotion is the fact that she is an African American woman and that her promotion would boost the confidence of the people working for the organization.

The Competitive Edge of Moral Leadership

One very important point that Patti makes in the post on Machiavelli’s advice is the fact that he clearly identifies that social life in those days is entirely different from what prevails in the present generation. Indeed, when considering advice made by a person for application in another situation, it is always important to be on the lookout for the setting within which the advice was given. According to Patti, social life in the days of Machiavelli was clearly based on a person’s individual appreciation and understanding for life, without looking much into the interest of other people around. To this end, power became the highest priority for a city state’s survival (Cunha et al., 2013. Harris, 2010). It was very right that Patti looked into the effects of such a situation on the people involved in power such as the prince and other people around. Clearly, the end was very disastrous and met with much destruction instead of construction (quote).
In today’s generation, however, much of a leader’s actions cannot be based on his will and thoughts about living alone. Today’s world is more of a social unit where the actions of one leader at one end of the world greatly affects all people across the globe. I, therefore, disagree with Patti for heeding to Machiavelli’s advice that even in the 21st-century leaders can apply force in some instances to get their principles warranted. As the world becomes a global village, there are bodies that check acts of violence and crime that happen in other parts of the world and try to stop leaders from being dictators (Becker, 2007). The best resolutions leaders should endeavor to use should thus be those that are based on the principles of peace and dialogue.
Response to Wittner Jones
Wittner gave a very vivid background to leadership between the two times in question, namely the Machiavelli era and the 21st-century era. In the background, we realize that in the Machiavelli era, Princes, and for that matter leaders were law-makers and possessed sovereign power (Galie &amp. Bopst, 2006). However, in today’s world, real power is given to the ruled rather than the ruler (Hub Pages, 2013). This is so because of the widespread of democracy in most parts of the world, where leadership is vested in the will of the people. To this end, I would perfectly agree with Wittner that the opinion held by Machiavelli that the end justified the means for a leader can no longer prevail in today’s generation of leadership. Indeed as the world becomes one through regional and global bodies such as the United Nations, leadership is expected to follow set of principles that give credence and regard to the respect of fundamental human rights (Nahavandi, 2012).
With the notion stated above, leaders who want to have their own way out with the rules will surely fail because they will be seen by the international worlds as going outside of the accepted order. There are clear examples with 20th century and 21st-century leaders who through wicked leadership such as the one advised by Machiavelli had to face global justice by being a drag to the international court of justice. In effect, I agree with Wittner on the fact that leadership in today’s era cannot be well-executed while holding on to the advice of Machiavelli because the world is becoming a more people-centered place rather than a leader centered place (Nahavandi, 2012).

Everyday Playtime For Adults By Zamora Dulce

According to Zamora, there are some inherent benefits of adults including leisure time and activities in their lives. Similarly, there are some negative impacts of not including leisure time in adults’ lives. Additionally, some factors determine the choice of play or leisure activities that will satisfactorily suit people’s plans and produce the most benefits to an individual.

This discussion will investigate the concept of leisure as discussed by Dulce Zamora, and outline some of the discussed benefits and limitations of including, or not including leisure time and activities in adults’ lives. Zamora recalls childhood behavior, activities and the role they play in the refreshing human mind. For instance, he says, “Remember creating mud pies as a child? Think of, how slimy the damp mud sensed between your fingers, and how you enjoyed designing the parties,” (Dillard 5). Alternatively, how about the moment you cycled your bicycle for hours about your environs, halting only when you felt exhausted.

Although, the moments of extreme fun when one could move around without restrictions may appear far away, and imaginary with the present day’s never-ending list of activities to perform, it may be achievable to bring back most of the childhood fun and enjoyment and integrate it into today’s adult busy schedules. Before wondering out how to incorporate leisure time into the busy schedules, it may aid to realize what you are attempting to fix, (Charlotte 10).

Experts suggest that, for anything to be attractive and pleasurable, freedom of choice and the view of control are crucial aspects. For instance, an individual who loves cooking of gourmet may not find enjoyment in making a meal that he feels attached to doing. Similarly, individuals who feel they should fix leisure time into their schedules may be hitting the goal.

Dingwell argues that individuals tend to go to extremities and fill even their vacation time with multiple activities and tasks they believe they should take part in, for instance, sports, parties and other social activities. Instead of concentrating on the crucial activities, they recommend ways, to relax, and having sympathy for ourselves.&nbsp.

Islamic poltical sceince and culture

Factors that impede the integration of Muslim immigrants in Western countries In the early post World War II period, there was mass immigration and general acceptance of Muslims in Europe as guest workers. This was particularly the case in France between 1945- 1973. Things have however changed in terms of Muslim immigrants’ integration in western countries. The obstacles to this issue are created by both immigrants and the receiving societies. The increasing cases of terrorism conspiracy associated with Muslim radicles explain the observed resistance against the Muslims in western nation. It has been observed that most of the Muslim immigrants groups up to form the greater terrorism network that keep expanding with increasing following and agents assigned in different countries (Cesari 87). This is the case of France which in recent past experienced violence perpetrated by Muslims affiliated terror groups against the Jews institutions. Some outlawed groups like Salafist influence in mosques and prayer rooms in France and enumerated 541 activists is seen as their infringement on security rules hence resistance towards integration.The 9/11 terror attack in the US has equally portray Muslims as a threat to peace and security hence the challenges of integration experienced by the Muslims community (Cesari 87).
The societies in western nations practice liberal lifestyle that significantly diverges from the Muslim culture which is more reserved. In USA for instance, the young generation leads a very vibrant secular lifestyle and this is likely to compromise their observation of the Muslim conservatives. The Muslim immigrant community living US has therefore found it really challenging to integrate in the big social culture of the liberal society. This is one major obstacle posed by the receiving society against the efforts of integration by the Muslim.
Work cited
Cesari, Jocelyne. Why the West Fears Islam: An Exploration of Muslims in Liberal Democracies. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Internet resource.

Give an account of the main rules of statutory interpretation and illustrate their operation by reference to decide cases do these rules provide a helpful guid

When comparing legislation with common law, statutes can change the set norms of common law but the common law can not overturn or change statutes. it can be modified by a later statute. There is a common belief that law is straightforward. actually it is not so. There are three rules being practiced by judges to interpret statutes (UK Law Online).
The golden rule – when literal interpretation leads to silliness, it is improvised to a less obvious meaning. Otherwise also, there could be policy implications arising out of literal interpretations.
The mischief rule – It defines the issue the Act was meant to resolve and decides on the interpretation which best suites the issue. Law Commission reports and Hansard – the journal of debates in Parliament – can also be consulted to decide the problem before the Act. Smith v Hughes (1871) LR 6 QB 597 is an example of the mischief rule (UK Law Online).
The literal approach is the default position that honours Parliamentary Sovereignty. It demands that judges enforce law and not make it. The purposive approach, based on the golden rule, is preferred in Europe and the ECJ while the literal approach of statutory interpretations is the preferred choice throughout in the UK (legal Easy, 2006).
In certain particular social policy implementations, the like of outlawing of sex discrimination, judges need to be flexible by using a more purposive approach (the golden or mischief rules) There is the case example of Pickstone v Freeman [1988] 2 All ER 803. The above approaches have wider applications. There are certain other rules of interpretation, which come under two sub categories (UK Law Online).
Rules of Language – The “eiusdem generic” rule – a Latin phrase, which means of the same kind: It states that normal words follow particular examples for getting meanings, and are not that general or ordinary after

How might current policy and service user/carer intervention strategies bring about changes necessary to ensure that appropriate services are provided in meeting the needs and changing demands of service users and carers

Facilitating such a procedure, will regularly lead to proper services of greater quality with augmented user satisfaction and compliance. Nevertheless, the extent and level of operational service user contribution in improving and changing services is unreliable. This can be both improvement and change in immediate services and in the attitudes and cultures of the staff and agencies who provide those services. Furthermore, user participation in education, training, and research are also significant for service improvement and change. The word service user is used to consist of the individuals using the social and health care services as patients.
Additionally, they can also be guardians, parents and carer. In addition, the term is used to denote to the communities and the organizations that symbolize the benefits of individuals. Lastly, it states that members of the community and public who are potential users of social care interventions and health care services. According to Biskin et al. (2012), current policies describing the procedures of how care should be implemented ensure that ethnicity, race, religion, sensory, sexuality, disability, culture, language, age, and impairment should not interfere with service delivery. The Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCIE) was formed by the government in the year 2001 to increase social care services for children and adults. This is achieved through noble practice and assisting to embed it in daily social care provision. SCIE works to improve the professionalism and skills of social care users through their user-friendly, targeted, and tailored resources. It also involves service users, providers, practitioners, policy makers, and carers in promoting and advancing noble practice in social care.
Furthermore, SCIE circulates knowledge-based noble practice guide. Apart from its repetition in several nationwide policy and strategic documents, it is

Embarrassing Moment The Experience of Moving from Palestine to the United States

51250 Still new to the city, entering into this unfamiliar situation compounded my generalized anxiety. I knew nothing about modeling and this soon became abundantly clear.&nbsp. “Hi” I sheepishly said. He seemed preoccupied and instructed me to go with his assistants to an adjacent room. Everyone at the studio moved confident and efficiently as if this was the industry standard. As I walked into the adjacent room I was surrounded by a group of people who measured my size and then hold up a dress. I could feel the eyes of the other people in the room staring intently at me waiting. Slowly I felt a thrust of blood shoot throughout my face, as I nervously tightened my hands into fists as if it might stabilize my embarrassment. They were going to undress me.&nbsp. I wasn’t sure if I should leave or submit to the process. I knew that I felt such an acute embarrassment at not being aware of this part of the photography session that I nearly passed out. Was I being violated? Did this happen to all models? Whether it was the pressure of the social situation or simply a naïve trust, I turned around and let them remove my clothing and fit me with the ew dress. Once I had the new dress on the embarrassment exited my face and knees and I quickly regained my composure. As I walked back into the studio, the photographer and camera crew were there waiting. “Beautiful,” he said upon seeing me. He took a series of photographs and then they ushered me back into the changing room.

Anxiety and depression

Anxiety and Depression The article "Friendship Ties in the Church and Depressive Symptoms: Exploring Variations by Age" tries to examine the relationship between friends in the church and depressive symptoms (Swenson, 2008). It has three hypotheses in which it attempts to relate age, church-going and stress or depression levels. The data provided by the nationwide study reveals that older people do not have more friends in the church as compared to the young people. It shows that having friends in the church reduces depression levels amongst the adults only (Swenson, 2008).
My reaction to the findings is supportive. Old people are few in churches due to massive push or roles they have in the society. Church consumes a considerable of the time which is thought to productive time. Wealth creation is a major call for any person. Most people do have time for their families as they consider money as the greatest assets while still alive. I agree with low number of old people in the church since churches experiences fluctuating or reducing number of goers as family income decreases. For the people who go to church, they have much of their depression relieved. I agree that church going reduces depression in the old people. That is because church-going creates a break in the cyclic or periodic flow of days as people converge together and make time for one another to share their problems.
Reduction in depression levels for the church going older people is high as compared to the church going children since problems of the children are different as compared to the old people. I agree with all of them. My personal life experiences help illuminate on agreement on the findings of the research, since when attend church services, I feel closer to people who give me hope, help me in solving my problems that range from finances to social problems. In the church, I am assured of a new close relation which is the church even in case where my relatives are far away from me. Church is highly important in reduction of fear, doubt and many other things that cause depression. I can integrate my biblical faith and principles regarding Jesus’ life while in earth. he was persecuted, humiliated and killed for my burdens. My counselling client does not have any reason to feel depressed as Jesus took them all.
Swenson, D. (2008). Religion and family links: Neofunctionalist reflections. New York: Springer.

Personal Academic and Career Effectiveness

Taking up a business course at the university is just one step towards my dream.&nbsp. Further honing my skills and potentials with a Masters degree in Business Administration will surely take me to where I want in my career life.&nbsp.
Doing this exercise in Personal and Career Effectiveness has made me learn so many things about myself, as a lot of reflection and introspection are entailed.&nbsp. I am still young. I know, many habits have been formed already in me, but I am a firm believer that everyone can change or adapt to changes around them.&nbsp. I would like to believe that I am still malleable.&nbsp. I am still a work in progress, searching for the best way to grow and be the person I have always wanted to be.&nbsp. The tests I have taken have been sounding boards of my personality and seeing the results revealed a lot about who I am.&nbsp.
To dive into a successful career, many factors are considered.&nbsp. One is managing time effectively.&nbsp. I have been put in situations when multi-tasking was necessary and sometimes I lose my focus on one thing or the other.&nbsp. Apart from school work, I have to spend time with my family no matter the distance, and of course, maintain a social life. I believe establishing a network of friends from various circles will be beneficial for me not only for my personal growth but for my professional contacts as well.
Handout 7 indicates how I manage my time. I learned that I let important tasks slip because I waste so much time on more trivial things.&nbsp. In answering the handout, I resolved to do the following things to better manage my time: to be more focused, to set priorities and to set my goals and objectives for every week.&nbsp. I know that it is more manageable to get myself week per week rather than plan a whole set of goals for a longer period of time.
Stress is another factor I have to contend.&nbsp. Handout 8 made me realize just how stressed I really was! Generally, stress is what one feels when the demands on his life exceed his ability to meet those demands. The stressor may be external, such as pressing deadlines, or, it may be an internal stressor such as a feeling of inadequacy to handle the tasks or loss of self-confidence. &nbsp.So far, my stressors have been the heavy load of assignments and exams for school, my anxiety for getting good grades, and maintaining good relationships with my family and friends.&nbsp. I learn how to cope with the various stressors and turn them into motivators so I could cope with the struggles of studying in a foreign country.&nbsp. Coping is expected to be consistent with a determination of whether anything can be done to change the situation. For example, problem-focused coping is expected to be used in situations appraised as unchangeable. Ultimately, the individual’s choice of a coping mechanism is determined by his perceptions of personal control over the stressful situation. Personal control `reflects an individuals’ beliefs, at a given point in time, in his or her ability to effect change in the desired direction on the environment’. Coping outcomes at least partially depend on the goodness of between appraisal and coping.

Rite of Passage in the Western Culture

At every important point of a person’s life, a rite of passage helps in the transition from one phase to another.
The concept of rite of passage has appealed to many sociologist and anthropologists such as Arnold van Gennep who formed the term rite of passage and gave the different ceremonies practised in different religions and societies, a common word. Gennep further categorized the three phases in three phases, namely separation, transition and incorporation. Gennep through studying the different ceremonies in different religions and societies had been able to find a common ground in all these ceremonies by studying the underlying concept in these rites of passage.
Rite of passage in different races, religions and societies differ but they usually celebrate the same events in an individual’s life but in different ways. Similarly, the rite of passage of the west differs from that of the east and the rite of passage of Christianity differs from that of Islam. In this paper, we attempt to analyze the concept behind the rite of passage and the western ways of conducting rites of passage.
Rite of passage can be likened to Shakespeare’s ‘Seven ages of man’, where a man changes drastically from one stage of another. From the time an individual is born to the time when he is buried, the rite of passage helps him in a smooth movement from one transition to another. According to Victor Turner, rites of passage can be divided into two broad categories, those that ‘accompany the passage of a person from one social status to another and (those that) mark recognized points in the passage of time, such as new year, new moon, Passover and so forth’ (Klingbeil, 2007). Thus rites of passage are both religious and social.
Religious rite of passage includes the rituals that are carried forward from endless times and differ in each religion to a certain extent. One can find similarities between the&nbsp.religious rites of passage of different religions in the way that they celebrate the same events.&nbsp.

Assessment of Agency Performance Social Work

It is for such reasons that the Centre has been accredited by Commission on Accreditation of Rehabilitation Facilities. The management of the center has also played an integral part in improving the performance of the organization. The leadership skills of the managers is worth noting since it is such characteristics that help boost the productivity of the staff members and the organization in general.
One of the functioning of an organization is the leadership approaches that the management team employs. Transformational leadership is the best approach used by leaders to improve the performance of organizations. It entails the acquisition of power and a positive manner that in order to ensure change is brought about through the use of support and resources. This approach views the support staff allies that are necessary in bringing about change in an organization. A transformational leader is willing and able to take risks to change conventional beliefs and wisdom. They often show commitment and dedication in their endeavors and also share their belief in the vision of the organization (Hardina, 2006).
These characteristics play an integral part in motivating the staff members or other stakeholders of an organization. By building a sense of community among stakeholders of an organization and sharing the vision and goals of an organization, employees are motivated since they feel they are actively involved in the operations of the organization. The transformational leader works together with these staff members to create the objectives and goals of the organization so that implementation becomes easy due to their involvement in the policy making stages.
Sharing power among the participants in an organization as well as interacting with them plays a pivotal part in transforming the behavior of the leader as well as the employees. Change is necessary in

Organ Trade Issue

Because of the unexpected accidents and diseases or other life tragedies, many people lose some of their organs and often fell in troubles. For example, eyes are important organs in our body. Even when either one of the eyes loses its ability to see, it is difficult for us to see things properly. The case of ears is also not different. The kidney is another organ which is necessary for filtering out impurities from our body. All the humans have two kidneys, but only one is necessary to perform all the purification acts of our body. It is possible for a person with a defective kidney to transplant one from another person in order to lead a successful life. In other words, some of the defective human organs can be replaced with a new one if somebody agrees to donate one. Organ trade is a common thing in the current world nowadays. Many people argue in favor of and against organ trade citing different social, economic and ethical reasons. This paper argues in favor of organ trade after analyzing the pros and cons of the issue. In other words, buying and selling in human organs should be legalized under certain conditions.&nbsp.
Chris Chew (2007) has mentioned that the most controversial topics of ethical debates about organ trades are about the procurement and distribution of human organs for transplant and are centered on the questions of how do we get the organs and how do we decide who will receive organ transplants? (Chew). It is a fact that the creator has created only the necessary organs for the humans. For example, even if a human can survive with the help of one kidney alone, God has created another one as a substitute in case of a failure to either of the kidneys. Under such circumstances, if a person donates or sells one kidney for saving the life of another one, he is playing with his life.

Peer pressure

Peer Pressure Introduction Peer pressure& perceived& a major&nbsp.cause&nbsp.of&nbsp.unusual&nbsp.behavior among many young people. The term& used& many people, including teenagers, may behave in ways that go against their&nbsp.belief&nbsp.or values because of the&nbsp.fear&nbsp.of&nbsp.being rejected& their peers. Peer pressure demands that a person conforms to group norms and&nbsp.demonstrate&nbsp.his or her&nbsp.commitment&nbsp.and&nbsp.loyalty& other group members. This can be the pressure from their friends or those who are close whom they interact with in their daily life. In this process of peer influence, friends adapt to each other’s preferences and interests leading to a shared&nbsp.outlook&nbsp.on their world. In most cases, a young person’s personal values&nbsp.are altered&nbsp.and shaped by his peer group so as to increase his&nbsp.similarity&nbsp.with the other group members. Peer groups are usually well established in most high schools, workplaces and members of the& pressure to the new members joining the group.
Friendship among teenagers is one of the most&nbsp.important&nbsp.factors during development. Friendship gives them& to discover their identity and experience a sense of belonging. It also cultivates their social skills&nbsp.relevant&nbsp.for their future success. On the contrary,&nbsp.friendship&nbsp.can&nbsp.influence&nbsp.them negatively or positively whereby they end up submitting to negative or positive peer&nbsp.influence. Young people&nbsp.become&nbsp.influenced because of their self-image and self esteem. This serves as a&nbsp.motive&nbsp.for them to&nbsp.identify&nbsp.with groups that they& groups that will&nbsp.accept&nbsp.them. Those dimensions of the&nbsp.self&nbsp.that&nbsp.are valued& one’s own peer group become&nbsp.very&nbsp.outstanding& each young person’s self-assessment.&nbsp.
Positive Peer Pressure
Some peer pressure can be&nbsp.good. This& measured& their outcome whereby positive&nbsp.influence&nbsp.of friends& seen& play&nbsp.important&nbsp.roles among the lives of peers. Positive peers&nbsp.set&nbsp.good&nbsp.examples among themselves, and they tend& become&nbsp.good&nbsp.role models for each other. They can influence each other on goal oriented activities such as working together in&, discussing problems and personal issues together that can help one to make&nbsp.good&nbsp.decisions, listening to each other, offering&nbsp.good&nbsp.advice and developing a positive&nbsp.culture&nbsp.among others. Positive peer pressure can be used to encourage and promote social behavior, because as observed peers can have a&nbsp.powerful&nbsp.effect&nbsp.on self-esteem. Well accepted children can&nbsp.display&nbsp.positive&nbsp.academic skills, social behavior and even leadership qualities, while those who are less accepted&nbsp.tend& levels of academic performance and aggressive behaviors (Newman &amp. Newman, 296). The positive peer groups may also be involved in clubs such as sports and religious groups, which helps them to&nbsp.shape&nbsp.their values and social skills.
Negative peer pressure
Adolescents can&nbsp.submit& pressure from their peers and get involved in high risk activities and other&nbsp.unacceptable&nbsp.behaviors and attitudes. This could be in relation to their hobbies,&nbsp.interest&nbsp.and&nbsp.entertainment. These activities may pressure one into doing&nbsp.uncomfortable&nbsp.activities that&nbsp.include&nbsp.the use of drugs and alcohol, violence against other, stealing and shoplifting, being disrespectful, being oppositional, breaking and destroying things, use of cigarettes and having sex before one is&nbsp.ready&nbsp.among others (Dorfman &amp. Hersen, 322). A teenager in such peer groups that drink alcoholic beverages and abuse drugs&nbsp.will be influenced&nbsp.and conformed to those habits. Teenagers who are in these peer groups&nbsp.suppress&nbsp.some of their&nbsp.individuality&nbsp.and find&nbsp.pleasure& focusing on the attributes they share with those peers. Therefore, they end up losing their value to&nbsp.suite& the&’s demands. The impact of this negative influence is that teenagers&nbsp.get& do destructive,&nbsp.unhealthy&nbsp.and&nbsp.illegal&nbsp.things which may&nbsp.ruin&nbsp.the rest of their lives. They may end up in jail, physically injured and become addicted the rest of their lives.&nbsp.
As members of peer groups, young people have more influence than they would have as&nbsp.single&nbsp.individuals. This is because they begin to understand the&nbsp.value&nbsp.of these&nbsp.collective&nbsp.groups and structures. In identifying with these groups, young people develop the feelings of&nbsp.connection&nbsp.and& loneliness. In order to avoid the impacts the negative peer influences against teenagers, it would be&nbsp.important&nbsp.if they identified with positive peer groups. Parents and school staff should also work together and establish effective strategies for that purpose. The school can&nbsp.offer&nbsp.counseling to the adolescents on the&nbsp.need&nbsp.of positive peer&nbsp.influence, while the parents can& their children from adolescence to&nbsp.maturity& listening to them and offering them emotional support.
Work Cited
Dorfman, William I., and Michel Hersen. Understanding psychological assessment. New York:
Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2001. Print.
Newman, Barbara M., and Philip R. Newman. Development through life: a psychosocial
approach. 11th ed. Belmont, Calif.: Cengage Learning, 20122011. Print.

Motivating the Academically Unmotivated

If free from biological urges, they consume most of their energy and concentration on activities they find fascinating. For prolonged periods of time, they arrange and then rearrange blocks, dress dolls, push cartons, drain jam jars, hurl balls, or play with their dinosaurs. They repeatedly do these play activities without nudges or stimulation. in fact, they at times persist despite nudges or stimulation on the opposite.
For parents, this can be simultaneously rewarding and disturbing. Since interest is an influential motivator, children take pleasure from the activities that constantly arouse their interests and they gain knowledge about their world by doing so. However, they sometimes carry on with these activities rather than accomplishing other stuff that parents deem more essential for learning or social harmony. In actual fact, children may refuse to give in and become bad-tempered when their parents attempt to steer their attention away from the activities that interest them the most (Renninger, 1992).
Nevertheless, young children are not mere ones who are motivated through interest. Even grown-ups can become entirely engrossed in an activity that is devoid of payoff apart from the gratification they experience while in the course of the activity. Most frequently, such immersion takes place in leisure pursuits. to be precise people on average pursue crafts primarily because of enthusiasm in the activities. However, interest can additionally be an essential motivator in one’s occupation. Indeed, since people who are interested in their work are characteristically committed to better completion of work-related tasks, several behavioral specialists have been investigating how to make jobs more motivating for individuals (Hackman &amp. Oldham, 1980). Though, adults’ behaviors are less frequently motivated wholly by interest than are children’s, for the reason.

Ethical Criteria and its relationship with business negotiation

The main ethical criteria in businesses are utilitarian, universalism, categorical imperative, justice views, individualism, and social justice relativism and their relation to business negations.
One of the ethical criteria is the Utilitarian criterion in which a business executive makes decisions solely based on the outcomes and consequences. Many businesses use the criterion to make decisions in the provision of the greatest good and for the greatest number. The criterion ensures that the decisions made create efficiency for the organization as it struggles to achieve its goals (Ferrell &amp. Gresham, 1985). The method also aims at increasing the productivity of the business resulting in high profits of the company or the business enterprise. When a business executive maximizes profits, he can support his action that the decision he made as for the good of the organization. The use of Unitarianism leads to productivity and efficiency in an organization but can make the executive ignore the rights of some stakeholders especially the minority group making them feel unaccepted. The users of the criterion feel that they need to protect the organizations interest and the shareholders. Businesses require the stakeholders to hold negotiations especially when making important decisions. The criterion does not allow free negotiations and discussions by the company’s stakeholders as a single individual makes the decision for the benefit of the company. The choice of the action to be taken is determined by the largest number of stakeholders supporting it.
The categorical Imperative involves the universal practice such that everyone is allowed to practice the proposed action. Kant developed the criterion and individuals wishing to use the criterion or the test should know that they would need to adopt the morality of the action. The morality of the action is the key to the adoption of the test, and

Theory and Practice of Social Case Work

Social casework is identified as a form of ‘one to one relationship’ based on which social workers make efforts in terms of understanding the factors resulting to complications within human lives (Sajid, 2012. Schwartz &amp. et. al., 1975. Richmond, 1922).
In this context, to adopt social casework in practice, I would perform social casework with the assistance of social workers in the community. The practice of social casework would be based on certain procedure that includes assessment, study, evaluation and application of appropriate procedures based on which social casework activities are to be conducted. Additionally, the practice of social casework should be conducted in accordance with guiding principles and standards that include ethical values and knowledge among others (National Association of Social Workers, 2013. Perlman, 1957. NCBI, n.d.).

It can be comprehended that social casework acts as a comprehensive tool in terms of developing the overall situation of individuals having difficulties in aligning with the surrounding environment both in terms of physical and social perspective. In this regard, the practice of social casework is required to be conducted on the basis of certain procedure, so that care and treatment are offered appropriately.

American Family Victim of Media Craze

If you add some feelings to this definition you can say that a family is a unit where a father and a mother, along with their parents live together in a loving environment to nurture, develop and bring up their children with the intention of making a home happy and beautiful place to live in. Am I defining an American family in my dreams? Because looking at the news and articles in media, it seems that family is not a beautiful place but a hell. But no, I am not dreaming, as no matter what media says, the family is a beautiful and loving unit and home is a beautiful place.

We are living in a media crazy world. Whatever is shown on the T.V. is considered true even without cross-checking the facts or the authenticity of the report. And not just that, but we also blindly believe the interpretations made by the reporters of a particular event. The thing called ‘family’ has become a victim to the malicious reports and the interpretations being made about it in the media.

Anne Kress and Suellyn Winkle, editors of Next Text, in their short introduction in the article, “The Changing Landscape of Family”, have portrayed a horrible scenario of the social changes and have gone to an extent of saying that family does not exist. They have used problems like same-sex marriages, children being brought up in live-in relationships, separation of family members due to migration for job, love or adventure and single parenting, to suggest that families do not exist anymore. But is this a true picture? They have made a comparison to a photograph taken in 1973 of a family showing a happy, content and exciting re-union of a family and they say that this kind of family does not exist. Well, we can only say that this kind of family still does exist. The only difference is that no photographer has taken a good picture enough of today’s American family to win a Pulitzer prize for it!

The issues raised by Kress and Winkle are not completely untrue.

The Sorrow and the Pity Film by Marcel Ophuls

The movie is directed by Marcel Ophuls, a son of one of the greatest German film director named Marcel Ophuls, whose inquiring and research-based documentaries earned him international fame. The budget of the movie was estimated at around $160,000 equivalent to that in the year 1972. The Sorrow and the pity documentary is based on a view that during World War II, France was the only state which collaborated and de Gaulle’s Free French in the UK were in the awkward situation as the government of France was not in a state of exile. The strongest point of the movie is that it shows the reality and the idea was completely innovative to show the interviews of the people who actually were present at the time of such chaos and destruction. The real stories are described in the film.

The Sorrow and the Pity movie include the interviews of the French and German who played a major or minor part in the war. The idea behind the movie was to bring in front the truth about the collaboration of France with Nazis. The documentary, which is more than four hours long was shot in Clermont Ferrand, a town in France. Marcel Ophuls’ view about the movie is that those who have not undergone the pain, damage, and grief of occupying power can never know how it feels so they have no right to judge a nation that endured the horrors and terror of the war. The fundamental point of the movie is the forbearance and complacent of the people under the control of another power in their state. The Sorrow and the Pity is one of the greatest documentary ever made.

The film is based on World War II, the destruction caused by the war and the people affected by the war. The movie was about the physical and social division of France. The Germans with their war weapons and machined easily conquered France and it was not shown that it’s any of a big deal for the Nazi Germans to have control over France. As shown in the movie the basic concern of the people under the war was to have food for them to eat.&nbsp.

The Legal Drinking Age

A decision to cap the drinking age at twenty-one years on the basis of the fatalities of the transportation sector is an unbalanced decision. The government should consider a position that will lower the age to a more general and acceptable level. This is to mitigate the negative effects of a high threshold in the drinking age.
The age between 16 and 21 years is an age bracket that experiences a lot of social activities. This is because, at this age, the associations and groupings are much stronger than in other ages. Furthermore, these groups normally experience a development stage, referred to as adolescence. This stage is characterized by the disobedience of these young people, and the desire to experience some forms of life, and this includes the drinking of alcohol. Therefore if not well counseled, young people between these ages may become addicts to alcohol or other drugs. Furthermore, the impact of individual behavior on the other persons and delinquency is very high at this time. Reckless driving and accidents are not totally related to the consumption of alcohol (Mortensen, 1999). There are several contributing factors that lead to the cause of such accidents and not merely the consumption of alcohol. These factors may include the recklessness of a pedestrian, driving a faulty vehicle, poor road network, or even inappropriate weather conditions. These factors may also lead to the emergence of a road accident.
However, the psychological impact of the consumption of alcohol is the major reason that drives most critics to believe that alcohol is a major cause of accidents among teenagers (Lindenbaum et. al. 1988). What these critics or any other person of the same school of thought fail to realize is that the psychological impacts of alcohol are similar within different ages. In fact, there is a small or negligible difference between the impacts caused by age (Seaman, 2010). Therefore&nbsp.denying the young people between the age of 18 and 20 years the right to use alcohol is not a solution to the problems caused by alcoholism within the society.

Entrepreneur Manager and Owner

This person is responsible for establishing a new entity or unit so that the establishment could provide an existing product or service into the form of a single new market, which could have a profit or non-profit result. The entrepreneurs have strong insights as regards to the opportunities that exist within the market and the threats that come as a result of the very same. The risks that could arise in the wake of these include personal, financial or professional ones so that opportunity could be grabbed with both hands. (Martin, Routledge, 1997)
In societies found within the United Kingdom, business entrepreneurs are regarded as the pivotal components of social order. (Covin, 1999) Entrepreneur manages and runs an organization and manages the different undertakings of the enterprise. This enterprise could be a business that is normally associated with peculiar initiatives and foreseeable risks. An entrepreneur is also an employer of productive work or in other words of labor. He is also the contractor who deals with or initiates the process of entrepreneurship. The entrepreneur is the person who is responsible for running the system which is in place in a normal process. He is the one who organizes the whole process. Entrepreneur creates or sells a product and/or service so that he could earn a considerable profit/benefit. The entrepreneur is the risk bearer and an organizer within the business enterprise. More than anything else, an entrepreneur is a leader by sheer definition. An entrepreneur wants to achieve high since his ambitions are always at the top. He is a person who believes in dedication and hard work. These people like to work for their own selves rather than working for some other business. They believe in the quality of work and take acceptance for the responsibility which is a hallmark of a true leader. These entrepreneurs believe in a positive approach and give rewards whenever they deem fit.

Factors Influencing the Consumption of Health Supplement Products among Those Concerned with Slimness

Modern Thai society has acquired food habits that are typical of the fast-paced modern lifestyles of many developed countries.

A considerable amount of attention is focused on what root causes underlie the type of peculiar behavior among an increasing number of Thais, both young and old, to purchase and use costlier health supplement products. why do they behave in this manner. how do they get hooked on these products. in which context, when and where do they find them to be necessary for addition to their daily intake of meals. and who are these consumers, i.e. consumer typology? In other words what theoretical constructs and empirical evidence would be required to build up the contingency model for the study of this behavioral tendency among Thais, including their socio-economic and cultural backdrop? (Roitner-Schobesberger, Darnhofer, Somsook and Vogl, 2008).

The primacy and immediacy of modern lifestyles in the developed world in particular and the developing world, in general, are basically determined by a series of endogenous and exogenous factors. Thai society has not been an exception to this rule. Among endogenous factors attitudes and family life occupy a very important place while exogenous factors include social, economic and cultural transformation. Thai society as it is with intricate social, economic and cultural interlinks acquires a modern dimension in food habits and health consciousness among an ever-rising influential middle class. It’s against this backdrop that the current study would focus attention on the primacy and immediacy of lifestyles and associated concerns about health. The psychological dimension of the study would focus on the attitudinal perspectives of Thais nowadays on the need to look healthy. Healthy lifestyles are not necessarily determined through a priori behavioral patterns ( Neither do they occur as a result of predetermined individual choices?

Juvenile Crime in the USA

IThe changing relationships within the family and society are one of the major reasons for the increase in juvenile crimes. Family construction was entirely different during the 19 and the early half of the 20 century. The parents were respected by the children and on the other hand, parents provided immense care and attention to the children during that period. But the latter half of the 20 the century and the beginning of the 21 st century has witnessed several changes in family relationships. Most of the parents started to concentrate more on their professional commitments and social responsibilities by leaving their children behind unnoticed and uncared. Children during their early stages definitely need the attention of their parents for their physical and mental developments and the reluctance of the parents in looking after their children contributed heavily to juvenile crimes.
(Office of Justice Programs)
From the above graph, it is clear that juvenile crime rates were started to increase from 1960 onwards. Between 1975 and 1985 it was almost steady, but thereafter it again started to increase and reached its peak around 1997. The form then onwards it started to decline and at present is almost steady.
“Based on the FBI’s Supplemental Homicide Report (SHR) data, 15,530 persons were murdered in the U.S. in 1999—the lowest number since 1969. Between 1980 and 1999, most victims of murders involving juvenile offenders were male (83%)” (Snyder)
The causes of Juvenile Crimes and violence
"Children who grow up with only one parent are at increased risk of becoming juvenile criminals because these children frequently receive less adult supervision and may not form strong human attachments during infancy, they may not develop empathy and self-control " (Morse, p. 32). Single parenthood is described as the major cause of increasing juvenile crimes and violence.&nbsp.

Mandatory drug testing for welfare recipients

As a result, several Acts to support mandatory drug testing were introduced in order to reduce drug abuse by social welfare recipients. This paper will examine the issue of mandatory drug testing for welfare recipients and further explain why the testing policy is not effective.
To start with, the social welfare programs were initiated based on the values and beliefs held by the American society. According to Segal, religious and social beliefs held by the American people championed the need for social welfare system (10). For example, popular religions in the period of 1930s included protestant Christians who believed on biblical teachings that society members should support each other. However, Segal points out that evolution of both social and religious beliefs has not been smooth and the current policies governing the social welfare represent the conflicting values and beliefs (11). For instance, introduction of mandatory drug testing to the social welfare beneficiaries is good from a social perspective because it is aimed to better the social status of the recipients. However, mandatory drug testing does not sound good on religious point of view because most religions have a view that the needy people in the society should be helped without conditions.
Surprisingly, mandatory drug testing has gained popularity in several states of U.S since the introduction of Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) in 1996 that aimed to improve the intended goals of social welfare programs. Several states in the U.S saw the importance of increasing the productivity and responsibility of citizens receiving social welfare support and hence introduced the legislation of mandatory drug testing. According to the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), “in 2009, over 20 states proposed legislation that would require drug testing” as a basis to determine eligibility for the benefits from social welfare programs (1).This was

The Role of the Chorus in Euripides Play

Whether this is true or not, the fact remains that the chorus has been an irreplaceable element of Greek drama although its role steadily diminished as the part of the actors has expanded through the years. The chorus consists of a group of characters, usually cast as a group of elders or young women and that they comment or interpret the events of the story and express an opinion to the audience. This paper will explore the role of the chorus in four of the most famous of Euripides plays – Alcestis, Medea, Electra, and the Bacchae – particularly in how they differ and the significance of such differences.

Alcestis is one of the earliest surviving plays penned by Euripides. The chorus played a significant role. It was instrumental in expressing Euripides’ sympathy for women. The storyline followed the events that started after King Admetus of Thessaly learns from the Fates, goddesses responsible for determining the life span of each individual, that his time has expired. But the king was allowed the opportunity to substitute anyone who will die in his place. It was his wife who agreed to take his place.

According to Jacqueline de Romilly (1985), the chorus is in a position to elicit the religious meaning of the action and to punctuate it with prayers at the same time. it is easily used to represent the group – citizenry or army – whose fate is tied to that of the actors. (p. 48) In Alcestis, this became true for Euripides. In the play, the chorus was given the role of announcing Alcestis’ future celebration in song and her coming worship as a heroine. She has already gained the status, the chorus claimed, of a Makaira daimon or a blessed spirit and that she will be addressed as potential but viewed as divine.

It was in this play wherein the chorus still took a prominent role. It delivered the play’s central message that of Alcestis’ usurpation of the male role of protecting the reputation of the house while Admetus was alienated from every social role normal for men.

“CSR &amp

Ethical Practice" One advantage of business ethics is that it helps an organisation to achieve competitive advantage (Shaw, Barry, &amp. Panagiotou, 2010). A company that engages in ethically sound business practices improves customer loyalty and trust. In this case, the consumers become loyal to the brand even if the company is facing difficult financial times. Therefore, companies will always set their ethical standards depending on organizational values. In the long run, consumer confidence increases with ethical responsibility. According to Carroll (2013), the underlying assumption is that business ethics benefits the society since it is the main basis for social responsibility among organisations. On the other hand, business ethics leads to more accountability and integrity in the organisation. The implication is that sound business ethics obligate company employees to become more responsible in certain operations like financial reporting (Choi, &amp. Pae, 2011).
Another remarkable strength of business ethics is that it makes organisations realise that their success is more than profitability (Carroll, 2013). Some of the models of business reporting like the triple bottom line approach came up as a result of business ethics and corporate social responsibility. In this case, companies focus their reporting on people, planet, and profit (Slaper, &amp. Hall, 2011). Therefore, ethically companies have the obligation to report their financial performance, environmental as well as social performance. The triple bottom line approach recommends that company survival depends on their ability to make profits, encourage sustainable and ethical business conducts (Henriques, &amp. Richardson, 2013). The underlying assumption is that business ethics is a prerequisite for sustaining an investment. Consumers have confidence on the company that protect environment and contribute to the well-being of the society (Choi, &amp. Pae, 2011).
On the contrary, business ethics has a negative effect

The importance of banqueting and what type of events there are and how banqueting fits in

Banquet has become an important part of our culture these days. Banquet is a large meal, consisting of a desert. It is a formal dinner given on the occasions of weddings, birthdays, betrothals. The reason why I consider that it has become a part of culture is the fact that the all formal events end with a banquet, and it is considered very odd that if the occasion does not end with a banquets or a large three course meal. Banqueting, therefore, has become really important, whether it be formal events or informal events. The importance of banqueting is that marks the end of any formal event and the guest is not considered affluent or generous if banqueting is missing from his event. Many guests introduce each other during a banquet and thus one can consider banqueting as a social event. Here you meet new people and make friends. Even the marketers, now days, use banqueting to promote and advertise their products. Many marketers even hold lucky draws and other brand activities during a banquet and all of this signifies the great importance that banqueting holds for people of our generation.
A special event is a one-time event and does not recur on a continuing basis. This makes it unique and it basically held for the purpose of ground breaking, grand opening or other significant moments in life. Concerts and job fairs are also considered as special programme because they cannot be repeated or reproduced.
Since, special events are one-time events, special management techniques are required to make these events a success. Many people suffer from improper management of these events which kills the purpose of these events. Therefore, planning these events is the key. You need to make sure that you have the resources and manpower to arrange and successfully host the event. A good starting point in the event management is developing a check list of the resources that you need. A written checklist is important because it can be referred to in the future and important details are not forgotten. Once the event is successfully stage, you need to take some time after the event to evaluate the significance of the event, that is how well it was hosted and stage. For this, a written document is better because you can write down the details while still fresh, reducing the chances that you forget your mistake and they might reoccur again. These steps make events unique and fulfill the purpose of holding special events.
Banqueting fits in any event as a closing gesture, and signifies the end of an event. The food that is to be served has to be carefully selected in order to make the event more meaningful. For example, ending a formal event with fast food will leave a bad impression on your guests and vice versa. If your entire event is held brilliantly but your banquet leaves a bad mark on your guest, then this will lead to failure of the entire event. Hence, a host needs to be really carefully in selecting and matching the banquet with the event.
Joe Goldblatt. (2001). Special Events: Twenty First Century Global Event Management. Willey
Richard Daft. (1994). Management. Dryden Publishing
Nancy Scanlon. (1992). Catering Menu Management. John Willey and Sons
Nancy Scanlon. (2006). Catering Management. Willey

Research with Children

So keeping in mind the importance of children related researches, in this paper I shall discuss and identify the various barriers in participatory children’s research methods which I find to be most hazardous. Further, I shall attempt to gauge the difficulty level in overcoming them for the researchers involved. To evaluate these obstructions. I need to first discuss my own understanding of both cultural and institutional barriers.
Cultural barriers are a result of varying (not necessarily one) culture and its reflective beliefs about children. These beliefs form major ideological notions of what being a child constitutes, what behaviors are to be expected, what are to be punished, and consequently in what manner adults should handle children. These impediments arise in researches done amongst all nations and materialize in different child-identity arrangements. Amongst the most common ones are that children are ‘innocent’ and ‘naive’. This translates to the assumption that children are not reliable sources of knowledge. Their responses are not to be taken seriously since they lack enough knowledge to make meaningful observances.
Parents play a major role in these scenarios. A number of social factors shape parents notions and expectations, and these may be challenged if children are given equal opportunities as adults to participate. For this reason, ensuring child participation means ensuring parental satisfaction (Ray, et al., 2010)
Institutional barriers are those barriers in which institutions such as schools and governments place limits on child participation and hence hinder the space left for researches to explore in. Unlike cultural barriers, these are harder to overcome. Since they involve a larger number of people and usually governmental policies and laws, they need to be kept in accordance with. One such example of this is the case of ‘informed consent’. Various countries deal with this separately and allot children of certain ages of legal/illegal statuses which allow them to be independent&nbsp.determiners or subject to their parents’ wishes as minors.

The Enron Companys Situation of Downfall

Enron’s former CEO Jeffrey K. Skilling and ex CFO Andrew S. Fastow produced and carried out business thoughts that created major problems, that could not be solved either ethically or legally thus causing the downfall of the organization. For this purpose, the company was created to be an asset-light company as its risk management and trading skills were applied to assets heavy outsiders. In order to maintain its high credit rating and raising more capital, most of its assets were relocated by Enron into complex off-the-book special-purpose units. The key players in this fraud, the top management, preferred their own short-term fiscal profits and stakeholder deceit that destroyed not only their business, social and personal reputations, and position. Being pressured by Enron’s senior management, Arthur Anderson and Vinson and Elkins aided it in its deceit. Thus the fundamental source of fraud was the neglect of organizational and individual integrity capacity.

The moral infrastructure at Enron lacked the system integrity capacity that’s why could not constrain the development of such fraudulent, immoral and illegal activities.
In order to avoid such frauds in the future, the managerial legal duties scope should be enhanced to comprise the democratic participation of institutionalized stakeholder in corporate governance. All level employees and stakeholders should be made accountable for their immoral conduct. An ethical culture should be developed in an organization that is supported by all the member of the organization. Such immoral acts should be firmly penalized at all levels and ensured that their reoccurrence is minimized. Employee survey should be taken periodically to ensure that such acts can be reported from all levels within the organization. Whistleblowers should be encouraged and rewarded.

Structural Functionalist Theory to Homosexuality as Deviant Behaviour

The social roots of delinquency have been analyzed using theories developed by sociologists as well as criminologists. Some of them view delinquency as a function of one individual while others describe it from the macro-level of societal structure (Bernard 1984). The theories that will be presented here will be applicable to analyze of crime and delinquency in society. Society has embedded many ideas promoting success in life. It puts a large emphasis on money, power, commodities, and material goods to prove who we are and how much one has accomplished. Unfortunately, we are all given the idea that success is one universal lifestyle and we should all aim to work towards it. However, only a few have the means to attain these goals. In this paper, I will discuss the correlation between social classes and delinquency. It is important to find the root of the delinquency in order to start eliminating it, leading to a brighter future for those in a lower-class, enabling the youth to have fair opportunities in society. It is a widespread opinion that youth from lower socioeconomic class is more open for delinquency and crime. Through the theories of such sociologists as Merton, Cohen, Cloward and Ohlin I will try to prove that this opinion is right. The strain theory is similar to the structural functionalism and argues that “people who commit crimes have basically the same values as everybody else.., however, the avenues for the achievement of success are greatly restricted for people in the lower class. Thus, they are faced with a cruel dilemma: either they abandon the major American values of success and prosperity or they abandon another – obedience of the law” (Leighninger 331).
Strain theory is mainly applied to juvenile delinquency among the boys of the lower class and is based on the idea that the value of success they have is shared with the larger culture, but the stratified socialization makes it impossible to compete effectively.

The Activities of Career Development Involving DecisionMaking Processes and Planning

Self-efficacy involves making a person makes a judgment on the ability to perform certain tasks. Unlike self-esteem that makes reflections on an individual’s worth or value, self-efficacy determines the confidence in an individual towards accomplishing certain tasks and reaching certain goals. A number of perspectives exist in the study of self-efficacy beliefs including the development and the dynamics involved. Ideally, self-efficacy beliefs have effects in all aspects of the human body, because through the determination of a person’s ability and belief towards the accomplishment of certain tasks. In return, self-efficacy affects situations through the use of power. It is substantively clear that self-efficacy beliefs have the necessary power that an individual requires to perform a certain task as well as make an informed decision in regard to a particular task. In life, tasks usually involve the numerous challenges faced, and as such, self-efficacy beliefs determine the ability to tackle the different life challenges by making the most appropriate and informed decisions.
Four major theoretical approaches exist from which the study of self-efficacy beliefs emanates, especially in career development. Such include the social cognitive theory, social learning theory, self-concept theory, and attribution theory. The social cognitive theory makes emphasis on the development of an individual’s personality through observational learning and experiences from a social perspective. Ideally, the main concept from the social cognitive theory is that all reactions and actions in an individual result from observation of others (Edenborough, 2005, 64). Social learning theory, which involves the development of an individual’s emotional and practical skills, entails primarily learning in a social group setting and determines the success or failure of an individual’s dynamic interactions in social settings. Self-concept as a theory of self-efficacy beliefs involves the aspect of perception and explanation of an individual’s existence as an attribute to the acquired external factors and influences. Attribution theory on its part involves an individual’s attributions to events and self-perception as a means of developing the inner ability to tackle life challenges.

The best presents are those that cost the least

Best Presents Since centuries, presents have remained a major component of human societies culturally, socially, as well as religiously. It is observation that gifts and presents have always been an efficient tool of humans for expressing their feelings, showing their kind gestures, and strengthening relationships with each other. For this reason, gifts and presents play a significant role in human lives, and few experts believe that the gesture of giving presents in the unspoken language of feelings in humans that allows them to converse with each other emotionally. Let it be any occasion, such as New Year, Christmas, Thanksgiving Day, or Valentine’s Day, presents always enjoy their significance. On the other hand, it has now become a social practice to give presents on birthdays, anniversaries, etc that is the reason that every other retail business is now putting efforts to showcase and sell a huge range of gifts.
Such range of presents varies from baby toys to diamond necklaces, or in other words, shops offer gifts from a dollar to thousands of dollars. In such significance of presents, and especially in this era, people believe that expensive items can be the best presents to give to someone, or to acquire someone’s love and affection. Although gold and diamond have always remained a weakness of women, however, few people believe that sometimes, even a small greeting card can be the best present for someone rather than even a diamond ring. From a different perspective, people criticize that money cannot buy everything, especially love, and thus, feelings and emotions are the major factors that count more as compared with physical presents.
Even from personal experiences, it is observation that sometimes a 1000-dollar present only brought temporary smiles, whereas, a handmade photo frame costing less than ten dollars made the whole day, and continued to bring smiles for rest of the life. In this regard, I believe that money does not matter when it comes to presents, but the feelings do. In other words, humans are emotional machines, and although these machines run after the notion of money and expensive things, however, during most times, emotional aspect of humans dominate the materialistic side that inclines individuals towards sentiments and feelings rather than cost of the present.
Lastly, it will not be wrong to state that although expensive gifts can be attractive, exotic, and striking, but they usually result in temporary smiles and few moments of fun. On the other hand, real and best present can be something or anything with pure and intense feelings and emotions. Conclusively, the best presents are those that cost the least, but have the greatest amount of feelings and sentiments for the person. In this regard, if you love someone, care for someone, respect someone, and want to express your feelings, admiration, and adoration, then a handmade card or a frame with a memorable picture will be the best present rather than an expensive item that will be roaming in a corner of the room. Thus, if you really care, go with the heart rather than the wallet.

Media Outfit in the US

To the end of social media companies, following this mandate of the US government is consistent with CRM or Corporate Responsible Management where the company refuses to be used as a tool of evil.
Most media outfit no longer airs or cover the propaganda materials of ISIS. In fact, ISIS beheading of people and burning of a Jordanian pilot was not aired not only due to its gruesome image but also as a responsible practice of journalism not to be used by terrorist organizations to spread their propaganda messages. Companies must do the same and should contribute to defeating and ending of terrorist organizations that had killed so many people and destroyed so many infrastructures including those important ones such as heritage structures. They should, therefore, ban any propaganda messages from ISIS on their websites.

Effective Global Leadership

Effective Global Leadership al Affiliation) Effective Global Leadership Hughes, Ginnett, and Curphy, , convincingly argue that most managers acknowledge that globalization is a prominent development in the business world. In this case, they adopt an autocratic leadership style to steer organizations to global recognition. Autocratic managers utilize the requirements of leadership as outlined by Rebecca Hourston in “7 Steps to A Truly Effective Leadership Style.” However, autocratic managers completely ignore some steps because they base leadership on subjective opinions and judgments.
Seven Steps to a Truly Effective Leadership Style
Be Bold
According to Hourston, (2013), boldness defines autocratic managers. They acknowledge that being bold is the primary element for steering the organization upwards. In addition, autocratic managers have all the attention directed to them. Like Richard Branson, Virgin Atlantic, autocratic managers are great visionaries and appreciate that boldness is critical to establish and maintain a global profile.
Be Strengths-Savvy
Autocratic managers are technocrats. They understand their leadership style as part of their personality. In addition, they acknowledge that leadership stems from adhering to their natural strengths. Therefore, autocratic managers are strengths-savvy.
Stretch Your Leadership Style
Contrary to being strengths savvy and bold, autocratic managers stick to their leadership style. They believe that adopting other leadership styles would be contradictory. It would be against their natural strengths to stretch autocratic leadership to accommodate other leadership styles such as the Laissez-faire and democratic leadership.
Be “Going Somewhere”
Similar to being bold, autocratic managers are visionaries. They set the direction in a compelling manner. Autocratic managers are known to be trustworthy, and employees rely on the objectives set for effective business performance. Therefore, autocratic managers possess the basic needs of followers. that is, be “going somewhere.”
Be Follower-Focused
Autocratic managers are not conscious of human and social contribution. In addition, they limit the ability of employees to be innovative, rather focus on their opinion towards securing a resilient future for the organization.
Be Balanced
Like all managers, autocratic managers are balanced in terms of sustainable thought and action. They appreciate the consequences of their leadership style and strive to focus on the long-term objective of global recognition.
Be True to You
Autocratic managers are trustworthy, authentic, and true to their word. In addition, their consistency is what makes them genuine, passionate, and proud.
Strive for Empowerment
All managers adopting a specific or multiple leadership styles should strive for empowerment. It is rather hypothetical to strive for global recognition while suppressing the need for employee empowerment. Employees need to grow within the ranks as a form of reward, motivation, or both. Therefore, empowerment is a basic step to a truly effective leadership style.
Hourston, R. (2013). 7 Steps to A Truly Effective Leadership Style. Retrieved from
Hughes, R. L., Ginnett, R. C., &amp. Curphy, G. J. (2012). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of
experience (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Women in the Black Church

n the African American Churches men often took over the leadership positions while women held themselves responsible for all the rest of the major roles. Name it and it was there. May it be the schooling arena or any other social or domestic service. women were always there to play their part. This was primarily in line with the spiritual inspiration that these women had associated with the contemporary churches.
It was however strictly observed that women did not occupy any key positions in the preaching activities in the church itself. Every time the church would gather only women would be observed paying all head to the sermons being said out by a man. Leadership was one aspect that women were never allowed to come closer to. This male empowerment has existed for years in spite of the fact that it was seemingly impossible without the critical involvement of the black women. (Green, 2003)
The Civil rights movement in the US has often been traced back to the Black Church. The way the blacks were being deprived of their right to live like the whites and the racial discrimination that they were facing was all thought of to have bought out into the streets after being bought up in the black church first. This racial discrimination was also accompanied by social injustice.
The crowded basements and offices were often thought to be the main areas where all the plans for the resistances were being made. The core idea behind the civil rights movement drifted the African Black away from the Divine thought and gave importance to the substantiality of this life. Every next step and every protest of the movement was often preceded by a sermon, a prayer or a religious song. It was in the wake of such circumstances that the black women realized the rights that they were being deprived off within the church itself.
Women were generally denied the right to lead or preach in the Black Church. It had been a certain custom that men commanded the black church pulpits. Thus they

Ethnographic observation report

Cultural constructs are also well observable in the eventual assessment of the data. There was extreme exposure of cultural issues from the entire field (DeWalt &amp. DeWalt, 2011). Data that was obtained through the entailed participant observation served as check against participants’ prejudiced reporting on regards to what they believe or even do. Undertaken participant observation availed very constructive data for gaining a well understanding of the varying social, physical, cultural, and economic perspectives of the population from which group study participants reside. the relationships amongst and between populace norms, contexts, ideas and outlined events. and their behaviors or activities (Aranhão &amp. Streck, 2003).
With regards to observation entailed, the data regarding appeal to fashion was highly varying regarding the altering or changing intergenerational segments of the community entailed in the research. Old generation people or old persons exhibited dressing models that indicated less exposure or nakedness while the young people were noted to have dressed in cloths that were very much exposing. The model of eating was well notable as many young people always walked along with snacks in hands while the old people restricted their eating habits to hotels or did not do at all while walking. The access to behaviors of various groups in the process was very comfortlessly possible. Young people or mainly teenagers, old people, drivers, law enforcers and normal working class people were all covered in the process. Teenagers exhibited very risky modes of behavior entirely in the program for the permitted time under which the data collection was taken.
They were noted driving while under the influence of drugs or mainly alcohol, instances of driving when apparently fatigued and over speeding were regularly notable thus prompting transport accidents. Other substances similar to

Risks in Becoming Oneself in Society

The first risk that is related to becoming oneself is related to the culture and the surrounding pressures that are in each environment. This comes from the pressures that others place on you, specifically which can cause one to lose their true self. In my instance, I find that there is a lot of pressure that comes from different social groups. The first social group that tries to define my personal identity is the peer group that I am surrounded by. Going to college is one that automatically changes this peer identity and leads into a definition from the old group to the newer groups that are into different activities and concepts. However, neither of these groups can truly identify the personality and the true self. Understanding which parts of my identity fit into this group, as well as which I have to overcome, both create a different risk. Some of the risks is one that is established with my choices of identity and what will be accepted, while others relate to what doesn’t fit into groups and how to approach this within different groups.
The second concept that applies to my identity and the way that it is redefined by different social groups is with the family and surrounding friends in different age groups. Most of the relations that I have outside of school and from the college environment are older than I am. This is related to the identity that most expect me to have at the age of 17, as well as how this relates to the expectations of the age, culture, and understanding at this age. Family and older acquaintances often assume that I will act or be a specific way, which causes a loss of respect. This identity is one that continuously has to be battled and approached with changed attitudes so the idea of my age doesn’t interfere with the inner belief of who I am.

Is the American Dream More an Illusion than Reality

The world has evolved a lot over the years and the only thing constant these days is a change, the circumstances aren’t the same as they used to be in the earlier days and the previous centuries. Nowadays we live in a more civilized society and modern life is so fast-paced that it leaves anyone in its wake that is unable to keep up with it. There are a lot of divisions in society not everyone is on the same page and these differences have led to many problems including favoritism and unethical practices in the workplace, some sections of society consider blacks to be inferior while some women feel that they live in a male-dominated environment.
In this country you have the right to be free, choose for yourself and make life decisions. The concept of free will is there for everyone so that society can prosper and people can live in harmony with each other. Moore states that everyone can achieve their goals and ambitions they can be successful and contribute to the community. Recognition for hard work is there and people earn their places on merit regardless of their race, color or ethnicity. According to Smith (1), the aim is to allow people to live life to the fullest, they have liberty and the opportunity to reach their potential and show everyone what they are capable of. A hardworking man should be able to earn an honest living and feed his family, respect is due for everyone regardless of their social standing, and no one is superior to anyone. Equality is promoted within the people so that you can pursue your dreams and be happy every day of your life knowing that you are treated fairly and given your rights. No one should be deprived of these things. So there are lots of views but then again you cannot expect perfection because it is just not possible.&nbsp.

Aristotle’s Tragic Hero with Grave Flaws and Doomed Destiny in Sophocles Oedipus the King

Oedipus represents the life of a tragic hero because he is a person of “high estate” who wants to implement moral leadership (Kennedy &amp. Gioia, 2013, p. 945). Oedipus is the beloved king of Thebes. One of his priests calls him, “Great Oedipus, O powerful King of Thebes!” (Sophocles, 425 B.C.?/2013, Prologue 16). His priest and people go to him and beseech for his help because they see him as a great king. In addition, Oedipus is not only a king but a venerated hero. The priest remembers that he is the “liberator…long ago,” which makes him the “noblest of men” (Sophocles, 425 B.C.?/2013, Prologue 50, 48). Having “high estate” also refers to what Adkins (1966) described as having “goodness or virtue” (p.78). Oedipus is a tragic hero because he was greatly admired for his goodness after he saved them from the Sphinx before he loses his exalted social position. At the same time, Oedipus wants to lead morally in his kingdom. After he hears from the Oracle of Delphi that, in order to free Thebes from plagues, they have to remove Laios’ killer in their midst, he asserts that he shall find the murderer. He tells his people: “You shall see how I stand by you, as I should, / To avenge the city and the city’s god” (Sophocles, 425 B.C.?/2013, Prologue 137-138). He expresses that he stands as a good king who will look after the welfare of his city. Moreover, he says that he wants to avenge the city, which means that he seeks justice too. Oedipus aims to be a just leader who wants to capture and punish the criminal. He shows that a tragic hero becomes one because he comes from a dignified social and moral stature, particularly in the eyes of his citizens.

Besides high social status, Oedipus is bound to a complex plot that& more than a simple tragedy. Scheepers (2005) explained Aristotle’s idea of a tragic plot.

Impact of Social and Cultural Processes on Climate Change

Climate change is a very significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over a long period of time which is usually sometimes millions of years. It may be changed in the distribution of weather around the average conditions or the average weather conditions.

In recent years, there have been efforts to try and address the issue of climate change. Countries are being advised to adopt anti-climate change policies. In this context, they are actually required to address the key issues in the society that have prevented the adoption of the strategies.

How values affect the decisions and actions with regard to climate change, what role culture plays in the strategies for adapting to climate change, and in the process overcoming the barriers to change.

Climate change is caused by a variety of factors which include oceanic processes like oceanic circulation, variations in solar radiation that is received by Earth, volcanic eruptions, plate tectonics, and lastly, human-induced alterations of the natural world. the latter effects are currently resulting in global warming, while climate change is often used to describe the human-specific impacts (Rothwell, 2006:56).

The factors that shape climate are referred to as climate forcings. They include processes like variations in solar radiation, continental drift, mountain building and, variations in earth orbit, and changes in the concentrations of greenhouse gases. There are arrays of climate change feedbacks that can either diminish or amplify the initial forcing (Barnett &amp. Adger, 2003:134).

The human factors that cause climate change include an increase in the carbon (iv) oxide concentrations as a result of emissions from fossil fuel combustion, followed by the aerosols and then cement manufacture. The other factors include the following: animal agriculture, deforestation, ozone depletion, and lastly, land use. They are also of concern in the roles that they play, both separately or in conjunction with the other factors, in affecting the climate, microclimate, and measurement of climatic variables.&nbsp.

Corporate Responsibility Scrutinizing a Company Report

CSR has become an increasingly important practice in various organizations in the world. According to Banerjee (55), BP is one of the multinationals “with the highest CSR profile”.
Some of the main social and environmental issues and challenges that concern BP include climate change and global warming, pollution, and employee safety and an individual’s safety in the society at large. Notably, BP has developed an internal trading system, which allows them to trade emission permits in order to achieve a corporate goal for greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, it is investing resources in solar power, wind energy and hydrogen storage to be able to address the problem of climate change and global warming. Moreover, BP has developed mechanisms to help in cleaning up and restoring the ecology of the places affected by the oil spill. Some of the factors that have shaped CSR in different branches of BP are diversity, partnership with non-governmental organizations, and adoption of measures with a positive environmental impact among others. Globalization has helped in promoting diversity and this has in turn shaped CSR in the sense that it has effectively addressed the possible problems emerging from cultural differences. More so, non-governmental organizations have shaped CSR by establishing certain initiatives that benefit the community members and promote their welfare. In addition, ecological sustainability is one of the major interests of CSR and it includes concerns over pollution, depletion of natural resources, and climate change among others. Therefore, adopting policies that have a positive impact on the environment has really helped.&nbsp.Reports show that it managed to reduced greenhouse emissions by 10 in 2010 (Banerjee 56). The company has developed effective measures to limit the number of accidents and ensure that individuals are safe and the environment protected.

Virginia Woolfs Mrs Dalloway

She fragments her attention from Clarissa to Septimus, to Walsh to Mrs. Kilman, and other characters to depict their personalities. Through their interactions, Woolf highlights the differences and resemblances of the characters. Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway significantly highlights the theme of self-identity and individuality.

The protagonist, Clarissa searches for her lost identity. Her agonizing loneliness arises from the fact that she is sexually repressed and her actions are confined to societal norms. According to Woolf, she has “the oddest sense of being herself invisible. unseen. unknown” (14). Clarissa’s agony is because she is not free to enjoy her existence as an individual. She does not think she belongs to the society. “She belonged to a different age, but being so entire, so complete, would always stand up on the horizon, stone-white, eminent, like a lighthouse marking some past stage on this adventurous, long, long voyage, this interminable — this interminable life” (Woolf). Although she is beautiful and intelligent, another missing factor troubles her life. She engages in what she terms ‘a religious ceremony’ when she marries Richard, in order to conform to societal norms that require marriage between a man and woman. Hoff says, “Marriage is a ritual of the initiation variety that entails a death and rebirth with a new identity and a name change” (Hoff 35). Her marriage provided a new identity. This is despite the fact that she is sexually unfeeling to men, and the restraints of decency make her unable to realize her love for Sally entirely (Hjersing 1). She rummages through the different relationship prospects, Richard and Sally, in search of her individuality and identity. In the end, she resigns to organizing parties in order to assert her social prominence and recreate her self-identity. As she looks at herself& the mirror, she sees different images of herself: a host, a woman, and the self.&nbsp.

Core Aspects of Corporate Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility

Joseph Johnston argues that the failures in corporate governance and top-level scandals indicate that the fiduciary principle does not really help to ensure that managers seek the best interest of their stakeholders (25).
Johnston argues on the basis of the conflict of interest that is so rife in organizations. This is because most managers and directors seek to meet their profit motives and since they are often assessed on the basis of their ability to attain profitability, most directors are prone to find ways and means of cutting corners and cheating some stakeholders.
A stakeholder is a person who affects and/or affected by an organizations activities (Freeman 29). This includes a wide variety of people including employees, consumers, suppliers, financial institutions, government agencies amongst others. These people have various demands and expectations from the organization and its directors. And due to the reality that directors are expected in practice, to generate profits, directors are wont to do illegal things that will lead to higher profitability. They are also likely to ignore other peoples claims and legitimate needs in order to attain high profitability.
From another angle, managers and directors want to remain in the good books of shareholders and guarantee shareholders expectations of higher dividends. They are therefore likely to present misleading reports that will allow them to remain in office as directors. Thus, the fiduciary duty of operating in good faith is often missed and directors use ways and means to attain results.
b) To a large extent, I agree with this assertion. This is because, in reality, a director works under so many constraints. And if that is the case, a director will be forced to do things that might not be in the best interest of everyone.
From another perspective, it is practically impossible for a manager or director to meet all the expectations and demands of stakeholders.&nbsp.

12Step and Non12step Selfhelp Groups

Describe the difference between 12-step and non-12-step groups (as a whole). Then, discuss in-depth one non-12-step group in particular.
The major difference is that 12-step involves group therapy while non 12-step is individualized therapy first and most of the time and not group therapy. In 12-step, there are a set of steps to follow in recovery while no particular order is followed in non 12-step (Bieling, McCabe and Anthony, 2009). St. Jude Retreat is a non 12-step drug treatment and recovery center located in New York but also has various other centers in different places.&nbsp.
Which self-help groups (12-step and non-12-step groups) discussed in the textbook is available in your community or neighboring community? How many meetings of each group are offered per week and what are the venues? If a group is not available, state that.
Most of the groups are the 12-step groups and majority of them meet three times in a week while others meet twice in a week. Since there are three groups, they each have their own venue to avoid a clash of the days of the meeting but all these areas are in halls. One has the social hall, the other the gymnasium in the high school and the last one meets in the elementary school’s hall.
Given your response to the above two questions, which groups’ meetings are feasible for a person to attend? That is, are all the self-help groups mentioned in the textbook represented in your community neighboring community?
Not all the groups are available and only the 12-step group is but not the rest.

Ethical Perspectives

pt different cultures, and more importantly operate within different cultures in a more successful manner that transcends all personal organizational grounds. Due to this, every global organization may be identified with one form of cultural issue or the other that they have to deal with. Chevron is no exception when it comes to these issues of culture and globalization. At Chevron the major cultural issue that is identified has to do with cultural diversity among employees. Of the over 62,000 employees that Chevron has across the globe, close to a quarter of the number is found in the United States alone and another quarter of this is at the head quarters of the organization (Chevron, 2013). Among the total population of employees, people have been identified to come from as many as 40 different cultural backgrounds. Even within its head office San Ramon, California, US, there are people from over 12 cultural backgrounds (Chevron, 2013). This means that cultural diversity among employees is a very huge issue that the company deals with at the local and international levels.
As it is held by Graham (2006), cultural diversity comes with a lot of ethical and social responsibilities if an organization wants to hold a very balanced status or image as a global organization. In the case of Chevron, there are specific ethical and social responsibility issues that the company must be engaged in so as to satisfy its culturally diverse workforce to ensure that the fact that employees come from different cultural backgrounds and are mostly found working under the same roof does not pose any labor related issues for the company. At the same time, the company has ethical and social responsibilities to keep ensuring that the company is able to have a single and balanced ethical and social standard that works for its entire workforce no matter the part of the world they find themselves. One of these ethical issues is the need to have a common standard of ethical practice that

Critically examine how human rights legislation ideas and concepts might be applied to a social care practice area of your choice

a domestic violence confrontation, the batterer uses various acts of violence, as well as, a series of behaviors such as threats, intimidation, psychological abuse and isolation in order coerce and are in a position to control or force the other person to bent or conform to his or her whims (Hoffman &amp. Summers 2002, P.9).
Cases of domestic violence do not happen as frequently as such within these households or family units. rather most of them remain hidden aspects, which constantly terrorize the entire family. It is also imperative to note that domestic violence takes various forms, and may not necessarily be physical abuse or sexual harassment, but it may also be psychological or emotional torture. As for psychological violence, the victim suffers intense and repeated degradation from the assaulter, which ends up creating a situation of isolation, as well as, taking charge or controlling the actions and behaviors of the spouse through manipulation or intimidation to the detriment of the individual. A large majority of cases of domestic violence affects women and children in families and households, while the male figure in most cases becomes the assaulter. Most unstable homes, such as those in poor income societies where the man is the breadwinner, he may abuse his position as the head of the family to create violence and terrorize his wife and children in an acute case of domestic violence.
These women opt to tolerate the violence from their spouses because they have few options to select because of their tiring conditions of poverty. As such, it becomes a continuous case of violent confrontations within this households or families until it becomes another statistic of domestic violence. The man can abuse his wife and children by beating them up, or denying them food, or abusing them, or coming home while drunk and making a fool of himself before their friends and neighbors. This forms part of psychological torture whereby the children and the spouses feel

PSYC 305 DB2

RECOVERY AND FREEDOM FROM ADDICTION of Dependence on substances is more of an in-depth issue than just a social issue. Very many psychological aspects are involved in this issue and an example is granted from the aspect of someone smoking as a response to the body needs for nicotine. The mind in this case will be in need of the effects of the same nicotine. It is not just cigarettes but other substances apply the same effects. A soldier in war may just not need the relaxing effects of alcohol or cigarettes but also he may require to be inebriated into trying to forget the ghastly sights of the war he has just involved in. addiction also has its socio-psychological issue. This is to say that a drug addict may be part of a social group where taking addictive drugs is the only way to remain acceptable. Therefore, the effects of addiction are seen to be manifested both in body and in mind. This is to say that no outside influence alone can be sound enough to cure an addiction. The final decision is supposed to be a self-discovery and decision issue.
According to Paul’s letters to the Christians in the apostolic times, every person has a responsibility to another as well as on their own actions. In 1 Thessalonians 5:14, he says that “And we urge you, brothers, admonish the idle, encourage the fainthearted, help the weak, be patient with them all”. Paul here says that we all need to be our brothers’ helpers and the ultimate issue that comes out is the ‘heart issue’. An inside out issue therefore as stated is supposed to be a final issue decided by an individual and influenced by the positive aspects of the outside world. This is to say that there addiction is a psychological issue whose healing starts from the inside and, through the influence of the outside, ends in the inside again (Hanson, Venturelli, &amp. Fleckenstein, 2011).
Hanson, G., Venturelli, P., &amp. Fleckenstein, A. (2011). Drugs and Society. New York : Jones &amp. Bartlett Publishers.

The Boy in the Striped Pajamas

The Boy in Striped Pajamas The boy in striped Pajamas is a movie that displays aspects of society with a retrospective scope based on events that took place during the Nazi era, and the film focuses on the social features of the era. Social classes are well brought out through aspects of oppression expressed through portrayal of Shmuel as a poor boy who has to watch his father work in the Nazi concentration camps, where the Jews are considered of a lower social standing in comparison to the Germans. As a result, they are taken to be slaves only useful in fulfilling the goals and purposes of the Germans after which they are to be killed. In addition, social classes are presented through the different ranks of the SS officers found at the concentration camp, where Bruno’s father is the head. Through the different ranks, there is clarity that different people exist in the society, and that their responsibilities are different considering that Bruno’s father follows orders without questioning. Another aspect of social classes is represented in punishment meted out against lieutenant Kotler for not reporting for duty, where he is sent to the front line ("The Boy in the Striped Pajamas”). The punishment shows that different social classes have their distinct duties and failure to meet is punishable. The house cleaners and other servants, such as Maria, are indicative of these as they have no say in the house and only follow instructions.
In addition, absolute control by the government is expressed in the film through the Nazi government and how it seeks to enforce its rule on the Jewish population that it has in concentration camps. The totalitarian nature of the government is also brought out through the arguments held between Bruno’s father and mother, where the mother argues against having their children grow up in a concentration camp. The response of Ralf, Bruno’s father, are that what he does is part of work and that he cannot do anything about it (Boyne). This shows the grip that the government has on the people, both Jews and Germans. In addition, lieutenant Kotler holds extremist Nazi views and opinions although he does not have a pro-Nazi background, which is a further indicator of how the grip of the government goes.
In elements of innocence, the friendship between Bruno and Shmuel stands for this due to the enmity that exists between Jews and Germans, which is why the Germans live a free life, while Jews live in concentration camps. As a result, having this friendship and Bruno forgetting the names of his best friends only to name Shmuel as his only best friend until the end of the book further proves innocence in difficult times. Arguments by Bruno’s mother, too, indicate innocence in that she is against her children’s growing up in a concentration camp. This brings up the loss of innocence, where she is concerned that if her children continue to grow up in such an environment, it will not be good for them (“Book to Movie…”). Gretel’s conduct also stands for loss of innocence in how she flirts with lieutenant Kotler and is even a member of the Hitler Youth. This shows how corrupted Gretel is at such a young age, considering that she is only 12 years old.
In conclusion, the social aspects depicted in “the boy in the striped pyjamas” touch on different aspects of the German society and the Nazi era including modes of governance, corruption of innocence. All these are well captured in the both the book and the film by the same title.
Works cited
"Book to Movie: The Boy in the Striped Pajamas | | Parchment Girl." Parchment Girl | Books • Faith • Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. .
Boyne., John. "Something Is Happening – Books – Review – New York Times." The New York Times – Breaking News, World News &amp. Multimedia. N.p., 12 Nov. 2006. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. .
"The Boy in the Striped Pajamas (2008) – Synopsis." IMDb – Movies, TV and Celebrities. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2013. .

Affirmitive Action initiatives

Affirmative Action Initiatives Affirmative Action Initiatives It can be d that America is becoming an increasingly color blind nation as expressed by Korgen (1999). This, however, does not change the fact the biracial individuals should be included with regards to Affirmative Action initiatives. It was found that 58 percent of the US citizens think that biracial individuals should quality for Affirmative action. The US population is mainly composed of biracial groups of individuals and these are becoming increasingly difficult to classify especially in the modern-day corporate environment (Korgen, 1999). This is owing to the fact that the US has become increasingly dominated by people from the Asian and Mexican decent that have dominated the work force in the past. This has made it increasingly difficult for companies to make out the individuals that qualify for affirmative action.
This being said, I think that biracial individuals should be counted for Affirmative Action initiatives based on their lineage and simply not by looking at the color of their skin. This is because looking at the skin color can be deceiving. Secondly, it is important to look at the social status of the individuals. Some biracial individuals are well-off and may not be in need of the affirmative action. Biracial individuals should also be counted based on where they come from (Korgen, 1999). This is because some of them live in highly marginalized areas and are in dire need of the affirmative action within the work place. Finally, affirmative action should be based on the academic background of the individuals. Some biracial individuals are well educated and may not require Affirmative Action.
Korgen, K. O. (1999).&nbsp.From black to biracial: Transforming racial identity among Americans.&nbsp.Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood.

Adaptive Landcapes

Adaptive Landscapes About “Priests and Programmers” The book, “Priests and Programmers: Technologies of Power in the Engineered Landscape of Bali”can be qualified as a masterpiece that describes the life of priests of Pura Batur. The book describes that in the perspective of Balinese culture, everything that is present in the nature is termed to be a perpetual resource. Special mentioning, the book describes a requirement of efficient corporation of thousands of farmers in effective management of water by working in a hierarchical manner. It is based on this belief that Lansing (2009) also advocated water temples network to manage the water flow in the ‘Goddess of the Crater Lake’. Besides, Lansing (2009) also affirmed that with the use of ecological simulation, cultural as well as historical analysis modeling, the priests in the temples reflected the manner in which the water can be used in the different landscape of production. Hence, it can be affirmed that the book is a comprehensible narration of technical and social aspects of water management in Bali (Lansing, 2009).
2. Map of Bali
Mt. Batur
Figure 1: Map of Bali pointing Mt. Batur area
Source: (GoogleMap, 2015)
3. Map of Mt. Batur and Lake Batur

Fig2: Map of Mt. Batur and Lake Batur
Source: (GoogleMap, 2015)
4. About Ulun Danu Batur
Ulun Danu Batur (a.k.a. Pura Ulun Danu Batur) was built during 1926 and is the second most important temple of Bali, which is dedicated to Dewi Danu. The temple comprises of nine different worship areas and contains around 285 different shrines and pavilions. The temple is donated to the goddesses of water, holy springs, and agriculture among other spiritual symbols of Bali.
Pura Ulun Danu Batur Temple
Source: (Ministry of Tourism, 2013)
5. About Dewi Danu
In the Balinese Hindus religion, Dewi Danu is referred as water goddess. She is one of the two ultimate deities of the Bali tradition who commands Balinese lakes, which is an important source of water and sustenance (Bali Safari and Marine Park, n.d.).
A Performer Presenting as Dewi Danu
Source: (Bali Safari and Marine Park, n.d.)
6. Green Revolution
Green revolution indicates the period between 1940’s until late 60’s, on which, the productivity of the agriculture has significantly increased due to high amount of advancements in the production of chemical fertilizers, artificial herbicides as well as the pesticides. Moreover, the advancements made it possible to increase the productivity of nutrients, which correspondingly increased the yield (Fitzgerald-Moore &amp. Parai, n.d.).
Bali Safari and Marine Park. (n.d.). The Characters. Retrieved from
Fitzgerald-Moore, P. &amp. Parai, B. J. (n.d.). The green revolution. Retrieved from
GoogleMap. (2015). Map of Bali. Retrieved from,115.2527771,10z
GoogleMap. (2015). Map of Mt.Batur. Retrieved from,+South+Batur,+Kintamani,+Bangli+Regency+80652,+Indonesia/@-8.2008252,115.3564797,12z/data=!4m2!3m1!1s0x2dd1f403ce5a1e5d:0x8851b0c51ddaa2eb
GoogleMap. (2015). Map of Lake Batur. Retrieved from,+Kintamani,+Kab.+Bangli,+Indonesia/@-8.2553374,115.3946678,13z/data=!4m2!3m1!1s0x2dd1f680e7f40cad:0x605760d5a99c0414
Ministry of Tourism. (2013). Pura Ulun Danu Batur: Principal temple in Bali’s Subak ricefields landscape. Retrieved from
Lansing, J. S. (2009). Priests and programmers: Technologies of power in the engineered landscape of Bali. United States: Princeton University Press.

A bill of rights is essential to protect citizens from their government Discuss

Recent developments in the Philippines have put this Southeast Asian country in the news and have garnered the attention of the international community once more. This involves the spate of killings of activists and journalists by unknown elements alleged to be connected with the military. (Amnesty International, 2005, p. 202) According to the non-government organization KARAPATAN (Alliance for the Advancement of Human Rights) (2006), there have been 607 documented killings from January 2001 to May 30, 2006. Amnesty International, the European Union and the Catholic Church have each spoken out against the government to condemn these acts of politically-motivated state-sponsored executions.
This paper will examine whether or not a bill of rights, standing alone, is enough to protect the people from the excesses of government and it will use the current Philippine problem of extra-judicial killings as background. It will argue that the defense of sovereignty — and, as a corollary to that, internal security — is not enough to justify the use of state-sponsored repression.
The phenomenon of state-sponsored oppression is by no means unique to the Philippines. It has in fact been extensively researched and discussed all over the world. Says Mitchell and McCormick (1988, p. 476)
Governments organize police forces and armies to protect their citizens, build schools and hospitals to educate and care for them, and provide financial assistance for the old and unemployed. But governments also kill, torture and imprison their citizens. This dark side of government knows no geographic, economic, ideological or political boundary.
Such killings and torture demonstrate grave violations of political rights and liberties. It has been opined that political rights and liberties are of paramount importance because of their impact on other rights, such as social and economic rights (Bollen, 1986, p. 567). The universal condemnation of

Inequality in Modern America

41000 The data for the year of 2009, as presented by the U.S. Census Bureau, are particularly stark in this regard. The general results of the 2009 American Community Survey allow one to conclude that median household income experienced a sharp decline as the result of the 2008 market crash, having fallen fell by almost 3 percent between 2008 and 2009, from $51,726 to $50,221. In fact, this fall was experienced at that time for the second time, as the first such phenomenon was registered for the year of 2008 as a whole. Only in lightly populated state of North Dakota did median household income experience any kind of growth at that time (“Census Bureau Releases”). At the same time, according to the Census Bureau, 31 states experienced increases in poverty rates between 2008 and 2009. No significant decrease for any other state was registered either. In total, since December 2007, national median income had fallen down by 4 percent in 2009 in comparison with its pre-recession level. Under such situation, the deterioration of social standards was certain to ensue. The analysis of the numerical data presented by the Census Bureau enables one to understand that the income gap between the dispossessed and the affluent increased by enormous amount due to the aftershocks caused by the crisis. The data presented by the Census Bureau indicated that the inequality as evaluated on the basis of the income gap between higher and lower classes of the American society had grown tremendously in that period, reaching the highest level among the advanced market economies. The extreme poverty level, as defined by allegedly unsatisfactory official poverty rate estimates, had grown likewise in 2009, rising from 5.7 percent in 2008 to 6.3 percent in that year, which represented a staggering fact of an 11 percent increase in the number of people affected by poverty condition per annum. It may be observed that the 2009 poverty rate was the highest on the record, which is telling, as these estimates had begun as early as 1975 (“Census Finds Record Gap between Rich and Poor”). The results for the income inequality ratio between the respective groups of population were even more dismal. In 2009, the top 20 percent of the population (i.e. people with the income exceeding $100,000 a year) obtained almost 50 percent of total U.S. income. All the while, approximately 44 million people living below the poverty line took in merely 3.4 percent of national income. Therefore, in 2009, the income inequality ratio reached the mark of 14.5-to-1, which represented an increase from 13.6 in 2008 and was double as high as a historically lowest level of 7.69 that was registered in 1968 (“Census Finds Record Gap between Rich and Poor”). The situation in 2010 and 2011 followed the trend that had been formed in the preceding years. Basically, the top earners consolidated their gains for the previous times, still enjoying the accumulated effects of the early 2000s tax cuts, while the poor and middle class experienced terrible aftershocks of the 2008 Great Recession, being hit with house foreclosures, value-added tax increases and the continuing wave of layoffs. The general situation in the United States in this respect continues to be dismal, yet it is necessary to paint the more detailed picture of the state of inequality in

MixedMethod Designs

Response to: Kevin Leonard’s Post
It is highly commendable that you have supported your arguments with as many as four (4) references on expounding the discussion on Mixed Method Research. As you cited the research works of Onwuegbuzie &amp. Collins (2007) have likewise noted from the works of Tashakkori and Teddlies (2003) book, SAGE Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social &amp. Behavioral Research, that there are indeed more than 35 mixed methods research designs, which is just amazing and potentially complex. This just goes to show that there are vast research designs that could be utilized to the advantage of researchers, as long as they have the knowledge, awareness, and proper competencies to apply these tools to their advantage.

Response to: Richard Axtell’s Post
The assertions from Pole’s (2007) discourse was noteworthy in terms of indicating that “qualitative researchers viewing the world as interconnected, while quantitative researchers rationalize the world’s views are scientifically based” (p. 36). One thereby agrees that although there is a valid point in the distinctive differences between the interconnected view of the qualitative research method and the more structured, definitive and scientifically based quantitative method. these disparities form the respective strengths and competitive advantages of each method. However, when taken together and integrated into a particular study, merits from both methods are crucial to validate the findings and make the results more conclusive and reliable. The fact that mixed research method is actually not confined to a number of research designs, as argued by Tashakkori and Teddlie (2003) that there are 35 mixed methods research designs from the time their book was published, it could be evidently possible that more mixed methods of research designs have been discovered to cater to more complex needs and demands of contemporary research.

Piaget’s theory

ntelligence was active. and that children are not passive recipients of information, rather that they actively construct and reconstruct their knowledge of the world. Cognitive disequilibrium and the child’s action and interaction with the physical environment fuel the development of the cognitive system towards more advanced psychological structures (Fisher &amp. Lerner, 2004).
This paper will evaluate Piaget’s theory of the four stages of cognitive evolution in child development. Further, similarities and differences will be identified between Erikson’s theory and Piaget’s theory of child development, with respect to the development of identity.
According to Piaget’s theory, the development of intelligence and cognitive functioning in children progresses through a series of four stages based on age and concurrent biological changes and maturation. This leads to the child demonstrating a higher level of functioning at each successive stage, as compared to the previous stage (Videbeck, 2007). The stages of development are not universal, since cultural differences exist. However, the mechanisms that underlie cognitive development are considered to be universal (Pressley &amp. McCormick, 2007).
1. The sensorimotor stage: This extends from birth to two years. The child develops a sense of self, differentiated from the environment, and develops the concept of object permanence. That is, a perception of the existence of tangible objects even when they are out of sight, that they do
3. The concrete operations stage: Between six to twelve years the child begins to apply logic to thinking, understands spatiality and reversibility, is increasingly social and able to apply rules. however, thinking is still concrete.
4. The formal operations stage: From twelve to fifteen years and beyond, the child learns to think and reason in abstract terms. Further, there is development of logical thinking and reasoning, and the achievement of cognitive maturity in the child

How Women Experience Battering

Through the ages, women’s role in society has been subservient to their male counterpart. They are not considered equal and their dominance is often accompanied by violence and abuse. Most pertinent are the issues that do not let women free themselves from the abusing partners within or outside the matrimonial bond. While religious and cultural paradigms put social and religious constraints on women to divorce, the women’s inability to come to terms with reality becomes the major obstacle in freeing them. Their belief that love and romance are everlasting and that marriage is sacred becomes the important element that gives them hope of better tomorrow with the abusing partner. At the same time, social ostracism, shame and sense of hopelessness discourages them to question the violence in the relationship.
Another critical issue and probably the key factor that continues to hound women is their lack of confidence in their ability to survive without their partners. They often submerge their identity in order to maintain social norms and therefore become economically and emotionally dependent on partners who abuse them. Moreover, Battered women often fail to perceive the abuse as an act that needs to be addressed urgently and therefore becomes victims of circumstances. The abuse is also so discordant with their expectations of love filled life that they refuse to acknowledge it as such (Ferraro &amp. Johnson, 1983). This results in low self-esteem, depression, and apathy that dissuade them to rationalize the violence as such and take corrective measures. Indeed, often lonely future also becomes a crucial issue which does not let them take risks and remain in an abusive relationship.

International Real Estate Investments

307500 The city would have to buy this land from the private investor, for which it would pay a premium, and then build homes on this land and sell or rent them for less than market value. This would not be a smart business practice for a city and it would lead to an outcry from citizens when taxpayers’ money was spent on something that most taxpayers were not even benefiting from. Also, other social programs would have to suffer because of this practice, which would also hurt city planners and the city in general. There are bigger needs in many cities than affordable housing since people will find a way to pay for housing before they will do other things. In addition, most major cities have run out of room within the city and the residents have now begun retreating to the suburbs. The problem with this is that low-income housing units are not welcome in these regions. The people that have moved out of the city have moved there to get rid of the stereotypical problems that occur with low-income inhabitants and, therefore, affordable housing units would not be welcomed in this region. An example of this is James Vacca “making sure that developers do not evade the new restrictions. He said he recently noticed someone building a three-family house, something not allowed under the new rules. He complained to the buildings department about it, and about subsequent adjustments until the builder agreed to construct a one family house with two parking spaces instead”1 Gotham Gazette. 21 October 2005. The amount of private property ownership, combined with the escalating price of real estate, has made it very difficult to provide affordable housing for the population in or around any major city. London, in particular, is having a major affordable housing crisis because of its booming economy and drastic population growth so it needs to look at the examples that are provided by other cities.

Neurosis as a Gendered Disease or a Female Disposition

The text invites the readers to be its addressees by highlighting the oppressive conditions of married women through the case of a neurotic patient. It interpellates people to become addressees through using setting, symbolism, irony, and changes in language to help readers understand what it is like to be married, especially to a doctor. Projection pertains to how people see others based on how they view themselves. Gallop calls this as the “photographic negative of our image of the self” (15). The “controlling value” pertains to what the text seeks to tell the readers, readers who the author wants to “hold” so that they can “see eye to eye with the implied author” (Seitz 146). The “narrator” refers to the “implied author” with whom the readers are supposed to “connect” with (Seitz 141). The “addressee” pertains to the readers who the text wants to influence with its “controlling value.” The addressee is different from the “reader” who can participate in the “reading” of the text through “social engagement which consists of both reception and participation” (Seitz 143). Interpellation refers to how the text aims to engage and influence readers and turn them into “interested readers” who can “persuade themselves” that they also believe in the texts (Seitz 147).
The “controlling value” of the text is to emphasize that married women get the worst deal. they become “women” under “men” and the protagonist of the text has the worse bargain because she is married to a male doctor, which means two patriarchal structures are combined to oppress her. The narrative works rhetorically by using a neurotic wifes conditions to underline the oppressive conditions of married women and the patriarchal structure of medicine.

JFK’s Influence on the Civil Rights Movement

The movement was more or less non-violent in nature. The civil rights movement of the people of America was a success as the protest was resultant into changes in attitude of the people of America mainly the upper class towards the African-Americans. From a broader perspective not all who stressed for racial fairness between 1954 and 1968 did so in the expectation of endorsingpeaceful social change. A noteworthyshare of the civil rights drive was, however, dedicated to the idea of diplomatic challenges, rather than bloodstainedconfrontation or attack, to change racist establishments. Historian does believe that USA President John F. Kennedy was a significant character associated with the civil rights movement in the USA. The paper is critically analyzing the role played by USA president John F. Kennedy during the 1960s civil rights movement in the USA. The thesis associated with this paper is: Is John F Kennedy is the most influential president of the USA in terms of implementation of Civil Rights and other policy implementation.
John F Kennedy was considered as one of the key player in the successful implementation of civil rights movement in the USA.As a matter of fact his role in the civil rights movement of 1960s was considered as of his greatest legacies. His speech during 1963 while framing the civil rights as both legitimate and moral authoritative force helped to a great extent to form the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and made him an icon of the movement. During 1960, there was a President election scheduled to be held in the USA and candidates for that post John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon. The movement was so intense that neither of them was able to ignore that. John F. Kennedy was the winner of that election and his sympathy for civil rights leader Martin Luther King when he was in jail was a great step taken by him which created an image of his

Saad Khan Loses in Life in Unilever

Mr. Khan a banker, as well as an expert swimmer, was a participant of this fateful underwater reality challenge which was co-created by the two multinational giants, Unilever, and mindshare, who are still unable to account for the tragic accident that took place.
Saad was one of the lucky contestants, who managed to perform the final act of the big event, and was given the ruthless underwater challenge by the then present Unilever model.
During the execution of the same stunt, Mr. Khan apparently lost control, he tossed, turned and struggled but could never recover and eventually drowned while performing this challenge for the program. Daunted and terrified co-contestants and crew hurried and tried to save but could not find him in the murky, misty waters of the lake.
It is believed, that the personal security precautions were inadequate at the time of shooting the stunt, while participants also seem to lack training or briefing for the very harsh fateful reality show.
Besides the inadequate security measures, the underlying question of corporate social responsibility of the two multinational giants, in the making of this reality show still remains unanswered. And it seems there was no document regarding the planning and preparation of the show.
Moreover, Unilever, is the fastest growing FMCG in the world, had control over the media and swept away any news regarding the dreadful event. The traditional media was put on silence and was forbidden to utter any word related to Mr. khan’s tragic death. This avoidance of media has called into question the social, ethical, as well as the moral responsibilities of the company.

The Influence of Rewards Motivations and Targets in the Performance of the People

82000 According to Steele-Johnson, Beauregard, Hoover, and Schmidt, motivating employees is one of the important functions of the company. Different employees get motivated by different things. So the companies need to know the factors which influence the employees more in achieving organisational goals. According to these authors, every employee has some specific standards and values on the basis of which he performs functions and activities within the organization. The values and standards of different persons vary from each other. For motivating employees the organization tries to know the specific standards and values which its employees follow for performing different activities. As per the values, an employee tends to select his job. The authors state that when organisational goals match with the personal values and standards of the employees then they end to tend to deliver a better performance which benefits the organization in fulfilling its target. This is because it becomes easy for the employees to work when their personal goals and organisational goals become similar. The employees get motivated in delivering good performances when they can fulfill their personal goals or work as per their values for achieving the company’s objectives (Steele-Johnson, Beauregard, Hoover, &amp. Schmidt, 2000). Therefore by following the words of these authors’ personal values and standards of employees play a significant role in fulfilling the firm’s objectives. But in many cases, recognition and reputation of employees contribute a lot in influencing the performance of employees. As per the author Saks, social recognition is very important for many employees. The organisational members work efficiently for building a good reputation for them which will provide them recognition within the company. Rewards and appraisals are given to the employees for motivating them in their jobs. These are the very important things which influence the performance and productivity of the employees.

“Features of CA &amp

CDA Analysis" 51) also argues that CDA originates from the many difficulties within the social sphere. Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is a discipline of discourse analysis. Norman Fairclough has made a significant contribution towards this study of linguistics. Fairclough states that with the use of CDA there are three phases of the analysis itself, “description of the text, interpretation of the relationship between text and interaction, and explanation of the relationship between interaction and social context.” Pg. 91
The set of textual features included is highly selective, containing only those which tend to be most significant for critical analysis. Pg. 92. CDA explains the relationship between power and language. It is a discipline that seeks to identify the intended meanings of texts, the discourses reinforced from the texts (Fairclough, 1995).
Conversational Analysis (CA) is another theoretical framework, which derives from the sociological movement named ethnomethodology. this was then transformed into being used within the language in practice. It is applied to language in use when individuals are conversing with one another with the use of transcription to interpret the spoken conversation. CA looks at: the structure of a conversation this includes the turn-taking organization, the shape of the speaker’s turn or the microanalysis of dialogue in a conversation. CA consists of five areas (listed in order of use) theoretical assumptions, goals of analysis, data, preparation of data for analysis and analytic methods (Sidnell and Stivers, 2013).
Conversation analysis (CA) is a discipline that focuses mainly on social interaction and how it occurs through non-verbal and verbal use. CA initially began with analyzing common casual conversations between people. later on, it progressed to analyzing more task-oriented and institution-placed interactions in conversation. The objective&nbsp.of Conversational Analysis is to understand the interaction of people in social contexts.&nbsp.

Goodfellas Short Paper

To begin with, it would be important to pay attention to the reasons why people in New York and the main character in particular wanted to become gangsters. As Henry Hill, the protagonist, put it, he always wanted to be engaged in the criminal activity and becoming a gangster would mean for him more that becoming a successful politician. Indeed, having realized that it would be rather difficult to move up the social ladder in the conventional way, Hill leaves the school and becomes associated with the criminal world. This kind of attitude towards the criminal activity might be explained by the fact that in the social environment where Hill grew up people had little opportunity for social mobility. that is why they viewed being involved in the criminal activity as becoming a part of something bigger which ultimately satisfied their need for climbing the social ladder. In addition to that, from the early childhood Hill knows that gangsters drive expensive cars, wear premium clothes and live in big houses – this is what he ultimately striving for.
The movie in question also brings several ideas about the role of a wife in such a family. One would make not mistake suggesting that a woman will be struggling with bringing up her children knowing that they are not able to disclose the criminal aspect of the family. However, it is also essential to consider that there is a way to bring up the children properly so that they will not be affected negatively by the activities of their father, but it involves secluding them in a limited world of their peer who come from families of the similar background. Under these circumstances the differences between the ordinary citizens and those who belong for families that are involved in the organized crime will be eliminated. There is no mistake that a woman will not be able to live a normal life, knowing that her husband earns money illegally: this will surely limit her social network. In

Major Aspects of Coke Advertising

The brand has continued to gain popularity in the global market based on its various strategies such as being involved in the FIFA World Cup and environmental conservation among others. In order to ensure that the diversified needs of the consumers are met, the Coca-Cola Company has established various Coca Cola brands that have a different amount of sugar. Some of the notable brands include Coca-Cola Black Cherry Vanilla, Coca-Cola Zero Caffeine-Free, and Coca-Cola Cherry Zero among others. Being one of the most consumed soft drinks in the world, Coca-Cola’s strong awareness has been achieved due to extensive promotion and advertising using various avenues. As a company with global distribution, Coca Cola Company advertises its top brand through online means, television adverts, newspapers, billboards, magazines and through participating in corporate social responsibilities. This paper aims at discussing one of the major adverts that the company initiated in 2015 during the celebration of 100 years since Coca-Cola effectively penetrated the market.
Since Coca-Cola is one of the brands that are highly consumed regardless of the age of the consumers, it is advertised by young adults, old men, and women. For example, during occasions such as Christmas, Father Christmas advertisements, which portray old men, are launched (August 16). However, it is imperative to note that in most of the Coca Cola brand adverts, a couple or a group of young people are involved. During the celebration of 100 years for Coca Cola bottle, the advert involved a young man and an attractive woman. This is an indication that the brand’s major target is young people. This advert indicates a moment of real deliciousness and refreshment that emerges once a bottle of Coca-Cola is consumed during the start of a new love affair. It indicates the craving and the satisfaction that is achieved once one spends a moment with his or her loved one. While in a well-decorated room, the couple seems to be enjoying&nbsp.their companionship, which is made stronger by the involvement of the Coca Cola brand.

Analysis of Different Aspects in Different Religions One Ought Not to Be Forced into What to Practice

51250 Inside religions, diverse sects may understand religious wisdom on this theme in unreliable ways, and personal women plus their partners might choose to pay no attention to spiritual teachings. Cultural issues are equally vital in couples choice about family size plus contraception. When new migrant is faced with the confrontations of adjusting to a new culture plus a new culture, they might anchor powerfully to customary religious and intellectual expectations concerning family, sexuality, plus fertility. While care providers ought to be alert not to point conventional religious, social, plus cultural characteristics to women in search of advice concerning contraception, they do require recognizing that diverse value systems might influence contraception management in couples of diverse faiths. This augmented cultural responsiveness needs to be angered by the accepting that each serene encounter is exclusive. The principles that a person woman holds might not be in staying with the executive knowledge of her faith or the educational norms accounted for by other associates of the same society. Religion manipulates culture in numerous ways. &nbsp.People of diverse cultures have a number of values that manipulate their daily lives as well as how they work (Siregar, 1981). &nbsp.For instance, Muslims pray 5 times daily facing Mecca, which is the holiest place on the globe according to them. &nbsp.The Islamic women must cloth in cloaks that cover up their entire bodies as well as hair. &nbsp.In addition, they also include Ramadan where they are obliged to go without food for their faith. &nbsp.If somebody were to adapt to Islam, it would actually transform their life for the reason that of all the possessions they are obliged to accomplish or sacrifice.&nbsp.

Social Problems of Delinquency and Crime

The impact of working mothers on childcare and development of young children is even greater. With less time to spend together as a family, the development of children is then influenced to an even greater extent on external factors outside the family circle. The school environment, the social interaction with other children in the neighborhood, participation in local clubs and societies etc. take on a bigger role in shaping the social character of the child and extent, if any, of an inclination towards antisocial behaviors.
The importance of greater time for social interaction of parents with their children in the context of the relationship between family variables and child behavior is discussed in Family Process journal1, wherein it states that “although a diversity of factors may be associated with the development and maintenance of conduct/oppositional disorders in children, of primary importance are the moment-to-moment interactions that the child has with his or her primary caregivers.” It is an unfortunate present-day reality that in many families, parents do not spend sufficient time with their children as they used to, usually due to work commitments. So it is no surprise that they acquire habits, attitudes and behaviors from elsewhere that prove detrimental to their future lives.
As far as the effects of the neighborhood is concerned about family processes, especially in the absence of sufficient parental involvement in the lives of their children, it too can be a significant factor. Emily and Daniel2 conducted a longitudinal study from toddlerhood to school entry of the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on early child overt behavior problems in a low-income, urban sample of 281 African American and European American boys. Neighborhood effects on boys behavior emerged, albeit only at age 6 at the extreme of neighborhood disadvantage. Findings suggested that boys in underclass neighborhoods are at risk for overt behavior problems as they make the transition to elementary school.

Features of British Conservatism

The beginning of conservatism dated back in the Great War in Britain. During this time, powerful debates about the soul and the thoughts of conservatism were widely spread. The participants were mainly prominent historians who were the great thinkers in society. The historians had many arguments in common about the nature of human beings. However, their areas of specialization differed in terms of the interpretation of issues. They were always aligned with particular political classes. The prominent historians often had chances to address huge multitudes that eventually purchased their works thereby promoting their doctrines further. Many people also read their works in print media as well as on television and radio. They were a great inspiration to the people.

The conservatism that exists in the current day in Britain can be traced back in the mid-1750s to early 1800. This came as a reaction to the swift changes and a series of prospects that faced the nation as well as other neighboring European nations. During this period, the Torry party was transformed into a conservative party. This mainly came as a result of the electoral reforms in 1832 that was aimed at educating the conservatives on ways in which they could become productive and self-reliant in society. This came as a result of the common belief that personal initiatives are usually more effective in bringing the desired results than those that are done communally. Conservatism in Britain is somehow interrelated with that of other Western Nations (Daunton 1995 pp.27-31). However, it is unique in a way that distinguishes it from the others. Conservatism in Britain established under the patronage of renowned historians. The torry party was the first to establish the original characteristics of conservatism. It was later transformed into a conservative party. The party mainly advocated for the monarchy while the feelings of those who owned land in the rural areas manifested in it. They defended the social order by the use of the Anglican Church as well as institutions such as the family.

Ethnicity and Social Divisions

Ethnic minorities encounter a lot of challenges such as labor market discrimination to an extent that some of these people face health differences where those with low socio-economic status are at a disadvantage.

Significantly, a good example is where in the United States there are groups that experience inequality through discrimination when it comes to acquiring jobs i.e. Africans, Asians and Latinos (Karin 23). It is very hard to find people from these ethnic groups in the top-level management of prominent organizations. once they get jobs in these organizations and are at the bottom of the hierarchies, it is very hard for them to get any promotions or even job upgrades.

Generally, ethnicity is a significant category of social hierarchies in contemporary societies that contain a significant number of ethnic communities with most parts of the society dealing with challenges associated with racism, ethnic discrimination, ethnic identity or even minority rights. This has actually resulted to the ethnic communities in the United States relying on social ties and latter groups that look upon state agencies for employment and trying to find ways that they can employ so as to improve labor market chances like acquiring high-level skills (Karin 15).

Misunderstood How The Individuals Create Social Images

Completely Misunderstood
People always tend to misunderstand others especially if they do not understand each other. Some misunderstandings can cause people to have preconceptions about an individual which might not be true at all (Jobes 4). I have been in a situation where I have been misunderstood by those around me. I am a 30 year old single lady and an ex-marine. I love working around machineries and all kinds of tools, something that people normally associate with masculinity. I am also a born again Christian who leaves by her own set of principles based on biblical teachings. Some people view me as living a strict lifestyle since I do not relate with just anyone. At my age, it is difficult getting into a relationship and my situation is made worse by how people judge my way of living.
I have been labeled a lesbian not only because I have not had a serious relationship with a man for the last 5 and half years, but also because I do enjoy doing the kind of works that society reserves only for men. To make matters worse, I do not trust men easily, and the fact that I am a former marine only works against my favor. A staunchly adhere to the Christian doctrine, and therefore I cannot just settle down with any man that comes along, he too must be a committed Christian as I am. Due to my Christian values, I am mostly intolerable to many local men who use disrespectful language in my presence. My personal principles have created false perceptions that I am homosexual with no interest in men. It is unfortunate that many people do not realize my reason for doing hat I do, and they therefore end up judging and misunderstanding me.
I obviously do not enjoy how many people view me. I have tried to clear up some of these misconceptions by integrating with my neighbors as much as I can. I have also dropped some of my tomboyish tendencies and now try to act more lady-like. While attending social functions, or when going to church, I normally make sure that I look as much of a lady as possible. Although it is not easy, I normally attend some of the functions organized by women and I even do not find some of their conversations superficial as I used to. I have also changed the way I approach men. I decided to have more trust in them so that it would be easy to understand each other. If I think that a man is handsome, I make sure that I compliment his appearance.
I have realized that I am responsible for image that people have of me and that is why I went out of my way to correct some of the misconceptions that people had about me. Although it has not been easy, my efforts are bearing fruit. Both men and women who would have ignored me now enjoy my company, and I theirs. I have also been able to gather enough patience to let people know that I am actually not homosexual. I just tend to like things that women would like, like machinery. Since I started changing the way I viewed other people, they also started changing the way they viewed me, and now I have more friends that I ever had in my neighborhood.
Work Cited
Jobes, Anne. Misunderstood. New York: CreateSpace, 2010.

A Virtual World

The social media tops the list of virtual applications currently clouding the minds of today’s generation. Currently, 91% of Americans are considered internet savvy. (Chidambaram, Lakshmanan and Zigurs 116) They spend most of their time browsing social media. This trend has been found very worrying by pundits who claim that the habitual presence in the social media limits productivity by a significant ratio, a trend that must be urgently be contained. (Mendelson 118)

It is true the social media has revolutionized the lifestyle of humanity for the better, but it has significantly “killed productivity” Too. Researchers have proven that the long hours spent in social media can be significantly channelled elsewhere for production, a fact I concur with. Employers grapple with lost time and workmanship in the virtual world. Those who spend a lot of time in social media have been touted as lacking originality creativity since most of their time is in the virtual world. (Drushel, Bruce and German 331)

Super Slim Me Motion Picture

During the scene in the second part of the video where Dawn is asking the store owner about the diet before an awards show, I noticed that the diet included water, lime, honey, and pepper. The sociological perspective I will introduce is the idea of conformity. Conformity is going along with peers who have no special right to direct behavior. It could be synonymous with obedience because in this case, her higher authority is Hollywood. If she wants to fit into an awards show dress, she must stick to the cleansing diet proposed for maximum fit.
Conformity is very important in many social circles. Conformity determines who is “in” and who is “out” when it comes to popularity. According to Milgram, we as humans are accustomed to submitting to authority. Sometimes that authority is a person, or object and other times it a higher power. Conformity oddly enough gives people a sense of belonging in this world and the power of conforming to someone else has to do with nature/nurture. Social control becomes a factor in this scene because it is informal. The owner of the clothing store has no idea how much weight and power his words possess when giving the actress the secret ingredient to becoming a size zero.
The final scene I’d like to bring to mind is actually the scene where Dawn splurges and goes on a binge before even starting her West Hollywood diet. She is very much aware of what she will have to endure as a person taking on the new persona of a size zero or as she likes to call it “a UK size four.” The Socialistic point of view that can be attributed to this scene is deviancy. It is not just deviancy, but it is a complete rebellion. Deviancy is the behavior or attributes of an individual or group that some may find offensive, wrong, strange or immoral. Let’s take the word strange and apply it to this situation. When a person is deviant, they are going the other way or avoiding the outcome. Dawn purposely eats tons of food before starting her diet as an act of deviance because she knows she will need to endure a much stronger and controlled regime. As she eats, she is labeled as a stigma because the people she is eating with are all part of the same group who are “set apart” from the Hollywood size zero. She is integrated into their lifestyle but is far from being accepted in what the UK calls size four. Her road ahead will be grueling, and even, according to some of the doctors, dangerous.

Knowledge as a Tool to Exploit the Global Changes

1. Knowledge as a tool to exploit the Change Change is the unmistakable fact of life that is often either not recognized in its entirety or misused for one’s own vested interests. The vast opportunities opened through the fast transforming global values and societal paradigms across the world need to be exploited to the wider welfare of the societies. Cross-cultural understanding and mutual respect must become the pillars of transforming societies. They should also be inherently adopted within the national policies and behavior of the people at large so as to promote peaceful co-existence and socio-economic growth of the nation.&nbsp.

2. Globalization
Globalization has become an intrinsic part of contemporary social structure which needs to be understood for its wider ramifications on various spheres of human life. Indeed, historical events have been great facilitators to understand the change. One, therefore, must make efforts to understand the complex nature of changing social values and adopt them in their lives so as to exploit them for one’s own personal and professional growth.

3. The necessity of government control in economic reforms
The current recessive trend in the American economy is often contributed to President Reagan’s market policies and liberalization. But it is important to note that deregulation of banks was the major factor that had promoted riskier business propositions. It was during President Clinton’s administration that banks’ deregulation bill was passed. Hence, sub-prime loans of banks for housing had ultimately resulted in the collapse of the American economy. Thus, one can say that economic reforms must be accompanied by effective government control measures.

Walt Whitman I Saw in Louisiana a Live Oak Growing

Walt Whitman: “I saw in Louisiana a Live Oak Growing” Although the poem has only thirteen lines, it has a redoubtable symbolism in virtually all of its lines. It has an informal stanza pattern and irregular rhythmic form, but still manages to pass a strong message of love. Even so, the meaning of Walt Whitman’s poem “I saw in Louisiana a Live Oak Growing” depends on the context, and perspective of the reader. In the main, the message of love and companionship is dominant, and the poet cleverly relates himself to the live oak tree.
Although the oak was oak was rough and robust, it had joyous leaves. The tree reminds the poet of his lonely self. Even so, the difference between the two was the joyous nature of the tree as compared to the poet who was desolate and without a companion. The real tree characterizes his life and is a metaphor for his feelings. Through a comparison of the two, it is apparent that the poet compares man and nature, and shows that while nature (tree) can prosper without the help of other natural beings, man requires companionship.
The poet says that the tree ‘utters’ its leaves (Whitman 1). This linguistic style is entirely suitable on a literal level. At a literal level, it means to sprout, or to produce, because it is a “live-oak growing”. The oak tree is both alive and growing, and it produces life, but the poet only seems alive, but not living. ‘Lusty’ signifies that it is healthy, strong, vigorous, and corpulent. The use of personification is evident in this instance because the poet gives the tree human traits. The word ‘rude’ also personifies human traits, specifically the stubbornness of people, and this intensifies the evident comparison between nature and human. The poet affirms that the oak tree “made me think of myself” and this reminds the poet of a previous time that steadiness and vitality were evident traits. The poem conveys a simple but strong message that defines human weakness in the inability to maintain passable social relationships.
Work Cited
Whitman, Walt. I Saw in Louisiana A Live Oak Growing. Poetry foundation.

The Decline of Union Membership in the UK

The survey went on to indicate that while more than a third of those aged 35 and over in the UK were union members, of workers aged 25 to 34, just one-quarter were union members (Labor Force Survey, 2005).
Organizers have an uphill battle in turning the tide of membership erosion. The decline of youth interest is of special concern as the future growth or decline of trade unions depend on recruiting those just out of school. "Being a union member has ceased to be the social norm, and a new generation has grown up who not only are not trade unionists but whose parents have never been in unions either” (Schifferes, 2004). Unions face the public relations dilemma of being perceived as outdated and even irrelevant by young people. The need to attract additional young workers is essential for trade unions’ survival.
They depend on a demographic group that may have little knowledge of trade unions. The Labour Force Survey reported that 18 percent of employees aged 18-29 were trade union members in 2000. This figure is a stark and troubling contrast to the 1983 mark in which 44 percent of this age group employed were within the structure of a union (Monks, 2001a). Youth membership, by percentage, has fallen by a further margin than general membership numbers since 1980. “Union membership grew steadily from 9.3 million in 1950 to 13.3 million in 1979 and by 1980 half the UK workforce were members. Since then unions have lost over 5 million members, and only just over a quarter of the civilian workforce were members at the turn of the century” (Metcalf, 2001, p. 2).
While one-quarter of those employed in the UK are trade union members, just 18 percent of youths are. If current trends continue, trade union membership will decline further generation by generation. “Research shows that people who do not join unions when they start work&nbsp.are less likely to join a union in their later lives even if they get a job in a unionized workplace. It is no doubt true that the image of unions is not exactly attractive to young people”.

Fast Food Nation and How It Affected Eating and Shopping Habits

As suggested by Schlosser, ‘we are what we consume’, from my own evaluation, my fast food expenditure is more than consumption on any other commodity including books, movies and other materials. Schlosser conducted research on fast food and made conclusions that are relevant in what is observed in today’s eating habits and fast food (Luke 58). He has described how the fast food industry has changed America into a fast food nation, reading his book does not leave the reader without reconsidering his/her eating and shopping habits.
This study explores the book on fast food nation written by Eric Schlosser with an aim to explore how his views have influenced my eating and shopping habits. The main aim of the study is to identify how fast food views as described by Schlosser has influenced my eating and purchasing decisions, how I consume it, whether I consumer more or less of organic or the natural foods, the ingredients I consider essential when purchasing food, whether I consume less processed or fully processed food.
For a long time, I have highly consumed fast food. this has mainly been driven by the fact that the food’s taste is good. This has made me for long ignore or not even know the cocktail of various chemicals used to give the food taste and the grisly events involved in slaughterhouses that are most likely to put nasty taste to the burger and the beef. As mentioned by Schlosser my experience of buying and consuming fast food has reached the routine level becoming unexceptionally mundane. The various risks or undesirable effects associated with fast food is now ignored and taken for granted, eating fast food has now become a social custom. Fast food industry began as a handful of hamburger and hot dogs in South California, today, fast food is served in stadiums, restaurants, zoos, schools, airports, and universities, in trains, on a cruise, ships, supermarkets, petrol stations, hospital cafeterias, and&nbsp.aeroplanes (Schlosser 55).&nbsp.

Is the Desire for Monogamy a Concept that Is Culturally Encouraged or Is It an Instinct Innate

There used to be a belief that many of the bird species are monogamous but biologists have posited to the effect that they are not as would be discussed in detail below. Also contrary to the widely held belief that the male counterparts are the major culprits with regards to the issue of infidelity, research has shown that even females also play a similar role since the males cannot do it alone.

Basically, there are two types of monogamy namely social and sexual. Socially, human beings have the belief that a monogamous marriage is more faithful in that only two people would be committed to each other unlike in a polygamous relationship. However, polygamy is acceptable even biblically but it is often shunned by many people in many societies for various reasons. During the contemporary era where there are a lot of sexually transmitted diseases including the deadly HIV/Aids pandemic, polygamy is discouraged. However, in African societies, in particular, men are allowed to have many wives as a symbol of power and wealth. Given such a scenario, it can be noted that monogamy is socially constructed and is not a natural phenomenon. On the other hand, sexual monogamy entails that married partners should only have sex between themselves and no one should engage in adulterous relationships.

According to the two authors mentioned above, behavioral evidence suggests that the tendency to have multiple sexual mates is natural whilst monogamy is not. With regard to human beings, monogamy is preferred as they believe that it is a sign of civilization. It is widely believed that there are high chances of understanding each other if people are in a monogamous relationship. This would also promote social order where people who are in a relationship mutually trust and understand each other. If there is trust, there are little chances of misunderstanding that may often lead to fighting or any other violent behavior that may end up hurting other people.&nbsp. &nbsp.

The Difficulties to UK Social Workers who Work with Children

In the past, there was a sense of shame and guilt on the child, where they were made to feel that the abuse was their own fault and that talking to anyone about the abuse they were suffering would bring shame on their families.
Despite this new openness towards discussing abuse in the family, the social workers are constantly facing difficulties in being able to assist those in need. Firstly the powers they are given to intervene are very limited and orders to have the child removed from the family home are only issued under the most extreme circumstances. A further area that causes difficulties comes with having to deal with ethnic minority families. Within these families, the children are often encouraged to not discuss the things that are happening in their homes. There are also cultural issues that can affect the way the child deals with the abuse they are suffering. Within some ethnic families, sexual abuse of the child is in some ways regarding as normal. Some ethnic communities might regard the father of the child involving in sexual activity with the child as normal within their community.
In order to protect children from abuse, several pieces of legislation have been implemented. Child abuse first came under the spotlight in 1889 when the children’s charter was passed1. The aim of this was to prevent the cruelty of children by allowing the state to intervene in relationships between parents and children. Under the charter, the police had the power to arrest anyone believed to be ill-treating a child or to enter the home of a child they believed to be in danger. The Children’s Act 1908 introduced in Ireland made further changes towards protecting children and created juvenile courts and the registration of foster parents. Irish law went one stage further at this point in time by introducing the Punishment of Incest Act2. Prior to the inclusion of this Act the church was responsible for punishing those who committed incest.
Despite legislation being devised to protect children the powers of the social workers remain limited meaning that many children are left to suffer on their own and are unable to put an end to the abuse, they are subjected to.&nbsp.


On the other hand, social work intervention can be broadly described as the process whereby a social worker provides interventions to individuals, families and groups of people among others with the aim of helping them to be able to bounce back from the numerous problems affecting their lives (Parris 2012, 57). From these interventions, the social workers are able to get a good assessment of what is affecting their clients and thus are able to provide perfect help.
The aim of this research proposal is to be able to analyze social work intervention in young adults. Through the set objectives of this research, they will try to establish the functions of social workers in London, the various features incorporated in doing this work, the type of intervention chosen for various people and lastly, the effects accompanied with this analysis. In addition to this, the information that will be generated from the outcome of this research will be used for a number of purposes. The key purpose will be to create awareness to the public on the various issues affecting them and their families and how social work intervention can help them overcome all these challenges affecting them including drug and substance abuse, alcoholism and unemployment among others. From the results, viable and feasible recommendations will be formulated and this will be of significant effect to the society.
The research proposal will be carried out in a number of ways that will be most suitable for the selected age group that is between 16 and 25 years old. The methodology to be used in carrying out this research will include the use of both primary and secondary sources of data collection. The primary sources to be exploited include carrying out observations, administering questionnaires and face to face interviews (Kothari 2005, 154). All these will be used since they will be able to provide first hand information

Attempts to Transcend the IndividualSociety Dualism in Understandings of the Self

It would seem that there have always been complexities in attempting to understand self from a research perspective. This dualism is noted in the different approaches with the self, as previously identified, as a construct of a core motivation or core personality. Much different than the social psychoanalytical approach is the phenomenological view which appears tightly focused on experience and the tangible realities of life to explain the development and concept of self. The phenomenological approach would suggest that different environmental stimuli or life experiences strongly mandate behavioural responses to different social situations. This suggests that self is a flexible and adaptable part of the personality which is in a state of constant evolution as it copes with the external social environment.
The social psychoanalytical approach appears to view respondents as being almost wholly-self-contained in which internal thought patterns and motivations are so inter-linked with behavior that they cannot be separated for adequate study. One author in this area of the social study describes the self as an internal, observed self and the external, observing self as if one could pick up a mirror, view the reflection, and be observed like others in society would observe them (YOUR BOOK, 200?). This approach would recognise the subject&nbsp.of study as a person who balances different behavioural responses based on internal thoughts and values as well as perceived judgments or criticisms from the external social environment. This would recognise the subject in terms of dualism, self against self or self for self, based on the perceived relevance of any given social situation.&nbsp.of study as a person who balances different behavioural responses based on internal thoughts and values as well as perceived judgments or criticisms from the external social environment. This would recognise the subject in terms of dualism, self against self or self for self, based on the perceived relevance of any given social situation.&nbsp. The aforementioned also illustrates how the social psychoanalytical approach seems to have a dualist approach in determining how the self functions either dependently or independently of the external environment. Hidden unconscious and deeply-buried motivations which are so powerful or too difficult to cope with appear, from the social psychoanalytical approach, to occur from social relevance and social interactions.&nbsp.

The Rule of Retributive Justice

Drawing inference from the case of Miller v. Alabama, the application of retributive justice demanded the Miller, a fourteen-year-old boy be tried with the charges of arson and capital crime in the same capacity as an adult. The application of retributive justice does not consider an individual’s mental status when committing a crime, thus proposes a blanket cover with which justice is administered equally for equal crime. Application of mandatory life without parole that is applicable in distributive justice can thus be said to be unjust, as it does not give an opportunity for the offender to be cross-examined to ascertain the real intentions of committing a crime (Dreisbach, 2013).
According to the constitution, application of retributive justice is significant as it is based on ensuring that commitment of crimes of the same nature like the one that attracted a capital punishment will prevent commitment of future crimes by the potential offenders. Severe punishment acts as a psychological negative stimulant to avoidance of the crime. Nevertheless, application of retributive justice will infringe the rights of the citizens especially the juvenile who is a life sentence without parole. These persons will be denied an opportunity for proper development.
Discussion 2
Application of retributive justice can be just or unjust depending on the situation when justice is administered. Taking the situation of Karla Faye Tucker, corrective justice as an alternative theory to retributive justice demands that there should be fair compensation to the offender and the victim of a crime without gain for either side. Nevertheless, the victim of Karla had died and could not be compensated. In this regard, corrective justice requires correctional measures to be taken against Karla to ensure she is profitable to society. According to this theory, the action by Texas to execute Karla despite having achieved corrective measures was unjust (Dreisbach, 2013).
Reformative justice sees the response of doing wrong as an opportunity for doing something constructive and not as an opportunity of inflicting punishment on the offender. Reformative justice thus intends to make the offender better than his/ her initial status. In this regard, during her nine years stay in prison, it was conclusively determined that Karla had acted under drug influence and had reformed. This thus put Karla in a position to be pardoned. The action to execute Karla was thus unjust according to the reformative justice.
Restorative justice seeks to heal the wounds that are caused by crime in society. Restorative justice thus seeks to engage the offenders, the victim and the community in a collaborative effort to heal physical, social and psychological wounds. Application of restorative justice thus demanded a collaboration between Karla, the family members of the victim and the American society like the clergy in healing the wound. This equilibrium had been attained when both the community and the brothers of the victim requested for the pardon of Karla. According to restorative justice, it was thus an unjust act to execute Karla (Dreisbach, 2013).
Transformative justice asserts that the justice system should create an opportunity for healing and transformation rather than punishment and retribution. The court decision to execute Karla despite the achievement of healing, transformation thus goes contrary to the principles of transformative justice. The offender had been transformed from drug abuse and was viewed as harmless to the well-being of the society. thus her execution was unjust.

Confronting the Realities of Forced Migration

International migration envisages occupied various series of different stakeholders that have diverse and occasionally conflicting welfare and is progressively associated with other vital global problems such as growth, employment, human rights, and safety measures. National governance of worldwide migration has faced different types of disputes.
International initiatives to share responsibilities for forced migrants have not been as effective as these should be because of various reasons. International initiatives to share responsibilities for forced migrants have emerged among the various nations. This paper argues that these efforts have registered failure in most cases because of the lack of coordination between the State and the Federal governments, absence of international support, scarcity of funds besides the identity crisis of the migrants.
The primary and important reason for the failure of initiatives is a lack of consistency in policymaking and the execution of various rehabilitation programs.

Policymakers and authorities often fail to describe the scope, consistency, possibility and international support of their initiatives in the issue of rehabilitating forced migrants. The researcher can have stated that the second one is the management of policy-making and its accomplishment. Severe administrative problems in the field of policymaking have paved the way for conflict between the Federal government and State governments. International initiatives have often failed to ensure the fortification of human rights and restore the dignity of migrants. This has become a cause for the failure of international initiatives to share responsibilities for forced migrants. A report by United Nations Dept. of Economic and Social state that “Governments were also urged to intensify efforts to provide basic social services, facilities family reunification, of documented migrants, promote social and economic&nbsp.integration of documented migrants and ensure their equal treatment before the law.”

What are the implications and benfits of serious gaming integration into the k12 educational model What research supports this information and what research should be suggested to be performed in order to validate pros and cons of serious gaming in edu

fore delving deeper into the implications and benefits of integrating gaming into the k-12 educational system, it is essential to understand what educational gaming is. In essence, an educational game is a game designed and constructed in a manner that teaches human beings, especially school-going children on the various subjects and aspects of life taught at school. In other words, educational games teach children not only learning skills but also real-life skills. Fortunately for educational games and children in the k-12 educational systems, stakeholders such as educators, parents, and governments have largely appreciated the role of educational gaming in recent times (Krumholz 5). This change of attitude in stakeholders has resulted in the increased realization and awareness on the physical, educational, and psychological benefits and implications of gaming on learning and development of learners in the k-12 educational systems. Consequently, educational gaming has become conventional in educational systems as a teaching tool. This paper explores the benefits and implications of educational games in k-12 educational system and the researches and assessment of educational gaming.
Among the specific features of educational games that make them vital learning and instruction tools is their being interactive, thus their use to teach learners their objectives, school and learning rules, problem solving techniques, how to interact, and how to adapt to different learning situations. Gaming thus helps learners enjoy their fundamental needs of learning, which include involvement, enjoyment, passion, and motivation, gratification of one’s ego, creativity, and emotional stability (Krumholz 5). Of great importance is the role of educational gaming in supporting social interactions among k-12 learners. Besides its physical and psychological implications, educational gaming also has biological and evolutionary benefits for learners. For instance, gaming helps learners in