Advantages And Disadvantages Of Each Factor In Teaching Learning In Nursing

However, Moos (1974), cited by Chan (2001) suggests there are three basic dimensions to conceptualize all human environments.This section examines the learning theories in the practical sessions of nursing care and medication to an elderly patient. Now let us examine Humanistic and Behaviorism approaches of learning in Nursing:Nursing as a human science necessitates that aspects of the educational approach be humanistic. The humanistic aspect acknowledges the uniqueness and holistic nature of the person. It is directed toward the discovery of knowledge.Humanism is a school of thought that believes human beings are different from other species and possess capacities not found in animals (Edwords, 1989). Humanists, therefore, give primacy to the study of human needs and interests. A central assumption is that human beings behave out of intentionality and values (Kurtz, 2000). This is in contrast to the beliefs of operant conditioning theorists who believe that all behavior is the result of the application of consequences or to the beliefs of cognitive psychologists who hold that the discovery or the making of meaning is a primary factor in human learning. Humanists also believe that it is necessary to study the person as a whole, especially as an individual grows and develops over the lifespan. The study of the self, motivation, and goal-setting are also areas of special interest.In a given environment, if a critical life situation develops for a client, to the degree the nurse uses humanizing communication attitudes and patterns while applying the nursing process, to a similar degree will the health of the client tend to move in a positive direction.A human being functions as a unique, whole being responding openly to the environment. In a Blood pressure attack, the patient will tend to feel recognized and accepted as a human being depending on the degree to which he/she receives humanizing communication from the care practitioners.

Schools for the Underprivileged

Secondly, the school must serve as an example for the existing public schools in the region (Shabnam, 2010).The public school system in the US is struggling to give the most basic levels of knowledge. The educational method in the US is predominantly based on the memorization of content rather than an intellectual development of the students. There is little emphasis on gaining an in-depth understanding of the contents and an acquisition of practical knowledge. A majority of students in underprivileged regions of the US have spent five years or more in a public school. These students are unable to identify basic scientific concepts, even though, these concepts are taught in the school. Test scores of these students are often lower than 35% (equivalent to 7/20), and many students fail to final exams for passing to the next grade (Muda, 2014).The organization has been created with the objective to provide schooling for underprivileged children. The mission includes providing high-quality education in basic subjects such as mathematics, science, and arts with an emphasis on understanding and practice of newly acquired knowledge. The program objectives comprise of:- Involve children, parents, school staff, volunteers and the community in a common project that would impart a sense of civic service, morality and respect for the traditional culture in which they were raised.The need for this program arises from the inequality of the US educational system. There is a considerable amount of research literature available which indicates the high level of inequality in the educational system of the United States. Children who grow up in low socioeconomic areas are more at the risk of experiencing difficulties in school and to drop out later. According to Goos, Damme, Onghena, Petry (2004), elimination of these inequalities requires a concerted effort.

Bone Density (DEXA)

Bone fracture is always a problem to the old people since it might lead to death or inability to live independently (Geusens, 1998). The test is only necessary for those who risk factors of weak bones, the unnecessary test should not be carried out because it might result in unnecessary treatment instead of discovering the real problem.There are several types of BMD test, and the most advanced type and the most used test is Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). During the 1960s, the radiologist was only in a position of diagnosing bone mineral loss by analyzing radiographic images. Between 30 to 50 percent analysis was only manageable and a more sensitive method was required to determine the bone mineral loss.Due to the need for better technology, Bone densitometry originated in nuclear science and it was developed by Cameron and Sorenson in 1963. That time it was called single photon absorptiometry (SPA), iodine125 was used and it was capable of emitting 35 keV gamma rays. As a result of further research, X-Ray tube was used instead of the gamma-ray source. this introduced single energy x-ray absorptiometry (SXA). The x-ray beam was filtered so that it can produce a homogenous beam. In the 1970s, dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) was developed, this technology applies radioactive source that can emit gamma radiation in 2 separate energies. DPA in the 1980s was extended to form Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), the system uses fan beam. To achieve the dual energies, the variations of generator signal output are used.There are 2 types of DEXA scanning machines, central DEXA and peripheral DEXA machine. Central DEXA is large and powerful equipment that can measure the BMD at the center of the skeleton (Sawyer, Bachrach, Fung, 2007). Peripheral DEXA is a small machine that can be carried around and can measure the BMD at the peripheral part of the skeleton like a finger.

United States Farm Subsidies and How They Are Ruining Quality of Food

The processing considerably lowers the nutritional significance of our diet. Fats food is one such corn-based food that is highly processed. People that make fast food a regular part of their diet not only become overweight but also experience malnourishment. They are deprived of the essential nutrients and micronutrients placed by nature in fresh fruits and vegetables. Every year, doctors encounter hundreds of cases of overweight children with rickets.Massive consumption of corn requires massive production of corn. The cultivation of corn causes a lot of harm to the environment. Farmers consider corning a greedy crop that needs much more nitrogen fertilizer than what is required by any other kind of crop. It is the very nitrogen fed to the cornfields that have run off with water and flown into the Gulf of Mexico to develop a dead zone therein which has now become as big as New Jersey. Corn plant also needs an increased supply of pesticides which are also dangerous for the environment. Apart from the obvious demerits of feeding the livestock corn, a potential unethical issue is that the animals are forced to feed on corn, without being their real diet. Many animals thus need to be given antibiotics whose effects can be noticed in form of the changed quality of the milk produced by them as well as a change in the taste of their flesh when they are slaughtered.Explaining the reason for writing the book The Omnivore’s Dilemma, Pollan said that as he traveled across the US, he was astonished to learn about the eating habits of people of the US as well as their curiosity to know how to change their eating habits for the better. This led Pollan to indulge in comprehensive research regarding food and health. While conducting the literature review and collecting the primary and secondary data, Pollan found that scientists in the US did not have much to teach about healthful eating, thus making the science of food a fairly primitive science in the US.

Presentation Skills and Its Capabilities

Presentations are communication means to provide information and ideas. Invariably the objective behind a presentation is not limited just to the communication of information and ideas, but it is an exercise in persuasion. This exercise in persuasion may be targeted at a single individual or to a group of people. The persuasion objective is either to adopt or revise a particular attitude, accept or modify an opinion or to take or refrain from taking a particular course of action or decision.Presentations are a distinct form of communication in both its aims and its method of employment. In most other forms of communication, the audience is thereby choice through a desire or need. In the case of a presentation, the audience is a targeted individual or group invariably present through an invitation.The audience – speaker relationship is different from that of a normal speaker-audience relationship. In a normal speaker-audience relationship the implication is that the speaker is at a higher level than the audience and is treated with deference. In a presentation, the roles are reversed. The speaker at a presentation treats the audience with the deference, cannot demand attention, and must deserve it.With the speaker at a normal speaker-audience has greater allowances due to the deference offered by the audience and is seldom restricted by time. In the case of the speaker at a presentation, with the audience being treated with deference, there is the restriction of time. In a presentation, the speaker needs to make use of the time available in the most effective manner.This restriction on time and the need to use time effectively that poses the greatestchallenge to the speaker at a presentation and it is here that the use of developments of science and technology provide the means for speaker at a presentation to utilize sound and vision comes to make the presentation more effective in the limited span of time available.

Sustainable business in the 21st century

Tourism remains a panacea of sustainable development in many nations. hence, different nations promote various forms of tourism. Sustainable tourism development relies on the premise of sustainability because it takes into consideration the resource base that currently exist and utilization of those resources in a way that the resource base for future generations are not damaged. Moreover, sustainable tourism encourages fairness and equity in order to create a win-win situation in stakeholders involved in the sector. Sustainability develops from the premise of three pillars that need to be satisfied and they include the natural environment, the economy and socio-economic benefits. For sustainability in tourism, the environment is paramount to any form of business and development and is the responsibility of everyone including developers who design and engage in supporting the infrastructure. Tourism follow established guidelines and regulatory framework in order to conform to social and economic as well as environmental standards in an attempt to embrace environmentally friendly practices. … By engaging in environmental good practices, businesses influence tourists by their efforts and follow the practices of locals in maintaining the environment. Through continuous foreign exchange brought about by the sustainable tourism, emerge positive spill-off effects that contribute in job creation, entrepreneurial ventures and links sectors. In the 21st century, businesses in the sector face the challenge of coming up with different ways of doing things in the business because there is no need of having healthy businesses without healthy society and environment. hence, the tour and accommodation business steps up to the challenge by integrating cooperate social responsibility and environmental sustainability (Benady, 2013). Given the nature of tourism and its fragility, the industry focuses on sustainability as well as sustainable tourism development by addressing the challenges of traffic congestion and engaging in strategic marketing and reforming legislation so that players in the industry comply. The paper presents a framework concerning sustainable development that takes into consideration the satisfaction of all stakeholders (Ramgulam, Raghunandan-Mohammed and Raghunandan, 2013). The significance of sustainability models witnessed increased recognition in areas of science and politics as the world faces several economic, environmental and social challenges. Tour and accommodation like other sectors that have witnessed the increase of experienced economy and skilled consumption, has undergone main transformation. The rapid development of cultural tourism has caused problems and there are signs that cultural tourism is falling prey to its own

Fleabane Now a National Challenge

Fleabane now a national challengeAccording to Dr Michael Widderick’s research paper titled Fleabane now a national challenge, it can be observed that Flaxleaf fleabane weed is emerging as a problem across Southern Australia. This is a major weed in dry land crops and is emerging as a major problem across the entire cereal cropping belt in Australia. Basically, minimum tillage and increased use of glyphosate have increased the prevalence of the weed in different parts of Australia. This weed is said to be resistant to herbicides and the other issue is that the weed is highly mobile.Thus, according to the GRDC funded research, it has been seen that the integrated weed management (IWM) is key to reduce the impact of the weed on the crops. Spraying the weed with herbicides while it is still young is another effective approach that can be taken. Alternatively, there is need to control the weed before it sets the seeds. This entails that the growers should strive to tackle the fleabane while it is still young. They should use the cultivators to bury the weed before it matures since it would become resistant with age. There are quite a number of benefits that can be derived from this action. For instance, the growers will not experience the recurrence of the problematic weed and this can also help to improve the yield. Persuasion channels like television can be used to appeal to the growers to follow the steps suggested above. On the other hand, Silverleaf whitefly (SLW) remains a potentially serious pest of coastal soya beans in the northern region. The main problem is that it quickly develops rapid pesticide resistance usually in a single season. It is also adaptive to high temperatures. The SLW cannot be managed by the use of pesticides alone and growers are not advised to use these since they kill the SLW parasites and predators allowing the pest to multiply unchallenged. Integrated pest management (IPM) is essential in order to combat this problem. There is need for the growers to understand the basic tenets of this strategy as well as the measures that characterise it. The IPM strategy entails that the growers should ensure that there are natural predators in the crop that can suppress the pest’s population. The growers should try to maintain a natural balance in the ecosystem where the predators will feed on the SLW and this helps to ensure that the SLW does not multiply in numbers. The benefits that can be achieved by the growers of beans is that their crop will not be destroyed by the pests. Indeed, the growers need to be persuaded through different channels of communication so that they can adopt the suggested strategy to combat the pests. For instance, television and other media specifically meant for farming can be utilized to persuade the growers so that they can change their behaviour towards combating the problem highlighted above. In this case, the message is that it is better to prevent the insects from multiplying instead of taking action after the outbreak of the plague. References Dr Michael Widderick. Fleabane now a national challenge, GRDC Research, Agri-Science Queensland. Dr Melina Miles, Integrated approach critical: Silverleaf whitefly in coastal pulses. GRDC Research.

The Turkle Video and the Article by Diamond

I disagree that scientific work comes off as a loud declaration that are other methods of finding the truth. Hughes’ article does not cite any research problems, theories, or statements that these alternative methods have solved. From this point of view, it becomes ironic to see Hughes’ argument critically its method of determining whether scientism is a viable method of discovering the truth about any phenomena. I do think that critiquing methods of research such as the behavioral environment is healthy for the entire field and all associated sciences. However, arguing intensely against the findings these methods yielded without providing alternatives simply enables nonscientific methods of research.I further disagree that scientism is hypocritical of its methods of research and discovery. History and academia are full of revolutions and paradigm shifts attributed to science. Surely Hughes is sending out an alert about recent trends in scientific methods of research that have yielded unhelpful findings (Hughes). Even if a number of researchers make overstated claims in their respective fields, scientism will progress as usual solving one problem after the other. Even when science does not solve a question or phenomena, it admits to its complexity and offers possible theories or research methods.Martin’s critique is brief but holistic enough to persuade me to agree with his key points. I think the source of motivation in Martin’s critique is the tension brought about by specialization in nearly all professions. I know there are many issues concerning the expertise that many readers of Martin’s critique would concur that professionals today are so lost in their lines of work that they are not in touch with good judgment anymore. A good example is a professional economist whose commitment to his or her field often intertwines with his or her perception of the world.

Political Science Locke and Publius

While The Federalist Papers is clearly a liberal work because it supports big government and places a great deal of emphasis on the individual by ensuring that individual rights are protected ahead of the good of the country, Locke states that the individual should give up certain rights in order to ensure that everything runs very smoothly in society. The main difference between Locke and Publius is their treatment of the individual in its interaction with the government.John Locke begins his argument with the belief that men and women do not even have full ownership over themselves, so it would be impossible for someone else to gain this ownership over them. Allowing oneself to become enslaved in a violation of the law of nature, since no person can own another person since that person does not even own him or her self. These laws of nature were implemented in order to protect one’s property rights, including oneself, and, therefore, slavery does not exist in society. Another reason for this is that a slave will constantly be trying to gain freedom, and something that is truly owned by another would not do this, but would rather be content with being owned by another human being and, therefore, the government is not permitted to have full control over its population. Wage slavery comes in the form of a social contract that every human is bound to in order to keep social order. Without this social contract, society would be too unpredictable and, therefore, unjust. This contract is necessary in order to protect the property rights of each and every human being. This system, however, gives much more power to the ruling class, by allowing for them to hold the majority of the power over peoples’ rights. This situation, as Locke would say, is the only way to protect the laws of nature, since the citizens will always want to break these laws for their own personal good. This means that under a social contract, the citizens were forced to give up certain rights and freedoms in order to be protected under the law.

Operations Management Issues

As a result, operations management is gaining more significance and has become a key discipline in management science. Operations management, as a whole, deals with the design of products and processes, acquisition of resources, transformation of resource inputs into outputs, and distribution of goods and services.Logistics is the process of getting products and services where they are required and when they are desired. Transportation forms the key aspect of the logistics system. Delivery of goods and services from those who want them has been taking place since the beginning of civilization. However, since the modern day customer expects products to be available at all times and with the maximum freshness in case of perishable good, companies need to ensure that their logistics process matches the highest standards.Global companies operate in an intensely competitive environment and hence they try to offer customers the best products and services with a competitive advantage. This situation has benefited the customers who now have access to world-class quality products and services.Although tools for efficient supply chain were available in the seventies, firms started increasingly adopting these tools in the nineties. Supply Chain Management gained importance during the same period. Previously, firms used supply chains to cut costs rather than build them to leverage competitive advantage. However, for companies operating on a larger scale such as Dell computers, and car manufacturers such as General Motors and Ford Motor Company, supply chain management is the central point of their business processes today. Organizations need to stress on the importance of continuous improvement in the supply chain efficiency to attain success in the market. Nokia is a good example of a company which has adopted efficient supplychain measures like rapid response manufacturing, quick-ship logistics, and a global supply web that links its suppliers and plants.

Summary of the Novel

Summary of the Novel – The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins Written by Suzzane Collins and published in 2008, The Hunger Games is a science fiction novel and its story takes place in Panem, a nation located in the ruins of North America after its destruction by an apocalyptic event. It deals with a realty show and the author has subtly portrayed the theme of how people in power misuse the media to mislead the masses. Panem with its twelve poor districts is governed by the influential and powerful leaders in Capitol. As the punishment for a past rebellion against Capitol, the government selects there a boy and a girl from each of the twelve districts to participate in the Hunger Games, a reality show. The people so selected, known as the ‘tributes’ are to fight to death which will be telecast from eager audience until one tribute is finally left, who will be rewarded with food and luxuries of life. Collins narrates this story from the point of view of a 16-year-old girl Katniss Everdeen from District 12. The protagonist, volunteers to take the place of her sister for the annual Hunger Games, as she fears that her sister, Primrose, may become the sacrificial lamb at the altar of Hunger Games The male tribute is Peeta Mellark, from the same district, who had been compassionate towards Katniss during her earlier days of absolute poverty. As the novel progresses the audience finds Collins laying bare the harsh realities behind shows, which are telecast in almost all TV channels today. Thus, the author seeks to unravel before her audience the gimmicks that governments play to mislead and control the citizens through exploiting the media. Each tribute is made to look glamorous in an attempt to appeal to the television audience to obtain sponsorship. Peeta reveals his longtime unrequited love for Katniss in front of the TV audience, which may or may not be true. All these ploys are to gain sponsors, who will shower gifts on the favoured tributes. Society at large and youngsters in particular are carried away by the show not knowing the ordeals that the participants have to undergo for their survival. Being a reality show, the audience takes the happenings in the show for granted. In this novel, at one point, due to sudden reversal of rules, both the contestants are allowed to win the game. This is to keep the show rating high and plays on the emotions of the people. To portray a dramatic finale, suddenly the rules are again reversed, when one survivor is to be declared the winner. Finally, realizing that both tributes intend to commit suicide, they both are declared winners. The daily Telegraph comments that The Hunger Games is a brilliantly imagined dystopian novel about the ultimate television reality game for teens (Collins 2008). Youth are especially drawn to the glitzy and glamorous shows and relate to the themes and events shown therein. These shows are a real farce and everyone, and more so, the youngsters are willing participants, little knowing that they would be mere puppets in the hands of the organizers, who dictate each and every action of theirs. They fail to understand that governments, through misusing the media, are trying to control the citizens. According to Irish Times, Collins’s fluent style and imagination shape a futuristic tale about contemporary issues (Collins 2008).Reference ListCollins, Suzanne. The Hunger Game. 2008. Web. 28 March 2013. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=Yz8Fnw0PlEQCprintsec=frontcoverredir_esc=y#v=onepageq=television%20reality%20game%20f=false

Fashion Magazines as Influence of Female Body Image

Fashion Magazines as Influence of Female Body Image Women’s fashion magazines greatly influence how women view their bodies and the image they portray in society. Fashion-based media works diligently to cater to females that have a worldview of self-indulgence, elegance and maintaining a chic outward appearance. Beauty, vanity and perceptions of self-sophistication underpin the type of discourse utilized in fashion magazines in order to appeal to these hedonistic characteristics of the female consumer. It is this type of discourse that can negatively influence female body image, by using imagery of women that are atypical to the average female consumer. Magazines such as Cosmopolitan use language which asserts that women are socially substandard and not acceptable without sustaining the good looks of other women utilized in the magazine’s imagery. Over time, after being exposed to these messages and innuendos, women believe in this propaganda (Lemberg, 1999). When fashion magazines use images of unattainable physical perfection, it is said that this imagery diminishes feminist ideologies and begins asserting to women that maintaining a similar physical exterior is the fundamental objective of being a woman (Cash, Gitter, Kogel and Zaphirpoulos, 1997). Hence, women begin to develop ideologies related to vanity and seeking a magazine-asserted perspective of body perfection in order to be considered socially-viable which supersedes feminist beliefs. Furthermore, Suls, Martin and Wheeler (2002) suggest that most women in society look toward social reference group figures when assessing their identities. This well-respected psychological theory suggests that women’s sense of identity is constructed by conducting social comparisons with aspirational figures in society that have built a positive social reputation, achieved fashion sense, or have achieved the body image portrayed in fashion magazines. Magazines seem to understand this phenomenon, which is why these publications use celebrity imagery because of their aspirational traits. Therefore, women look toward these social figures as a means of making status comparisons to themselves and the celebrity. When women see that they have more curves or fatness as compared to these slender and popular famous persons, they begin to develop a negative body image and reduced self-esteem. A study was conducted in which researchers used MRI technology to reveal changes in the brain as a result of exposure to fashion imagery. During the study, when shown images of women with slender body types, a part of the brain that regulates fear and anxiety was over-stimulated (Freidric, et al., 2007). This illustrates that if a woman does not maintain these attributes so often iterated as valuable in fashion magazine propaganda, there are chemical changes which legitimately occur in the brain that hyper-excites a woman’s deep drive to attain this same ideal of beauty and perfection. Therefore, it should be concluded that fashion magazines deliberately reinforce the same propaganda that only achievement of the body ideal shown in magazine imagery makes a woman attractive, beautiful and socially-acceptable. The discourse and imagery used in fashion magazines appeal to women’s psychological needs for social belonging and understand how to use imagery that elicits real chemical changes in the brain, making female consumers yearn to achieve the same level of beauty they now believe is the appropriate model for beauty. ReferencesCash, F., Gitter, A., Kogel, S. Zaphirpoulos, L. (1997). Gender Attitudes, Feminist Ideology and Body Images among College Women. Sex Roles, 7(8), pp.433-445. Freidric, H., Uher, R., Brooks, S., Giampietro, V., Brammer, M., Williams, S.C.R, et al. (2007). I’m not as Slim as that Girl: Neural Bases of Body Shape Self-Comparison to Media Images. Neuroimage, 37, pp.674-681. Lemberg, R. (1999). Eating Disorder Reference Book. Phoenix: Oryx Press. Suls, J., Martin, R. Wheeler, L. (2002). Social Comparison: Why, with Whom and with what Effect? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(5), pp.159-163.

Business (stratergy)

Rajan in his investigation in Hyderabad and Bombay, in Silicon Valley, and in the company GenEd about the relationship between science and capitalism, and between nationalism and globalization. The paper has explored Terranoba’s views on free labor and discussed how she explained the new concept of a new world of information.Tiziana Terranova’s Network Culture is written at a post-dot.com conjuncture, at what time e-mail, discussion groups, e-zines, and blogs are daily informational tools used en masse. In an era of email lists and discussion groups, e-zines and weblogs, bringing together users, consumers, workers, and activists from around the globe, what kinds of political subjectivity are rising? What kinds of politics turn out to be possible in a time of information overload and media saturation? What structures of power and control operations over a self-organizing system like the Internet? There have been many books written in the consequences of the dot.com crash that have reinterpreted the crippling economic fall down with critical hindsight. Such manuscripts tend to re-evaluate the overjoyed energies that built Silicon Alley and Valley and re-situate the utopian visions of the new economy in an endeavor to comprehend what went wrong.Terranova’s book explains how the politics of the Information Age will break down all barriers. Cyber-politics prediction reached its height between the period of 1995 and 2000. Information technology is no longer in fashion, as it was just a few years ago, to gush eagerly about politics in the age of the Internet. During the last period of the 1990s, many commentators were influenced that a new day had dawned on the life of our republic. Some people were of the view that direct democracy was just around the corner, as tens of millions of British people in chat rooms would form, in one author’s words, a committee of the whole, made up of all citizens online. Others saw enormous increases in voter contribution, the increase of a

Proving God’s Existence is Not Quite a Necessary Task

Apparently, even faith which is immaterial by nature is put to intense questioning merely because scientific endeavors have answered and fulfilled most of man’s quest for improving the quality and meaning of life. So no matter how strong God is perceived through faith, still, science is made to require evidence to support a spiritual conviction that there is God, the creator of all things including men, science, philosophies, and other fields of knowledge. By inductive reasoning, no belief may be established until concrete specific proof is met but, is this really necessary for God whose divine nature is rather inclined to reveal Him in abstract yet special ways of conveying the truth of his being? To me, it occurs that experiencing the physical world is adequate for an intimate sense of the beauty of nature is itself an inexplicable wonder though vividly seen, heard, and felt. Faith may not speak to me in philosophical terms to understand a moment of awe that has struck me somewhere, heart and mind, but it certainly speaks to me with love – that is the most common language in any context and in all areas of knowledge regardless of man’s race, creed, color, and ideological upbringing. How is it possible to hold God’s existence in disbelief when the universe, with all the heavenly bodies, is kept in perfect order by forces known as the pull of gravitation? Can these forces alone think as rational human beings do and act accordingly, knowing their worth in effecting harmony across the interstellar expanse? Surely there is supreme entity, a rational and exceedingly intelligent one who, with immense powers and wisdom, is able to design and command a non-living system of planets and stars to play their part whether in maintaining or transforming a galaxy. I am particularly fascinated about ‘symmetry’ in several things and the concept of order and symmetry is tangibly made known to us in view of biological forms and anatomies of life. Simply running an imaginary vertical axis down the center of the human body is like creating a mirror where we see one half reflect the other that our set of eyes, ears, arms, and legs in pairs mirror each other exactly. How often do we ever ponder on this and the reason for symmetry as well as regularity in shapes everywhere? Then we are led to consider thought on balance, on the idea of equilibrium which is very closely associated to order. Imagine a situation in which one of our eyes is at the back of the head while the other lies in front of the knee. Could this account for a picture of regularity and balance? If not, how could humans and other creatures evolve by such regular fashion in the absence of an impeccably systematic, profound scheme? How can God be not part of this if we completely acknowledge the spontaneous function of nature from which to realize that not all natural activities are seen by the naked eye? At this point, if we have learned to regard the unseen behavior within nature then we must learn to acknowledge beyond doubt too the invisible presence of an unseen worker who is above every form of existence. Albert Einstein expresses that though he rejects the notion

The Origins of American Exceptionalism

There are a number of arguments that have been developed that aims at explaining the history of the exceptionalism in America (Holland 53). Hector, a renowned historian, claims that the idea of exceptionalism in America did not occur because of power that America had. According to his view, America started from a very humble background. He claimed the history of America is very ironic as compared to that of the Europe. He claims that America had no great lords who possess everything, no great manufacturers employing thousands, and no great refinements of luxury. Principally, according to Hector, America did not had the kind of power it possess in the present time. However, because of its spirit of industry and work, America began to expand and grow economically, socially and other aspects of life began improving. According to hector, the phenomenon of exceptionalism came about due to the ability of America to accept the emigrants from other countries. Their elusively commercial habits seem to divert the pursuit of science, proximity to Europe, literature, and arts, which allows them to neglect these pursuit without even relapsing into barbarism. American education, wants, and everything about him unites in drawing the native of the United States earthward. Farming was the initial economic activity that enabled most of the Americans to develop (Holland 63). Franklin is another great historian who made great effort towards finding out the source or history of exceptionalism. Most of his arguments were because the increase in the population of America is one of the main reasons making an American exceptionalism. He attributed the concept of exceptionalism to the fact that plenty of cheap land encourages people to have children and hence enhances the population of people. Franklin summarizes his argument by concluding that employment and better crop production techniques were some of the main factors that made America reach the current level (Ignatieff 13). He further states that there were extra foods that could b used to feed Americans and hence resulting in a strong nation that can rely on its own. Idea of diversification is also another element of exceptionalism. Franklin argues that prospect of good subsistence is another factor that played a role in making America an exceptional state as far as power is concerned. It is clear that most of the arguments made by Franklin are inclined to the means of earning a living. This means that the ability to provide for the children and the family is directly proportional to the power of the America. This is justified by the quote he made that state that America would not improve unless the new comers are more industrious and have mid frugality than the native. This statement means the main source of power in America is the hard work and industrious nature of the American. Unlike Hector, Franklin believed that increase in population compounded by hard work is the main source of exceptionalism (Holland 53). Drummer, another historian claims that the principle of exceptionalism can be traced back to the time of charter colonies. the reason why drummer fought for the charter colonies to remain is the fact that this colonies were from New England, which despite the fact that it didn’t produce sugar, it helps other islands that do, and without their assistance they could not make it to produce sufficient quantities and cheap enough to answer the markets in Europe. They was

Health Education

This paper approves that not consume a large amount of unhealthy foods but there are always exceptions. One has a rather active life and does not participate in formal exercise. however, do try not to remain stationary. Most of the people that we associate with are very much the same. One believe that it is about balance, as simple as that: it is not just about strict exercise routines and calorie counting charts, it is about moderation. There is such a thing as too much of a good thing. diet, exercise, and good health cannot be the only focus in one’s life. I do not think I know anyone that personifies heath, whose characteristics or behaviors This essay makes a conclusion that being healthier than you are today is hardly a bad thing. The goal of good health. Wanting to improve and lengthen the quality of the life that you have is important and is relevant. Most of us could, probably, afford to eat a little healthier and be active a bit more often. Exercise has its place. As stated before, it is about balance and moderation. It is the only way to meet all the accepted requirements of good health. It must be reflected in all aspects of your being, internally, externally, emotionally, mentally, and socially. This will not just make you healthier, but a more well-rounded person within your own life.The World Health Organization coined the definition that, health is a state of complete being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Meaning that not being sick and free of disease does not necessarily guarantee the presence of good health. This definition encompasses all the aspects of what it means to be healthy, it is more than physical. Given that definition it becomes much easier to approach the analysis of the three women presented in the case study provided. The three women are completely different in how they perceive being healthy. Peggy is a constant exerciser. She talks about little else and has few friends. Kathy, also, regularly exercises, as well as, being an athlete. However, she talks little about it and makes friends more easily than Peggy. Lastly, is Mary, who makes no real extra effort, aside from daily walks, to be healthier. At first glance it would be easy to identify Kathy, the athletic, but likeable, girl as the healthiest, Peggy as an avid exerciser would fall in the middle, and this leaves Mary as the least healthy. Based solely on the inclusion of exercise as a representation of health then the former might be a fair assessment. However, that is not necessarily accurate. I have decided to put these women in a different order. The most healthy could easily be Mary, with Kathy in the middle, and, lastly, Peggy as the least healthy. It may be surprising to see these women in this order, but there is science that can support it. Exercise alone is not an indicator of health on its own, in fact, there is such a thing as too much exercise. There is even the potential to become addicted to exercise. They will become all consumed with the need to exercise. The act of exercising could become compulsory. completely out of their control.(Costin) They will abandon opportunities for social interactions, with friends and family, to participate in more exercise activities. This is the potential issue with Peggy, given the description in the case study. Her one-track-minded fixation is negatively impacting her life on a social level, potentially on a mental level. this is not necessarily a healthy state of mind. If the definition of total health includes ones mental state and social levels, and Peggy is clearly lacking in those two areas. then it would be impossible for her to be the healthiest. Without knowing more about her personal life and her attitudes on a regular basis concerning her exercise it would be difficult to know her actual state of health and make an accurate judgment. Kathy, who seems to be more sociable and likeable, has no real indications of obsessions with the athletic part of her life. However, athletes often stress their bodies too much when they train, without realizing or intending to. They, also, do not, always, allow their bodies a proper rest time in between training sessions. That said, it would be possible for her not be as

From Chance to Choice

In the article titled from Chance to Choice, Buchanan et al. discuss the issue of whether utilizing germ line choice to eliminate disabilities is immoral since it will yield to harm to disabled people. The first objection centers on sweeping empirical generalization detailing that as the number of persons with a particular disability reduce, support for the individuals will decrease (Buchanan, Brock, Daniels, Wilker, 2000). Second, the decision on whether the support will reduce within a certain case will hinge on a number of factors. The prediction on whether support will reduce as science reduces the occurrence of genetic diseases is much less reasonable today than it would have been two decades ago. This disregards the possibility that those who may not be disabled can possess legitimate interests in minimizing the rate of disabilities (Buchanan, Brock, Daniels, Wilker, 2000).The interest that individuals have in not having disabilities can be regarded as morally legitimate. however, in some instances, the interest may be irrelevant since the disability can be averted only by safeguarding the existence of the individual who might be born with the disability. The incidence of genetically based diseases may be minimized devoid of preventing the birth of individuals who might have disabilities. Hence, an argument on the loss of support must be rejected as it fails to award any weight to the legitimate interests that individuals possess in averting disabilities. Buchanan et al. (2000) make a distinction between being harmed and being wrongly harmed. Furthermore, the loss of support argument is exclusionary, which render it flawed since it considers only a section of a legitimate interest at stake and award no weight to the legitimate interests that individuals have in not having disabilities (Sherlock Morrey, 2002).

The Pursuit of Knowledge of Christopher Marlowe and Mary Shellys Literature

Works created in the Renaissance will demonstrate a much different approach to life than works created at the height of the Industrial Revolution. While both periods represent times of tremendous change, the way in which they affected the populace was quite different. For this reason, the stories told in these time periods are full of vastly different symbols, modes of action and ultimate results. Nevertheless, works such as Christopher Marlowe’s Dr Faustus, written in 1616 at the height of the Renaissance, and Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein, written in 1818 during the Industrial Revolution, manage to convey similar stories at their most basic levels. To understand how this was possible, it is necessary to first compare the historical context of these two periods and the genres into which each of these stories were created before critical analysis of the stories can occur and comparisons made regarding their fundamental teaching.Marlowe’s work was written during a period in history now referred to as the Renaissance. It was a time characterized by a great deal of change as people transitioned out from the dark Middle Ages into the enlightened world of art and science. However, literature and other forms of artistic endeavors remained very closely linked with the ideals and beliefs found in the rest of the social and cultural world, which was both questioning and attempting to validate the claims of the church regarding the possible and impossible. Concepts such as the sorcery contained within Marlowe’s play were considered very real fears and were often associated with the work of the devil. It is significant that Marlowe’s great play was written at a time in which the possibility of sorcery was not merely a theatrical fantasy but a widely shared fear, afear upon which the state could act … with horrendous ferocity (The Sixteenth Century, 2007).

Secualrization

Whereas secularization believes that no religion would be given privilege by a particular society in any respect (D’Costa, 2005). Secularization does not only mean cultural shifts but it also means development of science as perfectly described by Max Weber that secularization is the disenchantment of the world meaning that it eradicates superstition and replaces it with logic and science (Artigas, 2001). As the time goes by the meaning of secularism in respect of detaching oneself from religion started increasing, especially in the west. The new generation now is least bothered about religious norms and more bothered about the materialistic things in this world. If it is analyzed that which area in the west is getting the most affected it would certainly be the United Kingdom. UK at a point in history was very strict with religion and the church regulations, people who defied it saw death penalties as a punishment (Parsons, 1989). But nowadays religion has gone in the backdrop of people living in the UK. The main reason of this research is the prevalence of secularism as the concept is making its way into the daily life of the citizens of UK and religion have taken a back seat in their lives. Hypothesis By the introduction, it is clear that the main reason of the dissertation is to verify the trend of following religion in The United Kingdom. Mathematically it could be said that: Ho: Religion is declining in the United Kingdom. Ha: Religious practices are accelerating in the United Kingdom Literature Reviewed Mostly for this dissertation, census of the United Kingdom would be used and primary data would be taken for consideration, processed and then an analysis of the key trends would be presented in this dissertation. The census which would be used in analyzing the dissertation would be dated from year 1850 up to year 2004. The entire census between this timescale would be in view for analyzing the thesis. The censuses which were available to be analyzed were the reports of 1881, 1911 and 2001 which had the relevant data. Methodology It is important in a dissertation that methodology of the research is concrete and clear to the reader so that the analysis which is presented to the reader is to the point and accurate. This dissertation is mainly about checking the reduction or increment ratio in the followers of the religions present in the United Kingdom. Mainly data from the census of 1881 and data of census 2001 would be used in comparison to see that if the followers of the religion in UK have declined or inclined. Also some data from the census of 1911 could be retrieved for use in this research. For this mostly interactive graphical presentation of tables and graphs would be helpful to understand the nature of the advancement or turnover. The quantitative data from these censuses would identify the upheavals from the year 1850 to 1911 till 2001 and tell that how much the human point of view about religion has changed and if now having a religion matters or not. As only the available data is of the year 1881, 1911 and 2001 census the limitation is that , there would be huge gap between the statistics of population and changes in the religious and secular sides . This would limit our research to just few census and information about religion given in it. But it does not mean that it would not give us the significant factors that we are looking for,

Leadership and Nursing Systems Management

Patient care managers form the next level, and these oversee patient care directly. Finally, the service providers are at the lowest level and include nurses and physical therapists. Meeting the Mission Highland Hospital recognizes that everyone has value and is guided by their commitment to leadership and excellence. The Hospital demonstrates this through provision of emotional and physical care for patients and their families, balancing continued commitment to needy patients with highly specialized care for its broader community, creating a working environment that values everyone and offers them the opportunity for professional and personal growth, and fosters a culture of innovation and health science research. Values in Action The four core values at Highland Hospital are service, dignity, justice, and excellence, which guide the actions of its staff. Everyone on the staff is committed to the values indicated and work towards ensuring they are present in their relationship with one another and the patients and their families. Each interaction acts as an opportunity for the staff to serve patients, their families, and one another. Excellence is acted out in their professional development, innovation, accountability, and quality commitment. With regards to dignity, every member of the staff and the patients are valuable members of the community. Finally, with regards to justice, the hospital advocates for structures and systems attuned to the requirements of needy and vulnerable patients. Proposed Change Description and Rationale The shift handover is an essential part of the process of communication among nurses that occurs twice within the gynecological unit nurses’ day at… This paper approves that empirical rational strategy was also utilized in ensuring that the nurses were convinced of the change’s veracity through references to documentary evidence on bedside reporting’s positive outcome, such as improvement of patient satisfaction. Informal leaders empowered by transformational leadership were also encouraged to own part of the change by entrusting to them various responsibilities as role models. This strategy is successful as it encourages nurses to participate in the creation of behavioral and attitude change.This essay makes a conclusion that one major difficulty that faces any change in nursing units, including the gynecology unit, is rallying all nurses behind the change. Re-education, therefore, will have to be used to aid nurses in valuing the change and new knowledge they will gain, as well as readying them to learn. Different tasks, therefore, are identified for future use, such as how to deal with confidentiality issues and patients who may take up too much time in discussing their problems that could drag the handover shift longer, are allocated to nursing team members with regards to their area of expertise. This will prepare them to deal with any issues in the future that could threaten the use of bedside reporting. In dealing with various conflicts that could arise, a humanistic and flexible approach is adopted, while the resistance of some nurses should never be overlooked. Effort is made to ensure that a good relationship between nurses is maintained, while also highlighting safety needs and factors of motivation.

Organisational management change

Organisational Change Management Changing organizations is as messy as it is exhilarating, as frustrating as it is satisfying, as muddling-through and creative a process as it is a rational one – Palmer, Dunford and Akin (2005, p. 1) These lines are not only mere an illusion of some research scholars but contextually reflecting the true picture behind organizational change. Palaniswamy and Sushil (2003) pointed out that organizations do not go for system change or recalibration of process path unless it is forced to do so by external environment. Parnell et al. (2000) and Trompenaars and Wolliams (2003) supported their view by stating that organizations adopt change for multiple reasons such as, 1- decreasing cost of operation or increasing profitability, 2- reshuffling the organizational structure after or before a merger and acquisition, 3- expansion of international operation or opening up strategic business unit in foreign countries, 4- moving ahead in competition or achieve competitive advantage , 5- altering business process in order to implement new technologies, 6- addressing political pressures etc. Careful consideration of research work of Pellettiere (2006) and Priem, R. and Butler (2001) reveals that managing change within organization is a resource intensive process and there is surety about the return on investment (ROI) in the process. Siggelkow and Levinthal (2003) pointed out that organization faces challenges while dealing with resistance to change from organizational individuals. In such context, Kurt Lewin (1947) given a three stage change management process map for organizations which can help firms to reduce change resistance and create positive environment for organizational change. These three steps can be described in the following manner. Unfreezing In this stage, organizations destabilize the equilibrium of existing organizational structure or process an in order to create the basal plan for facilitating the change process. As part of initial planning, top level management of the organizations try to identify those individuals who have the dissatisfaction about the existing process and use these individuals as the change agents. Then, top level management and change agents use the existing dissatisfaction as the change agenda and motivate organizational individuals to support the change agenda. In some cases, organizations try to enhance employee knowledge about competitive threats, current market scenario, organizational problems etc in order to decrease the level of resistance from them. Change In this stage, organizations use it all three level of management to facilitate the change process. In many cases, organizations take help of external project managers in order to implement a new process or reengineer the existing business process. According to Moilanen (2005), organizations use rewards, flexible management style, and knowledge sharing, cross departmental learning as systematic tools for facilitating change process. In this phase organizations emphasizes on different aspects such as establishing reward system for employees, bringing the flexibility in managerial style and others to decrease resistance from stakeholders. Refreezing Voelpel et al. (2004) defined refreezing as the outcome of organizational fitness alert for restoring the change process. In this phase, organizations monitor the outcome of implemented change process and institutionalize organizational members with the newly implemented system. Many organizations use training, knowledge sharing seminars and programme, mentoring coaching as part of institutionalization process. Organizations provide both visible and invisible rewards to participant in change process in order to recognize their contribution and restore the positive results of implemented change process in sustainable manner. After understanding the core elements of Lewin’s change management process, the researcher will try to understand to identify how the concept can be applied to Qatarization strategy. Qatarization Qatarization policy was created with an intention of developing national labour force of Qatar by replacing foreign professionals from important job positions and replacing them with Qatari nationals. Government of Qatar has designed the Qatarization policy to increase number of Qatari nationals in government departments and joint venture industries by attracting both foreign educated Qataris and educated domestic Qataris to join the national labour force by replacing expatriates. Unfreeze Qatar government should improve the standard of professional education by implementing right educational policy or follow the standard education policy followed by global leaders. The government should communicate the benefits of working in Qatar for Qatar nationals through carefully designed advertisement program. Change Qatar government should declare subsidies to joint ventures which recruit Qatari professionals instead of expatriates and also take steps to employ foreign educated Qatari professionals in government industries. Refreeze Qatar government should provide tax benefits, subsidies and other policy benefits to companies’ which have more than 50% of Qatari professionals in important positions in order to restore the benefits of Qatarization policy. Even the government might create a target plan of 75% of Qatarization in government sectors and joint venture industries within next 10 years in order to restore the benefits of change process in measurable and sustainable manner. Reference List Lewin, K., 1947. Frontiers in group dynamics. II. Channels of group life. social planning and action research. Human Relations, 1(1), pp. 1143-53. Moilanen, R., 2005. Diagnosing and measuring learning organizations. The Learning Organization, 12, pp. 71-89. Palaniswamy, R. and Sushil, J. L., 2003. Measurement and enablement of information systems for organizational flexibility: An empirical study. Journal of Services Research, 3, pp. 81-103. Palmer, I., Dunford, R. and Akin, G., 2005. Managing Organizational Change. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. Parnell, J., Lester, D. and Menefee, M., 2000. Strategy as a response to organizational uncertainty: An alternative perspective on the strategy-performance relationship. Management Decision, 38(8), pp. 520-30. Pellettiere, V., 2006. Organization self-assessment to determine the readiness and risk for a planned change. Organizational Development Journal, 24, pp. 38-44. Priem, R. and Butler, J., 2001. Is the resource-based ‘view’ a useful perspective for strategic management research? Academy of Management Review, 26, pp. 22-40. Siggelkow, N. and Levinthal, D., 2003. Temporarily divide to conquer: Centralized, decentralized, and reintegrated organizational approaches to exploration and adaptation. Organization Science, 14, pp. 650-69. Trompenaars, F. and Wolliams, P., 2003. A new framework for managing change across Cultures. Journal of Change Management, 3, pp. 361-81. Voelpel, S., Leibold, M. and Mahmoud, K., 2004. The organizational fitness navigator: Enabling organizational fitness for rapid change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 4, pp. 123-40.

Health And Social Fair

They have managed the proper reflection on the catering service to create an easy communication with the people in the health fair.The health fair organized in the areas of Ontario, which is in the eastern province of Canada, has facilitated the follow-up about the topics on the ability of the institution to communicate clearly.Through the students, who are communicating with the individuals on different health control opportunities, efficient support has been maintained. They have reflected the views about the purpose and effects of control. The basic situation on the issue of the consequence in considering the following allocation of the ideas to enhance the ability to manage the programs other than the health has done by the students.They have also managed to gather the ideas of the individuals by supplying a questionnaire that must be filled out by the respective people on health outcomes. The situations regarding the controlled effect are providing the awareness program control over the attitudes of the inhabitants regarding the health fair. This will also help provide a clear understanding of the involvement of the student motivated by their beliefs that the body should be kept in a probable observing condition.Public health is the consideration of science along with the art for the prevention of the diseases regarding the promotion of health and life. This has done the measurement regarding the efforts of the organized factors to control the basic perspective with cost-effectiveness evaluations. The evidence of the effective methods of health promotion are:The evaluation regarding the modern approaches has inculcated the improved program along with the practices. The communities are making a perception of the problems regarding the violence that has affected the behavioral needs.The best availability regarding the evidence that could be tracked down according to theavailability of the programs for the evidence that could supply the needs. The identification of the means has always supported the techniques according to the review of the bibliographic databases, which was carried out to regulate the appropriation relating to the articles that the students have studied (Daniels,1995).

The Development of DNA Fingerprinting and Computer Forensics

The question of civil liberties violations is long-standing, and both DNA profiling and computer forensics occupy a decidedly fuzzy area of investigation and require the utmost of care when scientists are gathering evidence. Courts ultimately decide the admissibility or inadmissibility of evidence. the task of forensics is to ensure that evidence is effectively and reliably used during an investigation into crimes.In the 1880s, fingerprinting was brought to forensic science. As with all new crime-fighting technologies, fingerprinting went through a probationary period before it was accepted as legitimate science, and is still one of the most reliable ways to determine responsibility for crimes. As time has gone on we have developed even more precise ways of gathering forensic evidence, and DNA fingerprinting has become the latest tool forensic scientists use. Initially, the technology was so rough that only the donor’s blood type and gender could be determined. forensic science has advanced well beyond those rudimentary determinations, but not without a certain amount of controversy over the reliability of DNA profiling.A strong breakthrough in DNA profiling came in October of 1984 when Sir Alec Jeffreys revealed the development of the autoradiograph which could be used to sequence DNA (Malcolm, 2008). Jeffreys termed the breakthrough DNA fingerprinting, a remarkably accurate phrasing for a somewhat confusing scientific process. Jeffreys and other scientists working on this new frontier determined that sufficient DNA to obtain an accurate profile existed in body fluids and hair, which were determined to have been abandoned by suspects at crime scenes (Johnson, Martin, and Williams, 2003, p. 28. c.f. Duster, 2006, p. 297). By the late 1980s, technology breakthroughs had refined DNA fingerprinting, speeded up the process, and made profiles far more accurate using sometimes contaminated samples from crime scenes.

Evaluation of the Tension between Rational or Deliberate Strategies and Creative or Emergent Strategy

Organizations exist to survive, prosper. in an ever-changing dynamic world, managers need to make decisions now to guide the organization’s future direction. Prosperity is linked not only with profitability but also the long term growth. It’s like steering a ship in the ocean with the danger that pirates may take over, or it might become the victim of the deadly waves. The ship here refers to the company itself and the challenges here include the competitors, the environment, etc. Thus, there is a strong need for the managers to make a strategy that works as an action plan to achieve the aimed objectives. The objectives may be both financial such as higher revenues, lower costs, high profits, or non-financial just to be the top in the industry, largest market share, or to place the product in the top minds of the customers.Thus, the need arises to have a blueprint that tells how to go about it? Companies need to diverse, differentiate, integrate backward or forwards, and manage business portfolio balanced. And hence they need to plan – develop a vision, set the mission, develop long term plans, and further break them into objectives to achieve the desired goal. But it is important that the strategy is to be consistent with the organizational goals and policies, it should be flexible enough to respond to the faster-changing environment in which it is operating, and it should add value to the organization and become a source of advantage over its competitors, and lastly, it should be feasible and practical enough to get through.Strategic management can be defined as the art and science of formulating, implementing, ad evaluating cross-functional decisions that enable an organization to achieve its objectives (David F.R., Strategic Management). The process of strategic management involves three stages, viz. formulation of a strategy, implementing a strategy, and lastly, evaluating the strategy.

Contextual Focus on History

Progressively, such rightfulness, in a person’s viewpoint, may directly be conforming to how a person has acquired knowledge and what areas such person value the most. In this paper’s focus, this is made in order to present the nature of neutrality while integrating it with the areas of knowledge. As chosen, history and ethics may be two compelling yet interesting areas of knowledge, which neutrality may be useful.Describing the nature of neutrality can be very broad. In the aspect of a settlement or resolving vague cases, neutrality can be very useful. According to Trujillo, Bowland, Myers, Richards, and Roy (2008), the idea and the presence of neutrality can be the primary arbitration for a situational dilemma at present times. Observing such a statement, it can be understood that neutrality, at one of its core and basic purposes, is used to have an equitable or a fair-based comprehension of things during a situational analysis.According to Goldsmith (2000) in his letter discussed in his own article, addressed to Professor Wolpert, he stated that the regards of contemporary science will never be neutral as they are gathered objectively. In this statement made, however, this can be construed that the idea argues that the nature of neutrality, in a scientific point of view, may explicitly mean that it is structured unbiased and even-handed. Relating to the previous natural setting of neutrality in the aspect of the settlement, the scientific aspect now connects as they both extend to initiate neutral or fair concepts.As this paper progresses, neutrality can also be a cohesive concept to the areas of knowledge. Two of the compelling areas of knowledge, namely history, and ethics, are both integrated into the nature of neutrality and its various forms. However, it may be difficult also to integrate neutrality to the two given areas of knowledge without taking into account their natures, as well.

The Historical Context of International Communication

The developments in film, advertisement and radio ushered a new era in communication and mass culture. Radio as a propaganda tool was first utilized by former USSR and then all the nations of the world followed the suit. Communist and capitalist propaganda used radio all over the world to promote their point of views. Third world countries used communication tools for promoting health care, education and culture. Third World countries genuinely felt the disparity in communication technologies between developed and developing countries and demanded for more just treatment. The MacBride Commission is the result of such efforts by Third World. The commission called for impartial, balanced and responsible reporting. USA opposed the commission as it deemed it more pro Soviet Union. The opponents called the proposals as instrument against freedom of press and information. This opposition came to an end with Soviet disintegration. Opinion The chapter is a detailed look at the role of different communication devices through out history and world. The writer presents different facts and figures from ancient time to colonial era in order to press the point that communication is vital aspect of any empire. The writer then discusses in detail the impact and role of telegraph from 19th Century onwards on different social and political aspects of the world. The writer then relates the development of journalism and radio with telegraph in 20th Century. At the end the writer gives a detailed look at the impact of radio during the Cold War. The chapter is according to the title and it gives a very detailed look at the historical development of international communication. The data regarding length of cables of telegraph and the spread in different areas of the world may confuse the reader but the information is very helpful in understanding the development. The writer has used simple language and starts from ancient time in order to present the main argument. The writer is able to give a cursory look at the ancient history and then focuses on colonial era in order to make argument clear. Overall the reader may find the data presented in the chapter a bit taxing but for scholarly purpose the chapter is very well documented. The logical sequence and development enable the involvement of the reader. The writer overlooks television and internet but still the effort is very good. Summary : The Technology and Society Science has brought many changes in the society. In order to investigate the issue of social changes and scientific discoveries there are two schools of thought. One group attributes all the changes in the society to the scientific inventions. For them scientific discoveries produce change in the society. The other group takes a less radical view by stating that changes in the society are going on the new scientific inventions just contribute in these changes. Both of these views take technology and society in isolation. Military and commercial needs forced improvement in communication. These social factors were to great extent satisfied by the development in the field of telegraphy, telephony and early stages of radio. The need of addressing masses in new political world gave power to press but this political urge was satisfied by television. This complex situation set the stage for broadcasting. The use of different broadcasting tools for social communication and political manipulation greatly influenced the rapid technological advancement in the field of communication. Political stimulus and economic benefits made television a popular medium for bringing change.

Assignment 152

Gannon, Martin J., et al. Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys through 17 Countries. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1994. Global culture must be understood by any business. I could also say that this understanding is one of the things that any business should understand. If you do not know the culture where your business is operating, you will not succeed. I am now in Saudi Arabia and Culture is very important for this country. I have never dealt with a woman since I came to this country. We have a female sales person and I was surprised to know that she can not talk to clients or even attend the meetings. Though this is very unusual in a business, we have to respect the prevailing culture and we cannot impose our own set of cultural background. Such, this research will describe the differentiation of national cultures using metaphors of cultural artifacts specific to seventeen different countries. This will also attempt to answer the question of how cultural dimensions can manifest themselves with concrete examples of traditions. 1. Christianson, Gale E. Greenhouse: Theoretical and Practical Considerations for Virtual Learning Environments in Technical Communication . New York: Walker Company, 1999 This journal research helps technical communicators explore the potential of virtual-learning environments to simulate what will happen in the future. This research will also help to understand how we can put all the knowledge we learned to understand on how to achieve a high sales figure. In addition, we will also be able to determine the driving forces of the above question that is economical, both politically and socially, with the usage of science and technology that is not harmful to the environment. Also it provides a structured overview of approaches on how to conceptualize, design, develop, and evaluate virtual-learning environment. ? 3. Bate, Barbara, and Judy Bowker. Organizational and Intercultural Communication. Prospect Heights, Illinois: Waveland Press, Inc., 1997 The driving force in this research is cultural, political, environment and technological consideration. This book will help me answer my focal question. The books discussed intercultural communication with due consideration on the different cultural dimensions and it also shows how these different dimensions apply to the different communication channel in a multinational business settings on a varying level.be it on a personal level, interpersonal interaction, or national level. In the early part of the book, it introduces a theoretical framework for understanding the varying cultural differences. It also gave concrete examples on how these differences can manifest in a multinational organization. In addition, it also provides a multi-dimensional theory of culture that will begin the dialogue of charting cultural differences. Afterwhich, it also discussed on how cultural frameworks affect individuals on a personal and interpersonal levels. Finally, we can see the unique view of cultures based on the use of metaphors, explaining the multi-cultural dimensions within the context of history, traditions, and expected communication patterns. 4. Hofstede, Girt. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997. The driving forces considered in this research are : culture, technology, information, race, personality and power. In this research, the author provides a framework of cultural dimensions for understanding cultural differences. the research will also help answer my focal question because the data collected by the author already showed how individuals from different national cultures compare to one another. Such, we are able to clearly see how members of a certain culture view themselves, as either individuals or as a part of a member. Power distance describes the difference between high versus low power distance and describes the distribution of power in an organization. The book is rich in theory and provides a framework for understanding the complexities of intercultural interaction and some of the underlying causes of intercultural conflict such as differences in the meaning of time, the use of physical space, and the acknowledgment of power. In particular, these concepts are useful for employees in international corporations. This is the key for my question. 5. Storti, Craig. Cross-Cultural Dialogues: Encounters with Cultural Differences. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural P, 1994 It is exciting to see what we can learn from the same driving force as above. In my line of work, it opens new doors and lights my way to succeed. It also tremendously helped answer my focal question because the author gave examples of cultural miscommunication for the reader to think about, and then offered an alternative answer. You feel that you are being tested while reading, and that explains the underlying cultural dimensions at work places. The author leads the reader to a better understanding of what cultural misunderstandings really is. The best example that I loved while reading is the dialogue that it took place between an American and someone from the Middle East and frames the dialogues in different settings. This book gives an idea on how cultural communication meaning and styles defers from one culture to another. 6. Paige, Michael. Education for the Intercultural Experience. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural P, 1994. The driving force in this research are: culture, technology, information, race, personality and power. In this research, the author provides a framework of cultural dimensions for understanding cultural differences. In this journal we can see clearly the ways in which individuals are affected by the different cultural dimensions encountered in international and intercultural immersion experiences. Also we can see the important issues arising from cross-cultural managers. such as culture shock, intercultural adjustment, and reentry. However, the author also discussed on how an individual should prepare to live in another culture and suggested ways on how to deal with the difficulty of relocating in a different cultural context.

The Correlation Between Human Rights Violations and the Rise of Terrorism

In a world that has advanced so rapidly in the field of science and technology, there is a dire need for the evolution of human society. If one takes a bird eye view of the international affair, one would find the torch bearers of human rights exploiting human. Thus in this regard the practice and observance of human rights have definitely one of the major concerns for humanity.Every object in this universe has a limit of tolerance. once that limit is exceeded there are chances for it to break down or to react in opposition. Society of today has exceeded these limits. There is massive poverty, zero tolerance, injustice and inequality. As a result of all these anomalies, one can find resistance and reaction on the rise. Poor policy making, unstable politics and corruption are perhaps the basic reasons behind social disintegration. When the state institutions fail to deliver justice, it gives birth to outlaws. Outlaws initially stand up for their rights, but sometimes they go astray, and use their energies for committing illegal debauchery. Terrorism is a phenomenon that is associated with fear. it is the act of spreading terror. Until this date there is no fix definition for terrorism. Terrorizing people, making them scared are the two defining features of this phenomenon (Paust 41). 1Every now and then media is raising the issue of extremism and offering solutions for curbing it. However, one does not see any efforts on practical grounds for removing this anomaly. Extremism is a reaction that is induced into the minds of the people by circumstances around them. Thus rationalization of irrational extremism is usually carried out by offering arguments from religious scriptures, traditions, and from regional legacies. If one closely analyzes the problem of extremism, one would find its roots in the violation of basic human rights and deprivation of the masses from their needs. One must accept the fact

WW II

Without indulging in the conflicts, the paper simply discusses the innovations occurred during WWII. Some economists claim that WWII achieved what no one could have achieved to that extent without of the occurrence of the war. World War II was extremely profitable in terms of innovations, some of which are still in use.1 The US Navy invented the RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) in 1940. Primarily, the Nazis were using radar successfully to steer and ground bombers at night as the British were detecting the well known German airplane with the help of the radar. However, German leaders undervalued the worth of radar and its machine part for water operation, SONAR (Sound Detection and Ranging). The British earned a noteworthy strategic reward in spotting German submarines and planes from miles away. This advanced warning system saved numerous lives and provided underdog British offensive strategies against the irresistible Germans. Jerrycan, a full-bodied container, was intended for carrying fuel. It was made up of the inheritance of Hitler to supply a way of carrying fuel by hand. The jerrycan is smart for more than a few reasons. First, it featured three handles so that it can be carried easily by one or two persons. The cross design of the sides of the can helps to strengthen it. It was easier for Germans to carry fuels during the war. In mid-1942, Japan occupied the entire Asia. They controlled almost the entire world’s delivery of natural rubber. What did actually Japan do with the rubber? It did nothing but built boots. Every single soldier, sailor, airman and marine required getting boots around for doing their job and without rubbers, it was almost impossible to do so. The United States also invented new techniques to produce synthetic rubber. GRS (government rubber styrene) is one of the gifts by the USA. Presently, most of the rubber materials that are used in various manufacturing companies worldwide are the descendents of GRS. The first working jet engine was there in England just a couple of years before the war though the British did not spend much on technical innovation. On the other hand, the Germans made the Messerschmitt Me 262 which turned into the first jet-powered fighter aircraft—the best, most superior war plane at the time. The Me 262 dealt with the dog fights with pokey crutch planes. The devastating invention of Americans was the atomic bomb in World War II. WWII ended up with one of the major events in the world history of science, welfare and technology. A group of US scientists, working in confidentiality, designed and structured the first atomic bomb. President Harry Truman took the decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. The use of atomic weapons introduced to an end of a dreadful conflict worldwide. But it was also the start of the contemporary nuclear age.2 It displayed the mounting significance of technology in a recent economy. The consideration of geographic location is very important for the countries to make strategies. The USA always took the benefit of staying aloof on one side of the world. It was very difficult for other countries to target the USA by ignoring the geographical benefits it has. The success or loss from a war also depended on the topology and climatic conditions of a country. During the war with the Soviet Union, Germany tried to occupy the oil wells of the Soviet Union, but in this incident Hitler lost many of his solders as they were required to cover a long distance under unusually cold weather conditions. Germany and Japan took almost the same tactics to defend themselves against the attackers. Germany was very strong in the air forces but was

Visuals Analysis

Visuals Analysis The essay aims to discuss the following topics, to wit what is visual perception and how it influences what one sees in an advertisement. (2) definition of optical illusion and its relation to marketing. and finally (3) the effect of visual perception and optical illusion on consumer behavior. Visuals Analysis Visual perception is a function of our eyes and brain. Images are viewed as a whole rather than in parts. The images can be broken down into line, shape, texture and color. Visual perception is perceived as universal although there are other factors that affect one’s perception such as personality, gender, age, education, values and beliefs. In advertising, visual perception is very important. An advertisement can sell a product if has very good visuals and it is presented properly. A consumer’s visual perception can either make or break an advertisement. It can sell or not sell a product. Consumers will always understand a product or service more if there are visuals. Traditional methods of advertising a product may no longer be as effective as it was before. With the advancement in technology and the age of the internet, companies are becoming more creative in marketing their products. One of the latest trends in advertising nowadays is the use of optical illusions. Optical illusions use color, light and patterns which can create images that can be deceptive or misleading to our brains. The brain processes the information gathered by the eye, creating a perception which in reality does not match the true image (Optical Society of America, 2008). Some people view optical illusions as deceptive. thus, frown on it when used in advertisements. Still for others, optical illusions may be considered as creative marketing tools. Optical illusions are a great source of intrigue and entertainment making it an effective marketing tool. Optical illusions often catch the attention of the consumers, making them pause and look again and maybe later on buy the product. It also creates brand recall without having to repeat the advertisement often. Since the main objective of advertising a product is to create awareness and generate a direct response, one may say that optical illusions are indeed useful in influencing the behavior of consumers. In the end, it becomes more cost effective for companies to utilize such form of advertisements. They must however be aware that optical illusions affect different consumers in different ways. What may be acceptable to others may be offensive to other people viewing it. Visual perception of optical illusions influences consumer behavior. One important aspect that a company should consider in adopting optical illusions as part of their marketing strategy is their target market. It is essential that your target market understands the message you are driving at. Optical illusions are sometimes not easily deciphered by people especially those who prefer not to go into details. Since the perception of consumers on advertisements varies, companies must take note of the profile of its market. A female consumer may perceive an advertisement differently from a male consumer. To determine the effectiveness of a marketing strategy, it is important that a feedback mechanism should be in place. The effect or influence of an advertisement to the target market must be measured. If the advertisement is effective, it should result in an increase in sales of the product. If the market’s perception of the product is in line with that of the company’s objective, then the advertisement could be considered successful. The bottom line is that it should influence the consumer into buying the product. References Lindquist, J.D. Sirgy, M.J. (2009). Shopper, buyer and consumer behavior. Atomic Dog Pub Inc. Optical Society of America (2008). Optical illusions. Exploring the Science of Light. Retrieved 19 April 2011. http://www.optics4kids.com/illusions/

The Weather Makers by Tim Flannery

All of the possible natural causes of global warming will have occurred by 2050 and man has control over the speed at which global warming will progress. There is no existing model that can be able to determine the possibility of our saving the earth, and its many habitats and species (Flannery 153-165). Chapter 17: The commitment and Approaching Extreme Danger Several eras and times have had the most impact on climate change. The Baby boomer generation in particular can be held as being the most accountable generation in respect to the levels of CO2 that has been emitted into the atmosphere. The impact of the greenhouse gases that are currently in our atmosphere will be fully felt by around the year 2050. This can mainly be attributed CO2 long life in the earth’s atmosphere. Nearly half of the entire world’s energy that has been generated since the industrial revolution has been consumed within the past 20 years. The effect of the response by the planet to these temperature changes varies from the earth’s surface, to the atmosphere as seen with the example by the data collected in 2002. The data recorded the planet’s temperature to be over the preindustrial temperature conditions by about 0.8 degrees Celsius. The troposphere also saw an increase of about 0.25 degrees Celsius while the land surface witnessed the highest levels of temperature increase of about 1.2 degrees Celsius (Flannery 166-170). Chapter 18: Leveling the Mountains It is estimated that, for a distance travelled up a mountain of approximately one hundred yards, the temperature drops by about one degree F. This cooling is what makes mountains unique and not just a taller version of the land surrounding it. As the world rapidly warms, the mountain-dwelling species have no option but to move further up to the cooler regions which is a factor that could potentially lead to their extinction (Flannery 171-177). Chapter 19: How can they keep on moving? Various species managed to survive climate change in the past by moving up mountains, until they were able to reach temperatures that would ensure their survival. Nowadays water bodies and various human landscapes are impeding their paths and getting in the way of any migration. An example of this is the fynbos found in the Cape Fold Mountains which is one of the six floral kingdoms in the world. It will potentially lose up to half its species by 2050 due to global warming as they will be unable to migrate. If action were to be taken immediately, we would be able to save two species for each species killed, but if we fail to do this, three out of every five species will not live to see the next century (Flannery 178-183). Chapter 20: Boiling the Abyss When deep-sea dwelling creatures are caught by marine biologists trawling nets and are lifted to the ocean’s surface, they die within moments a factor that scientists have been attributing to pressure changes. This has wrongly been attributed to be a result of temperature changes, but modern science has now shown this to be as a result of temperature change. These creatures are used to temperatures hovering around zero and have evolved to withstand and survive in these temperatures.

Observational and Motor Learning

Observational and Motor Learning of Introduction For a child to be active and develop physically and cognitively to perform well at home and school, it is necessary that their motor skills are well developed in time. This development of motor skills is quite useful in making children between the ages of three and four years to undertake activities such as using spoons, drawing vertical and horizontal lines, stringing beads, snipping paper using scissors, and rolling clay. Unfortunately, many a child fails to realize these motor-skill developments for a number of reasons. This situation calls on parents, teachers, and health care initiate and implement the right strategies to track the motor-skill development of their young ones (Koralek et al., 2009). Importantly, it is vital to identify the causes of delays in motor-skill development early enough so that such causes are minimized or eliminated all together. This paper explores the development of motor-skills in children aged between 3 and 4 years, the strategies for strengthening delayed motor-skill development, and the use of observational learning to accomplish motor tasks and skills. Theory and Strategies for Motor-Skills Development The theory that best explains motor skill learning in children is the schema theory, which is rather relevant to early childhood education and development, especially in children’s acquisition of motor skills. In essence, the schema theory postulates that people learn endless variety of movements through goal-directed movements, which result in the storage of original conditions, response specification, performance feedback, and results. These four factors or sources of information are integrated to allow a child to repeat a movement or performance slightly varied from the original one. Thus, the schema theory asserts that regular practice of various movements with the same skills empowers one with the experience to enhance performance. There are several strategies by which parents, teachers, and physicians may support motor-skill development in children aged between 3 and 4 years. For toddlers and preschool children preparing for fine motor challenges encountered in school in play, creative, and self help activities, a number of strategies are highly recommended. Among these strategies are poking, pointing, banging, and hammering, in and out games, apart and together games, self-help and sensory games (Connectability.ca, 2013). In poking and pointing, encouraging children to point and poke at items such as pictures, people, and objects help develop their finger movements, especially the index finger. Poking fingers in holes and items such as buttons and doorbells also strengthen the index finger, a rather important finger for pincer grasp. Hammering and banging have the effect of strengthening a child’s grasp and control of arm movement. Self help activities such as finger feeding, spoon and fork feeding, drinking, and dressing skills are the other activities that could really help children develop fine motor skills (Connectability.ca, 2013). Importantly, sensory play with materials, such as sand, water, finger-paints also assist children develop important sensory discrimination in their hands. The strategies may change a bit for school age children during which manipulative toys, painting, coloring, drawing, and multi-sensory visual motor activities are highly recommended. The manipulative toys include pegboards, blocks, transformers, building toys, lacing, and puzzles. These games not only strengthen the finger but also develop small finger movement. Cutting, self help, and computer games are the other recommended strategies for children aged between three and four with delayed or impaired motor skill development (Gabbard, 2013). With regards to computers, activities such as using the mouse and keyboard help children to develop eye-hand coordination. Observational Learning of Motor Skills Observational learning has been identified as one of the techniques by which motor skills could be learnt by children aged between three and four years old. As a matter of fact, it is an ever-present characteristic of human behavior to learn new actions via observation. Examples of actions that a child may learn via observation are placing a saddle on a horse and dancing among others (NAEYC, 2010). In many cases, observations are accompanied by physical practice, which is quite crucial in motor task learning. Past and current research has also shown that observational learning, cognitive learning, and neuro-physiological learning reinforce physical learning. With current human neuro-imaging techniques showing the role of the brain systems in motor skill and task learning, observation is a rather effective strategy in promoting motor skills. The theoretical background in this assertion is that children learn to stand, walk, use a fork, or even drive a car by first observing others perform these tasks (Cross Seel, 2013). They then practice it themselves. Parents should thus recognize that children’s daily activities such as getting dressed, eating, and writing (fine motor skills) require that the children’s small muscles in the hands are controlled and coordinated. Children do not only have to observe but also do these things themselves whenever opportunities appear. Conclusion Fine motor development strategies help young children to use their hands more and with increased precision. While newborn infants have random arm movements with reflex grasps, at 3 or 4 years and with proper guidance and practice, children can make precise finger and arm movements to play with manipulative toys, use scissors, print, and pick up objects. These are some of the developmental stages that a child undergoes to attain functional levels of fine motor ability. It is thus the responsibility of parents, physicians, and educators to apply the right strategies on children, depending on their age and level of motor skills development. References Connectability.ca (2013). Practical Strategies for Developing Fine Motor Skills: Introduction to Fine Motor Development. Retrieved on July 15, 2013 form http://connectability.ca/2011/03/21/practical-strategies-for-developing-fine-motor-skills/ Cross, E. S., and Seel, N. M. (2013). Encyclopedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures. Springer. Gabbard, C. P. (2013). Motor skill learning in children. Education Resources Information. Koralek, D., Gillespie, L., and Petersen, S. (2009). Watching, Wondering, and Learning Together: Best Practices with Infants and Toddlers. NAEYC. NAEYC (2010). Getting a Grip on Things: Building Fine Motor Skills, Message in a Backpack. Teaching Young Children,3(5): 28. Schickedanz, J. A., and Collins, M. F. (2010). So much more than the ABCs: The early phases of reading and writing. NAEYC.

The impact of technology on sports

The design and development of sporting equipments and infrastructures needs partnership between all the members involved as well as comprehending between both the science of sports and life. Even if the technology has brought a great impact in the sporting activities, some of the equipments developed in accordance with the current technology contribute very little to the success of a sports person in the games. The world of sports has changed drastically over the years due to the development of technology, which has brought a huge impact in the modern sporting events. However some people think that inclusion of technology in the sports will reduce the pace of the games but others claim that technology make games to be more enjoyable. For instance, when people embrace technology in football most of the blunders that greatly cost playing teams and referees can reduce drastically. Introduction of hawk eye technology brought mixed reactions among various stakeholders in the football arena. The hawk eye technology in conjunction with the goal line technology will help the referee to make better decisions while in the pitch. In United States of America, the referees have been using instant replays in order to make the correct calls in football. The referees in basketball have also adopted the replay system in modern to ensure that the players are shooting the ball within the period stipulated by a shot clock. The hawk eye technology and instant replay technology has seen the quality of these sports increase at a very great margin (Topend Sports, 2013). Additionally, international cricket has been using the third umpire to replay disputed boundaries and catches, hence improving the quality of the sports in the fields. The economist (2012) states that, the Umpire Decision Review System (DRS) has completely changed the sport. This statement is very true because before this technology came some of the bowlers used to instill fear to their opponents and with the new technology, the observers were able to catch search bowlers. The DRS system has made cricket game to be civil by including a tactical dimension to the sport and the teams can now take part in decision making in cases of a poor sportsmanship. The DRS system has made the cricketers to acquire more knowledge and skills when playing the game and this has made them reap the full benefits of the new technology. The economist (2012) claims that, a good captain now must also possess the skill of the judicious review. This implies that the new technology has really assisted the cricketers in making the correct judgments in case they detect an error in the opponent side. Thus, inclusion of technology in the cricket sport has brought a very great revolution of serenity to the game whereby the people used to relate the sport with violence because of poor decision made by the observers. However, in some sports, the balance seems to sway far away towards the technology because of the impact that the technology has brought in these events. According to Kelner (2009), in swimming, Speedo LZR swimsuits that the swimmers are currently using perfectly fit the swimmers body as designed. The swimsuits transform the swimmers body into a surface like that of a dolphin, which have very little similarity with the normal swimsuit. However, this newly designed swimsuit has very little

Three Strategies to Meet Learning Needs of Today’s Online Learners

Three Strategies to Meet the Learning Needs of Today’s Online Learners Three Strategies to Meet the Learning Needs of Today’s Online Learners Introduction Although electronic learning has become one of the very valuable instructional tools across the globe, many institutions are still unsure if e-learning could be an effective platform to deliver quality training to their candidates. Undoubtedly, the effectiveness of e-learning mainly lies with the appropriateness of the learning strategies intended for the needs of today’s online learner and for the goals of the organization concerned. This also involves the quality of the design, operational feasibility of the system, and finally the range of learners’ autonomy in the whole learning procedure. This paper will discuss three main strategies that can improve the overall outcome of e-learning program and learners’ attitude to online learning. Strategies First of all, the instructional objectives and curriculum activities of the program must par with the online learning environment, because unlike traditional teacher-centered classrooms, online learning environment is much broader with extensive sources and easy access to information. Hence, for an online teacher, it is unlikely to gain student’s dependency, and instead the teacher has to admit student’s autonomy to a great extent in order for maintaining good teacher-learner relationship. The more challenging and fundamental tasks of the learning program involve designing curriculum, goals, objectives, and activities of the learning program. This new learning environment requires lot of changes with regard to attitude and approaches of both teachers and students. For example, teachers must find themselves as facilitators of knowledge who can guide students to solutions. The learning environment should be more collaborative and interactive with sufficient changes executed in pedagogy as well. Contract learning is identified as an effective instructional strategy which allows learner and teacher to share the responsibility for learning. A learning contract is a formal agreement written by a learner which details what will be learned, how the learning will be accomplished, the period of time involved, and the specific evaluation criteria to be used in judging the completion of the learning (Instructional Strategies for Online Courses). Hence, contract learning would avoid further dilemma and instead tends to enhance teacher-learner relationship and thereby learner participation. Secondly, ‘activity based e-learning’ is suggested by many scholars as a potential strategy that can meet the learning needs of today’s learners. Undoubtedly, an interactive content which facilitates active learning and training applications determines the effectiveness of this strategy. Pahl (2007) points out how in a third-level web based computing course various activities like controlled animations and graphical modeling can be integrated in a practical way. The author calls this system as ‘Interactive Database Learning Environment’ (IDLE) which is an excellent example of effective online learning method (p. 134). Thirdly, online learning strategy should be sustainable and contributory in every aspect. To illustrate, without a well defined operational objective, e-learning program cannot meet the needs of all learners. An e-Learning strategy must define learning solutions in addition to addressing change management, communication planning, and performance support solutions. An effective strategy cannot undermine the significance of measurement and evaluation processes as well. This means, how the success and failure of the learning program is assessed is an important aspect of a learning strategy. As Moore (2007) states, the system must assess the whole technology-enabled instructional process, and the outcomes are highly dependent on the technology architecture, content, instructional design, teaching strategies associated with software, attitude of all those who participate, and the work environment (Moore, 2007, p. 23). According to the scholar, an e-learning strategy should have the qualities of a good business plan, and must ensure the active involvement of the potential members across the organization (p. 24). For example, without the active involvement of valuable board members, a learning program will not achieve its proposed goals and objectives, no matter how excellent the concept is. Hence, a sustainable and contributory plan will have answer to all challenges related to design, execution, change management, feedback assessment etc. Conclusion Online learning has gained worldwide popularity for the recent decades. In order to pace with the changing technological scenario and learner needs, e-learning providers must take up extensive strategic changes in their learning programs. Creating a feasible e-learning environment that can guarantee learner autonomy requires first priority. Activity based learning is the second important strategy, for it can improve learners’ active involvement and interaction throughout the program. and developing an effective ‘interactive content’ is the real challenge in this regard. Finally, the program needs a well defined operational objective and assessment method. References Instructional Strategies for Online Courses. Illinois Online Network. Retrieved from http://www.ion.uillinois.edu/resources/tutorials/pedagogy/instructionalstrategies.asp Moore, K. (2007). Keeping the e-Learning Strategy Focused. In The eLearning Guild’s Handbook of e-Learning Strategy. B. Brandon (Ed.). Santa Rosa: The eLearning Guild. Retrieved from www.elearningguild.com/showFile.cfm?id=2509 Pahl, C. (2007). Bringing activity into E-learning-the development of online active learning and training environments. In Advanced Principles of Effective e-Learning. N. A. Buzzett-Mmore (Ed.). 2007. California: Informing Science.

The Relationship between Emotional and Episodic Memory

Furthermore, while both emotion and cognition are implicated in encoding of events into memory, they are still difficult to distinguish from one another. Although understanding the role of emotions and cognition in memory building has been a mainstream topic of research, the emphasis has shifted to studying their combined roles in mental processing. The relationship between both emotional and episodic memory is thus a highly charged subject of study. Emotional memory is triggered by emotions while episodic memory involves the conscious remembering of the details of an event. Tulving and Szpunar (2009) point out that episodic memory is one of the chief cognitive activities made possible by the brain. It is an extraordinary fact that emotionally arousing events are more likely to be remembered than emotionally neutral events. The focus of attention and capacity to recall is also different in the two different types of events. In emotionally arousing events, affect-laden detail is the centre of attention rather than peripheral detail. For instance, a study reported that subjects are more likely to remember the focal detail rather than the peripheral details of an emotionally arousing image. Moreover, the details of items that are perceived negatively are remembered more than details of positively perceived items. For instance, in the study just discussed, subjects were able to remember the details better when shown an image of a snake rather than a gown or a cake. Another interesting observation is that when an event is accompanied with a positive emotion, there is less confidence in the recall-ability of such an event. Demonstrating this phenomenon, a 2004 study by Levine and Bluck published in the journal Cognition and Emotion, showed that when a recognition test was conducted on participants of the famous O. J. Simpson murder trial, those who perceived the verdict positively were more likely to believe that the events were fictitious than those who were angry with the verdict. It is thus seen that both emotional and episodic memory are highly cooperative, yet they are believed to be very distinct, in terms of both anatomy and function. For efficient recalling of an event, the event is first ‘encoded’ and then transformed into an appropriate representation (consolidation), followed by a ‘retrieval’ of that representation. Evidence suggests that these three processes are enhanced when an event is emotionally arousing, thereby resulting in a better recall of that event (MacLeod and Mathews, 2004). Moreover, in a study published in Psychological Science, LaBar and Phelps (1998) have shown that emotionally arousing events are often secured as long-term memories while non-emotionally arousing events are forgotten easily. Neurobiological studies by LaBar and Cabeza (2006) have demonstrated that in events with emotionally laden stimuli, the processes of encoding and consolidation are enhanced due to a more active functioning of the amygdala. Supporting this further and reinforcing the role of emotion in memory, a previous study had shown that the interaction of the amygdala with the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex enhances memory. Buchanan (2007) reviewed a number of animal studies that showed that emotion has a very significant influence on the recall of episodic memory events. His paper further contended that there is a deep cooperation between emotional and epi

Sales and Marketing Tourism Report

There are decorations in the Edwardian style: chandeliers, specially commissioned hand- painted woodcarvings and furnishing, rich fabric, Persian state of the art rugs, sophisticated designer furniture and brass – railed quality staircases (Kerin, 2006). There is awesome comfort in the 459 rooms. The rooms are divided into 294 pleasurable standard rooms, 17 luxury suites, 101 fantastic deluxe rooms, and 47 classic single rooms. It won’t go unmentioned that Radisson Edwardian Heathrow has received awards as its Henley’s AA Rosette serves the modern British cuisines with high quality native ingredients and Brasserie cafe that offers a more informal choice of drinks and food alike. For instance, on March 25 – 27, 2005 Radisson Edwardian Hotel hosted a Dawn of the Dead convention. Similarly, on March 21 – 24, 2008 a Science Fiction Easter Convention was hosted in the hotel (Bodenberg, 2002). In the analysis of the macro environment of Edwardian Heathrow hotel, its essential for the identification of factors that may in the event have an influence on a number of variables that may affect the company’s demand and supply levels and the associated costs(Bodenberg, 2002). The PESTLE analysis is among the checklist that is a mere framework categorizing the environmental influences as political, economic, social, technological and legal forces. The analysis examines the impacts of each factors and their interplay on business in effect to Edwardian Heathrow hotel. Pestle analysis is the strategic tool for an in depth comprehension of decline and growth, the position of business, potential and operations directions. This outcome can be used to take advantage of opportunities and structure contingency plans for presumed threats when designing the business and strategic plans ( Kotler Makens, 2006). To start with, we shall take an analysis of the political environment. The elections of the country in England take place in the stipulated duration and have an added advantage to Edwardian Heathrow hotel. The law on employment stipulates on the human resource policies on workers remuneration and terms of employment. For instance, workers at the Edwardian Heathrow hotel have their pay on time though they work tirelessly to the satisfaction of the customer needs. There is great protection of the consumer by our company to ensure that he is not exploited in terms of price and services offered to requisite standards. The environmental regulations of the country are followed to the latter like, air and water non-pollution. The company has ensured that there is safe collection, storage and treatment of its waste (Oeklers, 2007). The industry specific regulations in the country relating to the management and operations of hotels are strictly adhered to by Edwardian Heathrow hotel. This is the reason for the many expansions that have beesn made by the company. The company conducts sophisticated checks and advanced investigations on its customers for efficiency to combat the fight on terrorism and warfare. In addition, there is a frequent check in the premises of the company for drug and substance abuse. The political trend in England of the king and queen has also positively ensured that services for them are always available. Secondly, the economic situation in terms of the economic growth trend is analyzed. The taxation system in the country is not to the detriment of Edwardian Heathro

How to Prevent Cancer

Some tumors stick on one spot, however, these account for only 10% of all deaths (Medical News Today, 2013). However, I believe that cancer is a preventable disease that requires lifestyle changes.Cancer has no definite way of treatment. Patients are mostly given a combination of therapies and medical care that do not cure the disease, but rather relieve the patients of pain and prevent the cancerous cells from spreading. They include immunotherapy, gene therapy, chemotherapy, radiation, hormone therapy and surgery to remove the tumors at primary stages of infection. It is due to the inability to cure this disease that doctors advocate for prevention. Exercises and dietary changes are the only ways of cancer prevention. There are other ways of prevention, however, lifestyle changes in diets and exercises are at the pinnacle of these methods.Physical inactivity is linked to many health problems including obesity. Regular exercises reduce obesity which is associated with different strains of cancer such as breast, kidney, endometrium, colorectum, and esophagus (WHO, 2014). It is also worth noting that obese cancer survivors find it hard to fight cancer after surgery. The American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study showed that obese men suffering from prostate cancer and obese women diagnosed with breast cancer had an increase risked compared to their normal counterparts and were, therefore, more likely to succumb to these illnesses even after successful surgery.As of 2013, more than 1/3 of American adults are overweight and another 1/3 considered obese. 17% of young adults and children are also obese. This means that the number of obese people has increased by 300% since the ‘80s (Foxhall, 2013). According to Karen Basin-Engquist (Professor, Department of Behavioral Science at The University of Texas MD Anderson Carter Center), obesity leads to over-production of estrogen among women, which is a contributing factor in breast cancer. Breast tumors are known to thrive in estrogen conditions and hence higher estrogen levels facilitate rapid replication of ‘hormone positive cancerous cells’.

A Voyage unto Spiritual Bliss

His work thus stands out as a classic example of how the concepts of spirituality and compassion transform humans and change the way they look at the world.The plot, on a surface level, involves the story of Augustus, a fifteen-year-old boy, and the adventures, which string together his encounters with alien beings that form the core of his evolution into spiritual attainment. Hailing from an established family, he is well taken care of by his parents in a material context. but otherwise Augustus feels secluded and alienated from them. Both his parents are busy with their own private matters and they don’t share much of their time with him. Their lack of involvement becomes most apparent from the episode where they fail to notice the burst of ‘the great light coming out of his room’ (Brown, p-3), as also from the references to their attitude that ‘most of his exits went unannounced and unobserved’ (p-11). They also rather tend to incline towards the material side of life, at the peril of disregarding the spiritual needs, as is obvious from the fact that they visit the church only on occasions like Easter and Christmas. Thus Jeff Brown manages to guide the readers through the alleys of the boy’s aloofness with the use of clear and simple narrative devices. Augustus possesses a natural talent in science and is a good learner with straight ‘A’s in his classes. Though lacking in spiritual education, he is very receptive to the process of learning and has the wisdom to readily understand philosophical concepts. This makes him the ideal choice for the visitation by the extraterrestrial entities. The meetings with those celestial beings exposes him to a brand new world and fresh thoughts and concepts, thereby enflaming the spirituality within him that hitherto was in a dormant state.

Explore the idea of historical embeddedness in The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao

The narrator therefore wonders if writing this novel is his own way of saying zafa. Every body seems to be cursed! The first chapter, which happens in 1974 to1987 in Paterson, details Oscar’s childhood and early adolescence. For one week when he is seven, Oscar dates two girls, Olga and Maritza, at the same period. However, the threesome momentarily falls apart and the life of Oscar goes downhill from then onwards. In adolescence, he was fat, dorky, and unattractive. His interest in Genre creates him even more unattractive, and his only true friends are Miggs and Al. Oscar’s sister Lola try to encourage him to lose weight to be more masculine for him to land a girlfriend, but Oscar does not regard their advice. When Miggs and Al find girlfriends and purposely dessert him out, Oscar realizes that they even contemplate that he is a failure. Oscar goes to Santo Domingo to visit Nena Inca, and starts writing science fiction as a channel. When Oscar returns he finds a girl called Ana Obregon at SAT prep class, instantly falling in love with her. Oscar and Ana become good friends, but never physically intimately attached. Eventually Ana’s boyfriend named Manny returns from an army mission and Ana stops having time with Oscar. Afterward, Oscar goes to Rutgers for college. He hopes life in college may be different, but in there, he realizes that still he is a loser. Oscar, the character who collects the novel together, justly perceives himself as a doubly marginalized figure. A Dominican-American boy growing up in Paterson during the 80s, he is hampered by counter-stereotypical nerdiness in addition to problems of racism and social class. Bashful, precocious, and overweight, Oscar is well versed in Marvel comics and Japanimation lore. His ambition is to write a space fictional. A Dominican accent manipulates Wilde into Wao wile in college. Yunior (Solis 49), his college roommate and best friend, does not quite apprehend Oscar, however loves him and sees that there something is within Oscar that needs to be known. As the key narrator of the story, Yunior provides a loving portrayal of a tortured person within a tortured family. Redemption of Oscar brief wondrous life manifests at a momentous, but justified, price. Told from the viewpoint of Oscar’s sister Lola with his best friend Yunior, the story of the search for revitalization leads the reader through some of the darkest junctions of a country under severe dictatorial control. Lola pursues her own redemption, far away from her family, particularly her mother and her heritage. She only loves her younger brother Oscar and seeks protecting him from the curse which is tragically affecting their family. Saying that Hapatia Belicia was born to hard era would be an understatement. Beli’s mother died when she was only two months old, never met her father, held by her sisters a few times before they disappeared too, and spent no time in Casa Hatuey. Beli had multiple things sailing against her from the beginning of her pathetic life. She was born sick and underweight, at a time and environment where it would be difficult for any newborn to survive with her accompanied situation. She was also dark skinned, a reason that made her father’s family to absolutely dislike anything to do with her. At this juncture, her life is saved uniquely by a single woman’

Hume and Harmans Arguments for Moral Subjectivism

Hume and Harman’s Arguments for Moral ivism Hume and Harman’s Arguments for Moral ivism Introduction David Hume and Gilbert Harman are some of the most famous philosophical advocates of moral subjectivism. Both Hume and Harman give their account of the foundation and role of morality in people’s daily lives (Rachels, 1993). Their views have attracted the attention of modern moral philosophers who are following the footsteps towards giving their naturalistic account of the moral practice. However, there has been growing confusion as to whether Hume is a subjectivist or a moral realist (Rachels, 1993). Some argue that Hume is a moral realist while others see him as a subjectivist. The same confusion applies to Harman whom some consider a subjectivist while others view him as a moral realist. This paper seeks to evaluate Hume and Harman’s arguments for moral subjectivism. To begin with, moral subjectivism, according to Rachels (1993), is the perception that there is nothing like the objective moral truths, that morality is merely a set of values derived from everyone’s subjective feelings, and that people should act accordingly. According to moral subjectivism, morality is pegged on feelings (Rachels, 1993). It also acknowledged that people have different feelings about morality and that there is no objectively true or false way to feel since true feelings are always true. Further, moral subjectivism holds that objective moral values do not exist. Hume, one of the most popular ethical philosopher argue in favor of moral subjectivism claiming that moral values come from an individual’s feelings, but not from the reasoning an individual. According to Hume, moral values are very strong within an individual that they can influence an individual’s actions. This view means that moral values strongly dictate how an individual behaves. Hume also supports the moral subjectivism sentiments noting that only feelings are capable of influencing an individual’s actions, but not reason. In this regard, Hume suggests that moral values are not based on reasons, but by feelings of an individual (Baillie, 2000). In proving his claims, Hume takes the moral sentiments of people in society as qualities and actions of character that are publicly useful. According to Hume, almost all moral judgments involve concerns of public utility of mental qualities or actions. By making such an argument, Hume suggests that whenever we see people or actions that appear to increase or decrease public utility, we have the equivalent sentiment of either misery or happiness of humankind. This implies that actions such as benevolence and justice, which increases public utility and a feeling of happiness and approval, are considered virtuous. On the other hand, Hume argues that actions that decrease in public utility, such as infidelity and injustice lead to feeling of disapproval and discomfort, therefore, vicious (Baillie, 2000). Gilbert Harman is also another prominent ethical philosopher born in 1938. His philosophy is mainly based on the argument for moral relativism. Harman supports his argument for moral relativity claiming that some moral judgments are appropriate and meaningful only in relation to a set of understanding that, the individual making the judgment shares with the agent, or audience in the same way the statement about the size of an object makes sense only when compared to something else. Harman terms this moral judgment inner moral judgment (Harman, 1975, p.14). Harman based his argument for moral relativism on three principal assumptions. According to Harman’s first assumption, a moral demand is applicable to an individual only when it is rational of the person to accept the demand. This assumption implies that an individual can have a reason of doing something only when he or she has reasoned his or her own way of doing it. As a result, in case an individual always have reason of complying with any moral demand applicable to society, then such moral demands are applicable to society if people can have reasoned their own way towards adhering with them (Harman, 1975). Harman’s second assumption in argument for moral relativism is based on the claim that it can be rational for different people to accept different demands all the way down. The last assumption is based on Harman’s claim that different moral demands can possibly apply to different persons all the way down. Apart from his argument in defense of moral relativism, Harman also argued in favor of subjectivism when he claimed that there is always a fundamental difference between science and ethics. Despite the fact that ethics involves reasoning and observation, Harman suggests that people need to invoke physical facts in explaining scientific observations. At the same time, he thinks that people do not need to invoke ethical facts in order to explain ethical observations. He concludes by asserting that society needs to reject the notion that there is ethical truth (Harman, 1975). Conclusion Both Hume and Harman give a clear account of the plausibility of moral subjectivism. Their views of the subject matter help in understanding the role and foundation of morality in daily lives. References Baillie, J. (2000). Hume on Morality. London: Routledge. Harman G. (1975). Moral Relativism Defended: The Philosophical Review, Vol. 84, No. 1. Duke University Press. Rachels, J. (1993). Subjectivism. A companion to ethics. Ed. P. Singer. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 432-441.

Language is the Most Important Component of Communication

The study of language, known as linguistics, has tried to show how language develops among different communities. This study also tries to understand the factors that contribute to similarities and differences in languages. It is clear from the chapter that language does not only mean the ability to talk. There are many forms of language used by human beings to communicate. Spoken language is the most common among them. Currently, there are about three thousands to six thousands different languages in the world. Linguistic anthropology, a branch of linguistics, majors in the study of structure of language. In this study, anthropologists study patterns of sound, the meaning of words made by these sounds, and how these words are combines to make meaningful sentences. Semantics are also covered in this area. Different people from different locations use different terns to describe similar things and physical phenomena in their environment. However, there are some similarities in some of their classifications for instance relatives. Also another area of concern for anthropologists is the origin of language. There are different models that explain the origin and development of language. For instance, from the behaviorist model, a person acquires and develops language from both negative and positive experiences. In linguistics, specifically historical linguistics, the relationship between different languages is also explored. … Another field of linguistic anthropology is the study of non-verbal communication. Different communities have different forms of nonverbal communication. However, there are those that are universal. Non-verbal communication uses signs and body language to communicate different messages. This field of linguistics have helped very much especially in the study of sign language which is now being used universally. Yet another modern form of language is coded language which is very specialized. This field is being utilized in the field of science for instance in computers. Question two Language is part of every society’s culture therefore understanding the language of a community helps in understanding of a culture of a society. In studying the similarities, differences and development of languages of different communities, we are able to understand the societies better. For example there are communities that live in different geographic locations but have similar or related languages. Through this, we can be able to trace the origin of some communities. In these modern days, globalization has influenced almost all aspects in life language included. By making the world a global village means that there is a need for every person from any part of the world to understand each other. In the early times, communication was the major barrier to globalization. Studies in linguistics made everything easier all over sudden. With development of sign language people could communicate and even do business without necessarily having to talk. Again, development of sign language has helped in communication of people who cannot talk or hear. The study of linguistics is being applied

Arson and Explosives Evidence Illicit Drugs and Toxicology

Arson and Explosives Evidence, Illicit Drugs and Toxicology Clues that can be found through analysis of biological evidence Technological advances in the world are making it much easier for the law to serve and protect its citizens. It is the duty and responsibility of those in such positions to ensure that the proper procedure is put into collecting, examining and presenting evidence found at crime scenes. The introduction of forensic science in institutions enables specialists to handle such issues, and help in bringing conclusions to a case based on the evidence gathered. Detailed observation, examination, and analysis of different clues may result in putting together the evidence found at a crime scene. An example would be the presence of blood at a crime scene (Saferstein 149). A CSI may have the task of collecting the sample and taking it back to the laboratory ensuring that it is not further contaminated. Upon reaching the forensic laboratory, it is the duty of a forensic scientist to test the blood for any details that would seem out of place. Running the blood sample against the elements that may exist may provide a forensic scientist with adequate information about some other composition in the blood, or any other party that might have been present at the crime scene. Another example would be the examination of a potential suspect with regard to memory loss. In this case, the CSI may have the task of trying to find out if the suspect is telling the truth or lying. Through some basic exams, for example. a verbal memory test, a CSI may read some of the behavioral signs the suspect may be providing subconsciously. Different tests may also provide clarity about the extent of her memory loss, for example. the viusospatial test. If the suspect scores low on this test, then they might have a problem. Biological evidence can then be gathered through brain scans or imaging to find out what the problem might be (Saferstein 153). A specialist can then determine if the suspect is telling the truth when asked about the case, or if they are lying. Procedures to follow when collecting evidence The best thing to do with regards to a case is to have the ability to eliminate someone from a list of suspects. One way to ensure the evidence collected is reliable is to have a scope of the evidence that might be there at the time. This scope may force a CSI to look for witnesses and their statements about the crime. Through documenting the crime scene as it is, a CSI may be better placed to understand what happened during and after the crime. Furthermore, it is crucial to have an open line of communication (Turvey 126). An open line of communication must exist among all the parties involved in the collection, analysis, and presentation of evidence in a case. These may be the responding officer, the CSI, and the detective at the crime scene. This is to protect the integrity of the crime scene, and find out what might have happened, and at what time. Examining the crime scene must involve having to walk through it. This is done to get a layout of what transpired. Evidence is usually found as a result of this walk-through, where the CSI may determine how the crime scene might be handled. Documentation of a crime scene involves taking photos, which may determine the presence/absence of important details about the crime scene. The scale to which cameras may document details is beyond the human eye, which will then allow a forensic scientist to see and come up with conclusions about the scene of the crime. Maintaining the chain of custody is crucial in the collecting, analyzing, and examining of evidence. It is seen as a means of assurance that all the right information passed through the proper channels before going to the next stage. This can demonstrate that the evidence is credible as it made its way from one chain of command, to the next (Turvey 138). How a CSI would defend their research in a court of law Evidence must be credible to be accepted in a court of law. CSIs have the uphill task of trying to prove their evidence through some of the processes they used to gather this information. Fortunately, proper documentation may guide all those that need guidance in the courtroom as to why a certain procedure was best suited for that situation. Having proof of what was present and what was not may be an exceptional way of having individuals in the courtroom comprehend the extent of the collection, analysis, and presentation of evidence. The chain of custody, as indicated earlier, is quite crucial at this stage. The chain of custody. from the officer on the scene, to the court clerk may have written documents about which office held evidence, and at what time they did. Proper evidence of what was at the crime scene and how it was handled may provide sufficient credibility to the office of the CSI, which means they are defending themselves in a court of law, through the evidence they provide (Saferstein 176). Works Cited Saferstein, Richard. Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science. London: Sage Publishers, 2011. Print. Turvey, Brent E. Criminal Profiling: An Introduction to Behavioral Evidence Analysis. New York: Macmillan Publishers, 2011. Print.

Pharmacology of Addiction Assignment

Some religious experiences are enhanced by the use of drugs, leading to taking drugs that are hallucinogenic in order to approach a state that represents a spiritual awakening. 2.Go to the publisher’s web site at http://health.jbpub.com/drugsandsociety/10e choosing the content links for the chapters in the unit research to find out the mission and purpose of the following governmental agencies, write a short paragraph about each agencies mission and purpose. ? NIDA The National Institute on Drug Abuse has a mission to lead the nation in bringing the power of science to bear on drug abuse and addiction (NIDA). The intention of the organization is to do research on the abuse of drugs and to use that research in order to prevent and treat the problem of addiction. As well the research is used to ?Office of National Drug Control Policy The ONDCP works towards helping the government to create policies and priorities where the drug problems of the nation are concerned. This agency develops strategies on working towards engaging trafficking and distribution of drugs as well as related crimes. The agency also engages the issue of drug control at the state level as well as the federal level. ?SAMHSA The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration is designed to help people through treatment and effective preventative measures, developing programs for specific demographic groups so that meaningful recovery can be made throughout social groups and that the problems associated with drug abuse can be addressed. ?DEA The Drug Enforcement Agency is charged with enforcing laws that pertain to the trafficking of drugs using international cooperation in order to successfully stop those who make and distribute drugs throughout the world. This is a law enforcement agency that specialized in targeting those who are a part of the drug problems in the world at the highest level of growing, making, and distribution. ?FDA The US Food and Drug Administration is responsible for the regulation of drugs in order to make sure that the public is protected from untested or dangerous drugs that will harm them without proper regulatory attention. Drugs are approved for medical use through this organization. 3.Name three types of drug users and explain how they differ. The three types of drug users are experimenters, compulsive users, and floaters. The experimenter has yet to commit to a drug or choose a drug and will try the substance with the intent of having the experience without the consequences of addiction – which of course is not always successful. Compulsive users are full time users and use the drug or drugs in order to escape their reality. Floaters, sometimes referred to as chippers, will use drugs both through experimentation and through compulsion, vacillating back and for the between the two types of uses. 4.List and explain the phases of drug addiction. Relief Phase: the phase in which the initial use relieves the user of his or her problems through the use of drugs Increased Use Phase: use of the drug increases Preoccupation Phase: there is a pervasive obsession with the acquisition of the drug. Dependency Phase: addiction takes place Withdrawal Phase: there are physical or mental consequences to not using the drug that are painful and/or uncomfortable (Hanson, Venturelli, Fleckenstein, 2012)

A Teaching Focus Area

In studying science, students develop various skills such as hypothesizing, investigating, predicting, analysis, and critical and creative thinking in problem-solving processes. They get to work individually or in groups to plan, conduct investigations and experiments, evaluate issues and problems and come up with questions for inquiry and investigation to draw evidence-based conclusions. They are also expected to communicate their findings to others and disseminate the information they have gathered in a scientific manner.Observations were done in a Year 8 science class. There were 22 students in the classroom sitting in rows of two. Four children shared a table. The class was studying a unit on Magnetism and the class session observed is a continuation of discussions on the topic from the day before. The lesson objectives of the teacher included investigation of the strength of a magnet by counting the number of paperclips it can hold. recording data in bar graphs and in the students’ science journal. and opportunities for the students to observe, predict and conclude. The learning strategies she used were pairing off students to think and share their ideas to each other (think-pair-share), actual manipulation and exploration of materials, using of the word wall to remember new words for new concepts, and class discussions spurred by her effective use of questioning.The teacher began the class by asking children to share with their seatmate what they knew about magnets. As pairs began their conversations, the teacher walks around the room to supervise and listen in on what the children are talking about. Once in a while, she would probe the children’s discussions with questions like What is magnetism?, Where is it found?, How do you know?, Do you have something to say about the magnets? These questions give the teacher ideas about what the children already know about the topic.

This is a Historical Monograph of Jonathon I Israel’s European Jewry in the Age of Mercantilism 15501750

the notion… of a specifically Jewish commerce served a vital function in Western thought. It served to abstract various types of activities from the generality of economic life and, through their association with stigmatized Jews, make them vehicles for expressing widely felt anxieties about commerce in a manner that was politically safe and psychically tolerable. As a result, there were changes that improved social interactions and developed the economy. Israelites incorporated the changes in the third edition where they talked about the new issues that affected their life, ranging from judgments and figures involved. According to the Europe History in the years 1550 to 1750, the old system were being faced off and replaced by the elites, and modern techniques of conducting business in the society. As a result, there were arguments that modernization in the communities brought changes in the human way of living. This was evidence when it affected the morals, unification, and the peace the society had initially. The Jewish argument had some implication that could bring new and positive changes to the Jewish communities and their economy. This could also bring equality in the activities they carried out, how they conducted themselves, and ways to make funds to eliminate their traditional believes. Based on Israel’s views, the Jews’ commercial identities served as a barometer of shifting general attitudes toward commerce, money, and credit as a whole. This was clear when the Jewish through business managed to unite with the Jews who were isolated and worked with them tolerating each other carrying on with their politics in a safe way. Results found by the Historians and science researchers revealed that, both the credit from the government and non-government organizations promoted the social interactions, changes in the economy and politics in Europe. Their commerce activities progressed when they decided to abandon segregation especially when it came to religion. The author also tries to figure out how neutral the European community was especially when they were trying to absorb the modern way of living in their society. Different questions were posed in line with the situation that, Europe was in leaving traces in the political firms and Judiciary. For example, the manner in which educated persons and the normal people coped with impersonal businesses. According to many scholars, there were certain forms in which there was interconnection between social and legal aspects in credit matters. The author also uses a legend to instill information in his evidence. The details that pertains the legend are that, the Jews dismissed this historical belief from France when the bills that were exchanged by then still existed. The legend was spread in the entire Europe during the 17th and 18th century but in this age, only few people talk about it. Credit was perceived to make one wealthier or even take away the riches. This could be realized through the bills of exchange that could show the advantages and disadvantages of the credit. It also made it easier for payments to be done in different states and to enhance more duration for the credit that expired for a short period. So far, this showed improvements in

Discuss the role of university research in innovation in the knowledge economy

Basic research is a study aimed at greater understanding of the phenomenon under study. The main objective of applied research is to answer and address real-world challenges. It includes systematic analysis of practical part of science. It deals with practical challenges and uses experimental methodologies to solve them. Research and innovation is linked to social and economic development of a country. In Europe, most projects contribute to minimizing regional disparities by improving innovation and research potential. Research has been growing since the end of Second World War. Most firms participate in applied research because it can be marketed easily. Most industries can collaborate with universities specialized in applied technology. Mechanism of Research Governments have made policies to structure innovations and research in the universities. They ensure that there is a return on public investments in terms of social prosperity and economic growth (Rothaermel David 2008, p.17). The role of different actors in the field, their abilities to conduct the research currently are on transnational research networks. Information on research and innovation is necessary for policymakers so that they may be able to see how they can help the universities to promote their innovation and research in the market…. Government support is not enough in most institutions. In most cases, universities collaborate with industries in conducting research. Universities have people, units, and functions, which are involved in partnership actions that have an effect on technological and economic development. They do this by licensing and spin-offs. Universities differ in the way they organize their programs or activities so as to foster innovation. Research institutions, majorly in the United States, are more concerned about their societies in the recent past. This is because they represent the inner resources of knowledge in those societies. Competency of individuals, knowledge and skills and their application has improved significantly in the economy where these individuals work. Most countries focus on the development, application, preservation, and discovery of all forms of knowledge and skills. These are the humanistic, scientific, and social knowledge. They therefore assist publicly and privately funded universities. The institutions then appreciate these contributions by appropriately contributing to the development in economy. They enhance knowledge linking activities, which improve technology commercialization, enhance workers’ competency, and assist community and organizational change and increase competency of professionals (Chen, K Kenney, M 2007, p 1056). They also provide social, economic, and cultural organizational analyses to train and educate individuals and to bring individuals and groups concerned about rational, informed discourse on matters of common concern (Gebauer et al 2005, p.650). The capabilities of these universities are vest in many places, not only schools of business and

Plato’s Dialogues

Eventually, the son is taught the unjust speech which enabled them to get rid of the creditors. However, the son also does not spare his father but gives him a beating due to a disagreement on recitation of poetry and justifies his actions using sophistry. The father gets angry and burns the Thinkery as well as chasing students away for deceiving him. What is then the difference between Socrates of the cloud and Socrates of platonic dialogues? These two present Socrates as two different individuals or an individual having two personalities. In the clouds Aristophanes portrays Socrates as an intellectual man who teachers others especially the young how to make arguments. This is contrary to platonic dialogues and especially in his defense (on the Apology) where he argues that he is not a teacher thus there is no way he can corrupt the young. He argues that he is not a wise man as revealed in the oracle by his friend Chaerephon. This he says is because he knows nothing unlike the politicians, poets and craftsmen. However, in the clouds Socrates is a knowledgeable man who has made a lot of discoveries. When Strepsiades visited the sophistry the student told him of how Socrates had discovered jumped by a flea, the cause of the buzzing noise by a gnat and also huge pair of compasses for measuring the land. Now he was engaged in discovering celestial bodies such as the sun. Besides, his work was to teach the young how to make arguments, in this case there are two types of arguments superior and inferior or just and unjust. Another difference between the Socrates of the cloud and Socrates of platonic ideas besides being a teacher is that in the clouds he is not against nature but following it. Aristophanes says that Socrates emerged in a balloon basket hanging mid-air. He was thus walking in the air to speculate about the sun. This he explained to Strepsiades helps him to suspend judgment and open the mind to new ideas. This shows that Socrates was interested in nature thus following it to discover more. Furthermore, more of his students were bent on the earth trying to discover what lies underneath the earth thus he was trying to discover celestial bodies. No wonder he was accused of studying all the things in the sky and below the earth and teaching the same things to others. On the other hand, platonic dialogues though they do not deny his concern for natural science do not depict him as following nature either. Instead, he is portrayed as a critical and rational thinker depicted by the manner in which he asks questions and makes conclusions. When the oracle declared him as the wisest man of all he didn’t accept the situation there and then but set out to understand what being wise means by studying those people who considered themselves as wise such as politicians and poets. He discovered that he was indeed the wisest since those who consider themselves wise did not know what to be wise means but at least for him he did not pretend to know and the beginning of wisdom is accepting that we do not know and surely if the gods decided he was wise then he must be wise. He also engaged in questioning Euthyphro to discover what piety and impiety means. Is it pious because the Gods love it, or do the Gods love it because it is pious

Where Is Our Humanism Headed

It sounds like people work with machines as though they were machines themselves. This paper argues that we are losing humanity because of advancing technology.Since the early nineteenth century, humankind has been going through industrialization, urbanization, globalization, and informatization. Owing to well-developed technologies, the world has been much more comfortable. For example, we can access all the information we need or seek via smartphone anytime, anywhere. There is almost nothing that we cannot accomplish with our technological skills. Nevertheless, society members have been creating higher boundaries and wider relationship distances with each other ever since they learned to type on the keyboard and touch the smart-phone screen.Compared to the past decades, people today have spent fewer conversations with their family members. Furthermore, it is common these days to see people looking at their mobile phones while they are at a dinner table. Have we thought about what we are missing? We probably already became used to technologies that give us so many benefits, to the point of forgetting what our humanism is all about. It sounds very familiar, but you cannot guess how many people define this meaning in a precise manner. Primarily, humanism is an ethical stance that focuses on the values of human beings. It is simply for the people in terms of the perspective of human nature. Over time, the frequency of use of humanism has been dropping since the last 1970s. We are losing the notion of humanism, and it is because well-developed science and technology have weakened it.One of the essential things that we are missing nowadays is interpersonal communication skills. We have been very familiar with new kinds of technology and software. Even though the software comes up with the new model that requires learning how to operate it, early adopter disseminates information on how to use such technology as a missionary like Apple Evangelist. They are good at dealing with technology communication devices but not communication skills.

Current Entrepreneurship

Academic programs have been instituted, which equips scholars just with the management knowledge, who eventually assume daily operations in business corporations. An entrepreneur is an initiator, while entrepreneurship accommodates any private or public organization, or individual, with the potential to respond to ever changing demands, utilizes new technologies and produces additional value from the assets at disposal, also entailing the need to motivate the continual phenomena of natural entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs seek to utilize their ideas by introducing new means of meeting demands, or changing existing means of commodity delivery in order to add value. Primarily, an entrepreneur carries out varying activities including adopting innovative means of addressing socially related problems. seeking to challenge traditional manner of working. incorporating ideas, people, and resources so as to integrate change. spotting business opportunities and optimizing on resources which are under utilised and taking uncertainties and risks. as well as responding to an issue with clarity over the outcome right in mind. Entrepreneurship involves people who have new ideas, consistently accompanied by a purposeful search of resources and assets. Entrepreneurs engage in discovery as well as they exploit opportunities with an aim of creating value through meeting the needs which were previously unmet. they also strive for better ways of delivering current commodities (products and services). In order for entrepreneurship to be successful, effort tem is thus required. This may start with a leader who is a dynamic individual, and wants to institute change in the current business processes. In entrepreneurship, skills and… This research aims to evaluate and present entrepreneurship that involves people who have new ideas, consistently accompanied by a purposeful search of resources and assets. Entrepreneurs engage in discovery as well as they exploit opportunities with an aim of creating value through meeting the needs which were previously unmet. they also strive for better ways of delivering current commodities (products and services). In order for entrepreneurship to be successful, effort tem is thus required. This may start with a leader who is a dynamic individual, and wants to institute change in the current business processes. The scope of entrepreneurship therefore covers the goals set – which run the organization, as well as the entrepreneurial approach of achieving such goals. In economic development, the role of entrepreneurship entails more than just accumulating per capital income and output. it entails initiation and constitution of change in the business structure, the economy as well as society. The referred change is followed by growth of premise and increased income, which permits more wealth to be shared amongst various participants. Entrepreneurship has been acknowledged as a major tool to help bridge the gap between science and the business market although entrepreneurs faced challenges of lack of managerial skills necessary for running their businesses. Although entrepreneurs face a lot of difficulties, entrepreneurship holds the most effective means of commercializing innovations, forming new enterprises, as well as introducing new commodities to the market.

Water Water Everywhere

Water, Water Everywhere (Earth Science Our planet earth is not the same as when it was formed. It has gone through transformation as a part of its evolving process, and this evolution of our planet continues even today. Land and water bodies are the major components of our planet earth. It is to these land and water bodies that we look up to for shelter and means of sustenance. The land bodies and the water bodies are constantly in the state of change or development. Stream Valleys are the result of this constant change or development. Evaluation of stream valleys is an interesting way to understand the change and development that is occurring in land and water bodies. Water on our planet is not present in the water bodies alone, but as water vapour in the atmosphere due to evaporation from the water bodies. This water vapour in the atmosphere precipitates on to the land bodies and runs back into the water bodies. Thus, there is a continuous exchange of water from the water bodies to the atmosphere and on to the land bodies and back to the water bodies. It is this hydrologic cycle or exchange of water that occurs from the ocean to the atmosphere and on to the land bodies, and finally back to the water bodies that is responsible for the creation of Stream Valleys. Evaporation from the water bodies into the atmosphere, precipitation from the atmosphere onto land and infiltration of this precipitated water into the land and the consequences of its return to the water bodies is seen as stream valleys. Precipitated water moves within the land or runs of the land causing erosion in the land. This erosion results in a gap or a space of land that lies between the two water edges at the height of its run off to the oceans or lakes. Thos gap or space of land is the Stream Valley. Water is the best sculptor and the beauty of the stream valley lies in the natural sculpting ability of water as it erodes the land mass over which it runs down to the ocean or lakes. Running water as a natural sculptor demonstrates its versatility by providing us with two types of water valleys. The two types of water valleys are the V-shaped valley and the Wide Valley. It takes imagination to understand the wonder of the natural sculpting ability of water moving over land. Just imagine the ability of large volumes of water rushing over land and the changes that can be brought on to the topography of the land. This is water at its sculpting best. Water is a patient sculptor. The changes in the topography that are seen as the result of the eroding action of water do not happen overnight rather it is a pains-taking process. It is the slow, yet constant natural movement of water over land that causes the changes in the topography of the land. This can be understood when we consider that rocks are a part of the land formations and erosion of rock by water is not an easy process. Instead it has found an easier way to do that. It slowly weakens and erodes the soil around the rock as it constantly passes over the rock and the soil. This soil erosion at the base over time results in the creation of a valley. The base levels of the erosion are classified into ultimate or temporary levels. It is the changes that occur at the base level that are responsible for determining whether the water flow will find new pathways and thereby generate new water systems. The lower the base level the resultant force of water flow will be a sharp edge, resulting in a down cut in the land formation. A raise in the level of water flowing will however result in soil deposition within the system of the flow of water that will lead to a new body of water or the generation of a new water system. It is the combination of all these actions of water that are responsible for the formation of the V-shaped valleys with sharp edges. The gradations in the cutting action of water flow are the reason why two types of valleys are formed. In the narrow V-shaped valley water falls and rapids are a common occurrence. The waterfalls and rapids are the result of the down cutting of the water in the direction of the base level of the rock formation. The Wide Valley is characterised by flat floors at the bottom. Wide Valleys result when water uses its flow energy to cut at the sides increasing the width of its flow and creating a flood plain. From the wide valleys of flood plains it is not uncommon to see the formation of bends called meanders or increased activity leading to the development of short channel segments called cut-offs or oxbow lakes (Tarbuck Lugens, 2010). (Word Count – 823) Literary References Tarbuck, E. J. Lugens, F. K. (2010). Running Water and Ground Water: Summary. Earth Science 10th Ed. Retrieved May 29, 2011, from, http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_tarbuck_escience_10/3/854/218736.cw/index.html

The Italians in Italy and the United States

Many Italian immigrants and Italian Americans made contributions in various fields such as science, entertainment and the military. While the number of people immigrating to the United States from Italy has decreased in recent years immigrants that come are inspired by the opportunities offered. The population of Italy is expected to decrease dramatically due to the declining birth rate. This combined with the unstable economy of Italy may contribute to a loss of its identity. Many Italian American organizations fear that future generations will not know about the positive aspects of their heritage due to the negative stereotypes of Italians perpetuated by the media. The Italians in Italy and the United States The Italians in Italy and in the United States brought a rich heritage to both nations. In Italy and in America Italians made contributions in various aspects of society throughout history. However factors such as a slow population growth in Italy, a decrease in immigration from Italy to the United States, an unstable economy and negative stereotypes of this ethnic group threaten that heritage. Italians in Italy and in America are threatened with the loss of their identity and uniqueness. Italians are no longer the predominant immigrant group in the United States. The future of Italy is imperiled by its stagnant growth. The paper will discuss current and past immigration trends of Italians, contributions made by Italians in Italy and the U.S, the current state of Italy as well as negative stereotypes of Italians. In the 1880’s massive economic decline and an overpopulated nation resulted in a dramatic increase in Italian immigration to the United States. … Some early Italian migrants were young men who wanted to work for brief periods and then return to Italy. Others would settle in America in predominantly Italian areas. The men mostly did physical labor which included building the communication infrastructure. The Italian contribution to the refining of America also derives from the immigrant labor used to build reservoirs, streetcar lines, subways, railroads and buildings to pave streets and to install and repair sewage lines. (Scarpaci Mormino p.12) Italian immigrants brought with them an agrarian, family oriented culture that placed emphasis on hard work as a means to succeed and survive. They felt that during troubled times, they can always trust in family. Throughout most of the 20th century there was a gradually increasing influx of immigrants from Italy who would settle in America. During the 1920s most Americans were leading prosperous lives and many Italian American colonies received infusions of capital derived as a result of breaking Prohibition laws. Most Italian Americans were adversely affected by the Great Depression. As a result they became part of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Democratic coalition. From World War 2 to the 1950s and 1960s more Italian Americans were middle class due to ample employment opportunities. By the mid-1970s Italian American young people were attending college at the national average. According to Census Bureau data, Italian Americans have an average high school graduation rate, and a higher rate of college and post graduate degrees compared to the national average. (Scarpaci Mormino, 2008)From 1998 to 2002 many college students throughout the United States took classes to learn Italian. It is the fourth most commonly taught foreign language in U.S.

The Westin Bayshore Hotel Vancouver

The Westin Bayshore Hotel Vancouver al Affiliation Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 Introduction 3 Current restaurant 3 Other recommendations 5 Core values 5 Conclusion 6 References: 7 Introduction Starwood Hotels and Resorts Worldwide Inc. is one of the world’s premier hotel and leisure organization and boasts of approximately 850 properties. The Westin Bayshore Hotel is one of them. It is a four star category property and provides an array of products to its esteemed guests besides breathtaking view of the Coastal Mountains (Westin Hotels and Resorts, 2011). Current restaurant In this assignment, we will emphasize on the Currents restaurant. Previously this restaurant served all three meals to customers. However, the restaurant has now resorted to serving only breakfast to its guests. However a major strategic change has been implemented by the management and all major meals will not be served to the customers. This restaurant will only cater to breakfast as there are few customers for lunch or dinner. Recommendations for the hotel Service quality is one of the major concerns in the hotel industry. This is especially true for the restaurants service food to its customers. The chefs do not provide freshly prepared food to its customers and hence this affects the quality and taste of the food. This affects the customer loyalty indirectly and hence the restaurant may not have repeat guests (Wilkins, Merrilees Herington, 2007). Recommendations for the kitchen The kitchen must have more utensils and should also have frying pans wherein lot fat low calorie fry foods can be included as a breakfast option. Nowadays the food and beverage options have witnessed major changes and hence there are a lot of breakfast options. They can also have Panini machine for making sandwich and microwave ovens which will help in providing a variety of breakfast items. Other than these, the kitchen must have a steam kettle, waffle machines, tea/coffee makers and convection makers as these are suitable for serving beverages to guests. A juice maker should also be available in this kitchen to provide fresh and cool juices to customers. All these cooking machines will help the chefs to provide fresh food at the shortest period of time. These recommendations will help in improving the quality of service and help in meeting customer expectations and needs (Antony, Antony Ghosh, 2004). Also there are limited items like blenders and meat slicers in the breakfast kitchen and other items like hopper mixer and buffalo choppers must be used. In fact they should use induction rangers and other ovens like wolf, rational and garland also other than employing the usual top stoves, grills, salamanders, six burner top stoves and dock ovens. One of the main recommendations for the management is to merge the kitchen for all three restaurants. However, this may result in an overcrowded kitchen and hence the servers will not be able to food to the customers in time. Also the quality of food may be compromised in order to serve food within the least amount of time. A better strategy will be to devote a separate kitchen for the Currents restaurant. This should have a host of equipments aiding to make delicious and savory items for the guests. Other equipments The hotel must have carts to load the food from the kitchen to the serving area. The front kitchen have holding tables but it is recommended that they use hot primary, a bath tub with hot water, used to keep liquids like soups and sauces hot. Also they do not have any ice machines as these are needed to serve chilled food. The Currents restaurant needs conveyor dishwashers which is suited to wash bowls and plates. Maintaining the equipments In case of an equipment malfunction, the servers and cooks immediately contact an engineer. It is essential that they take a keen interest to find out what went wrong, how to maintain the machine and how to fix it in case of simple problems. Focussing on food quality Other than all these equipments, the hotel must focus on the quality of vegetables and meat items that are bought from the vendors. Nowadays with the breakthroughs attained in science and technology major developments have been conducted. Hence, the hotel must focus on bringing good biological quality of food. Also the hotel needs to get certain oils and dairy items which have fewer calories (Estham, Sharples Ball, 2001). Other recommendations Also special discounts should be provided to the guests. Other than these, food promotion festivals should be organized from time to time wherein the guest can get to enjoy the exquisite Thai, Continental, Italian, Mexican etc. food. All in all, these strategies will help in attracting more and more guests. Core values The hotel staff must imbibe some values which will help in attracting and retaining customers. On a personal level, they must interact with guests and try to know about their preferences. The staff must act on their own instincts to find out more about a guest’s choices. Accordingly they must proactively act to fulfill the needs of the customers. In fact, one must greet a customer and have a smile on their lips while serving guests. The hotel staff should have a polite disposition and careful selection of words will help them in finding more knowledge about a guest and help in serving them better. In fact, the customers must feel they have had a wonderful experience right from the time they checked in till the time they checked out of the hotel. This is renewal. All these qualities will help in retaining customer loyalty and help in developing brand image of the hotel. Conclusion A key factor which is especially needed for luxury and five star hotel chain is developing brand equity and brand image. In order to attain this, it is very important that brand image, brand loyalty and perceived quality are very important and is directly related to customer satisfaction (Kim Kim, 2005). In conclusion, it is very necessary for a hotel to develop customer loyalty. This is one of the key factors responsible for the success of a hotel. Also the image presented in the minds of the guests and satisfactions of the customers are all responsible for customer loyalty. Research conducted in this field has indicated that food quality and price are directly related to customer loyalty (Kandampully Suhartanto, 2000). References: Antony, J., Antony, F.J. Ghosh, S. (2004). Evaluating service quality in a UK hotel chain: a case study. International Journal of Contemporary Hotel Management, 16(6), pp. 380-384. Estham, J.F., Sharples, L. Ball, S. (2001). Food Supply Chain Management: Issues for the Hospitality and Retain Sector. Butterworth – Heinemann: Oxford. Kandampully, J. Suhartanto, D. (2000). Customer loyalty in the hotel industry: The role of customer satisfaction and image. International Journal of Contemporary Hotel Management, 12(6), pp. 346-351. Kim, H. Kim, W.G. (2005). The relationship between brand equity and firms’ performance in luxury hotels and chain restaurants. Tourism Management, 26(4), pp. 549-560. Westin Hotels and Resorts. (2012). The Westin Bayshore, Vancouver. Retrieved on April 21, 2012 from http://deals.westin.com/Westin-Bayshore-Vancouver-Resort-1080/so.htm?PS=PS_aa_WWC_WestWestCanada_Google_BD_the_westin_bayshore_vancouver_BMM_072910_NAD_FM Wilkins, H., Merrilees, B. Herington, C. (2007). Towards an understanding of total service quality in hotels. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 26(4), pp. 840-853.

Globalization and the Future of German

The article on globalization and the future of the German language too offers an accurate analysis. It analyzes the impacts the German language encounters in the face of English being the global language. The authors of the article view the increasing use of the English language as a risk to the use of the German language (Gardt and Huppauf, 2004). The article looks at the national and global position of their language in comparison to the standing of the English language. The analysis gives the various uses of the German language across the fields of science and their uses in other nations. It also aids in expounding on how it fairs against other foreign languages on the global scene. The authors view the growing pressure of English as a threat to the German language. The article discusses the risks of the German language losing out in the globalization process. The article suggests that these will hinder the countries efforts of growth (Gardt and Huppauf, 2004). This article describes the country’s past glory as the motivation that should drive the current generations. It additionally suggests ways and means that the German authorities can use in improving their impact on the globalization process. The effects of the country lagging behind in this process come as a result of the inability of the regime to market themselves appropriately. This is seen as being the reason the other countries in Europe are growing so rapidly and becoming such great influences in the globalization process (Gardt and Huppauf, 2004). The authors view English as an official language that people all over the globe use.TThe article on globalization and the future of the German language too offers an accurate analysis. It analyzes the impacts the German language encounters in the face of English being the global language. The authors of the article view the increasing use of the English language as a risk to the use of the German language (Gardt and Huppauf, 2004). The article looks at at the national and global position of their language in comparison to the standing of the English language. The analysis gives the various uses of the German language across the fields of science and their uses in other nations. It also aids in expounding on how it fairs against other foreign languages on the global scene. The authors view the growing pressure of English as a threat to the German language. The article discusses the risks of the German language losing out in the globalization process. The article suggests that these will hinder the countries efforts of growth (Gardt and Huppauf, 2004). This article describes the country’s past glory as the motivation that should drive the current generations. It additionally suggests ways and means that the German authorities can use in improving their impact on the globalization process. The effects of the country lagging behind in this process come as a result of the inability of the regime to market themselves appropriately. This is seen as being the reason the other countries in Europe are growing so rapidly and becoming such great influences in the globalization process (Gardt and Huppauf, 2004). The authors view English as an official language that people all over the globe use. Conversely, the article, globalization, and free trade offer highly accurate information from the World Bank on the impacts and effects of globalization. It gives a detail of the evolution of the globalization process to its current state (Goldstein, 2007). The details on the escalation and development of this globalization process are also seen in the book. The book gives examples on several case studies done in various countries ranging from Bolivia, Russia, the United States, and China.

Proposal for an experimental design to detect regions of DNA for diagnostics or forensic purposes

This is what has taken my interest in choosing this molecular target. This paper, hence, seeks to produce a proposal for an experimental design to detect regions of DNA for diagnostics or forensic purposes. It is important to make certain that a complete DNA of every individual is unique, except for identical twins (Stephens, 2006). Therefore, a DNA fingerprint, also known as DNA typing, is a DNA pattern with a unique sequence so that it can be differentiated from the patterns of other individuals. Thus, my molecular target is the DNA fingerprint. Identification of the Named Target (DNA Fingerprint) DNA fingerprinting is based on analysed DNA from the genome regions that separate genes referred to as introns (regions inside a gene which are not part of the protein encoded by the gene). Introns are spliced out during RNA messenger processing, an intermediate molecule allowing DNA to encode protein. This is particularly different to the analysis of DNA for mutations that cause disease. This is because most of the mutations entail the gene regions (exons) that encode protein. In the identification of this named target (DNA fingerprint), we can also assert that DNA fingerprinting often involves introns since exons are mainly conserved and have much less variability in their pattern and sequence (Pena, 2000). Originally, DNA fingerprinting was used for identification of genetic diseases via linking the genes of a disease within a given family with the basis of inheritance of the markers and the possibility that segregating markers would be in close proximity. However, DNA fingerprinting can also be used for forensic science and criminal investigations. The courts in the United States also accept the reliability of DNA analysis (Rider, 2007). However, the cost of testing, the accuracy of the results, and the misapplication of the technique have resulted in many controversial concerns with the technique, hence the basis of this study. Steps Required for a Suitable Experiment from Sample Collection through to Data Analysis In forensic laboratories, various steps are followed in the analysis of DNA for various reasons. After collecting human samples such as semen, blood, urine, saliva, tissues, hair, bones, or buccal (cheek cells), DNA is extracted from the samples and analysis is carried out in a forensic laboratory. The results from the DNA analysis are then compared to the actual DNA analysis from the identified (known) samples. The DNA that was extracted from the samples collected from a scene of crime can then be compared and matched possibly with the samples of DNA extracted from the suspect or victim (Landis, 2008b). During extraction of DNA from a cell, it may be done from two different sources. DNA can be extracted from the cell nucleus which contains information making individual human beings who they really are. The other source may be cell organelles known as the mitochondrion that produces energy driving all the processes of the cell necessary for life. Nuclear DNA is often analysed within evidence including semen, blood, body tissues, saliva, and hair follicles. On the other hand, DNA extracted from the mitochondrion is often analysed with evidence consisting of bones, hair fragments, and teeth. It is also important that where there is an inadequate amount of sample, preference be given to mitochondrial DNA analysis (Landis,

Archeology and History of the People

provides data and evidence that gives a unique perspective on history of human culture and other aspects, which has greatly contributed to a clear understanding of recent and ancient past. Archeology not only explores when and where humans lived, but also how and why they lived, which involves examination of cultures overtime through changes and patterns from when and how people came to inhabit a particular place, for instance, America. Archeology also explores and reveals information about origins of complex societies and other activities such as agriculture (Orser 102). History primarily relies on written documents and records to interpret great events, lives, which do not provide exclusive and conclusive information about history and culture of a people. On the other hand, archeology allows people to delve way back into the period before existence of written languages, and have a glimpse of everyday lives of these people through analysis of the tools they made and things they left behind. Similarly, archeology helps in understanding regions inhabited by people because it covers geographical regions, as well as all times periods. For example, through archeology, people have been able to understand the history and concepts of important topics such as Egyptian religion, colonial events in Jamestown Virginia, origins of agriculture in Near East, lives of Africans enslaved in North America, early Mediterranean trade routes and so on. Moreover archeology informs people about lives of families, individuals and even communities which would otherwise remain invisible to the current generation. Historical archeology, for instance, explores cultures that existed thousands of years ago or a period of recorded history in Old World, as well as a number of years ago in the… The paper explains the importance of this science. As the primary source of information of men’s cultural evolution for long periods in the prehistoric times, archeology provides sustained efforts that has enabled tracing of man’s antiquity on the planet several years ago. This is achieved by the systematic study of fossils and tools embedded in terraces. through which humans can be able to learn the nature of mans implement of offence and defence, habitat, way of life and tool techniques. As such, archeology has achieved reconstruction of the Stone Age man’s environment, and also his adaptations and responses to the climate. For example, archeology has achieved reconstruction of proto-historic cultures of India, pushing back Indian Civilization from the Vedic period to about 3000B. Archeology not only provides primary source of the information on historical cultures of people, but also the supplementary source of the information. Evidently, it fills the gaps created by uncertainty found in the written documents and records about the historical period. For example, it provides valuable information about Ikshvaku dynasty, which had scrappy information before archeology came in. Likewise, archeology has revealed more information through excavations at Satanikota, Vijayapuri and Kaveripattanam, which show trade contacts with Romans during the early periods of Christian era.

Journal Assignment for documents and videos

At one vantage point, books are typical form of secondary source. Mostly scholars use primary sources material to make secondary sources for example letters and diaries to write books. It is also easy to determine whether a book functions as a primary source in case of published memoirs, autobiographies, and published documents. Also use of video in class, where the students to can see clearly charts, tables or concept maps are the most significant areas where students can find key ideas and relationship among ideas. In museum graphics organizer are there so that students can answer most historical questions, write connections, and relate to particular observation to larger concepts. Videos also help students to compare and contrast, a strategy that help analyze similarities and differences, this can be applied to in museum exhibitions and resources too. Forms film give the students a tangible feel of what people felt and how things were happening that time. Those videos show clarity to what may seem random happening. Examples of primary source include constitution, pamphlet, treaty, a law, and city council proceedings in political history. In cultural history, we have Novel, dance, music oral traditions, key religious work, and training manual for new converts, visual art, costume, and religious tract. Also in social history, we have Lyrics such as protest songs, laws, college catalogues for curriculum and types of students, letters, biographies, and news reports. According to economic history, primary sources are tax filing, will, and foreclosure records, patent applications Business ledger and contract placards. In military history it includes, map, soldier diary, weaponry, uniform and strategic and tactical plans. Court transcript, judicial ruling, parole officer report, police report in legal history and A law, constitution, pamphlet, treaty, city council proceedings finally in political science. Handling of selected primary documents. Identifying primary sources and using them requires a careful thought and some extra knowledge. Primary sources increase questions, may be among them: primary source is what? What is the level of history in these primary sources among others? They stand for range of concerns from vital studying skills to the nature and historical knowledge. There basic questions we must know their answers so that we can identify source of primary data: 1. Is the source is self-published? 2. What is the level of history does the source belong? 3. Is the source independent? 4. Where did the document originate? 5. The limitations present in the document. 6. Why is the document there? 7. How reliable the document is? All above will determine how we handle our primary document, which are useful in working definitions about historical sources and practical tips for reading primary documents. The theory of primary, secondary, and tertiary sources came from academic discipline of historiography. It gave historians away to indicate how related was the piece of information to real events . It is vital that the concept is with actions of events but not ideas or theoretical aspects. A primary source has about same time of event, despite the source of contents. Therefore, when a dictionary is a tertiary source, an ancient one is the primary source because it has the meaning of words in ancient world. There is no quaternary source. the sources may be primary, secondar

Knowledge is an example of a public good Analyse this statement drawing on further research to inform your argument

These include non-rivalry and non-excludability. Suber (2009) describes that knowledge is non-rivalrous in the sense that its sharing among several people does not deplete its stock. This characteristic of knowledge is shared by other public goods such as air and sunshine. The second feature of knowledge is non-excludabilty. Once knowledge has been created, it is extremely difficult or impossible to limit people from accessing it as long as they have the resources and mental capacity to access it. At the same time, Suber (2009) also distinguishes between knowledge and its forms of expression. According to his argument, knowledge is a public good while its expression in the form of books and journal articles is not. Anderson (2006) argues that knowledge should be considered primarily as a public good while its position as a private asset should be secondary. This reflects the diverse opinions that regard knowledge as an economic asset as well as a social good. Anderson (2006) describes four different views of knowledge along a continuum of private and public good. He describes that in the United Kingdom, knowledge is first regarded as a private asset and then as a public good. He argues that the perception should be reversed and British society should view knowledge first as a public good and then as a private asset. … Haskel (n.a.) discusses the importance of knowledge as a public good from a European perspective. He argues that in making knowledge a public good, states should not seek to act monopolistically themselves. While the state should check inefficiencies such as under-provision of knowledge, it should not seek to subsidize knowledge that is not being withheld by such barriers. At the same time, the state should avoid creating inefficiencies that might be created if it retains sole control over the dissemination of knowledge. Competition and the private sector should be given space to operate as long as inefficiencies are not created. Haskel (n.a.) also argues that public sector involvement in knowledge creation encourage the private sector rather than discouraging it. The tax credits awarded to companies investing in RD can be allocated more efficiently if investment in areas such as design, marketing, and training are also considered. Stiglitz (1999) views knowledge not only as a public good, but as a global public good that should be accessible to all people who can benefit from it. Particularly, in the domain of science and technology, the knowledge is less likely to be geographically-dependent. hence, it has global applications and should be available globally. Stiglitz (1999) discusses some of the constraints that limit the global accessibility of knowledge. Recognizing corporate interests in protecting essential knowledge such as product formulations or technology design, Stiglitz (1999) proposes that the state can invest in research so that economic efficiencies can be achieved. Stiglitz (1999) criticizes the use of patents and other means of enabling firms to recoup their research and development costs. These act as taxes for the consumer and create economic

Civil War Resolution Data Set ttest (Quantitative Research Methods in Political Science)

Each country or group wants to top or dominate all spheres of human life. So, a group’s army in association with other armed groups only join ‘hands’ together, to protect the territorial integrity and to gain superiority. Among these two objectives, the wish to gain superiority over other groups has been the mentality of many groups and this has led to wars from time immemorial. When many nations or groups of the world have this objective and the other group of nations tries to protect their territory from these nations, it would result in civil wars. Along with these two major objectives, many other factors would also push groups to initiate Civil Wars.This part of the paper explains how each of the hypotheses were presented and operationalized with a series of testing. The main aim is to make the testing as apparent as possible. So, that the abstract concepts such as identity, divisibility and agreement proportions were matched with concrete indicators and carried out with apt statistical analysis. This transparency gives more scope to replicate the statistical analysis presented here and fill in the blank spaces that sometimes invariably happen and remain. Measuring variables is by nature an irregular and imperfect procedure as some of the indicators are close to tracing a particular variable, while others are inexact approximations.This chapter builds a theory of civil war settlement that focuses on the problems combatants’ face enforcing and credibly committing to the terms of a peace agreement. The two specific factors — third party guarantees to protect combatants as they demobilize and power sharing guarantees in the first postwar government — ultimately deter mine whether groups will sign and implement settlements.

Impact of Humans on the Florida Everglades Ecosystem

Impact of Humans on the Florida Everglades Ecosystem The Florida Everglades is a region that is characterized with shallow and immense floods with numerous hills that have become islands. The region is known to hold several freshwater swamps that include Blue Cypress Water Management Area, Everglades National Park, Highlands Hammock State Park, Collier-Seminole State Park, Tosohattchee State Reserve, Fakahatchee Strand State Preserve and the Big Cypress National Park (National Research, 2002). These swamps are facing numerous threats from human activities that undermine the region and its habitats. This paper is designed to look into the various impacts that the human activities carried out in the Florida Everglades region have on the ecosystem, the future effects on the ecosystem and a conclusion that explores the various benefits that humans accrue from the region. Impact of Humans on the Florida Everglades Ecosystem In the recent past, different organisms in different ecosystems around the world have been affected by the ongoing destructive human activities that keep changing and increasing with time (Pryor, 2005). Both positive and negative effects have been felt in numerous ecosystems. According to Pryor (2005), human activity has immensely altered the natural equilibrium. This paper looks into the impacts that human activities have had on the ecosystem of the Florida Glades, the projected future impacts and the possible recommendations regarding the situation. A map showing the original boundaries of The Everglades The ecosystem inhabits numerous organisms. fungi, bacteria as well as many plant and animal species (biotic factors). In addition, other non-life factors affect or alter the lives of the living organisms in the region (abiotic factors). These factors include environmental factors like the general habitat i.e. swamp/pond, temperature and rain among others. In the Florida Glades region, human population has hugely increased leading to logging of swampy areas and draining them so as to create room for residential developments and farming. Most of the land in the region that was mucky and wet has been occupied and is now used for livestock rearing, farming crops, and construction of houses for settlement. In areas that had swamps, sugarcane plantations are thriving. citrus orchards and livestock pastures have also been established in the same areas. This has a mass effect on organisms that inhabit the swampy areas, leading to extinction of some species of both swamp flora and fauna (Exploring Life, 2000). To make matters worse, the remaining wet areas are now being polluted by discharges from farms and urban settlements. On average, it is estimated that more than half of the original wetlands in the Florida Glades has been destroyed by human activities. National Research (2002) reveals that the ever increasing human activities in the Florida Glades have not only affected the area in terms of destroying the wetlands, but they have also contributed heavily in altering the drainage patterns of the state. The activities have also destroyed the natural homes of numerous organisms and/or wildlife, and have resulted in an interference with the wetlands’ natural filtration systems. A suitable example of this is the Everglades National Park swamp which has been subject to significant alterations as a result of human activities in the area (Moeller, 2005). In the future, the park will as well be missing as a result of the increasing demand for housing in the Everglades. To help stop this from happening, humans are expected to spearhead the campaign by not draining water from the Everglades. More than one third of the total land in the Everglades is covered by freshwater marsh and cypress swamp (Moeller, 2005). As a result, many people in the region opt to drain water from the nearby sources. which happens to be the Everglades. Consequently, these practices keep reducing the areas covered in water. The continued extensive draining and construction of canals in the region has reduced the swamplands in large sizes thus affecting the natural drainage and filtration process of the ecosystem. The ecosystem does not only support life, but also supports non living organisms, or rather, the human activities carried out do not only affect living organisms directly, but also the abiotic factors (National Research, 2002). As a result of this drainage, canal building, agricultural and construction activities and other human activities, the quality of water is drastically reduced. In addition, National Research (2002) reports that when water levels in a region reduce the climatic conditions also change. In essence, most unsustainable human developments have been associated with depletion of the ozone layer, which causes climatic changes. For instance, there may be reduced levels of rainfall in the region and increased temperatures among others. In addition, trees have been known to act as water catchment facilitators. The Florida Everglades is facing heavy increase in population that calls for more room for settlement. In order to achieve this, land clearance has to be administered which, in turn, destroys homage to many birds and other organisms as well as alter the rainfall patterns. This has a remarkable effect on the patterns of existence of minute organisms and other animals. In addition, the activities also result in heavy pollution of the environment making it unsuitable even for humans. The Florida Everglades region has fresh-water swamps that provide home to many plant species with special adaptations to yearly floods, for example, cypress. They also provide home to numerous wildlife ranging from insects to large mammals. The swamps are notably known to be home to 15 species of reptiles and amphibians that are facing extinction threat (Exploring Life, 2000). In addition, these forested areas act as water collection points for man, control floods in the region, produce quality timber and other wood products while others act as recreational areas as they are used for fishing and watching birds. These ecosystems are special to Florida’s landscape. they must be well preserved so as to ensure that their long term environmental benefits are realized. References Exploring Life Science (2000): Dinosaurs – extinction. Marshall Cavendish. Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental health. Harvard University Press. National Research Council (U.S.). (2002). Committee on restoration of the greater Everglades ecosystem: Regional issues in aquifer storage and recovery for Evergladess restoration. National Academies Press. Pryor, K. B. (2005). The role of an environmental NGO in the landmark Florida Everglades restoration: An ethnography of environmental conflict resolution with many twists and turns. Variocity.

Comparison between Whitmans To a Locomotive Winter and Dicksons I Like to See it Lap the Miles

The entire poem is presented in a way that it acts as a symbol of the then-impressive technological advancement in the United States. Dickson’s poem talks of the progress of a certain strange creature that winds itself on the way through a hilly landscape. In Waltman’s poem, the persona displays to the readers how good-working and strong the locomotive engine is. The second line describes how the locomotive drives through the bad weather. Thee in the driving storm even as now, the snow the winter day declining (line 2). The two words, ‘Snow’ and ‘Now’ rhyme and act as the emphasis that the winter is still in existence. The term, Declining acts as an indication that the will be over, thus something new will be introduced. Something new, in this case, refers to the development or progress of technology in the American transport industry. Analyzed, declining may also mean the summer days or particular fortune which may be science. Line 21 reveals this further that the locomotive represents technical development in America. The poem describes it as a modern emblem or symbolism of motion and power representing the pulse of America as a continent. The motion and power emblem has given the locomotive enough power to drive America’s technical future. Line 4-17 has given out a complete picture and description of the appearance of the locomotive. The machine is mostly described as being powerful and strong. Thy ponderous side-bars, parallel and connecting roads, gyrating, shuttling at thy sides (Line 7). From the excerpt, it is succinct that the poet has employed contrast or juxtaposition to give more description and illustration of his thematic intent of the poem. The two words, parallel and connecting have opposite meanings and using them in the same sentence serves to underscore the main idea being discussed in the poem. The other poetic device that the poet has used is diction. In the previously mentioned extract, the poet has used archaic words like thy which ensure that the poem achieves its rhythmic or musical sound. The word is also a symbolism of the time setting of the poem. It shows that the poem was set during the ancient times when scientific development took over in the America continent. The poet has also employed vivid description besides appropriate word selection to give the picture of the old American society in terms of its scientific progress. In the eighteenth line, there is a talk of cars following obedient the locomotive. This is an implication that locomotive leads and everyone follows it merrily. Merrily implies that man is following the locomotive drives with pleasure as the machine drives through the gales, slacks, and swifts. The cars following the locomotive obediently is a symbolism with the meaning of mankind following technical fortune with great pleasure. At the end of the poem, the reader gets a view that the locomotive in the poem is driving through dreary sceneries. The locomotive, however, lacks the ability to affect its environment in a good way.

Anishinabe people and our homeland

Anishinable Teachings Having arrived at the end of the term, the learning experience was awesome throughout. Per se, the Anishinable teachings stipulate that the only way to gain knowledge is to learn. As a result, the clan learning culture is in place to ensure that all students in the institution have acquired knowledge within a given period. The road to gain knowledge ensures that every individual maintains their different goals and objectives. The mission of the institution is a culture-based pedagogy that helps to improve the learning experiences of each student in the institution (John, DeWitt, and Erwin 127-128). The truth is emphasized on ensuring that young people get well prepared to face new phase of their journey in all the steps of life.
The basic learning experiences through the term involve several aspects. One of the aspects is enabling students to have a critical way of thinking. The teaching and learning goals may be very different (Audlin, 55). The learning experiences within this term ensure that an individual is capable of monitoring his or her own mind habits. The individual is also facilitated with basic intellectual capabilities as well as personal qualities.
Learning through the term was fostered towards helping the students develop analysis capabilities where they can explain problems and develop an argument about same problem X using concept Y as depicted through the clan system of learning. Comprehension of concepts by students is evidenced by their position to analyze situation X and the ability to distinguish the concepts from common misconception (Trudeau, 34).
The clan system insists on different outcomes at the end of a given term. For instance, by the end of this term, the clans system insists that all the students should have acquired basic analysis and be able to explain human behavior in terms of relationships among multiple factors (John, DeWitt, and Erwin 139). In a wider range, students should be able to understand how marginality is the broader learning category, linked to the understanding of nature (Trudeau, 54).
The learning experiences are characterized by engaging activities that optimized every learner’s learning both in time and effectiveness. The term was also characterized by both hybrid learning and blended learning. Per se, the two terms mean a mix of online learning activities and quizzes with instructors-led teaching. Most of the instructors maintained a ‘coach on the side’ ways of teaching other than ‘sage on the stage’ methods. The learning activities were flexible enough to allow for any adjustments. They allowed students for self direction that fostered and guided their learning.
The instructors increasingly channeled learning through initiating various learning activities. The learner’s activities are structured towards guiding and helping them focus on what-to-do rather than how-to-do. The instructors had a wide range of visibility into each student’s progress and where they may be having difficulties. There was an effective learning outcome that was built on mastery of subject area. The above is evidenced by two milestones: at the end of the learning experience. Learners demonstrated a very high level of knowledge retention of the essential knowledge. They also demonstrated the ability to apply knowledge to new problems. The learning experiences have helped broaden and internationalize the outlook of the students and educators and involve opportunities (John, DeWitt, and Erwin 150).
Works Cited
Audlin, James D. Circle of Life: Traditional Teachings of Native American Elders. Santa Fe, N.M.: Clear Light, 2011. Print.
John, DeWitt, and Erwin D. Canham. The Christian Science Way of Life, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
Trudeau, Don. The Teachings. Pelly Crossing, Yukon: D. Trudeau, 2010. Print.

Root causes of urbanization/suburbanization relating to one or more readings

Root Causes of Urbanization Urbanization is the process of creation of cities and settlement in them. Urbanization has created revolutionary changesin civilizations. Decisionmakers’ perceptions, religious focus, and commercialization are some of the factors responsible for urbanization.
Perceptions of the decisionmakers that include but are not limited to public agencies, companies, and households that certain regions offer greater advantages in terms of society, culture, and economy over others leads to the formation of clusters and concentrations (Mulligan 34). Mostly, a place is first clustered by economic agents that foresee unique site advantages in it. Increased availability of the economies to consumers and producers leads to continued agglomeration of the place.
Religious focus of civilization is another factor that causes urbanization. This factor is shared by many cities in Egypt and urban Mesopotamia. Some other cities with monumental religious architecture at the core include the historical cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa. Similarly, placement of the temples around 1700 B.C. at the center of urban spaces was how the Shang dynasty rulers urbanized Chinese people (Kotkin 7).
Three critical functions performed by the urban areas since their earliest origins include development of sacred space, increased basic security, and creation of a center for commercial market (xvi). Only the cities that have remained strong with respect to these aspects have sustained. Today, the same functions are performed by different cities across the globe with different degrees of success.
Concluding, the process of agglomeration allows for the occurrence of locational clusters and concentrations at large spatial resolution levels. Religious focus of a place leads to its urbanization. Successful commercialization also plays a critical role in urbanization.
Works Cited:
Mulligan, Gordon F. “Agglomeration and Central Place Theory: A Review of the Literature.”
International Regional Science Review. Vol. 9. No. 1. (1984): 1-42.

Professional Practice Accountability and Reflection

I have chosen the practice area of&nbsp.wound dressing since I identified that wound dressing is a technique, and this involves a high level of professional involvement and meticulousness to impart this. Apart from the principles of wound infection, wound nature, and principles of sterility, a thorough understanding of the physiology of the particular variety of wounds is necessary so standard care can be delivered to the patient. If all the principles are followed in a rigorous manner, there is no reason why a difficult wound would not heal. therefore, wound dressing has implications in patient outcome. I have observed that my skills in wound dressing have improved with practice and repeated dressings of the same wound while the patient was under my care. This indicates that practice of the principles improves the standard of the care particularly applicable to wound dressing, and the care standards may be strengthened, that is, practice may be strengthened. I have decided to reflect on my wound dressings with Joanna since reflection is a process that critically analyzes the care provided, and it would help me to find out my weaknesses and strengths. Not only that, this process of reflection would enhance my future practice (McCormack B, Manley K, Garbett R., 2004).

Definitions: The professional practice of nursing, midwifery, and health visiting takes place in a context of continuous change. New researches are taking place continuously, and the evidence base of practice and learning is being enhanced in a rapid manner. Therefore, new developments and continuously being introduced in practice, influenced by factors, such as government initiatives and improvements in medical and nursing science. Professional nurses cannot hope to practice safely, efficiently, and effectively-being constantly accountable to the fact whether standards of practice have been met or not unless they engage in continuing professional development mainly to maintain up to date knowledge base to underpin that practice and&nbsp.to facilitate the regular.

Self introduce

Module I am Junwoo Park from Korea. I came to the U.S for my further studies and took up History and Political Science as one of my courses. Taking the history class was one of my childhood passions. When we moved from Kaplan to Seattle and I had to be transferred from De Anza College to here, I was glad that finally I was able to pursue my dream. It has always been a thrill learning about the past and understanding why some of the things happened in the past and their effects in the present. As an individual, I am warm hearted, outgoing and love movies. Being in this class has also made me love documentaries especially about the past and about relationships that transpire between countries.
There are many things that the course has taught me, and the fact that there are many things recurring that are linked to the past has also made it easier to argue using facts and support my thinking based on what essentially took place. Some of the relations between countries have their roots based on actions of close to four decades ago while others have theirs going a century back or more. These relations were determined then and countries have tried to break such barriers by using political scientists to determine the best path to follow for reconciliatory purposes (Huret 239). Such are the attributes that make me wish to learn more about the course. Each day, there are interesting facts that I learn, and this increases my curiosity and a longing for the class every day. I have never missed any of the lectures because absence to me, in this class, is imaginable.
Works Cited
Huret, Romain, “All in the Family Again? Political Historians and the Challenge of Social History.” Journal of Policy History, 21 (3) (2009): 239–63.

Europe after the Cold War

After the Soviet Union disintegrated, the post-Cold War world broadly seems as unipolar and the US remains the only remaining superpower. The Cold War was instrumental in defining the political rule of numerous states including the US after the WW2, and as of 1989, the US had military alliances with more than fifty states while having almost one and a half million troops deployed abroad in more than one hundred nations. The cold war was also integral in institutionalizing a worldwide commitment to large, lasting peacetime military and industrial complexes along with large-scale funding for science by militaries.
&nbsp.The occurrences of 1989 along with the fall of the Berlin wall demonstrated in the short term to be enormously undermining as they resulted in the disintegration of the Soviet Union, a United Germany as well as an expanded NATO while unleashing volatile forces, although the instability was not permanent (Engel, 2009). The European continent after the Cold War has demonstrated to be comparatively stable. nonetheless, judgments have to be reserved as the ramifications of these events continue to be felt. For instance, the current crisis in the Eurozone is directly connected to the greater integration of the EU, which can be attributed to the fall of the Berlin wall. The Cold War period provided a certain level of stability for governments in the European continent, as they were aware of their status quo and the sides they supported. Boundaries and conflicts had clear definitions with the key to making the system stable being a lack of interest in changing the status quo on both sides.
&nbsp.It may also be contended that this status quo was not sustainable with the communist bloc directing huge amounts of money to the purchase of arms while daily lives behind the Iron Curtain were being marked by a high degree of hardship.

Chemical catalyst

Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki for their work on “palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis" which in itself is evidence strong enough to validate the significance of catalysis in the fields of modern science, and particularly in industrial processes. Around 9 billion US Dollars defines the volume of the recent market for catalysts in the Global markets. (Dautzenberg, 2002).
‘Catalysis’ is defined as a phenomenon and ‘catalyst’ is the substance which is responsible for that phenomenon. A Catalyst is a substance which can usually rev up the rate of a chemical reaction but remains unaltered itself (physically and chemically) after the reaction. Sometimes particular substances can also slow down the rate of a chemical reaction. Such type of substances are known as inhibitors (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011).
According to the involvement in the phases, i.e., state of aggregation, catalysts are divided into three broad categories- (i) homogeneous catalyst (ii) heterogeneous catalyst and (iii) biocatalyst [Cavani &amp.Feruccio, 1997. Hagen, 2006]. As the name suggests, homogeneous catalyst implies to the situation where the substrate and the catalyst are in the similar phase (gas or liquid). A very common example of a homogeneous catalysis is the conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon- di-oxide catalyzed by nitric oxide where both the substrate and catalyst are in gaseous phase. The fundamental advantages of homogeneous catalysis are that this type of catalysis is atom economic in respect to the other catalysis processes and additionally has higher selectivity in producing the desired product for its milder reaction condition. However, there are disadvantages associated with homogeneous catalysis as well. The problematic regarding homogeneous catalysis is the work up procedure of the reaction. The procedure for catalysis recovery is expensive, there is always a problem of waste management and above all a fair chance of

Late Stage Abortion

Late stage abortion Is late stage abortion right or wrong? Late stage or late term abortion commonly known as voluntary abortion is the termination of the embryo or fetus from the uterus before it is viable in order to end pregnancy. In most cases, it is carried out in the late stages of pregnancy. What are the morals concerned with the rules and principles of right conduct or differentiation between right and wrong? Late stage abortion is morally wrong because it brutalizes the person who performs the act and deprives or denies the fetus right to live. Killing a person denies them opportunities to their experiences, projects, activities and enjoyment that would have made the future of the aborted fetus. What makes this abortion worse is the fact that the victim is not only denied experiences and projects but there are some other things, which the aborted fetus cannot enjoy now but would have experienced them in future, which the fetus is denied or deprived of. It is correct to kill unborn babies because it deprives them of their future.
Late stage abortion is actually wrong because logical arguments that surround it are about human rights. Some people claim that a woman has a right to privacy, entitled to her own decisions and act or behave in accordance to her own body to be carried out in terms of protection. However, when it comes to her committing an issue such as late stage abortion, their actions may be questioned (Kaczor 44-46). Life thinkers or people state that even the unborn babies have the right to be protected. The main argument here is that unborn babies in the late stage of pregnancy are fully developed to a level of psychological intricacy at which thinking or reasoning can take place. Therefore, there is no need whatsoever that the unborn child ought not be treated as human beings or persons and should be acknowledged and recognized as having human rights (Baird 67).
There are two conflicting events in this scenario. whereby the women has the right to act to her own body and right to privacy but in this case where two individuals rights are not in agreement, they must be measured in balance not to act in veil of ignorance in neglecting the rights of the other party like the case of Gonzalez versus Carhart. In such cases, after careful consideration of the rights of the two parties, it clear that giving room for one party to avoid getting engaged in the intimate matters of the other party is not a rational choice. Babies at late stage of development should be treated as persons when in any are born prematurely. Not doing so to the unborn babies is not ethically right. The fetus at this stage of development deserves their rights based because they are persons. Such abortion is wrong because they are morally wrong in that they go against human rights or violate human rights (Kaczor 64).
The other question that burns is that what determines human rights? Is it God, science or the government? Nature provides us with human rights in that they are a product of human reason and emotional feeling that develop and grows when people interact and need platform for their interaction. Most women who get late stage abortion would not give in to abortions because of moral basis like the case of Roe versus Wade. Abortion is wrong because every human being hold to the fact life is sacred and ought to be respected and worthy of protection, then it is rational to argue that abortion or termination of life at late stage is wrong since the fetus is alive just like other born persons. People in society need to gain more respect and appreciation for life. It does not matter how small especially life that was created with consent (Baird 36-38).
All life is very significant and special and this is the only life that fetus has to lie so why intentionally take the life of that unborn baby? The fetus in late stage of development t is a person with rights, therefore, in this manner. abortion is regarded as murder though in some instances, abortion is acceptable with regard to the autonomy of the woman’s body. However, it will be unethical for women to abort at this later stage unless the pregnancy is completed and the life of the mother is at stake. In addition, the women has obligation to the baby because during sex she gave in to it and avoided using contraception to ward off pregnancy.
Works Cited
Baird, Robert. The Ethics of Abortion: Pro-life Versus Pro-choice. New York: Prometheus Books, 2001. Print.
Kaczor, Christopher. The Ethics of Abortion: Women’s rights, Human Life and the Question of Justice. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.

Contribution of Consciousness Theorists to Psychonautics and Somanautics

Blom, (2009) says that consciousness characterizes people’s being and realism, but the mechanism through which the mind creates thoughts and feelings remains unidentified. Any theory that is concerned with consciousness must be able to explain all elements that are traditionally associated with human consciousness. It should also fully explain the phenomena that are related to consciousness elements (Wilber, 2000). Although it is as old as human existence itself, consciousness has been a major unresolved problem in the world of science (Lancaster, 2004). However, there are some researchers who are willing to tackle this mystery.
The term psychonautics is derived from two Greek terminologies: psyche (mind, spirit, soul) and nautes (sailor, navigator). It refers to the methodology used in the explanation and description of the subjective effects of consciousness states that have been altered (Surhone, Tipledon and Marseken, 2010). These alterations of the mind can be caused by many things including the use of mind-altering substances and spiritualism. Psychonautics can also be used to refer to a certain research concept whereby an individual explores human existence and experience by immersing himself into a state of altered consciousness (Eccles, 1994). Psychonautics can also be defined as the methodology sued in the study and exploration of consciousness and altered forms of consciousness. This definition rests with the idea that for one to study consciousness, he has to transform it first.
Somanautics, a derivation of the Greek words soma (body) and nautes (Sailor, navigator), is a term used to refer to the exploration of the consciousness of the body. Therefore, the field of psychonautics and somanutics deals with the study and exploration of the body, mind, and soul. The person who immerses himself into altered states for research purposes is referred to as a psychonaut (Blom, 2009). Surhone, Tipledon, and Marseken (2010) add that the term psychonautics can be applied on a diversity of activities including those in which the altered states are “induced and utilized for spiritual purposes or the exploration of the human condition” (3).

Humans versus Nature which selects better for human survival from a biological point of view

All through the peoples lives, their genomes cooperate with their surroundings to cause varieties in attributes. Nature of a genome incorporates the atomic science in the cell, different cells, different people, populaces, species, and in addition the abiotic environment. Individuals with specific variations of the attribute may survive and duplicate more than people with other, less fruitful, variations. In this way the populace advances as the components that influence conceptive achievement are additionally imperative, an issue that Charles Darwin grew in his thoughts on sexual choice.
Characteristic determination follows up on the phenotype, or the recognizable attributes of an organic entity, yet the hereditary (heritable) premise of any phenotype that gives a regenerative point of interest may get to be more normal in a populace (see allele recurrence). In the long run, this procedure can bring about populaces that practice for specific natural specialties and may in the end bring about the development of new species. At the end of the day, characteristic determination is a vital methodology (however not by any means the only process) by which advancement happens inside a populace of life forms (Wilson). Common determination can be diverged from counterfeit choice, in which people purposefully pick particular characteristics (in spite of the fact that they may not generally get what they need). In natural selection there is no deliberate decision as such, counterfeit determination is teleological and characteristic choice is not teleological.
Natural selection is one of the foundations of present day science and the term was presented by Darwin in his persuasive 1859 book On the Origin of Species, in which natural selection was portrayed as comparable to manufactured choice, a procedure by which creatures and plants with qualities

Public administrationpolitics dichotomy

Public Administration/Politics Dichotomy Introduction The relationship between public administration and politics has beenone of the great issues in public administration. Public administration has two parties to it. on one side are the administrators while on the other side is the public and politicians. The latter of the second party to public administration tends to influence public administration. However, more than the relationship between politics and administration is how these two issues can be used to make better public policies.
Relationship between public administration and politics
The relationship between public administration and politics can be traced back to the 19th century when Woodrow Wilson penned his thoughts on administration. His intension was to protect administration from political interference. He further indicated that administrations and politics are two distinct disciplines. His main concern was the influence that politics had on administration (Wilson, 1887). He argued that the plans of the government are not administrative and so the two should be kept apart. He later realized that the two cannot be kept apart and embraced dichotomy and agreed that they should be used to improve policies. Public administration dichotomy means that public administrators should be involved in policy processes and politicians should also be involved in administrative processes (Wilson, 1966). Other authors of public administration like (Yang and Hozler, 2005) agreed that administration should be used to protect politics and democracy from its own excesses. Another public administration proponent of the separation of public administration and politics was Goodnow who was of the opinion that politics had a strong effect on public administration.
Dichotomy between public administration and politics
Separating politics and public administration has not been achievable and the debate to keep the two apart continues. However the reality is that they influence each other. According to (Overeem, 2005), the dichotomy between public administration and politics mean that public administrators be politically neutral. Public administration should be impartial and not get involved in politics and its controversies.
The insistence on the separation of public administration and politics lays emphasis on specialization and order in policy making and government administration. Since public administration and politics cannot be kept apart, they can be dichotomized in five ways. there has to be a distinction between policy and management, extend it from the inner workings of the government to the political body, keeping administration from political control, call for accountability and specifying what actions are political and the ones that are administrative (Hughes, 2003).The proponents of public administration and politics dichotomy argue that the distinctions between the two should be able to make it clear that they are different things with different personalities meaning politicians come up with the policies and the administrators implement these policies.
Conclusion
Politics and public administration have to coexist without interference. Public administration should not be influenced by politics and vice versa. Public administrators should be neutral in political matters whereas politicians should stick to policy making and leave implementation to the public administrators only then can the two be used for the good of the public.
References
Hughes, O., (2003). Public management and administration: An introduction. Basingstoke:
Macmillan.
Overeem, P., (2005). The value of the dichotomy: politics, administration, and the political
neutrality of administrators. Administrative Theory and Praxis, Vol. 27, pp. 311-330
Wilson, W., (1887) The Study of Administration. Political Science Quarterly,Reprinted in 1997
in Classics of Public Administration, 2d ed. Shafritz, J, and Hyde, A, Chicago: Dorsey Press.
Yang, K. and Holzer, M., (2005) Re–approaching the politics–administration dichotomy and its
impact on administrative ethics. Public Integrity, Vol. 7 pp.111-127.

PROBLEMS FACING HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TEACHERS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS

However, these teachers tend to experience some challenges and this discourse focuses on such.
Science is a very dynamic field and this means that high school science teachers must adopt emerging technologies to enable their students remain marketable or viable in the job markets. However, this tends to be a great challenge in low income high schools where science teachers are forced to rely on outdated technologies. Technology, in this scenario, refers to the machinery, computer hardware and software, lab equipment, and lab manuals (Baker 32). Some teachers in such institutions handle the theoretical parts of the advanced technologies without necessarily arranging for practical sessions due to lack of required facilities. At the end of the day, students lack the practical experience and this is a huge setback as they graduate and join the job market.
The solution is the administration of such schools should liaise with local authorities so that some fund could be set aside to purchase the right equipment in the institutions. The schools could also seek funds or donations from the community, organizations, and even willing individuals to purchase the required equipment (Geisler 209). Meanwhile, the school could make arrangements with institutions with such facilities so that students could make arranged visits and learn from their facilities. However, this should be in a manner that both students from both facilities are not inconvenienced. Science teachers could use assimilated modules to guide their students as the administration seek funds to purchase such facilities.
Science oriented subjects require more lesson hours compared with social and humanity related subjects. However, a majority of high schools allocate the same hours for all subjects. Due to this, a majority of teachers end up not completing the required syllabus as the school closes. However, their counterparts handling social and humanity lessons

The book A Beautiful Mind by Sylvia Nasar

(The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008).
John F. Nash is one of the three co-recipients of the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Science as a young faculty member in the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of technology) mathematics department. He came to MIT in 1951 as an instructor in mathematics. He became an assistant professor in 1953 and was promoted to associate professor in 1957. Game theory is not his only achievement in economics. He shared the 1994 Nobel prize with two other pioneers in game theory, John C. Harsanyi of the University of California at Berkeley and Reinhard Selten of the University of Bonn in Germany. (News Office, 1994)
A Beautiful Mind is a book about a winning mathematician John Forbes Nash, Jr. and the staggering truth of his illness. Sylvia Nasar, the author of this best-selling biography, published the book in 1999, which later became a best-seller. It is a detailed account of John Nash who was diagnosed by his psychiatrist as having schizophrenia while being robbed of his wonderful career as a mathematician momentarily. The book, later inspired to be in the movie, won the 1998 National Book Critics Circle.
The biography was quite dramatic in nature as the author relived the life of a genius whose career was hampered by a debilitating illness. Nash believed that messages are being sent to him through newspapers or media. Like any other suffering from such illness, his personal and career life was intertwined with interrupted delusions and eventually his life disintegrate. After thirty years of devastating mental illness, Nash recovered and gained him the Nobel Prize in 1994 for his contribution in Economics.
His 26-page Ph.D. thesis, "Non-Cooperative Games", written at Princeton, while he was still in his early 20s, eventually won him a Nobel Prize, but only after his career was interrupted by a 30-year stint with paranoid schizophrenia.
From his lonely childhood in West Virginia to his college years at&nbsp.Princeton University, John Forbes Nash, Jr. encountered Albert Einstein, John von Neumann, and a host of other mathematical greats.&nbsp.

Estimating the Ebola Epidemic by Kai Kupferschmidt

 Estimating the Ebola Epidemic by Kai Kupferschmidt
In modern world the philosophers took a more pragmatic position. They stopped thinking about unreal things and realities ant started overthinking the existing ones. In this project we will use the information from the article Estimating the Ebola epidemic by Kai Kupferschmidt philosophical theories of German philosopher Karl Popper. He argued that the accumulation of human knowledge is unpredictable, the theory of an ideal governance, as a fact, does not exist. therefore, the political system should be flexible enough that the government can gradually change its policy. Because of this, society should be open to multiple points of view and cultures, that is, have the characteristics of pluralism and multiculturalism.
Medicine has no boundaries, but people build them and then break them every day. The Ebola disease is a very acute problem of a last half of a year. Scientists and doctors create a computer models to predict the countries which may next fall the victims to Ebola. Its rapid spread is a result of: “the modelers are hampered by the paucity of data on the current outbreak and lack of knowledge about how Ebola spreads." (Kupferschmidt 2014). But it is not only the problem of scientists, but only of the governments.
So here we can say that the theory of a flexible political system and pluralism within the country, brought to life, could have been much more useful than creating models. If all the countries were able to cooperate in spite of the political/cultural and other disagreements the vaccine could have been found many years ago. The World’s Contest between the countries slows down their ability to cooperate. And one thing more, Popper was also a proponent of critical rationalism, the main ideas of which are based on the fact that: “the knowledge must be as objective as possible and doesn’t depend on the judgment of individuals or groups” (Popper 1966) So, we can make an inference that if the modern scientists were more critical when studying some problems they may get better results. In the case of Ebola disease, here we can say that critical and much broader view on this case could help.
So, in conclusion, I would like to point out, that the problem of Ebola disease may be eliminated much earlier if the humanity would have accepted the point of view of K. Popper. medicine could develop quicker and better. the countries interrelations on the field of science would be better. Broad view and no prejudice are more effective way of solving the problems of this kind.
Works cited
Popper Karl Raymond. 1946. The Open Society and Its Enemies. Princeton University Press, Fifth Edition (revised), 1966.

Classic Airlines Benchmarking

Generic Benchmarking Worksheet Task A: Low confidence and reduced satisfaction corrected through proper and effective implementation of a successful CRM system
Instructions for Task A: In the Response row, write out the problem/opportunity statements for the scenario for each of the team members.
Response to Task A:
The Toyota Motor Sales Inc. (USA), faced critical problems in managing their North American facilities, with low sales ratio and even lower customer satisfaction. Owing to the severity of the situation, the organization, drew plans to revive its old system and switched to a new, improved management system that laid emphasis on meeting customer expectations and at the same time eliminating wasted expenditures and operating costs and put the saved resources to a more effective use.
This case is very much similar to that of Classic Airlines, wherein the company too is faced with declining sales, low customer satisfaction, and a simultaneous rise in fuel and labor costs. The analysis of the Toyota Motor Corporation’s management style and policies applied by it, could prove to be valuable in analyzing the case of Classic Airlines.
Generic Benchmarking—The purpose of generic benchmarking is to identify potential solutions to the problem statements defined in Task A. You will do this by looking at how companies in other industries have dealt with similar issues.
Topic A: Best Practices in Consumer Relations TOYOTA – (Successful)
Instructions for Topic A: In the Response row, each team member must identify at least one company that has faced and addressed similar situations (successfully and unsuccessfully).
In the Response row, identify whether the company has been successful or unsuccessful.
In the Response row, summarize your key findings for the company as they relate to the scenario.
In the Response row, identify at least one alternative solution for Classic Airlines from each company researched.
Response to Topic A:
The Toyota Motor Sales Inc. (USA), headed by Jim Cookie – the national facilities operations manager, initiated concrete steps to revive its old management policies and adopted a new performance based facilities management approach which focused on the customer relationships so as to enable it to meet all needs and expectations of its customers. This new management approach, launched about 3 years back, ensured that the managers spent more time with the customers and was hugely successful, and translated into nearly $10 million in savings over the first five years of its launch.
Toyota’s operations in North America comprise of a geographically diverse area, with several business units and branches spread across the length and breadth of the country and hence the company focused on their customer needs and expectations in order to attain optimum levels of customer satisfaction.
“In a large corporation with multiple business units, marketing may be called on to assess consumer trends as an aid to corporate planning. At the business unit level, marketing may be asked to provide leadership in developing a new, integrated customer service program across all business units” (Kerin et al, 2006, ch.2, pp.7).
The term customer encompassed within its scope, the owners, stockholders as well as the senior management. The key findings of the case are listed below:
a. Prior to initiating the new management plan, the company initiated measures to assess the needs and expectations of all its customers so as to have a better understanding of the composition of its customers and fulfill those needs and desires to the best of their abilities. Also it facilitated better decision making on the basis of the data related the individual demands of the customers.
b. One of the biggest obstacles that the company faced while implementing the new management plan was replacing the old one, which was in place since more than 30 years. This initial setback was tactfully handled by the senior management who convinced the respective parties involved about the project viability and ensured better performance by setting clear objectives about the performance accountability at all levels.
c. To facilitate better functioning of the organization under this new management plan, the senior management broadened the scope of authority across all levels of management which ensured better performance. The roles and responsibilities were hence clearly defined and communicated which encouraged open communication and information sharing amongst the managers and hence facilitated better and smoother decision making.
d. The company also set clearly defined benchmarks for measuring the success of the proposed management plan: professionalism, quality, communication and accountability. It also focused on attaining a clear understanding of the demands of the customer so as to ensure their optimum satisfaction.
“One guideline in defining the company’s business: Try to understand the people served by the organization and the value they receive, which emphasizes the critical customer – driven focus that successful organizations have” (Kerin et al, 2006, ch.2: Developing Successful Marketing and Corporate Strategies, pp.10).
e. The company has ultimately achieved their desired targets and reaped rewards in terms of high customer satisfaction and saved millions of dollars on its various business operations, a majority of them on petty tasks. In the rapidly growing competitive scenario, and the cut throat competition, change is inevitable, especially when it concerns the most vital asset of any organization – the customers. Thus embracing the “Kaizen” (moving forward) tenet, companies around the world can hope to attain maximum customer satisfaction in all its business operations to increase their profitability and improve their brand value.
Classic Airlines, is faced with a similar situation, with diminishing customer confidence in the company resulting in low customer satisfaction mainly on account of an improper CRM system. The company can largely benefit by applying and reviewing their management policies, on the lines of the Toyota Motor Sales Inc., to increase customer confidence by devising effective management policies and setting performance oriented benchmarks, encouraging autonomy in decision making, broadening the scope of authority across all levels of management and encouraging open communication and information sharing so as to facilitate better decision making on the part of the managers. This shall in turn, equip the managers with the latest data on customer satisfaction levels by exposing them to the needs and expectations of the customers.
In conclusion, a mere implementation of a CRM system is not a guarantee of high customer satisfaction. It requires continuous efforts on the part of the management in the form of timely reviews of the effectiveness of management policies implemented as well as the customer data at their disposal.
Topic B: Evaluating Customer Risk MOTOROLA (Unsuccessful)
Instructions for Topic B: In the Response row, each team member must identify at least one company that has faced and addressed similar situations (successfully and unsuccessfully).
In the Response row, identify whether the company has been successful or unsuccessful.
In the Response row, summarize your key findings for the company as they relate to the scenario.
In the Response row, identify at least one alternative solution for Classic Airlines from each company researched.
Response to Topic B:
For the purpose of this case, Classic Airlines, Iridium, a Motorola backed venture, is used to illustrate how a technologically sound product, failed to capture desired market share. Iridium is a classic case of product failure on account of serious setbacks such as weak market positioning, high cost structure and critical mass.
The mobile phone market during the early 1990’s faced several obstacles in communication such as failure in providing uninterrupted phone call service, good network, accessibility from any corner of the world etc. This was recognized as an opportunity for the growth of satellite phones, and hence Motorola decided to take a plunge in the new market segment, keeping in mind the customers needs and expectations. The customers’ basic need for communication was a major driving force for the company, to work on the new satellite technology purely on the basis of its capability to provide immense opportunities to its customers.
“There are just few service organizations competing for customers by offering enjoyable, memorable experiences rather than traditional service transactions” (Kerin et al, 2006, ch.12: Managing Services, pp.3)
Iridium provided world class services to its customers such as robust voice and data solutions, facility of calling from any location including airways, oceans or mountainous regions, without charging roaming fees and devoid of any compatibility problems, yet customers restrained from purchasing satellite phones.
“Services have become a significant component of the global economy and one of the most important component of U.S. economy. Services accounted for $4.6 trillion in 2003, which was an increase of more than 80% since 1990 ” (Kerin et al, 2006, ch.12 Managing Services, pp. 6).
This was mainly due to the fact that its high costs (expensive instrument cost and high service fees) far exceeded the benefits that it had to offer and also by the time the product was launched, there were several cheap substitutes made available to the customers by its competitors.
The case of Iridium is a substantial evidence of the fact that inaccurate prediction of customer demands, leads to a disastrous result in the form of product failure. From this case study, Classic Airlines too can draw several significant lessons in customer management, such as appropriate use of the huge amount of customer data at its disposal, a critical analysis of the competitive products available in the market as well as the scope and range of products / services that it proposes to launch. Technology alone cannot guarantee customer satisfaction, the company thus has to understand the needs and demands of the customers and fulfill their expectations to have a better competitive positioning in the highly competitive marketplace and thereby ensure their sustainability.
Topic C : Customer Acquisition and Retention PHILLIPS – (Unsuccessful)
Instructions for Topic C: In the Response row, each team member must identify at least one company that has faced and addressed similar situations (successfully and unsuccessfully).
In the Response row, identify whether the company has been successful or unsuccessful.
In the Response row, summarize your key findings for the company as they relate to the scenario.
In the Response row, identify at least one alternative solution for Classic Airlines from each company researched.
Response to Topic C:
Phillips Consumer Electronics – the U.S subsidiary of Phillips Electronics, launched a new product – the Compact Disk Interactive (CD I), during a period of fierce competition in the home entertainment industry. The CD I system was touted as a major technological breakthrough for consumers, the management believed it to be a representative of family entertainment system of “tomorrow”- a product of the future, and counted heavily on the system to carry Phillips Electronics to the next century. However, the management was faced with a major strategic failure as subsequent to the launch of the product, the sales were found to be disappointing. An examination of the marketing strategy of the company provides a valuable insight into what was perceived as innovation by the company was perceived otherwise by the consumers.
“Developing, Pricing, Promoting and Delivering services is challenging because the quality of a service is often inconsistent. Because, services depend on the people provide them, their quality varies with each person’s capabilities and day – to – day job performance” (Kerin et al, 2006, ch.12: Managing Services, pp. 14).
The launch of this new product was clearly a move on the part of the company, to retain its customer base, which, on account of availability of alternative product options were increasing switching to the rival companies, ultimately translating into low profitability for the organization. However, in a bid to retain its customer base and regain the customer confidence in the ability and potential of Philips consumer electronics, to provide quality services to the customers it hurriedly launched a new product into the market which had several technical flaws and instead led to a further decline in the customer’s perception of the company.
“In most cases, the consumer cannot (and does not) separate the deliverer of the service from the service itself. For example, to receive an education, a person may attend university. The quality of the education may be high but if the students have difficulty interacting with the instructor, find the counseling services poor, or does not receive adequate library or computer assistance, he or she may not be satisfied with the educational experience” (Kerin et al, 2006, ch.12 Managing Services, pp. 15).
Phillips Consumer Electronics faced similar problems in case of the new product that was technologically sound yet several of the features promised by the company prior to the launch of the product were found to be missing. Hence the overall customer experience derived was not found to be satisfactory and hence resulted in a major product disaster.
This case delivers valuable lessons in customer retention and improving customer satisfaction by pointing out major flaws in the policies adopted by management of respectable companies such as Phillips. Classic Airlines, can derive critical lessons from this case on what not to do, while aiming for customer satisfaction. It is inevitable that in a highly crowded marketplace, and the presence of cheap substitutes, the organizations should consider the customer data at their disposal and study carefully the needs, demands and preferences of customers and apply them appropriately while launching any new service or product. Classic Airlines can learn from this case, the importance of converting customer data into a valuable tool to capture potential customers by providing high quality services and fulfilling customer needs and demands to their utmost satisfaction, which will ensure customer retention and increase profitability.
References
Instructions for References: In the Response column, list each reference using APA format.
Response:
Kerin, R. A., Hartley, S.W., &amp. Berkowitz, E.N.&nbsp.(2006). Marketing (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lim, J., Klien, R., &amp. Thatcher, J.&nbsp.(2005).&nbsp.Good Technology Bad Management: A Case Study of the Satellite Phone Industry.&nbsp.Journal of Information Technology Management,&nbsp.XVI(2),&nbsp..
Rosen D.E, Schroeder J.E, Purinton E.F, (1998) Marketing High Tech Products, Academy of Marketing Science Review, Vol 1998, No. 6

Family Nurse Practitioner in Primary Care

The program was widely opposed by physician and nurses and many people from the nursing profession, their objection was regarding the title of the program as they believed that it is something very ambiguous and such training programs in primary care will easily “control and devour nursing education and practice” (O’Brien, 2003). With the passage of time, primary care programs for nurses have grown and have been classified into different programs: Women Health Nurse Practitioner, Family Nurse Practitioner, Neonatal Nurse Practitioner, Adult Nurse Practitioner, Pediatric Nurse Practitioner, Acute Care Nurse Practitioner, Geriatric Nurse Practitioner and Psych-Mental Health Nurse Practitioner.
A family nurse practitioner is a registered nurse with a Bachelor of Science in Nursing and Masters of Science in nursing degree. A family nurse practitioner is also a qualified and competent member of the healthcare sector, who is ready to fill a sensitive position of family nurse practitioner in primary care to provide services to meet the demands of the society. Family Nurse Practitioners have proven their efficiencies and effectiveness in providing high quality and cost effective health care services and health care consumers have also sensed the importance and value of a good service. A family nurse practitioner has several roles to choose from as a base for her career. FNP is able to serve the population living in both urban and rural areas such as hospitals, public health departments, physician offices, HMOs, community health centers, nursing homes, home health agencies and student health clinics. FNP is capable of providing them health care in acute illness, high blood pressure, headache, diabetes, chronic illness and obesity (Zerwekh. &amp. Claborn., 2004).
After the completion of nursing program/studies, nurses have many choices of roles to choose from as a final field to start practice. For a nurse practitioner,

How has the Supreme Court evolved over its history

History and Political Science 28 March The Supreme Court The U.S. Supreme Court is truly the founder of constitutional justice in the world. Since 1790, when the Supreme Court held its first session, it has been issuing thousands of motivated decisions on various matters from the state powers and privileges to the civil rights and freedom of the media. Despite the fact that many of these decisions are little known to the general public and do not cause its special interest, some of them are really outstanding in terms of the impact they had on the development of America. Its decision in the case of Marbury v. Madison is often called the most important in the history of the U.S. Supreme Court as it has introduced into practice the concept of judicial review and granted authority to determine the constitutionality of legislative acts and executive orders. The Supreme Court established that a federal law is more important than a state law. Its decisions have become one of the causes of the American Civil War, abolition of racial segregation and legalization of abortion.
According to the U.S. Constitution “the judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish”. This and many other provisions are included in Article 3, which alone contains the list of duties and prerogatives of the Supreme Court. This organ of the federal government was not touched in any of the twenty-five Amendments adopted in 1791-1971. The functions of the Supreme Court were specified in the Constitution very sketchy while the rights and functions of the legislative power, exercised by Congress, and executive power, exercised by the President, are very clear.
The Supreme Court took on the role of the higher national arbitrator during the 19th century. It was vested with the authority to affirm, check for errors or even annul not only the decisions of the lower federal courts but also the decisions of the federal, state and municipal authorities. The U.S. Constitution does not detail how many justices should be in the Supreme Court, leaving it to the discretion of Congress. Initially, it decided to appoint six justices. Subsequently, the composition of the court consisted of 10 justices but it sometimes happened that their number was reduced to five. Typically, precise number of justices was defined just to ensure the effective work of the court. Now nine justices are appointed. one of them is the Chief Justice. All of them, in principle, are irremovable and can remain in office for life in case of “good behavior”. Many American constitutional law experts argue that Congress has power to introduce age limit for justices or limit their tenure to a specific term. But the lawmakers have not taken such decisions so far. Therefore, new openings are possible only in case of justices’ death, impeachment, voluntary resignation or retirement. New candidates are proposed by the U.S. President and need to be confirmed by Senate. The process of confirmation has undergone many specific changes which became a tradition. In 1873, for the first time in history, the Senate conducted an investigation of a candidate’s antecedents. In 1916 it set open hearing for discussion of a candidate. A candidate came before the members of the Senate Judiciary Committee in 1925. In 1930 the Senate allowed all interested social organization to participate in the hearings. Since 1956 all the candidates have been questioned by the American Association of Judges. In 1981 it was decided to broadcast the hearings on TV.
The Supreme Court demonstrates very tight intertwining of law and policy. Nevertheless, different surveys show that 62% of Americans approve of the way the Supreme Court is doing its job. The Supreme Court Approval rating has never dropped lower than 46% in recent decades, which is quite good for a state institution. For more than two centuries, the Supreme Court acts as a partner of the other federal authorities and is involved in policy formulation and implementation. The Court has been repeatedly used by the ruling circles as a political stabilizer, which serves to calm tensions caused by irresponsible, from their point of view, political actions of the other state authorities. Obviously, the Supreme Court will play a distinctive role in the future of America.
References
Beard, C. (1962). The Supreme Court and the Constitution. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Goldstein, J. (1992). The Intelligible Constitution: The Supreme Court’s Obligation to Maintain the Constitution as Something We the People Can Understand. New York: Oxford University Press.
Patrick, J. (2001). The Supreme Court of the United States: A Student Companion. New York: Oxford University Press.

Evaluate consequences of global warming

Thesis Statement: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the consequences of global warming. its adverse impacts on the earth’s ecological system, and consequently on human, plant and animal life.
The leading theory on global warming is that human industrial activity over the last century is the root cause of global warming, since it has been causing carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere. Similarly, modes of transportation such as cars and buses increase the emission levels. Further, the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests result in production of carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases, which remain in the atmosphere for several decades and even centuries (Behreandt, 2006).
The accumulated gas prevents heat in the atmosphere from escaping into space, and the retained gas causes rise in the environmental temperature, termed as the greenhouse effect. This causes greater retention of heat by the earth, because carbon dioxide absorbs the earth’s heat radiation and acts like a blanket over the earth’s surface (Houghton, 2004). The rise in atmospheric warming activates natural processes that cause increasing release of greenhouse gases. Michaels (2005, p.50) states that “planetary near surface temperature has increased by approximately 1.5 degrees centigrade over the past century, and will continue at a higher rate for the next century”.
The United Nation’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the American Meteorological Society, the American Geophysical Union, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science agree that “greenhouse gases accumulating in the earth’s atmosphere as a result of human activities, cause surface air temperatures and subsurface ocean temperatures to rise” (Behreandt, 2006, p.10).
The melting of ice from high altitudes and glaciers alters unique landscapes,

Name And describe 3 types of sleep disorders

Sleep Disorders There has been extensive research conducted to understand the distinctive sleep disorders for over 40 years. The nosologies developed to date have relied on expert opinion and clinical research evidence. WHO, APA and other professional sleep societies have discrepant systems for classifying sleep disorders. The article examines three sleep disorders.
Insomnia
It is one of the most common complaints associated with sleep. It is characterized by difficulty in falling asleep, trouble staying asleep all night, poor sleep, feeling too tired in the morning and waking up too early in the morning. Research has indicated that insomnia can negatively affect work output and performance, impairs ones judgment and damage relationships. Studies also reveal that almost 30% of adults complain of insomnia. It is more prevalent in categories such as older people, stressed individuals and women (Morin &amp. Colin 383).
Snoring
It is the loud and harsh sound one produces when asleep via the mouth. An individual snores, when the flow of air one inhales, makes the muscles in the back of the throat vibrate. It can occur at any point during sleep. Snoring is more prevalent in men than women and becomes common as one grows older. Study shows that sleeping on one’s back makes them likely to snore (Morin &amp. Colin 383).
Narcolepsy
A disorder that makes a person to feel excessively tired and in extreme cases have sudden uncontrollable sleep. It impacts almost every aspect of one’s life. It causes excessive sleep or sleep attacks at any time of the day. The disorder is not common in children. However, it may run in families but, science has not proven its genetic make-up (Morin &amp. Colin 690).
Conclusion
Individuals suffering from sleep disorders such as insomnia should engage in mind-calming exercises that focus on breathing and awareness of the present time.

Work Cited
Morin, Charles M, and Colin A. Espie, The Oxford Handbook of Sleep and Sleep Disorders. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print. Pp. 383-690

Mass extinctions then and now

The extent of mass extinction or bio-diversity has been evident from previous times but the impact of the same is pragmatic to be more crucial under the current bio-diversity. This severity is majorly pretentious by the changes that are incorporated within the planet reflecting on habitat destruction, climate change, along with the spread of invasive species (Mace &amp. Lande, 1990). With this regard, the essay intends to elaborate on the different discriminations that are applicable by science on the issues of mass destruction. Through the different issues that hint towards mass destruction, the essay elaborates on the needs of management of different attributes related with the concerns that are attached with the severe destructive attribute of mass destruction and provides an insight towards the same.
Despite of being acquainted of the fact that biodiversity is of utmost importance, the diverse activities of human being are causing huge amount of impact leading to mass extinction. The different instances of massive extinction of biomass are caused due to geological, astronomical, and climatic changes that are imposed due to several actions undertaken by humans. Human beings often intentionally or unknowingly get involved into certain actions that give rise to hazardous situation for earth and paves way for mass extinctions. Reviewing the different lifestyle of earth, it is evident that an interrelated ecosystem is prevalent and every species depends on others to lead their lifestyle and enhance the life expectancy and lead a proper lifestyle. Climate, atmosphere, land, agriculture are also highly dependent on the different operations of living organisms and can lead to certain amount of adversity as well as vulnerability due to actions that are taken by the same (Holsinger, 2013).
Various researches conducted in the field of mass extinctions that was prominent in the history of the earth reflect on reckless mass extinction of

UNIX SHELLS

UNIX Shells Introduction Unveiled in 1960s, UNIX is a requisite operating system whose enhancements since then up to date present users with heightened enjoyment as well as flexibility while using a computer (Ramesh, 2010). This is especially undertaking varied tasks that entail numerous commands whereby without its speed their execution would not have been possible in the current state of technological knowhow. To execute these tasks, it normally utilizes shells whose role encompasses acting as an interface amid the user and kernel whereby after login by the user the program scrutinizes the availed information to align appropriately (Ramesh, 2010). Hence, interpreting login commands that will result to the anticipated result. Undeniably, UNIX serves a critical role in the current technological knowhow though to date it has undergone varied and essential developments that give it an advantage over, which this study seeks to highlight.
What I like about it and its history
Compared to other operating systems as well as varied computer technological enhancements, what I like regarding UNIX is its speed (Liu, Yue &amp. Guo, 2011). However, historically this has been improving since its inception in 1960s up to date to the extent of being able to numerous daemons that known to operate manually or slowly in UNIX’s absence (Liu, Yue &amp. Guo, 2011). This is quite advantageous especially currently, whereby almost each venture has almost completely embraced technology in order to evade commercial opposition from competitors. Additionally, it possesses the capability of aiding multiple segments that necessitate usage of varied network cards by the firewall (Liu, Yue &amp. Guo, 2011). Mostly, this is at least 32, which is contrary to the practical Netware’s support that has a limit of 16 and windows strictly limited to four (Parker &amp. Morley, 2014). Another aspect that I like about this system encompasses its compatibility whereby poses a capability of supporting word processors including WordPerfect as well as StarOffice (Liu, Yue &amp. Guo, 2011).
How I can customize it
In customizing this system, it entails adequate knowledge coupled how to navigate with ease to ensure the intended adjustments work as necessitated (Robbins, Hannah, Lamb &amp. Lamb, 2008). However, there are varied ways of customizing this system whereby on my side I would encompass setting the right margin such that it will be prompting to wrap sentences automatically (Robbins, Hannah, Lamb &amp. Lamb, 2008). This is without one or user having to execute that command with the aid of a ENTER key thus saving on time (Robbins, Hannah, Lamb &amp. Lamb, 2008).
Benefits of using it
These include
Usage of these systems does not entail both integration and involvement of numerous resources, which is unlikely to the former as well as other competing ones. Hence, cost-effective for it does not pose challenges of either slowdown or other functionality predicaments.
It is capable of stringing or integrating numerous commands at ago, hence manage to accomplish extremely intricate tasks that would have taken competing systems involvement of other extra resources.
It has heightened stability and flexibility, which is an extremely helpful trait to global ventures that seek for effectiveness in powering respective web as well as mail services or products.
It characterizes numerous devices due to its compatibility (UNIX, 2009).
References
(2009). Remote users connect to UNIX with reflection x advantage 2.0. (cover story). UNIX Update, 20(6), 1-3.
Liu, Y., Yue, Y., &amp. Guo, L. (2011). UNIX operating system: The development tutorial via UNIX kernel services. Beijing: Higher Education Press.
Parker, C. &amp. Morley, D. (2014). Understanding Computers: Today and Tomorrow, Comprehensive. Boston, Massachusetts: Cengage Learning.
Ramesh, S. V. (2010). Principles of operating systems. New Dilhi: University Science Press.
Robbins, A., Hannah, E., Lamb, L., &amp. Lamb, L. (2008). Learning the vi and Vim editors. Sebastopol, CA: OReilly Media.

CPS Conservatorship Worker

Personal Statement
I suppose that one of the greatest challenges associated with working as a CPS Conservatorship Worker would be adjusting to the efficient schedule since it is a new environment. However, to deal with this, I will engage the services of a colleague who would smoothen the scheduling process. The job is appealing to me as it is congruent with my professional and moral values. Working as a CPS Conservatorship Worker would entail being part of Texas DFPS where I get to influence the life of the children positively by ensuring that they live in favorable environments. The ability to change the society and protect the rights of the children is essential and fits adequately with my moral and professional requirements.
My Bachelor Degree of Social Science in Criminology has prepared me to deal analytically with complex issues and to approach various problems in different methods. My studies equipped me with excellent investigative skills and communication skills due to numerous group works and class participation. My previous employment as an Office Assistant prepared me professionally on how to deal with demanding schedules while maintaining healthy working relationships. Additionally, I worked as a teller where my computer skills were improved significantly.
I will increase efficiency through dedicating resources to the intended course of the agency. My investigative skills will enable me close numerous cases at the stipulated time while my interpersonal skills will be aimed at developing more intimate employee relationships so that we can work on a common agenda. I also seek to develop a successful career with DFPS while achieving excellent children care and changing the society by ensuring that children are socialized in favorable environments.

Sam 322 unit 3

Sam 322 Unit 3 Sam 322 Unit 3 The emergence of sub-disciplines served as a catalyst for the growth of physical education, exercise science, and modern sporting. The growth of the fitness campaign and participation in physical activity is one of these sub-disciplines. The move from performance to health-oriented fitness to highlight reasonable-intensity bodily activity is another recent sub-discipline. The recognition of physical dormancy caused by sedentary lifestyles as a chief health issue is a third sub-discipline that fostered the growth of exercise science and physical education (Wuest and Fisette, 2012). Illness prevention and health encouragement campaigns are another recent event that catalyzed the growth of modern sporting. Examples of these campaigns are Healthy People, Objectives for the Nation, Healthy People 2010, and the annual Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health (Wuest and Fisette, 2012).
A third recent event is the enactment of laws that encourage opportunities for both genders and disabled individuals to participate in sports and exercise science. Federal laws such as the PL 93-122 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act and PL 101-336 Americans with Disabilities Act have fostered the expansion of physical education and sports today by altering the administration of inter-college sporting competitions and challenging Title IX. Since the approval of this title, active modifications in physical education lessons have been quick and efficient (Wuest and Fisette, 2012). Lastly, the revival and commercialization of the Olympics are recent events that significantly contributed to the growth of physical education. Since its revival in 1896, the Olympics have been highly politicized and commercialized to include contemporary and conventional sporting activities. Recently, the characteristics of amateur sports have evolved in the Olympics along with quick and efficient solutions for fairness issues (Wuest and Fisette, 2012).
References
Wuest, D. A., &amp. Fisette, J. L. (2012). Foundations of physical education, exercise science, and sport (17th Ed). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Why People Make Errors When They Engage in Deductive Reasoning

Making mistakes in a workplace is quite natural for a fresher as such an individual is not properly efficient in using his rational according to the responsibility that has been assigned to them. However, on several occasion it has also been observed that quite common mistakes, such as interpretation of data, viewing numerical figures, or pushing the wrong button with the perception that they actually are doing the right things, have led to huge disasters, often putting reputation and lives of people working in the organization at the state of jeopardy. Even in daily life also recurrence of such incidents can be observed, and one of the most common examples can be cited in the common tendency of people to forget of collecting their credit or debit cards from cash machines. Reflecting over frequency of occurrence of such incidents and the trouble that customers were facing, the baking organization decided to alter the early models of cash machines and the new system was implemented that ensures delivery of cards prior to delivery of money (Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, June 2001, p. 4). Such forgetful response, in terms of psychological explanation, has been observed as “natural enough … as the main objective of the action had been achieved: obtaining money. The task was thus mentally marked as being complete before all necessary states of the transaction had been carried out” (Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, June 2001, p. 4).

Psychologists are of opinion that commission of such errors occurs mostly during deductive reasoning. Roughly the process of deductive reasoning can be defined as the “reasoning process in which one goes from general to the specific” (Huber, and Snider, p. 40). However, this definition does not cover the entire scope of deductive reasoning as this process also includes a “disjunctive” and “hypothetical” reasoning process. Irrespective of such failure, such definition can be regarded as the essence behind the idea of deductive reasoning (Huber, and Snider, 2006, p. 40).&nbsp.

Research Methods Overview

Paramount to understanding the three approaches to research it is important to understand that the real divide is centered on the way in which each paradigm and its advocates view the world in terms of different “ontological, epistemological and axiological assumptions” (Onwuegbuzie &amp. Leech, 2005, p.268). Quantitative research is founded on positivism wherein science prevails and belief is on there is only one singular reality or truth (Cresswell, 1998. Sale, Lohfeld &amp. Brazil, 2002) that can be assessed with validity and reliability. whereas qualitative research is founded on constructivism and interpretivism (Sale et al, 2002) wherein behavior prevails and belief is on multiple realities or truths that are formed by societies, are dynamic (Sale et al, 2002) and thus assessment is open to interpretation.

Epistemological differences are to do with the relationship between the researcher and the researched or study objectives (Onwuegbuzie &amp. Leech, 2005). positivists believe the two are separate and objective and that the researcher is capable of undertaking a study without affecting or manipulating the results. whereas interpretivists and constructivists take the opposite view that both are dependent on each other and so findings or results are founded from the perspective of both the researcher and the researched (Sale et al, 2002).

Axiological assumptions are to do with research values and while positivists purport that because epistemologically the researcher is independent of the study the research is value-free. interpretivism and constructivists, however, believe that because the researcher is not isolated from the study their values significantly impact on the research (Sale et al, 2002).

Apart from distinguishing one research approach from another by the underlying paradigm, philosophical or world outlooks they can also be differentiated and thus defined by the logic and the kind of investigation and data used, together with the way data is analyzed and explained (Bazeley, 2004).

Importance of High School Diploma or College Degree to Be Successful

However, basic values that are equally praised around the world are probably very similar: health, happiness, spiritual harmony, and money through their positions in the list of desirable things will vary. Most respondents cannot say that money is extremely important for achieving success but still imagining happy life without them is useless. I guess the concept of success must also change with age for most people on the Earth: sexual attractiveness means everything in twenty and is worth nothing compared to the wellbeing of the family in fifty. So we have cleared up what success means basically, and in this paper, I am going to examine whether success can be related to a high school or college diploma or not and to what extent.
A high school diploma can probably be regarded as a compulsory qualification for any person though such view on this document is very narrow and it can be shocking that a lot of children in the world do not have the opportunity to receive one. Nevertheless, a high school diploma is mostly perceived as a pass to adulthood: only after reaching this goal society usually accepts a person as capable of taking decisions and responsibility for these decisions. A high school diploma signifies that a young man or a young woman is ready to leave his parents` home, have relationships, and start working (Farrington 2014). Thus, a high school diploma is literally a symbol of transition from childhood to adulthood in most countries of the world though for some African countries this qualification can be substituted with savage rituals.
For those who choose whether there is a need for a high school diploma or not the following benefits can serve as decisive arguments: basic social and learning skills, better career opportunities, the possibility of higher education, and financial benefit as a result (Thompson 2012).
It is obvious that we acquire basic reading, writing, and calculating skills in school.&nbsp. But what is more important is that the school trains pupils on how to be attentive, how to deal with various people, and how to manage personal time.&nbsp. These skills seem secondary but they are as important as basic science skills.&nbsp.&nbsp.

The Importance of Breakfast to Childrens Physical and Cognitive Development

Currently, an apparent, definitive empirical conclusion obtained from inclusive recurrent clinical examination and field researches may not have been attained. However, the research agreement among specialists in the discipline and those accountable for education is that the importance of breakfast in the physical and cognitive capacity of children cannot be taken for granted or undervalued. Moreover, the usefulness of thoroughly gathered observations of teachers and parents alike, perceived as qualitative science, is at present being acknowledged (Kopelman, 2001).
The practice of missing breakfast has turned out to be widespread among children and adolescents alike. Experimental studies have discovered that breakfast is a vital meal since it is favorable to physical growth, cognitive development, and weight.
Childhood is a very important period that demands proper and adequate nutrition. Breakfast is believed by many to be the most essential meal of the day. it gives individuals energy to accomplish and fulfill their daily tasks and responsibilities. As an individual sleeps the body transforms from the sated to the fasted state which makes the serum glucagon absorptions to increase. Consequently, the liver generates glucose by converting glycogen to glucose. This takes place until a small portion of the glycogen reserves is used up. When food is taken in fuel homeostasis is sustained. Breakfast as well gives sufficient nutrient&nbsp.ingestion which facilitates the growth and development requirements of children. For instance, the daily ingestion of a nutrient such as protein is higher for those who regularly eat breakfast. Protein is particularly important for very young individuals as it is the phase when the body and brain necessitate protein accumulation (Mitchell, 2001). &nbsp.

Why Professionalism in Radiology Department Is Mandate

This research article assumes that Medical Radiation Science practitioners suffer from low self-esteem because of the fact that Medical Radiation Science is not recognized to be as much a profession as medicine and law are. According to the article, Medical Radiation Science is an emerging profession that has yet to be recognized. The article goes on to define the meaning of the words profession and professionalization. A profession is considered to meet five criteria which include: “a possession of specialized knowledge which can be acquired only thorough higher education, representation via a professional organization, a distinctive code of professional conduct, autonomy, and altruism”1. According to the article, since Medical Radiation Science meets three requirements that exclude autonomy and altruism, by definition, Medical Radiation Science should be considered a profession. The attitudes of Medical Radiation Science practitioners have been discussed in the article, along with the effect that workplace culture has on the Medical Radiation Science practitioners. This paper critiques the research that was conducted by Sim and Alex with the aim of proving that research is a professional mandate.

The title of the article, ‘Profession and professionalization in medical radiation science as an emergent profession,’ has failed to clearly define what the article is about. The title includes the study population and what major outcome is being measured. It is clear from the title that the study population is Medical Radiation Science practitioners. The major outcome being measured is the emergent profession and professionalization of Medical Radiation Science. It is, however, unclear what methodology will be used to measure observations made from the study.

The aim of the article is to examine the challenges that Medical Radiation Science practitioners face as they struggle to be recognized as professionals.

The Role of Economics

According to Schumacher, economics plays a central role in determining as well as setting the criteria that is used to determine what is economic or not. There are many factors that are involved when one talks about the economy of a given region. Therefore, economists will be in place to determine how the factors can be brought together to ensure that there is maximum production or the returns that are realized are at the peak. An economist will therefore be given the role of deciding whether a given idea or investment is economic or uneconomic. This is done by weighing the inputs that need to be put and the returns that are to be realized after the idea has been actualized.
Schumacher (1973) notes that when an economist makes the verdict above the questions that arise are on the criteria that was used to make the final verdict. This should therefore be explainable by the economist to a layman or another individual who does not have a sound understanding of the subject. On top of that people are interested in understanding how the verdict means. Can one continue with the investment or should they halt it at the grounds? Are there any options that can be adopted and make the idea work? All these need to be addressed by the economist. Schumacher goes back in history to bring the concept of professorship which was founded for political economy at Oxford about 190 years ago. He cites Edward Copleston who was among the people unhappy about the introduction of a science into the curriculum .

Section 2 Challenge Questions

Paper Flying cars seems to be a possibility in the immediate future. This is because flying cars testify the kind of progress that has been made over the years and the type of growth the automobile industry has shown. It would only be a matter of time before cars started to fly since they are already equipped with high tech modules within their domains. The kind of complexity that is so easily boxed within these cars suggests that much success will come about with the passage of time and flying cars would not be a dream anymore. The society will soon see flying cars coming into action since science is constantly on the move and is making giant strides in the forward direction. There has been much progress witnessed in the last 100 years that one can safely suggest the graph getting even better in the times to come. The commonality for these flying colors does not seem to be a much distant proposition as one can expect immense success to be achieved within these ranks in the future. The need of the hour is to understand that science shall be able to make inroads within attaining new developments which are much needed and which will stand the test of the time since the requirement for these flying cars has been made by the people at large (Peeters 2010).
Works Cited
Peeters, Paul. Tourism transport, technology, and carbon dioxide emissions. Bridging Tourism Theory and Practice, 3, 2010

Describe to me the basic differences between Scientific Method and Scientific Process

Differences between Scientific Method and Scientific Process Differences between Scientific Method and Scientific Process Introduction
According to Kosso, (2011) scientific method entails a continuous set of processes that generally begins with certain observations in our natural surroundings by scientists. Questions on how our surroundings appear, then lead to ideas and opinions as to why certain things appear the way they do. On the other hand, scientific process concentrates on the actual events or processes of coming up with a reliable model of happenings in the real world. It entails scientists coming up with a model that is accurate on the happenings of particular events in the world, by continuously working on a particular goal over a period of time.
Scientific method
This is basically the process through which science actually takes place. It takes place in a series of steps which involve making hypotheses, deriving predictions and performing experiments in line with those predictions to determine whether the initial hypotheses were indeed correct.
The steps include: Formulation of a question, coming up with a hypothesis, prediction, testing and analysis. These steps are also referred to as scientific processes.
Scientific process
This basically entails the steps that are taken in performing a scientific method. The scientific process is contained in the scientific method. Science is in itself the study of processes through scientific methods. The scientific process has inputs and desired outcomes which in tern influence the Scientific methods
Conclusion
It is clear from the discussion above that there are certain basic differences between scientific method and scientific process. What is clear, however, is that the two are so much dependent on each other. The scientific method investigates what is known based on measurable evidence while scientific process is all the steps that the scientific method applies in achieving its outcomes.
Reference
Kosso, P. (2011).&nbsp.A summary of scientific method. Dordrecht: Springer.

A Spiritual Dimension of a Game

That is the reason they are called artists. The question is, is the feeling of ultimate bliss and ecstasy possible for a modern man who has to face competition at every turn in his life? Can a man participate in the competitions, which puts a lot of pressure on him and still experience the high? The answer is, yes. Recent history is witness to the fact that feelings of spirituality and ecstasy are not limited to people from the field of arts and science. It is also experienced through a phenomenon called a sport, in which one has to follow rules, compete with others and has time restrictions for the task. However, when the athlete is able to go beyond the dimensions of time and space when he gets involved in the game so much that he completely forgets himself, he experiences an ecstatic feeling called as ‘zone’ and playing in the ‘zone’ is nothing less than an experience of ultimate bliss.
Many psychologists have studied the experience of being in the zone. They have interviewed players who have felt it and have tried to understand what leads to the experience. In their book ‘Flow in Sports’, Jackson and Csíkszentmihályi has said that “to feel completely at one with what you are doing, to know you are strong and able to control your destiny at least for the moment, and gain a sense of pleasure independent of results is to experience flow” (Jackson and Csíkszentmihályi vi). So what we understand is that the athlete experiences the flow or the ‘zone’ when he becomes.

Try to apply keneth waltz’s three images to the orgins of the cold war and analyize which image considerations were more important in the development of the cold war

Political Science Kenneth Waltz contributions to the origins of war are engraved in 3 theories that he refers to as “images” in his famous book Man, the State, and War. The first image focuses on the human nature as the cause of war. In the analysis of the first image, Waltz asserts that the nature of certain political leaders or statesmen influence the start of war (Suganami 380). This was characteristic of classical realism. The human nature encompassed the desire to seek power as a prime goal. This power drive, consequently led to frictions between countries. It was characteristic of individuals like Napoleon Bonaparte to proceed with this power drive during their eras. In the second image, Waltz posits that wars are mainly caused by the domestic ambitions of the states (Waltz 45). He employed the Lenin theory of imperialism to explain that capitalists are driven by their ambitions to create new frontiers in other places to increase their domestic economic power. Separates states structures influence war. This is why Waltz argued that multipolar systems had a higher likelihood of war conflicts that bipolar systems. The third image, one that he put great emphasis, is a fine tuning of the structural realism that he had devised (Waltz 56). The anarchic structure of the international system is a huge influence of the international relations. The structure of the international power is dependent on frequency and size of power fluctuations, offense-defense balance, size of first-move advantages and the amount of resources.
Arguably, the cold war was about the balance of power. Kenneth Waltz third image shows more concern to the dynamics of the anarchic nature of the international system (Suganami 384). The standoff between the United States of American and the Soviet Union during the cold war depicts a scenario where the two major powers were exhibiting interests in third parties. On this note, Waltz argues that bipolarity stands to lessen a conflict such as that of the cold war because the countries would go back to relying on their resources instead of competing for those of the third parties to try and bring a balance of power. This third image shows an in-depth focus on the bigger perspective of the cause of war by showcasing the underlying causes rather than only highlighting the superficial causes such as the human nature in the first image and the domestic influence of the second image. This implies that the third image is more refined to show how the players of the cold war envisioned the manner to influence the balance of power from their influence of the third parties and resources.
The cold war was less of a human nature event. This implies that the first image does not play part in the onset and development of the cold war. However, the second image has a slight bearing. It is arguable that the domestic ambitions cause the administration of a state to pursue stronger power and dominance. This translates to full blown ambitions in practices as seen in the cold war standoff. The major powers show interest in third parties in a bid to amass more power (Joseph and Wight 17). Kenneth Waltz was correct to put forward the three analysis as each played a part in the history of wars at a unique point. However, the third image of refined structural realism is more on point in relation to the cold war. The serious competition for power and security in the cold war is a typical case of a state trying to prioritize security for survival and dominance. According to Waltz, neorealism is a significant player in the behavior of modern powerful where they strive to balance each other.
Works Cited
Joseph, Jonathan, and Colin Wight.&nbsp.Scientific Realism and International Relations. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan,&nbsp.2010. Print.
Suganami, H. "Understanding Man, the State, and War."&nbsp.International Relations23.3&nbsp.(2009): 372-388. Print.
Waltz, Kenneth N.&nbsp.Man, the State, and War: A Theoretical Analysis. New York: Columbia UP,&nbsp.1999. Print.

Public Opinion and the Global Culture

Another definition, by Angell (1991, in Beerkens, 2006), stresses the social dynamic: “The world economy has become so highly interdependent as to make national independence an anachronism, especially in financial markets. The interdependence is driven by science, technology and economics – the forces of modernity. and these forces, not governments, determined international relations. Thanks to this interdependence, war between nations is an impossibility.” Beck (2000, p. 86), on the other hand, emphasizes the political implications: “Globalization – however the word is understood – implied the weakening of state sovereignty and state structures.” Millberg (1998) focuses on the economic: “Globalization is dominated by transnational firms and financial institutions, operating independently of national boundaries or domestic economic situations.” And most perceptively, by Cerny (1999), on the state promoting globalization: “However, this does not mean that, once the genie is out of the bottle, globalization is reversible.”
Taking the layman’s common understanding of the term, the globalization process has been celebrated worldwide as the inevitable key to international economic progress. Less publicized are its negative repercussions, both economically and culturally, upon populations adversely affected by the movement of goods and capital from wealthy countries to those less wealthy, and movement of groups of people from the poorer, crowded nations to those rich importers of manpower and expertise. Landis (2008) notes that the large influx of people of divergent cultures and backgrounds cause crowding into urban centers, creating social tensions and sometimes open inter-ethnic conflict between host populations and the new entrants.
Globalization disrupts local communities and livelihoods. Bathelt and Kappes (2008) examined the merged chemicals firm Aventis, from the German Hoechst and the French

N R A (second draft)

The organization further aims at popularizing shooting sports, enhancing safety training, and, as its leadership states, defend the US constitution, largely by defending the right of Americans to own guns (National Rifle Association, par. 1). Some of the political reasons why the NRA retains its stranglehold over the proponents for tougher gun legislation are described below.
This term is widely used in economics and political science to imply lack of collective efforts by proponents of an agenda to push their scheme to required success. According to De Mesquita and Ludwig (par 3), the proponents of tougher legislation on gun control are more in number than the opponents. The opponents are mainly NRA members, most with licensed guns and willing to retain them. However, the proponents do not have as much will to fight collectively for gun control, since they have relatively lesser to lose even when guns are available to people with questionable backgrounds (Harcourt 15).
The public does not have a common opinion over whether the NRA plays an extremely assertive role in protecting gun owners, even when the many defeats to alternative legislation have formed a lens through which opinion makers have been trying to portray the association. According to a Pew Poll conducted in May 2013, the percentage of respondents who believed the NRA was either applying the correct amount or too little pressure comprised 53% of the sample.
The problem is sustaining the interests of the larger less concerned population so that their feelings do not wane over time. The NRA appears to have learnt this trend, and it has been using it successfully in its favor. Drake (par 5) and The Center for Public Integrity (par 3) also alluded to the fact that the majority, noisier population without guns has been particularly reluctant to sustain interest in fighting gun violence. This section

Indigenous Studies 301 #2

INDIGENOUS STUDIES Native science perspective Native science perspective is a clear view brought about by thedoctrines of science, in the sense that it covers the natural traits of the environment, coordination, optimization, self-control, dynamism, innovation, oneness and ventures. There are a number of factors native science operate and based on. They include advantages, the training, the conceptual framework and incorporated incompleteness of life and humans, primary perception and beginning of action. From the science view, every person has a responsibility to acquire knowledge (to learn). This will not be acquired out of anywhere. One needs to apply through listening skills, observation and first hand experiencing events- taking action. The learning system has its composition that includes learning directly, meditating, and rethinking. Facilitating is a major responsibility of teachers. There is another group of people that contribute by offering guidance and enhancing learning. These are the elders (Osburn-Bigfeather et al, 2004).
Exploration of a person’s mind is the onset of practicing native science. There has to be a close connection of the mind and the heart as this facilitates effective learning. Native science perspective tries to explain the complex connection that exists between humans and the surrounding. This must be a healthy relationship in the sense that both have to tolerate each other with the aim of having a good future. The science perspective intends to show the importance of seeking knowledge appropriately so that diversity and humans never collide. The community has a role to play in educating the people on ways to live with harmony and spirituality. This is done through community-based learning whereby the societys beliefs and practices are the strongholds in learning. Thus, individuals are empowered giving the best reasoning they can offer.
Education as the basis for the transmission of culture
Through education, people intend to learn more about their culture and of others. However, there is the point whereby culture is ruined through the introduction of modern language. People need to practice their indigenous culture to learn it. By communicating through the native language, the community can understand the essence and importance of their culture. There has to be the presence of consistent terms and legislation at the time when the beliefs and practices of aboriginal ideas in classes. Understanding ones culture requires one to live it. This means that this will bring a clear understanding of people’s current, previous, and future situations. This means that education is a process that needs to be undertaken step by step (Spindler, 1997).
Education becomes the basis of culture transmission through the process of communication. Covering peoples’ encounters is of important to culture survival and people’s political integrity. Tribal knowledge legacy is well delivered through the languages since they are a basic and strong form of understanding. The elders pass this education to the community. Through interaction, people are taught of the several ways in which they have to keep their culture intact. However, studying a culture has its challenges since there may be a lack of sufficient learning materials. This means that it becomes hard to learn the practices and beliefs. Sharing of languages and ideas are part of learning a culture since it gives a green light to the rest of the globe what a particular culture entails.
References
Spindler, G. (1997).&nbsp.Education and cultural process: Anthropological approaches. Prospect Heights, Ill: Waveland Press.
Osburn-Bigfeather, J., Green, R., Cajete, G., Lippard, L. R., &amp. Artrain USA. (2004).Native views: Influences of modern culture. Ann Arbor, MI: Artrain USA.

Unemployment in the United States

Unemployment in the United s Unemployment in the United s has been rising and this is mainly due economic stagnation and the rapid growth in population. Unemployment is a global issue that affects even the developed nations. The rapid rise in population that outstrips the available resources has been blamed for the unemployment issue in the United States. The government is trying to curb the unemployment through expansion of the economy and creation of more jobs. The problem of unemployment seems to intensify mainly due to the rise in population particularly in urban areas. The expansion of businesses and the direct investment by the government in the entrepreneurship programs tends to do little to eradicate the issue of unemployment. Unemployment tends to magnify during the times of recession or depression characterized by a shrink in the economy.
Unemployment remains a tough issue affecting the United States, particularly among the young people. There is a large number of learned people in the United States but they hardly secure a job due to the scarcity of employment opportunities. According to the BLS household survey (2015), “the US unemployment rate rose by 0.2 percentage points in June 2015 to 5.3%. Unemployment has remained relatively high since 2009 and this is causing a huge setback to economic growth in the country. Companies have been adopting technology thus doing away with the relatively costly human labor. The rise of technology like completers has replaced human labor thus laying off the workers (Harvey 15). The issue of unemployment will continue to inflict the United States’ economy due to the uncontrolled adoption of technology. Technology benefits the business owners as they can incur little operational costs by the use of machines compared to the costly human labor. The rise in technology, particularly companies and offices is, therefore, a major issue that is contributing to the rise in unemployment in the United States.
The government also faces the challenge of maintaining stability and securing the citizens from terror attacks. The problem leads to a diverted attention that makes the government spend a lot of money on security that could be used to expand businesses and solve the unemployment issue. The high number of unemployed youths poses a threat to stability and economic progress (Rupasingha &amp. Stephan 155). The issue of unemployment is directly related to the problem of dependency particularly to the unemployed. The unemployed rely on the working class to sustain their needs thus leading to a social burden.
Possible remedies
To solve the issue of unemployment in the United States, the government has to collaborate with private investors in creating employment opportunities. The government ought to take the lead in creating a favorable business environment as a way of attracting investors. The young people should also look also focus on becoming entrepreneurs other than relying on the limited white collar jobs. A diversified economy will accommodate innovative ideas that will create more employment opportunities thus minimizing the impacts of unemployment. The graduates and other professionals should also seek employment in other countries by taking advantage of the today’s globalized world of business (Harvey 14). The move will reduce the current issue of unemployment in the United States. The government should also focus on lowering the tax rates particularly on businesses thus enabling investment and creation of employment opportunities.
In conclusion, unemployment is a global issue that affects the United States just like other developed nations. The adoption of technology in companies and offices has replaced human labor thus leading to unemployment in the country. The rate of investment and expansion of businesses is little compared to the rapidly rising population. Also, the government tends to face other challenges in security and terror threat thereby spending more on security than on business expansion. The government can solve the issue of unemployment by diversifying the economy and encouraging local and foreign investment.
Work Cited
Harvey, Philip. Securing the Right to Employment: Social Welfare Policy and the Unemployed in the United States. Princeton University Press, 2014, p 12-16.
Rupasingha, Anil, and Stephan J. Goetz. "Self‐employment and local economic performance: Evidence from US counties*." Papers in Regional Science 92.1 (2013): 141-161.

Empirical Evidence in Different Areas of Knowledge

Empirical evidence is a term that is coined from the word empiricism- which is the core of science practice (Argote, 1999, p. 39). On its part, science can be regarded as empirical in the sense that it directly relies on observation and/or experience for it to explain or describe phenomena. This implies that an empirical or a scientific approach must be based on explanations that can directly be observed repeatedly, are replicable, and must also be inductive. In this respect, therefore, empirical evidence is any detail that originates from or is based on experience or on observation. This is what we commonly refer to as empirical data. On the same note, any information that relies on observation or experience alone, and often do not give due regard to theory or for the system, is regarded as the empirical basis for which a particular theory rests. On the other hand, empirical laws are those that are verifiable or are capable of being, by experiment or observation, be disproved (Argote, 1999, p. 41).

From the above principle definitions of the components of empirical evidence, we can now categorically define empirical evidence as evidence gathered from observations. This can be both through direct natural observation or experimental observation. On its part, the naturalistic observation is characterized by detailed phenomenon observation within the natural setting it is in, and as at the time of the observation. Experimental observation involves the manipulation of an independent variable so that its effects can be observed against another variable that is dependent. In comparison and contrast, it is much more reliable to go by experimental evidence because naturalistic observations are usually more vulnerable to bias by the researcher.

As a theory of knowledge, empirical evidence is eminently a fancy way through which different categories of ‘truth’ were enumerated by philosophers like Kant, Descartes, and Aristotle in advancing or progressing different knowledge areas.

History and Business of Amazon

Amazon.com was founded by Jeff Bezos who initially started the company in his garage after leaving a well-paid job in the New York City at hedge fund firm. Jeff Bezos was not a born entrepreneur, he graduated from Princeton University and began to work in the field of computer science on Wall Street moving on to become the vice president at Bankers Trust (Byers).
Due to his interest in the rapid use and growth of Internet technology, he devised the idea of Amazon.com. Thanks to the idea generated by Jeff Bezos, he quickly gained the identity of being the prominent entrepreneur who devised the dot-com idea and made him a billionaire soon. It started off as the bookstore initially and has now transformed into the largest online retailer of the world as well. It has expanded its operations in a variety of ways and offers millions of online books, movies, songs, merchandise and just about anything. It can be safely concluded that Amazon has converted into an ‘everything store’ where merchandise of every kind is traded online. Shoppers are offered convenience that has the facility of shopping for almost anything online and can easily download books, games, and films to even their portable devices such as tablets or smartphones. Other products such as self-publishing and online advertising are also offered on Amazon.com.
Therefore, the customers’ Amazon Inc serves have been stated in the mission statement itself, which are consumer customers, seller customers, and the developer customers. Therefore, Amazon Inc is a platform which does not only let the customers download and buy the merchandise but at the same time gives them a platform to sell their merchandise online as well to the interested customers.

Latin and Greek Classical Languages

Greek and Latin are often associated and both are academically classified as classical languages, with Greek evolving as the language of intellectual choice. &nbsp.The supposition that the latter derived largely from the former is a prevalent point of view and seems to have a basis in fact if one takes Diringer’s extensive analysis to heart as presented by J.B.Calvert in The Latin Alphabet, an extract of which appears below.

The Latin alphabet of 23 letters was derived in the 600s BC from the Etruscan alphabet of 26 letters, which was in turn derived from the archaic Greek alphabet, which came from the Phoenician. The digamma, which represented a w sound in Greek was adopted for the different Latin sound f that did not occur in Greek. The gamma was written C in Etruscan and represented both the hard g and k sounds in Latin, which was confusing. All of this reinforces the notion of Greek as the root language. Some of the old letters dropped from the Greek alphabet were also retained as numbers in the Latin. The same thing happened in Latin with a few of the Etruscan letters that did not correspond to Latin sounds. The number symbols evolved into the normal letters C, L, M and D in the course of time, though the symbol for 1000 was adapted for expressing larger powers of 10 by adding more forward and backward Cs. It is said that the L came from the Etruscan chi, but it could just as well have been half of the C symbol, as the D comes from half of the M. All these number symbols represented abacus counter columns, together with the I, V and X, so that I, C and M need be repeated no more than four times, V, L, and D no more than twice, in specifying a number. The representation of large numbers and of fractions in Roman numerals or Greek numerals are a complicated subject. Roman numerals were used for business, Greek numerals for science. The latter indicates that the use of Greek by academics in classical studies over Latin may reinforce the notion that the former is considered a more academic language and the latter a more practical linguistic choice over history.&nbsp.

The Evolution of Early Egyptian Civilization

Egypt Civilization
In writing the documentary, Wenke referenced the Egyptian civilization because Egypt is one among the few states in the world with cultural themes that are crucial to the study and understanding of history and cultures. This is evidenced by the fact that the theory of history in Egypt ranges from metaphysical, psychological to materialistic. These materials are the essential elements for the study of evolutionary change. It is also evident that Egypt provides detailed information about the transformations that take place in society. For instance, there is data that expounds on the cultural integration, as well as the evolution of Egyptian as from 4000 to 2000 B.C. The complexity of culture in Egypt also makes it a good country for the study of origins of the early culture complexity. This is in tandem with the fact that culture evolution is well defined in Egypt (Wenke 284). In addition to providing facts about independent evolution, effect of culture influence is well defined by what took place in Egypt. In writing the documentary, Wenke sort to understand how the culture Egypt as a state was influenced, and as tabulated in the stored data, Egypt was influenced by Asian Western cultures during the period of its formation. Some cultures are also claimed to have been derived from the Egyptian culture. For instance, the Classical Greek culture and black African cultures are claimed to have evolved from the Egyptian culture.
Wenke is an archeologist who is interested in artifacts. It is through his interests in artifacts that he referenced Egypt in his documentary. This is evidenced by the fact that Egypt has diverse Old Kingdom pyramid constructions that enhance the study of archeological science. The data about settlement in Egypt also provides information about the position of building settlements as well as the reasons for their rise between Fifth and Sixth Dynasties. The variation in mode of settlement in Egypt also explains why Upper and Lower Egypt vary in terms of civilization. In addition, Egypt enables one to understand how availability of resources led to the emergence of social institutions. For instance, the agricultural activities enhanced by availability of fertile land as well as competition over a small fertile land resulted in crop of state organizations in Egypt (Wenke 315). Additionally, Wenke referenced Egypt in his documentary in order to express how not only socio-economic activities enhance unity, but also used as means of artistic expression. Similarity in the products of socio-economic activities in 3000 B.C portrayed the unity of great communities in Egypt. the Delta pottery was similar to Nile Valley’s pottery.
In writing the documentary, Wenke aimed at expounding on how political powers shifted in the past. In connection with, changes in political powers are well defined in Egypt. Egypt has monumental architecture as well as mortuary cults that explain the shift of power in the past. The tombs at North Saqqara portrayed the lavish wealth of some portions of Lower Egyptian society while on the contrary Abydos was the tomb for the First Dynasty rulers. Variation in mortuary cults also showed socio-economic hierarchies. The complexity in the institution administration in Egypt was also well evidenced by the difference in the products, as well as methods of manufacture, . the pottery products in Upper Egypt varied significantly from those in Lower Egypt. Wenke also referenced Egypt in his documentary so as to expound on economic and political transformations. The economic activities were well practiced in Old Kingdom age compared to the Pyramid age. The rate of taxation was also very high and efficient in the Old Kingdom age. Unlike the Pyramid Age, Old Kingdom was associated with the reorganization of administrative institutions (Wenke 316).
Work Cited
Wenke, Robert. The Evolution of Early Egyptian Civilization: Issues and Evidence. Journal of World Prehistory, Vol. 5, No. 3 (September 1991), pp. 279-329.