Policing Policies Zero Tolerance Policing as Opposed to Community Oriented Policing and Problem Solving

A study of the two approaches suggests that an alternative approach which combines the best features of Zero Tolerance Policing and COPPS would be most effective in crime prevention and control.Over the centuries, methods of policing have been subject to a constant process of evolution and refinement in order to meet the needs of a changing society and the corresponding changes in the character of the crime. Police forces embody the ideology of the society they protect and it is a society that dictates the methods which the police adopt. In Democratic societies, policing policies have largely moved from the rigidity of traditional policing towards policies more attuned to the eclectic societies of today. Of these, the two policies which are popularly being adopted and subjected to debate are Zero Tolerance Policing and Community Oriented Policing and Problem Solving (COPPS). Each of these has its’ inherent advantages and disadvantages. While these two policies vary markedly in their approaches, they also share a significant number of methods and goals. When Zero Tolerance Policing and COPPS are assessed, it is evident that the ideal approach to policing would be an approach that incorporates the best features of the two policies.Zero Tolerance Policing originated from the article ‘Broken Window,’ published in the Atlantic Monthly magazine in 1982 by the U.S. criminologists James Q. Wilson and George Kelling. The broken window of their title symbolized visible tolerance of petty misdemeanors, which they theorized, would incite the commission of more serious crimes. A broken window is interpreted as showing that no one is in control, and conveys the message that wrongdoers are free from retribution. Thus, petty crimes, when left unchecked, lead to major offenses. William and Kelling differentiated between the physical and behavioral manifestation of petty crime. The formerly included graffiti, litter, and general disrepair broke windows), while public drunkenness and urination, ticketless travel on public transport, prostitution, begging, drug-taking, and uncivil behavior by street gangs came under the ambit of the latter.

Why the UK joining the Euro Zone Could Be a Challenging Experience

d resources among the Euro Zone members It was the 1st of January 1999 when the Euro was officially adopted as the official currency in the participating countries of the European Union (EU), namely France, Germany, Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, Italy, Ireland, Finland, and Greece. Citing economic disadvantages, some EU countries refused to join the European Monetary Union (EMU) and have not introduced the euro in their domestic market. The United Kingdom is one of these countries.The United Kingdom’s economy is larger than any of the European Union members. Since 1992, the UK has enjoyed a growth of output and employment, combined with low inflation, superior to most European economies. (Dobson Hook 2003: p. 113) Public opinion in Britain seems to equate economic disadvantage to the country once fully integrated with the weaker European economies by abolishing the pound in favor of the new currency. In fact, a big number of people do not want to give up the Pound for the Euro because the latter is thought to be inferior. (Wargitsch 2007: p. 1) Indeed, why change a successful system?The UK economy differs from the rest of the EU in three main ways, which may mean that it would be affected more significantly than other members by changes in policy, thus the hesitations. These differences are:1. More UK borrowing is undertaken on variable interest rate terms than in most EU countries. So if the Euro area’s interest rate were to rise, this would affect UK home buyers and firms more than those in other EU countries.3. The UK is also still a major exporter of oil, so its economy is influenced more (and in a different way) by changes in the world price of oil than other EU countries that import oil. (Grant, Vidler, Ellams 2003: p. 202)Back in 1997, Tony Blair and Gordon Brown set five economic conditions for joining the Euro: 1) the UK economy needed to converge with the Euro Zone economy so that Britain could cope with Euro Zone interest rates. business and workforce had to demonstrate the ability to adjust to change. a decision needed to be made on whether joining the EMU would encourage investment in UK business. joining must not adversely affect the UK financial services industry. and the fundamental test, that would be promoted long-term., stability and employment would be promoted long-term.

Air Quality Analysis

Other indoor contaminants that have been discussed in detail are the usual ones such as gas stoves and building materials.The article also highlights the fact that modern facilities such as air conditioning and weatherproofing helps retain the contaminants indoors. In this regard, Corsi points out that Americans spend nearly 87-90% of their time indoors, making indoor air quality an important topic that needs to be researched. It has been noted that some of the common contaminants include CO, NOx, and VOC’s (volatile organic compounds). One VOC, formaldehyde has been found to be emitted from panel board and furniture. Other sources of VOC’s are computers and laser printers. Radon, a carcinogen, is also a matter of concern when it comes to good indoor air quality. This is because drinking water may be one entry point for radon to the home along with other products as a result of the chlorination of water.In this article, Corsi has pointed out that whenever the issue of air quality is discussed, importance is given usually towards outdoor air quality, whereas indoor air quality is often neglected. Likewise, when it comes to funding any study or research on air quality, it is usually out door air quality that is considered as the judging criterion, while indoor air quality is totally neglected. This article, therefore, highlights the need for extensive research and funding for studying indoor air quality as well as stresses on the need to educate the public on its importance.The authors in this article study the chemical reactions that occur around the head when colognes or perfumes are used. The study is aimed at studying the reactions of ozone with terpenes and terpenoids that are known to cause elevated particle concentration within the body of the wearer. Such increase in the levels of these substances can give the wearer respiratory symptoms or eye reactions. Linalool is one of the common terpenoids and is used in many products.

Changes to the Charities Act 2006

The public confidence objective as it suggests is designed to promote the confidence of the public for the charity. The public benefit objective is to promote the notion that there must be a public benefit for the charity to be recognized. The compliance objective is to ensure that trustees of the charity are aware of their legal obligations in the exercise of the control of the charity and administration of funds. The charitable resources objective is designed to promote effective use of charitable resources and the accountability objective makes the charities accountable to the donors.The duties of the commission are primarily to establish whether the institution can be classed as charitable and to investigate any reports of misconduct of the charity and give advice to the charity when required.Some of the above lists of recognizable charitable causes are obviously for the benefit of the public and therefore you would expect them to satisfy the public benefit test. Others are less obvious and have been further defined within the Act. In relation to the advancement of religion, the Act defines religion as including a belief in more than one god as well as no belief in a god2. For a charity to be recognized for the advancement of health this can include prevention of illness as well as relief of sickness, disease, or human suffering3.Citizenship or community development can include regeneration of areas of a community as well as promoting civic responsibility and the recruiting of volunteers to carry out work in the community to improve the general condition of the area4.If the charity is related to sport the sport involved must include physical exertion and skill5. Subsection (j) can include the provision of accommodation or care to those who are in need as described above.For recreational activities to be recognized as charitable two basic conditionsare required.

Deregulation of Electricity Markets

The regional markets for electricity generation and distribution typically resemble monopolistic markets with few suppliers. However, they have been under the variety of controls imposed by the concerned state in which they operated. These controls had more of social objectives than the commercial objectives. Such social objectives included ensuring uninterrupted power supply at the affordable price for the general consumer. Take for instance the case of California. In the state of California he three monopolistic power suppliers was regulated by the State commission.Kunnapallil(Centre) describes this scenario as follows, California’s electricity industry was vertically integrated and organized around three regulated private monopolies or investor-owned Utilities (IOUs): Pacific Gas Electric Company (PGE), Southern California Edison Company (SCE), and San Diego Gas Electric Company (SDGE).These companies owned and operated everything from generation, transmission, and distribution and catered to the electricity needs of consumers in their exclusive franchise areas. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), an independent state regulatory agency, heavily regulated the prices, costs, and service obligations of these. These three companies together supplied three-fourths of the total consumption.In the early 1990s, Californian polity came to the realization that its electricity markets were so heavily regulated that the productions process had become inefficient and the producers were passing on merrily the high cost of production to the customers.California cost of electricity was one of the highest in the US at the time. As Beder (2001) states, Before deregulation the Californian government set electricity rates and guaranteed the private utilities a set return on their investment. But it was argued that this provided no incentive for the utilities to cut costs. Prices were high compared to some other states, mainly because of cost overruns of billions of dollars on two nuclear power plants.

Global Warming Causes and Effects

Starting from the early 1980s, a number of scientists from different countries across the globe have been reporting a substantial increase in the atmosphere temperature. The most commonly cited reason for the rise is human activity, namely the Industrial Revolution which has led to exceedingly large emissions of carbon dioxide and several other gases being released into the atmosphere. Pessimistic forecasts say that by the end of the 21st century the overall increase in carbon dioxide concentration will cause the surface air temperature rise by 2°C to 5°C, while in the polar region the temperature may boost by 12°C (Jaworowski, 2004). Public and governmental concerns about the phenomenon of global warming peaked in 1997 when leaders of the industrially developed states gathered in Kyoto, Japan to sign a treaty limiting emissions of carbon dioxide.Despite seriously improved public awareness of the adversities allegedly caused by global warming, the issue still remains highly controversial both with the public and scientific community. Unfortunately, global warming is a global phenomenon closely related to climate change. The time scale for such change is measured in centuries rather than in years, while the dynamics of the climate involves a number of factors and variables and is still poorly understood. As a result, majority of Americans, though perceive the dangers of global warming, adopt a laissez-faire attitude: until we are sure that global warming is really a problem, we should not take any steps that would have economic costs (Sterman and Sweeney, 2001: 56). Such public indifference coupled with the complexity of climate change, long feedback time, and non-linear nature of climatic processes, maybe rather dangerous in the long-term perspective.Although the final answer on the causes of global warming is still to be found, two major factors are normally referred to as the causes of global warming.

How is Magazine Publishing Part of the Consumer Culture

Consumer culture or sometimes referred to as the culture of consumption or consumerism is said to be identified with Western culture and capitalism. It was Karl Marx who described consumer culture, though critically, as the tendency of people to identify strongly with products or services they consume. There are loads of criticisms thrown upon consumer culture but we quote Don Slater (1997) as he introduced his book, Consumer Culture, and Modernity, there is nothing trivial about consumer culture – through arguments that it reduces social life to trivial materialism have been common currency for several centuries. Rather, the great issue about consumer culture is the way in which it connects up central questions about how we should or want to live with questions about how society is organized – and does so at the level of everyday life: the material and symbolic structure of the places we live in and how we live in them. the food we eat and clothes we wear. the scarcities and inequities we suffer. the activities open to us in our ‘free time’. the unfree nature of much of our time… Consumer culture is largely mundane, yet that mundanity is where we live and breathe, and increasingly so as we sense that the public sphere of life has become a consumable spectacle that is ever more remote as a sphere of direct action. It is his argument that consumption is always a cultural process and that consumer culture is unique and specific.Some sociologists refer to consumer culture as a form of material culture – a study of human activity, particularly that of the person-thing relationships. Celia Lury isone of these sociologists who believe that such a mindset would differentiate consumer culture to consumption. This is helpful because it implies that the material and the cultural are always combined in specific relationships.

A Companys Annual Report

The section is very important for the company’s stakeholders such as investors, lenders, suppliers, employees, customers and the general public as it reveals the profit figure of the company.Balance Sheet shows the company’s position in terms of its assets, liabilities and equity. This section reveals information regarding the company’s liquidity position, customers and suppliers’ balances, shareholders funds etc. This section is very important for the company’s lenders, customers, suppliers, shareholders etc.These notes provide details on the facts and figures stated in the company’s financial statements. They are very important for the company’s stakeholders to analyse the financial statements more thoroughly.The Operating and Financial review statement of Scottish and Newcastle Plc reveal detailed information on the company’s operating activities in the UK and the rest of the world. It also exposes to some extent the financial structure of the company by showing the amount of the current debt and liabilities compared to the previous year. However, it doesn’t reveal much information regarding the risks and uncertainties of the company’s business.On the other hand, the SABMiller Plc’s Operating and Financial Review statements give much detailed information and illustration on company’s operating activities and result relevant to beverages, hotels and gaming in North America, Europe, Asia and Africa and comparison of activities with the previous years’ results. The company’s financial review statement provides the assessment of the company’s financial structure by showing the company’s total debt capital in detail. But there is no information stated in the statement regarding the risks and uncertainties faced by the company.

Current Strategic Activity within a Major International Company

First, of аll I will give short historicаl bаcjground of the compаnies аnd then will come down to аnаlyzing the issue.Thе shift frоm thе mаrkеting оf spоrtswеаr аs spеciаlist pеrfоrmаncе itеms tо prоmоting it аs mаinstrеаm fаshiоn itеms fоr thе gеnеrаl public hаs grеаtly bеnеfitеd thе spоrtswеаr industry, drаwing in yоung purchаsеrs аnd еxpаnding its cоnsumеr bаsе. In 2004, thе аthlеtic аppаrеl аnd fооtwеаr mаrkеt wаs wоrth mоrе thаn US$ 58 billiоn. Thе tоp thrее cоmpаniеs – Nikе, Rееbоk, аnd Аdidаs – rеаpеd prе-tаx prоfits аmоunting tо US$ 1123 milliоn, US$ 195.5 milliоn, аnd US$ 408.9 milliоn rеspеctivеly (Аrsеnаult, Fаwzy, 2001). Thе currеnt mаnufаcturing prаcticеs оf thе snеаkеr industry, in pаrticulаr cоmpаniеs such аs Nikе, Rееbоk, аnd Аdidаs, tаkеs plаcе thrоughоut thе glоbе. With thе industry еxpеriеncing sеvеrе cоmpеtitiоn, аnd thе prоduct rеquiring intеnsivе lаbоr, firms аrе fаcing еxtrеmе prеssurе tо incrеаsе thеir prоfit mаrgins thrоugh thеir sоurcing prаcticеs. Thе fоllоwing pаpеr will аnаlyzе thе snеаkеr industry, whilе еxаmining thе multitudе оf viаblе mаnufаcturing оptiоns, аnd critiquing thеir currеnt mаnufаcturing structurе.Tо prоpеrly rеviеw thе mаnufаcturing in thе fооtwеаr industry, it is nеcеssаry tо first gаin аn undеrstаnding оf thе dоminаnt lеаdеrs in thе mаrkеtplаcе. Thе industry is currеntly еxpеriеncing hypеrcоmpеtitiоn, lеd by six mаin firms – Nikе, Rееbоk, Аdidаs, Filа, Cоnvеrsе, аnd Nеw Bаlаncе, with nеаrly $7 billiоn in rеvеnuеs dоmеsticаlly. Nikе is thе industry lеаdеr, with а 47% mаrkеt shаrе, fоllоwеd by Rееbоk, а distаnt sеcоnd аt 16%, аnd Аdidаsаt 6%.

Vancomycinresistant Entercocci as a Possible BioTerrorist Weapon and Health Care Defense Tactics

Entercocci are gram-positive bacteria and all Entercocci have intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. This resistance has increased since 1988 when it was first seen as a public health risk in Europe. Vancomycin Resistance Entercocci (VRE) was first identified in the United States in 1993. From 1993 the proportion of entercoccal isolates resistant to vanomycin reported to the National Nosocomical Infections Surveillance System increased 20-fold. (McDonald n.d. para 1) Enterococci is found the gastrointestinal and female genital tracts and identified in lab reports as Enterococci faecium, Entercocci faecallis or Entercocci species. This bacteria is found along catheter sites and in urine without causing infection. (Community Health Administration guidelines 1996, Background) The infection usually occurs after an introduction of the bacteria into a preciously sterile environment. A procedure such as in-dwelling catheters, cardiothoracic surgery, transplants, and extended stays in ICU wards increases the risk of acquiring VRE. One method of transfer was discovered in the use of a suction device that removes oral and nasal secretions common in the ICU and Yankauer Catheters. (Kayyali 2006 para 1)VRE also spreads easily by computer keyboards with or without covers. Since most health care documentation is done electronically, this is a serious concern in all areas of the hospital, but in particular, critical care units. Long Term Care facility (LTC) patients are also at risk. VRE and Methacillin Resistant Staphyloccos Aureus (MRSA) have been shown to survive on keyboards for an hour and on covers for five minutes. Bare hands transferred the bacteria at a considerably higher percentage than gloved hands. (Computer Bugs, 2005 pg 1)

The Role of Women in History

Women have played a major role in history. They have been present in society as long as men, and yet have only been so recently, albeit slowly, being recognized and welcomed into the arms of equality in terms of how they are treated, and what their rights are as members of the changing world. The world used to be comprised of men, with women often being pushed to the background as partners, and often as just a few steps up the ladder from being mere objects. Women were the mothers and the sisters and the partners of many of the famous male figures throughout history, but have never really received the equality and rights that was needed for them to maximize their capacities as persons beyond the roles being allotted to them by tradition and culture.The Yellow Wallpaper, which Gilman wrote during the 1890s, shows us a typical picture of the idealized woman as a figure moving within the private sphere of the home, while the man was both a private and a public figure. The woman was domesticated, functions preferably as a mother and as a wife, like the character portrayed in the story. The character was postpartum, and was worrying about her inability to perform her duties to both her husband, and her child. She was portrayed as incapacitated, but it would seem that this was because she knew of no other function than to bend to the will of society’s proclaimed master of her person, and that would be her husband. A writer by the name of Jane Swisshelm wrote on an editorial speaking for the women of her time who were constantly portrayed as domestic individuals with no world beyond the home, We have watched women…doing all sorts of drudgery, against which public opinion had not one word to say, and thinks I to myself, thinks I, if anyone should propose that these women should take any part in making or executing the laws that regulate the reward and relations of labor, what a lecture he would get from public opinion, about feminine delicacy, female weakness, domestic duties, and all that sort of thing!

Government Cutbacks Why Are They Necessary and What Might They Do to the UK Economy

In 2010 the government debt was at 1105.8 billion pounds, which was 76.1% of the GDP. Of that public sector net borrowing was 10.3 billion pounds in 2010 and the public sector net debt was at 58% of the total GDP (Economic Indicators, 2011). The growth predictions by IMF have been 1.75% in 2011 and the interest rates in 2011 have been at a record low at 0.5% (UK interest rate held at a record low of 0.5%., 2011). The British Chancellor George Osborne has announced plans to reduce the government spending in the public sector. Restrain will be enforced on government spending like benefits for the retired, higher education, flood defences (Spending Review 2010: George Osborne wields the Axe., 2010). As part of the plan, some surgery procedures will be restricted like a cataract operation, some common orthopaedic surgeries. Nursing homes for aged people will be closed and funds will be rationed for IVF procedure and obesity cures (Donnelly, L., 2010). There will be other austerity measures like budget cuts for many facilities like libraries, trusts, theatres, counseling and advice centers on the country (Public Sector Cuts: Where will they Hit? 2011). Prior to the budget, the Chancellor had said that with this budget he wanted to take the country from a course of rescue to the course of reform. According to Cameroon, the level of debt and the credit crunch are the main causes of the recession. So he preferred the strategy of monetary activities to control the recession. There was a tremendous opposition for the reduction in VAT by the Gordon Brown government, which led to a loss of revenue for the government facing a shortage of fund. On the contrary, the previous government relied on borrowing to increase government expenditure. According to them, it would push the economy back on a path of growth.

Clinical Features and Treatment of Lung Fluke in Human

Human lung fluke disease is characterized by cough and hemoptysis. The ova of Paragonimus westermani is expectorated in the sputum. The symptoms of this disease are surprisingly sparse. The other methods of clinical investigations such as physical examination and x-ray chest also prove to be negative in clinical situations. The breath sounds which are often abnormal in any condition with lung parenchymal involvement are usually normal, although some degree of hyper-resonance may be detected on percussion. The hematologic parameters are essentially normal with a moderate degree of leukocytosis or varying degree of anaemia. Clinically or pathologically there are no indirect parameters which can be the hallmark of this disease. Therefore, the only diagnostic sign would be the detection of the ova of Paragonimus westermani in the sputum. This is an endemic disease of public health importance in different geographical locations, but the clinical diagnostic parameters are hardly useful. Research in this area has been considerably less. consequently, there would be a prominent gap in the knowledge about the human form of the disease. In this study, all available literature has been reviewed in order to update the knowledge, which could be clinically useful.In this literature review, different aspects of the disease of human lung fluke will be investigated from original research articles. The knowledge about this potentially preventable public health problem is limited due to the paucity of focused research and laxity in reporting the data. Therefore research in this area is necessary in order to add to the knowledge and possibly devising preventive measures.In order to review the relevant literature, based on the objective cited, certain keywords will be developed. The prospective keywords would be lung fluke, endemic hemoptysis, case reports, clinical features, epidemiology, endemicity, and Paragonimus westermani and P. Miyazaki, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Issues in the correctional system the analysis of facility murder

Moreover, it explains the necessities of reducing the liberties given to the prisoners in America. According to Ikilo, (n.d.), it is the duty of The Federal Bureau of Prisons to protect society by confining offenders in the controlled environments of prisons and community-based facilities that are safe, humane, cost-efficient, and appropriately secure, and that provide work and other self-improvement opportunities to assist offenders in becoming law-abiding citizens (Ikilo, n.d.). However, nobody thinks about the safety of correctional officers while saying volumes about the safety of the public. It should be noted that many of the correctional officers working in American jails are females. They were forced to interact with many of the hard-core criminals who have less faith in humanity and more faith in cruelty. Many of the criminals in correctional system are sex offenders. Moreover, it is quite possible that even normal criminals may become sex offenders in jails since they are not getting any opportunities to relieve their sex energy. Many studies have proved that homosexuality is common in American jails. This is because of the lack of opportunities for heterosexuality in jails. Under such circumstances, the logic of asking women officers to work in American jails can be questionable. The ill fate suffered by Marsha Wills point towards the serious issues prevailing in American jails which needs immediate attention from the authorities. This paper tries to identify the issues, and make recommendations on how to improve the correctional system based on the given case study. Major issues prevailing in American correctional system James (2010) pointed out that In Tent City, a notorious convict camp in the Arizona desert that lacks even basic air conditioning, temperatures regularly top 130 degrees, causing no end of heat-related health problems among its internees (James, 2010). It is a fact that absence of basic living conditions may cause distress in the minds of people and in the case of criminals, such distress may result in unexpected outcomes. Majority of the criminals in American jails are leading a no hope life. For example, life imprisonment in American means the culprit should spend his remaining life span in jails. He may not get enough opportunities for parole or probation. The US is the only country where juveniles are serving life imprisonment without parole under the so-called life means life policy. Only the US and Somalia have refused to ratify the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which rules out life sentences with no chance of release for crimes committed before the age of 18 (Pilkington, 2011). Even though America is believed to be the most civilized country in the world, they are not so at least in terms of considering criminals who got life sentencing. In other countries such as India, life imprisonment means only 15 year jail term. Moreover, during this 15-year jail term itself the criminal can spend lots of time outside in the name of parole. Those who are behaving decently in Indian jails, may get paroles frequently. In other words, criminals in Indian jails have hope for a future life outside the jail campus. The incidents or the murder of Marsha Wills in the given case should be analysed in the above context. John James, the 52

Social Responsibility and Business Ethics

Being the owner of a manufacturing company which is involved in the business of producing goods and selling it in the market, the primary goal or objective of the company is to earn profits out of the products sold. However, social responsibility and business ethics are two vital tasks which have to be undergone by the company to create a perfect balance between the profit making motive and being a good corporate citizen. Critical analysis of these two aspects has been discussed in this study.CSR can be defined as the means operating a business by an organization which meets or even exceeds the legal, ethical, public and commercial expectations which the society has from the organization. According to the requirements of CSR, every company is needed to have some obligations towards its society and environment at large (Kotler, Lee, 2008, p.3).CSR serves several purposes. It helps to ensure that the business processes are conducted by the organizations in an ethical way in accordance with the interests of the community. It helps in responding in a positive way towards the emerging priorities in the society. It serves for the purpose of developing willingness amongst the organizations to act beyond the regulatory confrontation. It also helps in maintaining a balance between interests of the shareholders of the company and the wider community. CSR helps in the development of the corporate organizations into good corporate citizens in the society.Social responsibility of the corporate organizations can be considered to have four dimensions. One is the economic perspective which is the responsibility of the organizations to earn profits and generate wealth for the owners of the company. Legal is another aspect of CSR which implies that all the business organizations have the responsibility to act in accordance with the existing laws and are to comply with those laws.

Prospects/consequences for cooking fuel

21 April Consequences of cooking fuel: This paper is primarily based on a very sensitive and grave issue of the present times that is gaining immense attention for sometime. Health consequences from indoor smoke are quite severe and demand immediate attention. There is a strong link between exposure to air pollution through cooking fuels and health effects, which presents a grave scenario for the general public. This has been a seriously distressing issue especially in the developing countries over the past many years where dreadful smoky cooking fuels make up a major part of the air pollution. This paper reflects the grave consequences resulting from cooking fuels. (Kumar et al. 213) mentions that coal used for cooking in the developing countries produces smoke that reportedly contains many harmful indoor air pollutants which pose a serious threat to the patients of respiratory allergy like asthma and obstructive pulmonary disease. Health hazards related with cooking fuels is now an established fact and all researchers agree on at the point that most of the cooking smoke is produced by burning raw or unprocessed biomass fuels. Some of the major examples of biomass fuels are wood, straw, crop residues, and dung cakes. Dung cakes form a primary source of biomass fuels that is used for assisting cooking in all villages of the developing countries. The cruel reality is that the authoritative powers there seldom care to educate the people living in villages about the harmful consequences of indoor air pollutants produced from the cooking fuels. Solid fuel use like burning dung cakes and increased usage of traditional cooking stoves is considered a global health threat now, especially for women and children. This is because in the developing countries, mostly women and children stay in the houses while men remain outside at the workplaces. There is also a strong link between consequences of cooking fuel and deforestation. Increased deforestation has resulted from the continued employment of wood for cooking purpose in the developing countries. (Marten 256) mentions that many forests have disappeared in a very short time because people have rigorously been cutting trees, crop residues, and straws for cooking food in their homes. This has also resulted in convincing people in the developing countries like India to have more children, so that they can make all of them collect more fuel. The resulting increase in population consequently leads to more demand of cooking fuel, thus production of more indoor air pollutants which results in a vicious cycle. This produces a serious lethal effect on both social system and ecosystem, which is presented by (Marten 256) through the following figure: Deforestation and cooking fuel (chain of effects through ecosystem and social system), (Maten 256). Many research reports suggest today that the lethal effects associated with breathing cooking fuel are too severe to be overlooked.Apart from biomass fuels, cooking and heating with coal also produces a high percentage of air pollutants. It is mentioned in (Indoor air pollution) that complex mixtures of chemicals are produced as a result of using coal for cooking. Nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, sulphur oxide, and carcinogens are some of the major air pollutants resulting from using coal for cooking. Small particles of carcinogens readily enter the lungs and aggravate respiratory allergies and lung cancer, and so they have the highest health damaging potential. (Catacchio). Works cited: Catacchio, Emily. Coal and Wood Combustion Smoke Linked to Lung Cancer. 2011. Web. 21 Apr. 2011. lt. http://www.buildinggreen.com/auth/article.cfm/2011/1/27/Coal-and-Wood-Combustion-Smoke-Linked-to-Lung-Cancer/?comment_mode=replygt. Kumar, Raj, Nagar, Jitendra K., Raj, Neelima, Kumar, Pawan, Kushwah, Alka S., Meena, Mahesh, and Gaur, S.N. Impact of Domestic Air Pollution from Cooking Fuel on Respiratory Allergies in Children in India. ASIAN PACIFIC JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND IMMUNOLOGY 26 (2008): 213-222. Print. Marten, Gerald G. Human Ecology – Basic Concepts for Sustainable Development. Earthscan Publications, 2001. Print. Indoor air pollution from cooking and heating with solid fuels. n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.

The Cult of Celebrity

Whether it be a hero or a celebrity, each possesses the ability to draw intense loyalty from those who feel they are deserving of it. In most cases, celebrities garner far greater attention through media coverage but as is the case with heroes, each through action is taken, have the chance to make an impact on those around them.The similarity between celebrities and heroes would be the faithfulness they would draw from the general populous. A stark contrast between the two would be the underlying presence of garnering fame and attention, that many of those people labeled celebrities, seek to bring to themselves. For those in more of a hero position, they often times tend to do that which they do, from a standpoint of doing whats right versus whats wrong, instead of doing what may be socially acceptable and something that would give them great fame and power. In regards to an example of heroes, one that would come to mind, would be the men and women of the military that day in and day out, place themselves in harm’s way for the greater good of all men. They seek to do so to assist others and not so that they’d be able to bring undue attention to themselves. With regards to the world of celebrity, those examples would include George Clooney and Julia Roberts. Individuals that place themselves in the public eye and are attention grabbers. The individuals who grace the covers of magazines and newspaper advertisements.Especially in the era after September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in New York City, when millions were left scared and bewildered, the need for heroes became far greater than it had beforehand. The need to have those individuals that seek to fight and defeat any foe that may cross their path. Whether it be a physical opponent or an inanimate object, a hero is someone that many seek refuge with when it comes to regaining a sense of security and normalcy.

Working with Federal Reserve’s Publications

In the financial market, the demand for credit in the different districts has shown a mixed trend compared to the previous Beige report. The Federal Reserve has also reported that the pressure of prices in the economy has eased from that recorded before. To maintain price stability and stabilize the economy, the Federal Reserve uses the Monetary Tools of Open Market Operations, Discount Rate, Reserve Requirements, Interest on Required Reserve Balances and Excess Balances, Term-Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility and Term Deposit Facility. Ultimately, the paper enumerates an outlook for the economy in the coming twelve to eighteen months. The Federal Reserve System is U.S.A.’s central banking system. It is also known as The Federal Reserve and sometimes informally referred to as the Fed. The enactment of the Federal Reserve Act established the Federal Reserve System in 1913. The Federal Reserve conducts the nation’s monetary policy, supervises and regulates the banking institutions, maintains the stability of the financial system and provides financial services to the Government of U.S.A, the country’s depository institutions and foreign official institutions. The Federal Reserve offers to the general public a variety of publications including the Federal Reserve Board testimonies, press releases, monetary policy reports, the Beige Book etc. which offer a detailed analysis of the current economic activity, the financial markets and the monetary policy tools used to maintain price stability and foster economic activity. Federal Reserve’s assessment of the current economic activity and financial markets According to the Federal Reserve Beige Book of July 2011, economic activity in the twelve districts of the U.S.A continued to grow. However, in many districts the rate of growth has been moderate than that reported before. Overall assessment of consumer spending indicated an increase and a majority of the districts reported a humble increase in the non-auto retail sales. Auto sale slowed down compared to the previous Beige Book report and the disruptions in the Japanese supply chain caused the auto inventories to remain lean. The retail margins continued to be squeezed under pressure in prices from ‘food, energy, cotton, and other supplier inputs’. The Federal Reserve presumes that a decrease in the gasoline prices could have provided an impetus to shopping trips and other additional spending. The summer flavor of tourism had initiated better performance than last year in most of the areas. In most of the districts, activity in the non-financial service sectors reported a growth overall. Manufacturing activity also increased overall in the districts. Firms generally retained their optimistic manufacturing outlook, but were cautious regarding their capital spending strategy. Activity in the residential real estate market remained weak although construction as well as movement in the residential rental sphere improved from before. The agricultural sector in seven districts (which reported on the sector) was unfavorably affected by both drought and extreme flood conditions. However, the energy and mining sectors in the districts which reported on these sectors recorded a robust growth for majority of energy-related products. The production of coal was sluggish. The labor market conditions in the U.S economy remained moderate and most of the districts reported modest increases in the hiring of labor. (The Federal Reserve, July 2011, p. 4, 5) In the financial market, the Federal Reserve reported a mixed loan demand from the districts in comparison to the previous report. Total increase in loan demand was recorded in the New York, Chicago and Richmond districts although they originated from different

Was Joshua Shenk Successful

Laws such as the consequences of drug dealing on poor neighborhoods, issues evolved from prison overcrowding, the erosion of individual rights, the propensity for corruption within law enforcement, the associated problems regarding alcohol and tobacco, and the refusal of the federal government to fund the effective needle exchange programs. Since this article was written, lawmakers have shown little interest in alleviating the harm that current drug laws create. This discussion examines the arguments for the decriminalization of drugs and the detriment to society that has been allowed to continue by those of conservative political leanings. The evidence suggests that Shenk’s position paper has generally lacked the desired effectiveness in converting the conservatives’ view that moral laws be enacted no matter the human cost.Ultimately drug policy does come down to tradeoffs according to Shenk and others of like mind on the subject. The simple truth is that people are tempted by intoxicants. And, in a free society like ours, the rights of life and liberty will always be accompanied by people pursuing stiff drinks, or lines of cocaine, or marijuana cigarettes. Now we know that the enormous efforts in law enforcement have yielded few benefits in curbing drug abuse and are a paltry disincentive for many drug users and would-be drug users. The prohibition experiment has failed.America’s war against recreational drugs is an example of good intentions gone terribly wrong. While this country squanders over $50 billion dollars annually on the efforts to stop illegal drugs, trafficking, and use continue. It has been said that trying to stop drugs is like trying to stop the rain. Over half of the prisoners in jail are there for drug ‘crimes.’ This causes overcrowding which results in the early release of dangerous, violent criminals. This creates more of a public safety problem than does drug use. It is illogical from a societal view.

The Making of A Quagmire

Order 541251 Topic: The Making of A Quagmire America must stay in Afghanistan I categorically that America must stay in Afghanistan. This war cannot be compared to the wars that America fought in Vietnam or Iraq. America is not interested in making international quagmires. It is true that various governments in Afghanistan failed due to their own faults—the irreconcilable postion adopted by various factions in the country. That these factions belong to the same religion makes the issue further complicated. The liberal ones, who advocate that religion should be kept out of politics, do so with noble intentions. They do not wish to harm politics or religion, whey they aver thus. But in Muslim countries like Afghanistan, religion is politics. That is the genesis of majority of the issues, and the unity of the country remains threatened, life and property of the common man is not safe, economic development takes the back seat, and utter chaos prevails in the country. Afghanistan is ravaged from wars for the last over two decades. It is strategically placed, bordered by the countries that are hostile and not so friendly to America. The prime objective of America is to reconstitute public order and avert humanitarian disaster in the country. A stable and democratic Afghanistan is in the long-term strategic interest of America—for its neighboring countries are Iran, Pakistan, USSR, and China. Some are hostile, some superficially friendly and some unpredictable. International rivalry amongst Afghanistan’s many neighbors exists already, and if it escalates due to territorial and economic aggrandizement, a complicated international situation may develop, which may be difficult to control from America, through diplomatic channels, sitting at Washington. So, strong American military presence and an advisory think-tank in Afghanistan are a must, to take prompt decisions and quickly execute them. At present Taliban is defeated, and Al-Qaeda is on the run, but that is no permanent solution of the issues that confront Afghanistan. America must ready itself for a protracted stay, till such time the task of economic reconstruction is over. Taliban and Al-Qaeda have sympathizers and supporters all over the world. Even an independent and fairly progressive country like Pakistan that has a standing as an independent country for the last 64 years, and an well-equipped armed force, finds it difficult to tackle insurgency, threats from Taliban and other Muslim fundamentalist Organizations. Such forces would like a weak Afghanistan, to carry out their nefarious activities. American presence is a strong deterrent to them. Firstly they have to plan for their own survival and secondly think of plans to dent the Afghan defense. American administration and the current leadership of Afghanistan must clearly understand that the presence of American forces is not a stop-gap arrangement. Afghanistan must attain stability and America must emerge triumphant, and outsmart moves of alliances of some neighboring countries. With the challenge of abiding tribal loyalties and political factionalism and to find a peaceful settlement for them is a daunting task. Economic infrastructure and a government that is accountable and will administer as per the rule of law is non-existent. Marauders have a field day. Tackling the refugee crisis is a daunting task, and a big economic liability. Unless a healthy political process finds its proper place, the events of the 1992-1996 may repeat, and Afghanistan may roll back to square one, with no hope of building a healthy and violence-free society. So, the American forces should not create a situation where they will feel trapped along with other forces from allied countries as happened in Yugoslavia. They must take sustained action, taking all the perspectives into account. Protracted stay necessary even if America has to face a politically hostile atmosphere from the international communities. Some of the countries may do so for their own political compulsions. Terrorism must be defeated permanently from the soil of Afghanistan, and that is possible by including as many factions as possible in the future set up of Government of Afghanistan. A broad-based, educated leadership is the only solution. Towards this end, American international policy framers must work, to solicit support for a broad-ranging program of economic reconstruction and to build democratic institutions in Afghanistan. So, the views expressed by Halberstam in Chapter 10 of the book,A Slow Change in American Policy needs to be understood in the present context of international politics. What he wrote in 1967, at the young age of 30, as a reporter is not acceptable in the current situation. From a position of strength and by establishing solid military bases in Afghanistan America should negotiate with Afghanistan’s neighbors, Iran, Russia and India and advise them against any unilateral moves that will complicate the issue. Considerable tension already exists in the relations of Pakistan and America, and a complicated political climate in Afghanistan will only further aggravate the tension in Pakistan. Afghanistan cannot afford to go through another bout of major internal strife. American international political leaderships is facing an acid test in the soil of Afghanistan, and it is necessary for America to emerge politically and militarily victorious. Conclusion: Afghanistan’s internal weaknesses perhaps have no parallel, in the history of any other country. No one can think of conquering Afghanistan on a permanent footing. Such efforts can only further devastate the country. The leaders of Afghanistan must understand their responsibility, make united efforts, and best use of the foreign help should be made. American presence in Afghanistan is needed for achieving this objective. So, the proposal to send additional troops to Afghanistan must be viewed in the above context, and the American Military Generals, President Obama, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, and the Republican leadership in the Congress is right. America has an attainable objective in Afghanistan, and this war cannot be compared to the wars in Vietnam, Yugoslavia or Iraq. Obama will not go down. he will emerge victorious in this war of peace and stability will usher in Afghanistan. Works Cited Halberstam, David: The Making of A Quagmire: America and Vietnam. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages. 1 edition, October 1, 1987.

Me Governor My life in the rough and tumble world of politics by Richard J Codey review

He already knew that his life was going to entirely revolutionized and this proved significantly true in later years. In this book he has shared his outlook on the typical political setting of New Jersey while discussing different personnel who have been associated to the government service since a considerable time period. He had the opportunity of moving along with different administrative officials for more than three decades however, knowing someone from distance and working with the same individual is entirely different according to Codey’s experiences (Codey). Richard J. Codey has epitomized his memories in this book which gives a burnished, cordial and conversant stance of New Jersey Politics. For Codey, becoming the governor of New Jersey was not an easy task. Although it seemed like winning hundreds of hearts and gaining a fortuity of true public service but for him it turned out to be utterly exigent. James McGreevey, who was the ex-governor of the state before Codey took hold of the political matters, was an intellectual person and a sound politician however, he was involved in some homosexual relationship which brought an end to his political career (Codey). He had to resign from his position due to the damage caused by his personal life activities. This overall situation brought serious consequences in the political setting of New Jersey which even affected the Sopranos home state. Therefore when Codey joined in things were not really gracious for him as political associations had already undergone a serious trauma recently. But Codey proved to be an exceptional political leader who not only restored the former trend of superior politics rather he also introduced decorum in political settings. Contrary to McGreevey, Codey was a profound man who was having a triumphant family life rather than distorted relationships (Egelberg). Apart from reviewing the past and present political structures author has also presented the influence of his family life over his career. He has conversed about his love affair, development of a lively family, interest in sports, filthy side of politics which is usually overlooked, his experiences as state senate president and his future career after resigning from this post (Codey). The book presents immense information to the students and people interested in politics as it studies the subject from different aspects related to senators and governors. Moreover the information is presented in such an amusing way that it gives the insight knowledge of politics in New Jersey with a complete experience of pleasurable reading. Understanding the State and Government Politics After reading and critically analyzing the content of the book I have understood the state and government politics particular in New Jersey. In the past few years United States of America has swiftly turned into a suburb nation and New Jersey is the most flagrant example of this transformation taking place throughout the country (Barbara Salmore). Hence it is now significant for the overall population to keep track of political, economic and social changes occurring in this particular state. For instance, suburbanites are so influential in the state that the candidate-centered elections are actually decided by them and they are primarily responsible to carry out all

The Cross of the Rubicon River

In 86 B.C, he sought election to public office, though the position he was given was that of an archaic priesthood and nevertheless held no power. In 84 B.C he got married to Cornelia, daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna thus strengthening his radical side, but was given the order to divorce her on the order of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, who was an enemy of the radicals. Instead of divorcing his wife, Caesar prudently enrolled himself into military service in places like Cilicia and Asia.His wife died shortly after he was elected as quaestor and during the funeral orations, he performed a purely political maneuver, he took the opportunity of praising both his uncle Cinna and also his father- in – law Marius. Later, he married Pompeia who was a close relative of Pompey. Soon after, in 65 B.C. Caesar was duly elected as a curule aedile, in 63 B.C. as a pontifex Maximus and in 62 B.C as a praetor. Gradually, Caesar created a stamp for himself as a political figure.After a scandal took place, Caesar divorced Pompeia and the following year when he went to Rome, he joined sides with Pompey and Crassus and thus formed the first triumvirate. Caesar’s alliance with Pompey was further solidified when Pompey took the hand of Julia, Caesar’s only child in marriage.During the year 59 B.C. went up a step on the political ladder by being elected as consul and that same year he got married to Calpurnia. The very next year Caesar was given the post of the Governor of Roman Gaul. The following eight years saw many conquests by Caesar and finally, he was successful in conquering the Gallic Gaul in the North.However, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his command in 49 B.C. With the death of Crassus in 53 B.C, Pompey became the sole consul in 52 B.C. Finally, in 54 B.C when Pompey’s wife Julia died, the ties between Caesar and Pompey were severed forever.

The Effectiveness of Social Cost Benefit Analysis

Cost-benefit analysis seeks to translate all relevant considerations into monetary terms. Economists monetize both the costs of regulation, such as the money spent to install a scrubber on a power plant to reduce air pollution and the benefits of regulation, such as saving human lives and preventing disease. When benefits of regulation will happen in the future, the economists first quantify those benefits in dollars. Then they discount their value to reflect how much we would have to invest today to have that much money when the benefit is delivered.Cost-benefit analysis sets out to do for government what the market does for business: add up the benefits of public policy and compare them to the costs. The two sides of the ledger, however, raise very different issues.Comment: On the basis of the above statements, we can now understand the extent of the use of the CBA. It is being used by both the government and business sectors for decision making because of market forces. Ackerman and Heinzerling (2005), however, raise concerns of the application of the CBA, which is the subject inquiry of this paper. Hence in the following discussion, we will be evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of CBA and the validity of the criticisms on the advantages. But before doing that, let us first understand the steps inDiscounting is a procedure developed by economists to evaluate investments that produce future income. The case for discounting begins with the observation that $100, say, received today is worth more than $100 received next year, even in the absence of inflation. For one thing, you could put your money in the banktoday and earn a little interest by next year. Suppose that your bank account earns 3 percent interest. In that case, if you received the $100 today rather than next year, you would earn $3 in interest, giving you a total of $103 next year.

The Worlds Leading Water Companies

The company had undergone heavy debt which resulted in a fire-scale of the company’s assets, dizzying financial condition, and an identity crisis. In the year 2002, the company had declared a net loss of €12.3 billion. As a consequence, the company’s rate with regards to credit has turned into ‘Junk’ status. Vivendi Universal had sold a fraction of its large holdings to pay off the debt of stakeholders. The shareholders of the company sued against the former manager and claimed a price of 54 million USD. In the year 2002, due to bad financial conditions, Vivendi Universal was forced to sell part of its stake in Vivendi Environnement. In order to retain the confidence of shareholders and also to reflect the organization’s greater independence, Vivendi Environnement was named as Veolia Environnement (Public Citizen 2005).Veolia Environnement is a water and environmental-based services subsidiary company and according to economic theory, providing water service is observed as a natural monopoly business, because ‘average cost of water becomes lower as the output increases’. This natural monopoly characteristics of water business helped Veolia Environnement to dominate in this sector. Approximately 70% of the international privatized water business is ruled by two companies, i.e. Veolia and Suez. Both companies have made a joint subsidiary company so that profit can be shared between them in lieu of competing with each other. Both the companies had created an uncompetitive business situation through joint ventures (Public Citizen 2005).Veolia Environnement though used illegal methods such as bribery to get water contracts. For example, two senior executives of Veolia Environnement was convicted for giving bribe to the Mayor of St. Denis for obtaining water contract in the year 1996 (Public Citizen 2005).Besides bribery, there are other critiques of Veolia Environnement, for example, in the year 2003 Veolia Environnement’s wastemanagement was ordered to provide a fine of 100,000 Euro for damaging of 3500 hectares scrubland by fire. In 2000, Veolia Environnement misled the investors for purchasing the US Filter plant.

Methicillin Resistant Staphyloccocus Aureaus

It is now several decades since methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has caused infections in patients with well-described risk factors, which include hospitalization, surgery, residence in chronic care facilities, and injection drug use (Lowy, 1998). In recent times, MRSA has caused infections in patients lacking traditional risk factors for infection with MRSA (Hussain, et al. 2000. Gorak, et al. 1999). And to a greater surprise, many of these infections have occurred in the community and have affected children and young adults, and some have been linked with significant morbidity.In the United States, the first recorded MRSA outbreak occurred at a Boston hospital in 1968. In the subsequent two decades, most MRSA infections occurred in persons who had close contact with hospitals or other healthcare settings. However, in the United States also MRSA infections are now seen in previously healthy persons who were not associated with healthcare settings. These persons appear to have acquired their infections in the community, rather than in a healthcare setting (MDH, 2007).At this point in time, it is good to understand how these organisms have accrued resistance. Antibiotics resistance happens when the S. aureus bacteria produce an enzyme that breaks down antibiotics. S. aureus bacteria have a unique protein that prevents the antibiotic from killing the bacteria. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a strain of S. aureus that is resistant to a large number of antibiotics making it difficult to treat because of the limited number of antibiotics available (Canadian Institute of Public Health Inspectors, 2000). As of now, there are16 epidemic strains of MRSA that have been discovered but two particular strains (clones 15 and 16) are thought to be more infectious than the others. Staphylococcus aureus is an organism that colonizes the skin, particularly the nose, skin folds, hairline, perineum, and navel. It is also the most common cause of minor infection in wounds, pimples, boils, and impetigo.

Why Age Restrictions Should Be Enforced in Pageants

The Boulder Police fell under intense criticism for their failure to solve the case and Jon Benet’s wealthy parents were scrutinized and questioned extensively, with the media and many members of the public suggesting that one of the family had committed the crime. One of the aspects of the Ramseys’ previously quiet life was the strange and relatively unknown spectacle of beauty pageants aimed at very young girls. Jon Benet’s mother Patsy not only enrolled her daughter in pageants across the country, she also used her own wealth to fund some of them. The media and public alike were horrified to learn little girls (and boys), sometimes as young as babies, were paraded like their teenaged and adult counterparts. This included makeup and skimpy outfits, including swimsuits. CBS Anchor Dan Rather called the very airing of historical footage showing the little girl kiddie porn (Rich) and it was suggested by more than one person that a pedophile had broken into the house and killed her, as some sexual trauma was evidenced. Investigators are now pretty much convinced that neither pedophilia nor the pageants themselves had anything to do with the homicide. Yet the damage was done and what was once a subject that only a small percentage of the American public knew anything about suddenly became front page news. The parents of the contestants were the ones who were criticized the most, as well as it should be, for they were the ones who enrolled their tiny divas and pushed them hard to succeed. Again quoting John Rich, at the time of the sensational killing, the kids’ pageant production was a billion dollar industry with 3,000 contests and 100,000 contestants annually. Critics were harsh and very little if any positive publicity was generated about the pageants in the months following the girl’s death. With that much negative exposure, one would expect the child beauty pageants would have withered and died shortly thereafter. Flash forward more than fifteen years since Jon Benet’s death. She would now be twenty-one years old, the optimum age for either a Miss USA/Miss Universe pageant or a New York runway model. But have child beauty pageants been pushed to the annals of history? No, by no means. One of the most popular shows on Cable’s The Learning Channel (TLC) is Toddlers and Tiaras and episodes are broadcast several times a week. The television show has been on since September 2008 and has been renewed for at least another season. Another show along the same lines was the (presumably) now defunct Little Miss Perfect that aired on another cable channel WE-TV. So why did one show triumph while another failed? It could be said that Discovery Networks (the parent company of TLC) had enough finances and experience to put behind their show and fledgling WE didn’t. Watching various episodes of Toddlers and Tiaras, it is very much evident that TLC puts glitz along with glamour and voiceovers and expert evaluations, whereas Little Miss Perfect evidently just showed the contestants two at a time. As cable networks often do, on Wednesday, April 25, 2012, TLC had a marathon showing of its fifth season of Toddlers and Tiaras. A rerun airing of the show Darling Divas – New York, showed exactly how far over the top these kids and their parents go just to win a measly prize (The top prize in Brooklyn was $300). Little girls and their mothers were having meltdowns on camera. For instance, one mother, so upset that her dear little one got stage-fright and froze in front of the judges, literally pushed the cameras away and said she was very much angry with this child, who couldn’t have been more than four. The girls were all between

Horizon Human Services

So far it relates to funds for services in the areas of housing, they receive assistance from US Department of Housing, Urban Development and the Arizona Department of Housing (Community Housing, 2013). In addition, they also accept donations from the public as well as corporate entities. How Does the System Serve and the Services they Offer: Any person intending to avail the services of Horizon Human Services can call their office for an appointment with a screening specialist and once screening is completed, he or she will be sent to the intake specialist who will assess the individual and provide initial counseling to help address the reason for which services have been sought (Getting Started, 2013). People who seek services will have to produce their ID document, proof of income, social security, and any documents relating the problem they wish to address with the help of the organization. Major services, as per information on the services section of their site, include: Adult Residential Services: It is a program for mentally ill or substance abusing adults, by providing clean and tidy therapeutic environment, as envisaged in quality social work practices, which is free of substances (Malley Fernandez, 2010, p.561). Community Based Services: This is also a program targeted to mentally ill, within the community to help them cope with the problem. The services include counseling and monitoring of medication apart from a variety of other services that the patient requires from time to time. Domestic Violence Services: This program extends assistance to victims of domestic violence and includes services such as counseling, transportation, case management, referral services, advocacy etc. Habitation Services: It envisages habitation of individuals with developmental disabilities in collaboration with other agencies and includes a variety of services. Horizon House: Services under this program comprise vocational services, extending support for housing, counseling, and integrating the affected into the community. Psychiatric Services: Horizon provides a wide range of psychiatric services including diagnosis, evaluation, monitoring as well as planning treatment etc. In addition, they also provide outpatient and residential substance abuse treatment. DUI Services: Horizon also provides DUI clinical and educational services and facilitates DUI treatment after assessment and evaluation. Community Housing: This consists of the provision of housing for those in dire need and certified as homeless under HUD guidelines or substance abusers apart from helping people in securing housing assistance and identifying available units (Community Housing, 2013). In addition to the above services, Horizon also provides a wide range of other assistance, the details of which are available on their site under the link ‘services’ which is accessible to all members of the public. Accessibility to Services/Eligibility Requirements: The organization has different criteria for determining the eligibility conditions for the services being rendered by them. As befitting the objectives of social work

1965 Selma to Montgomery march

History 1). The civil war that had taken place previously had failed to eradicate the social barriers created by some institutions (U.S. History 1). In the south, after the war, there was the creation of laws that only highlighted issues of whites at the expense of African American (U.S. History 1). The situation remained until the beginning of the second part of 20th century. At this period various institutions begun to be sensitive to African American demands. The greatest progress was the school integration ruling of 1954 by the Supreme Court (U.S. History 1). Later, there was a development of peaceful protest by Dr. Martin Luther King Junior. Consequently, this led to increased marches, boycotts, sit-ins, and freedom rides in both the American south and parts of north (U.S. History 1). Moreover, public opinions changed and showed a significant deal of sympathy towards the African Americans. However, there remained obstacles to complete racial equality. Although legal equality had made progress for African Americans, there was reduced economic equality and social acceptance (U.S. History 1). Consequently, this led to increased activism in the 1960s. Malcolm X, the Black Power Movement leader, advocated for the policy of non-violence, and he inspired most of the movements in this period (U.S. History 1). A reflection on the civil rights movements helps in highlighting the role of Selma to Montgomery marches. … History 1). Consequently, there was reduced hopes for achievements of equal rights among African Americans. Moreover, there was increased discrimination in various states, in the north and south. For example, there was approval of laws creating schools and public facilities for each race (U.S. History 2). One of such laws was the Jim Craw laws that reinforced the white supremacy that had diminished during the reconstruction era. The discrimination was seen as whites, and blacks carried activities in different areas such as in school and restaurants (U.S. History 2). In addition, there was also discrimination in public spending. For example, teachers in white schools were paid better wages, and white schools were well maintained while in black school teachers were paid poorly, and the situation was poor (U.S. History 2). Additionally, there was a failure of implementation of Brown decision on segregation in the south. In fact, one decade after the decision, fewer than ten percent in southern public schools had integrated (U.S. History 2). This is because the ruling failed to address the issue that led to segregation such as separate restrooms, bus seats, or hotel rooms (U.S. History 1). There are various reasons for the inspiration to revolution. One of the people that inspired revolution was Rosa Parks. She boarded a Montgomery bus and refused to pave the way for the white passengers (U.S. History 3). This was followed by her arrest, and she was fined $10 (U.S. History 3). Consequently, revolutions began in various parts of the country. One of the instrumental persons for the revolution was Martin Luther King Junior (U.S. History 3). After the Rosa Park development, he organized the boycott of Montgomery’s buses (U.S. History 3). They wanted for equal

The affluent society by john kenneth galbraith REVIEW

His work was criticized to have flaws, which is obvious for most social scientists, yet his work remains true and practical even today. He was accused of wrongly predicting a great out of control unemployment and inflation rate. Silent Spring, a book which is held responsible for initiating the American environmental move, came four years after Galbraith wrote about the plight of consumerism was a threat to the environment and hence, there should be an increase in creating awareness about the environment (Galbraith, 2010, p.114). Fifty years ago when ‘The Affluent Society’ was published for the very first time it was a strong written attack against the situation of that time period. In 1958 America was in a period of economic boom post Second World War and the conservative view was that the economy was prospering and flourishing. This provoked the Harvard economics professor Galbraith to introduce the term ‘conventional wisdom’ which was meant to describe and explain the bandwagon view that was prevalent at that time (Galbraith, 2010, p.6 Meissner, 1966, 31). … The Americans at that time believed that high rates of production is an indicator of economic prosperity, Galbraith emphasized that there might be other factors which could be termed even more important than the production rate. He was also a great advocate of the power of advertising to help create high rates of consumption in support of the high production rates. This form of increasing the wealth in the country is also emphasized in the article written by Robert Davis. This clearly means that many authors thought the same way as Galbraith himself did (Davis, 1963, p.335). He believed that the production or growth model is too irrelevant for America as it was used to pull out US from poverty and to meet the various , different need of people, t had worked well enough for that purpose but now that the society has flourished and people’s basic, primary needs are met this model is highly irrelevant. People are still unhappy as not only do they work extremely hard there is also a great gap between the richest and the poorest and immense inequality. He writes that the most puzzling problem for modern times is why the affluence of America is not used properly (Galbraith, 2010, p.225). The salient features of Galbraith’s work while reevaluating American economy were: The influence of America worldwide Relationship that exists between production, advertising and consumption Poverty and inequality in the economy The altering reasons of these economic problems: inflation, employment and consumer debt. He was eventually in support of enforcing a greater sales tax as compared to property tax, increase in government spending on public amenities like education and healthcare and a local vision to develop and expand the ‘new class’ of

Growth in the Economy

Improving the efficiency of the workers would require lesser number of workers to complete a job in comparison to the situation when the workers’ skills were not upgraded. The money saved by employing lesser number of workers can be utilized to make the payments for the technological and skill up gradation. The enlargement in the production level of the country, both as a result of increasing employment and the efficiency enhancement of the workers, would enable the producers to cut the price levels of the products and the services. This decrease in the price level would in turn augment the consumption level of the general public, which in turn would raise the level of aggregate demand in the country (Arestis Et. Al., 2002). Fiscal policies can lower the rate of unemployment by assisting to enhance the aggregate demand. Fiscal policies that should be employed are lowering of tax rates and also boosting the government expenditure. The rise in the government spending should complement the national income level that would check unemployment. Low rate of taxes would augment the disposable earnings of the citizens and as a result the consumption level of the public would also rise. This increase in the aggregate demand would have more than proportionate impact on the national income as a result of the multiplier effect. This would subsequently lead to an enhancement in the country’s GDP. The enhancement in the national GDP would lead to an enlargement in the demand for workforce to meet the requirements of the amplified consumption level. Thus, this would lower the level of unemployment that is caused due to the deficiency of demand (Baumol … The paper shows us a brief analysis of fiscal policies which can lower the rate of unemployment by assisting to enhance the aggregate demand. Fiscal policies that should be employed are lowering of tax rates and also boosting the government expenditure. The rise in the government spending should complement the national income level that would check unemployment. Low rate of taxes would augment the disposable earnings of the citizens and as a result the consumption level of the public would also rise. This increase in the aggregate demand would have more than proportionate impact on the national income as a result of the multiplier effect. The paper approves that the multiplier effect would not be able to take place if there is no overall rise in the consumption level of the country. Certain economic advisors may not consider tax cut to be favorable because temporary measures such as reduction in the tax rates would not have much multiplier impact as compared to permanent measures According to the paper the rising budget deficit would hamper the interest of the nation because with the rise in the deficit the government would have to pay higher rate of interest for financing the shortage and this would have a negative impact on the economic growth of the country. Moreover, the growing deficit would enlarge the national debt value and would result in higher rates of interest and taxes, which would affect the level of consumption as well as investment spending negatively

Media Influence on the Society Fear

Media play a vital role in the creation of how we are concerned with the happenings in our society. The Public’s evaluation of victims of crime scenes and criminals is greatly influenced by how they are portrayed in the mass.The public is highly influenced by how the media cover and report the sensitive patriotic and violent crime. For example, if the media often cover and report issues about the crime, the public develops the perception that there is an increased incidence of crime in the nation. Regular viewing of television violence leads to fear of those who are viewing compared to those actually experiencing the violence. Most people who spend most of their time watching television or listening to radio are likely to be exposed to greater fear of crime compared to those who spend less time following the media. Therefore, these viewers conclude that crime is more rampant such that it can even reach to wherever they are than it is actually being. They end up taking more caution against crime because they develop the perception that crime portrayed in the television is significantly more violent, indiscriminate and unsafe than actually the situation of crime is present in the real world. Research shows that television viewers internalize these images and fortifications or scary images of reality. The viewer’s perception is characterized by images of fictions and they always fantasize on what they regularly watch in films and televisions (Surette 540-548)The relationship between media presentation and crime is dependent on the characteristic of the message that the media portray to the audience. For example, increased coverage of a high number of local crime news causes increased fear among the large public (Liskaand Baccagglini 138-142). On the other hand, the residents of a high crimes area live in fear of crime due to their more experience onthe crime happening in their areas.

Public Law and the Rights of Individuals

Individuals Rights Protection Five rights of individuals are outlined in the Constitution of Australia (Clark et al, 2010). The first and the most important right for every individual is the right to vote (Sec. 41). In terms of modern democracies, it is of great importance that every individual could realize his role as an active participant of a social life of the country. A right to vote underlines a civil significance of every individual. The second right outlined in the Constitution of Australia is protection against acquisition of property on unjust terms (Sec. 51 (xxxi)). To have a property and to assure safety and protection to it means personal safety and peace (McKnight, 2005). Section 116 is focused on the right of freedom of religion, which is beneficial for the citizens of Australia, but with respect to modern diversities of the society it would be relevant to take into account discrimination against sexual orientation and race (Willet, 2000. Sanders, 2002). The latter point is underlined in Section 117, which is focused on prohibition of discrimination basing on the place of residence. Section 80 considers the right of a trial to jury. With respect to individual’s rights protection, this point means a lot as well. It is of crucial importance for citizens to be aware of fair trial (Tazreiter, 2009. Hansen and Ainsworth, 2009). Still, individual’s rights are not properly taken into account in Australia. This can be illustrated by some restrictions of the common law (Morabito, 2003). For example, women and men are considered to have equal rights. Nevertheless, it is often claimed that women are prevented from been occupied in different professions in Australia (Harris and Twomey, 2008). Fortunately, starting from 70s, some legal Acts were issued directed on discrimination prevention on the basis of racial discrimination (1975), sex discrimination (1984), disability discrimination (1992) (Roht-Arriaza, 1995). Thus, we can claim that the main principle of individual’s rights protection is based on non-discrimination principles. Anti-discrimination laws are promoted in Australia. It is claimed that every complaint should be properly processed and mutual agreement on it should be reached either by means by peaceful negotiations or in the court. Still, there is a serious gap concerning individual’s rights protection, when discrimination occurs on the basis of sexual preferences, age, religion or other matters (Meyerson, 2009). Thus, Gelber (2002) claims:human rightslaw has `not engaged explicitly with religious traditions’, inthe sense that human rightsprinciples tend to advocate freedom of religion, yet this freedom is controversial incases where a religious tradition denies plurality. Furthermore, many religious traditions evidence historical discrimination and intolerance (Gelber, 2002). Thus, it is relevant to introduce some changes in individual’s rights protection in Australia. This may concern a better protection of the rights of a child, or individual’s rights protection on the basis of concerns other than outlined in International Human Rights Protection. Right to Wellbeing may be considered as a rough draft as a child’s rights protection in Australia:

Ethical Dilemma Executive Summary

It is something which is very common in public sector and law enforcement firms, yet as a responsible citizen and police officer it is my duty to take necessary actions to stop this practice. As I am transferred to the current police department only recently, I must not show impatience in reporting the misconduct done by any colleague/police officer. I will secretly collect necessary facts and gather the past records of that officer on my own. I will wait till the time I have strong evidence that supports my claim. However, since that officer has strong connections and has established goodwill and PR among influential people while on the other hand, I have not yet built the integrity and trust which is required to challenge an experienced officer. Therefore, in this case I have several options: I will find out the name and designation of his immediate supervisor or the person whom he reports to. and I will quietly collect his/her views about bribery. I can send an anonymous letter to the internal affairs office of the police department which is responsible to carry out investigation about any misconduct or police abuse. Many countries have state police posts that can be used to report the cases of corruption. However, in case there is extreme violation of law, I will have to take serious actions by reporting anonymously to public safety board which deals with officer’s disciplinary actions and police corruption. Otherwise, I will try to find local FBI near my department from their official website i.e. http://www.fbi.gov/contact/fo/fo.htm. If the issue is not yet resolved then I will write an anonymous letter to the editor of the local newspaper and will send him/her the police disciplinary records because when media is involved serious efforts are made by concerned authorities to investigate the claims of corruption and breach of employment code of conduct. The professional implications of police reporting can be very serious especially when one is reporting against some big fishes of the police department. In such situation following consequences may occur: If my name is revealed, my job will be at risk or perhaps I will be transferred to some other department/city. I may receive threats and the security of my family can be endangered. Police officer can send me behind the bars by putting false accusations against me or due to some false disciplinary charges. There are two ways to deal with these consequences. first is to report the corruption claims to the most trusted authority that ensures that my identity will not be revealed under any circumstance. Second condition is to challenge on the basis of strong evidence, public support and recordings of victims. Some countries use the tactic of mystery audit in which some senior police officials or people from investigating agencies disguise as common people and go to the police department for filing a complaint. They talk to the officers who are the suspects of corruption and create a situation of offering bribe or gifts. If officer(s) accept the bribe then the suspect is caught red handed. This method is very successful for conducting unbiased investigation. On the other hand, the liabilities of not reporting such acts are much greater than the consequences of reporting those acts. When an officer breaches the law, its impacts are not seen on the individual or departmental level only, rather it affects the whole system. The rights of the

Cities Development

2(Mike Douglass, Kong-Chong ho, 2008). Civic spaces should be available for daily practices and other collaborative engagements of the society. Civil society must actively participate in governance and making it a livable civic society. The concept of civic spaces should be understood and analyzed in the context of urban politics and metropolitan governance. The civil spaces are not empty spaces. Civic spaces are basically an extension of the civil society. It is viewed as a stage for our public life if working properly. It is the place where celebrations are held and where the social, political and economic exchanges take place. The benefit of transforming a civic society into a great public place goes a long way. It enhances civic realm not only visually but it ensures healthy growth, provides a forum for interaction and gives foundation for enhancing the livability of the community. Without great public places great cities are not possible. There are strong linkages between civic society and the forces that shape urban politics and governance. Civil society is a very elusive phenomenon which depends on a number of internal and external forces and a wide array of inputs from different segments of the society with rising and diminishing importance in different parts of the city. Global Cities Global cities are responsible for structural conditions of urban change. There exits strong relationship between emerging social disparities in global cities and their impact on politics. These income inequalities, political injustices and power differentials have led to social movements in global cities. The most recent lived economic crises along with… This paper stresses that global cities are responsible for structural conditions of urban change. There exits strong relationship between emerging social disparities in global cities and their impact on politics. These income inequalities, political injustices and power differentials have led to social movements in global cities. The most recent lived economic crises along with the bundle of other social and cultural injustices have resulted in the rise of the civil society. This rise of civil society is prevalent in all the global cities throughout the world. The role of civil society based organizations has increased manifolds especially in the context of recent downsizing and retreat of government from service delivery. Civil society based organizations are acting as important economic and social stabilizers in the neoliberalized political economy.This report makes a conclusion that with ever increasing Globalization and capitalism still being the most dominant system I don’t see the landscape of consumption in the civil societies will undergo any major changes. Although as we have already discussed that in some advanced industrial countries the trend is movement towards rural areas in search of less crowded and serene environment. This trend is still negligible and the major and dominant trend is towards urbanization and the mushroom growth of shopping malls, theme malls and even whole commercial cities such as Dubai. I don’t see that in the current scenario cities have the potential of moving from landscape of consumption to landscape of production in the near future. Capitalism marked by consumerism will remain the trend in the near future.

Land Use Law

Said appeal to the superior court shall be by a writ of certiorari as provided by State law. The aforementioned appeal must be filed within 30 days from the date of the decision of the board of appeals, and failure to file said appeal within the 30-day period shall make the decision of the board final and executor (Section 1809 Article XVIII Zoning Board of Appeals). In Able’s verified petition, he can raise the following contentions: 1. That the board (ZBA) committed a grave abuse of discretion by denying his application for variance. In the case of City of Dallas v. Vanesko, 189 SW 3d 769 (2006), it laid down the principle of the two-tier test for abuse of discretion. The decisions of the ZBA, which is acting as a quasi-judicial body can be the subject of an appeal before a state district court by filing an application for a writ of certiorari, as a mode of appeal. The reviewing court shall not be allowed to replace its own judgment for or in behalf of ZBA. However, the presence of any aggrieved party who will challenge the decision of ZBA must be able to establish that the board has only reached a single decision. It is the reviewing court which has the power to render a decision in finality. Hence, appeals based on the ground of abuse of discretion is akin in the nature of trial de novo, where the appeals court conducts a new trial, as if no trial has been held in the first place, as it overturns the determination made by a lower court. It shall be the appeals court’s duty to determine if the board acted in bad faith, malice or gross negligence (Dougherty 16). 2. In the case of Lucas v. South Carolina Coastal Council,505 U.S. 1003(1992), the court ruled that the total takings test shall be applied when the property, which is the subject of the actual taking is being made valueless and use would not constitute a common law nuisance, then such regulatory takingrequires compensation. Able can raise the issue that the challenged zoning forbids all economically viable use of his land. In an analogous case involving similar facts, Mr. Lucas was able to show that the South Carolina Coastal Commission had forbidden practically all development of his beachfront property, amounting to $975,000. Even if the regulations do not destroy entirely all uses of the owner’s land, a favorable decision may still be granted to him provided he will establish that there is a severe economic damage on him and that the temporary interference with an owner’s use of his property breaks a distinct investment expectation, may still constitute within the concept of taking for which the Constitution requires that compensation be paid. In the final resolution of this instant case, Able’s contention is untenable. It has been a time-honored principle that zoning is a valid exercise of the police power of the state. It is the comprehensive regulation of land use in a city which imbued with public interest and such power has been recognized by the State. In the case of Connor v. City of Univ. Park, 142 SW 2d 706, 712, the court held that zoning is intended to conserve property values and encourage the most effective use of property throughout the city. As cited in the case of Strong v. City of Grand Prairie, 679 S.W.2d 767, 768, the basic purpose of all restrictive zoning ordinances is to prevent one property owner from committing his property to a use which would be unduly imposed on the adjoining landowners in the use and enjoyment of their

Urban economics

Urbanization indicates the economic development of a country. Sustainable development is the need of the hour in all types of activities. Although the path of sustainability is a difficult one, yet it is approachable if pursued in an appropriate way. Sustainable transportation system ensures building of a society that acts as backbone, which supports economic growth through assisting people access their jobs and services easily. If the city is well-planned and laid out properly, urbanization will lessen the overall pollution levels and will preserve the surrounding areas, but unfortunately, most the cities set an example of haphazard development that has led to environmental degradation.This paper aims to examine the detrimental effects of transportation in enhancing global warming and ways to reduce it. The process of speedy urbanization due to growing population levels and their concentration in outsized cities have led to the sprawl of cities, as called by usurban sprawl. These mega cities mark the most significant change brought about by human creatures. Cities form a network of linkages that expand ahead of their own boundaries causing environmental damages and their impacts outside urban areas. One of the most significant changes in natural environment is due to the urban transportation system. Increasing number of cars have provided immense facility to the individuals to access their jobs, educational institutes, shopping malls or any other place easily and on their own, but the flip side of this facility is the environmental damage brought about by the unsustainable transportation patterns. ROLE OF AUTOMOBILES IN GLOBAL WARMING Now days, automobiles are an essential part of daily life. They have shaped our culture and landscape. The industries that build cars serve as key part of the economy of the country. The automobile is not without its faults, but they often are concealed by the styling, performance and other features that make today’s vehicles so desirable. Still, when a product is so widely used, its faults can add up to massive unwanted side effects like global warming. Global warming is the most current environmental issue in many countries of the world. Motor vehicles play a major part in what scientists call the most serious environmental problem the world faces. The automobile’s main contribution comes from the carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted as the engine burns fuel. The greenhouse gases are released from numerous sources that cause global warming. Any single contribution may seem small in proportion to the world total, but collectively it becomes a problem of vast scale. To address a problem of such vast scale requires international agreements and national policies. But making good on such commitments will require changes in how we manage every activity that contributes to the problem. The sources which contribute most to global warming should be identified in order to know that where and how much emission should be reduced. [1] The disproportionate impact of U.S. cars and light trucks An automobile which means personal motor vehicles, including light trucks such as pickups and vans emit roughly 10% of global (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels, which are the main form of greenhouse gas pollution. American automobiles have a disproportionate impact: U.S. cars are driven further each year and burn more fuel per mile than the international average. The United States has 5% of the world’s population and 30% of the world’s automobiles, but it contributes 45% of the world’s automotive (CO2) emissions. In 2004, U.S. cars and light trucks emitted 314 million metric tons of carbon-equivalent (MMTc). That equals the amount of carbon in a coal train 50,000 miles long—enough to stretch 17 times between New York and San Francisco. In fact, the amount of (CO2) emitted from oil used for transportation in the United States is similar to the amount from coal used to generate electricity. [1] SHIFTING FROM PRIVATE TO PUBLIC TRANSPORT

The Smoothness in the Meetings

Plymouth city council has been involved in meetings with the committee mainly being concerned in planning on what activities to be carried out in the city. The planning committee meets every four weeks at 4 p.m. in the council house. The meeting always focuses on the aim of public speaking in the meetings that they carry out. The smoothness in the meeting comes since the procedures that are considered in the committee enables one to express the views that one has on planning matters by giving an opportunity to a specific person at a time to speak to the councilors during the meeting of the council.The meeting that was carried out on Monday 30th at 2.00 pm 2012 has smoothness. The smoothness has mainly been contributed to by the constitution since those that attend the meeting are expected to follow what is stated by the constitution and those that fail to follow the constitution are always not allowed to attend the meeting. Confirmation of previous minutes was done by Councilor Lowry to be correct when there was a misunderstanding on some of the issues. Smoothness in a meeting is caused by the cooperation that occurs in those that attend the meeting and following the rules that are set to be followed during the meeting. In the council, the constitution makes respect to be in the meeting and those that try to go against.There was attendance by, most of the council members. The members that attended the meeting were Mary Aspinall, Richard Bell, Sam Davey, Jill Dolan, Jonathan Drean, Tudor Evans, Ken Foster, Wendy Foster, and Mike Fox among other councilors. There are those that sent apologies to include Glenn Jordan, Patrick Nicholson, Stephen Ricketts, and Nick Williams. Both the chair and vice-chair were present at the meeting. The people that attend the meeting are those that all play important roles in the meeting if not in the city council. Those that always attend the meeting are applicants, third party supporters if not agents, and a third party objector.

Economic Implications of Proposed Regulations

The set of regulations was published in December 2009, to which reactions and comments were solicited from financial institutions and market participants worldwide. On April 16, 2010, the set date for the submission of all commentary, nearly 300 different opinions were submitted representing hundreds of financial institutions, investor associations, and regulatory agencies throughout the world. The original text of these commentaries was released for public viewing on May 1, 2010, in the internet website of the Bank for International Settlements, the organization of all central banks worldwide.This dissertation represents the first attempt to collate and analyze the contents of the submitted commentary and gains insights into the nature of international banking regulations and the workings of the global market economy.Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the research undertaken, by presenting a background of the research situation, the objective to be met and the questions the research answered in order to fulfill the objective, the manner in which the research will be carried out, and a brief discussion of the importance of the research undertaking.The financial crisis that has affected the world economy from mid-2008 to the present has opened the old economic debate that has gripped the leading world economies since the dawn of the twentieth century, namely the role that government regulation should ideally play in the determination of economic policy. Two opposing schools of thought have at one time or another guided economic development since the end of World War II. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s US post-war economy was dominated by the Keynesian economic principle of the planned economy.

OReilly v Mackman

This case is primarily one which was concerned with the procedural niceties of judicial review, laying out the principle that public law claims were to be dealt with exclusively by judicial review and private law claims were to be dealt with by Writ.Therefore this decision set a precedent in that it resulted in a locking of the remedies of injunction and the declaration that had entered the realm of the public domain by Common law, permanently into that domain. This does not appear to have been the original intent behind Lord Diplock’s judgment, for he has clearly stated that the Order 53 does not expressly provide that procedure by way of application for judicial review shall be the exclusive procedure available for obtaining remedy by injunction or declaration for infringement of rights under public law2. However, the fact that in this case, the invocation of a Writ was deemed to be an abuse of the process of the Court resulted in the subsequent position in law that only through the invoking of public law procedure could the remedies of declaration and injunction be obtained under judicial review.The orthodox approach to judicial review is based upon the absolute and indivisible sovereignty of the British Parliament3. The O’Reilly case also established that if the nature of the claim that is being made is that the public body acted ultra vires or outside the scope of its statutory powers, then this is a matter for judicial review. The ultra vires doctrine is based on the principle that all legal duties are created by Parliament4, therefore, the judicial function extends to the scope of controlling of the exercise of such statutory powers.

The Cold War

Topic: s number: The Cold War was a period of East-West competition, pressure, and clash short offull-size war, characterized by shared thoughts of antagonistic intention between military-political alliances or blocs. During the Cold War where communism spread rapidly in Eastern Europe, China, and Korea the United States were forced to increase noticeably its defense spending. As a result of this increase the power of Military-Industrial complex grew which led to the growth of the middle class in the United States. The US foreign policy and its effect of domestic policy are given below. On March 12, 1947 while addressing the Congress President Harry Truman put forth The Truman Doctrine, The United States will defend free people and their free institutions at any place at any point in the world where outside communist aggression threatens that nation’s internal stability.The Truman Doctrine led to US following a Policy of Containment to deal with the spread of communist regimes, and the policy required the US to react to Soviet initiatives. This policy gave the president too much military power too and since the Truman Doctrine, many US military actions have been undertaken by and with the backing of a presidential address. Because the need of the quick and on time response to the foreign crisis cannot be undermined and left unattended until the congress decides, example, after the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941, President Roosevelt appeared before Congress to request a declaration of war. The Marshall Plan in 1947, division of Berlin and Germany into 4 zones and US struggle to gain influence in Eastern Europe and matters incidental thereto, as well as the Chinese Civil war called for a full review of American foreign policy. Therefore, the federal government created the National Security Council in 1947. In 1950, the Council drew up a policy statement, which viewed clash between East and West as inevitable, but any such conflict threatened not just the United States, but also all of civilization. The paper led to an increase in defense spending from 5% of the federal budget to 20%, as well as an increase in American aid to foreign nations. This policy led to the economic growth of the middle class sector of the American Economy as it was largely possible and supported by expanded military investment increased by the federal government after the fall of China and the Korean War. Department of Defense was as their best customer by even the companies that had never been involved in the military. Therefore, many social critics were of the view that US has established a permanent wartime economy. When an economic recession struck in 1956, President Eisenhower responded by allocating more money to defense, not by supporting public works projects as Roosevelt had done. However, President Eisenhower, at the end of his second term warned US that the growing relationship between defense contractors and the federal government is threatening. But his warnings were ignored by many Americans as they were prosperous and the economy was continuously growing. Overall, however, this new American economy was largely ephemeral: brief, fleeting, and transitory. And one after another a new advancement whether that be of computer or Television took place, leading to the fact that the policies as well as methods, no matter were directed to fight against the communism but they led to the prosperity of the nation as a whole. Apparently there was no more perfect politician for this era in American history than Dwight D. Eisenhower who practiced the politics of tranquility, a new decision-making style that was quite different from the social activism of Roosevelt and Truman1. Reference Foner,E. Give me liberty!: an American history. From 1865,online http://books.google.com/books?id=JQGcNAAACAAJdq=eric%20foner%20give%20me%20libertysource=gbs,2008 Foner,E. The story of American freedom,online http://books.google.com/books?id=YhHcaweX2tICdq=eric+foner+the+story+of+american+freedomhl=ensrc=bmrrei=7Z7TTbrjDMzjrAeUg-ilCQsa=Xoi=book_resultct=resultresnum=1ved=0CDYQ6AEwAA?,1999

The topic is media ethical issues but it has to be by exploring the ethical issues involved by an example giving (see instructi

This paper explores the ethical issues involved in the case study and highlights arguments for and against the parents’ request to the photographer’s wife to stop circulating the photograph of their deceased child in light of the teological and the deontological theory of ethics. Ethical Issues Involved In light of the teological theory of ethics Positive outcome Circulation of the photograph is creating awareness in the public regarding the negative ways in which the chemical industry is affecting the health and safety of children. As a result of this increased awareness, chemical industries face increased pressure both from the government agencies and the society at large to change its practices for the better so that they are environment friendly and not a threat to the health of the children. Therefore, the photographer’s wife should continue the circulation of the photograph. The farther it reaches, the more beneficial it gets. Negative outcome Circulation of the photograph might be a cause of pain and suffering for the parents as it reminds them of their dead daughter. Therefore, it is unethical for the photographer’s wife to continue circulating the photograph. … s Although the girl was affected by mercury pollution created by the chemical industry in Japan, yet the chemical industries of the whole world are suffering as a result of use of the photograph as an iconic image against the pollution created by the wrongful advancements of the chemical industries. Many chemical industries may be subject to criticism and scrutiny and undue investigation and accountability unnecessarily when they did not play a role in the child’s disease or death. This imparts the need for the photographer’s wife to ensure that the photograph is used for specific purposes only to indicate the effects of chemical pollution in Japan rather than letting the photograph go viral. However, since she has already failed in that and the geographical limitations have not been respected in this case, it is unethical for her not to control the circulation of the photograph since she is the one who holds copyright of the photograph. Arguments for the parents request Change of circumstances with time Argument supporting the parents’ request is that circumstances have changed since the time the photograph was taken. When the parents had signed the release of the photograph, the child was alive. They might have thought that release of the photograph would create awareness among the public about the adverse impact of the chemical industry’s environment unfriendly practices on the health and safety of children. However, since the child is now dead, it might be a very painful experience for the parents to be constantly reminded about their child, her death, or the cause of her death whenever they come across the photograph. Religious concerns of the parents Another argument in favor of the parents’ request is that they might have religious reasons for raising

Why Community Sentences are not Used Frequently in Place of Prison

While such is the case, community sentencing is not always a common mode of punishment owing to the structure and implementation of the punishments as the discussion below proves.Community sentencing just as the name suggests is a mode of punishment where convicts serve the community by undertaking a variety of unpaid tasks. In such cases, the convicts do not go to prison. They live in the community alongside the rest of the society but dedicate some of their time on a daily basis to work in some public institutions and places within the society. In the United Kingdom, the justice system can use the mode of punishment to discourage such offenses as assault, destruction of property, and benefiting from fraud among others. However, the courts consider the scope of a crime before making a ruling in order to ensure that punishment is commensurate to the crime and injuries that criminal causes to society.Community sentencing is a systematic form of punishment that offers a number of advantages key among which is the fact that the mode of punishment discourages recidivism. The criminals account for their offenses by working without pay for a number of days. This way, they suffer immense inconveniences that remind them of the need to change their behavior by avoiding criminal activities. The mode of punishment is particularly suitable for first-time offenders. To such offenders, community sentencing serves as a warning, which in turn fosters the fear for imprisonment (Great Britain, 2007). This discourages re-offending.Furthermore, community sentencing is less costly than imprisoning offenders are to the community. The citizens in a country always sustain the operation of such correctional facilities as prisons through the payment of taxes. An increase in the number of prisoners in a country resonates with a higher cost of maintaining such facilities thereby making the process of curbing recidivism costly. Community sentencing presents a better and less costly option in which the offender pays back to the community by undertaking a task that would otherwise increase public expenditure. Such is a vital feature that encourages the development of a responsive personality in the offenders since they begin to account for their crimes. This way, they appreciate their crimes possibly reforming their behaviors.

Letter to the Editor about Airport Security

To the Editor: For Airport Pasta-Sauce Interdiction Considered Harmful bruce.schneier@wired.com I totally agree with Mr. Schneier’s article Airport Pasta-Sauce Interdiction Considered Harmful. There are days when I think Osama bin Laden’s master plan was not to take down the Twin Towers, but to snarl airport traffic across America. In the hysteria that followed 9/11, security has tightened beyond reason. In an effort to make our air travel safe, the American people have given up some of their basic rights. Some of these basic rights include the right to have water, shampoo, or even pasta sauce on flights. Jokes aside, the point of airport security is to provide security. Mr. Schneier’s statement There are two classes of contraband at airport security checkpoints: the class that will get you in trouble if you try to bring it on an airplane, and the class that will cheerily be taken away from you if you try to bring it on an airplane is true. The news reports on incidents regarding bombs, guns, and explosives confiscated at airports, but rarely are airports shut down over a passenger carrying pasta sauce, fingernail clippers, water, or shampoo. If the items in the class of being taken away with the passenger still being allowed to board the plane are so dangerous, why are they stored in big bins out in the open? The answer is simple, these items are not dangerous. If these items are not dangerous, why does airport security take them? Airport security takes these simple items because it makes them feel safe. Not only does it make the airport security feel safe, but the airline passengers as well. We might all complain about the long lines and inconvenience, but figure that all that fuss must make us safe. The question becomes do we really want to be safe, or do we want to feel safe? I believe the answer subconsciously is Americans want to feel safe. Feeling safe is not only better for the peace of mind, but can be used as an excuse if anything does happen. After 9/11, Americans looked back at the warning signs. What if we would have taken the Russian warning more seriously, what if we would have take Osama bin Laden more seriously, what if we would have never gotten involved in the first Gulf War, what if we would have had stricter airport security? All of these doubts gnawed at the American public. Today if the same events as 9/11 happened, Americans could say that they are doing everything possible to prevent terrorism. The feeling of safety is more important than actual safety.Real safety needs to be considered more important than feeling safe. Only known weapons should be banned at airports. All of the other items are just distractions that help the terrorists. All a terrorist needs to blow up a terminal today is a jar of pasta sauce filled with explosives. When the guard cheerfully throws the terrorist’s pasta sauce, the explosive will blow up. If an item is dangerous, then it should be treated dangerous. Maybe Americans need to adopt a few Israeli techniques. It would make everyone happy. A bottle of water is opened at an IDF (Israel Defense Forces) barricade. The IDF soldier offers the water to the passenger, if they decline it is confiscated. I am sure if Mr. Schneier would have been asked to taste his pasta sauce, he would have. Shampoo could be rubbed on the passenger’s skin. Lotion could be used the same way. The terrorist would refuse, but the legitimate passenger would be happy to oblige. This would truly make American feel safe and be safe.

Air pollution in Beijing

As this has occurred, countless thousands of factories have been erected to support this growth and to keep up with the increased demand. In the end, this has resulted in an unstable equation when considering pollution and the environment. It is well documented that pollution is a problem, particularly for the very old and very young among us. Pollution can upset the state of the ecosystem, cause children to miss out of valuable outside playtime, prohibit adults from free exercising, and contribute to a host of long-term illnesses such as cancer and breathing problems. There are many factors contributing to the pollution in Beijing, many being attributed back to the massive growth in the urban sector and the burgeoning number of factories and automobiles operating within the city. Couple that with the growing deforestation to make way for more buildings and urban development, and it does not take long realize the seriousness of the pollution issue in Beijing, China. This paper will discuss the problem of pollution in Beijing, its effect on the general population, and the problem that it poses for the environment if recent trends are not reversed. The Problem of Pollution Pollution is causing numerous problems in Beijing City. The situation affects the ecosystem and the health and safety of every person residing with the city limits. Ma, Lu, and Sun (2008) sum up the severity of the problem by pointing out, The landscape pattern change in Beijing led by rapid urbanization has negatively influenced urban ecosystem health and has caused several environmental problems (326). It is important that these issues be discussed openly, solutions proposed and implement, and that everyone does their part to begin to reverse the recent trends of over polluted air. Beginning with the changing landscape best approaches the problem. The past half-century has seen Beijing gradually lose must of its land to over development. Not only has this building boom created an overabundance of polluting agents in the air, but it has deteriorated the very ecosystem that is designed to give new life to the city and to help rid the air of those very particles that cause damage (Ma, Lu, Sun 327). While it is true that 50% of the world now live in Cities (United Nations, 2005), China far surpasses even this fact. It is important to examine the factors that lead up to the current pollution problem in Beijing by examining the reasons why the cities within the country has expanded so. China has the largest population in the world. This population explosion in the past century has greatly contributed to the rapid urbanization of its cities, and urban areas have seen record percentages of population growth. Beijing is not only the capital of China, but it is the third largest city in the country and it continues to grow and develop at a frightening and frantic pace. It is estimated that the urban density within Beijing itself is now up to a staggering 84.3%, which is the second highest in China and one of the highest in the world (Ma, Lu, Sun 328). In just the last 20 years, this urbanization and population growth has drastically changed the entire landscape pattern of the city, causing pollution to become an even greater problem as the pollutants simply have no where to go. The Chinese are notoriously quiet about problems existent in their communities, but recently there has been a public uproar against the air

Financial Institutions and Markets

The institutions in such markets can be very simply defined as an establishment that deals with all the financial transactions that take place in an economy ranging from depositing, taking loans, exchanging currencies to buying bonds, securities or other investments, with a sole purpose of collecting funds from public or other sources and placing them in financial assets (Investopedia). Financial institutions are also commonly referred to as financial intermediaries as they act as the middle man between savers and borrowers. It is imperative to understand how financial institutions serve as intermediaries. Individuals deposit funds at commercial banks, purchase mutual funds or insurance premiums, and contribute to pension plans and the financial institutions then channel these funds towards the borrowersCategorization of FI varies from country to country, changes over time and is largely governed by the current financial customs and legal system (GOLDSMITH, Raymond W, 1958). Financial intermediaries are divided into 2 major categories. Banks (deposit-type) and nonbanks (non-deposit-type). The deposit-type institutions are further divided into commercial banks, savings and loan associations and credit unions, whereas the non-deposit-type institutions are divided into mutual fund companies and brokerage companies (Know the Different Types of Financial Institutions). Furthermore, there exist some differences and commonalities between these institutions. One element that is common to all financial institutions is that they all function by channeling funds from the savers to the borrowers. Moreover, they are all regulated by the Central Bank. On the other hand the differences between these institutions are many, the basic difference being that some institutions accept deposits and others don’t. Within deposit-taking institutions, there exists a difference in ownership and governance as in the case of banks and credit unions.

Impact of Economic Changes on Managers

A drastic change in the economic situation on a worldwide basis has created an impact on various business sectors around the countries. The boom in the economy may result in growth and benefit in business and slump down of economy may lead to a loss in business. When the economic situation is favorable, i.e. in low interest rate and in rising demand, there is a huge growth in economy (The Times 100, 2011).There were two current issues of economic crisis: one was financial crises and the other was related to production and employment. The financial crisis emerged from the US and it had an impact on almost all of the developed nations. The government performed the fiscal stimulus package to fill the gap of demand slowdown of the public sector (Wray, 2009).Lehman Brothers Investment Bank had led to a huge loss of several billions of dollars in the mortgage market of the US. The stock market of the US fell down due to the collapse of Lehman Brothers and the banking shares were hardest hit. The failure of Lehman Brothers had adversely affected the stability of the global financial system (BBC, 2008).The policymakers are failing to address the structural reforms as well as regulatory changes which are essential in order to make certain that a repeat of the crisis does not take place and international policy coordination is proving to be insufficient to the task. German, French along with British banks hold the debt of the bordering countries. By the end of 2011, it is predicted that there will be a European banking crisis due to sovereign debt defaults (Carnegei Endowment, 2010).The economy along with the financial crisis will be affecting the global business time-to-time. The US has been under the threat of pressure of economic downturn. The growth of the country has turned out to be negative again from the end of 2010. The unemployment rate is also rising as 2 million American workers were laid off.

Success of Marriott in the Hospitality

As a payback to the company, Marriott’s employees provide great service and satisfy Marriott’s customers. thereby providing a type of symbiotic relationship. Marriott’s mission thereby works to lead a company-wide approach to their vision. This is but one of the reasons why Marriott is able to provide effective progress to be the best hospitality company in the world and create a public perception that this company builds its corporation in positive ways. The success of Marriott in the hospitality world does not come only from the dedication of its employees, however. Besides showing a great deal of concern for these shareholders, Marriott is an innovative corporation. In this way, the film follows the trend of recent innovations and technological changes in the current world. By being flexible to transform their regulation and company regulation based on the recent global economic situation, hospitality trends, and behaviors of the employees, the firm has stayed fresh whereas others have faltered. The board of the directors of Marriott believes that the world is changing, thus Marriott has to follow suit if it intends on staying competitive. After doing research on final presentation in my ethics class, there was a lot of interesting facts concerning Marriott. however, for purposes of this paper, this author will be addressing but two of these major positive factors in detail. Additionally, a scandal will also be discussed. In addition, besides discussing those positive factors that have briefly been referenced above, my group research shows Marriott has committed into fraud scandal. First, with all, the very basic aspect of building a big company is encouraging their workers to put their best on doing jobs.

Human Rights as to Heather and Len

the preamble to the HRA states that its purpose is to give further effect to rights and freedoms guaranteed under the European Convention on Human Rights.Furthermore, section 2(1) of the HRA asserts that A court or tribunal determining a question which has arisen in connection with a Convention right must take into account Convention rights and any determinations by the European Court of Human Rights2. Moreover, section 3(1) imposes a positive obligation on judicial authorities to interpret all legislation in a way which is compatible with the Convention rights. Accordingly, the HRA has had the effect of incorporating the European Convention on Human rights into our law giving individuals rights which can be directly enforced in the UK courts3. Accordingly, the parties mentioned in this scenario will potentially be able to rely on relevant rights accorded under the Convention under domestic law.Furthermore, section 6(1) of the HRA provides that it is unlawful for a public authority to act in a way which is incompatible with a Convention right. Therefore the relevant issue is whether Helpful Borough Council is performing a public function and is, therefore, a public authority. It is established that local authorities and councils are considered to be public authorities for the purpose of the HRA, therefore Heather and Len could potentially have a claim against the Council if they can establish a breach of Convention rights.If the transfer goes ahead, the issue arises as to whether Heather and Len can bring an action against the private company for breach of Convention rights. The issue about hybrid bodies is complex and case law has been inconsistent. In the Court of Appeal decision in Poplar v Donoghue4 for example, the courts had granted a possession order under the Housing Act 1988 to Poplar, which was a registered social landlord housing association. The issue arose as to whether Poplar was a public authority under the HRA and the Court of Appeal held that it was asserting that in this case, in providing accommodation for the defendant and then seeking possession, the role of Poplar is so closely assimilated to that of Tower Hamlets that it was performing public and not private functions[1].

Dawson v Hanson et al

There have been three main occasions when Mr. Hanson was to deliver the mail and Archie lunged at him, barked and growled, while he put the mail in the mail slot. From this day onwards, Mrs. Hanson, Archie’s owner decided to keep the dog in the backyard during the time of delivery of the mail in order to keep the dog from lunging at Mr. Dawson. Brock Mason failed to reply to a written complaint made by Mr. William’s regarding the dog’s atrocious behaviour and need to bark and growl at him all the time even though he never stepped onto the property rented by Mrs. Hanson. However, upon entering the very house of Mrs. Hanson, Mr. Dawson was bitten by her dog, Archie on the 15th of August, 2009. The dog lunged because it was able to escape from the backyard due to the negligence of Mrs. Hanson’s son, Joshua Hanson, not having been able to close the door properly in order to prevent the dog from escaping, despite knowing that it was ferocious and had a habit of growling at the neighbours and anyone else who happened to chance upon the property. Mrs. Hanson came forward and tried to get the dog to let go but her son was forced to switch on the hose pipe and finally make the dog leave Mr. Dawson’s leg. The main witness that noticed the entire injury take place was Ms LaVerne Coles. The paramedics were immediately called by her, and Mr. Dawson was rushed to the hospital arriving upon which he received 33 stitches as well as proper follow up care from Dr Jackson Ellis. Dr. Ellis further asked him to visit Dr Ivan Gomez for checking his torn rotator which had suffered damages during the fall when the dog bit him. Mr. Dawson was also made to attend a physical therapy session for the next eight weeks following the accident. Not only did the entire episode cost Mr. Dawson a heavy amount to recover fully from the damages and injuries caused by the dog, but the entire process also caused Mr. Dawson to reduce his earnings due to a pay cut from $55,700 to $53,500 on an annual basis. Law and Argument: In California statutes, ordinances and case law address the regulation of dogs and their owners, and the bases for compensation in the case of injury. For example, in cases involving certain types of dogs, i.e., dangerous dogs (dogs with a dangerous propensity or vicious propensity) the owner of the dog may be liable for injury, without regard to fault (strict liability). In other situations, owners, landlords or other persons who keep or harbor dangerous dogs may be liable when the dogs attack. The facts of each case will often determine the outcome of that particular case. California is a strict liability state, meaning that a dog owner is liable for injuries inflicted by his dog upon a human being, even if the owner was not negligent and the dog had never bitten anyone before. California is one of the states that has a dog bite statute, meaning a law that repudiates in whole or part the common law’s requirement of scienter (i.e., knowledge that the animal had previously injured a person in the same manner, such as by a bite). California Civil Code section 3342 provides as follows: 3342. (a) The owner of any dog is liable for the damages suffered by any person who is bitten by the dog while in a public place or lawfully in a private place, including the property of the owner of the dog, regardless of the former viciousness of the dog or the owner’s knowledge of

Environmental Risk Management

For adoption of an effective EMS, this paper discusses the processes involved in Environmental risk assessment. These include hazard assessment, exposure assessment, consequences assessment as well as risk estimation. Through integration of these processes with the major activities undertaken in formulation and implementation of EMS, an organization is able to benefit from an effective EMS. Some of the major implications of an accredited EMS to institutions such as Cowcaddens University include reduced operational costs, public support and competitive advantage. In this regard, this paper discusses some key recommendations that Cowcaddens should adopt. For instance, the institution should engage all stakeholders including employees and students in the entire process of formulating and implementing the EMS. This also entails offering environment conservation courses in addition to offering training to the employees and holding environmental protection seminars and forums. Introduction Environmental Management System (EMS) entails comprehensive strategies that are adopted to effectively manage environmental aspects that affect the day to day operations of companies. … Other advantages of EMS include improving the production process, reduction of company liabilities and expenses as well as reduction of costs of managing waste materials. For companies to increase total sales, it is imperative for firms to emulate effective EMS especially in the modern times when most consumers are keenly looking for products that are harmless to the environment. This paper seeks to discuss the concepts that are vital in the development of an environmental risk assessment process as part of an Environment Management System of Cowcaddens University. Specific Environmental legislation Environmental Permitting Regulations 2011 SI 2043 Environmental Permitting Regulations 2011 SI 2043 is one of the major environmental legislation that was emulated by UK government in October 2011. The law that seeks to redefine radioactive waste was adopted after several amendments of the earlier Acts. The amendment was done in order to provide effective EMS that ensures risks associated with radioactive materials are properly addressed. Due to the anomalies of Radioactive Substances Act (RSA) of 1960, the UK government recognized the need to make adjustment of the Act. RSA 1993 was also based on RSA 1960. Even though some countries such as Northern Ireland and Scotland have still retained the majority of the provisions of RSA 1993, major reviews have been adopted in UK that are contributed by various environment regulators and industries. This was aimed at making UK attain a strong approach of preventing the country from being negatively affected by the large amount of radioactive materials from the industries. The monitoring of the implementation of the law is to be undertaken in 2015.

O’Reilly v Mackman

It was this statement of Lord Diplock that gave rise to the creation of the exclusivity rule:as a general rule be contrary to public policy, and as such an abuse of the process of the court, to permit a person seeking to establish that a decision of a public authority infringed rights to which he was entitled to protection under public law to proceed by way of an ordinary action and by this means to evade the provisions of Ord 53 for the protection of such authorities. 2The most salient feature of the O’Reilly case, the procedural exclusivity rule determined that all matters concerning public law issues had to be litigated by way of judicial review. This had the effect of denying citizens the right to seek redress in the same matter in other proceedings where private rights were infringed. Procedural concerns are relevant to this issue.This exclusivity rule has generated a lot of confusion among the courts and surprisingly, it has never been overruled. Lord Woolf was very outspoken when addressing the confusion created by O’Reilly v Mackman’s procedural exclusivity rule. He said that the ‘procedural wrangling in that case’ has given rise to a waste of resources.3Lord Woolf carried his discussion of O’Reilly v Mackman a little further in Clark v Lincolnshire [2000] 3 All 742 when he noted that Lord Diplock’s exclusivity rule was concerned with minimizing the risk of an abuse of the civil process. Under Order 53 a complainant had to demonstrate that he had a real chance of success to proceed with the judicial review process. Lord Woolf said, ‘The emphasis can, therefore, be said to have changed since OReilly v Mackman. What is likely to be important when proceedings are not brought …under Ord 53, will not be whether the right procedure has been adopted but whether the protection provided by Ord 53 has been flouted incircumstances which are inconsistent with the object.

Socil Work Ethicl Dilemms

Gаps in other аreаs of service, such аs fаilure to provide аdequаte preventive аnd supportive services, get less public scrutiny. They leаd to less extreme аdverse results аnd these outcomes hаve а less cleаr-cut cаusаl connection to professionаl аctions or omissions. They аre а concern to professionаls аnd, intermittently, to politiciаns but less so to contemporаry British society in generаl where pаrenting is seen аs primаrily а privаte rаther thаn а sociаl responsibility. Аs а result of this biаsed interest, the impаct of inquiries hаs been to prioritise the child protective functions аgаinst а bаckdrop of professionаls struggling, with vаrying degrees of success, to continue to meet the broаder remit of child welfаre.One might hаve expected the impаct of inquiries to hаve lessened since 1991 when the streаm of inquiries becаme а trickle аs а result of the new Working Together guidаnce which introduced privаte Pаrt 8 inquiries to be conducted by locаl аgencies, only а few of which hаve been deemed by the Depаrtment of Heаlth to require further, public, scrutiny (Depаrtment of Heаlth 1991:57). This, I shаll аrgue, is not the cаse. Аlthough there wаs only one inquiry а yeаr between 1993 аnd 1997, followed by а silence for five yeаrs, the threаt of а public inquiry hаs remаined а mаjor influence on professionаl аction, encourаging а defensive style of work аnd hаmpering аttempts by policy mаkers to broаden the focus of the services.Professionаls feаrs hаve been reаlised by three recent reports thаt hаve received considerаble mediа аttention (Lаuren Wright, Norfolk Heаlth Аuthority 2002. Аinlee Lаbonte, Newhаm АCPC 2002. Victoriа Climbié, Lаming 2003).

Volcanic impact on environment

The exploitation of these materials in turn has a direct impact on the environment. (Marti and Ernst, xiii) Significantly, the direct and indirect impact of volcanoes on the environment and society requires significant public awareness as volcanic eruptions never get public attention unless when people and buildings are harmed directly by these volcanoes. The crucial impact of hazardous volcanic processes on the environment and the society needs to be analyzed comprehensively and it is important to realize that the direct volcano hazards include fall processes, flowage processes, and other processes, while the indirect volcano hazards include earthquakes and ground movement, tsunami, atmospheric impact and climate change, etc. A profound analysis of the volcanic impact on the environment confirms that the volcanic eruptions are extremely harmful to the environment, primarily because of the number of toxic gases emitted in the process. Significantly, the toxic gases emitted in volcanic eruptions include carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, carbon monoxide, volatile metal chlorides, etc. and these are extremely hazardous to the environment. This paper makes a reflective exploration of the volcanic impact on the environment in order to discover the various hazardous ways in which volcanic eruptions and process influence the environment and the society, directly and indirectly. One of the major research questions of an analysis of the volcanic impact on the environment should be how the volcanic gases have

Positive Youth Development to Prevent Juvenile Delinquency

According to the research findings, it can, therefore, be said that considering the multiple factors which place teenagers at risk for a variety of personal and social problems stress should be given to the development of adolescent-focused treatment aimed at increasing the mode of protective elements, proportionate to the negative factors, leading to behavioral incompatibility. In an increasingly diverse, often fragmented society, it is difficult for young people to get the clear hint about the core positive values important for personal development. As young people are the valuable asset of today and the resource of future more investment is needed in youth development. When people feel supported and connected they develop a shared sense of values, and tend to work together in community with commitment paving the way to a healthy, harmonious, and skilled future generation. Government agencies could play an important role in encouraging constructive values we share as a society and transmit it to the young people. During much of the 20th century, public rhetoric about how to respond to juvenile crime incorrectly posited clear, either-or positions from which policy choices should be made: child or adult. punishment or rehabilitation. judicial discretion or rigorous guidelines. The reality has always been more ambiguous. Even though it is heuristically useful to divide this century’s juvenile court experience into opposing epochs—the benign paternalism of the first part of the century versus the get-tough policies of recent decades—the lines between these orientations are less clear. It is a mistake to think of the juvenile justice system as a single, self-contained unit operated as one entity. Through the 20th century, the juvenile justice system has sought to save children, nurture them, rehabilitate them, cure them, isolate them and punish them. A requirement of any effective juvenile justice system is treating every youth offender as an individual and providing all with the necessary services.

Discovering the Tragic Hero

Aristotle outlines three requisite character traits that the tragic hero should possess, he qualifies the definition of the tragic hero with a set of events that must also take place before the hero can be considered truly tragic. Once this process is understood, it is easy to see how the sudden downfall of a mighty man, such as Oedipus the King from the play by Sophocles for example, would be dramatic and shocking to a public dominated by strict social classes. The same events occurring to a common citizen, such as an ancient Willy Loman from Arthur Miller’s play, would simply be expected and thus would be no more shocking or impacting than fruit going bad. However, more modern audiences accustomed to greater equality in social structure tend to identify more closely with the ‘low man’ who is more like them and have come to expect spectacular downfalls of their social leaders. Thus, a shift occurred in the definition of the tragic hero from the ancient world to the present which can be discovered through a comparison of the title character in Oedipus the King by Sophocles and the character of Willy Loman from Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman that serves to retain the effects of the tragic.The tragic hero had been present in a number of plays and dramas of the ancient Greeks before Aristotle, but Aristotle codified, so to speak, the requirements for a character to be considered a tragic hero. This idea was generally applied to characters with potential for tremendous greatness, such as kings and princes or those who had some sort of noble claim. However, each of these characters is considered destined to fail as a result of some tragic flaw inherent in their nature, often associated in some way with their greatest strength and therefore an aspect of their character that the individual is inordinately proud to exercise (Aristotle, 1998).

Germany the Sole Guilty / From Revolution to Rise of Stalinism

Whereas on the other hand article 251 concluded that Germany had to pay for the damages that were caused during the First World War. Reparations mean that the guilty party has to pay for the damages that they have caused. As a result Germany was forced to pay ?6600 million for all the damages. In addition Germany lost all of its colonies around Europe. For example Posen, which was rich farmland, was given to Poland. Poland also gained a corridor to the Baltic Sea. This separated East Germany from East Prussia. Also Danzig became a free city which was run by the League of Nations. Alsace Lorraine was given to France who had lost the land previously to Germany in 1871. Furthermore Germany was forbidden to have any submarines or an air force. They were permitted to have six battleships and an army that consisted of just a hundred thousand men. Also Germany was not allowed to put any armed forces in the Rhineland, which was next to France. The area was regarded as demilitarised. In November 1918 Germany was forced to drop out of the war. The Kaiser abdicated and fled the country. This resulted in a new republic being formed in February 1919 in the town of Weimar. This was known as the Weimar republic and the elected president was Freidrich Ebert. The Allied forces reiterated the fact that the German leaders had to be different. This new government was all about democracy, whereas before 1914 it was a military autocracy. To begin with, this idea of democracy did not provide the German public with much hope. This is because the Germans were used to strong powerful leaders. They felt as if this new democracy would get walked all over by the Allied forces. When the German’s heard about the Treaty of Versailles they were furious that they were being told to take the sole blame. They referred to it as ‘Diktat’, this means that it was an imposed settlement as the Germans had no say in the outcome. Many German’s wanted to not sign the treaty as they found it insulting and unfair. The reparations were met by disgruntled German’s who tried to refuse to pay up until January 1921. They stated that the Allied forces were trying to starve the public. This made the German public despise the Weimar Republic because they began paying back the reparations. A sense of hatred and cowardice was felt towards the new republic. In addition the Germans detested the fact that they had a small army and that they were vulnerable to other countries. Also Germany’s economy had been crippled because all of its colonies had been disbanded and in addition many Germans were living in different countries, as parts of Germany had been split. It seems that the Weimar Republic had a lot of critics, but most of it’s problems were out of its control, as the damage had been done before they came into power. Nevertheless the German public felt like they were stabbed in the back as they never wanted to sign the Treaty of Versailles as it was an insult to their pride and it makes all those Germans soldiers deaths pointless. The Weimar Republic leaders were not trusted and viewed as cowards. The Weimar Republic and its leaders suffered the repercussions of the Treaty of Versailles from the German public. This came in the form of rebellions, either from the right or left wing. The people of these organisations believed it was time for change and that Germany could not sit back and be ruled over by the Allied forces. The left wing rebellions came from fifty thousand Spartacists in 1919

Company research analysis

How often in a year will you be in a convention or conference center? [ ] 1 – 2 times [ ] 3 – 5 times [ ] 5 or more times. 9. Was this your first visit ? Yes/NO 10. Would you recommend the center to friends or professional contacts ? YES/NO 11. Would you come back to the center ? YES/NO SECTION TWO. SUBSECTION A: QUALITY SURVEY: 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 Good 4 Very Good 5 Excellent QUESTION Scale 1. WHAT WAS YOUR OVER-ALL EXPERIENCE LIKE? 1 2 3 4 5 2. HOW DID YOUR EXPERIENCE COMPARE WITH YOUR EXPECTATIONS? 1 2 3 4 5 3. HOW WELL ORGANIZED WERE THE SIGNS DIRECTIONS? 1 2 3 4 5 4. HOW COURTEOUS WAS THE STAFF AT THE CENTER? 1 2 3 4 5 5. HOW CLEAN AND TIDY DID THE CENTER SEEM TO YOU ? 1 2 3 4 5 6. RATE YOUR EXPERIENCE WITH THE PARKING FACILITIES ? 1 2 3 4 5 7. RATE THE AMENITIES THAT YOU USED LIKE WASHROOMS 1 2 3 4 5 8. RATE YOUR EXPERIENCE WITH ANY OF OUR SPECIAL SERVICES 1 2 3 4 5 9. HOW DID YOU LIEK THE FOOD SERVED AT THE CENTER? 1 2 3 4 5 10. HOW WAS THE SOUND OR AUDIO SYSTEM AT YOUR PRESENTATION? 1 2 3 4 5 11. HOW WAS THE VISIBILITY OF ANY PRESENTATIONS YOU SAW? 1 2 3 4 5 12. RATE THE ADMINISTRATION AT THE CENTER IF YOU USED THEM ? 1 2 3 4 5 SECTION TWO – SUBSECTION B – IMPORTANCE SURVEY: 1 Not important at all 2 Somewhat unimportant 3 No opinion either way 4 Somewhat Important 5 Extremely Important Question Scale 13. HOW IMPORTANT TO WORK WAS YOUR VISIT? 1 2 3 4 5 14. RATE THE IMPORTANCE OF CONFERENCE FACILITIES TO YOUR PROFESSION 1 2 3 4 5 15. HOW IMPORTANT IS THE LOCATION OF A CONFERENCE CENTER TO YOU? 1 2 3 4 5 16. HOW IMPORTANT TO YOU IS SUPPORT STAFF AT A CONVENTION CENTER? 1 2 3 4 5 17. HOW IMPORTANT TO YOU ARE THE TECHNOLOGIES USED TO DELIVER PRESENTATIONS? 1 2 3 4 5 18. HOW IMPORTANT TO YOU IS THE AVAILABLITY OF FOOD AT A CONVENTION OR CONFERENCE CENTER? 1 2 3 4 5 19. HOW IMPORTANT TO YOU IS THE SETTING OR ENVIRONMENT WHERE YOU MEET CLIENTS? 1 2 3 4 5 20. HOW IMPORTANT IS ACCESSABILITY BY PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION FOR YOU? 1 2 3 4 5 21. HOW IMPORTANT IS AVAILABLE PARKING TO YOUR CONVENTION NEEDS? 1 2 3 4 5 22. HOW IMPORTANT TO YOU ARE MAJOR URBAN LOCATIONS LIKE LONDON FOR A CONFERENCE CENTER? 1 2 3 4 5 23. HOW IMPORTANT TO YOU ARE SUPPORT STAFF AT A CONVENTION CENTER ? 1 2 3 4 5 24. HOW IMPORTANT TO YOU IS CONSISTENCY WHEN DEALING WITH A CONVENTION OR CONFERENCE CENTER ? 1 2 3 4 5 ADDITIONAL COMMENTS: _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ //–/–// 1 b. QUESTIONAIRE ANALYSIS: While there are some important and notable limitations or slight problems, the content of the questions is arguably the biggest strength of the questionnaire First, the content is a solid reflection of the needs in consideration. That is, the questions capture both the general concerns of anyone who is visiting a conference center, but also and very specifically, addressing the needs of someone who has a part or role in booking or carrying on the administrative function of interacting with a conference or convention center. The general questions are primarily focused on the facilities, and the staffing. The focus can be said on both acknowledging or recognizing what is needed or required, over and against the specific needs of a conference goer. While there is some room and some questions that focus

Gun Control Report

Mostly, those involved in gun violence may not be gun owners, but might be individuals that have illegal access to guns. Generally, gun ownership tends to be strict upon civilians as many at times individuals with the intention of committing crimes acquire guns with relative ease through illegal means. Therefore, it is import that the government sensitizes the public on matters related to gun ownership before the actual implementation of gun control policies at the legislative stage of governance. Further, this report will give the various statics surrounding the reported numbers of gun related crimes within the urban setups as compared to those in rural areas. Ideally, the number of gun related violence in urban states where there are strict regulations on gun acquisition are higher than the rates in rural areas where gun acquisition is easy (Joe, 2012). Subsequently, the report will be in tandem with the practical approaches applicable in the minimization of gun related crimes at the lowest level of governance to ensure that civilians also play a role in developing safer living environments. The report would also to address the impact of the castle doctrine laws in some states as possible contributors to gun violence. This is in line wit the Institute of Legislative Action under the National Rifle Association as per the provision of the Second amendment in the US Constitution (Davies, 2013). Your sincerely, May 20th 2013 Table of Contents Table of Contents 4 Executive Summary 5 Introduction 5 Problem statement 7 Method 7 Findings 8 Analysis 10 Conclusion 10 References 12 Joe, W., B. (2012). The reality of the Gun Control Debate. Retrieved from http://wjoeb.hubpages.com/hub/The-reality-of-the-Gun-Control-Debate 12 Webster, D. W. et al. (2012). The Case for Gun Policy Reforms in America. John Hopkins Center for Gun Policy and Research Press. Retrieved on 20th May 2013 from http://www.jhsph.edu/research/centers-and-institutes/johns-hopkins-center-for-gun-policy-and-research/publications/WhitePaper102512_CGPR.pdf 12 Appendix 13 Executive Summary Presently, at least thirty thousand people that are part of the American population die because of gun inflicted wounds in which the greatest proportion of this number is young people. Ideally, this aspect has made gun violence be the greatest contributor to the premature demise of the young population of America. On the other hand, the statistics on the number of reported non-fatal gun related crimes amount to close to three hundred and forty seven thousand cases with a minimal number of this people seeking treatment at hospital departments. In essence, the rate of homicide in America is seven times higher than that of other developed economies making it a worrying trend for a good performing economy (Sowell, 2012). Fundamentally, the lack of proper gun laws is the prime reason as to why there is a higher prevalence of gun ownership and higher cases of gun related violent crimes. Further, gun violence also impacts the economy as the US population loses a significant number of the work force to violent deaths while the rest incurs expenses in seeking treatment for the injuries caused by gun violence. The traumatic effect caused by gun violence tends to have an impact on the increase of poverty levels as it tends to influence psychological imbalance for those affected by this tragic event. According to statistics, the average direct or

Iraq War

This was especially so in the light of what was hoped to be greater women’s political participation which would be conducive for development in Iraq in economic and social spheres, whereby the women would achieve like their Western contemporaries individual freedom and political empowerment.In this vein my dissertation explores whether these expectations have been achieved five years down the lane since the Iraq war. My initial research in the field of investigation of ‘women and political participation’ as I sifted through academic and political commentaries pertaining to the issue of women and empowerment reveals that there is a recurring trend of the problems that women face throughout the globe. It is also possible to see that women’s participation in the democratic process in Iraq can be divided into historical phases. Whereas the decade of the sixties witnessed a growth in the number of more politically aware women in the country’s economic, political, and civil spheres of the society particularly through the public/government sector.The advent of the Baathist party in the early seventies also saw the Education for all initiative which made women’s liberation a supreme tenet of its agenda based upon the prevalent socialist ideology. This does little for the private sphere as the Muslim Shariah laws were discriminatory against women. Things did not look good for the development of the Women’s liberation in the mid-eighties which witnessed an Iraq tumultuously struggling in the Iraq-Iran conflict and the birth of an increasing secularist state which targeting the clerical fundamentalist minority of the country’s political arena. The subsequent suppression of this fundamentalist element caused social conservatism so whereas the women were active economically but politically their position weakened and this caused the decade to witness an increased breach of women’s rights and liberties. The nineties saw a wave of religious fundamentalism backed by the public sector and therewas an increase in Burqa and Hijab clad women and there were fewer women in the workforce and colleges.

Causes and Consequences of the Wall Street Crash of 1929

Many thought that the stock market was the wisest place to make investments to secure their future. As more people invested in the stock market, the prices of stock continued to rise and with the rise of stock prices, more people were encouraged to invest because they believed that the rise in stock prices would continue indefinitely and that they would eventually get very high returns for their investments (Svaldi, 2004). By nineteen twenty eight, the rising stock prices had brought about the stock market boom and this changed the way investors viewed the stock market. The stock market was no longer a place where long term investments were made but had now become a place where people could get rich quickly by making short term investments due to the high interest rates given for their stocks (Klein, 2001, 325 – 351). The news of people having made millions from their investments in the stock market, even common people who would normally not have been a part of the stock market environment, encouraged many more people to invest. Many of those people who wanted to invest in the stock market did not have the money to do so and many chose to buy stock ‘on margin.’ This meant that the potential investor would put down his own money to buy the stock while the rest was borrowed from a stock broker, and this tended to be about ten to twenty percent of their own money. Buying stock ‘on margin’ was a very risky venture because if the prices of stock went down below its buying price, then the broker from whom the money to buy the stock was borrowed would issue a ‘margin call’ which meant that the investor had to come up with the money to pay back his loan almost immediately. Buying stock on margin was very popular for those people who did not have enough money to invest, and the continued rise in stock prices encouraged many more people to invest in this manner, not thinking of the risks which they were exposing themselves to through their ventures (Williamson, 2008). By the early nineteen twenty nine, many Americans were scrambling to make investments in the stock market because the profits from such investments seemed to be assured. This assurance of profits led many companies to invest their money in the stock market and these were not the only major investors. Banks were so confident in the stock market that they, without consulting their customers, invested their customers’ money in the stock market because with stock prices continually rising, the environment seemed perfect for investment (Mclynn, 2002). When the Wall Street crash occurred in October of the same year, many people and institutions were taken by surprise. A prelude to the crash occurred in March nineteen twenty nine when stock prices began to drop and there was an overall panic when stock brokers began making margin calls. However, confidence in the stock market was restored when banker Charles Mitchell made the announcement that his bank would continue lending to those who wished to invest (Burke, 2001). Mitchell and other bankers tried to again reassure the public to have confidence in the stock market but this was not enough to stop the great crash that occurred later that year. During the spring of nineteen twenty

Distorting the Truth About Crime and Race

However, the role of NYPD is to strictly keep an eye on African Americans for the sake of crime prevention and mitigation program that they should employ for the public safety. For this reason, no unjustified racial tactics may be necessary on the part of NYPD, but a strong action of priority to look out for the violent ones, which would allow us to see Mac Donald so convincing with his claim if we try to figure out this way. The strong stand of Mac Donald (2010) is to disclose the crime rates before we could actually conclude that the New York Police Department (NYPD) may have actually oppressed the city’s black population or the minority with their so-called unjustified racial tactics. It is on this ground that in his article entitled Distorting the Truth About Crime and Race: The New York Times Is At It Again published in the City Journal he strongly disagreed the way how the New York Times may have falsely accused the NYPD of its ‘racist stop-and-frisk practices’ that was allegedly employed on the minority of the population, consisting the Blacks, Hispanic and other nationalities. Keywords: race, crime, racial discrimination, African Americans, NYPD, justice The strong stand of Mac Donald (2010) is to disclose the crime rates before we could actually conclude that the New York Police Department (NYPD) may have actually oppressed the city’s black population or the minority with their so-called unjustified racial tactics. It is on this ground that in his article entitled Distorting the Truth About Crime and Race: The New York Times Is At It Again published in the City Journal Mac Donald strongly opposed the way New York Times may have falsely accused the NYPD of its ‘racist stop-and-frisk practices’ that was allegedly employed on the minority of the population, consisting the Blacks, Hispanic and other nationalities. Mac Donald (2010) said, You cannot properly analyze police behavior without analyzing crime. Will this lead us to understanding why, as the Times claimed that in 2009 Blacks made up 55 percent of all stops even though they were only 23 percent of the city’s total population compared to the 10 percent of all stops for the Whites consisting the highest percentage of the population which was 35 percent by that time? Mac Donald has the answer. He presented the evidence that in the first half of 2009 in New York, Blacks already committed 66 percent of all the reported cases of violent crimes compared to the 5 percent among Whites by contrast. In addition, he added that Blacks committed 80 percent of all shootings in the first half of 2009 and 70 percent of all reported cases of robberies compared to the 1.8 percent for shootings and 5 percent robberies that whites committed, by contrast. This therefore according to Mac Donald should justify further why Blacks and Latinos were nine times as likely as whites to be stopped. Mac Donald suggested that the above facts should have been included in the report of Times in order to justify the truth behind why the cops are most likely to stop the minority of the population who were most of the time involved in the proliferation of crimes. In this tone of argument, Mac Donald is trying to convey the idea that Blacks could be more violent than Whites, which could further justify why the cops may have placed them as a higher priority for various crime-related investigations. Here where the actual issue of public policing may come in, which Mac Donald has also deliberately included in his argument. In line with his actual reasoning, it could be that the ultimate way to justify the action of the NYPD is to investigate the rate of crimes at present when police officers are active in mitigating the occurrence of crime especially that a significant number

‘Do pesticide residues in food pose a significant risk to consumer health

Studies revealed that residues of pesticides remain in the crops for some time that eventually enter the cycle of the food chain. If these chemicals can kill and destroy the pests, they can also pose a potential danger to human beings. A safe level is then studied by researchers to establish the tolerable amount of pesticide residues that can ingested and does not endanger human beings. Incidents from around the globe reveal that human beings suffer from pesticide poisoning or overdose that has adversely affected life and health. This occurred despite stringent regulation by government regulatory agencies. Can pesticide be continuously used so that crops can be grown in abundance and free of disease but still not endanger the life of human beings? Without pesticide, farmers and growers will suffer great losses when pests and diseases attack their farms. But on the consumer end, death and illness can result. A balance has to be made so that both the production and consumer sides can benefit. Pesticides that can be used in plants must be approved by regulating agencies (Food Standards Agency 2004). Introduction Pesticide is a general term that refers to a wide array of products used to decimate pests in the house, agricultural farm, etc. such as insect killers (called insecticides), mould and fungi killers (or fungicides), weedkillers (herbicides), slug pellets (molluscicides), rat and mouse killers (rodenticides), plant growth regulators, and bird and animal repellents (Health and Safety Executive 2009). United States Environmental Protection Agency (2010) included disinfectants and sanitizers (for kitchen or laundry), chemicals used for swimming pools, personal insect repellents, baits and sprays for cockroaches, and powders and sprays for fleas and ticks. There are natural pesticides such as pyrethrums (taken from chrysanthemum plant) and others are modified forms of natural chemicals (Health and Safety Executive 2009). For several decades, pesticides are being used by food growers in order to make the produce look good and abundant (Health and Safety Executive 2009). The chemicals used in regulating the growth of plants (e.g. one that slows down sprouting in potatoes) are likewise classified as pesticides and are regulated (Food Standards Agency 2004). Without using pesticides, the crops can lose their quality (Food Standards Agency 2004) making them not saleable in the market. Pesticide is used primarily for the benefits it can offer. In the farm, it protects the crops from pesky insects, weeds and fungi that cause diseases in plants (Health and Safety Executive 2009). Farm crops grow healthy and protected from diseases by pesticides (Food Standards Agency 2004). It also prevents rats, fungi and insects from contaminating the food while under storage (Health and Safety Executive 2009). In most instances, there are trace amounts of the chemicals used that remain inside or around the produce after harvest or while being stored (Food Standards Agency n.d.). These chemicals are called pesticide residues, and also include traces that result from the breakdown of pesticides (Food Standards Agency n.d.). It is sometimes necessary that a pesticide must stay longer on the crop to effectively protect it (Food Standards Agency n.d.). Exhaustive studies are conducted by regulatory agencies in collaboration with scientific institutions to confirm the report submitted by a company about the pesticide intended to be sold to the public. Upon the grant of approval, the

Australia and the world

Australian forces are partnering with the US-led Combined team to focus on Uruzgan Province along with many other ISAF partner countries to disable insurgent networks besides helping the Afghanistan government to build up core services for the local communities and undergo long-term socio-economic growth. 1 Participation of Australia in Afghanistan is not limited to fighting the insurgents only. the Australian government has also engaged itself politically through its civilian officers in the ongoing process. Although the conditions for the soldiers have been very harsh and difficult in southern Afghanistan where 23 Australian soldiers have lost their lives while performing their duties yet the ‘3-D’ strategy of the Australian government of ___________________________ 1 Khosa, Introduction: Transition and Australia’s Afghanistan Endgame, 1. diplomacy, development and defence is structured to guide the troops, which is the maximum limit, Australia can go as a partner state to NATO-led forces within the given resources. Australian participation in the war against insurgency in Afghanistan won’t impact greatly on the strategic issues confronting the coalition, particularly the complex regional aspects of the fighting between the coalition-led forces and the Taliban. The best bet for Australia is to attempt pursuing realistic results with the extent of risk it can take in the field of its functioning. It is expected from the ANSF to efficiently manage the security challenges in Uruzgan under the Afghanistan government with the logistic help from ISAF, as the final responsibility of establishing law order, running efficiently the public administration and arranging essential services at the provincial, district, and community level, financed through national programmes and socio-economic progress based on a robust agrarian economy in Uruzgan depends on the government of Afghanistan only. 2 It is expected that Australian military involvement will continue for 1 more year, as Prime Minister Julia Gillard stated while appreciating the stance taken by Afghanistan to takeover security in parts of the country from coalition-led forces. Hamid Karzai, the Afghan President is hopeful that the process of power change would start in July and by 2014 would be accomplished, which Ms Gillard has stated a significant step. On its part, Ms Gillard has shown solidarity with the Afghanistan cause by providing training to _________________________________ 2. Ibid the Fourth Brigade of the Afghan National Army in the southern province of Uruzgan with the strength of its 1,550 soldiers. It is expected that the changeover in Uruzgan province and its districts might start anytime with the next 1 to 3 years. Stephan Smith, the Defence Minister, has also appreciated the decision of Mr. Karzai. The Afghan National Security Force is getting strong enough with the backing of the Combined Team-Uruzgan in capturing the lost grounds all through the Uruzgan province. 3 The life of Australian soldiers functioning from far-away Afghan base has been quite harsh with the approaching summer season and Platoon House Hamid is getting ready to shift to another base with the transfer of area only week away. only Australian mentors would be there with the Afghan National Army. The whole Uruzgan province would pass through the process of changeover of military command

The Rise of the European State and the Modern State

According to Garner, Ferdinand and Lawson (2009), strong democracies have full fledged institutions that function to dispense the will of the people, effectively. Normally, strong democracies do not only boast of institutions that are fully functioning, but also institutions that discharge the will of the masses. These institutions may include public, nongovernmental and even private institutions, albeit emphasis is placed on public institutions. For this cause, institutions that make up the judiciary, the legislature and the executive are highly considered if they meet the threshold or not. For instance, an event that clearly epitomizes the democratic nature of strong judicial and legislative institutions in the US. Herein, although these institutions effectively and consistently discharge their duties as outlined in the US Constitutions, yet they did not arrogate themselves the authority to make marriage amendments without the involvement of the US citizens. Resultantly, to decide the fate of homosexual marriages in North Carolina, North Carolinians were extended the ultimate decision through voting, on May 8th, 2012. Thus, one can see that the strength of democratic institutions is not only hinged upon consistent and effective discharging of mandate, but also upon proximity of such initiatives to the will of the public. The will of the public is important herein since the legitimacy of these institutions and the government’s authority emanates from their closeness to public will…. Mostly, this weakness emanates from the absence of checks and balance and separation of powers. This absence denudates the effectiveness of these institutions by breeding external interference. In most cases, it is the head of the executive who does the interference. In weak states, important institutions such as electoral commissions and courts of law are unable to operate with autonomy, leading to spates of post-election violence and acts akin to crimes against humanity. Again, these states may be weak enough to be infiltrated by sectarian interests, instead of serving the interests of the majority or the people (Rotberg, 2003). States in the International Community That May Be Considered Just Too Weak To Continue Demanding Recognition One of the countries that aptly fit the class of weak states is Somalia. The weakness of Somalia is evidenced by its inability to provide public or social goods such as security, despite the fact that it has all the instruments of coercion (the prison system, the police and the army). It is against this backdrop that large swathes of Somali land such as Jilib are still under the control of the Islamist organization, Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahedeen (commonly known as al-Shabaab). The ineffectiveness of the country is also underscored by the facts that: the presence and operation of al-Shabaab form a parallel government to that of Transitional Somali Government. and that foreign terrorist cells such as al- Qaeda are sponsoring al-Shabaab’s presence and operations in Somalia. The latter is the case since terrorists are bent on destabilizing Somalia as a strategic point to expand to Africa. The same also exposes the vulnerability of the Somali government since it

Dividend Policys of Companies

Companies which are in stages of growth or in initial stages normally have a sparing dividend policy because they reinvest or plow back much of their earnings into the company to experience growth and development (Financial Dictionary 2011). Established companies such as blue chips, Unilever and Wal-Mart being some of them, are inclined to relatively liberal dividend payout policies and grant dividends regularly on quarterly or half-yearly basis. For instance, Unilever (bearing a symbol of UL and listed on NYSE) pays a regular dividend every quarter. the most recent payout has been an amount of US$ 0.307 on November 8, 2011. Similarly, Wal-Mart paid a quarterly dividend of US$ 0.365 recently on December 07, 2011. a payment every quarter is being followed by the company. Dividends payment do assure shareholder satisfaction but some research, particularly Modigliani and Miller (MM)’s proposition on irrelevance depicts that a company’s performance and profitability is not affected by its dividend policy. Talking from the shareholder perspective, shareholders are more satisfied when they receive regular flows of dividends, even in small amounts but the factor of regularity ensures their confidence in the company. An irregular or erratic pattern of dividend payouts can lead to bad image for the company and thus an adverse effect on its share in the market. Considering potential investors and their attitude towards a company’s dividend payment patterns or dividend policy, people, according to their stage of investment that is their age, invest accordingly. In the case of stocks, younger or aggressive risk taker individuals invest in growth stocks or stocks that induce capital gains rather than a stream of dividends. Investors in retirement stages or in the later faction of their lives invest in less risky income stocks which payout dividends on a continuous basis forming a regular fixed income. Mini Case – Topic: Dividend Policy Company Name: Wal-Mart Stores Inc. Description Wal-Mart was founded in the year 1962, with the inauguration of the first Wal-Mart discount store in Rogers, Ark. The company became public as Wal-Mart Stores Inc. on October 31, 1969 and its shares began trading on OTC (Over The Trading) markets in 1970 and were listed on NYSE (New York Stock Exchange) two years later in 1972. The first dividend was declared on March 26, 1974. Wal-Mart Stores Inc. is the 18th largest publicly listed company according to The Forbes 2010 list of Global 2000 big publicly listed companies (The Forbes 2011). The company caters to customers and members more than 200 million times weekly at retail units more than 9,880 under 60 different banners in more than 28 countries. With the world’s highest sales revenue of US$ 405 billion, it employs more than 2 million employees worldwide. Dividend Policy of Wal-Mart Stores Inc Before discussing about Wal-Mart’s dividend policy, its payout history has to be taken into account. the table below depicts the same: Dividend Payment History – Wal-Mart Stores Inc Year 2010 2009 2008 Dividend Per Share* (DPS) (In US$) 1.09 0.95 0.88 Total Dividend (In US$ million) 4,217 3,746 3,586 Dividend Yield (IN US$) 2.1% 1.9% 2.1% *These dividends are paid in four portions on a quarterly basis such as US$0.3025 paid on January 31, 2011. The above table depicts the

Why the Euro Crisis Is an American Problem

It is estimated that the collapse could generate a 25% decrease in Europe’s gross domestic product (GDP). In effect, the euro crisis would represent a Great Depression of the current century, and this would be a threat to the global financial system (Zuckerman, 2011). According to Frum (2011), if the Euro falls, bonds will lose value in the European banks. This is because banks in the European region hold euro-dominated bonds. The bonds will lose value such that the banks will be forced to either seek assistance from the government, or put to a stop their lending to individual consumers and/or businesses (Frum, 2011). The fall of the euro will adversely affect other nations like Canada and the United States. For one, the financial institutions in Europe may lose their capacity to repay creditors in the United States. The net effect of the crisis will be more pressure on the financial system of the United States. Yet again, it should be considered that majority of the investors in the United States are from the euro zone , and if the eurozone economies fall, the Americans will have a difficult time raising capital for their businesses and new projects (Frum, 2011). The genesis of the crisis is very clear. Just like the United States, Europe was a victim of over-leveraging. The past decade has seen the European Central Bank overseeing easy credit, cross-border lending, and low interest rates which was instigated by a property boom and the increase of debt in households. The bubble has already burst, and the outcome has been the risk of failure to negotiate currency defaults and a series of frighteners (Zuckerman, 2011). It is worth noting that the majority of the Americans see the euro crisis as a crisis generated by government debt and government deficits. The same can be true of Greece, but it is not certainly true of France. If the Euro falls, each nation in the European region will be forced to have its own currency. This means that each nation will have to pay its debt using its own currency and not the euro (Frum, 2011). Europe’s option to avert the crisis is either to stop using the euro to restore each government to its own currency or to develop a single pan-European government to manage the new pan-European currency. Both options are not attractive to the United States. The United States has no option but to either suffer from the first option or contribute in support of the second option. Both options will have a considerable effect on the United States, and thus, the American cannot escape the euro crisis, it is their problem. Question 2: State Based Teaching Incentives to Improve Quality of Education Offered to Public Schools For a long time, the focus of the policymakers has been on improving or enhancing teacher quality. In the past few years, most reform efforts or initiatives have included strategies to enhance the overall quality of teachers and the equitable allotment of teachers within states, districts, and schools. The federal government endorsed an act in 2001in respect of education. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is aimed at ensuring teacher quality and fair distribution of teachers. The act demands that all states evaluate the allocation of teacher quality, create, and implement plans to enhance teacher quality and assure fair distribution of quality teachers (Fuller, 2010). In the past, local districts have been designing and supporting their individual recruitment programs. This isolated approach generally develops inequities across the states. This is because

White Like Me Reflections on Race from a Privileged Son by Tim Wise

Not only a vivid lecturer. Wise has shared his knowledge and literally trained hundreds of teachers, police, employees and persons connected with non profit organizations. A prolific writer, Wise came up with his first comprehensive book against racism, namely White Like Me: Reflections on Race From a Privileged Son in the year 2004. The book published from the Soft Skull Press, immediately attracted public attention and that from experts and commons alike. Before moving into the detailed review of the aforementioned book it would be wise to consider the views of Wise against racism in America in a nutshell. In the briefest possible way, Wise considers that racism one of the most ancient of the practises in America is an institutionalised affair. The virus of racism that is no short f any evil had been carried from the past and the society still rills under those past mal practises. This has resulted in the discrimination based on racial background in the modern day USA. Wise’s argument against racism is not a one-way ticket and that reflects when in general he agrees with the fact that such discrimination at individual level is much less nowadays than what was in the past. However his concern for this burning matter that is a disturbing question to the politicians and commons alike is that he profoundly feels that racism in America is institutionalised and all the efforts that are directed towards making America a country free of racism and a country fostering non biased policies, eventually ends up strengthening the racial discrimination in this very land. White Like Me: Reflections on Race from a Privileged Son by Tim Wise might sound narcissistic and offensive at times to the reader. As he narrates walking down the memory lane about the privileges and the special belongings that whites have enjoyed owing to their color and race over the so called people of different colors and origins, he carefully illustrates the supports and resistance to those privileges that came from different people belonging to the same so called white race. This white’s advantage over the other castes received great animosity from Wise as he extended his thoughtful advice to the people belonging to his own class to renounce the much-cherished advantages that they enjoy as a class of majority in no time. The uniqueness of Timothy Jacob Wise gets reflected here when he warns his own breeds about the grave danger that might awaits them if they still holds to those foolish privileges that once vested upon themselves. A remedy from this disease of whiteness that Wise calls for and that he believes on one hand will eradicate racism from America and on the other will save the skin of those white inhumans who still consider themselves superior than their darker counter part only in terms of their brighter color. (Wise 150) Wise is no short of courage when he accepts that as an American born and having a white color has helped him immensely through out his voyage of life so far. His claims are all well backed with examples and that certainly proves that Wise not only walked through the events that life presented to him but he took a keen observation of those events and that helped him to realise what equality of race is all about in America. Wise mentions that being a white, in his youth he managed to be a part of the Tulane University and came across far less resistance while going through his activities that are profoundly meant against racism (An act of the majority). The way that Wise

Barter and Monetized Systems of Exchange

Barter and Monetized Systems of ExchangeDifferent items have worked as money at different times. For instance, tobacco in America, chisels in China, gold until the gold standard was abandoned in the 1930s and paper currencies thereafter. Exchange of goods and services people produce and want is critical to satisfying the diverse wants of everyone. Such exchange is possible by using either the barter system or money as a medium of exchange. Barter was prevalent medium of exchange before the advent of money. It remains the principal form of exchange even today in tribal and traditional societies where political institutions are primitive, economies are not yet monetized and social systems are based on traditional practices and communal support. Even in advanced societies and economies like the United States, barter is still carried out to a limited extent in rural areas and public and charitable activities. On the other hand, modern societies and economies like that of the United States rely on money as the main medium of exchange. They have the highly developed political institutions to regulate money and prevent exploitation, manipulation and profiteering that money makes possible. they have monetized economies that help create and accumulate wealth. and they have social awareness that is necessary for people to trust an intrinsically worthless currency note, a mere piece of paper with the central bank’s assurance in small prints, as a medium of exchange. Barter and monetized systems of exchange have their own advantages and disadvantages (benefits and costs). … Third, since commodities and services are exchanged directly, there are no foreign exchange fluctuation or balance of trade and payment crises. Fourthly, the division of labor is clear, as one produces what one has the means to do. Barter’s Disadvantages: The barter system has several serious disadvantages too. First, coincidence of wants might be difficult unless the net is cast widely, which makes trade cumbersome. Secondly, in barter, there is no common measure of value making it difficult to ascertain, say for instance, how many loaves of bread would be equivalent to a cow if one wants to sell bread and the other cows. Third, in many cases the commodity one wants to sell, as the cow here, might be indivisible to sell in parts to buy a few loaves of bread. Fourth, commodities and animals often deteriorate in value fast and cannot be stored for long, which makes accumulation and storing of wealth difficult. Fifth, barter makes deferred payment and contractual deal problematic. Sixth, transporting bulky commodities from place to place becomes cumbersome in a barter system of exchange. Money’s Advantages: To avoid repletion of what has been already said, money takes care of all of the disadvantages of the barter system of exchange. Sexton describes the functions of money as a medium of exchange, a measure of value, as a store of value, and as a means of deferred payment (792-794). Briefly speaking, when money is used as a medium of exchange, there is no need for coincidence of wants. Money represents the common measure of value. it is divisible into small and large amounts. it can be stored almost forever if it is put away safely. it makes deferred payment easy. and

Gun Control is Not the Ticket to Peace

In this respect, the effectiveness of the gun control laws will be the deterrent of the incidences of shootings, but not stopping such incidences from occurring altogether (Griffith, n.p.). The logic behind this observation is that. the increase in the incidences of shootings is not caused by the highest number of licensed guns that the government has issued to the civilians. In fact, if we would like to be candid with ourselves, we would then agree that virtually all the incidences of public shootings are as a result of guns that are acquired illegally (Smith, n.p.). Consequently, the establishment of gun control laws may help to instil fear on the legal gun holders not to shoot at others, but such efforts will have no effects on the criminals and social deviants who rule and operate the black markets.Further, it is also essential to pose and reflect for a moment on the major reasons why those people who shoot at the public do so. Is it because they have acquired a licensed gun and are trying to test its efficiency? Is it because they have been licensed to hold a gun and they want the rest of the public to realize that they are legal gun holders who can now shoot at anyone, anywhere and at any time? Or is it because such people are feeling that their security is highly threatened by the innocent schoolchildren and so they enter the school premises, draw their guns and shoot at them? The reality attests to none of the above. Thus, the core of the problem does not lie in the possession of a gun. legal or illegal, but in the state of the mind of the gun holder (Pacharis, n.p.). In this respect, if we are to address the problem of people shooting at innocent children and other unarmed members of the public, then we have to think in direction of treating the core of the problem of the attackers, which is their mental health.The tragedy of mass murder is not committed by individuals who are sane, but mostly by just a small section of the society that has a mental health problem.

United States Postal Service

United s Postal Service One of the major areas in which the United s Postal services has gone wrong is in its initial pricing policy that charges uniform rates for inland services regardless of recipient’s location. This has adverse economic effects owing to the ownership and operation of the agency. While the Postal Service is an independent federal agency and not a national corporation, this pricing strategy is meant for corporations that are funded by the government and aims at service delivery for public utility and not self-sustenance. The pricing approach therefore restricts revenues as uniform rates increment will be uneconomical to users, especially in short distance remittance, and have consequences such as further loss of market control. Retaining the pricing strategy over a long period is another weakness that the agency has communicated and beginning to change it after the long period will elicit a hostile response from the public (Carbaugh and Tenerelli 129). The Postal Service has also gone wrong in its response to counteract its declining revenues. Its approach to use price-oriented strategy as opposed to customer target strategies was a weakness and led to further decline in revenues. In response to its deteriorating income, The Postal service increased rates chargeable to its consumers but this exerted more pressure on the already low revenues. The strategy seems to have scared more customers to alternative communication channels and competing firms because the magnitude of the organization’s handled mails declined. The organization’s move to reduce quality of its services by withdrawing first class services in order to reduce its cost was another mistakes that could send off clients who had been attracted by the involved quality services of the first class package (Carbaugh and Tenerelli 131- 134). Being flexible to demands from labor unions and yielding to the union’s demands is another mistake that the United States Postal Service has made in the past and is significant to its current challenges. Even though its employees have a right to engage in unions and the unions’ activities, the agency should have stood firm to reasonable rates that it could support in the end. It should have factored in market volatility and the fact that its revenues are not constant and ensured that it only agreed to reasonable remunerations. It however accepted the unions’ demands and increased its employees’ salaries to rates that are even better than those of other government agencies are. This has further strained the organization’s financial position as employees’ remunerations form the bulk, about 80 percent, of the agency’s costs. The Postal Service also erred in contracting to advance hefty benefits to its employees as this also burdens its financial position (Carbaugh and Tenerelli 134- 136). Failing to establish competitive standards for service delivery is another wrong that has occurred in the Postal Service and explains, significantly, its competitive disadvantage in the communication industry and among its major competitors. While technology has been changing and applications that are more efficient have evolved, the agency has retained its traditional approaches that may not appeal to the current generation. Existence of private organizations in the market is also an indicator that the industry is profitable and the agency’s failure to command the market and maintain profitability is a factor of low efficiency levels and poor quality services than what the private organizations offer. This is the reason for the private sector organizations’ profitability in the same market in which the agency is struggling. Another identifiable wrong with the United States Postal Services is its dormancy in the market as its control weathers off. It has failed to add value to its products or even diversify its products like other services providers in the private sector have done. This factor has also contributed to the organization’s competitive disadvantage and led to its higher vulnerability to loss of customers and revenues (Cusumano 21, 22). There are different measures that the Postal Service can undertake to prevent these wrongs from repeating themselves. The agency can change its remunerations and rewards policies towards a flexible human resource base with lower remuneration rates and reduced benefits in an attempt to prevent future burdens on the agency’s finances. Increasing the agency’s power, over the trade unions, in determining its employees’ remunerations rates is another approach to preventing the current financial condition that the Postal services is facing. Further, the organization can expand the scope of its services and align them with the current trends in technology in order to retain its clients and even contain competition from private sector enterprises. Being flexible in the price determination and changing approaches to service delivery are other actions that the organization can take to ensure a stronger market control, increase its revenues, and avoid financial strains (Carbaugh and Tenerelli 144, 145). Works cited Carbaugh, Robert, and Tenerelli, Thonas. Restructuring the U.S. Postal Service. Cato Journal 31.1 (2011): 129- 150. Print. Cusumano, Michael. Technology strategy and management: Can services and platform thinking help the U.S. Postal Service.: How the U.S. Postal Service might improve the efficiency of its delivery platform. Communication of ACM 55.4 (2012): 21-23. Print.

The Impacts of Tourism in Vietnam

According to Business in Asia, tourism growth in Vietnam has been stable with a visitor increase of 20.5% in 2004 against the previous year although bird flu affected the tourist business in the first half of the year which was recovered at the end of the year. The highest number of tourists visits Vietnam from China and North Asian countries to be followed by ASEAN countries, Europe and North America. According to the theory of multipliers, the impact of tourism on the economy multiplies, which is an over-estimate of the impact on the economy. Studies give undue importance to tourism in economic growth especially in the matter of hotels which need the expertise of the line. Tourism is presented as a mechanism of urban advancement which is not based on facts and given unnecessary hype. Countries the world over use tourism as a strategy to justify huge public investments especially by organizations like EU Regional Development Fund, necessitating review studies of tourism impact on the economy. Generally, benefits are measured in terms of economic development of the area, the number of jobs, types of jobs, development of infrastructure and the appeal generated out of such activities for economic investment. The tourism multiplier model was developed first by Archer in the study of Anglesey, The Impact of Domestic Tourism. A vast range of authors that include Archer. Henderson. Wheller and Richards. Vaughan. Archer, Shea, and Vane have made use of these models. It helps policy makers to know the exact figures on the employment and income generation impact of tourism, taking both direct and inspired effects as based on scientific study of the impact.According to the study undertaken by Central London Polytechnic, Leisure Works and ORV Research (1990, p. 66), Tourism projects have had a positive net impact on the areas in which they have been undertaken. The 20 projects studied showed that other than indirect jobs, 1200 direct jobs and 348 temporary jobs were created. Secondary jobs were also in huge numbers, which in the case of the Albert Dock and Merseyside Maritime Museum, were 70% over the direct jobs and yet in another case examined Hull Marina and Post House. secondary jobs stood for extra 44% jobs. These secondary effects are known as the multiplier effect, to be measured by the multiplier.

A Companys Articles of Association

A company effectively has three choices as to the form of its articles. Under s. 19 CA 2006, the Secretary of State may prescribe model articles for public companies, private companies limited by shares and companies limited by guarantee. The model articles will be the default articles for companies incorporated from 1 October 2009. However, it is also open to such companies to choose to adopt Table A under the Companies Act of 1985.The nature of the contract established by the articles of a company is set out in s. 33(1) CA 2006, which provides that the provisions in the company’s articles bind the company and its members to the same extent as if they were covenants on behalf of the company and each member was to observe those provisions.Whatever form the company’s articles take, they are binding on both company and members. S33(1) states that The provisions of a company’s constitution bind the company and its members to the same extent as if there were covenants on the part of the company and of each member to observe those provisions.The effect of this provision is that members can sue if their membership rights are infringed. These rights are limited and rights of members which are not membership rights are not enforceable under s.33. In order to protect members, it is important, therefore, that any of their rights which are not membership rights are set out in a separate contract (such as a shareholders’ agreement) and not in the articles of association. It should also be noted that a company’s articles are deemed to be a complete contract and the Court will not imply any terms into them whether to create business efficacy or otherwise.

A 21st Century Plan for New Orleans La

The alignment of the above plans with the existing urban planning regulations and the local politics is necessary for securing the viability of such plans, either in the short or the long term. These issues are discussed in this paper. Reference is made in particular to the key elements of the 21st Century Plan for New Orleans. Certain implementation strategies that could enhance the performance of this plan are suggested. At the same time, similar plans related to New Orleans are presented and analyzed at the level that they can be used as the basis for securing the success of the 21st Century Plan.The City Planning Commission has initiated the 21st Century Plan in order to help the gradual recovery of New Orleans. Initially, the above plan seemed to be simple, as of its organizing and execution. In practice, it has been proved as having many implications all of which need to be carefully reviewed so that their effects on the plan are minimized. The key differentiation of the specific plan, compared to others of a similar role, is the following one: the plan has been highly based ‘on the broad participation of the public’ (Neighborhoods Partnership Network 2009, online article). This means that individuals across New Orleans would suggest their ideas in regard to the structure/ content of the Plan. Then, the authorities will take a decision having in mind the following fact: all plans have certain rates of failure, other more and other less. Also, amendments would be allowed, since the needs of people and the technological advancements can be differentiated through the decades. This means that the flexibility of the Plan would be a key requirement, among other characteristics, for its success.

Business of Kuwait Public Transportation Company

The role of stakeholders in a corporation is one of the factors raised by Guler David. It has been argued that a proper stakeholder relationship with a corporation reflects on the success of the corporation, thus, the code has to be put in place to improve the corporation’s governance. As responsibility and accountability in a corporation have increased, corporate governance is important. They say that good governance affects not just the corporation but also society’s political stand. Even though the corporation has limited resources, good governance will improve society’s welfare.The sustainability of a corporation has been proved to be important for its growth. To that effect, sustainability is more successful when corporations answer to the public as a whole and not just its shareholders. Ackerman stated that big businesses needed to consider the society instead of the financial bit of the business as it discriminated against the people thus contributing to an unresponsive society. It was started by McDonald Puxty that corporations had greater accountability as apart from looking into the interests of shareholders, they had to consider the society as well. An organization needs to analyze and evaluate its environment before making decisions or taking any actions to ensure they do not affect its environs and the people living around it negatively. Positive organizational actions have been stated to be important for society’s growth and influence. The definition of sustainability has raised many controversial statements but generally, it means taking actions today that will positively affect a corporation creating several options for the corporation in the future (Crowther, 2002).

Birth Control Policy

For instance, some theories such as the public choice theory put more emphasis and focus at the level of individuals rather than focusing on the institutional level.
The public policy making process is normally at the heart of effective services provision. It has been stated that the process of policy making normally occurs six major phases (Howlett, et al 2009). These are agenda setting, decision making, policy formulation, implementation, evaluation and finally termination or renewal. Health is a matter of public interest. For this reason the government involvement in matters concerning health is usually to a greater extent. The government normally formulates policies for different reasons. Some policies are normally formulated for the purpose of population control. Population control is actually the essence of birth control.
The health policy is triggered by the desire and need to address several issues. These are broadly explained as. the health care policy seeks to be comprehensive enough to include the highest number of the citizens possible. This is one of the reasons why some people were saying that implementation of the policy will be very expensive and might cause the tax payer a lot of money. Coverage does not necessarily mean access. These two can be mutually exclusive. For instance, a person might be under the coverage of a certain health care scheme but for some other reason fails to gain access. Coverage also means a wider scope of the provisions of the insurance and other health plans. For instance, there is a new federal directive that requires insurance plan to also provide for birth control.
The policy also seeks to ensure that the health care being accorded is quite affordable to everyone. This stems from the notion that health care is a very essential service that each and every person should have access to. For this reason it is important that the health care cost is affordable. Health care is a very important service. This can

Entrpreneurs ( management )

For this purpose, I have come up with a new business idea of MOTOTAXI service that aims to target people who prefer convenient, efficient &amp. effective means of transportation that not only take them to their destinations but also saves their time, money and headache of driving or waiting for public transport such as underground railway system, taxis, rickshaws and cabs.
Mototaxi is a simple motor cycle branded as a taxi. It is made for one passenger only (either man or a woman) and it mainly targets middle class and lower middle office going employees, sole proprietors, doctors, lawyers, teachers, students and individuals etc aged between 16-45 years. The reason for choosing this market segment is because of the fact that they like to save money, are interested to reach their destinations in time, prefer secure, convenient and quality transport accessible at any point and any location with less of a hassle. Almost 50 moto taxis of cost 2,500$ will be introduced in the initial stage of this business venture that will be increased gradually after analyzing the customer response and growth opportunities in the market.
First, we will use a Fleet Management System to keep track of all the MotoTaxis across the city areas. This system will enable the company to run all its business operations such as number of available orders from our clients, the number of available drivers and their bio data, arrivals and departures of taxis and others.
The second type of technology that we are planning is to use radio so that all the moto taxi drivers will remain connected (with each other) with our 24 hour call center at all times. This would enable the company to ensure transport services to the clients in areas where we are not operational but where a moto taxi can pick the customer from the nearest spot. Our call center will operate through special software to manage the calls and short messages (sms) from clients and will also be linked to

Minority Supplier Development

National Minority Suppliers Development Council 15th April Minority Supplier Development
Minority Suppliers
National Minority Suppliers Development Council is a body based in the United States of America that is entitled to enhance the businesses of the minority group. The minority being referred are individuals who are 25% Blacks, Hispanic, Asia-pacific, Asia-Indian, and Native Americans ("What Is an MBE?", n.p.). For one to be accredited as the minority, it has to be proven beyond reasonable doubt, that the person has origin from those areas. The company should be owned more than 50% by individuals from those regions and in case the company is public traded, then 51% of the stocks must be owned by them. The business being registered should be within the territory of United States. In addition to that the daily operations and management of the business should be conducted by the members of the minority group. A firm that feels it is entitled to be accredited as a Minority Supplier it can apply for certification using online platform. National Minority Suppliers Development Council will engage the help of specialists to determine the authenticity of the information granted to them. In case of application rejection, one can appeal to the board to review their decision. Minority Suppliers details are stored in the affiliate Regional Minority Suppliers Development Council database. Whenever a buyer or other business wants to transact with minority group, they can access their locality from the Regional affiliated offices.
Challenge of Minority Suppliers
Minority businesses in the United States have increased in the last TEN years. It has been argued that since President Obama assumed the office minorities felt that one of them had clinched the power. The number of registered Minority Businesses is two million, an increase of 70 percent comparing to those registered as at year 2005, generating USD 205 billion annually. However, despite the increased number of registered number of minority businesses, challenges still face them. The main one being the competition from well-established companies that are financial and market stable. Minority businesses depend on loan to run their businesses, and this restrains their capability and competitiveness ("The Challenges and Opportunities in Diversity for Small Business.", n.p). Enhancement of business operations for the minority is one thing and level ground in doing business is another aspect. Still fair grounds for doing business for the minorities has not yet been achieved, but NMSDC is working towards that.
Advantages and disadvantages of Minority Suppliers
The benefits NMSDC have generated to the minority members is beyond any measurable instrument. Minority can now have access to federal contracts that was a tall order for them to be awarded regardless of the value attached to it (“Benefits of NMSDC”, n.p.). Accessibility of resources to form businesses by the minority has been streamlined. In fact, this is one of the factors that led to the increased number of registered Minority Businesses. Other than accessing federal contracts, companies like Coca-Cola award contracts to the minority members of the society. Coca-Cola understands the plight of the minority that is why it contract members of this group to supply goods or services. However, too much focus on the minority will result in a competition that is not fair, and a chance of substandard goods and services being traded cannot be ignored. To add on that, degree of innovation to create a competitive edge for the products and services of the minority will be compromised.
Works Cited
“Benefits of NMSDC”. Web. 15 Apr. 2015. .
"The Challenges and Opportunities in Diversity for Small Business." Yahoo Small Business. Web. 15 Apr. 2015. .
"What Is an MBE?" National Minority Supplier Development Council. Web. 15 Apr. 2015. .
Works Cited
Boström, Kieran Byrne, Bidisha Chakraborty, Juan Luis Ugarte, and Skee Yagi. "Playing the Social Tune." (2013): 1-3. Print.

The Prospects and Implications of Samesex Marriage

41000 It is evidently clear from the discussion that gay rights include ceremonial marriages, child adoption, domestic partnership registration on the public record, domestic partnership affidavit given by employers to gay employees that define the couple’s economic relationship, health care, insurance, lawsuits, property, and the like. However, whether same-sex individuals be allowed to marry is still controversial. Gay marriages should be legalized since same-sex couples can prove to be better parents than opposite-sex couples, as is suggested by Judith Stacey and Timothy Biblarz (as cited in Cooke, para.2). Family instability may take its toll on the normal psychological development of children of both straight and same-sex couples, and so, it is not true that only gay parents prove to be bad parents by any means. They may prove to be better parents. Stacey and Biblarz argue that two men or women can raise kids better in terms of sexual growth, than a man or a woman in a traditional home setting. Kids of gay couples do not have to see one of their parents involved in extra-marital affairs. They do not have to see their moms and dads fighting with each other every day. Kids pay little attention to what the relationship between their parents is, or whether or not their relationship relates to societal norms or not. All they want is love, of parents towards them and also towards each other. So, the relationship between parents has nothing to do with children becoming homo or heterosexual. Thus, gay marriages should be legalized without getting concerned about the parenting capabilities of the couples involved. “Same-sex marriages will offer voluntary support to the institution by allowing freedom in selecting one’s partner”, states Bolte (1). She has focused upon the reinforcement of human rights regarding selection partner through utilitarian arguments. The concept of marriage must be redefined so that one gets to know what actually makes up a bond.&nbsp.

Oil Iraq and U S Foreign Policy

The Bush administration used the fear of terrorism as a political tool to garner public and congressional support for the invasion of Afghanistan, the country where the infamous Al Qaeda architect Osama bin Laden was thought to be hiding. Bush quickly thereafter justified sending the bulk of the military to Iraq because it was also a terrorist threat because of its massive stockpiles of ‘weapons of mass destruction.’ Of the 13 terrorists linked with the 9-11 attacks, nine were from Saudi Arabia (none from Iraq) who obtained passports from Iran and took orders from an Afghanistan-based organization. No weapons, no link to terrorism and no legal reason to attack. However, Bush decided to invade Iraq for causes deemed unacceptable to the vast majority of other nations so he repeatedly relied on and used false information to justify it. He lied. This discussion will examine how the truth was a casualty early and often during the lead up to the war and outlines some of the consequences brought about by these far-reaching and deadly deceptions.
The U.S. justified its invasion and occupation of Iraq to the nations of the world by proclaiming, if not proving, that it was a mission to remove weapons of mass destruction which threatened not only the U.S. but all other nations as well. Secretary of State Colin Powell and other administration officials, particularly with the U.S. Department of State, eagerly endeavored to state their rationale for aggressive military actions and make it as palatable to as many other countries as they could. Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz is quoted in an interview with Vanity Fair magazine dated May 28, 2003, as saying “For bureaucratic reasons, we settled on one issue, weapons of mass destruction” (Shovelan, 2003).

Business Forms Available Under UK Law

Characteristics
• The sole trader possesses all the assets of the business.
• He or she is directly liable to any debts incurred by the business.
• The business is easy to dissolve since no formalities or paper works are required.
Examples of some of the most known sole trader business include the Donald Trump organization, owned and managed by Donald trump who is also the founder of Trump entertainment Resorts.
b) Company
This is an association of individuals united by a common objective and normally come together with the intention of achieving specific goals. Companies are in two major categories. private and public. The difference between these two is that whereas public companies have the right to sell their shares to the public, private companies do not and neither do they trade their shares in stock exchange (Liu Post, 2014).
Characteristics of public companies
• Have the right to sell shares to the public.
• Can trade shares in the stock exchange.
• Have a limited liability status.
Characteristics of private companies
• Do not trade shares in stock exchange.
• Only requires a maximum of fifty members.
• Normally run and owned by family members and relatives
Examples of public companies include Microsoft and IBM while private companies comprise of Cargill and Publix.
This is a single business whereby two or more persons share ownership (BIS, 2013, p. 3). In this business, it is a requirement that each member participates in the contribution of all aspects such as capital, skills and labor.
Partnerships are in three categories. Joint ventures, General and limited partnerships.

Strategic Management in Public Organizations

The problem in human health that arose from the earthquake that occurred on 25 October 2010 in Indonesia is a major concern worth analysis and discussion. The health deterioration in the coastal region and the island is an issue of concern because the earthquake destroyed the sewage system. The lack of a proper sewage system has triggered the outbreak of waterborne diseases such as cholera in the country. Therefore, there is a need to intervene and restore the order as fast as possible. Restoring the system will help reduce the deaths that are occurring in the region because of cholera.
GoodLife’s vision is built towards making the lives of people in the country better and enjoyable. We, therefore, establish our camp on regions enduring difficulties due to lack of adequate resources or government intervention. Moreover, the organization intervened in the situation being led by the following principles that form our vision.
Considering these objective principles, the vision of the GoodLife is clear. Our ambition is to work with the community and to recuperate their life. Our long-time goals are to lead non-governmental organization in providing help to the needy communities in the country. Our position to the vision statement is driven by credible research that moves the community to inquire about their problem. The organization analyze the problem and outline the possible measures that can be used to remedy it.
Our specific objective in this mission to solve the problem of the sewage system in the coastal region and the Mentawai Islands. Our specific objectives aims are disconnecting the main cause of cholera in the country. Goodlife aims to reconstruct the sewerage system and build new toilets and latrines. The communities have experienced the problem of sewerage with little support from the government.
There are a number of activities that are to be carried out in order to hit our objectives. Goodlife seek qualified contractors to be involved in the construction of waterways.&nbsp.

Controversy Analysis and Rhetorical Analysis

41000 Thus, Geber states that “While the pioneers of these movements, though passionate for changes in what seemed like a redundant and hypocritical society, worked hard to bring about radical changes in cultures and religions the world over, proponents of the legalization feel that they are indeed the messiah to the Arizona population”. In this statement, figurative language is used as it combines both assonance and alliteration to express the thoughts of theses first campaigners of the legalization of Marijuana.&nbsp.So, who quantifies or qualifies legalization or prohibition? The controversy is pretentious and shows a society that is not yet ready for a change. Thus, Geber states that “While the pioneers of these movements, though passionate for changes in what seemed like a redundant and hypocritical society, worked hard to bring about radical changes in cultures and religions the world over, proponents of the legalization feel that they are indeed the messiah to the Arizona population”. In this statement, figurative language is used as it combines both assonance and alliteration to express the thoughts of theses first campaigners of the legalization of Marijuana.&nbsp. Some people are of a different opinion. “For what seems to be strong political reasons, this will indeed not seem like a smart decision as it will pass for reckless policy bred out of ignorance and the indifference to the detrimental and profound effects it has on the youth and the general public safety”.

African Traditional Religions

Number] African Ceremony African Religious and traditional practices are highly influenced with arts, rituals, performances and festivities. These festivities are either celebrated in the honour of a specific blessing or to protect from any certain harm. However, these communal celebrations are an integral part of African culture. Religious practices in Africa significantly contain social festivities and dancing. These masquerade performances have always been a part of social celebrations in public reunions. One of the most widely anticipated and investigated festival in Yoruba of Nigeria is Gelede Festival. This festival is celebrated in the honour and recognition of the power of women.
However, this festival does not allow African women to perform dance in public spheres and demonstrate their influence. instead men most passionately perform masquerade dance with their wooden masks, and phony breasts and hips entailing costumes. The masquerade dance is supposed to support female spirit and their mystic attributes in African society. Simultaneously, it is believed to enhance communal accord between diverse tribes of Africa, the potential of survival as a tribe, and most importantly the aspect of fertility either in terms of land, cattle, or women. Yet, Gelede festival significantly portrays the influence and inevitable need of women in African society for the sake of progress and harmony (Ray, 79).
Nevertheless, there is one region in Africa which actually allow women to wear wooden masks and dance in the Gelede festival and that is Mende. Mende has its own secret society which is known as Sande and its female members are the ones who wear Sowei and dance masquerade in open. These courageous women return from the dance wearing the Sowei mask, which is believed to entail many moral, spiritual and visual meanings of beauty in general and also qualities of Sande society as well.
Every feature of the mask holds a different meaning and significant traits, like different carved hairstyles depict inner contentment of the person wearing it, small mouth depict the moral, religious and ethical values of women to avoid gossip and eventually small ears depict that women of strong character do not surrender to worldly allures of the heart and mind and ignore them by all means. Furthermore, if the wooden mask has an illustration of animal at the top of it, this representation can behold a lot of meanings either it is showing a connection between the dancer and an appreciable animal trait. Like speed, cleverness or fertility, or it shows the link of the dancer with the God or his deceived relatives (Ray, 80).
It is believed that Masks do hold supernatural powers and they can influence the person’s life wearing it, but they are not the core idea of religious festivities, but only a part of it. In Gelede festival, masquerade dances and masks have major contribution, but masks are not supposed to be the centre of attention, but the theme and performance is. which can be any new or old relevant one according to the need and audience of Gelede Festival.
Work Cited:
Top of Form
Ray, Benjamin C.&nbsp.African Religions: Symbol, Ritual, and Community. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall, 2000. Print.
Bottom of Form

Charter Schools in the Lottery Documentary

41000 One might suggest that the movie in question makes a good argument about the topic. However, in order to prove that it would be advantageous to work out a set of criteria that should be used to measure the effectiveness of the arguments that are made by documentaries. This paper will present four such criteria.&nbsp.The first one, as well as the most obvious one, is objectivity. Indeed, people tend to watch documentaries since they hope that the director is not biased and is willing to show the actual state of affairs, not from a particular side. It is clear that to do so, the documentary should not give preference to one particular point of view, but feature different approaches. Speaking of The Lottery it is clear that opposite ideas about the issue of charter schools are presented: the pro side is backed up by the staff of Harlem Success Academy, parents, and activists. the con side includes public advocates, representatives of the teachers union, staff of public schools and so on. It would not be a mistake to point out that fact that it is a great advantage of the movie in question lies in the fact that it features interviews with people who strongly believe in the validity of their claims: this allowed the director to present opposing views.&nbsp.Another criterion that would contribute to the effectiveness of arguing a particular topic is the balance between emotional neutrality and encouragement. It is true that documentaries usually send a particular message to the audience, and this message is usually backed up by the appeal to emotions. It is thought that “self-assertive emotions drive us towards individual action and reaction” (Austin and Jong 113). In other words, they reinforce the position that is already taken by a person on a particular issue and allow one to take appropriate action.

Discussing Public Administration Select Committee Service Committee Human Rights Act of 1998

The Standards and Privileges Committee investigated claims that Peter Mandelson – the then Secretary of State for Trade and Industry – had contravened the individual ministerial responsibility by receiving a loan of £373,000 from Geoffrey Robinson – the then Paymaster General of the Treasury. This case was exacerbated by claims that Robbinson had been involved in financial misconduct that Mandelson had overlooked. The committee presented its findings in which they found that Mandelson had erred and violated the ministerial responsibility.
The Public Administration Select Committee conducted a review of Jo Moore, special adviser to Stephen Byers – the then Transport Secretary –, conduct in making public sensitive government information. In addition to Moore resigning, Byers was also asked to resign since he was Moore’s immediate supervisor thereby creating a situation in which he (Myers) had contravened the ministerial responsibility. For that matter, they determined that Myers, as the secretary in charge of the ministry, was liable for the official conduct of his immediate subordinates.
The Public Administration Select Committee sought to determine whether Ministers were accountable for their special advisor’s actions. There sitting was necessitated by repeated incidences of government officials engaging in unbecoming conduct – as set by the ministerial responsibility – for which it was difficult to determine whether the cabinet secretaries, as their boss, were liable. The report referred to the Public Service Committee, Ministerial Accountability and Responsibility (HC 1996-97, 313) report to determine that in addition to constitutional accountability, cabinet secretaries were also personally responsible and liable for the conduct of the immediate personnel.

Training and Development Assessment

In this process, both public and private, training and development practices differ to provide the company or organization a more competitive work staff. The training and development practices at the University of Worcester and Tesco are compared to highlight the similarities and differences in the public sector and private sector training principles.
The University of Worcester must consider issues of revenue growth and strategy to remain competitive against other universities both local and international. With the growth in e-learning available to citizens across the globe, it becomes more and more difficult to become recognized as an educational leader with students of all lifestyles, income brackets, and values as learning become more convenient without necessarily having to leave home. Therefore, the university must ensure that its staff is well-trained and knowledgeable with new concepts and theories so that students choose the University of Worcester over other educational options.
Part of training and development at the university involve establishing a set of criteria by which teachers are judged for performance. The University of Worcester has developed an annual development appraisal in order to ensure top performance that includes staff timetable tools for meeting individual teacher obligations (Wright &amp. Evans 2009). Part of this appraisal includes what is referred to as the Resource Model that identifies key strengths and weaknesses of teachers in order to assess their current skills capabilities. Teachers are given timetables of milestones for learning and meeting new curriculum goals and then they are appraised to determine whether their knowledge is currently able to reach expectations.
What makes the performance appraisal process so significant at the university is that staff is able to offer suggestions and amendments to these timetables (Wright &amp. Evans).This indicates an empowerment model that includes teacher feedback in their training module to facilitate better ways to maximize the student’s satisfaction regarding the quality of their education.

The HR Role in Transformational Period in the Health Care Sector in Abu Dhabi Emirate

Moreover, a satisfied workforce is an integral element of an effective CRM strategy. In a very competitive society, these elements are even more important. To understand this concept, it must be realized that the number of patients increases by small amounts whereas new facilities sprout up every other day. Thus there is a very important relationship between sound human resource practice and successful hospital management.
The recent government has taken many measures to improve the quality of health care being provided to citizens of UAE. The flag of change on this front has basically been carried by two organizations. The ministry of health in association with SEHA has taken many different initiatives to improve the healthcare system in UAE. There is always a primary theme behind every change process which defines the vision of change. The primary theme of health sector reforms by SEHA and Ministry of Health has been ‘standardization’. This change process aimed at standardization has three primary strategies:
(QPR) for Health Care Professionals is to ensure that all Health Professionals of the Health Authority –Abu Dhabi (HAAD) meet and maintain qualification and experience standards as required to ensure a quality health care, within University accepted health care standards.
The achievement of JCI accreditation is accepted for the purposes of initial licensure in the specific areas covered by the accreditation process. Professional Standards, regulations, and guidelines related to Health professionals should be produced in HAAD. This functions as an inspection and quality control mechanism which ensures that changes are aimed at the long run.
Al Corniche was built as a maternity hospital, with the sole purpose of providing health care to women and children. In 1970’s the time of its inception it was the only hospital providing such services on a public&nbsp.level.&nbsp.

Interdisciplinary Approaches to the Japanese Internment

&nbsp.&nbsp. Several of these organizations pointed out internment was not the only issue with regards to the repeal but rather it encompasses other concerns such as “past and present racism, discrimination, urban poverty, violence, social unrest and other problems that the minority communities faced” (Masumi 186).&nbsp. Several of these organizations pointed out internment was not the only issue with regards to the repeal but rather it encompasses other concerns such as “past and present racism, discrimination, urban poverty, violence, social unrest and other problems that the minority communities faced” (Masumi 186). The argument presented in this article is that the Japanese American internment played a major role in the repeal of the Emergency Detention Act, Title II of the Internal Security Act of 1950.&nbsp.

More than anything else, the repeal of Title II was a way of indirectly apologizing for the atrocities brought about by the internment of the Japanese.&nbsp.&nbsp. Yes, I was convinced by the evidence that supported the argument because the move to repeal Title II became a venue for Japanese Americans to break their silence and talk openly about their experiences in the internment camps.&nbsp. This has led to an awareness by the American public. thus, the support for the repeal increased.&nbsp. Furthermore, during the time when the move to repeal Title II was initiated, the fears of an imminent communist threat already subsided (Masumi 170).

EcoFriendly Plastic Bag

It was also established that the public was aware of the negative impacts of the plastic bags and the need to use eco-friendly bags. It is important to conduct more research on eco-friendly bags and create awareness on the importance of eco-friendly plastic bags in conservation of the environment.
Plastic bags are used for packaging and is made of a thin, flexible plastic film such as polyethylene, non-woven fabric or plastic textile. Around the globe, over 500 billion non-reusable plastic bags are used every year while the thin ones are littered ubiquitously. In developing countries, the plastic bags block the water movement in narrow water channels. When water collects in them they provide a place for the breeding of mosquitoes. The thin comfortable bags are a danger to the children because they can cause suffocation. When plastic bags are incinerated, the smoke could cause cancer, asthma and impotence (Khare and Deshmukh). These negative effects to the environment have led to the discouraged use of the plastic bags. To curb this problem, eco-friendly plastic bags are recommended. They are used in several countries such as the United States, United Kingdom and Australia.
These eco-friendly bags hold more quantity compared to the plastic bags. They are oil derived products and offered in many stylish colors since they are made with dyes that are both color fast and are washable. In addition, the bags comply FDA regulations therefore are not harmful and cannot cause allergic reactions to the skin. They are durable. The ecofriendly bag is reusable. It is made from fabric such as thick plastic that is more durable, canvas, or woven synthetic fibers.
The eco-friendly plastic bags was introduced in the United States in 1977, and were used to bag groceries in the 1980s and 1990s. They were first made of polyolefin-starch materials which did not degrade as it was claimed. Some countries enacted policies that imposed taxes on

Should the united states pull out of afghanistan

Should the United s Pullout of Afghanistan? Should the United s pull out of Afghanistan? If wego by the public opinion, then yes the US should pull out of Afghanistan. Overwhelming majority of Americans up to 70 percent opposes our troops being stationed in Afghanistan, Andrew J Belvich argues for the troops withdrawal in his Testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee of US Congress (McKenna)
What was all this war about? Why in the first instance we are embroiled in this war. It all began in September 2001 when US Senate voted for use of force against the terrorists who perpetrated the attacks on Pentagon and on Twin Towers. The initial dispatch of troops to Afghanistan was to either capture or kill Osama bin Laden who was the master mind behind the attack and to decimate his network Al Qaeda. If this is the principal reason for the war, now that Osama bin Laden is dead and the Al Qaeda decimated to only 50 members in Afghanistan, is it not time to pull out of Afghanistan.
If the reason for our continuing presence in Afghanistan is based on the lofty ideals of nation building of that strife torn country and install democracy, then it cannot be achieved since Afghanistan itself is against that concept and western type of democracy is a fallacy there.
If there is a military reason for entering Afghanistan, then that reason is also invalid now since Taliban have never been a threat to US security.
We have waged one of the longest war for ten years and there are many compelling reasons to end the war.
We have deployed 100000 troops in Afghanistan and lost nearly 1600 American lives so far and 11541 have been wounded and maimed, many of them seriously and their lives will never be normal. Having accomplished the mission for what they have been sent for, the American troops are longing to come back home. It has been reported that there is no purpose served for prolonging the troops stay over there. The war has a devastating effect on the life of personnel leaving them traumatized. About 25 percent of US army personnel serving in Afghanistan suffer from traumatic stress disorder and close to 16 percent of troops is under medication for mental illness. According to Andrew.J.Belvich “American Soldiers are now said to face the prospect of perpetual conflict”( Andrew J Belvich).
The cost of this longest war in Afghanistan becomes unmanageable with $120 billion a year or $10 billion per month. The Unites State has pumped in $18.8 billion as foreign aid and so far has spent $444 billion on the expenses. The amount so far spent has aggravated our fiscal problem. Our federal government has burgeoning national debt of $1.5 trillion this year which has to be taken care of. Unless we attend to this problem the nation could default on its debt and debt servicing.
If we pull out from Afghanistan, we can free our resources, which is being spent on this unnecessary war. These resources can be used for growth, increasing the productivity and raising the living standards of our citizens.
This war was fought an imagined threat to our security and still we are waging the war in an unknown soil, and for an un co-operative country, which is incapable of maintaining its security.
This is a “mystical war on terrorism. Mystification breeds misunderstanding and misjudgment . It prevents us from seeing things as they are “( Andrew J. Belvich )
Should we continue the war, should we allow our personnel to languish in a hostile country, which is not showing up even a single sign of recovery from its plaguing problems, should we squander our money when our own people are struggling to meet both ends, the answer is an emphatic no. But should the United States pull out of Afghanistan. Yes, immediately, right now, for the reason mentioned in the article.
Reference
McKenna, George, Feingold, Stanley(2011) Taking Sides Clashing Views on Political Issues, Issue no 21, 17th edition Mc Graw Hill, Print.

Sir Robert Peel’s Concept of Community Policing in Today’s Society

Peel contended that the critical role of the police in ensuring that crime is prevented could be enforced through a form of patrolling. Although he designed this guiding principle during the early 1900s, its applicability is still being enforced.
In the discourse by Wilson &amp. Kelling (1982), on their famous “Broken Windows Concept”, the basic mission for the existence of law enforcers is manifested in the presence of the police as a figure to restore peace and order is a necessary requirement using the broken windows theory – but not the ultimate factor for crime deterrence. The success of its application was assisted by the participative collaboration of community members combined with the determination and power vested in the public police. Through patrolling, the mere presence of the police figure in communities was deemed effective to prevent crime and to restore peace and order in the community.
The success of any endeavor is determined by the amount of commitment and participation of constituents in the area. The successful implementation of patrolling under the Broken Windows Concepts was primarily due to the conformity of community members to the presence of police forces patrolling in their area. Their support and approval of the police actions paved the way for ensuring the maintenance of peace through orderly submission to the law.
Consistent with the previous principle, the relevant factors in this concern is public approval and cooperation. As averred by Larrabee (2007, 2), “public approval of the police will increase the effectiveness of law enforcement”. The police cannot compel society into enforcing laws which are deemed useless and ineffective. Only those that are viewed by the community as helpful to restoring peace and safety would be supported.
The older generation who seek the assistance of the police through reporting unruly teenagers and misdemeanors assist in terms of relaying public approval, cooperation, and support to the police’s mission of maintaining order and preventing&nbsp.crime.

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Therefore, the need of today is to explore the importance of restructuring the administrative procedures in terms of improved policies and legislation in improving the performance of public school teachers and students.
For this research study, the aim is to explore the role of improved administrative policies and legislation in improving the performance and motivation levels of public school teachers and students. The administrative procedures to be studied in the research include pay for performance, student services, and interactive learning environment. The researcher will also study the current policies and legislation which govern the working of public schools. The researcher will study the factors in detail in order to come up with justified and evidence-supported conclusions, as well as to provide feasible recommendations to the administrative authorities of public schools.
Administrative procedures play a considerable role in improving the performance of public sector schools. Some administrative procedures, such as, implementation of pay for performance program, student services, and improvement in the learning environment are critical for bringing improvement in the performance of both teachers and students of public schools. Pay for performance programs are directly linked with the performance of teachers. Teachers like to be a permanent part of such schools, which value their efforts by implementing appropriate compensation and benefits packages for their employees (Lavy, 2007).
Student services, such as, sports training, practical work training, and provision of extracurricular facilities also play a significant role in improving students’ performances (Griffith, 1996). Generally, such services are not paid the due amount of attention because of which most of the parents prefer to choose private schools for the schooling of their children. If such services are made

Sustainability Crime and Perceptions of Safety in Newcastle

A sustainable community is one that acknowledges the interconnectedness of social, economic and environmental goals and has a comprehensive set of policies designed to satisfy the multiple benchmarks that define sustainability. According to the Centre for Sustainable Development at Simon Fraser University in Canada, “Sustainable Community Development (SCD) aims to integrate economic, social and environmental objectives in community development.” (“Why Sustainable Community Development”) In the context of the city of Newcastle, this cluster of goals and interrelated policies was compiled in The Australia Institute and Newcastle City Council authored report entitled, Indicators of a Sustainable Community, published in 2000. The report begins by noting, “Sustainability incorporates economic, social and environmental attributes of the City as they affect the quality of life of community members.” It goes on to note that sustainability is not a goal to be achieved but rather a process to be worked on with communities becoming more or less sustainable: “The challenge for policymakers and others involved in improving the quality of life in Newcastle will be to review these indicators over time and integrate them into management and decision-making processes within the City.”
Interestingly, both of these indicators are important although they may, at times, be contradictory. It is not unheard of for crime rates to be dropping in a community at the same time that residents perceive themselves to be less safe. Therefore, this evaluation of crime and public safety in Newcastle will be conducted through analysis of actual crime rates and public perceptions of criminality and safety.
The Indicators of a Sustainable Community report clearly identifies as one Desired Outcome improving community perception of safety. It defines the benchmark for this as, “Measuring how fear of crime impacts on people’s decisions to participate in activities outside the home indicates the community’s&nbsp.perception of safety.&nbsp.

Keystone kl pipeline

Keystone Kl pipeline Memorandum Re: Keystone kl Pipeline approval Construction of the keystone XL pipeline has once again become a controversial issue to the American labor. Though arguments are centered on its environmental risks, it also has major consequences economically. Since the construction unemployment is double, Keystone jobs will provide good paying jobs that will increasingly offer only minimum-wage service work (Smith 01). Labor leaders should know that the pipeline is of much threat to our economy as well as it is to our planet. Environmental debates emerge as false choice. Even though hurricanes, droughts and floods have effects on American labor and jobs, if we throw the spigot open to Canada’s tar sands, it will be considered the world’s dirtiest oil (Smith 01).
Building this pipeline and opening Tar Sands will impact local and national economies negatively. When the recoverable tar sands oil burns, it will increase temperature on the earth approximately by a minimum of 2 degrees Celsius which the NYU environmental law center estimates could cut permanently the US GDP by 2.5 % (Smith 02). As it’s seen, this will affect the US counties causing an estimated expensive damage. At the same time, local and state economies are buckling already under effects of our dependence on fossil fuel as a nation (Smith 02)
Despite generating much profits of approximately $546 billion between 2005 and 2010, oil companies such as shell, chevron and ExxonMobil reduced their workforce by 4,400 employees. The same year, $220 million paid the executives themselves (Smith 02). From that, we can say it’s time invest the billions going to oil companies in creating employment and protecting the planet at the same time.
Approving the Keystone pipeline will lock the nation into a trajectory of job loss that are guaranteed and hence threatens the economy and political state of the US. Why should the job-killing path be taken when the energy path that’s alternative like the solar industry is already out-performing some other sectors of the economy (Smith 02).
Accidental contact with transmitting pipeline will create a dangerous situation that may be extreme to result in serious consequences to the contractors, general public and the customers. Some of these consequences may include fire explosion, injury or property damage, disruption of services that are essential, responsibility for cost of repair and personal liability all damages (Smith 03).
According to the chief economics of Moody’s analytics, a havoc caused by the Super storm sandy on the job market was estimated to be slicing 86,000 jobs from payrolls. Hurricane Irene also left the claims of unemployment filings in Vermont from 731 before it to 1’331 two weeks afterwards. Hurricane Katrina too cleared 129,000 jobs in New Orleans region- 20%. This was later proved to cost the U.S. economy as a whole, $52 billion taxpayer cost in 2011 (Smith 04).
Keystone and such projects result in disproportionately impacts that are negative on the already struggling families. Therefore, poor working people will be disproportionally affected. According to a report recently, by the Center for American Progress- Heavy Weather: How Climate Destruction Harms Middle- and Lower-Income Americans, middle and lower income families are affected disproportionately by the most extreme and expensive weather events. 16 states were affected by up to five or more weather events that were extreme in 2011-2012. Households in counties that were disaster-declared in these states earn $47,138 or seven percent below U.S median income (Smith 04)
Organized labors are right in demanding that public policy pay attention to desperate need for jobs. The keystone pipeline approval should wait because it will make the job crisis worse by making our climate worsen (Smith 04). In the meantime there are many pipelines that require fixing. The workers can be put to rebuild our natural gas transmission system that is crumbling. This will even create union jobs and also cut carbon emissions (Transgas 02). If labor will fight for employments, then we should fight for jobs that create the future we want for this nation and not the ones that destroy it.

Works Cited
Smith, Brendan. "Five reasons why keystone is bad for the economy." 27 February 2014. Labor For Sustainability. 4 March 2014 .
Transgas. "The Consequences of a pipeline contact." 2006. Safety integrity. 4 March 2014 .

Use of Illegal Drugs among Youths

61500 estimations show that 8% of the population in the USA currently uses drugs. Among industrialized countries, teenagers in the United States possess the highest illicit drug use rates. In a study done by Murphey et al. in 2011, 50% of teenagers interviewed admitted to have used an illicit drug at least once by the time they were in 12th grade. 8% of 12th graders admitted to using inhalants or hallucinogens while 46% reportedly had used marijuana at least once during their lifetime (2). The substances that were reported to have been most frequently used by adolescents in grades 8-12 were inhalants, marijuana, hallucinogens and amphetamines. Thus, drug use tops the list for social issues that command a lot of public attention and concern. &nbsp. Illicit drugs can be categorized in several groups. Depressants such as alcohol, which impairs judgment, lowers inhibitions and affects brain function, memory, reflexes, coordination and vision. Hallucinogens such as cannabis, popularly known as hashish, marijuana, weed, ganja or pot, which grows wildly and can either be eaten or smoked. It is the most commonly used. Users of hallucinogens often have distorted reality perceptions including time, distance and direction and often exhibit violent, erratic and unpredictable behavior. Narcotics include heroin, opium, morphine and codeine. They are generally smoked, injected intravenously or subcutaneously or sniffed. The writers note that subcutaneous injection has a slow absorption but longer-lasting effects.

The Impact of the Economic Downturn on Families

The problem of homelessness is widespread in the US and it is caused by different factors. Research has indicated that about 61% of local and homeless coalitions have witnessed a rise in homelessness since the foreclosure crisis began in 2007 (Armour, 2008). The most vulnerable group include Anglo, African American, Latino, Asian, gay and lesbian, and Native American families who often belong to low income brackets. The other issue is that the problem is compounded by economic downturn on families. Armour (2008) further states that apart from foreclosures, the problem of homelessness is further worsened by “mounting utility bills, the surge in gas prices and the rise in unemployment, which jumped from 5% to 5.5% according to the government report.” Many families are finding it difficult to make ends meet under such circumstances.
The problem of homelessness is a national crisis and indeed, the US should address homeless families. Unfortunately, the existing legislation does nothing to protect the renters to avoid eviction (Rodriguez, n.d.). However, the government has a responsibility of ensuring that all the citizens have shelter. This is the reason why President Barack Obama signed into law The Protecting Tenants at Foreclosure Act in 2009 (Rodriguez, n.d.). The government also has a role to provide more support for the families since it is part of its mandate. For instance, the government can play an active role in providing affordable shelter to the citizens in a bid to fight the problem of homelessness. In case of crisis, the government should play an active role in offering support to the affected families. This can be done through providing basic things like temporary shelter, clothing as well as food among other things. For instance, The Recovery Act has played a significant role in mitigating the problem of homelessness which is advocated (United States Interagency Council of Homelessness, 2013).
References
Armour, S. (26 June 2008). “Hitting Home: New faces join ranks of the homeless.” USA TODAY
Retrieved from: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/economy/housing/2008-06-25-homeless-families-foreclosure_N.htm
Rodriguez, D. (n.d). “Stop shutting the door on renters: Protecting tenants from foreclosure evictions. “Cornell Journal of law and Public Policy. Vol. 20:243.
United States Interagency Council of Homelessness. (2013). “The Federal Government’s Role in Ending Family Homelessness.” Retrieved from: http://usich.gov/population/families/the_federal_governments_role_in_ending_family_homelessness/

INTERNATIONAL LAW

Money laundering is a phenomenon whereby individuals endeavour to reintroduce illicitly acquired money into the legitimate cash flow channels. This illegitimate money is usually sourced from predicating activities that are of criminal nature, such as the ones highlighted above. Corruption on its part encompasses a wide range of activities, particularly those that afford private benefit to an individual, arising from a misuse of public authority. Corruption can in itself be, and usually is, a predicating criminal activity for money laundering. Owing to the international characteristic of these two crimes, international efforts such as Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATFML) and the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) have sprung to combat each of these criminal activities. In the subsequent section, the risk of corruption and money laundering will be assessed, alongside the effectiveness of international efforts. The preceding section will evaluate the UK bribery Act of 2010, and assesses its impact on UK companies attempting to conduct their businesses abroad.
Money laundering and corruption are two of the most formidable threats to economic development and progress both in developed and developing nations. They have consequently attracted much attention from international bodies and agencies such as the World Bank and Transparency International. Money laundering can be understood as a process through which the origins of illicitly acquired money are obscured. It normally involves the “washing” or “cleansing” of illegally acquired money through individuals or organisations, to portray the money as legitimately acquired (Gonzalez-Perez &amp. Leonard, 2013). It is predicated by an offence that introduces money into the hands of offenders. Such offences may include criminal

Case Study Bribery

Lecturer: Bribery in Business Bribery is the act of giving cash or other gifts in order to acquire an illegal advantage. In business bribery is used to facilitate a company or an individual to offer some preferred treatment. Bribery is a widespread activity that destructs the competition between different business institutions. Many societies have considered business an unfair way of conducting business. This has led to the adoption of anti-bribery and committees fighting against corruption. The policies implemented by these anti-corruption institutions mean nothing if they are not implemented. Bribery is done differently in different culture where some communities view corruption as a normal way of practicing business. There are cultures that allow hospitality of gifts to those they operate their businesses with.
The U. S Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) provides for certain policies to fight corruption in the form of bribery in the business. It is illegal for enterprises and individuals to pay the officials of the foreign government secure or retain businesses. However, it allows for a small amount of payments to be offered for the transactions on the expenditure. There is usually no amount of money that is set as facilitation payments, hence gifts less than a hundred dollars are accepted and not termed as bribes. The payments made for facilitation help the officials speed up the transactions and convince them to carry out their roles. They do not convince the government officials to carry out any favors to a firm. Punishments are done to those that violate the provisions of the FCPA from case to case.
The United Kingdom Bribery Act also has its provisions on the policies to fight bribery in business. The act has made making payments in form of bribery to the officials working for a public body as illegal. Though, with time the acts were appeared to be unsuitable for their complicating the agreements of the international anti-corruption. Pressure was put on the laws that they could be reformed. The bribery act stood strongly against taking of bribes and corruption leading to people taking it to be harsh. People feared that the traditional goods they perceived to be gifts would be considered being bribes. This led to many companies altering their anti-corruption policies.
On 20th of May 2015, the Securities and Exchange Commission of the United States put charges on a company that dealt with global resources of breaking the laws and going against the policies put by FCPA. The company sponsored some officials of a foreign government at the Olympics usually held during the summer. It was accused of not heeding to its international controls in their offering of hospitality globally. Those seeking to be sponsored are supposed to apply for the sponsorship including government officials but this was not what they did.
In the same year February 24th, the commissioned pressed charges on another company when the subsidies it had offered paid bribes to export tires in Kenya and Angola. The company paid millions of dollars in order to settle the charges. The company failed to realize that their subsidies were paying bribes. The bribes are said to have been paid to the employees employed by private companies in form of cash. It appears to be very hard to determine between bribes and gifts or when a gift is said to be a bribe according because of the laws that are placed by the acts fighting bribery and corruption.

Despite most currencies being convertible why does countertrade persist illustrate your answer with examples of different types of countertrade

Since its manifestation in East-West trade in the midst of 1970, countertrade has increased and widened geographically to the entire world – the number of dealings actually increasing year-by-year. As well as the worldwide development, the formats of countertrade have also stepped forward to have room for the incompatible financial – despite considering this in mind that all currencies is now being convertible – needs and repayment capabilities of selling groups (Francis, Dick, 1987). Therefore, means of payment have incorporated relocations of varied assets with monetary worth for example the deliverances of substantial products (e.g., utensils, goods). services (transport, building). insolvency of lien equipment (debt paper). and equity contributions (Francis, Dick, 1987).
The arrangements of countertrade may serve up periodically. readily available currencies, advertising, or public policy are the major objectives of trading parties and their governments. The custom is virtually always influenced by some form of government study or interference, and is ever more a reality of doing business with agencies that are buying when the noteworthy dollar value national procurements are involved (Francis, Dick, 1987).
Countertrading is also eminent as a means of financing in global trade. For those underdeveloped or developing nations that have deficiencies of hard currencies or whose national currencies are not exchangeable to other sorts of foreign country exchange, countertrading offers a solid way of financing imports (Paun, Dorothy A, January 1997, 41 50).
By selling their import goods to various corporations in developed nations, developing nations also profit by discovering new export marketplaces. Those dealers in developed nations who are ready to countertrade have established that it heighten their businesses. By being flexible in the sort of currency or payment they are going to be given, corporations that

Press release event

Indiana Bloomington Community to host “Culture of Care” Retreat Indiana of Bloomington ‘Culture of Care’ will host a retreat, designed for students who want to bring a positive change by adapting to the “Courage to Care” initiative. Led by staff and students, this initiative includes a number of health and well-being issues including sexual well-being, drug awareness and psychological integrity. The retreat will be overnight, including food and transportation services. Primarily designed for the students, the retreat is also open to anyone interested in it. Those interested should submit their applications to the Culture of Care website, no later than October 3rd ‘2014. Buses will leave for Bradford Woods from the School of Public Health – Bloomington building, on Oct 15th @ 8am.
Culture of Care emphasizes the Bystander Intervention Mechanism to help students demonstrate care for one another. The program encourages them to adopt an active approach for the delivery of care to other members of the society, as this is essential to overcome the obstacles that arise due to the more prevalent Bystander Effect. Many of us are well-aware of the reluctance that is demonstrated by our people regarding performance of social duties. Considering every social responsibility to be the duty of others is the primary reason behind the Bystander Effect. a phenomenon that is detrimental to our society as a whole. This encouragement program targets Hoosiers to rise to the occasion and have the courage to care, by learning about overcoming the Bystander Effect.
Goal of the retreat is to answer questions pertaining to what, why and how this initiative is important. The topics pertaining to social and psychological well-being are of the highest priority and will be addressed accordingly. The aim is to bring about a positive change in the behaviors of the members of the society by educating them in a way that is informal yet contributory towards the learning of the society as a whole.
Being the first-ever retreat hosted by this initiative, the event will inspire fresh ideas brought forward by students to make the campus a safer place for all. Revolving around the notion of Bystander Effect, the activity will seek to find answer to questions like.
What does ‘Courage of Care’ refers to?
What possible actions could be taken to reverse the Bystander Effect?
What improvements should be implemented in the ‘Culture of Care’ activity? And how?
How is it possible to motivate other organizations to join the ‘Culture of Care’?
We believe that finding answers to such questions equates to raising awareness among students regarding the importance of their roles in bringing social improvement.
So, play your role and become part of the upcoming retreat to bring forth a change that is required by all.
For more information about Culture of Care, visit http://care.indiana.edu/index.shtml
OR
Contact Stanley Roberts at 555-555-5555 or sroberts@cultureofcare.edu.
Monetary contributions from family and staff will be highly appreciated. To contribute, please contact ____ at the ____ Office.
References
http://care.indiana.edu/index.shtml