Sexuality around the world

Sexuality around the World The increasing universal connectedness in the age of globalization gives way to both positive and negative change in culture. As people cross geological barriers, the social constructs that govern their societies change giving way to more liberated social structures. The concepts in globalization, which include freedom of expression, encourage people to exercise their freedom and explore their sexuality (Altman 64). As a result, people learn to view sexuality in different ways other than what is prescribed by their culture. For instance, homosexuality opens new doors for biomedical research, as well as sociological issues. As medicine strives to provide medical explanation of homosexuality, sociologists and sexologist aim to understand the psychology of homosexuality in the cultural aspect.
While homosexuality is an expression of personal freedom, it also leads to social issues such as harassment, persecution by the society, and violence. One of the most common factors contributing to discrimination against homosexuals is the gender orientation of the society. As cultural traditions vary from country to country, so does the acceptance of homosexuals and bisexuals. In a research by Judith Mackay, about 50 countries consider male homosexuality as illegal. 8 of which (mostly Muslim countries) impose the death penalty (75). This unfavorable attitude toward homosexuality causes sexual dysfunction as homosexuals are hindered in expressing their sexuality. Homosexuals experience sexual dysfunction for fear of being persecuted. In addition, social pressures contribute to the loss of integrity, as well as the economic and social status of homosexuals.
While gender orientation causes psychological, sexual dysfunction among homosexuals, women in cultures practicing female genital mutilation experience the same dysfunction in the physical aspect. Female genital mutilation (FGM), as a cultural practice, deprives women to have sexual pleasure for the thought that it prevents them from having sexual relations with men other than their husbands. FGM also causes physical, sexual dysfunction, which is otherwise known as hypoactive sexual disorder. Hypoactive sexual disorder is characterized by several symptoms including reduced pleasure in having sex, formation of keloid scars, and complications in the female reproductive system (Whitehorn, Ayonrinde, and Maingay 166-167). While FGM raises issues on human rights, it also influences the advancement of studies with regard to women’s health.
Sexuality, as an issue concerning culture and health, is one of the most pressing government concerns as it directly affects the economy of the country, as in the case of overpopulation and the spread of HIV diseases. For the reason that governments cannot deprive the citizens to exercise their freedom, they can only pass reproductive health laws protecting women and homosexuals against the adverse effects of cultural, sexual practices (FGM) and orientations (gender discrimination). The briefing paper of the Center for Reproductive Rights summarizes the legislation made by the governments around the world concerning sexual abuses of women and homosexuals. Among the most common solutions to the problem of sexual abuses are laws advocating the empowerment of women, effective reproductive health care services, as well as marriage and family laws. These laws aim to raise social awareness on sexuality and reproductive health.
Works Cited
Altman, Dennis. “Sexuality and Globalization.” Journal of National Sexuality Resource
Center 1.1 (2004): 63-68. Print.
Center for Reproductive Rights. Governments in Action: Legal and
Policy Developments Affecting Reproductive Rights. ROR, Feb 2005. Web.
22 Dec. 2011.
.
Mackay, Judith. “Global Sex: Sexuality and Sexual Practices around the World.”
Sexual Relationship Therapy 16.1 (2001): 71-82. Print.
Whitehorn, James, Oyedeji Ayonrinde, and Samantha Maingay. “Female Genital
Mutilation: Cultural and Psychological Implications.” Sexual and Relationship Therapy 17.2 (2002): 161-170. Print.

Critically evaluate Becks (1979 2008) cognitive behavioural model of depression

The cognitive model of depression has evolved a great deal over the past four decades since its formulation (Beck, 2008). Recently, there have been scientific demonstrations that cognitive, neurochemical, and genetic factors have potential to interact. New opportunities for integrated research have been opened through a combination of findings from cognitive neuroscience and behavioral genetics with research being accumulated on the cognitive model (Butler &amp. Chapman et al., 2006). Relying on advances in laboratory experiments, social, personality, and cognitive psychology, coupled with clinical and non-clinical observations, expansions of the first cognitive model have brought in the information-processing bias, dysfunctional beliefs, cognitive distortions, as well as automatic thoughts in successive stages.
The initial stage model identified traumatic experiences at an early stage including development of dysfunctional beliefs as congruent stressors and precipitating events for later life depression (Auerbach &amp. Webb et al., 2013). With the scientific research on the topic of the cognitive model of depression it is possible to sketch a likely neurochemical and genetic pathway, which interacts or is parallel to cognitive variables. Genetic polymorphism is linked to a hypersensitive amygdale as well as a pattern of dysfunctional beliefs and cognitive biases (Iddon &amp. Grant, 2013). These constitute depression’s risk factors. In studies that involve DSH (deliberate self-harm) like self-injury and intentional self-poisoning, there exists a strong link between suicide and DSH. Clinical proof exists in these cases that link brief CBT or psychological therapy with reduction in DSH repetition as reducing levels of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression.
Cognitive behavioral therapy abbreviated as CBT is an approach, which is psychotherapeutic in addressing cognitive contents and

Critical Analysis of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein Science Science Fiction or Autobiography by Dr Sherry Ginn

[Assignment Frankenstein Critical Analysis Evaluation Essay Frankenstein is one of the most popular books over the centuries written by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. The novel is divided into three parts. The first one is told through letters which are written to Margaret Saville by her brother Robert Walton, a failed poet and now an explorer. Next come a series of narratives by a man called Victor Frankenstein who talks about his life, his love for science and his experiment gone horribly wrong and resulting in a Creature who kills all of the Frankenstein family. This is, again, followed by Walton concluding the story through his own perspective in which Frankenstein dies and the Creature is heartbroken and vows to kill himself. (Shelley)
The critical analysis that I have chosen is titled “Mary Shelleys Frankenstein: Science, Science Fiction, or Autobiography?”. It is written by Dr. Sherry Ginn who is a professor at the Rowan-Cabarrus Community College. Before that, she taught at the East Carolina University and then the Wingate University for a few years. She did her MA and PhD in General-Experimental Psychology from the University of South Carolina. Dr. Ginn has published several articles and even a book, all related to the fields of psychology as well as neuroscience.
As is made obvious by the title itself, Dr. Ginn writes about the theory of what really was the inspiration behind Frankenstein. The official story is that Mary Shelley dreamt the whole idea behind the book and then penned it down. However, in her paper, Dr. Ginn explores over the possibility of whether the book was, in fact, a product of Mary’s life experiences. That it may have been an autobiography of sorts instead of a book under the genre of science fiction.
Dr. Ginn has very appropriately used the support of several books and articles written about Mary Shelley’s life, regarding all that she suffered through her childhood and till the time when she died. She has used Erik Eriksons theory of psychosocial development, which consists of eight stages, to evaluate Shelley’s life and the affect that had in the writing of Frankenstein. These include her mother dying soon after giving birth to her, a jealous stepmother and a father who – unequal to the task of bringing her up – abandoned her. Then her miscarriage of Percy Shelly’s child till out of four, only one survived her. Also, her guilt for blaming her husband for their son’s death, which may have left to him committing suicide. These are parallels to her novel. (Ginn)
Other than the particulars mentioned in the article by Dr. Ginn, there is also the fact that Shelley herself attributed the final result of her novel to her life’s happenings. Then there are the specific dates as well as names mentioned in the novel which connect to the important happenings taking place in Shelley’s life. The letters Walton writes are addressed to his sister whose initials MWS matches Shelley’s. The dates of when the letters were written clash with when Shelley was pregnant with her child and wrote Frankenstein. Even the Creature shares his birth year with that of Shelley’s.
One cannot help but agree with this theory considering all the facts which prove it to be, at least, partially correct. Frankenstein may be called a science fiction, but an argument to the story being influenced by Shelley’s life can be made and quite successfully at that.
Works Cited
Ginn, Dr. Sherry. "Mary Shelleys Frankenstein: Science, Science Fiction, or Autobiography?" 2003.
Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mavor &amp. Jones, 1818.

Organisation People and Performance

 Organisation, People and Performance
1.1 Assessment Centres
This test mostly focuses on evaluating individuals for high-level management as well as supervisory capabilities. Candidates complete a chain of exercises, which simulate real situations, challenges and works that they will encounter in the job (Gaugler et.al. 1987). They handle the exercises as if in actual situations on the ground. They usually take a whole day up some days. They include role-play exercises, group discussions, analytical exercises and in basket exercises. Trained assessors observe the candidates and rate them using universal standards. Some centres incorporate cognitive abilities, personality tests and job knowledge tests. Assessment centres are useful for both selection purposes and provision of inclusive development response to the participants.
1.2 Work Samples
Work samples according to Asher &amp.Sciarrino (1974) contain work activities that directly reflect to the works that the candidatewill have to perform. This method is most suitable in revealing the ability of the individual to perform tasks that are naturally, very technical. This involves having the candidateto perform the desired task while observing him thoroughly to assess his capability of performing the task. The method is applicable to applicants that have knowledge on management before their admission.
1.3 Personality tests
These are tests used to measure qualities relevant to the performance of the task. The individual characters revealed during the test are consciousness, agreeableness, extraversion, experience as well as emotional steadiness (Barrick&amp. Mount 1991). The inventories here comprise of multiple choice questions or true/false objects measuring every factor. Administration of the test occurs in a paper while using pencil or by use of computer.
1.4 Emotional intelligence
This refers to a measure of the ability to recognize, manage and valuate emotions. The test base on four key elements. the ability of the candidate to recognize his own and other people emotions, generating and using emotions in solving problems, understanding emotions and the changes in emotions and the ability of managing both his own and other people emotions. Several methods that may include test questions can help achieve the objective (Hough 1984).
1.5 Cognitive ability tests
These are assessments employed to measure a number of mental capabilities like mathematical and verbal ability, comprehension reading and reasoning ability (Hunter 1986). They comprise of multiple choice objects administered through a paper or computer. The total score of the candidate represents the true measure of his mental ability in performing the job. It is possible to design the exercise to measure one character after the other and then summing up the final score at the end.
1.6 Biographical data
These tests deal with the background of the candidate, interests and personal characteristics. This relies on the belief that past performance is the most significant predictor of future performance. It concerns the manner the candidate performed in the past in the areas related to the management task (Shoenfeldt 1999). For example, the number of volunteer activities the candidate participated in the past provides a measure on his willingness to volunteer. In addition, the test reveals the candidates’ independence and responsibility.
1.7 Graphology
This involves the use of handwriting to measure work related behaviours and personal characters. The handwriting can reveal the level of motivation, creative thinking, strength and weaknesses, working style, communication skills, leadership style, emotional stability, honesty and tendency towards violence (Hough 1984). Nevertheless, no single feature of handwriting provides accurate results but can only help in identifying inclination towards a given behaviour. Combining various features is the one that helps in obtaining a reliable conclusion regarding the personal traits of the candidate.
Bibliography
Asher, J. J. &amp.Sciarrino. J. A. 1974,‘Realistic work sample tests: A review’,Personnel Psychology, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 519-533.
Barrick, M. R. &amp. Mount, M. K. 1991,‘The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis’,Personnel Psychology, Vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 1-26.
Gaugler, B. B., Rosenthal, D. B., Thornton, G. C.&amp.Bentson, C. 1987,‘Meta-analyses of assessment center validity’,Journal ofApplied Psychology, Vol. 72, no. 3,pp.493-511.
Hough, L. M. 1984,‘Development and evaluation of the “accomplishment record” methods of selecting and promoting professionals’, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 69, no. 9, pp. 135-146.
Hunter, J. 1986,‘Cognitive ability, cognitive aptitudes, job knowledge, and job performance’, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 340-362.
Shoenfeldt, L. F. 1999,‘From dustbowl empiricism to rational constructs in biodata’,Human Resource Management Review, Vol.9, no. 2, pp.147-167.

The corporation

The Cooperation The main topic of the documentary The Cooperation is development of modern business cooperation. The documentary shows the corporations develop from legal entities originating as government commissioned organizations, which are meant to influence the functions of the public, to the development of modern commercial organizations entitled to individuals legal rights (The Corporation, 2004).
The film The Cooperation is organized in a compare and contrast manner. The film compares different cooperation and individuals including and top-level executives from a range of industries such as manufacturing, pharmaceutical, oil, public relations, computer, branding, tire, and advertising and undercover marketing. In addition, the first management guru, critics, a range of academics, historians and thinkers, a Nobel-prize winning economist, and corporate spy, are interviewed and compared (The Corporation, 2004).
The Corporation main idea is to demonstrate how corporations evolved from state owned companies to individually owned business.
In the film, cooperation is treated like human beings and subjected to psychiatrists diagnosis to determine how they would behave if they were human beings. Their behaviors are the major and minor details that make up the whole idea. By treating the cooperation as an individual, experts are able to determine its behavior. This builds the topic of the film, the behavior of the cooperation.
The film producers interviews over forty people who are professionals in a different field such as business and psychology. In this way, the film informs people as they listen to experts describe the Cooperation. Use of direct interview informs the viewers the best. For instance, Joe Badaracco, a professor of Business Ethics at Harvard Business School is quoted to say, “In all his years teaching business, was never asked so pointedly what a business is” (The Corporation, 2004).
By use of experts in the field of psychology and other fields, the movie persuades the viewer to believe its ideas. The people interviewed are experts in different fields including business and social sciences. Documentaries are based on some assumptions. In this documentary, the cooperation are assumed to human beings and subjected under psychiatric principles (The Corporation, 2004).
The psychiatric analysis categorizes the film to match characteristics of a psychopath. It follows the attributes of the corporate world that shows features such as callous and lack of feelings for others, incapable of maintaining relationships, reckless and disregard others safety, a liar and con artist, lack guilt and one that goes against social norms and disrespect law. According to Dr. Robert Hare, an FBI consultant on psychopaths argues that the corporation is a “prototypical psychopath” (The Corporation, 2004). Cooperation, therefore, thrives on their own selfishness.
The film portrays corporations as egocentric institutions whose goals is to make money disregarding the communities and environment. This makes the film subliminal and overt. The film has a negative bias although the filmmakers try to be even-handed. They hold the cooperation so importantly. The movie provides answers and solutions to problems in third world countries. That cooperation exploits the public and do not care about the environment, as the film The Cooperation brings out is true.
References
The Corporation. (2003). [film] Big Picture Media Corporation: Mark Achbar and Jennifer Abbott.

Analysis and evaluation of your assigned article see details

al Affiliation: Psychology analysis and evaluation Gratitude is the way to go in all social settings. Ever since I was a child, my parent used to put more emphasis on the value of appreciating other people and being grateful for anything especially when issued with a present. Thanking other people for doing us good promotes peaceful coexistence in our societies. According to Grant, being grateful is a pro-social behavior which has the power of transforming someone’s psychological perception of the receiver of an action. The action can take the form of a favor or a present. Expression of gratitude in such cases has the profound effect of enhancing social mannerisms such as communal and agentic mechanisms. For instance thanking a house help will motivate her into working harder and having a stringer feeling of attachment towards her work. On the other hand, a worker who is not appreciated embraces hatred for his or her employers which in reduces social worthiness and self-efficacy of a person. Therefore according to this illustration, it is rife that every human being needs motivation in form of gratitude or little thanks in order to realize that someone somewhere is appreciative for whatever they are doing. This is the main reason why some great philosopher said that motivation is the fuel to the heart.
For a psychologist, having relevant research skills especially those relevant to mixed methods is paramount. There are times when statistical evidence is crucial and in using practical data collected from the field, the readers of psychological data will be more convinced. One major aim of the research undertaken for “ A little thanks goes a long way”, is that the author wanted to make his work credible because with mixed methods a wide array of both primary and secondary data can be used. The data collected from the field can then be compared for the sake of making the report very elaborate. Another purpose for a comprehensive research is that the collected information can be stored in databases and be used for future references. This is after its primary goal has been served therefore the remaining information is kept for historical purposes.
Among the researches that were conducted by the author of this book is conducting a field experiment on a certain organization. The workers were constructively assessed without their knowledge and it was determined that a manager who constantly expresses gratitude for a work well done increases the motivation of his or her employees. Putting in mind that the work of a manager is to direct the resources of an organization into constructive use while at the same time motivate the employees so as to deliver their level best, then it is worth noting that thanking employees will go a long way into acting as a motivation. Showing gratitude to employees not only boosts their self-efficacy but also increases their social worth (Grant &amp. Gino, 2010, p 956). Anyway the show of gratitude should not be misused at any one circumstance because it might be the cause of doom to an organization.
Showering employees with many thanks may make employees have the sense of achievement yet they have to keep focusing on improving themselves. In case a manager over thanks the employees then organization will be doomed for trouble. In conclusion, what should a good purpose statement entail? How can a student interconnect the introduction together with the purpose statement in order to formulate a convincing thesis statement?
References
Grant, A.M., &amp. Gino, F. (2010). A little thanks goes a long way: Explaining why gratitude expressions motivate pro-social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 98 (6). 946-955. http://ezp.waldenlibrary.org.login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direcct+true&amp.db+psyh&amp.AN=2010-09990-007&amp.site=ehost-live&amp.scope=sitePersistent

On self

Case Study on Self Introduction This is a case study on myself. In the case, I analyze my various development stages in comparison to my peers. Among my sources of information, include interview from my parents, teachers, siblings and friends both at school and at home. Additionally, I will analyze my school and health records with the view of obtaining relevant information on the process of my development.
Identifying Information
I am a twenty three year old male and a first born in a family of four. I live in New York City one of the most cosmopolitan setups in the world. I am of African American descent with both my parents being African Americans but from different townships. I study at the University of West Alabama an equally cosmopolitan setup with students from all over the world.
Physical Development
I am an important member of the college’s football team. My contribution in the team is a key indicator of my physical development. Playing for ninety minutes running around the field is a daunting task and not every other male would. Furthermore, I take part in several family activities helping in the household chores all of which require physical strength. Such therefore prove my physical maturity.
Emotional Development
I am emotionally developed too, after undertaking various courses in psychology and undergone several guidance therapies in the past I believe I am emotionally developed. A portrayal of the development included a breakup from my first girlfriend. Additionally, I have had family squabbles in the past some of which threatened to separate my parents. As the firstborn, I supported my younger siblings who relied on my strength.
Social Development
I have several friends and am considered a darling in my family. Such portray my social development. As a key team member, my colleagues rely on my wise advice most of the time. Furthermore, I rarely have discipline related problems with my teachers as my school records show. This implies that I relate with people appropriately often limiting harm in such social contracts.
Cognitive Development
The progress I have made in my studies is proof enough for my cognitive development. I have excelled in most of my exams in the past a feature that portrays both my cognitive and conceptual developments.
Language Development
I speak English and French. The process of studying the two languages was progressive a strategic development that have revamped my social development.
Moral Development
Morality refers to the ability to choose between right and wrong. I have several friends with whom I related effectively. The fact that I rarely conflict with my friends, teachers and siblings does not imply that they rarely irritate me but it portrays my ability to act appropriately at such times.
Theoretical stages
Socioemotional Selectivity and the Erikson theories are among the most relevant theories that explain my development process. Development is a successive process influenced by various features of our environment and the people we interact with (Santrock, 2010). The Erikson theory provides for eight fundamental stages that I have successfully gone through from my childhood to adulthood. Socioemotional selectivity on the other hand explains that people become progressively selective as they mature a feature that has exhibited itself in my development.
Conclusion
In retrospect, development is a multi-tire process that occurs progressively at various stages in life. By analyzing my developments to date, I have learnt the manifestation of the socioemotional selectivity and Erikson theories of psychological development.
References
DeLamater, J. D., &amp. Myers, D. J. (2011). Social psychology. Australia: Wadsworth Pub Co.
Flaherty, B. P. (2008). Testing the degree of cross-sectional and longitudinal dependence between two discrete dynamic processes. Developmental Psychology, 44(2), 468-480.
Grimm, K. J., Pianta, R. C., &amp. Konold, T. (2009). Longitudinal multitrait-multimethod models for developmental research. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 44(2), 233-258.
Grisso, T., &amp. Steinberg, L. (2005). Between a rock and a soft place: Developmental research and the child advocacy process. Journal of Clinical Child &amp. Adolescent Psychology, 34(4), 619-627.
Marshall, E. (1998). Mental and behavioral disorders. New York: McGraw Hill Print
Rosenberg, M., &amp. Turner, R. H. (1990). Social psychology: Sociological perspectives. New Brunswick, U.S.A: Transaction Publishers.
Santrock, J.W. (2010). Life-span development. (14th Ed). Boston: McGraw-Hill Publishers.
Stainton, R. W. (2011). Social psychology: Experimental and critical approaches. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Examine systemic influences on personality development by exploring the following factor

Personality Development Task Natural, environmental and genetic dynamics contribute to one’s personality development. By interacting in different social environments, ones’ environment manifested personality depends on where he grows up. One becomes what that which the surrounding environment influences him to be. By considering the environment where one grows up and operates we get to understand the how one developed his personality. Personality entails the way one reacts and interacts with other people. It is the characteristics that differentiate one from a crowd (Smith, Simpson &amp. King, 2012).
One’s personality ranges from being confident and relaxed to being fearful and anxious. Personality development starts from when one is a child and what he is exposed to in his life. One’s personality develops from when one is a kid to when he grows up. Many people fault the physical façade, and various exterior exceptionality of an individual. They also fault an individual’s self-persona (Sternberg, 2001).
Personality may refer to ones’ stature, height, size and complexion. Psychical appearance of a person does not define his personality. Personality entails more than appearance it constitutes ones character, attitude and character.
Psychopathology provides an unconstrained prospect for the study of not only the foundations personality but also of the most basic mental processes (Fairbairn, 1952). Personality development is the improvement of behavior, announcement skills, interpersonal relationships, attitude towards life and ethics. Character can be measured as the central feature in shaping an individuals personality. There are numerous psychologists who say that humanizing character and conduct alone will largely manipulate ones personality. It is a reality that all other dynamics following an influential personality will become ineffective if the person lacks a virtuous temperament and behavior (Duckworth &amp. Quinn, 2010).
Individuality is like a house. Just as a construction can survive when it has a strong foundation, a personality can astound when it has a frightening foundation. The well-built groundwork is supplied by character and behavior. If traits are developed on the firm base of values and ethics, it will be everlasting. Phony smirks and signals may attract others for a reasonably short phase. However, they do not last and do not help in civilizing ones personality.
Personality is an essential, part of one’s life. One can discover his identity through is personality, personality is a trait that enables other people to describe an individual. his likes .dislikes and dreams in life. A person with a stronger personality will identify his strong point and use it as a market to establish himself in his society (Doherty &amp. Little, 2009).
A person wanting to improve his personality and behavior must have a desire he should set his desire and determination to ensure that he succeeds in life. He should establish his goals and priorities that he wants to achieve in life. Every human being has a unique trait that distinguishes from others. this does not make a human being a social misfit, but one of many citizens desiring to make other peoples lives better (Duckworth &amp. Quinn, 2010).
Cognitive abilities are abilities that control the achievement and appliance of comprehension in problem solving. Cognitive abilities are crucial in influencing an individual’s traits and behaviors. If one understands his environment and what happens around him, he is likely to make informed decisions and choices that reflect of the person he is.
People exhibit individual disparities on an assortment of characteristics (Doherty &amp. Hughes, 2009). People will not behave the way the broader theory expects. Personality, displays consistency about an individual. A person’s real character is revealed through is personality.
One becomes popular by his behaviors and co-operation. People have different opinions on what satisfies a person’s personality. Character of a person is his strong point or foundation to base his personality.
Personality influences things to happen. It sways how we relate with other people. Personality influences how one mingles and relates with those around him. It is he factor that manipulate relationships and friendship. One’s personality is demonstrated in many forms. it can be through one’s thoughts, behaviors and feelings.
A unique person is made by personality. Personality is expressed through one’s emotional and temperaments tone (Sternberg, 2001). It shades people’s expectations, values and beliefs. Through one’s personality, he gets to understand and identify himself and know what he is worthy.
Reference
Duckworth. L. Angela and Quinn D. Patrick. (7 June 2010). Development and Validation of the
Short Grit Scale (Grit-S). Journal of personality assessment, 91(2):166-174
DOI: 10.1080/00223890802634290.
Doherty, J., and Hughes, M. (2009). Child development: theory and practice 0-11. London:
Routledge.
Fairbairn, W. R. (1952). Psychoanalytic Studies of the Personality. London:
Routledge.
Pearson Sternberg, R. J. (2001). Environmental Effects on Cognitive Abilities. London: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates. Longman.
Smith R. Eliot, Simpson A. Jeffry and King A. Laura. (March 2012). Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology. American Psychological Association, 102(3): 445-459.
ISSN: 0022-3514.

Opponentprocess theory of color vision

Opponent-process theory of color vision Affiliation: Describe 3 demonstrations that support the opponent-process theory of color vision.
This theory by Ewald Herring explains through a proposition that retina comprises of sensory receptors which detect colors based on their arrangements which is usually in pairs of red and green, black and white and yellow and blue. When one set of pair is stimulated, then the other opposing pair is inhibited (Pastorino and Doyle-Portillo, 2012).
One of the demonstrations of this is the afterimage. When one stares for long one particular color and then switches to a white area, the opposing color of the stared at color will be seen. For example if one was staring at a blue color, then effect will be seeing color yellow because the receptors of the blue color will have been desensitized temporarily.
The other demonstration of this theory is lateral inhibition or more commonly “simultaneous contrast.” This demonstration deals with color contrasts and shadows. An example of this is where two similar shades of color grey appear lighter or darker when put in a lighter or darker background (when in a darker background, the grey will appear lighter and when in a lighter background, it will appear darker). This happens because of the illumination behind the color which makes a lighter background appear darker.
Lastly, there is the visualizing colors demonstration which states that individuals visualize colors easily when they are from different sets. This is because the receptors find it hard to visualize an object which uses two colors of the same set since the same receptors are being used and hence making it hard to see both colors of the same set next to one another (Goldstein, 2010).
References
Goldstein, E.B. (2010). Sensation and perception (8th Ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth.
Pastorino, E. E. and Doyle-Portillo, S. M. (2012). What Is Psychology? Essentials. New York: Cengage Learning.

Celebrity endorsement in the womens fragrance market and its impact upon consumer behaviour

ndary research and the findings of primary research, all of which show that celebrity endorsement does indeed appear to be effective in contributing to increased sales of products and services.
Celebrity endorsement has been a common feature for many years, and is almost as common as advertising. A well known star or personality is shown in advertising as using and supporting a particular product or service, thereby imbuing the product with a degree of respectability that it may not otherwise have. By virtue of the product or service being good enough to be used by a celebrity, the idea is that consumers will be confident enough about the product to purchase it. This in turn should theoretically contribute to increased sales of the product or service, especially in the case of a product such as a fragrance, where the aura associated with the fragrance is the aura around the celebrity person.
In the fragrance market in particular, there are several instances where the popularity of a particular brand of perfume and the reputation associated with it have been enhanced through the association with the image of a particular celebrity. Some examples are the Chance brand of the Chanel perfume company, which has long been associated with Nicole Kidman, a well known movie star. The fragrance has become characteristic of the elegance and timeless, classic beauty that the actress symbolizes and this has ratcheted up the sales of the product considerably. It must be noted however, that such celebrity endorsement involves a considerable investment because a substantial sum needs to be paid to a celebrity in order to encourage them to come forward to endorse a product. If such investments in advertising expenses are to be justified, they need to be backed up with an adequate level of sales to match.
This research study proposes to examine the psychology behind the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement and whether or not it is effective in contributing to increased volumes

Compare and contrast the characters of Tybalt and Mercutio

In addition, they play key roles in precipitating the tragedy that befalls the lovers. However, even though Tybalt and Mercutio provide a foil for characters that are rather similar, their two characters represent almost two entirely different spheres of existence in terms of their essential natures.
The most direct contrast of their characters comes in the tense interaction between Mercutio and Tybalt in Act 3 Scene 1 before Romeo arrives. Tybalt arrives and after Mercutio offers a witty quip, the Capulet immediately states his willingness to fight with swords instead of words (III,i,36-50). But Mercutio, the gifted artisan of language, stands his ground in an exchange with Tybalt and will not budge, even though this feud is now taking place in the public space. This difference in the two characters demeanours is the most noticeable throughout the play, given the instrumental role Tybalt’s sword will have on the plot structure—leading to Mercutio’s death and Romeo’s subsequent exile. But by mocking emotions and aspirations of other characters, Mercutio lightens the play with clever humour, contrasted with the almost infuriatingly solemnity of the malevolent Tybalt. And as a man with a more cynical perspective on human affairs, Mercutio allows the audience to see deeper through psychology. Tybalt, on the other hand, exemplifies simplicity and dimensionless action.
In terms of a contrast, there remains also the issue of both characters’ worldviews and choices in the narrative structure of the tragedy. Mercutio, unlike other characters, refuses to blame an objective fate for the occurrences in the play, exemplified by such concepts as “star-cross’d lovers” (Prologue, 6). Instead, Mercutio lays the blame for the tragedy (in terms of events already taken place and those that will take place) on specific people rather than the hand of fate. In his view, the fault lays with the

HighPerformance PreCompetition Soccer Coaching Based on Principles of Sports Science

Coaches elevate their team’s performance through training and instruction. In soccer, the demands placed on the players are grouped as four interdependent components of the game: technique, tactics, fitness, and psychology. For raising a team’s high-performance potential to its maximum level, and for preventing it from getting weighed down by a weak component, coaching has to focus on improving each of the components. Although performance perfection is never attained in sport, teams can reach their highest peak performance level when all the players are simultaneously playing at their own individual best in relation to each component (Daniel 2004). &nbsp.“One of the key principles of sports science is that learning is accelerated when practice activities succeed in replicating the demands of the game”. This is termed as the principle of sports specificity. An example is that the ball is rarely stationary in open play, with intensive pace and flight of the ball and timing of the runs. therefore practicing crosses using a stationary ball from only 20 yards out does not enhance the players’ skill in successfully executing crosses in a game where on a regulation size field the crosses will originate from further out. Similarly, receiving balls at the edge of the penalty area, and using a leisurely five or six touches to turn and prepare for a shot, does not help a forward to prepare for the demands of his position, because during a competitive match he will not be allowed as much time and space on the ball so close to goal.Elevating Physiological, Psychological, Technical and Tactical Levels
The high levels of fitness required by soccer players to meet the physical demands of a game called for fitness training that is multifactorial, covering the different aspects of physical performance in soccer. The training components consist of aerobic and anaerobic training based on the energy pathway that dominates during the activity periods of the training session. Aerobic and anaerobic training represent exercise intensities below and above the maximum oxygen uptake, respectively.&nbsp.

Fatherson Relationship in Charles Bukowsky Ham on Rye

Father-son Relationship in “Ham On Rye” Charles Bukowsky’ novel, “Ham on Rye” deals with the growth of its protagonist, Henry Chinaski, whose anti-heroic character, in the first place, develops as a response to his relationship with his father, Big Henry Chinasky. The author attempts to show that during the Great Depression a poor child’s psychophysical growth has further deteriorated because of his father’s superstitious as well as apparently malignant attitude towards his teenage boy’s wellbeing. Whereas the protagonist Henry should grow a harmonious and calculative view of the world through his relationship with friends, he is forced to pass his childhood and boyhood in sarcastic loneliness. In his house Henry’s father frequently beats him often for no reason and keeps alienated from his friends at home and school.
Critics often compare Bukowsky’s protagonist Henry to Frankenstein’s monster and Kafka’s Gregor. Like Frankenstein’s monster and Kafka’s Gregor, Henry is the reflection of what he receives from the people of his acquaintances and the environment in which he lives. He is the monstrous production of the environment that, in most cases, has been shaped by his father’s tyranny. The monstrous and violent nature of Henry ultimately results from his alienation and outcast imposed by Big Henry. His father’s violent behavior, instead of love and understanding, during his childhood, induces him to resort to violence as a solution to issues such as disagreements with his friends. He often becomes physically aggressive to those alienate him. Also he is hardly “confident with his own abilities and often second-guesses whether he can win” (Fontana 57).
In Henry’s life, his father’s presence is that of a dictator who tends to trammel the harmonious psychophysical growth of his son that is supposed to flourish through a boy’s free and continual interactions with the environment in which he lives. Indeed Henry’s father is affected with paranoiac psychological traits such superiority complex, hypertension, etc. He himself leads a life of social outcast and alienation. A sense of failure and hardship in life works as a pathogenesis in his psychology and the pathogenic factor tends to shape his relationship with his son Henry. Subconsciously he seems to believe that keeping his son away mixing with other boys of the society, who, according to him, belongs to a lower social order, will save his son from facing the fate that he has already faced during the Great Depression. He has lost his job. yet he appears to his neighbors as if he were employed. This self-deception of Big Henry further pushes him to be more aggressive to his son psychically and mentally.
Poverty stricken Big Henry’s self-hatred and hatred for poor is vividly evident in his advice for his son: “What you must do, with money and the poor, is never let them get too close to one another.” (Bukowsky 251) Indeed Big Henry hates to be poor and still cherishes the illusion in heart that he belongs to a class that stands higeher than the poor. Whereas parental love and care could save Henry from disparaging effect of poverty and the lower status of his family, Big Henry’s physical and mental brutality produces some discouraging effects on Henry forcing him to resort to drinks and violence in order to get relief from harsh reality of life, as these negative effects are evident in his speech, “Gathered around me were….the ugly instead of the beautiful, the losers instead of the winners….I was like a turd that drew flies instead of like a flower that butterflies and bees desired. I wanted to live alone, I felt best being alone, cleaner…” (Bukowsky 155)
Works Cited
Bukowsky, Charles. Ham On Rye. New York: Bentham Pubs, 1987
Fontana, Ernest. “Bukowskis Ham on Rye and the Los Angeles Novel”. The Review of Contemporary Fiction. 1985, 5 (3):4-8

The Psychology of Terrorism

Its roots, dynamics, and occurrence have been the subject of countless debates and contentions from scholars in various fields of human knowledge. All of them strive to uncover why an individual would strap onto himself an explosive and detonate it in places full of bystanders. Each field tries to understand how an ordinary student ends up planning and carrying out kidnapping for political ends. Scholars explore the reason why groups of individuals have so much contempt for a state or group of states. Experts analyze the basis of the various doctrines of hate and malevolence against a particular class of people or a sector in society.

Despite all these efforts and undertakings to that dissect and formally study terrorism it is not common that it be understood from the standpoint of social psychology. By rationalizing the phenomenon of terrorism within the framework of the workings of the human mind new insight may be derived about it.

For the purposes of this paper, the concept of terrorism which will be explored will involve terrorism carried out by terrorist groups such as al –Qaeda, Jemaah Islamiya and Hezbollah. This is distinct and separate from state-sponsored terrorism as in the case of the Third Reich under Hitler and the former U.S.S.R. under Stalin.

The usual definition of terrorism is something like "the use or threat of violence, by small groups against non-combatants of large groups, for avowed political goals." The key to this definition is the combination of small groups killing non-combatants. Terrorism is the warfare of the weak, the recourse of those desperate for a cause that cannot win by conventional means McCauley (n.d.).

The attack&nbsp.was carried out in such a way as to maximize the severity and length of the psychological impact.

Website evaluation for a destination

The font size and color combination was not so good. Here we can have a same theme of heading. Each heading in the webpage has different color that gives the feeing of distraction to the users. 14
Acceding to most of the questionnaire respondents the website navigation is good. In this web site we have a clear view of our presence in the website. Here we have proper and functional hyperlinks that offer us the capability to navigate through the whole website in an effective way. 14
Web based information platforms are aimed at offering the people valuable information about the relevant area or subject. The human computer based analysis offers the capability to weigh up and assess these systems working and performance regarding their interaction to users. This research and analysis based report will also offer deep and comprehensive overview of the website evaluation through the human computer interaction rules. This website is an E-Tourism website that belongs to Bangladesh. It is an official website of Bangladesh Government for tourism and its online address is: www.bangladeshtourism.gov.bd. The main intention of this research is to evaluate this website regarding its design, content, usability and interactivity for the better and effective system development that can effectively interact with its audience.
The subject of Human–computer interaction deals with the analysis of the interaction among people and computer. In this paradigm we analyze how we can build a system (web site) that is able to offer better support and facility during the usage of system. This subject investigates the user psychology, behaviors and develops the system or designs the web site that is capable to meet the user expectations regarding system working. Website evaluation for better design, content, usability and interactivity is main area that developer needs to address while developing a web site for the user. Human computer interaction rules based evaluation process is

Death and dying

In short, people react differently to death and dying across cultures, age, and mode of manifestation amongst others. This discussion text will discuss the reactions of people to death and dying in two age contexts. between ages 40 years to 60 years, and those above 60 years.
The age between 40 to 60 years is referred to as the midlife in psychology, and is the stage where the people (mid-adults) experience the most challenging events in their lifespan. These might include parenting, divorce, unemployment, and deaths (Ito, 2013). The type of death experienced in this context is the death of a beloved parent, of which most adults respond differently to, as the discussion explains herein. The general reactions, of course varying from person to person, include inability to sleep, difficulty in socializing with others, becoming upset over thinking of the parent, painful memories about the parent, while some even go to the extent of breaking down. In addition to these, others exhibit signs of depression, extensive grief and what can be referred to as somatic responses (Stumpf, 2012). One may experience feelings such as lack of purpose in life, guilt if their relations were not as good, while for some, life seems to pause as they engage in unexplainable self-debates as to why that had to happen.
There are, howevermeant of coping with the negativities that arise from parental death, which deal with each issue in its own context as highlighted below (Angela, Richard, Idan, Devon, &amp. Stefan, 2013):
When one is overly irritable and quite unable to think straight thus paralyzing dialogue or any socialization, they should be left to calm down, cry, or do what fits them best as this helps in releasing the internal tension and feelings. However, if this lingers around for too long, they might require psychiatric assistance.
In most cases, cognitive restoration might

Advancing cultural and clinical responsiveness see details below

Advancing cultural and clinical responsiveness Affiliation: of theterm “Culturally and clinically responsive practitioner with an ethical framework” as it pertains to the provided article.
Psychologists should be clinically responsive to their clients by following the clinical guidance while diagnosing and treating their patients as stipulated in their studies. At the same time, they should be mindful of the differences between their cultures and the cultures of their patients and no matter how conflicting these cultures maybe, the psychologist has to be competent culturally and accommodate the culture of the patient and tailor the treatment according to that culture (Gallardo et al, 2009). In both of these responses (cultural and clinical), the psychologist should always aim to work within the set ethics according to the American Psychological Association ethics guidance.
2. Explain how and why leaning to be a culturally responsive practitioner will help you become ethically and culturally competent psychologist.
A culturally responsive practitioner is vast with the different cultures and this makes him accommodative and understanding and hence does not let emotions interfere with his work and hence it will be easier to follow the ethics set. Being culturally responsive practitioner also implies that the psychologist is ready to diagnose and treat any patient no matter their culture (Gallardo et al, 2009).
3. How will learning about culturally and clinically responsiveness improve your skills and abilities to become an ethically and culturally competent psychologist?
The information about cultural and clinical responsiveness first enables the psychologist to prepare oneself to handle any patient whose culture is different from. This therefore presents ample time for me as the psychologist to come up with skills to handle such patients (their diagnosis and treatment) effectively and be competent with their culture as well. I will also come up with mechanisms to separate my emotions with my duties and hence ensuring that i will still uphold the ethics required of me in this line of work and in the end deliver the best treatment possible for the patient.
References
Gallardo, M. E., Johnson, J., Parham, T. A., and Carter, J. A. (2009). “Ethics and multiculturalism: Advancing cultural and clinical responsiveness.” Professional . /Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(5), 425–435.

Understanding Psychology

Learning makes a difference in our mental perceptions, by helping us to do something that we could not do before. For example, through learning one is enabled to play the piano, or understand the meaning of new words. When something stays in the mind, it is assumed that it is stored somewhere, and this storage system is “memory”.
The learning and consequent memory formation may not always work optimally, and one may need to rack one’s brains and search the memory to remember something that was learned earlier (Butler &amp. McManus, 2000).
The main reason for any learning activity is that it promotes intellectual development in an individual. Learning outcomes are significant because they help teachers to focus on personal qualities that children need to acquire, such as autonomy, self-expression or concern for others. Secondly, by understanding learning outcomes, teachers can concentrate on practicing specific methods that promote cognitive development. Further, outcomes from learning help teachers to work towards set objectives that reflect children’s knowledge, skills, and understanding as is done in the national curriculum development. Intended outcomes can be achieved through a learning process characterized by the “use of discovery methods, first-hand experience, negotiation between teacher and pupil, and the teacher guiding the pupil through purposeful, meaningful experiences” (Powell &amp. Solity, 1990: 56).
In higher education, learning&nbsp.outcomes are in three levels: 1) the comprehension of basic principles, 2) application of theory, and 3) evaluation of theory, analysis, and synthesis of own ideas. This system of understanding learning outcomes begins the teaching process by inculcating an understanding of the foundations of the academic discipline, moving on to the ways in which the theories are applicable in academics and in the working environment relating to everyday life, and promotes the ability to assess the learning of theories, analyzing and integrating with personal conceptualizations on the academic topic.

Toward Stronger Marketing

After the dismal initial performance of the brew, Lang was invited to lead the Nespresso team. Lang was highly motivated and creative in its approach and favored aggressive marketing techniques. He believed that the core business strategy of any business heavily relies on new products and innovative market strategy that facilitates in creating a niche market for their products and services. He used various marketing metrics to explore and exploit new markets. The marketing initiatives for Nespresso can be broadly described as follows.
The compulsions of the rapidly transforming societal paradigms and technological advancements are important factors that require more comprehensive and innovative approach to market strategy. Strategic marketing plans are a crucial part of promoting products and services of an organization and establish market credibility. An effective market strategy promotes the use of SWOT (strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats) analysis on a periodic basis. The awareness of strengths and weaknesses in the company’s resources would help to act timely and efficiently so that opportunities and threats can be effectively met to provide a competitive edge to their rivals.
Consumer psychology and analysis of a database of customers are an important part of a market strategy which helps one to know the changing preferences of the customers in the rapidly changing times. Analysis and identification of the changing trends of the customer requirements are important ingredients to gain leverage against their rivals. The market strategy should be totally focused on the needs and requirements of the people and make continuous efforts to update its products line with that of the changing public demands.
Understanding of consumer psychology, therefore, plays a vital role in the development of marketing strategy and planning.

Psychology and service learning

Psychology and Service Learning Psychology and Service Learning Service learning is a form of volunteer work and it encompasses relevant community service and class instruction. It also concentrates on personal reflection on the individual in order to gain critical thinking in understanding his or her community. Consequently, this strengthens the person’s civic engagement and other forms of personal responsibility essential in meaningful existence. However, there is a direct relationship between service learning and psychology in regards to formulating the right attitudes, stereotypes, and beliefs. It implies that the human society is tasked with understanding their social roles and the functions of the total institution in terms of life events, culture, migration, and social class within the community.
On that account, civic responsibility gained through close coordination between supervisors and volunteers ensures that reflection on service experience is enhanced gradually. The process involves assessing the guiding belief systems that motivate a community in achieving its goals and objectives include its hopes and fears. Additionally, psychology with emphasis to its subfield of social psychology focuses on group dynamics by studying the various social variables (Billig &amp. Furco, 2002). Alternatively, there are other implicit measures that influence the social information that is integral in comprehending service learning for individuals. Overall, psychologists determine the domains of volunteer work through critical studies of cultural patterns and demographics of a community.
Psychologists gain a lot by doing community service because they gain skills doing their volunteering time. For instance, they learn how social interaction influences attitudes and beliefs in individuals. The act enables them to find a common ground in improving the community.
Reference
Billig, S. &amp. Furco, A. (2002). Service-learning Through a Multidisciplinary Lens. Mason, OH: IAP.

Social Psychology Aggression

According to the last news of Saturday 7th March 2009, 38 people have died due to rocket missile attacks during the polling in Iraq during the polling. Hundred people lost their lives due to ethnic conflicts in Jos, which is a small rural city in Nigeria. More than 550 people lost their lives due to the same reasons in Jos in January. It is very common to hear news regarding violence and aggression every day on TV, the internet and through other sources. Despite the fact that the above-mentioned couple of reports were some extreme levels of aggression but aggression in all forms, types, levels, ranges, and intensities is common everywhere on this planet. In fact, it is an essential part of animal nature and a vital characteristic.

Sigmund Freud was one of the first and one of the greatest psychologists to provide the world with his analysis of aggression. However, even more before Freud, many psychologists had put up their views in this regard. For example, Jean Jacques Rousseau, a French philosopher, and researcher came with an idea that aggression is not internal but is a product of social evils and external pressures. Conversely, experts of the early 20th century like Sigmund Freud and Konrad Lorenz were of the view that is a part of human nature and very much, intrinsic, internally driven and inborn. In this regard, Freud’s theories and views very quite interesting. According to Freud, all human behaviors are a product of sexual and instinctive drives. He explained childhood aggression or the Oedipus complex with the same view. He presents the example of a five-year-old boy who is obsessed with her mother and somewhat develops a sexual desire for her mother.

However, he is also well aware of the fact that his biggest competitive rival would be his father. Therefore, he starts to develop a feeling of hatred for his father and wants him to go away. On the other hand, he also loves his father and feels guilty and at fault for hating his father.

Assessment Measurement and Research

&nbsp.The culture fair test is relatively valid considering that it only reduces cultural bias and as stipulated in its construction, it admits impossibility to eliminate cultural bias. It only seeks to reduce biases during the performance of intelligence tests. The first time of use of the culture fair test was after the World War II and involved screening American soldiers of average intelligence and non-native English speakers. Since its first use, the test has gained widespread application in schools and other institutions and applied in screening non-native English speakers (Messick, 1999).
The culture fair test instrument is relatively reliable considering the various steps used in its construction and initial implementation. To begin with, there should be no timing of the test and if possible, directions can be oral or in pantomime. Secondly, the instrument has been the use of a draw a person tests that measure body concepts and differentiation to define culture fair indices of intellectual ability (Ungar, 2011). Thirdly, the structure of test allows room for use of nonverbal responses for children whose languages are different from the ones presented in the standardized test.
During the consultation, the counselor noted that there is no educational threshold to guide or prove the applicability of the cultural fair test in counseling. However, the counselor reiterated that practitioners need to have at least a certificate or any higher training in counseling psychology.
The method that led to the selection of the culture fair test involved listing and sampling of the tests with reference to the critical cultural issues eminent in the field of psychology.&nbsp.

Educational Psychology

Thus, some of the theorists that are specific to educational psychology comprise Thorndike, Hall, Dewey, and Siegler to name a few.
In educational psychology, the scientific method is used in research because it is the sole means by which objective data can be gathered in this field. The scientific method is a systematic and thorough approach in which research can be conducted. It involves the following steps: asking questions, doing background research, constructing a hypothesis, testing with an experiment, analyzing results, drawing conclusions and reporting results. The researcher is required to construct another hypothesis if the tested hypothesis was found to be false or partially true. The scientific method is used in both qualitative and quantitative research. The quantitative method is used in cases where the sample can be manipulated. However, the qualitative is used for experiments where the subjects cannot be manipulated and the researcher would attain more ethical results if the sample remained as close to the natural setting as possible.
Language development begins from the womb. The fetus from sixteen weeks is able to recognize the voice of its mother. Therefore researchers believe that the degree of effort the mother puts into communication is directly related to the extent of the child’s language development. Thus, early language development is fostered firstly by the level of communication the mother asserts with the child. This constant hearing of the spoken language acts as a foundation from which the child can base the entire building block of language development.
Not only would the communication from the mother motivate the child to want to learn a language but also the communication of other adults plays an important role in language development. Adults who interact with infants and young children are in fact laying a foundation for the eventual language component.&nbsp.

Identity crisis in popular media

[Teacher’s Identity crisis in popular media Identity crisis is a phrase that has been analyzed by many scholars, and wasfirst introduced to the realms of psychology by Erik Erikson. In modern times, more adolescents are experiencing identity crisis as the popular media bombards them with numerous perspectives and advice that they are incapable of realizing the role they should take in life. Hence, adolescents are now spending more time contemplating, exploring and analyzing different personalities to one which they identify with the most (Waterman, 5-24). In the midst of feminism and the fight for gender equality, adolescent males are on the verge of an identity crisis due to the clash between male roles of the past, and the current trends in the world today.
The article reviewed is entitled “Our male identity crisis: What will happen to men?” (Williams, 2010). In the article, the author illustrates the underperformance of males in the modern world and the development of a gender education gap that has females far above males. A study illustrates that as of 2009, females earned more higher education degrees than their male counterparts (Williams, 2010). In addition, the independency of women is increasing as they are more women purchasing homes as well as being the breadwinners in the family (Williams, 2010). This will have an influence on the development of male adolescents in this family. Hence, in the modern world, there is now a conflict in the messages received by adolescents on the meaning of being a man and the role that male must fulfill.
In Erikson’s stage of Identity versus Role Confusion, he illustrates the problem that is being discussed in the paper. The stage involves the development of sexual identity and a feeling of concern for the image one portrays to others (Erikson, 128). The article mentions the problem in this perspective that the male adolescents experience, as they do not know the ideal appearance for a man. For example, in the western world women are becoming more successful and overtaking men in many fields such as education and employment. On the other hand, the male is portrayed as the dominant figure in the family whilst in many homes the woman is the bread winner. The male adolescents have difficulty in deciding if they should present the traditional male image or what perception the world will have if they play a secondary role to their female counterparts. As mentioned above, this is the stage of sexual identity development (McLeod, 2008). however, male adolescents face the dilemma of ignorance on male sexual identity as the world today lacks clear-cut distinctions and boarders. The dilemma in the article also presents male adolescents with difficulties in determining their future careers as there is a level of uncertainty on the roles that they will adopt as adults.
In summation, the article does not provide any concrete advice to adolescent males. However, it does prepare these individuals for the diverse and constantly changing society we live in today. The explanation of the changes in the world are beneficial in reducing the confusion among males by introducing them to the new world, and removing the traditional stereotypic gender roles from their mentality.
Works Cited
Erikson, Erik H.&nbsp.Identity: Youth and crisis. No. 7. WW Norton &amp. Company, 1968. Chapt. III, p. 128-135
McLeod, Saul. Erik Erikson. Simply Psychology. 2008
Waterman, Alan S. "Identity in the context of adolescent psychology."&nbsp.New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development&nbsp.1985.30 (1985): 5-24.
Williams, Ray. Our male identity crisis: What will happen to men? Psychology Today. 2010

The Legalization of Drugs

The drug-dealers spoil the whole society in order to make dirty money. According to the human psychology of basic nature, people do not start big in terms of criminal and drug usage as well. In this way, they have to hold the gun in early days to become a professional hitter in the later years so legal mechanism attempts to kill the evil in the bud because over there, it is easy to control and manage.
The law enforcement related series have caused the crime rates to drop significantly in recent years because the audience has developed a belief that perfect crime is an impossibility and they make a conscious effort to remain out of trouble. The legal rules act on the basis of fear in order to motivate the general public to stay away from criminal activities. The fear can be a strong motivator, and humans do not perform those activities with, which they have a realization that serious ramifications are attached to those choices in the long-run perspective. The life of crime can be very hard for innocent souls, and therefore, many of them can throw-up in the early stage of their crime lives (Hopfer, 00). However, many people have a tendency to quit illegalities at the first sign of trouble because they do not have the hearts to risk their whole lives in order to prove their manhood to the world. Additionally, the strength of law and order does not let anyone take affairs in their own hands, and the legal system of the developed nations has a record of being ruthless and strict towards those who have committed crimes regardless of nature and magnitudes of the actions.
In this way, fear is the defining element of modern legislation, and the system is working quite well with reference to its efficiency in catching all types of&nbsp.criminals.

Alchemy and Remedy in Higher Education

Research paper: Test Evaluations Psychometric tests involve a wide array of tools for evaluating one’s personality, knowledge, abilities, attitudes or educational measurements (The American Psychological Association 1999). These tests help to evaluate a person’s emotions and intelligence to screen candidates for jobs or in education to determine personality weaknesses and strengths.
Personality tests evaluate the thought, attitudes, emotions and behavioral features that compromise personality. This test is widely used in various areas like businesses, schools and job market. The tests can be objective or projective depending on the method of response (Kline 2005). Objective evaluations possess a limited set-up for response e.g. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory or child behavior checklist. Projective tests gives opportunity for free answering of the questions, example is the Rorschach test (The American Psychological Association 1999). Research shows that the utility and validity of projective tests is lower than objective tests because some are more time consuming in comparison to the objective tests.
Sexology tests have a limited number of receptions. This field provides different methods of psychological evaluations to examine various aspects of dysfunction, problems or discomforts (Kline 2005). The tests give less regard to individuality or relationships and hence have a very low validity and utility level. Most of sexology tests are written through questionnaires while a few of them are delivered orally.
Neuropsychological tests on children and adolescents help them to evaluate their various levels of performance and to determine the regions that may show some conditions of mental impairment (Kline 2005). The tests are performed to these individuals after any brain injury, organic neurological problems or brain damage. They can also help to show development delays or learning disabilities in children (The American Psychological Association 1999). Due to their performance their validity and utility is in continuous growth as many people continue to grow concern on their children’s’ health now and future.
References
The American Psychological Association. (1999). Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Washington, DC: APA Press
Kline, T. J. B. (2005). Psychological testing: A practical approach to design and evaluation. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage.
Plagiarism
1. Paraphrasing
Different theories of adult learning have been derived to help improve the efforts of theorists and practitioners in understanding adult learning. The theories provide better ways in workable and testable forms for explaining the adult learning process and further strive to show the differences in child and adult learning (Gilmore 2008). These theories also focus on describing how such factors as psychology, social, emotions and physiology effect adult learning. Hence, the ideas of such authors of these theories as psychologists, sociologists or educators add value to the comprehensive understanding of adult students. They also help to create serene environment for the unique needs of the adult students (Marsh 2007).
2. Summery
Educators, sociologists and psychologists have come up with different theories to help understand adult learning. To prove their theories, they accompany them with workable and testable samples to help explain the adult learning process. These theories show distinct features of adult and children learning processes with effecting factors like psychology, emotions, social and physiology. These generated ideas are then used to create favorable learning environment for adults suitable for their unique needs.
3. Quotation
Educators, sociologists and psychologists have come up with different theories to help in the understanding of adult learning. They accompany their theories with workable and testable samples to help explain the adult learning processes and to prove their theories (Marsh 2007). These theories seek to distinct adult learning processes form child learning processes paying c lose attention to factors like emotional, psychological, social and physiological elements that influence the education process. “To that end, ideas generated by educators, sociologists and psychologists all contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the adult learner and how to create a learning environment that is most suitable to their unique needs” (Gilmore 2008).
Part II
Version 1 has no plagiarizes because the quotation has used entirely different words to provide the same meaning (Marsh 2007).
Version 2 has some content of plagiarism especially in the last sentence. The last sentence of this version of the quotation is the same as the first sentence of the original text. The words of the sentence match those of the original excerpt.
Version 3: if E-learning teams chose to make online learning relevant to learners they should consider such elements as values, beliefs, cultures and histories that are in close relation with e learning. Such considerations motivate learners since the information they gain becomes relevant and obvious to them (Gilmore, 2008).
References
Marsh, B. (2007). Plagiarism: Alchemy and remedy in higher education. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Gilmore, B. (2008). Plagiarism: Why it happens, how to prevent it. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Entrepreneurial Psychology

The second role of a manager identified by Mintzberg is that he is a leader where s/he offers leadership to a team, department or even the entire organization (Allio, 2011, p. 8). It is from being a leader that a manager is able to manage the performance of each person in the group (Kibort, 2004, p. 33). This role is replicated at home where the father offered leadership at home. The father determined where we went for holidays, to church and even the schools we went. Moreover, when it comes to making major decisions about life for instance career choice, our father always came to our aid and guided us. This is motivated by the fact that he always wanted the best for us.
According to Mintzberg, a manager acts as a liaison between the internal organization and the external contacts (Mintzberg, 2003, p. 9). He further asserted that a manager must be able to network well for the group. This role was performed at home by our father where he used to represent the family in issues like family businesses and also in issues of insurance and medical cover. In case of eminent threat to the family, the father was always at the forefront to defend us. In addition, our father networked to identify the best people to serve the interests of our family, for instance, he chose the family doctor for us.
Mintzberg also explained that a manager must bear the role of being a monitor (Kibort, 2004, p. 33). To discharge this role effectively, a manager should continuously seek information that relates to the organization and the industry as a whole and identify any changes in the business environment. In addition, the manager monitors the team to assess their productivity and well-being. At home, this role was discharged by our father where he used to monitor our performance by having to see our report cards. He also monitored our health and had to know how each and everyone spend his day. By doing this, our

Intressed

Research] of Research The of the research is "To assess whether The Lexus brand is a top of the mind brand when it comes to the luxury conscious consumers and its implications on consumer behavior during recession"
Reasons for Undertaking the Project
The world of branding is developing fast. And the power of brands to emotionally tie a consumer to itself is accelerating day by day. Lexus is an automobile under the bigger brand name of Toyota, a Japan based company of automotives. With time, Lexus has become a global name, and it has come a long way since its first introduction in USA. (Potter, 2004)
The reason for undertaking this project is because the world of branding is very interesting and complex. The consumer behavior is more or less related to psychology, as has been told by Sigmund Freud. Most of what the consumer thinks is emotional, rather than rational. He uses his emotional space to connect brands and then adheres to it, whether by being loyal or by never using that brand. (Blythe, 2008) Moreover, luxury brands have a very different significance, especially in such times of recession, and thus researching over the consumer behavior for luxury brands during such troublesome times would surely give interesting results, and findings which these companies can capitalize on.
Research Project
The research project would include thorough primary as well as secondary research. It has to be found out whether the Lexus brand name is distinct from the brand name of its maker, or if it is still being endorsed by its parent company. The more the brand starts moving towards that end of the continuum where the "branded house" stands, the more the brand becomes successful and breaks through from the parent company, and makes an identity of their own.
Moreover, the elite class, which is more likely to be using the luxury brands, is going to be interviewed for their preferences, as well as for rating various luxury automobile brands on the Brand Value Pyramid (BVP), which has the features and attributes in the bottom most tier, then the middle layer has the benefits whereas the top most layer focuses on the beliefs and values. If a customer starts rating a brand as being part of the beliefs and value systems of a target market, then that brand has reached the altitude of brand success, and can be considered a top of the mind brand. This model has to be applied on Lexus, by asking for opinions of the target market. (Simmons, 2004)
The recession is taking its toll on almost all big brand names. But some brands are actually emerging as the survivors and as better than their rivals. It has to be researched whether Toyota and Lexus, in particular, is one of them.
Training and Preparations
The preparations for this research will be the design of a questionnaire which will help in the survey of the respondents. Several dynamics have to be taken care of, for instance, whether the questions will be open ended or closed ended. Moreover, the number of questions and the place where the respondents will be asked to fill the survey will be important. (Booth, 2008)
REFERENCES
Blythe, J. (2008) Consumer behavior. Cengage Learning.
Booth, W. (2008) The craft of research. University of Chicago Press.
Potter, M. (2004) The Lexus story. Melcher Media.
Simmons, J. (2004) Brands and branding. Bloomberg Press.

The Two Faces of Leadership

In addition, it must be said that now scientific concepts of leadership have focused on the impact of a leader’s behavior on the company’s performance.
Some people can argue that the main priority has been given to the leadership, and the study of entrepreneurship has grown in recent years, the study of entrepreneurs as leaders is a gap in both bodies of knowledge. As it is sited in Miller and Friesen`s work. “the call for expanding the study of leadership within the context of newer, smaller, organizations has existed for a number of years’, to date little research has emerged. The purpose of this study is to begin to fill this gap by examining the impact that the emerging process of authentic leadership (may have on the employees of founders of newer, small businesses. After a brief review of the meaning of authentic leadership and its application within the context of relatively new, small businesses, the methods, results, and implications of our study of the impact that employees’ perceptions of the founder as an authentic leader has on their job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and happiness at work is presented.
What is an authentic leader? In recent years, positive psychology (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000. Sheldon and King, 2001. Snyder and Lopez, 2002) has emerged to counter the prevailing negativity in the field by looking at what is right (rather than dysfunctional) with people and emphasizing and building strengths rather than trying to fix weaknesses.&nbsp.

Psychodynamic Theory and Mood Swings

41000 Psychologically, “a mood swing is an extreme or rapid change in mood. When these changes start to become controlling, mood swings can start to affect the way someone functions.”&nbsp.(Weiner &amp. Freedheim, 2013, p. 352). This implies that mood change reflects sharp and rapid changes to people’s activities and processes. And it changes the way people function and how they do things. Psychoanalysis is the theory through which a researcher examines the way a given individual or groups of people think and provide a thesis that explains the theory or concept that defines the way a person or group thinks (Fayek, 2011). This includes the investigations into the conscious and unconscious nature of the mind in order to draw conclusions about the way a given individual thinks. In order to conduct a basic insight into the matter, there is a need to examine previously generated and presented theories and concepts that are relevant to the study. This will provide a basis for the formulation of a hypothesis and the formulation of important conclusions. Traditionally, mood swings in mainstream psychology have been studied under the banner of bipolar disorders. Bi-polar disorder is “a situation where a person presents a given mood at a particular point in time and then shows another mood in a different point in time due to conditions that are not linked to substance abuse” (Vieta, 2012, p. 4). One of these moods is considered normal, whereas another is either depressive or shows some degree of negative mental thoughts or ideas. Psychoanalysis applies a multidisciplinary approach to deduce the condition of a patient and come up with a solution that can help the patient to overcome his or her mental challenges in bipolar disorders (Fonagy, Mayes, &amp. Target, 2012).

Behaviour Modification Therapy

The importance of being aware of new theories, practices, and studies cannot be overstressed. “To travel at all is to hold ideas about the behavioral and social terrain over which we journey. To show no interest, in theory, is simply to travel blind. This is bad practice and unhelpful to clients” (Howe, 1987: 9). The degree to which an individual social worker may have the opportunity to explore different approaches may vary based upon the political and organizational policies and framework of their agencies, with those associated with service-user, led voluntary projects generally gaining a higher ability to use their own discretion than those employed by local intake teams (Blewitt, Lewis &amp. Tunstill, 2007: 4). According to Halmos (1965), social workers in the 1950s were defined more according to the agency that they worked for than the work that they did, a condition that has only become more exaggerated in recent years. Despite the constraints on their time, resources and prescribed approaches, most studies continue to show that practitioners would much rather be employed with agencies that allow them to work in a reflective, relationship-based manner (Munro, 2004). Behavioral therapy provides this type of working relationship. To fully understand this approach, it is necessary to first define what is meant by the term ‘behavioral therapy’, understand the background from which it came, the theories that contributed to its development and determine those situations in which it can best be employed by defining its strengths and limitations before it can be applied to a hypothetical case study.

The primary purpose of the social worker is to educate families on how to use more positive means of dealing with issues of all kinds. “Although there are many tools available to the social workers to help bring about change, one of the most popular is generally labeled behavior modification. This method is defined as ‘the systematic application of common sense wrapped in psychology’s brand name, behavior modification” (Weathers, 2007).

Erikson’s Theory of Child Development

The different aspects of child development identified by Erikson (1963) are: biological, social and individual. Erikson’s most important contribution to psychology is his demarcation of the eight psychosocial stages represented by the eight ages constituting the life span of an individual. An individual’s identity is related to each stage of the lifecycle. During adolescence, a conflict between identity and role confusion can arise. Ego development occurs through the stages of the life span and is part of a child’s evolution into adolescence.

As a student of Freud, Erikson took a unique perspective on Freud’s work, incorporated Freud’s primary assumptions, and broadened the network of factors considered responsible for influencing development. He extended the Freudian psychoanalytic theory to focus on the ego as the fundamental component in an individual’s functioning. Erikson’s (1963) psychosocial theory of personality development is similar to Freud’s psychosexual theory of development with its emphasis on instinctual energy as a determining life force (Sadock et al, 2007).

Freud’s viewpoint was that the most important determinants of development occurred during early childhood, but on the other hand, Erikson believed that the most important development came later, and that development continued through the lifespan: from childhood till the last stage of life. Another difference between Freud and Erikson’s theories is that: Erikson does not stress unconscious motives or desires, and he based his ideas on analyses of the functioning of healthy people, whereas Freud studied individuals being treated for mental health problems. Erikson considered key social interactions at each stage of development to be very important. Though he agreed that biological unfolding was&nbsp.an essential part of development, “particular social, cultural and historical environments that the child experienced mattered as well”.

Brand Personality Characteristics

Oxfam Australia is an independent, not-for-profit, secular, community-based aid and development organization in Australia. It works to provide more and more people with a sustainable livelihood, access to social services, an effective voice in decisions, safety from conflict and disaster, and equal rights and status.
Jennifer Aaker defined brand personality as "the set of human characteristics associated with a brand" (347). Aaker argued that substantial amount of research on personality dimensions had been done earlier in personality psychology to conceptualize human personality, but similar parallel research on brand personality was non-existent, in the extent consumer behaviour literature (347).
To address this issue Aaker developed a special measure of brand personality that consisted of 42 traits and five dimensions: sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness. Aaker’s model of brand personality was the pioneering work in Brand personality literature and set precedent for similar studies (Ferrandi et al, 7-13 ).
Brand personality in charity sector received specific consideration, for the first time, in 2005 when (Venable et al) tried to develop a separate measure of Charity brand personality. (Venable et al) opined that the brand personality scale developed by Aaker is more suitable for-profit organization and can not be generalized for a Nonprofit organization, as patronizing Charity organization involves more of Social consideration rather than Economic consideration they opined that, as economic consideration in a charity is limited to Tax exemption on account of donations made to the charity.
Thus Brand personality of a charity should reflect the social orientation to be distinctive and relevant. (Venable et al) replaced Aaker’s 5-dimensional brand personality construct with a more specific 4-dimensional brand personality construct, for Nonprofit. Their model shared two dimensions i.e. Sophistication and Ruggedness with Aaker’s model but added two separate dimensions i.e. Nurturance and Integrity. (304)

Relevant Merits of Theoretical Approaches to Counseling

Traditionally, people suffering from abnormalities in thought or behaviour, if extreme and regarded as mentally ill, were placed in asylums and later in psychiatric hospitals. Such patients are treated by psychiatrists using psychotropic drugs. The biochemical model of mental disorder has helped alleviate symptoms of conditions identified as schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, depression, panic attacks, anxiety and phobias. However, drug therapies almost always result in unwelcome side effects and are therefore optimal in the treatment of only the most intractable psychotic conditions. Moreover, the vast majority of people who are able to function in the everyday world at some level without hospitalization still need the help of psychotherapists or counsellors to overcome their perceived handicaps to leading a normal life. Often described as talking cures they require no biochemical treatment.
Counsellors and therapists need not be medically qualified. Instead, they are in the majority of instances, trained in psychology and go on to specialize in one or more approaches to the treatment of psychological dysfunction. The two words psychotherapy and counselling appear to be used together and at times interchangeably. Psychotherapy antedated counselling and draws upon medical and psychoanalytical roots whereas counselling is a much broader concept developed by psychologists and others from humanistic and existential backgrounds. A recent analysis of the relationship between counselling interventions and theory refers to more than 130 extant theories of counselling’(http://www.ericdigests.org/1992-3/theory.htm).
Most reviewers of the literature agree with three or four basic, yet overarching formulations as the main approaches to counselling and therapy such as Behavioural, Cognitive (usually in combination referred to as Cognitive-Behavioural), Psychodynamic and Humanistic therapies.&nbsp.

Analysis of Methodological Issues

The content of this article is directed towards teachers as well as all the stakeholders engaged directly with shaping the academic life of students. This article is highly relevant in the sense that it highlights various forms of discipline problems exhibited by children and above all, it highlights key intention and prevention-focused programs aimed at promoting improve academic excellence, moral and character development as well as acceptable social skills among students. The authors have highlighted antisocial behavior to be one of the greatest concerns in learning institutions. Notable discipline problems recorded in the article include but not limited to bullying, violence, vandalism and disruptive classroom behavior. Such problems have been identified for creating an unsafe academic environment, posing threats to the entire population in the learning environment. As such the authors have emphasized the need for reinforcing positive behavior among the students to curb antisocial and indecent behavior.

This article is intended for instructors engaged in educating students. This article is highly important because it exposes school stakeholders to a new form of behavior intervention strategy particularly Web-Based Behaviour Intervention. This piece of literature describes the rate at which the Web-based intervention is growing with respect to behavioral change. A review of the methodological issues pertinent to the successful implementation of web-based behavioral intervention has been widely covered by the authors. For instance, the author covered methodological issues associated with the engagement, recruitment and social validity of the participants. The authors insist on appreciating the value of web-based intervention from a broader perspective of behavioral change research. As such the authors suggested that web-based needs be applied in the public health to assist in dealing with behavioral disorders among adolescents and children.

Oliver, R &amp. Reschly, D. (2007). Effective Classroom Management: Teacher Preparation and Professional Development. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.
This article sheds light on the effectiveness of effective classroom management especially instruction strategies applied by teachers in influencing the behavior of students to attain positive results. According to the authors, the ability of teachers to attain positive academic results relies heavily on their ability to organize classrooms and effectively manage student behavior. The article also emphasizes on the ability of the new teachers to remain in their career for long taking into consideration that resilience in a teaching career is highly influenced by instructor’s competency in managing student behavior and classroom organization.

Olatunde, P. (2009). Relationship between Teachers’ Attitude and Students’ Academic Achievement in Mathematics in Some Selected Senior Secondary Schools In South-western Nigeria. European Journal of Social Sciences 11(3).
The author of this article targets teachers considering that he emphasizes on the need of having a positive attitude while teaching. This article starts by introducing readers to the concept of attitude before narrowing down to its influence on third parties. The implications of attitude as well as how attitude is formed have been exclusively covered by the author. According to the author, the attitude has serious implication on the interaction of individuals in social groups and institutions. For instance, the attitude of the teacher will have a greater influence on the immediate social group with which the teacher interacts with. The author goes ahead to state that the learners will certainly draw their attitude from their instructors which are likely to impact their academic performance. This is because attitude is acquired through the learning experience and as such if a student acquires bad attitude towards mathematics or sciences from his/her teachers then the student is likely to perform poorly in the subject besides developing a bad attitude.

Yong, P &amp. Bryan, K. (2008). Asian and European American cultural values and communication styles among Asian American and European American college students. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 14(1), Jan 2008, 47-56.
This article also reveals much of low context communication as well as interpersonal sensitivity in both the Asian and European American students. Authors have also revealed the Asian Americans utilize minimal open communication style compared to their European counterparts.

Police interrogations

There is a clear distinction between using interrogation as a means of truth-seeking and as a means of coercive manipulation to arrive at confession. But this difference is lost on many who do not recognize the value of real police work, which begins with a case and ends with the accumulation of evidence. While there is reason to claim some police interrogation in the 21st century violates this truth-seeking purpose and borders instead on coercive manipulation, by and large police tactics today are founded upon refined psychological theories that relate to criminal behavior and are far more effective at eliciting genuine confessions than any tactics in the history of police work.
American police interrogations have classically been structured, cultured, and practiced as a means of increasing the state’s ability to prosecute a suspect and to undermine his or her ability to craft a robust defense at trial (Leo, 2008, p. 11). The history of interrogations in the United States follows the movement away from an openly “third degree”, inquisitorial model to an adversarial model, which Leo (2008) describes as an era of science and psychology. In the past, when interrogations were even less visible to the public as they are now, harsher techniques were used with great frequency (Leo, 1992). The demand from the American public to solve crimes at high rates, however, has not changed from previous decades. only now, interrogations have become less about physical coercion and more about psychological manipulation (Leo, 2008).
So-called “third degree” interrogation techniques were especially prevalent among law enforcement officials in the first quarter of the 20th century. The term “third degree” is a euphemism for the inflicting of physical and mental pain for the purpose of extracting confession or self-incriminating statements. The Wickersham Commission, which was founded in 1929 to discover the causes of

Summary of Intervierw

Education Observations made regarding the Management of Special Needs Programs &amp. To understand how teachers can better educate those children who have special needs I had to interview one person who was working with these children. I had the opportunity to interview the campus coordinator, Ms. Riffle, at Hoffman Elementary in San Antonio. It is through these observations that I learned about the management process of special needs programs. I also hoped to give educators who are not familiar with educating and managing students with special needs, some basic ideas on special needs education. As the Special Education Campus Coordinator, Ms. Riffle, noted that she had to carry out her roles in a certain way.
As a coordinator, one has to ensure that they have a Master’s of Science, Development and cognitive disabilities and a Bachelor’s degree in Arts. In addition, it is necessary to have eight years of experience as a teacher teaching special education students. Like most Special Needs Coordinators in campuses, getting one year training as a NISD special Education Coordinator is critical. As a coordinator with such qualification, it is easier to manage special needs students if a coordinator has the skills and the qualifications (Wearmouth, 2013). In addition, parents are more likely to trust experienced professionals with their special needs children (Westwood, 2010). It is not only any special needs children that qualify for the programs, but those who are visually and emotionally impaired. Additionally, those with orthopedic, speech and auditory impairments are also included. Students with traumatic brain injuries and learning and intellectual disabilities are also qualified.
To admit these students into the special needs programs in the school, they have to do tests to check their adaptive behavior, cognitive and language skills (Wearmouth, 2008). Earlier tests used in special education schools were not suitable when it came to testing students with special needs (Frederickson &amp. Cline, 2009). However, today, it is the work of the General Education Teacher to refer the students to the tests, but a Licensed Specialist in School Psychology (LSSP) carries out the testing. For the school district to get the testing process done, they have to follow the Federal timelines. The Full Individual Evaluation (FIE) or The Admission, Review and Dismissal (ARD) meetings where the parents of the students, special and general education teachers are present are a requirement. Without these meetings, it would not be possible to admit students without allowing the Admission, Review and Dismissal (ARDC) to accept the student’s eligibilities and agreeing on what the Individual Education Plan (IEP) says. One most important observation about the management process is that a school has to comply with the TEA requirements by ensuring that the ARD meetings are held within 30 days set by the FIE date. Teachers are not left out in this process because they play critical roles when it comes to facilitating the Response to Intervention (RTI) process and establishing the Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAAFP).
Challenges are also a part of the management experience for a Special Education Campus Coordinator. For example, scheduling of meetings is always a problem because there is never enough time for students to go to the meetings. Even though there are 17 support personnel who assist these students, time is always a scarce commodity. Nonetheless, the school ensures time gets saved through record keeping made possible through the use of data binders, STAAR records, IEP websites and special education records.
As a graduate student of education leadership, these are the observations I made about coordinators of special education programs. It is my view that most of these coordinators carry out an excellent job when it comes to managing the special education programs. The only recommendation I would make is that the coordinators should have programs that promote the notion that Para-professionals are not the only ones who are there to help students with special needs. If parents have this view in their mind, I believe they are more likely to work hard to interact more with their special needs children.

References
Frederickson, N., &amp. Cline, T. (2009). Special educational needs, inclusion and diversity. New York: McGraw-Hill Education
Wearmouth, J. (2008). A beginning teachers guide to special educational needs. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.
Wearmouth, J. (2013). Special educational needs: The basics. London: Routledge.
Westwood, P. (2010). Common sense methods for children with special educational needs. London: Routledge.

Individual Difference

Individual Difference Task Diversity in schools implies that learners are not the same. hence, they will have dissimilar levels of grasping lessons. People will learn in diverse ways, and that is why some will grasp a lot while others will lag behind. Often, learning incorporates the personal experiences, talents and interests the people have, which all have significant influence the learning abilities they posses.
Personal experiences and family backgrounds play an appreciable role in the learner’s psychological wellbeing, and this implies that it will affect the learning capability (Siegler, 2005). When the learner is psychologically stable, they will be able to concentrate hence they will get what they are not. If it happens that, a person is psychologically disturbed, they will not concentrate on the material being taught hence learning is undermined. Instances of poor health, sicknesses, and other stress related situations may cause indifference in learning since they take the thinking capacity hence hinder learning. Physical fitness is crucial in learning since it will make the learners vibrant hence. they will be able to learn the most important things if not everything in the learning situation.
Cultural backgrounds will make students form groups while learning and if the situation is not corrected, it cause indifference in learning. People in a learning environment who have commonalities will tend to favor each other while learning and those from a different race may not grasp the learning material if they feel uncomfortable while learning.
To overcome the indifferences in learning in a classroom, the teachers have to understand the diversity of their students. When they do this, they will ensure that students for whatsoever reason do not victimize anyone. In schools, there should be counselors who students should visit to share with their personal experiences, which may hinder their learning. Social economic classes should be shunned away from classrooms since they make other students feel uncomfortable while learning and cause indifference in learning (Biggs, 2008). Teachers should understand that students have different learning capabilities and there are the fast and slow learners, this means that teachers should teach at a pace that everyone would be comfortable so that they can learn satisfactorily (Huitt, 2011).
References
Biggs, J. (2008). Individual Differences in Study Processes and the Quality of Learning
Outcomes. Higher Education, Vol. 8, No. 4, Student Learning.
Huitt, W. (2011). Individual differences. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA:
Valdosta State University. Retrieved on October 25, 2011, from
Siegler, R. &amp. Wagner, A. (2005). Children’s Thinking. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

“Differences Between Piaget &amp

Vygotsky’s Cognitive Development Theories"82000 Psychological development refers to the emotional, social and personality changes. Physical growth entails that of the body, brain, health, motor skills and even sensory capacity. Cognitive development involves the changes and stability in the mental capacities and is observed in the ability to learn, reason, retain attention, keep a memory, and learning a language (Hook, Watts &amp. Cockcroft, 2002). In this paper, the discussion will rotate around the study of cognitive behavior, also referred to as cognitive psychology. Cognitive psychology is a branch of psychology that studies how people think, learn, remember and perceive things (Galotti, 2012). The discussion will focus on the nature of people’s intellectual processes and how their thinking capacities change with age. The paper will also discuss the two common theories used today on cognitive development by Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. The discussion will evaluate the main contributions by the two theorists on the education settings today while making a comparison between the two theories. Finally, the discussion will focus on some of the criticism of the ideas presented by Piaget and Vygotsky. The paper will, however, start with a brief introduction into the lives of Piaget and Vygotsky. Jean Piaget was born in 1896 in Neuchatel, Switzerland and died in 1980. He showed a great intellectual talent, and this was made evident when he published his first article at a tender age of 10. He later, at the age of 21, earned his Ph.D. degree.&nbsp.

Goal of education

Commercialization of Organ Transplant Course
Institution
Tutor

Introduction
Education in the modern world is not about the marks or standards, it is about the knowledge and how well a person is aware of the happenings around him or her. Education enables people to know what is right and what is wrong hence enables a person to identify him or herself. At such a time, the person is categorized as educated (Behrman, 1997).
The research question
What is the importance of education in a person’s life? And, does knowledge enable the learner to develop better thinking capacities?
Thesis statement
Educating people in society leads to empowering them to have the right attitudes towards life and per se, they acquire lifelong knowledge of what is right and wrong within the human perspective of moral ethics (Becker, 1993).
Constituents of education
Education begins when a person is born. The initial education in a person’s life is acquired from the mother or the guardian. After which, a person advances to other formal education stages. The steps include preschool, primary, secondary, and higher level education. There are those in the society who benefit from special education such as the mentally handicapped (Arnove, 2007).
Other educational forms
Apart from the formal methods of education mentioned above, there are other forms that people use to acquire knowledge. Among them are alternative forms, indigenous forms, informal learning and self-directed learning (Schlosser &amp. Simonson, 2010).
Educational stakeholders
There are many stakeholders’ to education. There are important roles assigned to each stakeholder in order to attain the goals of education. Among the stakeholders are students, parents or guardians, teachers, government, community, and businesses among others (Whitehead, 1967).
Educational theory
The theory stipulates the purposes for the educational persuasion. The theory discusses in depth particular issues such as goals of schools, educational psychology, learning modalities, philosophy and curriculum (Collins, 2003).
Educational, economic gain
Education is the key ingredient for a country to prosper in its economic growth. Per se, education enables a country to expand in many ways including technological advancements (Behrman, 1997).
References
Arnove, R. F. (2007).&nbsp.Comparative education: the dialectic of the global and the local
&nbsp.(3rd ed.). Lanham, Md.: Rowman &amp. Littlefield Publishers.
Behrman, J. R. (1997).&nbsp.The social benefits of education. Ann Arbor: University of
Michigan Press.
Becker, W. E. (1993).&nbsp.Higher education and economic growth. Boston: Kluwer
Academic Publishers.
Collins, J. W. (2003).&nbsp.The Greenwood dictionary of education. Westport, Conn.:
Greenwood Press.
Schlosser, L. A., &amp. Simonson, M. R. (2010).&nbsp.Distance education: definitions and glossary
of terms&nbsp.(3rd ed.). Charlotte, N.C.: IAP -Information Age Pub..
Whitehead, A. N. (1967).&nbsp.The aims of education and other essays. New York:
The Free Press, a division of Macmillan.
References
Lock, M. M. (2002).&nbsp.Twice Dead: Organ Transplants and the Reinvention of Death. Berkeley: University of California Press.&nbsp.
Taylor, J. S. (2005).&nbsp.Stakes and Kidneys: Why Markets in Human Body parts are Morally Imperative. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate Publications.

Functional Social Support and Major Depression In Cancer Patients

Article review: Functional Social Support and Major Depression in Cancer Patients Despite the advancement oftechnology in the healthcare arena, cancer remains a deadly condition through which lives are lost each year. Sadly, many people living with cancer suffer from other illnesses and conditions which subsequently complicate their health. In the article, it is evident that depression is one of the major conditions that cancer patients face. As noted, 38% of these grapple with depression, and they need support (Chan, Limoges and Fung p.46). The article highlights three sources from which cancer patients could derive this support. First, family members are needed in comforting the patients, structural social support (SSS) comes mainly from the society. Functional social support (FSS) is needed, and it entails more of emotional assistance
The article highlights the findings that were observed after an undertaking that sought to show the impact of each of these support methods. It was noted that there was no discrepancy in the way both genders perceived the impact of FSS. In the same study, the researchers sought to analyze the impact of social support in relation to major depression by age. In the study, younger patients from the age of 18 to 54 were included in the study. It was observed that the FSS full scale was negative and had significant relation to MD among the younger and the older population (Chan et al p.48).
The studies proved that some approaches prove vital for patients suffering from various conditions including cancer. However, for people who suffer from physical illnesses, some support systems proved to have little impact (Chan et al p.49). Notwithstanding this discovery, the study also showed that perception is imperative in aiding the patients. For instance, the Social Support could be beneficial to the patients if their perception is backed up by others in the society. Also, the impact often depends on the gender with evidence from the study showing male patients do not necessarily need the FSS and the AFF. In short, the study showed that the relation between the clinical depression and the SS is mainly moderated by a source or support, gender and the type of FSS employed.
Nonetheless, the study comprehensively observed that, “the provision of social support can lead to a reduction in depressed mood in the following day” (Chan et al p.49). That is to say that whilst not every sickness can be remedied through the said interventions, offer support to these patients has significant impact on their psychological condition. Normally, when patients are left alone, there is an accumulation of negative thoughts which escalate the depression levels. When a patient keeps thinking about their survival period, the depression could be exacerbated, and this where support plays a critical role. Additionally, the stage of the illness could elicit the patient’s negative emotions especially when it is at an advanced stage.
In conclusion, cancer patients grapple with insurmountable amount of psychological discomfort. When this situation is not remedied by support from the people who matter most, the family, the repercussions could be dire. This support is not solely meant to emanate from the family members, but also the larger society at large. The FSS is vitally important as it helps the patients with the coping of emotional instability, which occurs pretty often. When a patient is reminded or simply remembers the stage of the cancer or the survival period, their emotions escalate. To prevent the depression, which tends to occur constantly, social support is imperative.
Work cited
Chan, Eric K. H., Kendice M. Limoges, and Tak S. Fung. Functional Social Support and
Major Depression In Cancer Patients University Of Calgary. Psychology Journal 7.2 (2010): 46-50. Print.

Job analysis and competency models

Job Analysis and Competency Models Job Analysis and Competency Models Job analysis method and competency modeling are appreciable human resource methods. Job analysis refers to the systematic way of identifying tasks, activities, knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) that are required to perform a given job. Contrariwise, competency modeling refers to a method that is concerned with measuring skills, behavior, abilities and knowledge that an individual is required to possess to perform a particular job successfully (Jackson, Schuler, and Werner, 2012). Comparison and contrast is achievable through purpose, view of the job, time orientation, focus, and level of performance.
Purpose Describe Versus Influence Behavior
Job analysis describes work, whereas competency modeling influences behavior. The major purpose of job analysis is to bring a better comprehension of the work assignments and to measure them as well, that is, it determines the trait relevance. On the other hand, competency modeling intends to influence the way in which this work assignments are executed so that they are in line with strategy of the organization in that it heightens situational strength (Wilson, 2012). In this regard, the two approaches are complementary.
View of Job
Job analysis describes a job as an abstract entity whereas competency modeling influences workers into enacting their role. It presents a job as a social construction that is separate from the employee that holds it with performance considered as a by-product of an individual’s interpretation of the job. This is evident in the job titles, which date back to the advent of division of labor following industrial revolution. Competency modeling, then again, views a job as function that is first to be interpreted by an employee before enacting it (Weiner, 2013). The latter method seems to be more practical then the former.
Time Orientation
Job analysis is about the past, whereas competency modeling is futuristic. The descriptive nature of job analysis means that it is past-oriented and depends on those workers, who have already done the work in the past, as the main source of information, that is, it depicts the job the exact execution in the present. On the contrary, competency modeling focuses on how the job ought to be interpreted and enacted as from the present into the future, regardless of what has been done in the past ( Weiner, 2013). In this context, the methods lie on two varying extremes.
Focus
Job analysis is job focused rather than focusing on the organization, just as competency modeling does. Practically, job analysis focuses on the job even from the name itself. It fails to recognize the possibility of an ‘employer brand’ that can be formed through behavioral themes derived from the job responsibilities and the organization as well. In contrast, competency modeling presumes that particular behavioral themes that directly link to the strategy of the organization influence the entire job performances in the organization (Wilson, 2012). The latter is holistic rather than specific, a beneficial feature.
Level of Performance
Job analysis is involved in describing performances that are typical as opposed to the approach of competency modeling that induces maximum performances. Job analysis describes the job with inference from current occurrences in that job position, that is, it gives details on what an average employee does. Then again, competency modeling focuses on maximal performance as evidenced in the requirement of an employee first interpreting the job strategically before performing it, which is often followed by particular behavioral themes that are in line with the strategy of the organization (Wilson, 2012). Without doubt, competency modeling is considerate in this aspect.
References
Jackson, S. E., Schuler, R. S., &amp. Werner, S. (2012). Managing human resources. Mason, Ohio:
South Western cengage learning.
Weiner, I. B. (2013). Handbook of psychology. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Wilson, M.A. (2012). The Handbook of Work Analysis. Hove, East Sussex: Routledge.

ANALYSIS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH STUDY REPORT

ANALYSIS OF QUANTITAVE RESEARCH STUDY REPORT Introduction According to the research study regarding predictors of vascular complications post diagnostic catherization percutaneous coronary interventions, it is observed that nurses hold a huge responsibility for patients, care after cardiac catherization and percutaneous coronary intervention. It was found out that women who were over seventy years old had increased vascular complications, and they also had renal failure. Furthermore, they went through percutaneous intervention and had a venous cover.
Discussion
The study design used in conducting the research was the descriptive design. In this design, the behavior of a subject is observed without affecting it in any way. This design was appropriate because it is often used as a tool of both qualitative and quantitative designs of research since it gives a common outline as to what variables should be tested quantitatively. This makes the design less expensive and less time-consuming as compared to other designs.
Internal validity is the truth in the inferences of a cause-effect relationship. In this research, one threat to the internal validity is history. This occurs when repeated experiments of the research done by researchers earlier affect the participants’ response to the procedures in the experiment (MCQuarrie, 2005). Another threat is maturation, where subjects change during the cause of the study. For instance, with time, a patient may develop complications that are not as a result of the cardiac catherization during the time of the study, hence non-valid results are obtained. Threats to external validity explain how wrong a person might be in making specific conclusions. One of the threats to the external validity is aptitude treatment interaction, where the independent variable may relate with certain features of the sample. Another threat is the situation, which includes all situations that limit the generalization of a study.
The sample size here can be chosen based on the quality of the findings and the cost of the collection of data. The sample size is also based on the hypothesis’ strength. The sample representative of the population is the small group of individuals who have undergone cardiac catherization and are interviewed in order to represent the larger population of the patients recovering from it (Griffiths, 1998). The representative sample is obtained by identification of the population being sampled by researchers. The setting in which data was collected is appropriate because it enabled the researchers to calculate the descriptive statistics, to perform tests to determine which patient was with or without complication, and it also enabled them to determine later the significance of variables in predicting complications using hierarchical logistic regression.
Extraneous variables affect the behavior of the subject being studied. In this study, the extraneous variables include history, testing, statistical regression and experimental mortality. In preventing experimental mortality, the experiment was carried out to the end without the researchers quitting (Lichtman, 2009). There was random assignment of test units to treatment conditions thus controlling the occurrence of selection interfering with the subject of study. To control the testing factor from affecting the internal validity of the research, tests were performed to determine which patient was with or without complications after the cardiac catheterization process.
References
Lichtman, M. (2009). Qualitative Research in Education: A Users Guide. California: Sage.
Gray, P.O. (2010). Foundations for the study of psychology. , New York: Worth Publishers.
Griffiths, M.(1998). Educational research for social justice: getting off the fence. Doing qualitative research in educational settings. New York: Open University Press.
MCQuarrie, E. F. (2005). Market Research Toolbox: A concise guide for beginners. USA: Sage Publishers
Rea, L. M., &amp. Parker, R. A.(2005). Designing and Conducting Survey Research. USA. Altamira Press.

Forensic Psychology Duty to Report vs Confidentiality

Forensic Psychology Duty to Report vs. Confidentiality The obligation to protect the society needs to become prioritized over ethics of confidentiality, particularly when the patient is known to have committed crimes during the course of therapy. According to Weiner and Otto (2012) the privilege gives a patient the right to prevent a psychologist from disclosing any information collected during the patient-doctor sessions. In legal terms the privilege belongs to the patient who has the right to take necessary steps to waive it or affirm it. However, it is important to note that the privilege is not applicable when the patient is using the sessions or information from the sessions to further his or her missions for ongoing or future fraud (Weiner &amp. Otto, 2012). When it comes to discussions of fraud committed in the past, there is a privilege, but not during an ongoing session.
The breach of a client’s confidentiality may arise in different instances when there is a crime committed. When crime committed involves harm to the patient or to others, the psychologists has the right to breach confidentiality depending on the state’s laws. The degree to which the psychologist may breach such confidentiality is dependent on jurisdiction of a state, but in most cases it is mandatory (ODonohue &amp. Levensky, 2004). For example, when the client is a minor, or not capable of knowing whether he or she is harming oneself the psychologist has to breach the patient’s confidentiality after obtaining an adult’s consent. Hence, the obligation to protect the society comes first over ethics of confidentiality when the patient commits a fraud during the course of the sessions.
When the patient commits the crime during the course of therapy it does not mean that the therapy provided by the psychologist has not afforded protection to the society. It is only when the psychologists does not disclose the information regarding a patient committing crime during an ongoing course of therapy that the society’s protection becomes waivered. In page 4 of ODonohue and Levensky’s book the author’s argue that information stored under a confidentially may mostly benefit the patient and the family, but legally, it tends is irrelevant. Most lawyers and judges operate under the fixed rule of evidence where most do not know anything related to the information given during patient-psychologist sessions. Most of the judges and lawyers may not care about the ethical guidelines, but only if the information is useful in a trial when the patient commits fraud. Therefore, much of what people used to see in the 2007 crime-drama series known as “The Sopranos” would not fall under the category of privileged patient-doctor sessions.
Though confidentiality laws serve to protect the families, friends of the patients, the exemptions pointed out serve as a way of also protecting the community members at large. The private information of the patient is always protected to avoid scenarios where the patient, family members or friends face social stigma and discrimination at work or in another state (ODonohue &amp. Levensky, 2004). The reason that allows patients’ protection by the law under “privilege” is because they sought treatment. The psychologist is also protected from the danger which may arise when other people learn that a psychologist possesses the information which they may use against their enemies or for intimidation.

References
ODonohue, W., &amp. Levensky, E. (2004). Handbook of forensic psychology: Resource for mental health and legal professionals. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.
Weiner, I., &amp. Otto, R. (2012). Handbook of psychology, forensic psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley &amp. Sons.

Critical Thinking

Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury is an attained brain injury resulting when an external force causes damage to the brain. Such injury can occur upon a sudden and violent impact of the head on an object, or when something penetrates the skull and pierces the brain tissue. Medical professionals rate traumatic brain injuries as mild, modest or severe, ranging on the degree of damage to the brain. The current model for determining the severity of traumatic brain injury incorporates three criteria of GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale) which analyses eye-opening reactions to stimuli, duration of the PTA (Post Traumatic Amnesia) and LOC (Loss of Consciousness) (Silver et al, 2011). An individual suffering from mild traumatic brain injury may lose perception for a few seconds or minutes or may remain conscious throughout. Other mild traumatic brain injury symptoms include confusion, headache, lightheadedness, blurred vision, dizziness, ringing in the ears, fatigue, bad taste in the mouth, sleep pattern changes, mood or behavioral changes, nausea, slurred speech, temporary loss of memory, attention, concentration or thinking capacity (Cifu et al, 2010. Murdoch &amp. Theodoros, 2001).
On average, more or less 2 million traumatic brain injuries transpire per year, either as isolated cases or by the side of other injuries. Common symptoms of moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries are abnormal social behavior, deficits in social judgment, frequent loss of attention, processing speed and executive functioning. Anyone with signs of traumatic brain injury ought to receive immediate medical attention. based on the fact that traumatic brain injury is a health risk. As a starter, medical personnel try to stabilize a person with traumatic brain injury and focus on preventing additional injury since little can be done to correct the initial brain injury resulting from the trauma. this is regarded as an initial treatment for traumatic brain injury. The primary concerns include ensuring proper oxygen supply, ensuring adequate blood flow, and maintaining normal blood pressure. Imaging tests help in diagnosing a traumatic brain injury patient (High, 2005). Patients with mild to modest traumatic brain injury undergo skull and neck X-rays to check for bone fractures or spinal irregularities. Moderately to severely injured patients have to undergo rehabilitation depending on individual symptoms. Such therapy programs include speech/language therapy, occupational therapy, physiatry, psychology/psychiatry, and social support (Murdoch &amp. Theodoros, 2001).
Currently, research is underway to find means of mitigating secondary injury including a deep look into neuro-protection and hypothermia. Other current developments include the introduction of a machine that monitors oxygenation, which is attached to a probe placed in the brain to monitor intracranial pressure (Ogden, 2010).
The health- related research Question that I would like to answer in regard to the topic is: Does administering insulin to a traumatic brain injury patient enhance the brain’s healing process by mitigating the levels of blood sugar to normal?
The specific hypothesis investigating the research question is: Administering insulin to a traumatic brain injury patient leads to slower brain healing process. This is presumably because the brain requires a lot of energy to heal.
References
High, W. M. (2005). Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cifu, D., Caruso, D., &amp. Buschbacher, R. (2010). Traumatic Brain Injury. New York: Demos
Medical Pub., LLC.
Silver, J. M., Yudofsky, S. C., &amp. McAllister, T. W. (2011). Textbook of traumatic brain injury.
Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub.
Ogden,K. B. (April, 2010). Traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder: A
quantitative investigation of vision and attention. General format. Retrieved from: http://gradworks.umi.com/14/74/1474855.html
Murdoch, B. E., &amp. Theodoros, D. G. (2001). Traumatic brain injury: Associated speech,
language, and swallowing disorders. San Diego: Singular/Thomson Learning.

Motivating Employees

Motivating Employees al Affiliation Motivating Employees What motivational techniques, methods, or strategies does (or did)your current or past employer use to try to keep employees productive, satisfied, or motivated?
The motivational techniques used by past employer to keep employees productive, satisfied, and motivated included the provision of intrinsic and extrinsic motivating factors (Ryan &amp. Deci, 2000). The intrinsic factors included incorporation of features that make the job inherently interesting and challenging. Likewise, extrinsic factors included competitive pay, acknowledgement, opportunities for promotion, as well as varied benefits.
What worked and didn’t work to keep you productive, satisfied, and/or motivated?
The ability of motivating factors to keep employees productive, satisfied, and motivated actually depends on the needs and drives that influence the employees to work (Martires &amp. Fule, 2004). For employees whose drives and needs are focused on satisfying lower order needs (physiological, social and security needs), extrinsic factors (money or compensation) could be the most effective motivators. However, for employees who crave for satisfying higher-order needs (self-actualization and fulfillment), intrinsic factors must be the most effective motivators of performance.
What motivational theories explain why your employers’ efforts worked or didn’t work to keep their employees productive, satisfied, or motivated?
The motivational theories that were evidently applied included Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, as well as Herzberg’s two factor model (Martires &amp. Fule, 2004). By accurately identifying the level of needs, as well as the motivational (or hygiene) factors, employers are assisted in designing motivational programs that would keep employees productive, satisfied and motivated.

Based on your experiences and the readings, what would you recommend that your current or past employer do to try to keep their employees productive, satisfied, and/or motivated?
Based on one’s personal and professional experiences and from the readings, one would recommend that employers need to accurately assess the needs and drives of employees to enable them to design motivational or incentive programs that match these needs. As disclosed, intrinsic and extrinsic factors (or hygiene and motivational factors) need to be incorporated in the job to make the tasks inherently interesting, challenging, satisfying, and rewarding.
References
Martires, C., &amp. Fule, G. (2004). Management of Human Behavior in Organization. Quezon City: National Book Store.
Ryan, R., &amp. Deci, E. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Retrieved December 28, 2014, from Contemporary Educational Psychology: http://www.selfdeterminationtheory.org/SDT/documents/2000_RyanDeci_IntExtDefs.pdf

Role of Parents in helping young people to negotiate the period of adolescence

92250 The changes are often complex as there is a feeling of enthusiasm on the one hand on experiencing the feeling of stepping into a new world, which is a precursor to adulthood and the challenges that are posed by the social milieu often bring about behavioral changes that affects the family to a great extent (Coleman, 2011, p. 2). It is here that the role of parents is to be defined as they should ideally play an extremely supportive role during this period. There are several issues that can be raised at this juncture. For instance, the kind of family in which the child is being brought up plays an important role. Although, there are several arguments regarding the number of parents supervising a child and it is recommended that children should be brought up by both parents, there is no dearth of single parents in our society (Golombok, 2000, p.3). It has been observed that children from divorced families are more likely to be aggressive and insolent during their adolescent years. A considerable amount of research has been conducted regarding the behavioral practice of adolescents and theories of experts help in unraveling the changes that occur during this stage. The changes that are remarkable during the stage of transition or adolescence include self-concept or a greater awareness of an individual about himself/herself when compared with others. Similarly, the sexual changes or romantic developments also influence the development of an adolescent individual and the effects can be both positive and negative. Along with this, here is a strong urge of independence during this stage particularly to move away from parental control, which justifies the definition of adolescence as stated by Rousseau. Additionally, the cognitive transition or the change in thinking is quite prevalent in adolescents for the first time when compared with the psychology of childhood. Thus, adolescents engage in thinking about abstract matter and start interpreting life in a different manner and begin withdrawing themselves from social life to a great extent. The hormonal changes that take place inside the body bring about individualism and the behavioral changes are prominent in every adolescent. The parents of these children must analyze and understand the nuances of this stage and help their children cope with the gradations of this stage. The socio-economic status of children plays an important role in this regard. For instance, the children belonging to the lower strata of the society portray different behavioral patterns when compared with the children of affluent families. Additionally, they do not have access to similar parental guidance and this affects the upbringing of adolescents. Moreover, gender and ethnic traits, background and association also influence the transition period. The positive and negative aspects in relation with these characteristics can be molded by appropriate guidance from parents. In other words, the role of parents should vary according to the circumstances in which the transition takes place. Structure of the Family However, it is suggested that parents who are more in conflict with each other should not stay together for the sake of their children and their upbringing. Additionally, the financial hassles that accompany such relationships may also affect the psychology of a child. There are marked differences in the behavior of children primarily due to different circumstances in which they are brought up and the associated factors. As a matter of fact, a time comes when these changes in behavioral patterns start affecting the entire family in the form of unruly tantrums and rebellious disruptions. Such

I totally understand where your coming from and this is why

1250 Ramakrishna Surampudi 22 May Red Menace: Real or Sham? It is worth pondering over whether the Cold War was of any benefit to anyone. History tells us about the tensions it caused, about the polarization of the world into military camps and about the deep sense of insecurity and pessimistic views it was responsible for. A closer look tells us that the Cold War encouraged the US and the USSR to indulge in large scale manufacture of arms. In the wake of polarization, both countries had a broad ‘customer base’ and so the same Cold War ensured prompt sales for the arms manufactured. Thus, the red menace acted like a buffer in keeping the arms race going on and in keeping the business of the two Super Powers from running out. It is as if the two countries had a great degree of understanding in planning and executing the way the Cold War progressed. Indeed, it looks like a game played skillfully with an ulterior business motive. As Eric Berne observes in his book Games People Play: The Psychology of Human Relationships, “War is the grimmest of all games” (50). It is interesting to think what the history of the last half of the twentieth century would have been like, had Roosevelt been alive a little longer. Perhaps Hiroshima would not have been destroyed. Perhaps the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan would not have been necessary. But these are idle thoughts, not of any consequence. It is hard to buy the notion that the US disinterestedly spent billions for the ‘reconstruction of Europe’. It can only be as true as philanthropy is for helping the poor. It was politically and commercially motivated and the red menace provided a pretext for the maneuvers. The projected pretext ultimately melts down to a joke with Russia joining the NATO in 1992. Today it matters little whether the red menace was notional or real. What is important is whether its contribution to the world was good or bad. Monopoly is always dangerous and that was why the monarchial institutions were replaced by democratic systems in the course of history. It cannot be disputed that the principles of communism, all their flaws notwithstanding, defended the rights of those who clung to the lower rungs of the economic ladder. Without the Russian Revolution and the rise of the Soviet Union, there would be no force in history that could challenge the US monopoly, especially in the post World War II scenario. It is also true that in the absence of the so-called red menace, the condition of the workers class across the world would have remained, to this day, much like that of the Oompa-Loompas in Willy Wonka’s chocolate factory. To that extent, the red menace, if such a thing did exist, made the world a better place, by helping the mankind zero in on a point of balance between the two extremes of laissez-faire and welfare aspect. It also inspired great literary woks, for instance, the essay ‘Knowledge and Wisdom’ by Bertrand Russell. Ironically, the implications of the Cold War and the red menace seem to be more social and literary rather than military. References Berne, Eric. Games People Play: The Psychology of Human Relationships. New York: Grove Press, 1964. Rosenzweig, Roy and Lichtenstein, Nelson. Who Built America? 1877 to the Present. New York: Pantheon, 2008.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Interpersonal Psychotherapy

174250 This essay discusses two leading nursing theories, namely, (1) cognitive behavioral therapy and (2) interpersonal psychotherapy. The first section presents a separate discussion of these two nursing theories. The second section determines the similarities and differences between these two nursing theories in terms of major tenets, concepts, views, techniques, view of pathology/normality, etc. The third section discusses the relevance of these two nursing theories in nursing practice. The fourth section gives recommendations for advanced nursing practice in relation to interpersonal psychotherapy. The last part is the summary and conclusion of the entire paper. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Even a quick look at current literature in the discipline of child psychology suggests that the cognitive-behavioral theory has received significant empirical and clinical attention in recent times. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been effectively used in a broad array of medical disorders experienced by children, adolescents, and adults, such as learning difficulties, eating disorders, anxiety, and depression. According to Abela and Hankin (2007), cognitive-behavioral therapy is highly recognized for its focus on factors that make individuals vulnerable to emotional and behavioral difficulties, for its emphasis on the importance and function of the social context/environment and family in the growth and continuation of these problems, for its focus on unspoken ideas about the self and how these could affect emotional and behavioral wellbeing, and for its attention to scientific/empirical assessment approaches to psychopathology and the usefulness of treatments or interventions obtained from them. Cognitive therapy is rooted in the idea that behavior is capable of adjusting and that there is a connection between a person’s behaviors, emotions, and thoughts. A primary focus in cognitive-behavioral therapy, especially with adolescents, is on having an accurate knowledge of an individual’s behavioral pattern and the associated perceptual and cognitive components (Abela &amp. Hankin, 2007). Cognitions are defined as “an organized set of beliefs, attitudes, memories and expectations, along with a set of strategies for using this body of knowledge in an adaptive manner” (Reinecke, Dattilio, &amp. Freeman, 2006, 3). Basically, cognitions denote an individual’s existing ideas or self-awareness, including expectations, values, objectives, attitudes, judgments, memories, and perceptions. It is crucial to take into account each of these factors when trying to understand and treat emotional and behavioral disorders. It is not possible, therefore, to differentiate the cognitive from the social. Cognitive processes are achieved, sustained, and operate in social environments. They are shaped and strengthened by parents, members of the family, and others in the immediate environment of the child, and play an adaptive role in structuring and controlling the child’s reactions to traumatic life episodes (Reinecke et al., 2006). This point of view is in agreement with

The Psychology of Jim Jones

3750 Kennedy, a preacher’s wife. With this in mind, he pursued a career as a minister and with all the passion, faith and love for the gospel. Jones entered his first pulpit with the energy of a young preacher. However, he was soon to find out that all the ideals he pictured in his mind would somehow be affected by the norms. The first church that Jones served in was fast declining but he seemed to have an answer to all the problems. He started looking into the poor, lowly Black people and perhaps with his initial attempts, his heart was pure and his motives were inclined to really preaching the gospel. Nevertheless, Whites and Blacks going to one church was a taboo in his era and place so that he suffered much of the effects of racism as much as the Black church attendants did. Because of this, he determined to have his own church that would accept everybody regardless of age, color or status- a really ideal biblical perspective. Anyway, he soon found himself struggling to pay the bills and this led him to find ways on how to raise money. Through his efforts, he gained political and a lot of social ties that led him straight to the wrong person that would soon change him. A successful Black minister caught the attention of Jones and he came to admire him all the more when he visited his church and saw all the wonderful things around, an evidence of a heaven here on earth. Therefore, his admiration turned into a stronger feeling or probably a mindset, making him listen to the advices of the minister. Probably, the strongest turnabout in the personality of Jones is the minister’s answer to the question which bothered the young preacher, what would he do to members who become temptations. The answer was beyond what was expected from God’s messenger but it clearly appealed to Jones and his imagination started a detour that would make his talent, skill and knowledge of the word of God bring him all the money, sex, support, trust and fidelity that he lusted for. Control was one of the things Jones understood well and he played into the psychology of need in order to take control of other people. He knew that people somehow come to the point of understanding and seeing things that are not in accordance to the norms and more so, to the word of God. He invested on needy people, accepted them as they are and asked the wealthy to help the poor and he sure gave the poor members of his church a productive and better life. What was sick about this was the fact that he used this to manipulate them and he reminded them a lot of times that without his help, his people, which he loved to call them, would not enjoy their lives. He even posted a billboard that reminded them to look back and remember their past otherwise they would be doomed to commit the same mistakes. Instead of hope, he offered threats and it worked well on the people who benefited him with the fear of their past, to put their trust and admiration on him. They basically entrusted their lives and family in the hands of Jones because in exchange for the help and money he was able to give, he did not ask them a lot but their faith in him. that he knew what he was doing and this was only to help them have better lives. Karen was a disturbed young woman who usually lost her job because her employers usually go bankrupt. Jones saw that he could give her a job she could keep and he also wanted to keep the woman. Free sex was exchanged for security and the cords that

Medieval Renaissance and Enlightenment Thought

2500 13 June Assignment Philosophical thought has called for a vast amount of growth and development in the thinking patterns of people over time. The concept of a hero and a saint has been provided a lot of importance and understanding in order to come to a conclusion regarding the status of the two aspects of society. A number of examples have been depicted in history and cultures across the world where personalities from different walks of life have been able to convert themselves from heroes to saints for the welfare of humanity. In cases like the emergence of Romanticism, agony and ecstasy of Michelangelo, the enlightenment patterns of cultural mutation and Kierkegaard’s portrayal of Abraham, these aspects can be seen clearly. In the realms of romanticism, a number of examples have helped people to understand the kind of philosophical thought that passes through the minds of characters and people and what changes their minds with respect to the relationships that they share with people around them. In modern day society, such a thought process might have changed but is inherently very similar to the days of yore. When talking about cultural mutation, one can easily witness changes taking place in modern day society with respect to the formation of global economies and socio-cultural scenarios. As compared to the past, in order to depict the growth in thought, one should be able to determine the causes and inferences of the Lutheran Reformation, victory of the usage of empirical methods and statistical data in order to prove scientific methods rather than relying on normative thought processes. (Triki, Rachida) Furthermore, the journey of conversion from the identity of a hero to a saint also finds a very promising exemplary while discussing the power and established Renaissance Empire during the time of Michelangelo. It was his personal motivational drive to achieve excellence in the field of creation that helped him go from personal gains to achieving a better tomorrow for the rest of the world. Despite the few flaws that his works might contain, they have helped in transforming philosophical thought and bringing about a transition in the way people think about development in the modern world. (Michelangelo | Renaissance Artist) According to Kierkegaard, Abraham’s main test of faith was to witness whether or not he was able to give up his son Isaac to God, as an offering. Through a series of absurd events, Abraham agrees and comes to terms with her personal strength to give up the one thing that he loves, to God, in order to attain the recognition of being a saint. In ‘Fear and Trembling’ thus, Abraham is forced to lie to Sarah and question his own philosophical psychology and comprehend what it was that compelled him to put the knife down and give in to the demands of God. (The Voice of God and the Face of the Other) In conclusion, these aspects of thinking and have brought about a significant development and change in the way people think today and it has all been possible due to cultural expansion and evolution of the human search for meaning along with confidence in various aspects of science, politics and religion going hand in hand with the same. Works Cited "The Voice of God and the Face of the Other: Levinas, Kierkegaard, and Abraham."&nbsp.University of Virginia Library. Web. 13 June 2011. . "Michelangelo | Renaissance Artist."&nbsp.Lucidcafe Interactive Cafe and Information Resource. Web. 13 June 2011. . Triki, Rachida. "Revolution and Cultural Mutation | Ibraaz."&nbsp.What Do We Need to Know about the MENA Region Today? | Ibraaz. Web. 13 June 2011. .

Library Search

Library Search: Transitional in Professional Nursing Library Search Item instruction Response Path to locate article Step I. I selected the topic leadership and nursing after which I carried out library search through CINAHL.
Step II. After typing CINAHL, I arrived at the page of Chamberlain College of Nursing page.
Step III. From the page, I spotted EBSCohost from which I logged in.
Step IV. Thereafter, I selected a peer-reviewed article that addresses role of leadership and collaboration on nursing turnover intention
Authors and Credentials
Authors include Maura Galletta, PhD, Igor Portoghese Msc PhD and Adalgisa Battistelli Msc PhD
All from Department of Psychology, from University of Cagliari
Michael P. Leiter. Msc PhD
EA 4556 Laboratory Dynamics of Human Abilities and Health Behaviors, Universe and Paul Valery.
References
Galletta, M., Portoghese, I., Battistelli, A., &amp. Leiter, M. P. (2013). The Roles Of Unit Leadership And Nurse-Physician Collaboration On Nursing Turnover Intention. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 69(8), 1771-1784. doi:10.1111/jan.12039
Quotation with Citation
“Bounded interactive context as well as individual’s proximal context defines nurses in a working environment through their attributions and characteristics. In this context, nurses build proper working relationships with fellow nurses, physicians and supervisors”, (Bae et al, 2010)
Article summary
The article gives a comprehensive report about the relationship that exists between workers and supervisors at individual and group levels with nurses who intend to leave their units. The authors carried out a study through administration of questionnaires to measure the extent of leader-worker exchange and collaboration of nurse-physician analysis. The analysis took place at group level while turnover intention and effective commitment analyzed at individual level. The study took place in five Italian hospitals.
The outcome of the study showed that when effective commitment occurs at individual level, then there is a complete mediation of relationship. The relationship exists between leader-member commutation at nursing turnover intention and group level.
In addition, the article also revealed that there is great significance in cross-level interaction. Nurses who had high levels of individual effective commitment at individual level revealed reduced level of turnover intention. Increased collaboration at group level makes the relationship stronger between nurse and physician.
The article outlines need for organizations to apply management practices leading to promotion of both nurse-physician relationships and high quality nurse supervisor. Furthermore, to retain workforce, the article maintains that organizations should promote individual commitment as well as quality relationship between that exists among staff members.
Application in future practice
The information I have learnt from this article will be of great significance for me as a nurse in my future practice. For instance, I will constantly use effective interaction with my colleagues at the workplace environment for quality working relationships. A hospital unit is an environment where nurses work and interact on daily basis. I, being a nurse who will work in the nursing industry, must therefore apply interactive characteristics and attributes with supervisors and physicians.
I will also try to minimize rate of turnover to promote team cohesion as well as quality care because excessive turnover compromises the two. In addition, increased turnover also creates discrepancy between my organization and me as an employee.
Furthermore, I will always make great effort to maintain good exchange relationships to increase collaboration amongst us as the healthcare staff. Consequently, good exchange relationships will enhance my commitment to the organization.
References
Bae, S.H., Mark, B. &amp. Fried, B. (2010). Impacts of Nursing Unit Turnover On Patient Outcomes In Hospitals. Journal Of Nursing Scholarship 42, 40-49.
Galletta, M., Portoghese, I., Battistelli, A., &amp. Leiter, M. P. (2013). The Roles Of Unit Leadership And Nurse-Physician Collaboration On Nursing Turnover Intention. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 69(8), 1771-1784. doi:10.1111/jan.12039

Athletes being role models

At that time, the existing definition of role models was “someone who demonstrates the appropriate behavior for a specific role or relationship with another person” (Gauntlett 226). Though this description is not complete For example, David Beckham might inspire someone who is not necessarily interested in being a football player. Therefore, a more comprehensive definition of a role model would be someone who tends to inspire and motivate people. Role models edify observers how to behave as well as inspire others to learn how to behave in certain situations. In another study conducted, adolescents and children are drawn to role models not only because of their skills and capabilities but also because they see potential in them.
Sports form an essential part of entertainment and recreation for most people. many of them follow sports religiously and regard athletes as icons. Supporting a team and hoping for it to win becomes a personal cause. In consideration of the profound influence that sports have on the minds of the people, it is often debated whether athletes serve to be good role models or not. Keeping the definition of role models in mind and the impact they have on the psychology of the people, this paper attempts to explore and provide arguments for if athletes make good role models or not. In my opinion, athletes do not make very good role models. I have seen people follow athletes blindly, not thinking whether the attitude of the athletes is justified or not. If the athlete is involved in wrong acts, many people, especially children, tend to follow the athlete. This argument is supported by many people. Athletes have indulged in the illegal use of steroids in order to boast their performance. excessive use of drugs has also led to the deaths of notable sports stars. Where sports and athletes have become a major part of the American life, it is not justified to treat drugs and other misdemeanors

“ETHICS (Response to a Case Study Dilemma in an Information &amp

Technology Organisation)" Ethics Importance of of Ethics to Organizations Review of literature shows varied ways of defining and naming of ethics’ by companies (Boudreau &amp. Steiner 2). But as, code is defined as “a statement of policies, principles or rules that guide behavior” (Koontz &amp. Weihrich 45) and ethics as “the analysis and determination of how people ought to act toward each other when judged against a set of values” (Truscott &amp. Crook xix), ‘code of ethics’ can be defined as “an official corporate document approved by the board that forms the underpinning of a comprehensive program for helping to ensure ethical behavior and decision-making at all levels in the organization” (Boudreau &amp. Steiner 2). And as, organizations requires order, and as, every organization faces its own ethical problems, having a well-defined code of ethics is more than important to safeguard the organization against unethical practices detrimental to the organization’s reputation and services (Heermance 1). This is so because code of ethics set the tone for the expected company’s behavior as, “it outlines uniform policies, standards and punishments for violations” (Pride, Hughes, &amp. Kapoor 45), thereby guiding organizations in dealing with and judging “situations not specifically covered in written instructions” (Canton 13). These make code of ethics more than important to the organization as it ensures order in and secures the organization.
The Ethics of Corporate Gifts
In business, not all gifts are pleasant and safe to receive as, these can be sources of ethical issues, specifically conflict of interest – “occurs when a person’s or organization’s obligation to act in the interest of another is interested with by a competing interest that may obstruct the fulfillment of that obligation” (Crane &amp. Matten 366) as illustrated in the case under review. Here, the stakeholders – the owner of a small printing business unexpectedly received a parcel containing 12 bottles of expensive scotch whisky in the mail from the manager of the business’s biggest contract delivery company, two weeks before New Year, yet a few weeks before the expiration of their contract. First, although gift giving is generally an act of goodwill, it is also a bribe. In this case, factors drawing the line between goodwill and bribe such as the relationship of the giver to the receiver, the timing, the costs, and the manner of delivery, indicate that the gift is meant to gain (Roa 106) the owner’s choice of Delivery Company in favor of the gift-giver as against other applicants. In this light, acceptance of this gift violates ACS Code of Ethics (CoE) 4.1.a. “Be honest, forthright and impartial” (2), because you condone an unethical behavior denying other applicants of equal chance, and subverting the company’s trust. Second, not returning the gift to the giver due to personal considerations – in this case, they are acquaintance because their son’s are soccer teammates – violates ACS’s CoE 4.3.1. Place community interest above personal or sectional interest (2), because your judgment upholds not the organization but your personal interest. Third, since the delivery company had been efficient, returning the gift which was discreetly delivered would be antagonizing that might harm your company. In this case, better apply CoE 4.10.7. Seek advice from the society (4). Since in the first place acceptance of gift that seeks to influence decision-making is generally unacceptable in professional (Kauffman 268) and business ethics (Peterson &amp. Ferrell 15), rather than keeping the gift to yourself, better “bring the gift offer out into the open” (Mahoney &amp. Vallance 186), because, the organization is in the best position to determine what to do with the gift. By doing so also, you are not only protecting your job but you are also proving yourself respectable because transparency means clear conscience. Therefore, ethical standard urges you to uphold boundaries in doing business.
Works Cited
ACS Code of Ethics. Australian Computer Society. August 2005 &lt. www.acs.org.au&gt..
Boudreaux, Greg, and Steiner, Tracey. “Developing a Code of Ethics”. Management Quarterly 2005: 2-10.
Canton, Lucien G. Guard Force Management. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003.
Crane, Andrew, and Matten, Dirk. Business Ethics, 2nd Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
Heermance, Edgar L. Codes of Ethics: A Handbook. Burlington, VT: Free Press Printing, 1924.
Kauffman, Kent. Legal Ethics, 2nd edition. USA: DELMAR Cengage Learning, 2008.
Koontz, Harold, and Weihrich, Heinz. Essentials of Management: An International Perspective, 7th Edition. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, 2007.
Mahoney, John, and Vallance, Elizabeth M. Business Ethics in a New Europe. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.
Peterson, Robert Allen, and Ferrell, O. C. Business ethics: new challenges for business schools and corporate leaders. New York: M.E. Sharp, Inc., 2005.
Roa, Fr. Floriano C. Business Etrhics and Social Responsibility. Manila, RP: Rex Bookstore, Inc., 2007.
William M. Pride, Robert James Hughes, Jack R. Kapoor. Business, 9th Edition. U.S.A: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008.
Truscott,Derek and Crook, Kenneth H. Ethics for the Practice of Psychology in Canada. Canada: The University of Alberta Press, 2004.

Criminal justice / ethics

Ethics and Conducts in the Florida Correction Facilities Ethics and Conducts in the Florida Correction Facilities The society usually rely on the state and federal prisons and county jails among other correctional facilities to ensure that the public is safe from persons who may be posing insecurity of any kind to them (Kerkhoff and Hanson, 2013). Therefore, it is the work of function of the state and federal correctional facilities to secure the facilities that these persons are locked. Therefore, the correctional officer is mandated to identify persons with unethical behaviors and misconducts that are likely to erode the public confidence (Kapp, 2005). Hence, the correctional departments across states and the entire country are expected to adopt and enforce ethics and conduct codes for the correctional officers among other employees who are mandated to oversee the correctional facilities including prisoners in these facilities.
The correctional codes of ethics and conducts applied to the officers among other employees in the correctional facilities are the creation of the American Correctional Association (ACA). ACA is the national employer for the correctional officers and all other employees (Pollock, 2012). The codes of ethics applied in these facilities requires that the employees display the highest degree of respect, honesty, and commitment to professionalism when discharging their duties (Turvey and Crowder, 2013). Nearly all states have the same codes of ethics and conducts that are expected of their offices. Therefore, the officers and employees of the correctional facility of the state of Florida are expected to supplement its code of ethics and conducts with those provided for by the ACA (Kleinig, 2001). In other words, above the ACA codes of ethic and conducts requirements, every state is expected to have its own additional code of ethics and conducts to be applied by its employees.
Therefore, the Florida correctional officers and other employees’ ethical standards of conducts are spelled in the correctional facilities’ purpose, policy, scope, mission, vision, and rational among other aspects leading to the purpose of the facility. The main purpose of Florida’s department of Law Enforcement defines the purpose of the correctional officers and their ethical standards of conduct requirements with the states professional ethical and conduct standards (Pollock, 2012). These ethical standards or requirements include identification of the conducts that are unprofessional and unbecoming. The policy advocated by the state of Florida requires that the officers and the facility to be effective in its function so that the community have confidence and respect for it (Menzel, 2007). Therefore, it is expected to work with public interest at heart. The policy also calls for disciplinary actions on the correctional officers who behave unprofessionally and/or displaying unbecoming conducts (Kleinig, 2001). Therefore, to understand how officers and other employed are trained and punished in adhering or abusing codes of ethics and conducts, the following questions will be applied as lead question towards understanding application of ethical work standards and relation in a Florida Correctional facility.
Leading Questions
1. What are the academic requirement for a correctional officer working in this facility?
2. What are the training that the hired officers often undertake before being deployed for their official duties?
3. What are the expected relationship between the inmates and the correctional officers?
4. Are there clear chains of command among the officers and/or other employees?
5. Are there written ethics and conducts that officers and employee expected to operate?
6. What kind of behaviors are considered (a) Unprofessional, (b) Unbecoming, and (c) Unethical?
7. Are there disciplinary measure subject to each unprofessional or unethical conduct displayed by officer or employee?
References
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Kapp, M. B. (2005). Deinstitutionalizing long-term care: Making legal strides, avoiding policy errors. New York, NY: Springer Pub. Co.
Kerkhoff, T. R., &amp. Hanson, S. L. (2013). Ethics field guide: Applications in rehabilitation psychology.
Kleinig, J. (2001). Discretion, community, and correctional ethics. Lanham, Md [u.a.: Rowman &amp. Littlefield Publishers.
Menzel, D. C. (2007). Ethics management for public administrators: Building organizations of integrity. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe.
Pollock, J. M. (2012). Ethical dilemmas and decisions in criminal justice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Turvey, B. E., &amp. Crowder, S. (2013). Ethical justice: Applied issues for criminal justice students and professionals. Oxford: Elsevier Academic Press.
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Child trama

Annotated Bibliography: Trauma in early childhood: A neglected population De Young A.C., Kenardy J.A., &amp. Cobham V.E. (2011). Trauma in early childhood: A neglected population. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 231-250.
This article highlights the prevalence of trauma in children particularly infants, toddlers and preschoolers. This population is prone to trauma exposure especially due to their incomplete physical as well as emotional development. As such, these young children lack adequate coping skills necessary to avoid the effects of trauma. According to De Young et. al., most of the children undergoing trauma are often neglected. Many researches in the field of trauma exist majorly for older children (above six years), adolescents, and adults. This population, therefore, requires attention if such traumas are to be prevented from developing into adverse psychological problems. As such, this study is crucial in creating awareness about this disturbing concept. In addition to this, the article also intends to increase existing understanding on early childhood trauma thus create room for further research.
The study is in agreement with other previous researches although it highlights more concepts about early childhood trauma than the previous ones. For example, trauma in young children can be treated early to avoid development into adverse psychological problems. Treatment regimens include the well-documented trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy, TF-CBT. In addition to this, the study highlights other controlled treatment studies that have proven successful in trauma therapy. The study also highlights some factors that can help young children cope post trauma. These include parenting skills, maternal mental health, as well as parent-child attachment. Related to these factors is the functioning of the family, which also has an effect on a child’s reaction to trauma. For instance, a loving and stable family reduces trauma symptomatology in young children whereas a depressed and unstable family aggravates trauma symptoms.
After occurrence of a traumatic event, young children possess developmental capacities, as well as experience psychopathic tendencies. Moreover, the rate and manifestation of trauma symptomatology is varied with unique developmental differences. In addition to these findings, the research also found out that failure to treat trauma could lead to the development of chronic and unremitting course. The relationship between parents and their children can point out the impact of trauma.
The study sample in this research includes young children ranging from infants, toddlers to preschoolers. However, due to challenges in working with this young population, parents are also included in the study sample to provide clear accounts. The main challenge in working with young children is their poor communication skills.
This study can be improved by concentrating on a wider scale of data collection, as opposed to the narrow scale used. For instance, instead of using just questionnaires, the researchers may focus on different other data collection techniques like diagnostic reviews including psychometric testing. Furthermore, the study should rely more on the traumatized children’s account as opposed to views of their parents as this can be biased. In some cases, parents assume that the children are too young to be affected by traumatic events, or they underestimate the symptoms in children.
Conclusively, this article goes a long way in bridging the study gap that exists in terms of early childhood trauma. With its recommendations and suggested research areas, childhood trauma will soon be a history.
Reference
De Young A.C., Kenardy J.A., &amp. Cobham V.E. (2011). Trauma in early childhood: A neglected population. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 231-250.

The placebo effect an asset or a problem for sport psychology Discuss

112750 According to Green, sports psychology was made for the instructors who train the sportspersons in physical activities (Green &amp. Benjamin, 2009). The origin of the sports psychology was in Berlin Germany a psychology laboratory was first built (Cole, 2012). Dr. Carl Diem was the founder of this psychology laboratory in 1920 in the city of Berlin, Germany (Cole, 2012). Therefore, the European nation was the first to put into consideration of need of having a psychological field where the students could be coached. In the same country, Robert Werner came up with sports psychology school popularly known as the College of Physical Education. The College was also established in 1920, the year the psychology was established (Balague, 1999). The development of sports psychology continued to develop and in early 1925, Russia had begun to experiment it (Fuchs, 1998). In Russia, the experiment started in Moscow, and at the institutes of physical culture in Leningrad (Green &amp. Benjamin, 2009). In the institutes, there was introduced a department that dealt with sports psychology, that is the departments of sports psychology (Green &amp. Benjamin, 2009, p. 44). The introduction of the departments was done in the year 1930. Sports programs were not immediately formed until the historic Cold War that lasted from 1946 to 1989. That is the time some few programs in science were formed (Green C. D., 2009). There were development in sport psychology during this period when the cold war was going on due to military competitiveness especially between the United States of America and Russia (Cole, 2012). The competition motivated Russia to have the sports department so that the military could train and emerge with more medals than their competitors. The results of the competition made the United States of America to feel that they wanted to take more interest in sports

“Human Behaviour &amp

Health"143500 The HR now referred this matter for comment on the psychological/ behavioral issues which has to be considered alongside the physical recommendations of the physiotherapist when planning a return to work programme. I believe that I will have to consider the mind-body connection, psychological adjustment, optimism, and social relationships in this case. The mind-body connection is crucial in her case because the connection is impacting on her condition following her initial lower back pain symptoms and subsequent feelings of anxiety, and stress. Gurgevich and Gurgevich emphasize that the mind-body connection implies that “every thought and idea in your mind has an effect on your body. and every sensation in your body has an effect on the mind” (2007, p. 11). I have to consider this aspect in health psychology in Tanya’s case because her anxiety and work stress seems to be affecting her recovery from her lower back pain. Her lower back pain symptoms are also affecting her mind and allowing her to think that she really is not ready to go back to work as yet.This mind-body connection is also very much related to her psychological adjustment. Kuhlberg (2000) discusses that psychological conditions, like stress or anxiety, can affect a person’s biological processes, resulting to poor health practices. People’s lives often change after they go through an illness or an injury and these changes often affect how people view themselves.

Summative assignment

Leadership was broadly defined by Yukl (1989) as "influencing task objectives and strategies, influencing commitment and compliance in task behaviour to achieve these objectives, influencing the culture of an organization." In simpler terms, leaders influence the actions and behaviours of their followers to obtain a shared vision or aim. According to Deming (1992), leadership must come from top management and leaders must possess profound knowledge. By profound knowledge, Deming meant that one must have knowledge of systems, variations (statistical thinking), theory, and psychology.
Leadership is quite different from management. leaders grow from mastering their own conflict which arises during their developing years using internal strength to survive. On the other hand, managers tend to perceive issues as positive progressions of events which must be planned, organized, scheduled, and controlled. In order to create the proper thinking perspective, leaders must aggressively investigate and act on the current market to create opportunities. Effective leaders are those that are capable of assisting their organization/country manage change and steer it towards success.
Tichy and Devanna (1986) assert that managers engage in very little change but manage what is present and leave things much as they found them when they depart. Transformational leadership, they declared, focuses on change, innovation, and entrepreneurship. They assumed that transformational leaders begin with a social fabric, disrupt that environment, and then recreate the social fabric to better reflect the overall business climate.
They argue that there are four suggested personal characteristics of a transformational leader: (a) dominance, (b) self-confidence, (c) need for influence, and (d) conviction of moral righteousness. These leaders are expected to deal with the paradox of predicting the unknown and sometimes the unknowable. These leaders change and

Behaviour through the Imperative to Survive

While other theories on human behavior can explain some types of behaviours better than evolutionary psychology, this branch of study has credibility through understanding that the adaptive traits that are exhibited in human beings are part of a process that can explain all aspects of behavior from a historic, and prehistoric perspective of viewing the natural adaptive development of the human species.
In order to examine the effectiveness of evolutionary psychology in explaining human behavior, universal conditions can be examined for the common responses that are seen within the species. Using evolutionary psychology as a way of understanding attraction behaviors, for instance, reveals that men and women find each other attractive based on attributes that promote the survival of the species. Women will find men with resources more attractive, while men will find a physical attraction, which is associated with good health and childbearing potential, a more important attribute in potential mates (Keil &amp. Wilson, 2001, p. 751). Part of understanding evolutionary psychology requires an understanding that the behaviors that are present within the human species are directed towards specific adaptive purposes. Vuchinich and Heather (2003) argue that addictive behaviors are the result of an evolved psychological mechanism that has been shifted in the process of drug dependence (p. 251). This type of exaptation allows the researcher to examine the underlying cause of the responses that an addict will have to addiction to seeking stimuli.
Finally, looking at the example of aggression allows for the exploration of a set of behaviors that are typically tied to responses that are more blatantly tied to evoked responses. The frustration-aggression hypothesis postulated by Dollard suggests that when faced with a frustrating stimulus that would instigate the behavior of aggression, a shift will occur in the target of that frustration if that target is socially out of reach in regard to an aggressive response, thus creating a scapegoat that will feel the response that was delayed and/or shifted (Hogg &amp. Vaughan, 2005, p. 380).&nbsp.

You gotta Problem

AR Problem Identification And Solution 5/5 Problem Identification and Solution Obesity is a pathological condition which has now become a matter of global concern. It is a disease associated with the excessive accumulation of fats in the body of individual. Obesity is a condition which can be the base for many degenerative diseases affecting major bodily systems and an interesting aspect is that it can also affect the psychological condition of a person (Standford Hospital and Clinics 2010). Obesity has now become a worldwide issue due to its increasing rise and the risks that it poses. It is a very common condition in the Unites States with two third of the population of United States suffering either from obesity or increased weight and approximately one third of the population being obese according to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (Weight Control and Information Network 2010). In UK, the Health Survey for England in the year 2008 presented that 24.5% people above the age of 15 were suffering from obesity. The same survey showed that the rate of obesity between the ages of 2 and 10 years was 13.9% (Department of Health 2009). Obesity is a disease state which was initially considered to have no genetic role in its causation. But recent research has put forward the fact that obesity is a disease state which has both genetic component and environmental factors involved in causing it. It is caused by the deletion or damage in a gene known as Ob gene putting the subjects with these deletions at high risks of developing obesity. A diet rich in fat can also lead to obesity because a high fat diet stimulates a person to eat more. Another important reason for obesity is psychological disorders which include depression, eating disorders like binge eating and increased diet in times of stress. Obesity itself can also serve as a reason because it might lead for a person to lose his self confidence and hence the person loses the will to exercise and adopt weight loss plans (Biddle et al 2009).
The prevention and treatment of obesity needs to cater the requirements of all age groups. For proper results it is essential that all the causative factors of obesity should be understood. This is because only focusing on physical, nutritional and pharmacological treatment cannot decrease the prevalence of the disease. This is because psychology also plays its role in the development and progress of this condition. For preventing the condition physical activity should be encouraged among children so that the habit develops in them. A proper balanced diet should also be recommended for children. For people who are very obese pharmacological treatment includes drugs like orlistat and sibutramine. This should be followed with a proper dietary plan for them as well as a physical activity schedule. Not only this, they should also be given psychological treatment to raise their self confidence and to motivate them to lose the excessive weight (Biddle et al 2009). The problem of obesity can only be curbed by the help of these obese individuals only and their concern for their health. In order to decrease the problem I would with my friends aware the obese individuals of their problem. This would make them conscious about their health and thus they would automatically follow the methods to avoid obesity as laid out by the government. Secondly I would give out charts of certain products which have the most calories in them. This would help the individuals to realize which products are healthy and which non healthy. Thirdly I with my friends would promote certain exercises amongst the obese individuals which would make them get rid of their problem. The exercises which I would promote would not be strenuous so the obese people are attracted towards them. Further after doing these exercises the obese people would be able to get rid of their problem accordingly (Borton et al 2000).
Many individuals would not be interested in these awareness programs and might just ignore the messages given by them. The dietary plans laid by the programs would be hectic and may not be liked by many. Psychological programs would not be attended by these individuals as they would yet again ignore them. The solution to all these problems is that the individuals should be given proper guidance regarding these awareness programs and these awareness programs should not involve factors which might prove hectic for the obese individuals. The therapies and dietary plans would be laid out according to the requirements of the individuals so that they attend it for their own sake.
Bibliography
STANFORD HOSPITAL AND CLINICS. (2010). Health Effects of Obesity. Stanford University. WEIGHT CONTROL INFORMATION NETWORK. (2010) Statistics Related to Overweight and Obesity. National Institute of Health. http://www.win.niddk.nih.gov/statistics/index.htm
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH UK.(2009). Obesity General Information. http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publichealth/Healthimprovement/Obesity/DH_078098
BIDDLE S., &amp. DOVEY T. (2009). Obesity – Is physical activity the key?&nbsp.Psychologist.&nbsp.22, 32-35.http://www.thepsychologist.org.uk/archive/archive_home.cfm/volumeID_22-editionID_171-ArticleID_1456
Borton, Janis, and Leslie Teach. Obesity in America. NCSL legisbrief, v. 8, no. 42. Denver, Colo: National Conference of State Legislatures, 2000.

COUN 506 wk 2 DB

PSYCHOLOGY Question Psychology is the science that involves the study of human behaviour and the mental functions.It tries to explain why human beings behave the way they do and the reason lead to that behaviour (Myers, 2004). I disagree with the rationale that “psychology is just sinful human beings sinfully thinking about sinful human beings.”
A psychologist will try to understand and explain the behaviour of a person by analysing his mental functions, biological makeup and physiological processes. From this perspective, psychology is just a science that tries to understand behaviour and its causes. Therefore, it cannot be a sin as all psychologists do is study behaviour. Moreover, psychological knowledge is used in the treatment of mental patients and if it is taken to be a sin, then all other fields of medicine will be sinful acts.
Understanding of human behaviour and being able to know how a person will react in certain situation can be very important in many aspects of life. For example, it can be very useful when carrying out forensic investigations.
Question 2
Counselling is the process of giving advice and guidance on certain issues. For a person to be able to give advice or guidance, he has to understand the reason and cause of the problem. This makes counselling very similar to psychology it uses the very same principle in understanding human behaviour.
Therefore, psychology and Christian counselling can be very easily integrated as they both have a similar concept. In addition, a psychological perspective can be very useful in counselling, as the counsellor will have an insight of how a person’s biological makeup and mental functions will influence his behaviour.
References
Myers, D. (2004). Psychology (7th ed.). New York: Worth.

The Use of Metaphor

The Use of Metaphor in Psychology Introduction When a client enters the therapeutic process they are inundated with emotions and thought patterns that are often negative. The therapist must help the client move past these patterns because they often create road blocks that stop the client from moving forward. Milton Erikson saw that clients could move past their patterns by getting past their conscious minds. Erikson knew that the conscious mind held onto patterns that were difficult to break (Gordon par. 10). The therapist’s job was to move them through these patterns. In order do to this, the therapist had to help the client move past their conscious mind. Erikson introduced the concept of metaphors, many of which were physical actions that clients could take outside the counseling session.
2 Erickson and Physical Metaphors
Erikson used physical metaphors as an away to move past the unconscious mind. The way this would work was to give the client a physical task to complete outside the therapy session that was geared toward helping the client learn something more about themselves. Usually, the client would return to the next counseling session after doing the task and the client would have “profound learning that was unique for them” (Bill Baker 1).
Physical metaphors were used because they allowed the client to bypass their conscious mind by making it concentrate on the task instead of the learning that would take place. In this way, the conscious mind would be occupied and resistance to the learning about oneself would not occur. At the same time, the client’s unconscious mind would be able to form new patterns of though so the individual could come to the next counseling sessions with new insights about their problems (Baker 2). The physical metaphor also provides an opportunity for clients to “learn by doing” in order to learn from their experience.
3 Erikson and Use of Stories
Erikson also used stories to bypass the unconscious mind. He found that stories could inspire a person do something with their life. In order to do this, they would have to understand that what happened in the story could also happen to them which could mean that they would “affect deep and lasting change” (Baker 14) without the individual actively working toward it. There are several reasons that metaphors from stories are useful. David Puchol Esparza states that these stories can provide a key towards helping the individual understand how they show up in the world, they can cause something to be remembered, they can provide many levels of information and they can help people bring about the new patterns of thoughts, behaviors and feelings (2). Also, people enjoy stories that help them understand how someone else has done something. They decide that if someone in similar circumstances were able to battle the situation, that they also can do the same.
4 Erikson and Hypnosis
Stephen Lankston states that Erikson moved from being the authority figure for the individual to a position where he co-created with the client. He was able to offer “ideas and suggestions” to an individual once they were in a trance state (4). He felt that he offered “ambiguity for the client” (4) so the client was able to move through their problems to something more concrete they could do.
In conclusion, Erikson was able to use metaphor to help clients move past issues to something more concrete in their understanding. The metaphors were physical, used as stories or eventually done through hypnosis. They were seen as effective for the clients that used them which created more responsible clients.
Works Cited
Baker, Bill. “The Power of Physical Metaphors”. Eriksonian Info. 2004. Web.
&lt. http://ericksonian.info/PowerofPhysicalMetaphors_p3.html&gt. Gordon, David. “Therapeutic Metaphor.” 2008. Web. 2 December 2011.
&lt. http://www.therapeuticmetaphors.com/&gt. Lankton, Stephen. “Erikson’s Contribution to Therapy: Epistemology – Not Technology. 2000. Web. 29 November 2011. &lt. http://lankton.com/epist.htm#E&gt. Puchol Esparza, David. “Therapeutic Metaphors &amp. Clinical Hypnosis” HypnoGenesis. 2001. 29 November 2011. &lt. http://www.hypnos.co.uk/hypnomag/esparza.html&gt.

English Romantic Writers by David Perkins

A lot of visionary thinking is seen in the writings of English Romantic writers as they made some major projections and elaborations that do not only fit the generation in which they live in but in today’s generation. It is not surprising therefore that there is often referred to the term “day’s background” to mean the usefulness of the content of work in all day’s (generations) of life. Perhaps the most important feature that this achieved was the fact that the contents of works in time past remain very meaningful to readers of today and thus readers of today do not see the content and writings as outmoded.
Secondly, there is this interesting point about the reading whereby there is a representation of different figures of literature, especially women. The emphasis that the book gives to women writers who otherwise had very little publicity and fame gives a sense of fairness about the writer in terms of the promotion of equality. There is no denying the fact that women have played important roles in literature at different times of human existence. At a time when the attention on women, however, seemed to have been forgotten, the writer in the first twenty-three pages of the book throws more light on important authors like Anna Laetitia Barbauld and Charlotte Smith. The sense of gender fairness with which the book is presented in its opening pages is a very interesting point that is worth commending.
Again, the book takes an unusual approach in terms of theme when it highlights on as many topical areas as possible. This feature gives the book an insightful intellectual discourse that spans around topics like politics, governance, human psychology, art and so on. Without any doubt, any person who is interested in writing in one way or the other who comes by the first twenty-three pages of the book would have something to be fascinated about because there would certainly be a topic of great interest. In the day’s background, intellectual discourse is made by using different literary elements that fit the different topical areas selected by the writer. For example in touching on issues of governance, the writer uses the element of satire to point out some key issues of national interest in a comic manner.
Finally, there is an outstanding feature of the book whereby it explores different forms of literature such as poetry and prose. Again, this is a feature that makes the book universal and highly suitable for people of different reading backgrounds. By presenting both prose and poetry works in that single book, English Romantic Writers by David Perkins becomes a book that has a very large audience because of its diversity and dynamism. The point that the poems and prose were not selected from popular writers alone but also from some unknown writers gives the book a nostalgic moment when reading.

The Growing Demand for Bilingualism in Modern Society

It is not difficult to see the central importance of bilingualism, with an emphasized importance on English language acquisition, in today’s society. Although having English as the world language raises numerous issues about identity and power that need to be further investigated, the reality is that being bilingual – in both one’s native language as well as in English – is quickly becoming the norm. In an attempt to compete globally, countries are investing mass amounts of capital into establishing bilingual institutions of higher learning, in which English-speaking instructors are being enticed to move to some of the most remote and exotic places on the globe to educate children and adults in China and Cambodia and Oman, etc. Therefore, the discussion of how non-English speakers become proficient in a second language (L2) is pivotal in the educational community, which raises issues of recognition, comprehension, and stimuli that aid the brain in developing the connections that enable the interpretation and processing of foreign information. In an attempt to study how these connections are made, many linguists rely on the Stroop test, which serves to study the reaction time of a task. Applying this test to L2 acquisition provides an invaluable insight that will enable language instructors to create learning environments that will aid language learners in transitioning from a basic or intermediate knowledge to an advanced fluency of the second language.

J.R. Stroop has made an invaluable contribution to the history of experimental psychology, and his test has been utilized in a myriad of subject areas, from neuropsychology to affective disorders. The Stroop effect has been used to discuss frontal lobe function (brain patterns), the role of emotions on cognition, the speed at which individuals process and compartmentalize information, and the process of second language acquisition (Stroop Effect, 2010). The&nbsp.Stroop test has even found its way into pop culture, in which Ryuta Kawashima developed a software program for Nintendo DS, called “Brain Age: Train your Brain in Minutes a Day,” which incorporates a variation of the test as a means to aid memory and shorten the reaction time of response.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Enhance the Performance of an Athlete by Using Different Techniques of Psychology

The problem has been so severe that coaches internationally have shown great interest in the field of sport psychology particularly in the area of competitive anxiety to tackle the problem effectively. Selk (2008) believes that the athletes of any country are its most valued assets and a country cannot let go of them just because of fear of competition and excessive stress and anxiety.

Sheridon (2010) states that sports psychology is the study based on finding out techniques that the athletes can use to control anxiety on the field and maximize their true potential when it is needed the most. These techniques are basically designed to help the athletes relax and perform well on the field. Often athletes do exceptionally well during practice sessions but lose momentum on the final day, which surely is disheartening not just for the individual athletes but the whole team. Sports psychology helps the athletes to focus positively on the preparation of the game and play it well. It also keeps them away from drugs and other hyper energy raising pills that usually lead to aggression and high blood pressure.

For an athlete to be successful in the practical world he does not just need the talent but also a strong will to take that talent far and get his credit acknowledged worldwide. Weinberg (2006) states that according to sports psychology an athlete should have attributes of the 4 C’s namely confidence, control, concentration, and commitment. It is said that an athlete that possesses all 4 C’s is bound to succeed. Martens (2004) defines confidence to be the ability of an athlete to distinguish oneself from the crowd and know where he excels. Control refers to the ability to control oneself emotionally and not get distracted by other happenings. Often players are intentionally distracted and manipulated to hamper their progress and a true athlete must possess the ability to rise through difficult situations and emerge as a winner. Loehr (1995) states that concentration is the&nbsp.ability of an athlete to stay focused during the game.&nbsp.

Archetype the Cause for Suffering according to Buddha and Peoples Perception on Platos Level of Awareness between Ancient Athens in Modern Day

51250 An archetype is a universally acceptable pattern, behavior or statement among human beings that is meant to build pillars for individuals to follow. Carl Jung a psychologist claim that archetype lies in the collective unconscious of humanity and so it is in every individual. Archetype was derived from a Latin word ‘archetupos’ which means first-molded, hence it represents the beginning (James, 5). There are, however, critics to archetype saying that is a myth in psychology and culture, according to the critics it is something that does not really exist. An accept in modern society will be heroes and leaders, these are the modern day archetype and individuals always want to emulate them. Heroes are believed to be selfless and problem solvers, they do things for the community around them as compared to the doing for themselves. The community tends to be looking upon them for the solution of things facing them. A hero is a courageous being who has strength and capability for taking care of the people around him. Every hero story is the same where they are born and living just like an ordinary person, then tackles an extraordinary problem that other people cannot handle, receiving awards hence becoming the community hero. A person holding a higher position example a political position or maybe in an organization and show concern by helping the region or organization from a bad position that was in earlier to a better place is considered a leader. People acknowledge their work when they see that there have been lifted from a ditch to a place they can confidently support themselves. The fact that not everybody can do that for an organization or a region and people look up to them, gives them the title leader (Margaret, 139). Heroes and leaders are ideal people mainly because people look upon them to handle hard tasks that not every person can.&nbsp. &nbsp.&nbsp.

Business Strategy Coca Cola Company

The business performance of 2007 has shown positive development to the satisfaction of the company. Yet they have to be very vigilant to sustain the uptrend in the coming years also. The company needs innovative planning and strategies to sustain the gain of last year to enable them to keep floating always ahead.
Coco-Cola is an old and established brand worldwide backed by a strong team of manpower. Internally they are very stable and strong to provide strong pillars to the edifice of marketing. They enjoy 94% brand recognition and more than 60% market share in the world. They need to be vigilant all the times to keep on appraising the performance and finding the underperformance if any at any level. With the type of expertise and skill they have, it is sure to overcome the weakness that might creep in by active communication and crackdown.
Coco-Cola is spread to a large domain all over the world market, which is full of complexities. Different people with different tastes, culture, psychology, different lifestyles live in different countries. This is always a challenge to the marketers to satisfy everyone. In India, the company faced challenges from the very start and also when Coca Cola entered into this country a second time. After Coco Cola had established its foothold in India the change in government gave a fatal blow to the company when the changed government ordered it to wind up and leave India on the ground that the country could not permit an ordinary product which is not high tech and which the country could produce itself. The second time when Coco Cola entered India again with a new government the local brand ‘Thumbs Up’ was thriving in the market that was a favourite brand for the local countrymen (Basu, 2006). Coca Cola had to take over that brand and nourish it to claim the large market share it had enjoyed. Even today the brand holds command and contributes a sizeable market share to the parent company. The stark competitor Pepsi had entry into the country and with better manipulation of the market and competed Coca Cola to be the second in many markets.&nbsp.

The Psychology of Performance in Sports

Imagine a quarterback who spent most of his non-playing hours doing only his physical exercises and routines, believing that his strength and agility would be more than enough to win the match. Come playtime, he found himself in a situation where he needed to decide within seconds and his decision would make or break the team. He could either run for it or pass it to another. Because of his physical training and knowing that he is in excellent shape, he could have opted for the former. And in the event that his opponent is better-conditioned than himself, then his decision could have led his team to lose.

This is not to say that the athlete did not exercise his cognitive function. But since he focused on honing his physical attributes, his capacity to make better decisions based on the uniqueness of the actual situation is limited. Physical conditioning is not enough to deal with varied situations that call for excellent situation appraisal and decision-making. A good athlete should be able to quickly assess the situation, appraise his opponents’ strengths and weaknesses, make sound judgment and carry out necessary actions while under a lot of competitive stress. He should be confident enough, should be able to apply appropriate techniques that a particular situation calls for, and should be able to cope under a lot of pressure which is an intrinsic part of sports. These are the marks of a good athlete and much relies on the quality of training provided.

This is where the application of cognitive psychology comes in. Most of the professional coaches and those involved in sports psychology nowadays use theories from&nbsp.cognitive science to elicit powerful performances from the athletes by providing rigorous mental and physical training, staging simulated plays in preparation for the real thing. The effectiveness of this application, however, is not without a scientific basis.

Consumer Psychology and Buyer Behaviour

Marketers must come to recognise whether their product would be perceived as a high-involvement purchase or a low-involvement purchase and take adequate steps to create a marketing strategy, for the specific product, which would best appeal to the consumer propensity to buy quickly or mull over the decision for an elongated period of time. As the majority of product-oriented companies market their products in the pursuit of achieving profitability, and since the consumer is generally the largest external factor determining whether product sales rise or fall, involvement is likely a paramount objective when building a sound marketing strategy.
One marketing professional offers that many consumers when deciding whether or not to buy what would be considered a high-involvement purchase, will often remain loyal to a favourite brand name and remain somewhat reluctant to try an unknown branded product as an alternative (Cohen, 2000). This would pose a significant challenge for marketers today, especially if their company’s specific product is undifferentiated from other competing products or is relatively new on the market. In fact, it has been offered that many companies will attempt to exploit this aspect of consumer behaviour in decision-making by simply raising the price on the specific brand which has been found to achieve consumer brand loyalty (Cohen). However, is this a sound strategy in the long-term? If the competing product recognises that the pricing model for the competing, loyal brand is being exploited, this can potentially give the new on-the-market product an opportunity to utilise creative and innovative marketing efforts to differentiate the product and ultimately seize market share from their competition which has enjoyed high sales volume and profit due to exploiting consumer behaviour patterns.
Jaben (2009) offers a unique portrait of contemporary consumer&nbsp.lifestyles by segregating different consumer segments into a specific lifestyle and values categories under the VALS 2 model of marketing. Under this model, there are eight identified consumer segments, such as those who seek action-orientation (thrills and sports), those who are highly concerned with image and prosperity (attracted to premium products), or those who are family-oriented (slow to change life-long habits of buying behaviour). amongst many other segments.&nbsp.

The Psychology of Management

Organisations are by far a congregation of individuals and the tasks they accomplish are resultant from teamwork. Humans, whether they pursue a task individually or in teams, carry their psyche to the workplace too. If the leader exactly comprehends with the psychology of his team members, he can facilitate them work better (Gilbreth, 1921).

Efficiency and quality of work are functions of a person’s mental make-up and a clear interpretation of principles of psychology and human attitudes are important in achieving these at work. When the manager carries enough knowledge of the principles of management as well as psychology to his work, it is advantageous in assessing the minds and thoughts of the employees and devising strategies to tackle them and direct their skills towards getting the work done effectively.

Principles of management rest on the foundations of behavioural sciences and the study of the human mind. Further, psychology transgresses and transpires through every step of management, be it employee safety, welfare, designing remuneration package, total rewards system, collective bargaining, employee retention, performance management etc. Training needs assessment, need for promotion, assessing the correct decision alternatives etc are better evaluated by managers familiar with psychology. The managers, especially those involved in functions related to performance appraisal, assessment centres, counselling etc find it imperative to be aware of psychology, which explains human behaviours, thoughts and ideas in detail (Schein, 1988).

Managers being the initiators and agents of change, need to get a clue of how the employees would react to the intended changes so that they are enough prepared to tackle such situations. Science of the mind aids in this regard.

Psychology is also helpful in arbitration, conflict resolution, and also in implementing reward and punishment systems, which would properly reinforce the good and bad behaviours of the employees respectively.

Television and Very Young Children

Having explored this site extensively, all information appears current and there are no missing or broken links. All articles cited in the study are detailed and quickly available for further reference. In short, this particular article appears to be a well-documented source that would help a great deal in my own study.
Milne, G. R. (2000). Privacy and ethical issues in database/interactive marketing and public policy: A research framework and overview of the special issue. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 19(1), 1-6. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/30000482?uid=3739136&amp.uid=2&amp.uid=4&amp.sid=47699091448147
Milne (2000) recounts the fact that privacy is of increasing concern. This is a public policy issue that does affect consumers and marketers. These concerns have been compounded by the growth of online marketing. Such marketing schemes have resulted in the Federal Trade Commission becoming involved and placing such activities under review. This author makes the point that exchange mechanisms between marketers and consumers should be improved. In so doing, consumers will have more control over who has access to their personal information and under what terms.
Mitrofan, O., &amp. Spencer N. (2009). Is aggression in children with behavioral and emotional difficulties associated with television viewing and video game playing? A systematic review. Child: Care, Health, &amp. Development, 35(1), 5-15. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2008.00912.x.
The authors of this study are professors in the School of Health and Social Studies at the University of Warwick in the United Kingdom. They have previously published studies areas focusing on child aggression and the causes thereof. This study is designed to appeal to all types of childcare, education, and social workers. The terminology used is not so complex as to discount most mid-level professionals but is advanced enough to require some prior background on the topic. This particular article does fit in line with other articles I have come across. It tends to support my initial hypothesis in that Mitrofan and Spencer contend that television watching does deter language development in young children, particularly those with a history of behavioral problems.
Polman, H. (2008). Experimental study of the differential effects of playing versus watching violent video games on children’s aggressive behavior. Aggressive Behavior, 34(3), 256-264. Doi:10.1002/ab.20245
The author of this study is employed in the Faculty of Social Sciences at Utrecht University in the Netherlands. Polman is a well-published scholar in the area of childhood and adolescent development, with multiple studies being published worldwide. As Polman notes that certain types of television viewing by young children impact their interaction as they play, this study resonates well with other articles I have come across in my research. It continues to support my initial hypothesis in this area by alluding to the concept that such viewing limits language development on the part of children and alters the way that they communicate with their peers and adults.
Wright, J. C. (2001). The relations of early television viewing to school readiness and vocabulary of children from low-income families: The early window project. Child Development, 72(5), 1347-1366. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00352/abstract
Searching on Google Scholar also discovered this article. The actual study itself is located in the online library at Wiley Psychology. The author of this study is on faculty at the Department of Human Ecology at the University of Texas and has published other articles dealing with developmental issues of lower-income children. This particular study was published in the Child Development journal, so Wiley Online appears to have had no influence over the findings contained in the article. Furthermore, the site is current and is also well laid out, with no missing or broken links. All articles contained in this particular study by Wright are referenced with complete citations, so follow-up research can easily be conducted.

We should work with and study the ambiguities fluidity and openness of social life rather than try and repress these in a fruitless chase for experimental control and scientific respectability (Wetherall 1996) Discuss

Psychology Research The society comprises of all types of people. A complete society has to contain different kinds of individuals. People should be ready to appreciate the behavior of others as everybody makes up the society. Appreciation of people’s behavior is very important as it creates a god understanding for a peaceful living in the society. People have different characters. This is because the environment, where a person grows up, partly contributed towards the behavior that one acquires. An individual cannot choose one’s birthplace since it comes due to the prevailing circumstances (Fisher 2005, p. 56). It is, therefore, wrong to blame somebody for acquiring a given culture of the environment in which one was raised.
There are scientific theories that study human behavior. The theories come up with conclusions that summarize their findings. The scientists assume that the recommendations of the findings are the perfect ways in which people should live. It is important to note that scientific theories are not flexible as well as dynamic enough to be able to contain every aspect of the society. People end up struggling to meet the scientific requirements in order to live within the accepted code of ethics. This s referred to as living the life of others (Akerlof 2009, p. 89). Obviously, those who recommend particular behaviors only bring forward what fits them.
Field theories enable the understanding of human behavior. They study of continuous activities that encompass the human environment assist in getting the key facts of human behavior. Scientific theories do not promote status quo, as they do not account for every type of individual in the society. Furthermore, the theories do not promote social justice. It would be impossible to instill a behavior that does not already exist in a certain society. It amount to undermining the existing culture of that society.
People are not aware of the repercussions associated with conforming to scientific theories. It is very difficult to live by the lives of the scientists. Every society has its own values which it appreciates and expects people to live by. The values depend on the environment of the society and appreciate all the individuals in the particular society. Scientists come up with general theories on human behavior to change the existing norms. This can be said to be lack of respect for the norms of the society as the scientists only bring what favors them. In addition, there are deep reasons towards appreciation of a given norm by a particular society (Robbins 2001, p. 34). The reason can be beyond the understanding of behavior scientists working out general behavior formulas.
People differ in what they like doing and what they would love doing. Behavioral theories are what the scientists would prefer their life to be. I wonder if theorists declare their values or if they assume that, there life is value free. I value my culture and I do not believe in other people’s culture. I acquire my morals from my society in regard to what they appreciate as good conduct (Chelton and Cool 2009, p. 178). I do not understand how one can live within the norms of a different society different from where one is raised or lives. The scientific theories are not to the interests of my society but are to the interest of the representative society where the studies are taken.
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Akerlof, A., &amp. Shiller, J. (2009). Animal spirits: How human psychology drives the economy, and why it matters for global capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Chelton, K., &amp. Cool, C. (2004). Youth information-seeking behavior: Theories, models, and issues. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
Fisher, E., Erdelez, S., &amp. McKechnie, L. (2005). Theories of information behavior. Medford, N.J: Published for the American Society for Information Science and Technology by Information Today.
Helfgott, B. (2008). Criminal behavior: Theories, typologies, and criminal justice. Los Angeles, LA: SAGE.
Inglis, F. (2004). Culture. Cambridge, PA: Polity.
Levinthal, F. (2002). Drugs, behavior, and modern society. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Myers, G. (2004). Psychology. New York, NY: Worth Publishers.
OReilly, B. (2006). Culture warrior. New York, NY: Broadway Books.
Parhizgar, D. (2002). Multicultural behavior and global business environments. New York, N.Y: International Business Press.
Robbins, P. (2001). Organizational behavior. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
Wade, C., &amp. Tavris, C. (2000). Psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Follow Your Passion by Johnnetta B Cole

Follow Your Passion Introduction The story d Follow Your Passion by Johnnetta Cole is an inspiring storyof how the author identified her passion and pursued it. This story serves as a testimonial for many students and young people who are confused about the best career to pursue. As the author describes her experience, she offers a story that anyone can associate with and benefit from the advice she was given by her mother to follow her passion. This paper will analyze the title of the story and describe how the author found her passion.
The title of the story carries a compelling message which encourages individuals to follow their passion. This means that an individual should follow a career that he or she is interested in and not forced by anyone to pursue. Following one’s passion is bound to ensure that an individual finds satisfaction from practicing that career. Many people who do not follow their passion are characteristically unhappy. This is why the story was given this title as a form of emphasis on the importance of following one’s career (Pitzpatrick 389).
The author wanted to become a pediatrician when she was young and stuck to that dream until she joined Fisky University. However, one year later, she transferred to Oberlin College, where her career would change completely. She found herself in an anthropology class whereby the professor was discussing how to analyze cultures. The author was immediately intrigued by anthropology and changed her mind about being a pediatrician. From her first experience in an anthropology class, she decided that anthropology was truly her passion. She later would return home to explain to her family on her change of career making them aware that she wanted to pursue anthropology (390). Although there were three types of psychology, she was interested in cultural anthropology. Her family members were astonished by the change of mind, especially because they knew nothing about anthropology and were concerned that it did not pay enough to sustain the author in the future.
Her mother gave her the most outstanding advice by highlighting that she should follow her passion. Her mother indicated that pursuing a career that one was not interested in would bring disappointment each say as one had the obligation to wake up to the daily challenges in that career (391. It was different for a person who pursued her passion because the interests in that career would keep one motivated irrespective of the challenges. This was the case with the author who was able to pursue anthropology to the PhD level. Despite the challenges she faced, she still found her work interesting. After her PhD, she became a lecturer in a university where she imparted students with the knowledge she had acquired. In the years that followed when she became the principle of a college, she still lectured anthropology and mentored students in career choice (392).
Conclusion
Evidently, the story can serve as a compelling inspiration to students who are confused about their career choices. Moreover, it offers guidelines on what to do when the family is against one’s career choice. From the author’s perspective and experience, following ones passion is the solution. When one does this, there is no regret or disappointment. On the contrary, one receives satisfaction and happiness from practicing the career chosen out of passion.
Work Cited
Pitzpatrick. Angaging WritingW. Readings (Third custom Edition for Montgomery College). New York:Angaging writing W. Readings, 2011. Print.

The impact of culture on consumer behavior

Further, it is broadly understood that advertising and marketing heavily relies upon psychological instruments in order to integrate with the potential consumer. The fact of the matter is that advertising has become something of an art form in which marketers have sought to leverage various aspects of human psychological mechanisms as a way of convincing the potential buyer that they should buy a particular product or utilize a particular service. Although seeking to measure such a dynamic and marketing and psychological advertising would necessarily require a dissertation length response, this brief analysis will seek to engage the reader with an understanding of how cultural paradigms and approaches are utilized within advertising/marketing to create a more favorable impression with regards to the imagery and understanding of the product itself. Furthermore, as a means of performing such an analysis, it will be necessary to engage the reader with a discussion and appreciation for the means by which consciousness, social psychology, and motivation (as well as many subcategories of each of these) all work together to affect such an end in the minds of the potential consumer. Moreover, academic studies will be utilized as a means of drawing inference upon the hypothesis of this research which regards the understanding that cultural influences a great deal with regards to the level in which a potential consumer has to interact with the given good/service/product.
As with many of the broader terms in life, culture is especially difficult to define. However, if one were forced to encapsulate what “culture” means and what it represents within a brief dictionary definition, the following would most accurately denote what culture means and how it impacts upon human choice: “Culture is the characteristics of a particular group of people, defined by everything

AED WK4 DQ 1 Reponses

AED WK 4 DQ responses AED WK4 DQ Reponses Many with ASD have a difficult time in social situations. What strategies would you use to integrate them into positive social situations? How would you work with a student who is mean to other students? How would you work with a student who is extremely shy?
Since students with ASD have social difficulties, they need to be identified and assisted at personal level. First, there category is marked as behavior-linked disorder then with this in mind the various integration strategies for such a person is applied including evidence based approach. They can also be helped by utilizing a psycho-educational method to improve communication, cognitive, and social skills and at the same time reducing issue behavior. Since no single intersession works for all such students need individual tailored methods but the most used is in such situation is the applied behavior analysis (ABA).
A mean student need to be explained the effects of being mean and benefits of one who is generous. By doing that, we shall be trying to change the behavior to make him adopt positive thinking towards others. While working with such a student use various stories on people who were mean and what life they faced afterwards. The story should have a theme of avoiding being mean. Ensure you are just as generous as possible so that when they compare they see some value helping others(Volkmar et al., 2004).
Shy students need to be introduced to various situations to ensure they reduce their shyness. Working in groups is the best method where each person is given a topic to discuss. By doing that, they will develop confidence in themselves for delivering their topic. afterwards they will now start making friends. Afterwards the group discussions will then be taken to class presentation. this will reduce cases of shyness as one realizes he or she can present anything audibly to others(Volkmar et al., 2004).
2. What can you do to help students like Ayah to remain focused and on the task at hand?Ayahs characteristics of ASD include:
Reduced rates of eye contact or looking directly at others
Shows stereotypical and recurring movements and habits
Has restricted receptive and communication problems
Such a student needs intensive behavioral intervention by ABA. Always while communicating tell them to look at you and ensure you attract her attention as much as possible. Error correction process should also be applied with various trials that will enable her remain focused. There is also need for constructive partnership with the siblings, parents, and co-therapists. Interaction also should be intensified to lower her restricted and communication issue(Volkmar et al., 2004).
3. It is crucial for all children, especially those with ASD, to have immediate feedback. Why is it important to have immediate feedback? How do you feel immediate feedback effects the learning process?
Immediate feedback is essential because it helps one determine the level of intervention being passed to ASD students.Feedback enables the teacher to find or apply other alternative mechanisms if the initial ones fail to bear fruits. Feedback also is a way of examining the rate of development of individual student as if need be personal attention can be intensified to increase student’s improvements and reduce ASD challenges.
Immediate feedback is more essential since it enables one to change tactics fast if the first one did not work. In fact, it is better that way, as one will not waste time on trying to enhance the initial approaches. Quick solutions may be alsobeing found with immediate feedback(Volkmar et al., 2004).
4. an important aspect of teaching—paying attention to the students facial expressions, eyes, and body language. Many students, especially those with learning disabilities, will be hesitant to ask for help or let you know that they do not understand something. I know in my own classroom I could tell by how the students looked if they were grasping concepts or I needed to try another teaching strategy. Class, any thoughts?
Such characteristics are highly essential because instead of advancing with the topic, the tutor can employ other mechanisms to increase rate of grasping the concepts.In fact, individual attention is more preferred because that is when a student will open up and say have not understood the concept rather than assuming that all is well. On the other hand, the teacher should ask questions frequently and if facial expressions, body language, and eyes show some hesitations then know that more explanations are needed (Volkmar et al., 2004).
Reference:
Volkmar, F. Lord, Bailey, Schultz, &amp.Klin (2004)."Autism and pervasive developmental disorders."Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45 (1): 135–170.

Cont

Life and Anthropology The heart of the nation is its culture and tradition. However, not everybody in a certain populationknows exactly what or where certain traditions originated from. Are the celebrations enough to commemorate past events? How are these being passed through from one generation to another? In a world filled with the most advanced technologies and innovations, are there still enough attention given to an event that happened centuries ago?
Life and Anthropology
Before a person, especially a student understands anthropology, he or she should fully understand the meaning and the characteristics that cultivate the whole idea of the concept. Anthropology studies the origin and behavior of man. The study does not have any restrictions with regards to the time period, location or specific features that man can be analyzed. Anthropology studies man from its beginnings to all the manifestations and discrepancies that brought it to its present stature (Dash 2004).
Major Characteristics of Culture
Culture is defined as “the integrated system of learned behavior patterns that are characteristics of the members of a society and that are not the result of biological inheritance” (Dash 2004). Several published texts have mentioned a number of cultural characteristics. Some of them are not agreeing on the exact number of the characteristics of culture. The number varies from 4 up to 6 or even more. These texts however agree on some of the characteristics.
First of it would be that culture is learned. When a person is born, he enters a place already filled with culture. There are cultures that can trace its origin from centuries ago. Since birth until the last day of a person’s life, he tends to seek and define the new world that he is now a part of. The world is a confusing place as it is filled with numerous sensations that may have or may not have meaning yet it is influencing lives. There are also various ways of learning culture. The most common way is through communication (Samovar et al, 2009).
Another characteristic is that the culture is shared. This even incorporates within its teachings the first characteristic. It is said that the key element of culture is that it should be shared by the people who belong to the same nation. This characteristic compliments the goal of the first which states that culture is learned. To communicate is to share and communicating is a form of teaching. When something is being taught, people learn what is being taught. These 2 characteristics go hand in hand in transmitting cultures from one generation to another (Samovar et al, 2009).
It has been stated that another characteristic of culture is that it is based on symbols. For culture to be transmitted, culture is packaged in a portable form which fits the traits of symbols. These symbols are being passed from generations to generations and therefore being shared by people. For a person to understand what these symbols signify, the culture is being taught and communicated. Thus, this characteristic is complementing the other characteristics that were previously stated (Samovar et al, 2009).
Culture is also said to be dynamic. Even if so many changes have happened in this world during the past centuries, culture have remained and adapted to all the changes. Changes have increased and have threatened numerous cultures, however culture still remains and it is the world still adapting to it (Samovar et al, 2009).
Race and Ethnicity
Race is said to be a bit difficult to be defined. The meaning of the word varies however several scientists consider the definition of the word as a “mere social construct (Kopstein, 1995).” Ethnicity on the other hand is defined as “a term for collective cultural identity” (Spencer, 2006).
Race is considered to defining a person more towards the physical traits. It is unlike ethnicity that tackles more on culture, beliefs and shared values. People are usually being judged by the color of their skin. Sometimes, narrow-mindedness is the hindrance of exploring beauties that a certain ethnicity has. Belonging to a different race does not make anybody greater or lesser than another. With such being said between the 2 terms, ethnicity is less derogatory compared to race which deals with how a person looks like.
Marriage
It is accustomed when a man and a woman fell in love with each other. the union that will bind them for the rest of their lives is called marriage. According to Dash (2004), marriage creates a new social relationship and reciprocal rights. Though most couples that are united by marriage are bonded by love, there are also couples who are bonded by arrangements. There are 9 modes of marriages and one of these modes is pertained to as marriage by negotiation or arranged marriages.
Arranged marriages or marriages by negotiation are usually arranged by the relatives of the bride and the groom. It is the parents who usually arrange the union for their children. This mode of marriage is not an isolated case in just a particular culture. There are a number of societies who are practicing this mode of marriage for various reasons (Dash 2004). Just like marriages brought up by love, arranged marriages also have its advantage and disadvantages.
An advantage for love marriages is that before the union the couple had the time to get to know each other. The advantage on the other hand for fixed marriages leans more towards the financial security of the couple as they are being supported by families of both the bride and groom. Disadvantage on the other hand for love marriages is that there are tendencies of falling out of love. As this becomes a disadvantage for the latter, the advantage for fixed marriage is that as they get to know each other along the way, the affection that has been developed through the process has a tendency to have a marriage that will last longer.
Concept of Sustainability
As defined by Rogers et al (2008), the concept of sustainability explores the association between environmental quality, economic development and social equity. This concept further evolved to what the United Nations coined in 1987 as sustainable development. For a nation to sustain in a world that is changing consistently, it also needs to sustain not just its economic stature but also the environment condition in its area and also continuously improve the way of living of its people. Every nation needs to ensure that the advancements that the present generation is making will not put in jeopardy the lives of the future generation.
A nation needs to balance its economic resources and its natural resources. The environment is something that cannot be fixed overnight when damaged. When the environment is damaged or fully utilized by the present generation, what will happen to the future generations? How can they fully live when all that is left to them are artificial? This is the reason why there should be sustainable development in a nation.
External Sensory Stimulation
Sensory stimulation deals with the feelings and emotions of a person. There are instances that a person might have felt too much emotion in the past and unconsciously it is affecting that person in the present. External sensory stimulation deals more with the external factors that affects a person. Once a person is deprived of external sensory stimulation or has been in isolation for too long, it can be said that a person has sensory deprivation (American Heritage, 2000. Pettinelli, 2011).
This can be related to those people who would rather be by themselves and not socialize even with their schoolmates. If people will not have any pressures from their surroundings, like their family, neighbors and/or friends, peer pressure will be lessened. People would want to communicate and interact with their surroundings rather than being in isolation. If this will just happen, the number of suicide cases might be lessened if not eliminated. Peer pressure and bullying are just some of the reasons why there are people who commit suicide.
If only this world will become less judgmental of other people, this world will be a lot better place to be living in. Those people who cannot see will be able to picture what it looks like if there would be people kind enough and describe to them what the world looks like, it will be just like they are truly seeing it. Same things for those people who have disabilities that makes them not able to experience and appreciate the world as it is. Being isolated from the external sensory stimulants will make living a dull and lengthy nightmare.
Living should not be a nightmare. There are so many beautiful things in life that needs to be shared. Life is the greatest gift that was given by the Creator. The world is already equipped with the most advance machineries and technologies, yet life is something yet to be fully explained and defined. Another thing that can be felt and people know exist however does not have a specific definition is love. These 2 words are so precious yet it is being taken for granted when being in isolation.
Perception affected by Sleep and Psychoactive Drugs
Perception is defined as the “process which involves the recognition and interpretation of stimuli which register to our senses (Rookes &amp. Willson, 2000).” Sleep can affect perception as it is only the body that sleeps and not the brain. However, when a person failed to sleep properly there is a tendency that the attention span and patience of that person is affected. When this happen, a person’s perception tends to not properly function well. Attention is very important with regards to perception.
Psychoactive drugs on the other hand affect perception as the drug attacks the brain by affecting the consciousness and other psychological processes. It is very important that a person has full consciousness and attention span for perception to take place. If a person is not in the proper mental and physical state, perception might be infringed by false emotions and recognition (Bernstein, 2011).
Classical and Operant Conditioning
Classical and Operant Conditioning can be related to every action in a person’s everyday life. An example would be when a person is studying. Classical conditioning usually occurs during grade school when the information that is needed to be transmitted is given and students tend to wait for it. However, when the student enters college the conditioning changes from classical to operant conditioning. In operant conditioning, instead of spoon-feeding the information, the student learns how to get the information by himself (Hill, 2001).
These learning conditions also occur during driving. Some information is being learned either by the books and others through experiences. However there are some actions that are learned purely by classical conditioning or via operant conditioning. Eating can be said to be learned via classical conditioning. Even when a person is just an infant, he is conditioned to open his mouth when he sees a feeding bottle or a spoon being held near his mouth.
Exercise on the other hand can be related to operant conditioning. Not all exercises are fit for every body type. Therefore when a person tries a particular exercise and feels that it does not suit his body type or a physical condition, he will stop doing it and tend to do an exercise that will be more beneficial to him.
Operant conditioning is knowledge acquired through trial and error. Experience is the best teacher for this type of conditioning. A person will not know what is wrong or what is right if he will not be able to fully comprehend how things have happened. This type of conditioning is how independent people learn. Sometimes, learning is better experienced rather than transmitted purely by words. Classical conditioning tends to spoon-feed information first before a person acquires certain knowledge. It makes a person dependent to teachers or books, which is not advisable in a fast paced way of living (Hardy &amp. Heyes, 1999).
Not all knowledge is written and learned by the books. As the saying goes, curiosity kills the cat. Though almost everything in this world have been explained in numerous books and journals, an aspect that is still yet to be fully explained is a person’s emotion and attitude towards different aspects of life. An emotion varies from person to person and cannot be stereotyped. Different people handle a particular emotion differently from another. Therefore, in this case, classical conditioning does not apply to this particular aspect. Operant conditioning on the other hand teaches a person that an act can cause severe emotions once performed.
Advices are given by people who have actually experienced an event that may have caused extreme pain, sorrow or success. Though it serves as a guide, it does not mean that a person needs to do the same and obtain the same result. Operant conditioning serves as a guide as to what is needed to be done compared to the classical conditioning that tells what should be done. A person should not purely depend on a particular conditioning by itself.
A well-rounded person should balance both conditioning as there is no particular area of knowledge purely based on just an aspect of learning. Before a particular theory or practice is published and disseminated, it has been experimented and used in real life. Therefore ideas being taught via classical conditioning has been tested using operant conditioning and vice versa. Knowledge is not purely acquiring what is written but also experiencing what is needed to be proven and learned.
Practice what is being preached. It is a line that had long been said and done. However it still proves to be true. The 2 types of conditioning are intertwined. Learning is both passive and active and not just one alone. A person cannot truly say that he has learned a particular lesson just by purely reading it. The question is that whether the material that was read is fully understood by the person who read it. The only way to know whether an idea is truthfully learned is by putting it to test. When a written material is successfully applied, that is when learning truly occurred.
Operant conditioning makes learning an active thing which is in contrast to classical conditioning. Different people react differently towards a particular conditioning. With that being stated, one method might be applicable to a particular person though it may not show the same effect towards another. The type of conditioning that is needed to be applied still varies and depends on how people will react to a certain method to be used.
References
Bernstein, D. A. (2011). Essentials of Psychology. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Dash, K. N. (2004). Invitation to Social and Cultural Anthropology. New Delhi, India: Atlantic Publishers &amp. Distributors.
Gracia, J. J. (2005). Surviving Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality: A Challenge for the Twenty-First Century. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman &amp. Littlefield Publishers, Inc.
Kopstein, A. (1995). Drug Use Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Drug Abuse.
Pettinelli, M. (2011). The Psychology of Emotions, Feelings and Thoughts. Retrieved from .
Rogers, P. P., Jalal, K. F. &amp. Boyd, J.A. (2008). An Introduction to Sustainable Development. London, UK: Earthscan.
Rookes, P. &amp. Willson, J. (2000). Perception: Theory, Development, and Organization. London, UK: Routledge.
Samovar, L. A., Porter, R. A. &amp. McDaniel, E. R. (2009). Communication Between Cultures. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Spencer, S. (2006). Race and Ethnicity: Culture, Identity and Representation. Oxon, OX: Routledge.

Explaining Employees Behaviours Using Psychological Motivation Theories

The results of this paper reveal that there is a relationship between motivation theories and organizational behaviour. These theories can help human resource managers explain and predict human activities within their working environment. The approaches to be used to study organizational behaviour are content and process theories.
In any firm, having a motivated workforce guarantees success. Motivated workers work harder, are less absent from their duties, produce better output and are very productive. Human Resource Departments often use motivation to study organizational behaviour. Motivation is key in explaining and predicting activities within a working environment. Therefore, by conducting a detailed analysis of motivation, it is the same as analyzing the way employees conduct their activities in a working environment (Dye, 2005).
When studying organizational behaviour using motivation, there are two theories involved: content theories and process theories. Content theories cover things that make people motivated. The theory identifies the needs required by employees in order to be motivated. Process theories focus less on the needs required by employees, and more on thought-processes that impact employees’ behaviour (Leonard, 1999). This paper will conduct a detailed analysis of these two theories when evaluating the usefulness of psychological motivation theories in explaining behaviour in organizations. The paper has briefly explained the context of the study. After this brief background of the study, the next chapter is the literature review that will provide appropriate examples of how useful psychological motivation theories are when describing behaviour in organizations. The last chapter will be the conclusion, and it will summarise the results of this paper.
A study by Heng (2003) defined motivation as ‘the study why people think and behave as they do (2003, p. 45).’ Psychology motivation is concerned with examining what employees are doing (choice of behaviour), estimating time taken by an employee to initiate an activity (latency of behaviour), measuring the efforts taken by an employee to complete a task (intensity of behaviour), estimating the time an employee wishes to stay in a particular organisation (persistence of behaviour), and finding out what an individual thinks and feels when doing a task (emotional reactions of behaviour).&nbsp.

Effective Movements Hidden Results

The former movement, Garveyism, was championed by one man, and the latter movement, The Great Migration, sprung up out of the wellspring of despair that Blacks trapped in the south underwent. These two movements are of special interest because certainly, Garveyism has always come under fire as an unsuccessful cause with a leader that was tainted by true as well as untrue accusations and the victory of the Great Migration is also considered specious and unresolved by many. In reality, these two movements had a profound and lasting effect on Black Americans both as individuals and as an entire culture.

The effect of any social movement is ultimately two parts. the result and lasting impact it has on the culture as a whole and the identity changing effect it has on the individual. These components arise mutually from the overall ambition of the movement and are interdependent on one another. They compromise the real achievements of any social movement. Success can often be a relative point. Something that seems a failure may ultimately prove to be a success over time, and often to the surprise of the progenitors. For instance, if we look at Marcus Garvey and his dream, surely one could say that his movement was not successful in that it did not produce a separate Black Nation in Liberia, as was its original intention. Furthermore, the impetus of the Great Migration was to find better living conditions, freedom, and equality, and that is still being sought for many today. However, both these movements’ effects on the minds and hearts of Black Americans can still be felt in the present and they have become an important part of both the culture and the deeper psychology of Black Americans.

This effect begins as a mindset that defines who an individual is internally and how they behave externally. In a social movement, this effect is in how the group reacts to each other and to those outside itself.&nbsp.

Developmental Psychology

Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology Froh, J. (2008). Counting blessings in early adolescents: An experimental study of gratitude and subjective well-being. Journal of School Psychology, 213-233.
Introduction
The manifestation of gratitude in youth is often unclear. Different youth have different levels of showing gratitude. Psychologists have argued that development of gratitude within youth is often seen as a sign of appreciation, being content as well as optimistic. Gratitude is conceptualized as a virtue or at times as an emotional state. The development of gratitude within youth shows development of character and consequently there is a need to study it to better understand its different forms and levels. This research paper examines the development of gratitude within adolescents.
Methods
Participants
221 early adolescents were used in this experiment, eleven classes were assigned in a random manner and each of them were assigned to either gratitude, control condition or hassles. This was imperative as it ensured that there was complete reliability of the experiment because of the simple random sampling. They were 48.9% males, 40.7% females and 9.5% refusing to report their sex. The majority of the people were Caucasian being 68.9%.
Procedure
The adolescents were asked questions regarding whether they were grateful depending on several situations. Questionnaires and interviews were used.
Results
The results indicated that counting blessings was largely associated with enhanced self reported gratitude, life satisfaction, optimism as well as decreased negative effect. In fact feeling grateful in response to the aid mediated a relationship that existed between the experimental condition as well as general gratitude in the 3-week follow up.
Discussion
In conclusion, the most significant finding from the experiment was the robust relationship that existed between gratitude as well as satisfaction with school experience at both post test as well as the three week follow- up. The counting of blessing seemed to be what can be described as an effective intervention for well being, especially when it came to early adolescents.

References

Hello I need a regarding obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD) it is for a psychology class that only discuses infancy through late adolescence

In adolescents OCD is associated with alcohol abuse and addiction.
Psychosocially OCD is linked with peer isolation, impairment manifested during school, ideas of suicide, and substance abuse. Children with OCD pose a challenge for clinicians. they are usually unable to comply with behavioral management strategies. Obsessions can be persistent, they can manifest as thoughts, impulses or images that the child experiences. These repetitive behaviors can also be mental acts that the child feels strongly compelled to perform such as counting or repeating words silently, common behaviors may be hand washing, checking the order or placement of certain things continuously, or placing items in order as a rule rather than a spontaneous action (Nicoletto-Syrett, 2002, p 36). Fulfilling or acting out these compulsions in the mind of the child serve to prevent distress or a traumatic event. They apply rules rigidly to their behaviors.
Symptoms can be mild to incapacitating and though it is common in childhood it is not as common as asthma, though occurs more frequently then juvenile diabetes. These children are concerned with cleanliness, aggression or checking and collecting are not able to trust their judgment (Nicoletto-Syrett, 2002, p 37). More extreme compulsions are acts of self-mutilation, an uncontrollable need to touch, spit or swallow and rub objects in a certain way.
Most common are a fear of contamination, fixation on lucky or unlucky numbers, a need for exactness and symmetry and a constant doubt that is excessive. Patients with OCD may find it difficult to focus or concentrate in normal environments such as school and society. Treatment is important in order that these individuals are provided with interventions as early as possible disrupting their normal developmental stages as little as possible, ensuring they reach milestones appropriately and that their OCD, though

Academic writing and discourse functions

A potential argument maker takes into account all possible causes and factors of objection the critiques may come up with, and replies them in the same document. This adds a lot to the writer’s strength of argument.
Language used in building up an argument is significantly different from that employed in essays and research papers. Arguments are particularly, narratives of the writer. So the writer frequently makes use of “I” and “we”, use of which is discouraged in general essays and other forms of literature. Because of the freedom of using first form, argumentative essays provide the reader with a very sound understanding of the language. Needs of effective communication can be readily met in an argumentative paper (Alo, 2010, p. 55). Particularly, the second speakers of a particular language benefit a lot from the argumentative essays in that they get a chance to learn through reading the language just the way it is commonly spoken in the every day life by the first speakers. For example, argumentation frequently involves use of phrases like “I grant that…., still I maintain that…” and “not even…, what to talk of…”. Such phrases not only convey the reader correct usage of phrases, but also deliver a sense of the language they form part of. Such phrases are a product of the psychology, beliefs and ideology of the native speakers of a language. That is the reason why, language is often considered as one of the best means of comprehending a nation’s culture.
Academic language usually sounds very formal and organized as compared to the language we use in our daily life to communicate with one another. It lacks freedom of expression. Sentiments and proverbs are usually restrained by the level of formality expected from the writing. Although there is no point denying the fact that even argumentative language in academic writing is much formal than the

Psychoanalytic Family Therapy

1250 Three known forms of managed care that patients or clients have exclusive discretion to choose are Preferred Provider Organizations (PPOs), Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) and Primary Care Physician. In all the three forms, clients chose from a list of doctors desired to manage their health. The chosen doctors then stand the right to make any decision such as to refer a patient to another specialist. Since the given doctor is to deal with the patient directly, they need to understand personal constructs and understanding of the patient. This becomes easier when applying Psychoanalytic Family Therapy (Nichols, 2013). With Psychoanalytic Family Therapy, individual therapists are able to analyze self-psychology of patients to understand the cause and nature of an underlying problem. Despite the complexity of the theory, charges for services offered by Psychoanalytic therapists vary with variation in the conduct of the individual therapist. This exonerates simple reasoning that complexity of Psychoanalytic Family Therapy makes it expensive than other approaches.

Human Behavior Academy and Its MicroEnvironment

266500 Marketing plan is an effective set of practices of an organization in terms of generating value to the customers along with ensuring proper communication and delivery of the products and/or services to manage a feasible relationship with the clients in ways that offer profit assistance for both the organization and its stakeholders (McLeish 10-18) Human Behavior Academy (HBA) Ltd is a voluntary organization that seeks to provide education with regard to developing the human value, knowledge and attitudes. The organization intends to deal with attitude and behaviour that intersects with the business, psychology, communication, social work along with other crucial aspects of all businesses and industries in the present scenario. Moreover, HBA aims to develop professionalism creating values and morals of the working individuals. With respect to the organizational structure of HBA, the organization deals with book publication, chartered programs along with providing chartered, attitude and behaviour consulting facilities for the professionals in order to build a healthy community at the individual level within the fiercely competitive business world. With due consideration to the organization’s mission and vision statements, HBA can be identified to follow a holistic approach to identify the measures of attitude and behaviour in order to shape the prime objectives of the organization. The organization in this regard possesses a belief that in the current phenomenon, it is becoming increasingly crucial to analyze the behaviour and the attitudes deciphered by other community members in order to secure their survival. Based on this philosophy, the organizations’ mission statement has been significantly focused on the importance of awareness of human attitude and behaviour which can be considered as the major influential aspects of mental health.&nbsp.Furthermore, the organizational mission has been envisioned with the concept of maintaining a balanced and healthy community by means of educating people regarding their and their peers’ psychological conditions understanding their attitudinal and behavioural traits.&nbsp. &nbsp.

Aspects and Features of Gestalt Therapy

The focus of Gestalt therapy is more on the process (what is happening) rather than content (what is being discussed). Instead of stressing on what was, might be, could be, or should be, the emphasis is more on what is being done, thought and felt at the moment (Yontef, 1993.)

The theory of gestalt therapy has 3 major sources. The first is psychoanalysis. the second is humanistic, holistic, phenomenological and existential writings, and thirdly, Gestalt psychology (Nevis, 1996). Psychoanalysis contributed to some of its major principles concerned with the inner life. Humanistic, holistic, phenomenological and existential writings center on personal experience and everyday life. Gestalt psychology is concerned with the nature and structure of perceptual experience (Nevis, 1996)

Phenomenology can be considered as a discipline that assists people in thinking in a manner that they can differentiate between what is actually being perceived and felt in the current situation and what is residue from the past (Yontef, 1993). In order to achieve insight, Gestalt therapy uses focused awareness and experimentation. The phenomenologist studies both personal awareness and the awareness process, and the patient learns how to become aware of awareness (Yontef, 1993.)

According to the field concept, “all organisms exist in environmental contexts with reciprocal influences on each other”(Kirchner, 2000). No single organism is broken down into separate components but understood in its organized, interactive, interconnected, and interdependent totality (Kirchner, 2000). The organism is co-created and not powered only from within or impacted only from the outside (Kirchner, 2000.)

Rather than being speculative, interpretive, or classificatory, field approaches are descriptive, with an emphasis on observing, describing, and explicating the exact structure of that being studied (Yontef, 1993.)

An important part of Gestalt therapy is&nbsp.existential dialogue, which is a manifestation of the existential perspective on the relationship.

The Most Important Characteristic for Lifelong Success

HERE YOUR HERE HERE HERE The Most Important Characteristic for Lifelong Success Self-discipline is the most important characteristic necessary for a person to sustain in order to have a high quality life and achieve their goals. There are significant volumes of social workers and psychological counselors in the country that have specialized training in cognitive or humanistic therapy to assist people in changing their distorted belief systems. What this suggests is that there are larger volumes of individuals that do not maintain the cognitive ability to recognize obvious trends or scenarios that a self-disciplined person would notice immediately. This borders on the concept of emotional intelligence in which an individual fully understands their own ambitions and motivations and sustains the discipline to act on them accordingly. A person with self-discipline is able to shed negative emotional thinking and apply themselves in social situations appropriately, not letting themselves become consumed with distorted methods of perception and thinking.
When it comes to goal-attainment, no matter what the goals, only a self-disciplined person can achieve them. There is a concept in psychology known as the Locus of Control which basically states that there are two kinds of persons in the world: Those who believe in their own mastery of fate and others who make excuses in life with the belief that external forces impact their ability to be successful. A person with self-discipline recognizes that they have considerable biological and mental abilities and tries their best to exploit them to achieve success without worrying about others’ behaviors or attitudes. In life, there are always going to be difficult people that are in the environment, whether social or workplace-related, and only a self-disciplined person can maintain their composure and healthy emotional response to achieve success despite these difficult personalities.
If the personal goal of success pertains to money, a self-disciplined person will go through the analysis process to determine how best to achieve monetary rewards to the measure they desire. Conducting ongoing research into career fields or having the practicality to attend higher level university training requires a self-disciplined person who can manage their time appropriately or juggle multiple responsibilities to achieve monetary wealth. If the goal involves having a successful marriage, only a self-disciplined person can avoid the complications of having instant and irrational emotional responses in order to uphold their relationship status, even when a partner tends to act irrationally in certain situations.
Self-discipline is the only legitimate characteristic for success and it all comes down to having good sense and a resourceful attitude that believes in their ingenuity and innovation in order to be productive. The need for countless psychologists, counselors and social workers reinforces that there are many in society that are not well-adjusted and cannot manage their thinking process. This is likely the catalyst for many social problems that occur daily in the country.
A self-disciplined person does not allow themselves to warp or falsify information from the external world in order to protect his or her delicate emotional state. Only a self-disciplined person can examine a situation or event, recognize the realities of it, and then figure out a structured methodology to overcome it without succumbing to negative emotional hostility. Success can only be achieved with these positive traits of self-control and it creates a more likeable person for everyone in society that can lead to better opportunities.

1 What is occupational health psychology and what can it offer organizations and employees

The emerging business environment calls for new approach to employee welfare and wellbeing. The field has gained significance over the years to include research works and introduce new concepts for emotional and physical wellbeing of workers at workplace. The subsequent paragraphs explore the concept of OHP and its contribution to organizations and employees.
Occupational health psychology (OHP) defines the health risks and hazards to which employees are exposed at workplace. OHP “concerns the application of psychology to improving the quality of work life, and to protecting and promoting the safety, health, and well-being of workers” (CDC, 2012). The concept of health protection relates to the intervention of occupational health psychologists in regulating the exposure of workers to risks and hazards at workplace. The basic function of the health psychologists involves the creation of safe and amiable workplace through adequate knowledge of how work conditions can impact employee health, wellbeing, and morale. The existing work conditions and workplace environment has the potential of causing psychological, social or physical harm to employees. Leka and Houdmont (2010) in their works on OHP reflect that psychological risks at workplace can stem from feelings of job insecurity, ageing workforce, long work hours, stressful work conditions and poor work-life balance. These have the potential to impact the psychological wellbeing of the employees over a period of time. Recent studies in this context have also revealed that psychological risks at workplace are on the rise (Leka and Houdmont, 2010. Bevan, 2010). These studies indicate that workplace stress and chronic health issues can prove to be serious barriers to improved performance and productivity.
Another research study by Bhardwaj and Srivastava (2008), observes that mental health involves “subjective

Doing Psychological Research

The correlation would reveal if people who lived together before marriage got divorced, if they did not live together before marriage and got divorced, or if no relationship exists between the two separate variables. Correlations do not suggest that one variable causes or influences the other variable, but that there are characteristics in common between the two individual variables.
The experimental procedure of psychological investigation requires the researcher to influence one variable to dictate if variations in one variable causes changes to occur in another variable. experiments are undergone to “determine if there is a causal relationship between two or more variables (Hayes, 2007).” Part of the experimental procedure is to tweak certain variables to aim at a certain result, or else to see if that certain result is even capable of being reached. One of the greatest benefits of experimentation in psychology is that experimenters are able to have a reasonable amount of control over the variables. An example of when a researcher would rely on experimentation would be if they wanted to determine how a certain group of people or individuals naturally act in any given environment. The researcher could tweak the variables of the experiment by changing the environment that their subjects would find themselves in. The researchers would not be able to personally alter or even predict the behavior of their subjects, but by adding distractions or other variables to the environment, they can reach a specific conclusion of their investigation.

Educational applications of Bandura Piaget Gissell Erikson and Vygotsky at early childhood sites (Preschool to2nd grade)

The mind of children especially those in the stage where they are introduced to learning concepts are very navigating are exploring thus they are supposed to be given an opportunity to explore their curiosity and in the end they will develop both mentally and cognitively (Follari, 2007). The psychology of children is not inferior to that of adults it is only that children have limited line of thinking within which they level of understanding is limited (Pound, 2011). Theories about the manner in which children learn and acquire knowledge at their tender age however they at some point tend to conflict with each other since they were advanced by different people who conducted their research at different historical times and under varied circumstances (Robinson &amp. Jones-Diaz, 2006). However, they whole tend try to explain the fundamental issues concerned with child psychology that influences the manner in which children acquire knowledge and understanding of things (Morgan, 2011).
Bandura took a behaviorist approach in advancing his thoughts on how children in preschool as he believed the manner in which children developed mentally and cognitively was generally based on their behaviors. Bandura indicates that learning for children is a gradual process which continues perpetually throughout one’s life (Pound, 2011). Even after maturity the learning process goes on as a mature person continues gathering new knowledge and skills from his/her surrounding or from formal education in schools. Development in children is regarded as a conditional behavior which is special in nature as in the manner in which a particular child behaves determines how he/she develops mentally and cognitively (Mooney, 2013). The behaviors that children develop according to Bandura are not inherited from their kins they are due to the child’s interaction with his/her immediate environment that makes a child behave in

My role in this project

MY ROLE IN THE PROJECT The individual differences has been always a rich area for researchers’ investigations. The of “Individual Differences” has been one of the most preferred topics of researchers in the field of educational psychology. The concept of Individual difference psychology deals with the study of ascertaining and analyzing the similarities and differences among human beings in terms of thoughts, beliefs and actions. studies how human beings are similar and how they vary in their thinking, believe and action. In the field of second language acquisition filed, the individual differences are meant be the study are studied in terms of how learners acquire the language the language acquisition skills of the learners and how they the manner and ways in which they differ in terms of their optimisty optimism and attitudes towards learning a particular language.
Teachers in different various fields, therefore, are required to possess a high degree of should awareness regarding such widespread individual differences which exists among the learners of learners’ individual differences in order to have a clear understanding of how to deal with different students with variable age and abilities in monolingual and multilingual classrooms.
Learning style theme has been always an issue of second language acquisition. In our second project s, we dealt with learning style among of some a group of Arabic students. 20 of our participants were Saudi males and 6 Saudi females. My role in this project was divided into three parts. First, I was assigned to summarize an article by Angus Duff The titled of this article is (The Revised Approaches to Studying Inventory (RASI) and its Use in Management Education, 2004).
As for the second part, Rasha and I were assigned to find participants and gather information from them. Since we did the survey online on (SurveyMonkey) Website, I sent the link of the survey to 20 of our participants. I know those participants and their educational background as well as to their current educational positions. The third part was analyzing the data. I tried my best to understand how the SPSS work. Adel and I persistently strived tried many time to analyze the data using the SPSS. Although, I encountered several obstacles during the process in achieving a perfect understanding of the mode of operation of the program, I At some point I stuck and could not perfectly understand how the program works but I got managed to get a general idea about it.
This project helped me to get acquire some valuable knowledge regarding understanding of how the manner in which data are analyzed by either using the Excel program or the SPSS. While analyzing the data, I understood that the computer does not read words but numbers only. Therefore, we had to redo the analysis using numbers only, since we used words at first.
After we finished this project, I went over the survey and the gathered date as well as the collected data and found identified some certain limitations elements critical to the success of the project, which hindered the project aims that we and could have been avoided prevented if you spent much time on by allocating adequate time to the project. One of the such limitations observed during the study is was that we did not include some certain questions about the participant’s educational background of the participants were missing. Another limitation is was the structure of the questions. Some of the participants found it a little bit difficult to understand the questions since they included involved use of some phrases and other complex clauses. Solving such problem, we could have written these questions in a simple structure to make it easier for the participants to understand. This problem could have been solved, if the questions were structured in a lucid manner which is easy to comprehend and respond.
Finally, In conclusion, conducting such project about the learning style of students helped me to learn acquiring efficient knowledge about various issues encountered by learners of English as a second language many things about learning style. Apart from gaining crucial information about the learning styles of students, this project also helped me in understanding the individual differences that exist among students, as well as the disparities in learning abilities with respect to different classroom situations. Not only I got a clear view of learning styles but also I have understood some individual differences which will enable me to deal with different students with different learning abilities in different classroom situations.

Evidence and support for your claim

When talking about violence in media, advocates against violence state that they are pushing for more censorship in behalf of the youth. A study has shown that children who were non-violent showed a high level of brain activity similar to that of children with aggressive behavior. (Mathis, 2005) More research has to be conducted to ensure that the brain activity was a direct result of exposure to violent television shows. Nevertheless, theories on behavioral psychology explain that an individual’s behavior can be influenced by a number of things, one of which is through observance of the actions in his or her surroundings. As a child, the individual tends to mimic what he or she sees from the adults around him. (Observation, 2005)
Children usually imitate behavior and language from the people around them. This is how they start learning to communicate. As such, adults are often mindful of how they act and what they say whenever around very young children. This is also why parents have their kids watch educational children’s shows. They are in the frame of mind that their children will pick up the words and lessons from the said shows.
This way of thinking can also be applied when it comes to violent shows. By having children watch shows with gun-wielding teenagers, people fighting and individuals shouting foul words, media is sending a message that it is normal to act as violently. Media is reinforcing the notion that fighting is acceptable in society. It provides the young viewers role models who exhibit aggressive behavior.
Producers of the show maintain that they cannot do away with action scenes and aggressive behavior as these will affect the quality of their shows. They may say that it is the responsibility of the parents to supervise what their children are watching. Also, they may say that their shows are classified for adult viewers who know the difference

Introduction to Criminal Justice

Specific deterrence is an objective punishment aimed at discouraging repeated offenders. The main difference between general and specific deterrence is that general deterrence focuses on society while specific deterrence focuses on individuals. In particular, specific deterrence deals with actual offenders while general deterrence discourages would-be offenders from committing a crime. Thus, specific deterrence can be viewed as actual punishment while general deterrence remains a threat from punishment (Siegel, &amp. Worrall, 2011). The impact of punishment on individual offenders diminishes as an offender becomes used to the punishment. Research studies show that punishment has a diminishing specific deterrent effect.

In particular, the incapacitation of criminals through imprisonment does not eliminate criminals from society. Unlike individual offenders, public offenders rely on collective action. Mob psychology theories suggest that, although crowds have extended the ability to commit the crime, individuals within the crowd are concerned about their own welfare. Thus, punishment is more effective in general deterrence than in specific deterrence. Finally, specific deterrence cannot be applied on passion crimes or crimes committed under the influence of drugs and alcohol. This is because individuals who commit such crimes anticipate more than just the supposed economic or social gain.
&nbsp.

Individual Differences and Abnormal Psychology

In general, the most broadly used classification system used by the psychologist in general and abnormal psychologists, in particular, is the medical model as created by the DSMV IV (Carr, 2001). This system has the advantage of being easily understood across a wide spectrum of disciplines both medical, neuropsychological and psychological. This system also allows the therapist to have some guidelines for the prediction of stages, treatment and care planning about the diagnosis has been categorized.

In this model, it is assumed that the various abnormal behaviors that people with a particular syndrome display are symptoms of a specific disease with a discrete cause, a unique course, and prognosis, and for which specific physical treatment will ultimately be identified. (Carr, 2001, p. 178)

The DSMV IV has a distinct advantage over the previous medical models in that it uses a Multiaxial system regarding the diagnosis of mental disorders. This at least allows a wider range of criteria to be assessed and a broader spectrum of treatment and diagnosis becomes available. The fives axis are Clinical Syndrome, which contains major classification such as schizophrenia, etc.. Personality disorders such as antisocial, attachment, etc.. Physical disorder. Psychosocial stressor such as environmental, familial concerns. and a Global Assessment of the overall level of function of the patient (Carr, 2001).

While the medical model has prevailed there have been attempts to use other systems to assist in the categorization of features in abnormal psychology. Unfortunately only one has been useful in helping to develop the Multiaxial Model now in place in the DSMV IV and this is the Dimensional model. This model would take into account certain nuances that the strict categorization model may miss and is more dependent on the individual and personal histories of the patient rather than a set of exact criteria.

Forensic Psychology Case Study Competency to Stand Trial

Competency to Stand Trial Affiliation Competency to Stand Trial This article describes a case study analyzed by of forensic psychology. It involves a man, Mr. Alkey’s, charged for felony. that is maliciously beating up and harming a woman, whose name goes by Miss Fee Male. The issue in this case is to determine whether Mr. Alkey is competent to stand trial. Several factors are to be considered when carrying out this task. They include analysis of background information of Mr. Alkey that is related to his mind health status. Another issue to be considered will be examination of his mental status. diagnosis and explanation of the results, the saneness of his mind the ability to store information in his memory and capability to remember it. Finally yet importantly, the issue to be described will be whether he understands the legal situation that he has been faced with.
According to his previous history. he dropped out of school at the sixth or seventh grade due a head injury. Since then, he had been in and out of the State Hospital where he had been committed due to displaying suicidal gestures and thoughts. This lead to suspicion of having a disorder in his brain, hence tests were done to diagnose any disorder. The results of the results showed several disorders. namely schizoaffective disorder, an episodic alcohol abuse, mixed organic brain syndrome, mild mental retardation and an antisocial personality disorder. These diagnoses were collaborated by several symptoms or signs which included brain damage which came about because of a head injury which he suffered earlier during childhood. Mood swings, subnormal intelligence, thought disorder, antisocial traits, and alcohol abuse are other signs that supported the diagnosis results. After this diagnosis, he was put on medication and followed by the County Medical Services hence he has not needed any further hospitalization. Even though they have not remained in contact with him since he went to jail, the jail nurse has been seeing him regularly and monitoring his medication. This proves that nothing has changed since he was incarcerated.
His mental status examination went well and revealed some issues that were of concern to this case. Some of the signs it showed included depression, poor memory for recent events as he could mention one out of three unrelated objects after five minutes after review. However, his immediate recall was good as he could repeat a five digit series. Other suspicious signs were moments of anxiety and sleepless nights. He explained how his nerves got bad at times. he could not stand noise and could suffer severe headaches. During such times he would ‘fly off’ and do things that he would later regret. He also gets depressed to a point that he could commit suicide which can be supported by the fact that he has had two previous known suicide attempts. He has a poor reasoning as well as his judgment. His understanding of the legal situation is good as he describes various characteristics of the court well and confidently according to his state of mind. This includes defining the roles of the different attorneys and the vocabularies used in court.
The Criminal Justice Mental Health Standards state that a defendant’s current mental competence is the most essential issue in the criminal mental health field during judicial processes (Winick &amp. Bruce, 1995). I would not find him competent to stand trial. This is based on the mental history of Mr. Alkey that shows some mentality disorders. Although he is under medication, which partially eliminates their effects, he still has current mental incompetence. An example is the loss of memory of recent events, lack of proper reasoning, and the poor judgment.
The determinant to stand trial at a court of law is establishing whether the defendant is able to understand the charges against him or her and to communicate effectively to the jury (Roesch, Zaph, Golding, &amp. Skeem, 1999). The implication of this law according to the case at hand is that Mr. Alkey is not competent as his current mental status hinders effective communication. This is because he lacks proper reasoning and judgment.
References
Roesch, R., Zaph, P. A., Golding, S. L., &amp. Skeem, J. L. (1999). Defining and Assessing Competency to Stand Trial. In Handbook of Forensic Psychology (p. 327). Wiley Publishers.
Winick, &amp. Bruce, J. (1995). The side effects of incompetency labeling and the implications for mental health law. Psychology, Public Policy &amp. Law , 6-42.

Strategies for assessing skills and competencies

Outline for firm’s HR strategy vis-à-vis B2B launch As a Manager of sales department of software firm and in charge of staffing decision for new launch of B2B program, I think that with 20 members of strong sales team, the need for new sales executive is not immediately required. The current HR strategy, therefore, would focus on training and development of skills and competencies for B2B project from amongst the best five sales executives who have shown consistently good field results in the last 12 months.
B2B market and sales strategy targets other business houses and companies for bulk sales of its product and services. The main difference between the retail sales and B2B sales is in terms of the volume. B2B deals in large volumes of sales order and therefore, becomes important ingredient of sales strategy. Hence, while the basic competency and skills of the present sales staff is adequate, the new group from within the sales team would need to undergo 4 months training and development program. They would also be required to explore B2B market for 1 month to evaluate their requirements and how the company can meet them.
The in-house training by the external consultants and senior management staff would on the following modules would greatly enhance existing skills and provide them with wide scope of expanding their knowledge area:
Gaining more knowledge about B2B market and major strategies to make in-road into new area.
B2B market is focused on bulk orders therefore sales executives must be skilled in knowing what the investment parameters are going to be so that the objections arising due to money, time and resources are already made clear before making their sales presentations. The training module would prepare the sales team to evaluate these parameters for its different business partners.
Developing competencies in leadership initiatives, relationship building, setting up priorities and learning to deal with ambiguous and adverse situations.
Learning effective communication skills and techniques for closing sales through understanding and analysis of human psychology.
Confidence building through commitment to work and focused approach.
Creating need for products and services amongst the business partners and convincing them on why one’s products are best suited to their needs and requirement.
Reflection/ my thoughts
The encouraging and incentive driven work environment promotes retention of employees and gives the organization better leverage to compete with their rivals. The experienced and motivated workforce is conducive to higher degree of creative inputs and innovative approach. Commitment to work and loyalty towards employers is considerably increased when the employees are given opportunity to improve and improvise their professional skills and competencies through in-house training and development. Zapata-Cantu et al. have also asserted that professional growth and self improvement, through human resource development practices, greatly enhance organization’s advantage (Zapata-Cantu et al., 2007).
In the highly competitive environment of recessive economy, upgrading the skills of the existing sales executives would be the best option. Indeed, HR’s initiatives become critical to creating congenial work atmosphere that motivates and inspires others to improve their performance and achieve organization’s goals with vision and innovation. The sales executives are already well versed in the strength and weaknesses of the firm’s goods and services and therefore, would be able to better handle the queries from the B2B business partners. Hence, I think that my strategy of using existing sales staff for B2B marketing is right.
Reference
Zapata-Cantu, Laura, Olivas-Lujan, R Miguel, Ramirez Jacobo. (2007). e-HRM in Mexico: adapting innovations for global competitiveness. International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 28, No. 5. (2007), pp. 418-434.

HRM3150703B06 Managing Human Resources Phase 3 Discussion Board

Running Head: Effective Motivation Techniques Effective Motivation Techniques: Increasing Employee Productivity By You Your School Here Here Effective Motivation Techniques
INTRODUCTION
In todays fast-paced business world, employees are continuously exposed to various pressures, including meeting deadlines, satisfying the client or customer, and managing positive relationships with co-workers and managers. Under regular business strains, employees are often overwhelmed, leading to diminished motivation to perform to company guidelines and expectations. This report will highlight several effective motivation techniques and positive communication practices to help boost employee morale and their motivation to succeed.
EMPLOYEE PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS
Abraham Maslow, a renowned psychological theorist from the 20th Century, describes his Hierarchy of Needs, involving five psychological factors which drive employee motivation. Under this theory, once basic physiological needs are met (such as food, water, or simply the existence of a paying career), the employee then requires safety in order to maximize their potential. After meeting needs for safety, belonging is the next tier on the hierarchy, followed by esteem needs, finally reaching self-actualization as the pinnacle of their total capabilities (Morris &amp. Maisto, 2005). Basically, Maslow suggests that motivating employees can be as simple as supplying a secure, well-paying job and giving employees positive feedback regularly when they exceed or meet corporate expectations. This satisfies their psychological needs for security and esteem, allowing them to explore establishing quality peer relationships to reach their fullest potential, thus boosting total productivity.
Research has uncovered that equity builds internal motivation within employees, involving perceived fairness regarding their receipt of business rewards equal to their total contribution to the firm (Mathis &amp. Jackson, 2005). If employees feel they are working quite hard for the company, perhaps exceeding expectations, but are not receiving an equitable bonus or compensation reward, they will likely have lowered morale and be non-productive, even angry employees. With this in mind, it is extremely important to the business that managers maintain close monitoring and association with employees who are routinely productive so as to offer fair reward to the employees who deserve it.
Many managers, also, tend to forget the importance of non-verbal communication when they are dealing with employees. This is the sending and interpretation of messages with emotional content including facial expressions, eye contact, and tone of voice (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin &amp. Cardy, 2005: 638). Managerial posture often indicates whether the manager is actual interested in what is being discussed with the employee, and if the employee perceives any deception or irritation over the discussion, employees will feel resentful and perhaps establish a non-cooperative attitude in relation to satisfying managerial expectations.
CONCLUSION
Though non-verbal communication is not the only effective communication technique, it is important to maintain quality eye contact and use gesturing in a positive manner if the employee is to respond to productivity requirements. Motivating employees is not always easy, as the manager must build a connection with the associate by using techniques which build on their own inherent desire to genuinely want to perform to corporate guidelines. Sometimes, this means understanding employees from the psychological level and responding to their needs for esteem and office relationships.
References
Gomez-Mejia, L., Balkin, D. &amp. Cardy, R. (2005). Management: People, Performance,
Change. 2nd ed. McGraw Hill Irwin: 638-640.
Mathis, R. &amp. Jackson, J. (2005). Human Resource Management. 10th ed. Thomson
South-Western, United States: 70-71.
Morris, C. &amp. Maisto, A. (2005). Psychology: An Introduction. 12th ed. Pearson
Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ: 348-349.

Psychology of Marketing

Psychology of Marketing al Affiliation Psychology of Marketing: Response to a Post According to the post, the factors that lead to a particular order of behaviors for a potential customer are determined by their individualized consumer characteristics that result in decision processes and purchase decisions. For a marketer, the main role is to understand the processes that occur between the time the potential consumer receives the stimuli (the enticing note for sale) and the time they decide on whether to make the purchase. The authors Kolter and Keller (2012) argue that four key psychological processes (motivation, perception, learning and memory) are involved in influencing the consumers’ responses.
Herberg’s theory presents a dichotomy for possible resolutions for targeted consumers: satisfaction versus dissatisfaction (Kolter &amp. Keller, 2012. Durmaz &amp. Diyarbakirlioglu, 2011). Consideration of both outcomes is important as neither can apply in the absence of the other. When marketing, it is important to incorporate both sides of the dichotomy in one’s thinking as they almost equally influence the decision made by the consumer.
The marketer must not fail to recognize the needs of the consumer, and, consequently, place their product within their list of needs. To achieve this, they must be able to sufficiently but fast introduce the product, and discuss its value in light of the consumer’s current needs in order to make it appealing to them (Bohm, 2012). As such, the marketer’s main pursuit lies in their ability to motivate a consumer so they can get a favorable perception of the product while deciding on buying.
References
Bohm, J. (2012). Two-factor theory – At the intersection of health care management and patient satisfaction. ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research. 4: 277-285.
Durmaz, Y. &amp. Diyarbakirlioglu, I. (2011). A theoretical approach to motivation in consumer behavior. Global Journal of Human Social Science. 11(10) Version 1.
Kotler, P. &amp. Keller, K. L. (2012). Marketing management (14th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc., publishing at Prentice Hall.

Is Marijuana a Dangerous Drug

3750 To mitigate the effect of our subjectivity on the research we shall need to either develop or adopt pre-established criteria to evaluate the source articles to be used in explaining the molecular activity of marijuana, and its effect on the brain and on human behavior (Granello, 2001). The pre-defined criteria will enable us to focus on the approach to tackle the topic, for instance, shall we utilize sources from a myriad of scientific disciplines (such as internal medicine, pharmacology, psychology, and psychiatry) or shall we restrict ourselves to specific disciplines. Also, the defined criteria should enable us to critically evaluate and make objective comparisons of the different research studies that are available (Granello, 2001). For example, when we are talking about the medicinal uses of marijuana there is the physical as well as the psychological factors at play.&nbsp.Purpose:&nbsp.The non-scholarly article (which we shall refer to as NS in this discussion), is written to raise awareness about the increasingly negative effects of drinking too much beer in combination with other factors within the room where the victim is drinking. The purpose of the scholarly paper is to increase knowledge in the given area of effects of alcohol on perception using the cognitive neuroscience approach.&nbsp.Intended audience:&nbsp.The NS is targeting beer-drinking working-class adults while the scholarly article is targeting academics and scholars such as those in the fields of neuroscience and neuropsychology.&nbsp.Structure:&nbsp.NS is written in an informal, journalistic structure where the focus is on the appealing ‘beer goggle’ hypothesis. The scholarly article is divided into sections such present research, hypothesis, results, a discussion which enable the reader to logically follow the main argument of the paper.

An Adolescents Emotional Functioning Is Determined by Very Early Experiences

82000 The adequacy of child development is, in addition to the reduction of morbidity and the promotion of physical growth, also defined by behavioral criteria denoting achievement of competence or the ability to cope with environmental challenges and stresses (Wachs, 1999). The cognitive and social aspects associated with development are the subject matter of developmental psychology. What constitutes normal and abnormal development is the focus of studies in developmental psychology and developmental neuroscience. The long course of the history of developmental psychology is dotted with several questions including whether development is genetically determined (“Nature”) or occurs under environmental stimulation (“Nurture”), and whether early childhood experiences have a long-lasting impact on development. The Nature versus Nurture debate on the process of human development has been going on for a very long time. Proponents of the “nature” theory contend that human attributes are primarily conditioned by genetics as opposed to “nurture” theorists who argue that environmental influences and experience determine individual development. However, most of the present-day psychologists believe that both aspects play critical and complementary roles, development being the result of interaction between gene and experience (Wachs, 1999). The current opinion is that while the innate tendencies are due to genetics, human behavior can indeed be conditioned by the environment as well. Regarding the contention that early childhood experiences could have a long-lasting impact on development, psychoanalytical theory dwells upon events that occur in early childhood. According to Sigmund Freud, the emerging personality of a child is crucially dependent on the relationship the child shares with its mother. To the child, the mother is “unique, without parallel, laid down unalterably for a whole lifetime, as the first and strongest love object and as the prototype of all later love relations for both sexes" (Freud, 1940).&nbsp.&nbsp.

Motivation and Second Language Learning

The experience of learning a second language can very different for different people. There are a number of issues that people tend to face while learning a second language. Most students face a number of issues that pertain to learning a second language. These include a lack of interest and dedication to the language. Also, other factors like the need for an external push and priorities also play a major role in the learning of the second language. Although these form a major part of the learning process, one of the major elements that allow the individuals to study a second language more effectively is the ‘motivation’. It has been argued over the years. however, it seems to be one of the most effective manners of imparting a strong base for a second language among the students. The next section provides a clear discussion for the view and the various concepts about motivation and the impact it has on second language learning. &nbsp.Motivation and Second Language Learning:
Motivation plays a very important role in the learning of a second language. As explained by Oxford, “If teachers don’t know clearly where is students’ original source of motivation, how can they feed them?” (Docstoc, 2010). Over the years there have been a number of researches that have been conducted and there have been a number of different opinions over time. With the latest researches, the focus has been placed on the personality of people, and the motivation that draws them towards academic institutions. It has been clearly classified that the relationship between motivation and learning a second language is a part of Psychological linguistics. This is an inter-subject of psychology and foreign language teaching.Authors like Crookes and Schmidt (1991), and Gardner and Tremblay (1994), have set down four main motivational orientations which include, a) the main reason for learning, b) the desire and aim to achieve and attain the goal, c) the attitude towards the learning situation and the attitude of the person learning the language, etc.