Multiple Linear Regression Linear Programming Decision Theory

In the Multiple linear regression model, y (the response) is the ISOw (westward-moving intraseasonal modes) and x (the predictor variable) is the ISOe (eastward-moving intraseasonal modes). ISOe is further broken down to into more variables by applying power functions of the predictor variable to create a polynomial. Higher power terms are included in the model in order to seek evidence of any improvements in how they increase the accuracy of how wave modes are displayed. This selection is arbitrary and purely based on the assumption that it may lead to the development of a better model for depicting the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Each of the introduced independent variables is then evaluated for significance (at the 5% level of significance) in order to establish its relevance to the entire model. Each item with a coefficient whose p-value falls below the 0.05 (5%) threshold is considered as being statistically significant. Such variables are retained in the model. The test of significance was repeated several times using the bootstrapping technique.A^sub s, T^ = (X^sup T^^sub t^X^sub t^)^sup -1^X^sup T^^sub t^Y^sub s,t+T^ by solving for a specified lag for the regression coefficients. In this equation, T is the matrix transpose, a the coefficients, and s the grid points (more easily interpreted as the lags). The regression equation involving the nonlinear terms is then tested for suitability against the ordinary linear regression. The model that appears to explain more variance in the response is deemed better.The analyses confirmed that the multiple linear regression model applied was able to reveal processes that help ascertain the relationships between interacting wave modes. The researchers noted that the inclusion of the non-linear terms in the models helped in improving the resolution of wave interaction than when purely linear versions of the models were applied. In investigating the characteristics of the regression coefficients, the authors observed that these coefficients were statistically significant, signifying the importance of each of the predictors in the prediction model.

Ch 3

The operating system can be categorized into three kinds, namely desktop operating system, network operating system and embedded operating system. Interestingly, Disk Operating System (DOS) is considered to be the first operating system which was used in IBM compatible desktop computers in 1980s. The primarily used computers were mainly utilized for teaching programming with the use of language called BASIC. The early computer programs were written in code. However, in later stages, a compiler and an interpreter were used that converted the source code into machine language that could be comprehended by the Central Processing Unit (CPU). In the year 1980, students were able to write programs and store them upon inexpensive tapes. The tapes were similar to those used for recording devices. This type of storage was called as sequential storage device as the data had to be stored and accessed in sequence. Later, such storage was also called as the secondary or permanent storage. At present, there exists various types of operating systems. however, it can be broadly classified into two groups which are open-source operating systems and proprietary operating systems. As the name suggests, proprietary operating systems are primarily possessed by a corporation and such OS are controlled by the individual or the corporation itself. On the contrary, open-source operating systems allow everyone to change the source code and thereby the OS. For instance, LINUX is considered to be an open-source operating system. In 1980s, the American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) was created. Accordingly, ASCII uses 8 bit code that could have 2 to 8 power possible bits. These orderings could represent 256 different characters. The most popular word processors used in mid 80s, prior to the development of WINDOWS was WORDPERFECT. WORDPERFECT was written on DOS based operating system but it was extremely slow to move in WINDOWS system, as a result of this the word processor popularity reduced over a period of time. In fact, WORDPERFECT was made compatible with LINUX version but it could not compete with the open-source word processors. There are many software programs which are built to perform specific tasks while certain software are built for general purposes, i.e. programs that have a few specific capabilities, but these software programs are not meant to perform any specific purpose. For instance, spreadsheets can be utilized for keeping monthly records of an individual’s income as well as it can be used to determine or calculate the marks of students obtained in an examination. 2. A. Netcraft.com Netcraft is an internet service providing company. It is located in Bath, England. The company obtains its revenue from the internet security services that it provides along with research and analysis of various aspects of the internet and by advertisements that it accepts to publish on the Netcraft website (Net Craft Ltd., About Netcraft) According to a survey conducted by Netcraft on web server, there was a decrease of 8M sites since last month i.e. August 2012.

Computer Memory Hacking

Computer Memory HackingHacking has become so common in today’s world that almost every person who uses computer and internet can be a victim of hackers. According to Ciampa (2009), a hacker is a person who uses advanced programming skills and techniques to break into any specific computer system (p. 16). Hackers can gain control of computer memory or RAM to commit theft of information or to steal private information. There are many important files that a person stores in the computer memory. Hackers gain control of the system’s memory to access those files and manipulate them according to their needs. There exist some common tools that hackers normally use to intrude into the memory of computer systems. One of those common tools or techniques is inception. Using this technique, hackers present a serial bus protocol-2 using firewire interface to the machine of the targeted person. The operating system of the targeted computer connects the bus to the firewire port taking it as a SBP-2 device. The targeted device lowers its protection level because of the use of Direct Memory Access by the hacker. This helps the hackers to gain read/write access to the RAM of the targeted computer system. Another common tool used by hackers is Memory Hacking Software. Hackers can use this software to gain access to the memory of the computer systems. There are such software programs available on the internet that hackers can download to intrude into the computer systems. There is a huge significance of hacking in organizations and modern society. Hacking sometimes proves to be very disastrous because it provides access of files to the strangers who can use the information for illegal purposes. Therefore, organizations and individuals need to ensure the highest level of protection to their computer systems. Some of the easiest and most effective security measures include setting difficult passwords, regularly changing the login passwords, downloading a personal firewall, using cryptographic techniques, using authorization technique, setting encryption standards, and installing up to date antivirus software.Three best practices that one should use to protect their computer(s) from being hacked include installation of antivirus applications, use of firewalls, and use of Wifi Protected Access (WPA) as access control system. Let us put some light on all of these three practices.Antivirus ApplicationsAntivirus applications are the most commonly used mechanisms for ensuring computer safety. A virus is nothing but a malicious computer program written to muck up the workings of your computer by corrupting your hard disc and data files (Ryan, 2011, p. 1). Antivirus applications scan the systems for malware and viruses, thus, making them safe and secure.Firewalls Firewalls are able to judge all sorts of unauthorized access and protect the system from unauthorized attempts. Firewall will prevent unauthorized access to your computer from any external source, and the settings can be varied from low security to high (Ryan, 2011, p. 1). Firewalls not only prevent unauthorized attempts of hacking but also generate a log file that includes details of all connections that attempts to access the system.Wifi Protected AccessWPA and WPA2 are effective techniques for stopping unauthorized attempts. WPA continuously keeps on changing the key as the result of which data becomes more secure. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) was also a good technique earlier but it used to generate a single key that hackers and network attackers can easily crack. WPA2 uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for encryption due to which it becomes secure than RC4-based WEP.ReferencesCiampa, M. (2009). Security+ Guide to Network Security Fundamentals (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.Ryan, J. (2011). Best Internet Security. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Best-Internet-Securityid=5899605

Impact of Culture on the International Marketing

The issue is examined primarily under the views stated in the theory and the tests that have been made by researchers in this area. Furthermore, a method of primary research is proposed in order to formulate a more complete view of the problem. The structure, the conduction and the data evaluation regarding the specific research are analyzed in accordance with the current conditions and demands of the commercial market. Some temporary assumptions regarding the particular issue are also been expressed as a supplementary tool to the completion of the task.The definition of culture as an element of international marketing is not much differentiated from its original form. In this context, it has been stated that culture can be defined as the interactive aggregate of common characteristics that influences a groups response to its environment, and furthermore as a collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from those of another (Zhang et al., 1996, 30).The importance of international marketing strategies for the successful performance of a multinational corporation has been recognized by all the researchers (in its natural form or through the public relations format). Moreover, it has been stated (Ihator, 2000, 38) that ‘globalization of business has created the need for international public relations practitioners to identify, study and understand the world views, mindsets, and habits of their global publics in order to effectively communicate. communication styles and meaning, as well as realities, as perceived by individuals are culturally induced’. The above assumptions are in accordance with those of Tan (2002) and Taylor (2002) who supported the importance of culture to the success of an international business strategy (and analogically to a firm’s international marketing strategy).

Research Metohd proposal

As more countries around the world become globalized, offering tourism packages to multitudes of diverse foreign visitors, competition continues to become intense requiring a new focus in order to sustain competitive edge and build growth strategically. However, outside of these generic business principles is a new type of focus as a method of building a more solid brand: corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR involves the activities of senior managers and the entire organisational staff to improve relationships with the domestic community and even international customers and citizens by promoting concepts of trustworthiness, ethical programming and diversity (as several examples). Corporate social responsibility includes multiple dimensions of moral principles that must be promoted so that diverse customers recognise that the hospitality business is accountable for their actions and makes sensible business decisions. The impact of CSR includes higher stakeholder and shareholder support if they are coordinated and implemented according to social needs. CSR has become more of a strategic function in order to bring the hospitality business better publicity and improve the quality of life of customers and general society. Literature review A firm’s corporate image and reputation is an important strategic asset and marketing tool that can lead to a competitive advantage (Gray Balmer, 1998, p.695). This is one of the main elements that drive new focus on CSR, so that the business maintains a quality brand identity among customer groups, shareholder groups, and the general public population. Even though the end result of most CSR efforts lead to sustainable improvements in society, the impact on business can be maintaining an edge over competition that does not necessarily focus on corporate social responsibility as a strategic foundation. Business operations are undeniably linked with trust-building in the local community population where the operation is based (wcdr.gfdr.org, 2007, p.4). This is highly important in hotel organisations as they cater to the local community with their service offerings as well as international clients hailing from diverse cultural backgrounds. Therefore, the literature proposes that there must be a localized effort in CSR in order to build this needed trust for brand reputation purposes and to sustain a competitive edge. There are many avenues of building this trust such as through marketing, sustainability programmes, or even volunteerism in a variety of community-based programmes. According to Kline Dai (2005) businesses that include CSR initiatives in their strategic objectives have been known to witness improved share prices, build better national image and increase employee productivity. Why is this? Human beings are essential to service production. They are sensitive and reflect upon their experiences, responding to inner feelings and individual interpretations (Sandoff, 2005, p.530). In the hotel environment, employees are the initial and ongoing point of contact for diverse customers, sometimes hailing from around the world, and therefore become a resource for information and support throughout the service experience. The hotel relies on their professionalism, loyalty and strong focus toward meeting customer needs in order to sustain a better

Para Professionals’ Role in Special Education

Paraprofessionals’ Role in Special Education Introduction The MN National Resource Center for Paraprofessionals defines a paraprofessional as an employee: Who works under the supervision of a professional staff/a teacher who holds the ultimate duty for education programs as well as related services’ design, implementation and evaluation. It also defines him as an employee who is in an instructional position or who provides other indirect or direct services to both students and their family members (McVay, 2000). A paraprofessional is able to know a student better compared to anyone else. This is especially so if he/she is working with a student one-to-one. They therefore are significant teaching team members (Hultgren, 2004). Other names for a paraprofessional are teacher aides, educational technicians or paraeducators. In most cases, due to concern for the success of their children, parents require that a full-time paraprofessional be present (McVay, 2000). Recently, in numerous school systems, the use of paraprofessionals to help in special education services’ provision has been on the increase. One of the factors behind this increase is the economic factor as paraprofessionals provide are a cost effective service delivery models in meeting students with disabilities’ needs. Therefore, with proper training and supervision, paraprofessionals could offer a cost effective and efficient means of assisting students with disabilities. Actually, Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)-driven accountability factors, shortage of specialized teachers for special education, the special education services’ increased demands, and regular classroom placement/inclusion emphasis have greatly contributed to the mounting role of paraprofessionals. This is particularly apparent in rural areas where cost-effective models for service delivery as well as efficiency of scale’s dynamics as it relates to teacher-student ratios while managing low incidence disabilities are peculiarly demanding (Breton, 2010). Hultgren (2004) notes that particularly with the presence of numerous children who require one-to-one assistance, paraprofessionals’ roles have become quite broad. She further notes that generally, paraprofessionals help with building classroom partnerships informal assessment, classroom organization, implementing objectives, carrying out lesson plans, and behaviour management. They do this by working with whole classes, small groups and individual children. They are quite often requested to gather information on skill acquisition and may be expected to present it at a PPT. Since the job of paraprofessionals is particularly so hard to define, supervisors sometimes expand their role, even while it is inappropriate, particularly if one is competent. At times, even if it is definitely not part of paraprofessionals’ job description, they are made to carry out the role of liaising between regular and special education systems. Regrettably, since they often know the children best, they may come to the realization that the regular education teacher, for example, does not know how to modify the child’s work. In that case, they may feel the necessity of going for advice from the special education teacher. At times, disagreements pertaining the special child’s abilities or needs may arise and paraprofessionals can in that case play the role of an advocate for the child. Only recently, paraprofessionals have taken the role of helping children to take part in included settings. As IDEA points out, they are deemed a supplemental aid (Hultgren, 2004). On being assigned to a teacher or a classroom to help students with disabilities, it is important that paraprofessionals are viewed as an aide for all students – thus, the teacher is allowed and encouraged to take ownership of each student in his/her class. It also offers a chance for additional support and instruction to all students as well as the teacher. Paraprofessionals usually help with such tasks as providing support for personal care as well as other physical needs, gathering materials, assisting interactions between students, adapting lessons under the guidance of the teacher, leading teacher-designed small group instruction, assisting students to complete the teacher’s directions, in addition to carrying out other, often concealed, but very vital tasks for the classroom community. The paraprofessional’s role changes as classrooms’ complexity changes (McVay, 2000). Paraprofessionals also play the vital role of linking schools and communities. The relationship between the community and the school greatly determines the functioning of the school. If a school employs paraprofessionals who are more similar to the families and students in the communities, this crosses the gap between primarily families of color, white students and teachers. Most paraprofessionals live in the geographical boundaries that the school serves, and they live amongst the students. This is often not the case with teachers. Additionally, they act as the key contact persons for families with children with the most striking disabilities. Since paraprofessionals spend considerable amounts of time with students with disabilities, they must communicate with their parents. They therefore provide valuable links with the communities where they work (French, 2004). Another role that paraprofessionals play is that of acting as a communication ‘link’ for a student to others in his/her environments. They may assist him/her communicate with adults as well as his/her peers in different ways. This mostly applies for students who use augmented communication in an education setting. For such students, paraprofessionals are often in charge of programming the terminology used with the augmentative communication device in different settings such as school-related social settings and specific classes. They have the role of ensuring that a student uses this device frequently and efficiently (McVay, 2000). It is important to note that although paraprofessionals play a vital role as part of the educational team, the law restraints them on their responsibilities. For instance, it does not permit them to assume absolute responsibility for students, to write programs without a certified personnel’s supervision, or to make new, alternative training without a certified personnel’s direction. At times when their role paraprofessional is not clear, paraprofessionals may actually act as a hindrance to the learning of students. It is therefore important to examine paraprofessionals’ role severally. Their role changes once a student can excel in the classroom following the development of peer supports. For some students however, a paraprofessional’s role will go on being a requisite. Nevertheless, with the development of accommodations and natural supports in addition to the student learning the new classroom practices in due course, their one-to-one interaction should decrease (McVay, 2000). Conclusion Apparently, paraprofessionals are an increasingly significant part in special education. This is especially so as special education services’ costs keep on increasing. However, as Breton (2010) indicates, contrary to the requirements of IDEA, most paraprofessionals regrettably generally receive minimal supervision and do not have adequate formal training to enable them instruct students with disabilities. It is therefore the role of local education school districts as well as states to ensure that paraprofessionals in special education receive suitable and quality supervision levels to enable them perform their duties (Breton, 2010). References Breton, W. (2010). Special Education Paraprofessionals: Perceptions of Preservice Preparation, Supervision, and Ongoing Developmental Training. International Journal of Special Education 25 (1), 34-45. French, N. K. (2004). Introduction to the Special Series. Remedial and special educ ation. 25(4), 203-204. Hultgren, S. (2004). The Paraprofessional Role. Retrieved from http://www.ct-asrc.org/docs/paraprof.pdf McVay, P. (2000). Paraprofessionals in the Classroom: What Role do they Play? Spring. 8(3), 1-4.

Active learning

The experience relates to the idea of Reg Revan’s Action Learning, which we applied in fulfilling an important academic requirement for the (Course/Subject) class. In this paper, I will expound on the learning I had and the insights I gained, and relate the relevance of Action Learning to my experience. As part of the requirements of the course (Name), we were assigned as a group to report on injection therapy for Achilles tendinopathy. The group presentation we had to prepare should last for 15 minutes, which for me was rather long and would require heavy preparation, especially research. I have worked with other people before but only for short assignments, thus this experience was quite new to me because this time, I had to work with others for a duration, meet up with them, and adjust with different personalities. However, just like any group, ours encountered some difficulties and even failure. This experience taught me a good lesson, which I could clearly relate with the theory of Action Learning. According to Revan (1999), learning can be expressed in the following equation: L= P+Q where L is the learning, P is programming or programmed knowledge, and Q is questioning. Taking from this idea, Marquardt (2004. Marquardt, Leonard, Freedman, Hill 2009), adds reflection (R), thus: L=P+Q+R The enhancement that Macquardt did made the theory more valuable. Reflecting upon my recent experience, I believe that the proponents of Action Learning are correct. Our professor assigned us to work in small groups. When our group first met, I noted that each of us had different ideas, which could be attributed to having different personalities. These were our programmed knowledge. We all wanted to share in our ideas about the topic, thus ending up not knowing our focus. To resolve the problem, we decided to meet again the next day in order to gather resources on ourselves then present our materials to the group. There were many questions we needed to address, and a number of subtopics had to be covered. As Revan proposes, there were multi-level questions (cited in Serrat 2008), but we failed to focus on them because we had different ideas. When we met again for the second time, we felt very disappointed because some members did not attend. It was difficult to finalise everything with such situation. I felt the lack of commitment of some of our groupmates. Pedler (1997) claims that for a learning group to succeed, members should be responsible for their own learning. I could see that many of us were willing to do our best but we had our own priorities. Some were busy with other subject requirements while some were simply reluctant to attend because probably, they did not feel their role in the group. In addition, Pedler (1997) believes that for a group to succeed, members should know their roles and functions. Without clear roles, some members could have felt the group could do things without them but this was wrong because participation is important in Action Learning sets. The next step was to decide on the approaches and tools we were supposed to use for the presentation. I noted that once again, there were many suggestions. Some inisisted we do role-playing, poster-making, presenting in MSWord, and so on. There were varied suggestions, and each of the members wanted to be recognised. Relating this experience to the idea of Active Learning, we could identify this as one of our attitudes as the main roots of the problem because like what McGill and Beaty (1995) claim, action learning sets work best when individuals focus on the problem together. In our case, each of us was trying to insist our ideas. Some wanted their ideas alone to be recognised, thus leading us to a narrower set of choices. It

QSAR

The loaded values are expected to give descriptive information about the descriptors that will be interpreted in terms of significant biological correlation relationships. Notably, the experimental model applied in this study revealed that the main features describing the binding activities of the experimental compounds were partially charge-based receptors. This was an automatic measure of molecular electronic property. The same property can be used in an auto correlated that can be used to weigh substitute descriptors’ position. Additionally, the linear regression equation and its application can be used in predicting biological activity in the study. It is worth noting that the comparison of the result with the literature data indicates that the proposed quality of the model compared to the provided model compares well with the sophisticated 2D based method. Introduction The quantitative structured activity relationship, the QSAR techniques are currently suitable and indispensable in all research aspects especially in relation to biological molecular properties interpretation. Obviously, the chemical, biological, and or physical properties of a compound depend on the three dimensional (3D) molecular and atomic arrangement. however, the same properties can be examined in a two dimensional model. Notably, the capacity to produce qualitative and quantitative correlation between 2D molecular structures and their biological activities is fundamental in deciding what synthetic ways of bioactive chemicals. Numerous research works involving the application and use of QSAR have been applied in biological properties and structural determination of biological elements. for instance, the use of the Hansch molecule description. The QSARs analysis of the 2, 4- diamino – 5- (substituted benzyl) pyrimidines and 2,4 – diamino – 6 – dimethyl – 5 – phenyldihydrotriazines have suggested that neural network application have reliable and effective results than normal or traditional application of the regression methods. In supplementation with the regression processes, other techniques of determination of the activity of the biological molecules have since been introduced. This includes the use of inductive logic programming (ILP) that has since used to model the QSAR particularly in the trimethoprim analogues binding from E. coli to DHFR. This technique applies mainly the physiochemical attributes that are usually assigned to substituent heuristically towards a general approach. This application or process is usually applied to the design problem of drugs. However, it should be noted that this method is not significantly better than the regression or the traditional QSAR method. however, it is noted to produce rules that are likely to provide insight into the stereochemistry of the biological molecules under determination. In most cases, such stereochemistry does help in determining the structure and to some extent, depending on the analysis, chemical properties of a molecule. It should be noted that more evidence are still required to assess these newly applied methods properly to ascertain the comparative trials and the analysis in numerous and different ways. The biological steroids activities usually vary considerably depending on seemingly small structural changes within or about a molecule. The fundamental molecular family usually represents very challenging characteristics for any method of prediction. This

Time value of money

gger amount in the days to come.The renowned fact that money possesses a time value implies that time value of that money must be put into account when making decisions to do with finance. This is done by restating values of money through time with what is called Calculations of Time Value of Money. These calculations are applied so as to shift monetary unit values of through the given time period. The calculations can be used to state future monetary flows in present value terms and also to restate today’s value amounts into future monetary values. These calculations are by far the most powerful tool that is available for making business and financial decisions. These values may be used to restate cash flows in such a way as to make them comparable in the process of making financial decisions. The present value of money puts into account that fact that cash always loses value over time due to inflation as well as opportunity cost. The reason the topic of present value of money is very important in finance is because its calculation forms a basis for all decisions that managers make. Calculation of present values is very important in making many financial decisions that face all individuals and managers in various types of firms. This procedure allows many financial computations in relation to the interest earning, returns upon investments gains, capital budgeting processes of decision, predicaments relating loan, insurance programming predicaments,and many other business asset buying or decisions in relation investment. These computations also grant the basis for part of the most commonly used valuation models as well as concepts applied in today’s finance. Failure to discount makes ventures that yield returns in the future appear to be more valuable than they really are.(Rosen, H.S 2005 pp. 241)Through calculating the net present value, firms are able to make accurate estimates on the returns to expect from various investments they choose to undertake. This is through calculating returns on investments. Firms are also in a better position to make reasonable and accurate budgets since they are under no illusion about their actual present or future monetary value. The net present value is also very important in dealing with loans related issues that may arise. The finance manager of a company will be in a position to know the amount of loan that the firm can afford to repay comfortably. This is very important because the company will avoid having too large loans which may be difficult to repay and thus it will remain financially stable. Finally, calculation of net present value is very useful in solving insurance programming problems of a company. Question 2 Future Value(FV) = Present Value(PV) ?( 1 + Interest Rate(R) )T , where T is the number of periods or years a) Present value = $ 15,000, Interest Rate = 7%, Time = 5years Therefore,Future Value = 15,000 ? (1 + 0.07)5 = $21,038.28 b) Present value = $ 19,500,Interest Rate = 4%,time = 3years Future Value = 19,500?(1+0.04)3 = $ 21,934.8 c) Present value = $

Usability study on a web page UML

For instance, a web page that is well designed to display the home page gives the viewers an attractive side that is needed by the viewers. A web page that displays the initial steps to the viewers gives an attractive display. The first approach is designing the index. This is where the web page denotes an index that is used to scroll up and down. The web page is designed to show an index which people may use to scroll viewer in looking for the information that is needed.mos t web pages have an index that is used as a universal index. Most of these index shows that people need to view the information from a point of view that is acceptable in the whole web paging. Many designers look for an index that holds basic needs of a web page. In making a web page, the initial index should feature all the basic needs of a web page, as it is a basic need. The programming of the index should be designed in a manner that denotes all the basic needs of a web page. The usage of an index makes the web page easier to navigate around. When there is an easy navigation on the web page, the viewers and users get an easier time in looking for the information that is needed. For instance, a web page that displays easier navigation makes the users to have an easy time in looking for information that is needed. Therefore, a good usability in the web page should be in line with the needs of the users. The index should be developed in a manner that denotes an easy navigating throughout the use. In actual sense, the index should be made in an easy way that accepts mutual navigation when there is need for information. Army family readiness group is an example of a well prepared web page. The page has a number of features that display a better view of the information that is available on the web page. Army family readiness group is a web page that has been succinctly designed with the basic features available on the first page. The readiness group is a combination of basic steps that are used to provide easy navigation. The initial step in the web page displays the starting point. This s the first step that orients the users of the web page to the first step in getting started (Jacko 34). The first step gives the user the first orientation with the page. The page gives the users several options that are used in stating to use the web page. The orientation gives room to the users to use the various options that are in the web page. This web page gives the user an approach to the web page and makes easier to start using the web page. The army web page gives the users enough time to ensure they have the full information they need from the web page. The web page displays a home icon that gives the users the option of starting to use the web page. This is the initial point where the user will get an option of searching for the right information that he or she needs. The home icon gives the users enough information to access the different points that are needed during the interaction on the web page. When there is an easy interaction o the web page, the users of the information find a better approach to the usage of the information on the web page (Ivory, 54). Therefore, there is utter need for well arranged icons in the web page. Well arranged web pages display well arranged information to the users and people with need for information on the web page. This makes a better approach to the web page as information is well arranged and easy to use. The second stage in making a

Advertisement and Marketing Communication

The VIP Electronic Cigarette marketing communication is faulted for many reasons that range from social to moral and financial aspects. It is the audiences of these adverts are the same targeted market or the already existing customers. This implies that the information from this marketing communication is consumed and applied by the same audience. Gray and Andersen (2008), notes that placing adverts within the fabric of films causes a significant rise in the level of sales of the firm. As such the spot adverts that were run by the same company within ITV programming could have the same effect. The problem here is not that it could cause the same effect as advertising within a film but the possible negative effect of irritation that it might have on the audience. The audience could possibly be irritated because of the fact that their main interest is the program being aired and not the commercial being shown (Hansen and Christensen2004).As compared to non-spot adverts, this marketing communication fails to reach its main target that is a positive evaluation of the product being marketed and the social belief of the targeted audience. The main issue in this aspect is the effect of interruption on the proceeding program. Commercials generally interrupt the viewing of programs and as such will not impress the viewers. A considerable number of viewers would have a negative attitude toward the commercials. The negative attitude of the consumers is also closely linked to the length of a commercial (Woodside 2004). This study also notes that the longer the commercial, the more the consumers are likely to be irritated by the brand name due to the fact that it is delaying their favorite TV programs. This is a source of failure for the VIP Electronic Cigarette commercial apart from the fact that it was not interesting and could not entertain viewers. The result of this is that the viewers are treated as a client and prospective customers instead of them sitting back and getting entertained.

Data Management Layer Design

Data management layer design The key definitions are object persistence which is the selection of storage format and to ensure that optimum performance is attain. Object persistence uses four basic formats they include: Files Object-oriented databases Object-relational databases Relational databases 1. Files Below are types of files Sequential and random access files These are the file access modes that are supported by many programming languages such as istream and ostream. Sequential access files These is the type of access mode that if efficient where data is stored according to given attributes which are then used in retrieving the files. The mode is best suited for data which requires reports. Sequential files can be grouped as either ordered or unordered sequential files. Unordered presents data on a disk where the items are attached at the end. While ordered sequential files have items in a proper order. Larger space is used compared to unordered list where the whole list is copied in the disk. Random access files These are files where data is stored without sorting or organization the information in a given manner. These mode is efficient when one is searching for a file because they are retrieved directly without going through the other files like in sequential access file. With random access files one s not able to easily generate reports because information is not orderly stored. Master files These are files that store information permanently where new files are added at the end of the file. These files can be used for data mining and reporting where patterns and trends are discovered. Such information is vital for business decisions. Transaction files There are files that store transaction of daily activities then update the master files. They can be deleted after the master file has been updated. Audit These are files that hold the information before and after a given event or image. These files are used to audit the change after a fact. History or archive file The files which are normally stored offline with information that may not be needed by the organization anymore. Look-up file These are data that are used as references. It is normally unchanged information such as zip codes. Files are very efficient and fast for small amount data. Files are also part of object oriented programming which are suitable for short term storage. A program should be in place to manipulate the files. Redundancy is another shortcoming of files where multiple records are generated which limited security control only through the operating system. 2. Relational databases This is the most common method of data storage which consists of a table that has row and columns. Columns in rational databases are referred to as fields which represents common data of the entities such as names of the students while a row represents a recorded with complete information about an entity. Each table has unique field called the primary key which uniquely identify each of the entities/record in a table. The term relational is for a fact that tables are joined to form a database, the relationship between one table and the other is formed by having a primary key on one table into another table as foreign key. Information is easy searched using structured query language (SQL) which searches the information then presents as one large table form the database. It is also eay to modify or update information by using the SQL commands. This method of data storage is a commercial technology which has been embraced by many players in the business arena. It can handle large and diverse data needs. The limitations are that there are specific formats of data called data types that relational databases store hence limited to those ones only. Object oriented programming is not supported as well. 3. Object Relational databases Relational databases support specific data formats to overcome these challenge ORDBMS was designed it supports user defined data types. Extended SQL is used to manipulate the data. The important fact is that it is still SQL based hence relational database users do not have to learn another language. It can also handle complex types unlike relational databases. Object oriented is the only perspective in this database and it’s also vendor based where it has not been standardized. 4. Object-oriented databases This database is based on two approaches where it can allow adding of extensions to object oriented language that is already in existence or separate the database management systems. Objects, classes and instances are used in this type of databases. This database supports multimedia applications. There is no impedance mismatch in these database approach with direct support of object oriented and can handle complex data types. These technology is still emerging hence can be risky once implemented. To select the object persistence formats several considerations are made which include: a. The type of data type to be supported if it is complex, ORDBMS is appropriate while atomic data types can be implemented using relational databases. b. Type of application systems transaction or decision support where factors such as speed and types queries are important factors. c. What are the existing storage formats these ensure that the transition time is minimized and reduce the effort of learning the new system. d. Future needs of the organization such as the upcoming services to be offered based on changing trends are important factor to the type of object persistence format to use. Other issues such the cost and security are equally important where they should be put into considerations. References Alan Dennis, Barbara Wixom, and David Tegarden, (2005), Systems Analysis and Design With UML 2.0 An Object-Oriented Approach, Second Edition, Chapter 11, John Wiley Sons, Inc. retrieved from, http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/dennis/0471348066/ppt/ch11.ppt Del Bimbo, A. (1999), Visual information retrieval. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco CA. Yannis Tzitzikas, (2007), U. of Crete, Information Systems Analysis and Design, Persistent Data Management Layer Design (III) chapter 10, Fall, retrieved from, http://www.csd.uoc.gr/~hy351/2007/downloads/Lectures/IS_16b_DataMgmt_III_JDO.pdf

Talk Show Internet Assignment

TV emerged in the 50s as America’s dominant cultural form, presenting an image of authority that was mainly middle-class, middle-aged, white, and male. TV soon took over American prime time activity. Beginning in the 60s, family breakdown, religious, and education crises, diminishing state authority, and a growing vocal and visible minority with new ideas and groups. All these led to a dramatic change in public perceptions with the most significant being the impact that progressive movements and social crises had on media talks regarding political correctness and multiculturalism (Quail, Kathalene Loubna 33). TV talk shows have always been around since the TV was commercialized. They are a crossover from the radio talk shows that had dominated America in the 40s (Grindstaff 22). Therefore, the beginning of the talk show can be considered to have been in 1948, even though most people did not have TV at the time. From the early 50s to the early 70s, almost half of all programming on NBC, CBS, and ABC had to do with talk shows. The talk show hosts, rather than kill the talk show hosts that reigned on radio, actually made them bigger stars. For instance, Jack Paar, Dave Garroway, and Arthur Godfrey were all vital in coming up with the talk show format that has been so popular over the decades (Grindstaff 22). One of the reasons why there are so many talk shows is because talk is actually cheap. Talk shows are probably the cheapest TV shows to create (Grindstaff 24). For example, where they can cost as low as $100,000 to produce per each episode, majority of current dramas on TV cost approximately $1 million for each episode. Therefore, if a talk show is successful, it can give the TV Company more profits than most dramas. However, it is still work-intensive. Since their beginning in 1948, very few of them are able to keep the audience’s attention for a long time (Grindstaff 24). Several forms of talk shows that range from outlandish shows like The Graham Norton Effect to Late Show with David Letterman exist. However, all talk shows have similar formats because the format for a talk show is very limited (Grindstaff 31). Most Americans are used to the informal host-guest format where the hosts of the talk shows welcome talk-worthy individuals and celebrities in informal discussions. These are further spiced up using musical and comedic segments. Another common format has to do with public affair show, where the hosts of the show interview individuals who are experts in particular fields, or they are in the news for one reason or another. Specific shows that adhere to this latter format are shows like. Meet the Press and Good Morning America. Issue-based talk shows include The Jerry Springer Show and The Oprah Winfrey Show. Other talk shows are mainly a hybrid of the two formats (Grindstaff 32). The basic goal on TV of talk shows has to do with attraction of curious viewers while also selling services and products, rather than selling revolutions (Kunkel 11). This results in the need for funny and bizarre participants and topics, as well as the circus-like atmosphere. In addition, the influence by cultural and social movements like feminism, as well as the results, made it contradictory and interesting. Oprah Winfrey, Donahue, and others have been able to reproduce the experience of

Satellite Radio

While there are many pitfalls to this strategy, in that there are political, religious and social landmines in each country, there will also be many great rewards if the exporting is handled sensitively and correctly.Satellite radio began as an alternative to traditional radio, that was limited by spotty coverage in the rural area and questionable sound quality. Satellite radio promised fewer commercials, enhanced sound clarity and uninterrupted signals to this segment of the radio audience. Working similarly to satellite television, satellite radio produces, record and mixes programming in a broad studio, which is then sent to the satellite that orbits the earth, reflect the signal back and disperse it throughout the United States. Satellite radio began in 1997 when the FCC granted licenses to XM Satellite Radio and Sirius Satellite Radio.Satellite radio is currently in the hands of only two providers, Sirus, and XM Satellite Radio Holdings Inc. The two companies merged in or around 2007 and became known as Sirus XM Radio. The two companies have been trying to compete with the rest of the radio market since 2002, and each has invested over $5 billion in an attempt to market and develop their products. Despite their best efforts, however, they each face $2.4 billion in long-term debt. XM was the first into the market, in September 2001, and in February 2002, Sirius entered into the market. The two were operating, by 2006, seven satellites that served over 13.6 million subscribers, and offered three hundred channels of diverse programming, and the subscribers to these companies also gained the ability to access streaming audio content through the Internet.

Can You Help Me Write Java Class Called

Areawith three overloaded static methods forjavac Area. java
java Area
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Enter width of rectangle : 20
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Consider The Following Recurrence Relation Where

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it * = 1
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al. Dynamic Programming is a method in which
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it into subproblems. solving each of…Engineering Technology

Use Python Programming

Write a program that takes two text files as arguments and outputs the number of tokens they
have in common. Here is an example of input/output:
Input file 1:
We reviewed the trip and credited the cancellation fee. The driver
has been notified.
Input file 2:
If a trip is cancelled more than 5 minutes after the driver-partner
has confirmed the request, a cancellation fee will apply.
Output:
(optionally print out the common words, then…)
6Python Programming

Create A Subclass Of The Class

JPanelnamedDisplayArea. An object of thepackage waste;
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import java.awt.Dimension;
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public static final int DISPLAY_SIZE = 500;…Java Programming

You Are A Team Leader With One Licensed Practical Nurse/Licensed Vocational Nurse And One Nursing Assistant On

Question

You are a team leader with one licensed practical nurse/licensed vocational nurse and one nursing assistant on

your team. You also share the unit clerical person with two other team leaders and the chaerge nurse. You have foubd lpn/lvn to be a seasoned team member and very reliable. The nursing assistant is young and very new seems a bit disorganized but is avery willing team member. At various times you will be directing these three individuals during your workday, that is asking them to do things supervising their work and so on.

What leadership style ( authoritative, democratuc or laissez-faire) should you use with each person or would it be the same situation occured, would your leadership style change or remain the same? Discuss solutions to this scenario in class

Object-Oriented Programming

I’D Like Help With This I Need To Use Panda Numpy And Matplotlib In Python The Type Of Program I’M Writing Is

Question

I’d like help with this. I need to use Panda, Numpy, and matplotLib in Python. The type of program I’m writing is

described below. The two csv are Housing.csv and P

I need to load one of two CSV files and then perform histogram analysis and plots for select variables on the datasets. The first dataset represents the population change for specific dates for U.S. regions. The second dataset represents Housing data over an extended period of time describing home age, number of bedrooms and other variables. The first row provides a column name for each dataset. The following columns should be used to perform analysis:

PopChange.csv:

 Pop Apr 1

 Pop Jul 1

Change Pop

Housing.csv:

 AGE

 BEDRMS

 BUILT

 ROOMS

 UTILITY

Notice for the Housing CSV file, there are more columns in the file than are required to be analyzed. You can and should still load each column.

Specific statistics options should include:

 Count

 Mean

 Standard Deviation

 Min

 Max

 Histogram

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Hello Below Is The Assignment That I Am Working On I Already Have The Code That Is Compiling And

Question

Below is the assignment that I am working on. I already have the code that is compiling and

running successfully. However, I am having a hard time creating the UML diagrams for the code, that I have also provided below. Can you please help me with the UML diagrams? Are they supposed to be individual diagrams, because they are all separate codes or will they all inherit with each other so they will be all connected? Please help!

Assignment:

A class named Square that contains data fields for height, width and surfaceArea, and the methods computerSurfaceArea() and computerPerimeter().

A subclass named Cube, which includes an additional data field named depth as well as the computeSurfaceArea() method that overrides the parent’s class method with the same name. Add the computeVolume() method which calculates the volume.

In the Square and Cube classes add the overloaded constructors which accept one parameter and create the objects with equal values of height, width for Square and height, width and depth for Cube.

A driver class ShowSquareCube, which accepts a user’s input for a square and cube dimensions, instantiates a Square object, a Cube object and calculates and displays surface area, perimeter and volume relevant to each object. Save the classes as Square.java, Cube.java and ShowSquareCube.java. Provide comments, explanations of your solution and the UML class diagram of your application

Java Programming

I Need Help In Writing A Java Class The Class Contains A Specific Constructor With An

Question

I need help in writing a java class. The class contains:

A specific constructor with an

appropriate ArrayList parameter that copies the data from the parameter to the data object within the class itself.

A GetResult method that returns an ArrayList of integers (note the lower case I) that are the bins of the histogram. The value ranges of the bins are set via other methods below. A RuntimeException is thrown if the histogram is not valid for any reason. Note that a histogram can be valid for zero data elements, but is invalid if the MinRange is greater than the MaxRange value below.

A method named SetNumberBins that sets the number of equal size bins in the histogram. If this method is not called then the default value is 10.  A method named GetNumberBins that returns the current number of bins set. Note that the min and max range values set below are type dependent. Be sure use the correct generic type.  A method named SetMinRange sets the lowest value at which data is included in the lowest bin. Data that is less than this value is not placed in any bin if GetResult is called. The default is negative infinity.

A method named GetMinRange that returns the current MinRange value.

A method named SetMaxRange sets the highest value at which data is included in the highest bin. Data that is greater or equal than this value is not placed in any bin if GetResult is called. The default is positive infinity. If a data value falls exactly on the dividing line between two bins, it is placed in the higher value bin. For example, if the data is type integer and two bins range from 0 to 3 and 3 to 6, then a data value of 3 would be placed in the 3 to 6 range bin.

Java Programming

Conceptsarraylist Collectionssortingenhanced For Loopcollections

Question

Concepts

ArrayList – Collections

Sorting

Enhanced For Loop

Collections

Class

Add 5 names to the collection. Bob Susan … Output the Strings onto the console using the enhanced for loop.

2. Sort the list using the method Collections.sort. Output the sorted List. Shuffle the list, and output the shuffled list. Note that Collections (with an s) is a class, while Collection is an interface. The Collections class has many useful static methods for processing interfaces, including the sort method.

3. Search for the name Susan in the list. What location was it found? Search for a name that is not in the list. What location is reported?

4. Convert the list above to an array using toArray. Output the elements of the array. Convert the array back into a list using asList. Output the elements of the list.

Java Programming

Hi Team My Assignment Is Based On Analysis Smart Meter Data By R Programming I Have Data

Question

Hi team,

My assignment is based on analysis smart meter data by R programming. I have data

about the consumption every 30 mins during a whole year.

The problem that I have to solve will be something like finding higher or lower usage during the year and that of course from organisations prospective.

I have a questions:

What the benefit of finding the result to the organisation? I do not know how can I answer that

Engineering Technology

System Programming of Tools and Applications

Without a doubt, at the present, operating systems come with a wide variety of tools and applications which&nbsp.have been more and more improved with the passage of time so the need to write scripts to assist in performing tasks and operations on computer systems has been significantly reduced. However, it has not been eliminated. In fact, there are still a wide variety of tasks and activities which cannot be completed until we develop&nbsp.or write new code&nbsp.or script for the computer system. For instance&nbsp.what&nbsp.if you are not using the computer and we are outside the office and we want an application&nbsp.or script which allows us to perform the same operations while staying far from our&nbsp.office and there are so many other similar cases where we need to develop innovative scripts. Though an operating system comes with the entire functionality and its tools and applications are continuously improving with the passage of&nbsp.time but there are still many things missing.&nbsp.&nbsp.

One of the well-known operating systems is the Windows operating system, which offers a solid foundation for all of the workload and application needs at the same time as being straightforward to install and administer. Additionally, most recent Virtualization tools, management improvements, Web resources, and thrilling Windows integration help minimize expenditures save time, and offer a platform for a dynamic and competently managed data center (Microsoft Corporation, 2012).

One of the primary objectives of any operating system is to provide its users with easy and fair access to computing and communication resources through the applications that will execute on top of it. Hence, in an attempt to accomplish similar&nbsp.results, various operating systems offer a wide variety of policies for assigning resources to, as well as sharing resources among tools and applications.&nbsp.

International Students Problems

Schlossberg Theory of Transition is a model of psychosocial advancement that analyzes life occasions which influence different parts of a singulars life and their societal parts. The individuals’ observation of the move is as critical to see how an individual is influenced by his/her changing life occasions to the extent that the sort, setting, and effect of the move itself. Schlossberg delineated the moving process with the terms of "moving in", "traveling through" and "moving out". Methods for adapting to move, whether constructive or pessimistic, hail from surveying an individual’s advantages and liabilities in the four zones which Schlossberg termed as the 4 Ss – the circumstance, self, backing, and procedure.
The principle utilization of Schlossberg’s theory is with grown-up learners and they’ve come back to higher instruction. Compared to conventional scholars, non-custom understudies are for the most part at numerous distinctive focuses throughout their life because of the different sorts of moves they have experienced. Programming created on the 4 Ss can help grown-up learners to distinguish and draw upon their advantages in adapting to the discernment of moving into the test of coming back to class rather than just seeing what their restriction could be.
Schlossberg Transition Theory is generally dependent upon the singular and what they think about to be a move in their life. Here is a snappy survey of the steps and thoughts behind Schlossberg’s Theory:
Indeed, inside Europe societies might be distinctive. It may be troublesome to get used to another society. You may wish to discuss this with other universal understudies in a help supportive network run by the advising administration
You may think that it troublesome to comprehend your teacher or different learners. You should not be humiliated. It is paramount to tell somebody of your troubles, with the goal that you can accept help.

Distributed system

A distributed system is structured by numerous self-directed computers that communicate throughout a computer network. In addition, the communication systems cooperate with each other to attain a common objective/goal. Moreover, a computer program that executes in a distributed system is acknowledged as a distributed program, and distributed programming is the procedure of writing similar programs (Godfrey., 2006. Bal et al., 1989).
Centralized systems are utilized today for various reason. This type of computing helps corporations store all the data in a single location, which helps them make sure everyone is working with the same information. For example, bank ATMs run over a centralized network. In this scenario, ATMs are the clients, and the large computers at the banks are the main server (Forouzan &amp. Fegan, 2003. Nash, 2000, p.10). Hales (2007) stated that centralization can be taken as the allocation of the entire IT resources to one particular business unit that offers IT services to whole corporation. Additionally, the major characteristics of a centralized technique comprise efficiency, control and cost saving. In addition, the centralized techniques are effectual in attaining the control over a business or corporation’s information system. Moreover, a centralized system can centralized or it can be a cost saving reordering of an organization’s information systems to one particular position (Hales, 2007).
According to Wall (2001), the key advantage of centralized systems is that they offer centralized power through established technology and vendors. They therefore engage less technical risks. Additionally, the corporate information systems professionals offer extremely dependable role to maintain similar business systems. In addition, there should be no confusion over jobs as well as the software and hardware employed at the corporation. However,

My Desire to Enter to Wake Forest University

Since my original application to Wake Forest I have continued to pursue my dream of becoming a CPA by improving my IT skills, increasing my fluency in the English language, and completing prerequisite coursework through my current program at UNCC that has better prepared me for entry into WFU’s MSA program. I am dedicated to completing the MSA program and subsequently passing the CPA exam.
In addition to solid basic computing skills, I have gained additional experience in the past year in newer versions of Microsoft Office, including advanced features of MS Office 2007 and 2011. In addition, I have worked extensively with Lotus Domino Notes, MS Access Databases creation for accounting, SQL Server, Java programming, and VB.net programming. These skills have wide applicability to accounting, particularly as systems are advanced and improved. Additionally, I have worked with MS PowerPoint to generate professional quality presentations, a skill certain to benefit me both in my academic and professional careers.
My academic work has been advanced through the completion of Intermediate Accounting I and Management Accounting courses taken in Fall 2011 at UNCC. Moreover, I am currently enrolled in Intermediate Accounting II, as well as Income Tax and Financial Management courses in Spring 2012, both courses that will better prepare me for success in the WFU MSA program.
In order to increase my social awareness and improve my English fluency, I have continued to participate in field-related volunteer activities, and I have been accepted as a candidate in Beta Alpha Psi, the honorary fraternity of Financial Information students. The network of peers and professionals that I have grown over my career is certain to lead me to success in the WFU MSA program and in my future career.

How Did Radio in the 1960’s Mark the Changing Social Order in the UK and US

The 1960s saw perhaps the greatest social changes in history. For the first time, young people and their parents were divided. They had different cultural ideas and little middle ground to understand each other. The music tastes, social conventions and political beliefs of the older generation had been violently rejected by a disaffected youth which sought to establish a new social order. These were times of change, times of disaffection and times in which a whole new social network was being established. This took the form of underground movements, independent press, and pirate radio.

The radio, before the advent of television, had long been the tool through which news, politics, music, and culture was diffused to the population. The programs were chosen, written, edited and distributed by the institution and reflected, for the most part, the gentile middle classes. They catered for middle-aged tastes and rarely attempted to take on hard-hitting social issues or play rock and roll. The dominant radio station through the late 1950s was the BBC and Radio Luxembourg. The BBC was the bastion of the middle classes. However, radio Luxembourg represented an approach that was more in touch with the younger generation. As Crisell (1986:33) comments Radio Luxembourg [was] much more in touch with popular music than the BBC during the 1950s. The youth of the 1950s, which would become the militant campaigners of the 1960s, therefore had a radio station that reflected their tastes. However, Radio Luxembourg went little beyond this. It was by no means the voice of a generation, but simply a sign of recognition that things were changing and that parents and children could no longer be catered for with the same programming.

Until the late 1950s, the radio had remained a stationary object kept within the home and listened to often intently. However, with the advent of the transistor radio for the masses, all this changed. The heavy box became small and light and so now that the radio was portable, it could be used to accompany any kind of activity.

The Content of Childrens Programs and Advertisements

It was revealed that the advertisements had significant effects on the children, such as attracting them and altering their behaviour. The controversies emerged due to the fact that advertisements and programs just like all other aspects of the media could impact on children’s eating habits, inflict negative stereotyping, and mislead the potential buyers into buying their products. Additionally, the concern has been growing owing to the revelation that children not only receive advertisements and programs, but they also analyse, discern, and interact with them. In the light of these, the following research paper will analyse the content of children’s programs and advertisements, the potential effects they are expected to have on children, and finally provide evidence on known effects that they have on children as well as the regulations put in place to protect children.
Marketing (advertising) is created with the aim of communicating, persuading, and delivering value to potential buyers so they can see the good in something and yearn to have it. Concisely, the aim of advertising is to influence consumers and create the need for them to buy their products. Previous studies have revealed that annually, children are exposed to over 40,000 advertisements in which the largest percentage is made up of selling commercials while the smaller percentage is made of public service announcements (Story &amp. French n.p.). The content included in advertisements differs, and as scholars state, this is one of the factors that create the need for concern in children’s advertising and programming. The issue is caused by the fact that most children cannot differentiate between advertisements and their programs. Children’s programs are created in a way such their effects may not be negative in the event that children copied or learned anything from&nbsp.them. In fact, the aim of many children’s programs is to educate and/ or entertain them.

Information System Development Blog

Physical, Perceptual, and Conceptual Components of a User Interface A perceptual component of user interface refers to series of elements that conforms a visual language. This has however evolved to show information that is stored in computers (Marcin, 2009). This has made it easier for those with little skills in computer to use and work with computer software. Combination of such elements is common in graphical user interface Window, Icon, Menu, Pointing device (WIMP). The style of interaction of WIMP makes use of physical components to control cursor position and represent window organized information and icon represented information. The commands available are compiled together in the menu, while actions are performed later. Windowing system deals with software devices like graphics hardware and pointing devices, besides cursor positioning.
In a personal computer, these elements are all modeled via a desktop metaphor in order to produce desktop environment simulation where the displays represent a desktop where documents and document folders can be placed. Window managers combine with other software so as to simulate desktop environment with various degrees of realism. The process that takes place in user interface components is, the message is first relayed on the physical component, perceived by perceptual components and then conceived by conceptual components. Though the three components have different functions, their functions are related. Components of user interface that have three dimensions, especially 6hose designed for graphics are common in movies and literature. They are also used in art, computer games and computer aided design.
Why they are all important in Considering the Interaction Design
They are important in considering the interaction design because they enhance efficiency and make it easy to use the underlying logical design of stored programs, that is, usability (Marcin, 2009). The user typically interacts with information through manipulation of visual widgets, which allow for appropriate interactions to the held data. Together, they support the necessary actions in order to achieve the objectives of the user. A model view controller ensures a flexible structure, independent from the interface but indirectly linked to functional applications or easy customization. This allows users to design and select different skins at their own will.
User-centered design methods make sure that the introduced visual image in the design is perfectly tailored to the duties it must perform. Larger widgets like windows normally provide a frame for the content of the main presentation like web page or email message. On the other hand, smaller widgets acts like user input tool. Interaction design of these user interface designs is also important because it has allowed the application of services like automated teller machines, airline check-in and self ticketing, self-service checkouts, among others (Marcin, 2009). The latest mobile phones employ application graphics user interface (GUI) touch-Screen. GUIs are also used in newer automobiles to navigate their systems, as well as touch-screen multimedia centers.
The Interaction Design of three user interface components is also important because it has made it easier for those with little skills in computer to use and work with computer software. The style interaction style of WIMP makes use of physical components that control the position of the cursor and represent organized information in the window together with the represented icon information (Marcin, 2009). Interaction of the components helps in designing temporal behavior and visual composition, which are important parts of application software programming. Therefore, the interaction of the components is very important because it allows the interface to complete its process.
References
Marcin, W. (2009). User Interface Gallery: Application and Icon History. Retrieved on 29th
Sept, 2011 from http://www.guidebookgallery.org/"

JFK assassination

The sheer emotion and rawness of the coverage appealed to people’s senses that brought the people closer to the news. It was also by no means dismissible that at the heart of the breaking news were America’s affable and media-savvy president and the grief-stricken first family devastated by a tragedy. Overnight, the mostly newspaper-reading and radio-listening nation has turned their attention to their television sets to get a blow-by-blow update of the latest news.
Merriman Smith, a United Press International (UPI) newsman, was riding in the presidential press pool car just behind JFK’s limousine on that fateful day in Dallas when they heard three loud shots. The second and third sound made it unmistakable that they came from gunshots. Smith immediately grabbed hold of the car’s radio phone and contacted the UPI headquarters to deliver the news update. Cronkite, inside the CBS studio in New York, was just informed of the president’s assassination coming across through the UPI teletype machine. As Cronkite’s news team breaks the station’s regular programming to deliver the assassination news unsure of the president’s condition, Smith was in Parkland Hospital with more breaking story. Smith informs UPI that President Kennedy has died at 1:00pm. Breaking the soap opera slot, Cronkite emotionally delivers the news.2
Smith rushed to the office and fed the whole world with the news through the five bells that rang on the recipient UPI machine to indicate the urgency and weight of the message. Walter Cronkite was a close confidant of Smith’s. He knew exactly what Smith meant by the message fed to the world in such a short span of time. Cronkite took to the television immediately, putting a break to the ongoing programs. He had to go on audio, as the available camera was slow at loading images. Cronkite became the most trusted person in America at that time.3 From the time of

Java technology related to this tool

Lecturer Money Tracker Advantages of Java I would like to begin by pointing out that the most appropriate tool to use while designing a money tracker is java. In the first place, java is a very reliable programming language which can be much suitable for this tool. Unlike other software, java has a fully equipped runtime whose major role is to carry periodical checks to rectify any errors that might be experienced in the whole system. At the same time, java does not have an automatic type conversion and a pointer, but has a java compiler each of which arranged in a systematic level to help in the identification of the consistencies.
Besides, java is advantageous because it is more secure. Unlike other programming languages such as C++, java has a highly protected interpreter, compiler, compatible browser and runtime environment. This is a good idea since it helps it to ensure that the safety of all records is taken into account. Thus, any data stored in the system can not be compromised whatsoever. In other words, it is very secure software which can be entrusted with the bank and the clients’ records at all times.
Last, but by no means the least, java programming language can be useful in the designing and maintenance of the money tracker because of its simplicity. It has got several features that make it to be easier to operate. These include a small number of language constructs, garbage collections and an automatic memory allocation. At the same time, it is equipped with a very clear syntax. These actually make it easier to operate by the programmer, bank’s management and individual clients.

Experience as the Part of a Team

Reflection Paper For this reflection paper, I will be describing my experience as part of a team that completed the several required tasks in the Introductory Programming and Modeling project, which was concerned with the development of a Use Case diagram and the completion of a simple working version of a system that used Java. I would like to highlight that the whole project does not only involve the development of a Use Case system. Rather, it also involved the documentation and the explanation on paper of the entire process.
Specifically, I was involved with the Java coding and UML diagram examinations. In this regard, I was required to recognize and apply basic programming and modeling concepts that we have learned so far. There was a great deal of analysis, coding, testing, evaluation, involved, which has to be done in cycles in order to achieve our development goals.
I found that my responsibilities were not that easy and concluded that if I have not paid enough attention and became engaged and involved with other steps and aspects of the project, especially those tasks and work allotted to my teammates, I would not have finished my own tasks successfully and correctly.
The whole process is just one of the practice environments that allowed us students to learn not just about product or system being developed but the processes involved especially those that concern factors such as teamwork in designing, programming and modeling systems. In this regard, the help of our instructor has helped me a lot. As previously mentioned, there was a need to document and reflect on what we have done. I thought that this was easy but actually it was not. It required additional effort on our part.
Particularly the assistance offered in areas of difficulty such as in examining diagrams or developing coding solutions were very valuable. The instructor was also very helpful in the way we are able to divide responsibilities in a systematic way. The group is quite pleased that we were able to work seamlessly. I think this was made possible because of the fact that we are able to divide tasks according to our competencies.
I believe that the objective of the entire activity and project development is to enhance our knowledge especially in the face of the constantly changing state of our minds in terms of knowledge acquisition as we labor on with this particular course. The opportunity to implement theories that we have learned is essential in reinforcing what we have learned from the course so far. In addition, we committed mistakes and learn from them, as well as discover several important experiences that characterize actual programming environments. For example, there is the dynamics of working with groups and the underlying factors such as the efficiency that comes with systematic project management as well as the processes behind development of programs. I am proud that I was able to realize one of the most important objectives of the entire group project. I was able to gain valuable insights on modeling and programming systems in a simulated real environment.

Exhibition/Programming Catalogue

In addition to this, the demand market will be given ample information in regard to the films. This will give the themes, plot and setting of the film. As such, the market will be familiar with both the description and information connected to the film. This will reflect the films as products that are known in the market.
In this catalogue, there will be a genre of movies revolving around the same theme. The genre in this case will be crime films produced and directed in Australia. Australia is a country that renowned to have expertise and experience in production of films. With such a reputation, the films will be highly graded in the market. As such, the films will have a larger audience in the exhibition. In this direction, there are various factors that are eminent. First, the genre of the movies is stated as crime films. The catalogue will have a collection of movies revolving around prevalent crimes often committed in the country. Australia is a country that has a large number of convicts arrested from committing crimes. This would be used as a showcase to the Australian population in averting crimes. For instance, a collection of crimes will instill discipline in the population from experiencing the predicaments of the convicts. Secondly, the catalogue will only feature educative films. The crime films will be educative in that they will be directed towards reducing crime rates in the country. Crimes rates have been recorded to escalate due to varying reasons. Therefore, producing a catalogue that would reduce the prevalence of crimes in the country would be plausible (Rafter and Brown 2011, p21). Lastly, the films will be produced in the Australian territory. The catalogue will have tom mention the genre of the film, producer, director and Production Company. This will be a marketing drill in the Australian firms that will increase the popularity of the film industry. The country is deeply endorsed with resources and

Advertisings Effect on Childrens Nutrition

Research regarding the behavioral outcomes of television advertising found that it is a significant factor in determining the specific items, including food items, children’s requests. Although it was recognized early on that advertising would generate most of the operating revenues for television programming, it wasn’t until the 1960s that advertisers began creating commercials targeted specifically toward children as a means of adding to their audience, and therefore consumer, base (Adler, 1980). Understanding that children do not have the same cognitive power as adults, more than 60 psychologists have voiced their concerns to the American Psychological Association (APA) regarding television advertisements to children, citing in their report several countries that have legislated restrictions for the advertising to children. These countries include Greece, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, and Canada. According to these studies, children eight years old and younger do not understand that advertisements serve a different purpose than other television programs. They completely believe what the television tells them so advertising to them is ‘like shooting fish in a barrel.’ Advertising to young children takes full advantage of their naiveté, a practice that, in any other context, is generally illegal and unquestionably immoral (Kunkel et al, 2004).

Television commercials promoting foods often misrepresent their products to impressionable children, as well as adults, regarding the product’s nutritional values, or lack of. “Health experts believe that the constant promotion of high-calorie food is&nbsp.contributing to the epidemic of childhood obesity in the United States by encouraging preferences for junk food and contributing to poor eating habits” (Byrd-Bredbenner &amp. Grasso, 2000).&nbsp. There remains a strong association between obesity, regardless of age, and the amount of time spent watching television.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Using Nonlinear Programming and Queuing in Quantitative Decision Making

102500 The subsection on Forecasting has a detailed discussion on forecasting techniques. The subsection on Queuing tackled different queuing systems. The subsections end with the author’s take on how managers can benefit from each model and how the particular methodology addresses actual real-world situations. Managers have the daunting task of making a multitude of decisions every day for the respective institutions that they head. Depending on the nature of the variables that a particular situation entails, some decisions are arrived at quite straightforwardly while others need to undergo a series of rigorous processes before they are made. Among these challenging yet indispensable methods are Nonlinear Programming, Decision Analysis, Forecasting, and Queuing. With Hillier and Hillier (2010) as its main reference, the subsections that follow will discuss these methods in detail. According to Feiring (1986), Linear Programming is a part of mathematical programming that deals with the competent and effective allocation of limited resources to a number of known activities to obtain the desired goal, which, most commonly concerns maximizing profit or minimizing cost. It is linear in the sense that the criterion (objective function or index) and the constraints (operating rules) of the process can be expressed as linear formulas. When at least one of these formulas is nonlinear in nature, then Nonlinear Programming is used. As a result, while Linear Programming assumes a proportional relationship between activity levels and an overall measure of performance, Nonlinear Programming is used to model nonproportional relationships. The graph of a piecewise linear function consists of a sequence of connected line segments. Thus, the slope of the profit graph remains the same within each line segment but then decreases at the kink where the next line segment begins.

SATGE 5

Computer Science &amp. Information Technology: Stage 5 The proposed technology aims at improving services offered using technology. The project tends to apply the knowledge, skills and techniques of information technology to achieve the business goal through effective and efficient execution in the organization. This will enable Hometown Deli deliver it best to clients thus provide competition in the market through initiating business, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling besides closing of the services offered for the betterment of the clients.
The development of the project can be done through executing the existing system by interviewing clients and support from the support of human resource hence analysis is done.
Thereafter plans for the security level, programming, physical construction and hardware are designed for the system to be in place. In this project, the specific project proposals are defined for its improvement by addressing deficiencies in the present system. After installing the programs and the new components acquired, they are tested and clients get the opportunity to be trained and incase of adjustment changes are made during this stage. The system is later put in use through application or location. After all the phases of system development, it is ready to run and hence maintenance to make it effective. The project aims at making change in the society through introduction of technology into the industry. Success of the project depends on the clients’ satisfaction.
In conclusion, it is evident that Deli proposed project tends to help individuals gain the sense of new technology around them and hence benefit from its applications.
Reference
Diligenzme. (2012). POS Systems are more than just a cash register.
Retrieved from:
http://www.diligenzme.com/pos-sytems-are-more-tan-just-a-cash-register.pdf

Assess how national culture impacts on the international business environment giving examples

Trans-national companies like Sony, General Motors, carry a distinct identity of the culture they first operated in despite now having worldwide operations. Quite simply speaking the culture is studied as synonym of culture. We often come across terms like the Japanese culture, the British culture, the Australian culture, or Russian culture. The countries, like Canada, US, UK, and India with many different racial, religious, or regional cultures are called multi-cultural countries. Yet many countries located in a specific geographical area can be bound by the thread of a common culture. For example, the Caribbean countries like Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Antigua can be referred to as having a common culture.
It is very important to describe the word ‘culture’ as it is construed in the context of business management. Some of the definitions offer interesting insights into the importance. the ‘national culture’ has for business leaders, professionals, management gurus and academics. Culture is variously defined (cited by Fougere, 2007) as ‘that complex whole, which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society (Tylor). the collective programming of the mind, which distinguishes the members of one human group of another (Hofstede). a system of values and norms that are shared among a group of people and that when taken together constitute a design for living (Hill). Thus culture is defined as summation of beliefs and capabilities (Tylor), a collective programming of mind (Hofstede) and a plan for life (Hill) (Cited by Fougere, 2007). The cultural norms thus embodied in the collective consciousness of a people are adopted in daily life in a matter of fact way. These come to be reflected in the work ethos of the business entities. Howsoever, different definitions culture are, there is unanimity of opinion in

Discussion Question 2 Week 7

Discussion Question 2 Week 7 Discussion Question 2 Week 7 The product one chose is the custom designed jewelry.The distribution strategy that one will use for this product is the use of the internet. One will market the product by creating a website for the product. Aside from that, pictures of the jewelries will also be posted in one’s facebook page so that friends and friends of friends will see the products. One will also look into the possibility of marketing it through Amazon.com to reach a wider market. This distribution strategy is cost effective rather than setting up a store, which is more expensive because of the overhead costs. Another alternative distribution strategy is to talk with department stores and jewelry stores and offer the jewelries on consignment basis. One considers the above-mentioned distribution strategies as most effective for custom designed jewelry. It will reach the target market that one envisions to be.
The distribution strategies for broadcast and cable TV, internet programming and advertisers all use the web to effectively distribute their products. Since almost all people worldwide use the internet, it would be best for these companies to use to their advantage the distribution strategy offered by e-commerce. Social networking sites are also utilized by some of these companies to distribute their products.
These strategies might converge through partnerships with other distribution outlets available in the internet. Having their own websites is a valuable distribution strategy that companies in high-technology industries can use. Through these websites, they can better sell their products and services because they can explain in detail the technology and processes involved in their products.

Analysis of the by White Titled The Dissertation of Roles by Agencies in the Bahamas

The article talks primarily about the dissertation of roles by agencies in the Bahamas. The agencies have taken into deceitful ways of performing-or creating the illusion of performing- the mandates for which they were formed. It also points out how the Bahamian society in itself has also veered off the very principles that harmoniously bind the society together. The author condemns the political elite for letting the church take root in its establishment. A clear separation must be made as between rule in a secular state and the church. However, in this case it appears that the church has developed a political arm, which has a firm grip amongst the legislators.
Secondly, what is the purpose of the writer? The author tries to shed light on gross violations in the Bahamian society which are going on unabated yet, the very agencies designed to safeguard against this take to shifting responsibilities and sometimes taking part in perpetuating these violations themselves e.g. the police, specifically in charge of security, differ it’s duty by pegging its performance on the church’s intervention. Secondly, he condemns the church over its abuse of public trust by getting swayed into primarily pubic-related issues as opposed to their divine calling to administer matters of faith. Thirdly, he serves to open the eyes of members of the society to the realization that the overall change as desired by the state-to free Bahamas of the previous year mishaps-lies ultimately in themselves as citizens. He accomplishes this by showing failures of the legislatures, the security agents, and the custodians of the society such as the church.
Thirdly, we examine the writer’s tone and feelings. The author is disapproving-even critical-about the ability to realize the objectives of state for the New Year. He begins with much hope following the declaration by Bahamas Christian Council that calls on a change of people’s attitudes. This hope gradually ebbs away into despair, and he appears disillusioned in lieu of the rot within the very council empowered to oversee the transition. He appears enraged at one point when the BCB makes submissions to the local cable network and the URCA on suitable time to air adult-rated programming. To him, it seems the council is being hypocritical by at one point rightly condemning airing of pornography due to its impact on children, yet in the very same breathe appears to approve its viewing by the adult population (White field 3, paragraph 5). Shouldn’t the council condemn and propose a ban of pornographic content in its entirety? Secondly, what legitimacy does the council’s act to endure the entire duration of the 12 pornographic programs has? The alignment of paragraphs helps propose a contrast and comparison scenario for the audience. At the very beginning, he precedes by showing the genesis of the discussion alongside the statement of New Year objectives by the State of Bahamas. This is followed by the explanation of who is responsible for the administration of these objectives. This includes the church and the police. The subsequent paragraphs are structured to show the norm vis-à-vis the prevailing condition one of the participating agents in the change process. These latter sections help build the writer’s case for the opposition. Ultimately, it legitimizes the writers almost disillusioned verdict over the Bahamian society.
Next, is there evidence for the writer’s argument? The writer brings forth documented proof that substantiates his repugnance as to the church’s and in particular, the BCB’s – inability to impartially, and effectively address “the erosion of decency and standards in the Bahamas.” The writer points to some of the court cases that have been brought forth against members of the clergy accused of depraved social misconduct and some even jailed. Common sense aids in the writer’s dismissal of the council’s use of media limelight as opposed to the much more authoritative and ever-present pulpit. The council’s selective approach on which matters to handle, and which to turn a blind eye on, and its political association has considerably dented the writer’s and the greater society’s faith in the council to deliver.
Thereafter, we analyze the use of figurative language. The council has been accused of being as “quiet as a church mouse.” The idiom is used to symbolize the BCB’s silence over matters, which ordinarily they should be very vocal on. In this case, the molestation of local innocent children by Bahamian teachers seems not to have caught their interest but the docking of a cruise ship carrying lesbian and gay couples-both mature and consenting-bolted them into an uproar. The author says that it was “refreshing” to hear about the BCB’s bold strategy of re-engineering morality in the Bahamas as if it was a drink quenching thirst. Another figurative language is seen in the council’s “turning of a blind eye” towards local cases of sexual abuse by local teachers against innocent school children and the “hue and cries” following the docking of a cruise ship bearing what it considers questionable cargo in the form of lesbian and gay couples. The council has been personified and given human-like attributes such as physical features, for example, eyes and emotions. There is the constant use of irony in the extract. The author shows the irony in the council’s patience to watch 12 porn programs for the entire duration and in the house of a senior citizen. It is as if the “distinguished” council members are ignorant about the obvious potent content at sight that they must watch it at their complete duration. He also uses irony in dismissing the BCB’s tough stand against legalization of gambling in the Bahamas yet the very same earnings from the trade find its way into the church’s coffers during Sunday prayers to fund the extravagant life that the council members enjoy. The use of personification, similes, and irony are critical in building the writer’s purpose. Ultimately, this legitimizes his tough criticisms of the council. The figurative languages help a third party audience to almost naturally side with the author as against the state and the church.
Sixth is an assessment of fallacies therein and their interpretation. The fallacy of begging the question is evident in the BCB’s claim that children have technological access within their bedrooms that they use to access pornography at odd hours. Their proof being that the house of a prominent woman-whom they do not disclose – being frequented by minors falls short of their proposal to URCA or Cable Bahamas to restrict the airing of adult-content is inconsistent. The fallacy of hasty generalization is also displayed in the same process. The council assumes that since there is evidence of the senior citizen host’s inability to use the set box effectively for parental control then all parents are ignorant of the same (White field 3, paragraph 7). A fallacy of false cause is seen in the speech by the council’s president where he quotes directly from the Bible in an attempt to portray the church clergy as “a royal priesthood” as the rightful and endeared group that can bring liberation to the Bahamians (White field 4, paragraph 1).
Next, we examine the writer’s opposition. The writer refutes the idea that a generally morally unconscious body in the form of the Bahamas church council should be designated the front line in the war against social problems in Bahamas. He provides resistance that a council that directly gets emoluments in forms of offerings from the very corrupt acts of members of the society does not have the moral authority to condemn the practice (Whitefield 2, paragraph 9). Furthermore, he argues that the selective application of duties and responsibilities constitutes a lack of will on the doer’s part to be fully accountable to the people of Bahamas. Such hypocrisy, according to the author, depraves the doer of any legitimacy.
Consequently, a table of claims and proof for the writer’s cause is required. Claim of facts is seen in the writer’s expression that the church ministers will better win their war against child pornography viewing and generally the decaying moral sense of society in the pulpits instead of behaving like politicians in the media (White file 3, paragraph 6). Secondly, it is seen in the court cases against some church ministers leading to jail sentences in some (White file 3, paragraph 1). Claims of policy are seen in the church’s tough stand against gambling dating as back as 1960. Proposals in 1979 that would have legalized the act were shot down due to intense lobbying by the church (White file 2, paragraph 6-7).
I find it highly inappropriate that an already battered council should be entitled to the restoration of normalcy in the Bahamian society. I find it also key that parents should take a more pro-active role in guiding both their children and in preventing the pervasion of moral values as between the adult population. After all, charity begins at home.

“Pro &amp

Cons of Social Media" Module Social Media Measurement Describe the social media measurement process. Social media measurement is in its early stages, therefore, it is projected to evolve as time goes by and marketers figure out a way to evaluate the data produced by the social media interactions (Truste Whitepaper 2). The social media measurement process comprises of five stages, which begin at the concept phase followed by definition phase, design phase, deployment phase and end at the optimization phase. The concept phase involves determining what brands wish to attain by advancing their relationships with the customers and the prospects. This stage requires an individual to set business objectives, establish important performance indicators that relate to the objectives and create performance targets to evaluate success. The second stage of the social media measurement process is the definition phase. It requires an individual to make an outline showing how social media platforms could be supplemented to attain a brand target and interact with them to achieve the objectives. Design, is the third phase of the social measurement process. It involves laying out appropriate venues and specific tactics for the brand that will help in establishing an active social media presence. Deployment is the fourth stage and it entails the program implementation and launch, which ensures that accurate data is collected and the program is launched appropriately. Optimization is the final phase of the social media measurement process. It seeks to look at performance drivers and identify opportunities that can assist in adjusting the program for better results (Murdough 94).
Why is it important to understand the reach of social media—how do the key messages propagate across social venues?
The reach of social media refers to the amount of traffic or the number of people that are accessing the social media platform. It involves monitoring the number of mentions and the characteristics of the authors. Some authors have more influence on social media, therefore, being able to promote the brand effectively when they mention it. Other authors have less influence (Bernhardt, Darren &amp. Amanda 137). Therefore, it is important for the key authors to mention the brand as it will generate more comments and discussions that will promote it. Messages are transmitted across different social media platforms such as Facebook, twitter and MySpace in different ways. Facebook, blogs and discussion forums have room for comments that can be viewed by customers and prospects, therefore, promoting the brand. On the other hand, Twitter offers tweets that can easily be seen by prospect customers when an author promotes the brand (Murdough 95).
Name and describe the pillars of social media?
According to Chris Murdough, the three pillars of social media are reach, discussions and outcomes. As aforementioned, reach involves the extent to which the brand is mentioned by different authors on the social media platform. It involves careful considering the authors’ influence and the social media platform used to promote the brand. The other pillar of social media is discussions. In the social media, messages are transmitted to the customers and prospects through discussions. Brands are promoted by different authors using discussions that influence the customers positively (Murdough 95). The third pillar of social media is outcomes. These include the purchases and number of leads that the brand has received. One should monitor the outcomes as they indicate the economic value of the social media experience (Murdough 96).
What does the Application Programming Interface (API) measure?
This is a tool that is utilised to help an individual to access social insight activities that are not promptly available in the public domain of the social programs. Using the API, an individual is able to measure usage and access information on Facebook insights.
How does this article make you think about social media?
This article helps an individual to see the power of social media in marketing. It shows that social media is an important tool for promoting a brand when one uses the right venues ad authors. The article shows the different ways that an individual can measure social media’s marketing success. It also gives insights into the different ways that an individual can improve a brand’s image by marketing it through influential authors and measuring the impact by evaluating purchases (Murdough 97).
Works Cited
Bernhardt, Jay M., Darren Mays, and Amanda K. Hall. "Social marketing at the right place And right time with new media." Journal of Social Marketing 2.2 (2012): 130-137. Print.
Murdough, Chris. "Social Media Measurement." Journal of Interactive Advertising 10.1 (2009): 94-99. Print.
Truste Whitepaper. The Pros and Cons of Social Media Marketing Surviving and Thriving in The Era of User Generated Content. San Francisco: Truste Whitepaper, 2010. Print.

Objectives of Promotional Strategy of Plush Karaoke

During my internship at Plush Karaoke, I had a special focus on acquiring knowledge on the different strategies employed for marketing and promotion of services in the organization. To ensure this was effectively understood, I had to partake in the numerous marketing and promotion activities of the organization, among which were advertising, sales promotion, selling, and public relation (Steinke 145).
In Plush Karaoke, a promotion was used for the purpose of expanding the market, as well as retaining its current position in the market. Similarly, this organization employed a promotional strategy for the purposes of presenting a corporate viewpoint in regard to public issues (Steinke 142). The organization also found promotional strategies as being key to reaching the target markets for its products. Among the organizational goals herein were the identification of particular promotional objectives and goals for the purposes of providing information on the services. On the other hand, there was a need to differentiate the services, stabilize sales, increase sales, as well as accentuating the service value.
Among the promotional practices offered by the organization, which I took part in their marketing and promotion were. happy Thursday, expansion of craft beer, adding a second TV in each room, barber cut machine, new song selections, sports programming at bar area, music video at the bar area and refreshed food menu. The sales promotion practice included many forms such as personal selling, advertising and public relation for the purposes of increasing sales via the one-time efforts of selling. In addition, the organization considered the sales promotion practice as an important part in the promotional mix (Steinke 143). I got engaged in Point-of-Purchase Advertising (POP), which involved demonstrations and displays for promoting the services through video advertisements on the shopping charts of supermarkets.

Introducation to computer science assingment

Introduction to computer science Q5. The multi stage programming language enables the programmers to use the mechanism of abstraction such as the modules, functions and the objects. The array of the pointers that are capable of being inter-linked to different structures helps the programmer to avoid having accidental captures as the bound variables are always renamed(Finkel,1996). The interlinking of the arrays in the structure enhances the reasoning on the quoted terms even in the settings that is untyped.This makes it easy for the programmers to access the elements that are in the array.
Q6. The value that can be retrieved from the table by the pop instruction is 11 C. this is because it is possible to get the pointer in to the first element of the vector through incrementing this pointer in order to access the second pointer. The value that will be found in the pointer after the pop operation is 12 A. on the other hand, the deque is not a guarantee of a contiguous storage which contains the same elements (10, 11 12) and getting the pointer to the first element does not guarantee that you will get access to the second pointer by incrementing the pointer (Finkel, 1996)
.
Q7. Assuming that the stricture above represents a queue, the value that will be removed from the queue is 14.this is because it is obtained after several increments of 10. The head pointer will next point at 13 which will be the value before 14.
The queue will appear as follows when Z is introduced.
Address Contents
10 Z
11 F
12 C
13 A
14 B
15 E
Q8. This is a complete tree and the value 54 is the valid value for the tree.
55
/ \
56 59
/ \ / \
60 54 62 65
When the value 54 is null, the binary diagram of the tree will be,
55
/ \
111 112

Q9. A binary tree without the pointers will look like this.
* 55 is the root node.
*In order to obtain the left child of a certain index, we multiply the current index 2 and we add 1. *for us to get the right child on this specific index, we multiply the current index by 2 and then we add 2.
*to obtain the parent of a certain index, we subtract one and divide by two. The remainder is then thrown away.
Q10. The reference data types are used to refer to objects while the primitive data types usually contain some values. Some of the example of primitive data type includes the byte, int Boolean and the float.
Q11. When writing a chessboard structure that has an 8-by-8 grid, the programmer can consider using arrays that contains chess like structure which is a two dimension array. In order to store the position of the chess piece. The two dimension array is used in pinpointing individual elements in the array (Finkel, 1996)
Reference
Finkel, R. A. (1996). Advanced programming language design. Menlo Park, Calif. [u.a.: Addison-Wesley.

The Financial Reporting of ITV plc

ITV plc is a company established in the United Kingdom in the communication &amp. media industry. The company has captured and penetrated television market to the tone of becoming UK’s biggest commercial service broadcaster. Broadcasting companies such as ITV are highly dependent on advertising revenues. The company has various digital channels as well as a highly diversified programming offering for its clients in the UK and internationally. The internet business is a great opportunity to export the material of the station to other markets such as the North American market. ITV was created in 2003 after the merger of Carlton &amp. Granada Corporations. The international production businesses of the company promise to be a source of future income which was created by the company’s ability to forecast the marketplace and make strategic moves to further enhance the multiple sources of renewable income a company in the television and media broadcasting business needs to be successful.
In 2006 ITV obtained 2189 million euros in sales globally. The firm performed very well financially in comparison with the communication industry. In order to show the company’s achieved a financial ration analysis of the financial statements of ITV was performed and compared to the communication services industry SIC 4899. Appendix A shows a ratio analysis of ITV along with comparative data from the performance of the communications industry. The company’s net margin in 2006 was over 10% which is extremely good considering the industry had a -1.6% net margin (Dun &amp. Bradstreet, 2007). The return of assets of the company was 7.8% which is 10.2% higher than the industry median performance of -3%. The company’s debt to equity ratio is a bit higher than the industry, but considering the way, ITV invested its capital the debt was put to good use.

Portfolio Optimization using Linear Nonlinear and Integer Programming and Blackschole Theory

Portfolio optimization dwells on the improvement of the portfolio and improving the value and level of the stock portfolio to that which proves attractive to the market. The criterion allows for the combination of the various aspects either directly or indirectly. The optimization aspect allows for the analysis of the expected value and the rate of return and their dispersion. The dispersion looks at the distribution of the rate of return to the stock adding value to it and through these measures, the financial risks also undergo analysis to provide evidence and confidence in the investors. It’s through portfolio optimization that investors understand the various risks existing in the market that allows them.
Portfolio optimization will require identification of a portfolio that is rich in diversification to ensure it provides good support to the portfolio. Following the yahoo finance, the following portfolio was considered. Considering the modern portfolio theory as developed by Harry Markowitz, the standard deviation of the various portfolios and its rate of return as means of maximizing the expected returns are considered for the risks that may engulf the portfolio. These provide an efficient portfolio. Considering the trade-off between the risks involved with the expected returns that the portfolio covers. Considering the historical factors of the stocks provides the investors with better decisions on the direction of the stock over time. These based on the curves on the value of the stocks, its prices and volumes traded. Considering the standard deviation, the volatility of the stock, and the stock prices and volumes provide a better position on the stock. Considering these enables, the investors provide a better response to their portfolio needs.
Considering the initial portfolio selection, the following portfolio is selected. Some of the rapidly growing industries include technology, the real estate sector, and the banking industry.

PLC stands for Programmable Logic Controller

It looks at the inputs, and either turns its outputs on or off. To be able to work, the PLC first monitors different conditions. Basing on these conditions, an outcome is determined. The next step of PLC operation is the creation of logical rules by use of programmable software which allows for adaptability. The final is decision-making depending on logical rules. Decisions are determined by logical rules that the PLC is taught by way of its programming software.
The PLC functions by observing the interaction of four internal areas. The four internal areas of the PLC are the Central Processing Unit, CPU, the memory, the communication ports, and the Input/Output devices (AutomationDirect.com, 2010).
The CPU is the place where decision-making in the PLC takes place. It also has a memory, where the CPU stores the user’s control program, the Input/Output (I/O) status, and data. Communication ports make up the third internal area, and these allow for the user’s program to be loaded into the memory from a personal computer (PC). It also facilitates communication with other external memories including other PLCs in order to exchange data. The fourth internal area is made up of Input/Output devices
Why were PLC’s were invented/developed – PLCs were initially developed to meet specifications that were developed by General Motor’s Hydra-matic division to replace relay-based machine control due to their use of latter logic programming. PLCs would, therefore, help to allow for quick changes and reduction in wiring, and troubleshooting time. This was a huge development from the older relay-based control systems.
Non-industrial application of PLC’s includes – amusement parks, car-washes, and elevators.
The most widely used PLC programming language is latter logic, which is a carry-over from relay-based control systems.
What makes a PLC very versatile is the ability to program and re-program it. Re-programming makes it possible to change the outcome when, and if, the future conditions change, so as to meet the changing needs.

Technological innovation

Technology and innovation has helped the globalization movement in a lot of ways. One of the aspects in which globalization has benefited a lot from technology is in terms of communication. The telephone allowed people to communicate from long distances. During the last decade there has been a proliferation worldwide of cellular phones as prices has come down significantly. As of March 2011 there were 5.3 billion cellular subscriptions worldwide, 4.2 billion of which corresponded to individual users (Plunkett Research, 2011). Over 20% of cellular subscriptions belong to businesses which show how important this communication device has become in the industry. Smartphones such as the Iphone 4 have the capability to communicate to the internet allowing its users to transmit data instantly across devices. The internet is another major technological breakthrough that has increase globalization worldwide. People are able to use the internet to learn about the cultures of over 200 countries across the world. The internet has further increased the reach of television as traditional television programming can be access free of charge through websites such as Hulu.com.
A second important factor that has affected the globalization movement is research collaboration worldwide. Many top universities are performing joint projects and alliances with other universities and private organizations that are located in different countries. The spread of peer reviewed professional databases whose articles are written by the global academic community has increased the global knowledge in hundreds of disciplines such as engineering, accounting, healthcare, and agriculture. Lower prices in technological devices such as laptop computers, tablets, and mini-computers have given millions of students the opportunity to take advantage of technology to improve their efficiency as students. More research is being perform by students, faculty members, and researchers than ever partly because these individuals can purchase electronic gadgets at low prices.
World wide development has improved due to globalization. There is greater cooperation among nations to help poor countries through technology transfers to improve their efficiency at critical industries such as agriculture. Advances in genetic engineering have helped farmers produce crops that generate higher yield in the same amount of space. Social development has improved due to globalization. The global community is more aware of the needs of other nations. There are a lot of volunteering efforts from organizations across the world to help improve the standard of living of nations suffering in extreme poverty such as the Sub-Saharan African region.
Technology has greatly impacted the production capacity of many countries. As more goods are being produced due to superior technology some countries have being able to gain competitive advantages in certain industries such as the Japanese in the auto and electronics industry. Mass production techniques that optimize the use of labor have helped China become the largest exporter in the world. Advances in renewable energy technologies such as solar, wind, and electric power have reduced the global dependency of society in petroleum and its derivative products. The quality of health worldwide has increased due to technological advances that have improved the capacity of doctors to diagnose and treat diseases.
References
Plunkett Research (2011). Wireless, WiFi, RFID, &amp. Cellular Industry Overview. Retrieved August 18, 2011 from Plunkett Research database.

The Desire to Be Own Boss

Resume /Interview I was born in the south of Bulgaria, in a small called Smoljan. I am the youngest child in a nuclear family. My education life started in this city, and continued up to the high school level. After high school, I enrolled into Technical University of Gabrovo, taking computer science program. The program introduced me to programming languages such as c++, PhP, and Java. Education has improved my personal competitiveness in terms of academic achievements and success.
I applied to the Master Degree in order to advance my academic knowledge and career competitiveness. I am a very passionate person when it comes to learning new things. This follows the notion that new things come with challenges, and challenges result in opportunities. Personally, education is an endless process. In other words, completing my degree and achieving professional certifications is just but the beginning of my quest of knowledge. Learning is an on-going process that is neither limited to the formal institutions nor printed certifications and awards.
The drive to start a business is the desire to be my own boss. I believe I am passionate and talented enough to practically exercise my knowledge and skills in a personal business. My core concern is to meet community needs and demands that fall within my business line. My motivation is the desire to serve the broader society through my creativity and innovativeness. Financial success also counts in as a motivational factor, alongside gaining respect and being appreciated for who I am and what I do.
I am a well-rounded individual in terms of honesty, quality, humility and compassion. I want to stand out as a role model for my family and community. Just like the broader society, my family is important to me. I want to provide a nice home and a loving atmosphere for my family. I emphasize on the importance of education to my family since my personal success is highly attributed to education. I have gained values that I would like to see my children and relatives possess. On the same note, I want to see my family enjoy a strong financial portfolio.

Advertising Clutter Demassification and Its Effect of Newspaper and Magazine Readers

Leo Bogart of the Newspaper Advertising Bureau observed that in the 1992 Winter Olympics, the CBS coverage was crammed with so many ads that the event itself has been relegated to a “mere sideshow.” Media is also a business concern and media organizations need advertising revenues to survive, but too much of ads smack of greed and present an irritating distraction to consumers.
Regulating the volume of ad placement in media will not work, as demonstrated in the US when the National Association of Broadcasters required radio and TV stations to limit the number of their commercials in a given program as part of a code of ethics for the broadcast industry. The stations protested and the federal court subsequently ruled against the NAB-ordered limitation as arbitrary and monopolistic. Therefore, the best way to solve the problem of advertising clutter, I think, is to leave the matter alone to consumer welfare groups since it is the consumers themselves who feel slighted by this media practice. There are well-organized consumer groups everywhere who can mount a campaign to persuade newspapers and magazines, radio and TV networks to moderate their ad placements by appealing on their common sense and spirit of fair play. Among the possible arguments is that by serving up more ads than content, the newspapers or stations might alienate their readers or listeners who will feel that their interest is being subordinated to monetary considerations.
Regulatory bodies like the Advertising Standards Canada have helped advance consumer interest in such areas as public health, child welfare and quality programming. For example, the ASC edict controlling or banning ads on alcoholic beverages in broadcast media, depending on the age and educational level of a program’s target audience, certainly promotes public health and well-being through responsible consumption of alcohol. The same benefit is derived from&nbsp.the ASC ruling disallowing tobacco firms from sponsoring major cultural or sporting events, which calls attention to the health risks of smoking.&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Software Quality Assurance

This had been worsened by stiff competition from Vader Aircraft’s Vader XX8 and their yet to be launched Vader XX9 aircrafts. Nonetheless, Maxil has been a model aviation firm, until the recent tragic incident that involved one of their aircrafts, the recently launched Maxil FBW1. This report presents an analysis of the events leading to the accident. it not only indicates how the events contributed to the incident, but also makes recommendations on how improvements can be made in the development of safety critical systems at Maxil.
Investigations reveal a lot of loopholes and inconsistencies that could have, in one way or another, caused the accident. Some of these include shortage of experts in engineering, design and programming, poor cooperation among project stakeholders, as well as threats and intimidation of staff. However, it is evident that the most probable cause of the disaster was the software. data from the flight recorder indicated that the computer controlling the aircraft caused a severe height adjustment moments before the crash. Interviews with the various people involved in the design and development of the software used in the aircrafts indicate that there was a lack of professionalism, right from the programming to the testing phase. However, the most likely cause of the calamity was poor testing.
Software testing starts during the coding of the application. The programmers identify and correct errors in the code as they continue with their work. In this case, despite the fact that Maxil has a team of capable programmers, their knowledge of the ADA and Assembler programming languages, which are utilized in the development of software in the aviation industry, was insufficient. They had to rely on Wayne Goldsmith, himself a design Engineer, to translate the code written by the programmers into either ADA or Assembler. This provided an opportunity for many errors in the code to go

Graph Theory in Computer Science

&nbsp.The first major application of graph theory to operational research was the theory of network flows developed by Ford and Fulkerson in 1956. Graph theory was motivated by the application of interconnection networks that is in the network topology properties like distance, connectivity, and regularity. Thinking about the applications of graph theory in computer science, the first point that comes to mind is that "the World Wide Web can be modeled as a directed graph where each node is a Web page and each hyperlink is an edge or line. Studying Web graphs gives insight into lots of things, such as Web algorithms for crawling, searching or ranking Web resources. Or if a virus spreads, we can use graph theory to see how it would travel through the Web. The Internet is a similar, large graph, and if you want to isolate certain cyber attacks or something, you can do it using graph theory" (Deo)
Due to the importance of graph theory in computer science, computer scientists have developed many interesting and deep graph algorithms. Based on the researches conducted by many computer scientists, they have identified a set of graph problems which has no efficient algorithm for solving those problems. This leads to the birth of an important part of graph theory called NP-Completeness. It is a significant contribution to graph theory in computer science.
Graph theory is mainly used in the following areas of computer science. They are algorithms, cryptography, Fortran, Internet connectivity, logic, Maple programming, Numerical analysis, C, error correction, graph theory, Java, Machine learning, Matlab, and theory of computation.
Various computers, printers, and plotters in a school, college&nbsp.hospital, etc can be connected using Local Area Network.&nbsp.

Analysis principles of logisties management within Mishubishi company in singapore

The competition in the local industries and markets grew stronger, and therefore, the production of products and services improved in the domain of quality in the recent years. The industry of sophisticated transportation developed as a niche of many industries (Spanos, Zaralis, amp. Lioukas, 2004). The companies have a duty to provide their clientele with their orders on their doorsteps, and therefore, the companies are busy in developing their private cargo services so that they can ship orders to their clients at a global level (Akhter, 2007). The company known as Mitsubishi has developed the most advanced transportation system in the world, and they have the proven capability to deliver products within one or two days beginning from the time when the customer placed the order (van de ven, 1992). The key of success in the industry of consumer goods lies with the power of marketing and advertisement (Beasley amp. Frigo, 2011). The ultimate level of success an organization can achieve through placing the products into the market effectively and timely as well.
However, the company does not use any single means of transportation. They decide according to the specific needs of the consumers (David, 2015). The company applies various statistical models in order to manage the demand of its products (Child, 1972). The applied techniques include regression analysis that measures the impact of different independent variables over a target one (David, 2015). The companies have a keen interest in knowing the semi-exact level of demand that they might face in the future (David F. R., 2011). The company uses linear programming as well that assists them in terms of balancing out productivity with quantity so that the organisation can create an optimal level of cost structure that will in turn generate maximum level of profitability in the market (Roulac, et al., 2005). The company operates with the help of having

Silicon Tehnronics Development

Two of the ethical considerations contained in BCS code of conduct would be identified and discussed, with reference to persons who had violated them.
You shall carry out work or study with due care and diligence in accordance with the relevant authority’s requirements, and the interests of system users. If your professional judgment is overruled, you shall indicate the likely risks and consequences.
The CEO, Michael Waterson was the person who was primarily responsible for ensuring the high standard of ethical practices within the organization. As a leader, he was not only responsible for his workers but he was duty bound to help create an environment that encourages fair practices, mutual trust, and confidence building. Instead, he issued threats of terminating the services of workers if deadlines were not met and thereby promoted an environment of fear and stress that provoked his subordinates to resort to unethical practices and deceitful behavior that violated BCS code of conduct. He also employed Sam Reynolds as the project head of highly technical robot division, fully knowing that Reynolds neither had the expertise nor the experience of working with robotics that required working on prototypes prior to a final version. The flaw in the programming led to the malfunctioning of the robot CX30. The main reason being that vital precautionary measures and testing at different levels of software development, as a normal course, could not be conducted due to a non flexible deadline and the hanging threat of dismissal of the project team. Hence Waterson had violated section 3 of BCS code of conduct and he was responsible for the substandard work of his workers and he should have taken full responsibility for the death of the operator.
Section 2 of BCS had also been violated by Michael Waterson.

Report on Design Methods and Technology Project

Security nowadays has become complicated due to the increase in criminal activities that have prompted the use of technology in countering them (Angelo 2007). The robots use only the battery and there are obedient to their programming and instructions given to them by the specialized technicians.
The robots therefore enable the employment of specialized individuals to control and monitor the robot for security purposes. More resources have been wasted due to investment in inefficiency security systems that are not effective. The public, as a result, suffers from the inefficiencies in the security systems and may decide to invest in other options to maximize protection on their premises. Security at present is thus an important venture that should be managed effectively to ensure that those answerable for crimes are brought to book. Robots are efficient systems that can be put into proper use if employed effectively (Angelo 2007).
The robots can improve security significantly and can deal with dangers perpetrated by various people by putting in place strategic measures. The robots are mobile objects using advanced technology to monitor activities around a particular place. The robots are well suited for buildings since they can move smoothly throughout the building. Various robotic systems are used by the military to perform surveillance. One such technology is a drone. It passes over land, and its unmanned reduced the risk of casualties especially where it is monitoring an unauthorized area. There are various financial needs for the efficient running of the project that the report is going to bring forth. The use of robots is quite efficient since the robot is monitored from a distance, and one does not have to be their all the time in the case of humans guarding a particular premise. The robots do not get tired and, therefore, improve the security of an establishment.
The robots need finances and the proper components for security robots are

Artificial Intellengence

Introduction to Computer Literacy-INF 103 Jacqueline Minor Victoria L. Holland 01 of Research Paper: Artificial Intelligence
Since inception mankind has aimed at making life easy and for this purpose it has created and computers to the benefit of human beings. It can also be defined as designing of intelligent agents. This is achieved through programming of computers in form algorithms. The first invented many things to make living comfortable. Artificial Intelligence in this regard is one of the steps that have been successfully implemented. Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be defined as the science of using step in this regard can be traced back to 19th century when Victor Frankenstein attempted at creating life. Over period of time advancements kept coming in this area and today we have robots that can talk, act and move just like human beings, all to artificial intelligence. In modern times the term was introduced by John McCarthy in the year 1956.
Artificial intelligence can be distinguished into various branches that include Perceptive system, vision system, robotics and expert system and neural networks in prime. The A.I equipped machines find large number of uses in modern day, and a prime example can be quoted from the fire fighter machines that are built for purpose of going into the fire blazed buildings and rescuing many lives. In manufacturing industry, A.I finds its use through the assembly line production where automatic transmission and processing takes place, and the system is pre fed and all activities take place in a programmed manner.
Neural networks a branch of artificial intelligence finds large number of applications in modern times in form of voice recognition softwares implementation, and face detection .Various programming languages are used for A.I interpretation, one of them being LISP. Finally the main features of A.I can be summed up as plant layout in an industry, help desk, emergency situation movements, shipping and warehouse movement.
References:
1) Bulgiba, A., amp. Fisher, M. (January 01, 2006). Using neural networks and just nine patient-reportable factors of screen for AMI.nbsp.Health Informatics Journal,nbsp.12,nbsp.3, 213-225
2) Aldiss, B. W. (1995).nbsp.The detached retina: Aspects of SF and fantasy. Syracuse, N.Y: Syracuse University Press
3) Savory, S. E. (1988).nbsp.Artificial intelligence and expert systems. Chichester: E. Horwood.

Strategic Audit

i. Customers are increasingly looking at Smart Technology, such as one-touch programming for spas and baths. heated, self-cleaning and self-closing toilets. washers and dryers with humidity sensors and steam cycles, which provides an opportunity for Lowe’s to sell product upgrades.
ii. China is providing a potential market, as that country has new laws that ease restrictions on buying homes. Moreover, homes in China do not come equipped with basics, such as flooring, fixtures and appliances, so the Chinese people must purchase these items when they buy a new home, which provides avenue for Lowe’s if they decide to expand into that market.
a. Rivalry high – Lowe’s continues to be a distant second to Home Depot in terms of overall revenue. Price competition is keen, and rivals continue to offer new services and new products to attract customers.
b. Potential entry of new competitors is low to moderate – There is limited customer loyalty, capital requirements to enter the industry are high, industry growth rates have been slow because of the recession.
c. Competitive pressures from substitute products is moderate-high – substitutes would include stores that are outside of the home improvement industry, such as Wal-Mart and Costco. brand-name stores, such as Maytag Appliances and Sherwin-Williams paint. and trained professionals, such as plumbers and electricians.
i. Pros – since small, locally-owned businesses are the main threat to Lowe’s, by partnering with these businesses and providing products and services, they get a piece of that pie as well. Small businesses probably need the cash infusion, so everybody wins.
ii. Cons – Increased Ramp.D costs are risky, as there is no telling how the green market will be in the future. It might be a fad, or might be long-lasting. Also, the costs for these items will probably increase with

The sucess of women in engineering programs

Upon the arrival to higher education the female students are recruited and enrolled in the engineering field. There are several established mentoring programs that are offered to the female students so that they start well, maintain the interest, maintain a high Grade Point Average (GPA), remain in the engineering field, graduate successfully from their undergraduate programs, and pursue graduate work in engineering and/or work as engineers. WEPAN (2005) also recognizes the achievements made by women engineers, such as honoring them with The Betty Vetter Award for Research.
There are professional organizations and advocate groups (WEPAN, 2005) that offer workshops, lectures, and seminars geared toward the female engineers. This serves as a support system to help them become interested in engineering, maintain them in engineering, and help them become female engineer leaders. They are also given awards in recognition of their active participation in research related topics to women in engineering (WEPAN, 2005).
Female engineers are given a variety of tools to support them in their endeavors of becoming and staying in the engineering fields as successful engineers. WEPAN (2005) also has The Women in Engineering Initiative (WIEI) Award that gives recognition to outstanding programs or projects to serve as a model to other institutions. Their selection criteria is that: it serves as a model, shares experiences and materials with other institutions. serves as a model for programming formal pre-college or retention activities/projects. shows improvements in education for women in engineering. and, provides professional guidance to students and/or faculty seeking engineering and science as a career or profession.
The Student Outreach Program – Evaluation Tools AWE – Assessing Women in Engineering Project develops assessment instruments and models. assesses program activities to achieve success in the recruiting of women

The Base of Software Development and WEB

This results in a program that is fast in its responses and free of errors. Also, a Unified Modeling Language (UML) will be used to study use requirements in the system and identify possible cases for users at various levels. Use Case diagrams in UML will allow us to establish behavioral patterns for the users of the system in order to correctly asses and develop programming features necessary in an organized manner.
nbsp.Accordingnbsp.to the notes of Jeffrey A. Hoffer, Joey F. George, Joseph S. Valacich (2009) presented in association with their distinguished course in modern systems analysis, the definition for the waterfall model is a traditional model that works in many phases and is often useful in the design of new software systems. In this model, the first phases begin upon the completion of the proceeding phase, with each phase following sequentially. These systems have either no instance or only isolated instances of backtracking and looping. This system provides both simplicities in management and ease of use for the end-user, and so lends itself to goal development in each phase (Higgins 2009).
The performance of the system will be evaluated in this section, including a detailed discussion of the operations necessary for the system to function. Functional requirements will necessitate the division of the system between two user types to be referred to as administrative users (Admin) and student users (students). Assessment of functional requirements will allow for the effective assessment of system requirements.
Non-functional requirements enhance the understanding of unique and specified requirements of the system that are not related to system functionality, including the ease of use and specific hardware/software/upkeep necessary for the successful implementation of the project.
According to the Inopedia homepage, the definition UML provides a nonproprietary standard of best-practices for engineers in software development. UML is a third-generationnbsp.language used for both specification and modeling, with noted success in large architectural projects for complicated and advanced software systems.nbsp.nbsp.

A New Housing Development in the North Essex

A different types of property mix found in these areas, whether the property infrastructure differs between these areas, the cost comparison of different properties in these areas and any interesting aspect near these areas that can add value to the aforesaid property and finally what are the issues how the total pricing of a property may be considered. It is an accepted fact in the Real Estate industry that the price of any property will vary with location. total carpet area, amenities and value additions like nearby supermarkets, swimming pool, and open space. Hence each variable must be considered while proposing a new establishment both for cost effectiveness and customer focus (Pagourtzi et al, 2003).
Data Collection: We have considered housing properties in Colchester, Mersea Island, and Jaywick and details were collected from http://www.rightmove.co.uk/.We selected 58 properties in Jaywick, 60 in Mersea Island and 59 in Colchester so a total of 178 properties were selected. The distribution was more or less equal.
For the above analysis and comparison, t-tests and ANOVAs were conducted and the p-value was noted. The hypothesis was that if the p-value is less than 0.05 it will mean that there is a significant difference between the observations and the observation has not taken place due to chance factors of random sampling and if the p-value is more than 0.05 it will mean that there is a no significant difference between the observations and the observation has taken place due to chance factors of random sampling (Warne et al, 2012).
Further, a multiple regression equation was conducted to find how does pricing of a property relate to the various independent variables like bedrooms, parking space, and others. The equation was done through the software based on R programming language (Wessa, 2014).

Working with Budgets

Budgets Budgets There are a number of budgets that an organization may adopt in planning for its future activities as well as for monitoring performance and evaluation of different areas within the organization. Myself, for instance, work with different types of budgets for planning and monitoring activities within the organization. The first budget I work with is the cash budget. The cash budget is meant for cash planning and control (Hansen et al., 2007). It is a forecast of the organization’s cash inflow and outflow for a given period of time. The main reason why the cash budget is prepared is to help the management keep the cash balances safely in a reasonable relationship to its requirements. It also assists in avoiding idle cash and any cash shortage that may adversely affect the organization. The cash budget consist mainly of four sections: Receipts, where cash balance at the beginning is entered plus all other cash collections from customers and other receipts. disbursement section, where all the cash payments are entered. cash surplus or deficit column, where the difference between receipts and payments are entered and finally, the financing section, enumerating a detailed account of repayments and borrowings expected during the financial period.
The other budget that I work with in the organization where I work is the operating budget. This refers to a statement representing the organization’s financial plan for each duty center during the budget period and shows the operating activities involving expenditures and revenues. The various types of operating budgets I work with include revenue, expense and profit budgets. Revenue budget mainly identifies the revenue needed by the organization and mainly projects organization’s future sales. Expense budget is an operating budget that identifies expected future expenses during the budget period. These include fixed, variable and discretionary costs. Profit budget, on the other hand, is a combination of revenue and expense budget into a single statement to reveal the net and gross profit realized during the period. This budget is important because it aids in making final resource allocation (Ippolito, 2004).
Working with different types of budget separating makes work harder as the organization I work with has been adopting this system. To make work easier, it is imperative that these budgets should be linked together in form of a master budget. A muster budget will be able to incorporate all the organizations financial and operating plans for the entire period (Cooke and Williams, 2004).
References
Cooke, B., Williams P. (2004). Construction planning, programming and control. New York NY: John Willey amp. Sons.
Hansen, DR., Movwen, M.M., amp. Guan, L. (2007). Cost management: Accounting amp. control. New Jersey, NJ: Cengage Learning.
Ippolito, D.S. (2004). Why budgets matter: Budget policy and American politics. New York, NY: Penn State Press.

Letter of Intent

Your full full October 04, Letter of Intent Please write here I am a software engineer pursuing my master’s degree in the field of computer science. I want to apply for the university’s full summer work program because I want to get some international work experience that will help me gain success in my professional life. The program will also help me refine my professional skills and knowledge. Since I come from another country, I want to make full use of this great opportunity to learn and explore work in foreign environment.
I have been an accomplished student throughout my academic life. The GPA in my undergraduate degree is 3.95. One of the most meaningful experiences to me was internship in Cairo Microsoft Innovation Center (CMIC). I have also participated in Imagine Cup 09 in Cairo hosted by Microsoft. This experience can serve as a proof of my professional skills and abilities. In my home country, I have worked on autonomous systems development projects, specifically, on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) for 15 months. Moreover, I have enough experience in collecting requirements, designing, implementing, and testing different software applications. I also have a good knowledge of some key programming languages, such as, c++, java, and JSP.
As a highly motivated person that enjoys working hard and achieving intended results I really want to be the part of this program since it will open a new opportunities towards international work experience. I am grateful in advance for thorough consideration and hope for the call for interview.
Please write your name here 04th of October 2012
Works Cited
No works cited required for letter of intent

Evaluate a research source

Evaluating a Source Current studies have substantiated the assumption that building meaningful teacher-student relationship will facilitate English instruction and learning. Robert Jimenez and Brian Rose are one of those researchers who support such assumption. In their 2010 article Knowing How to Know: Building Meaningful Relationships through Instruction That Meets the Needs of Students Learning English they emphasized the importance of building strong and productive teacher-student relationship while simultaneously trying to find out how to offer valuable, helpful, and more successful instruction and curriculum. The authors are remarkable in terms of credibility. Robert Jimenez is a university lecturer who is engaged in the development of English instruction and Brian Rose is a doctoral aspirant who focuses on the effective teaching strategies for English learners (Jimenez amp. Rose 407).
Their article claims that it is vital to include relationship building directly on the program of teacher education. Teaching is very important, and one may argue that it is exactly those teachers who are effective instructors who create the most meaningful and productive relationships with their pupils. Nevertheless, the authors claim that building meaningful relationships is a part of teaching that is largely ignored in almost all agendas of teacher education. Without a doubt, there seems to be a great deal of benefit in endowing pre-service educators with the instruments and know-how they require to form a relationship with their students at a more profound and useful ways. As mentioned in the article, manifestations of care are probably more important in children’s lives than any particular curriculum or pattern of pedagogy (Jimenez amp. Rose 405). However, the authors stress that teaching and programming can and must be imbued with sympathy, compassion, or concern in mind. The connection between consideration or sympathy and instruction becomes more pronounced in English teaching and learning.
The authors claim that with mainstream learners, the capacity to create meaningful, healthy, and productive relations is usually ignored because communication difficulties are not that many or serious, behaviors are not misconstrued as frequently, and instructions can draw upon their personal experiences to build deeper relationships with their pupils. Basically, meaningful relationships cannot be ignored or seen as marginal or secondary when catering to English learners. The authors provide appropriate and relevant evidence to substantiate their claims. They asked teachers about their perception of English instruction, especially with regard to content. One teacher answered (Jimenez amp. Rose 405):
The language objectives were always a bit more difficult just because, you know, with reading, listening, and writing, speaking, you know, you really have to think that out in the activities. So that was one thing I would say that was a bit more difficult.
This teacher experiences such difficulties because she does not have a meaningful relationship with her students.
Overall, the article is objective, comprehensive, convincing, and recent. It is objective because the authors did not use any value-laden or biased concepts or ideas. comprehensive because the study looked at both English teaching and learning within the point of view of both the teachers and the students. convincing because the authors provided first-hand accounts as well as secondary source analyses. and recent because the study was conducted only three years ago.
Work Cited
Jimenez, Robert amp. Brian Rose. Knowing How to Know: Building Meaningful Relationships through Instruction That Meets the Needs of Students Learning English. Journal of Teacher Education 61.5 (2010): 403+ Print.

Evaluating the performance of Iranian football team utilizing linear programming

This in turn has a positive effect on the overall performance of the entire system. A major advantage that is experienced is that the analysis of the performance of the system can help the managers to come up with a sketch of a suitable plan for the allocation of the budget, common club revenues, rewards and the shared costs to decision making units (Cooper et al 2000).
Charnes et al proposed a CCR model of Data envelopment analysis (DEA) which is a technique based on non parametric linear programming. It is normally used for measuring the relative efficiencies of a given set of decision making units which normally consume multiple inputs to produce multiple outputs. Through further studies, more improvement was done on the previous work on the BCC model. A number of publications have done addressing the application of Data envelopment analysis (DEA) in football. In regard to this Guzman and Morrow made use of information from club’s financial statements in measuring the cooperate performance using the malmquist non parametric technique to measure the efficiency and production. A study conducted in the Spanish football league whereby comparison was done and the results were obtained on the basis of the potential. The Spanish league was also analyzed from a financial point of view (Guzman amp. Morrow, 2007).
The need for analysis of complex decision making arises from the need to monitor the performance of football teams in Iran based on the available records of finance, performance trends and all activities associated with the management of football teams. This will help to make more informed decisions and improve the management and performance of football teams.
Assume that we have n number of Decision making units whereby DMUj. j=1,2,……,n using the input levels Xiij. i=1,2,…,m to produce output levels yrj, r=1,2,….,s. let (xj, yj) denote the input output vector of Decision making units. Consider DMU0(x0, y0) which 0ϵ{1,2,…,n}.
The tree has

How useful is the concept of ideology for media analysis Discuss in relation to soap operas

As the strength of the British army grew weak in confronting an imposing German hostility, the military administration had to resort to Conscription as a means of restoring its strength. But a glimpse at the history of media in the backdrop of public administration and consumerism will show that the positive application of ideological propaganda is an exception than the rule.
Almost every known media type is susceptible to ideological undercurrents, whether as a result of design or accident. The Television as a medium of communication and entertainment allows sophisticated application of ideological persuasion. It has to be remembered that television is a product of the twentieth century. The centuries prior to its invention were not devoid of prevalent ideologies or their imposition on the masses. However, the imposition of the desired set of beliefs and habits were achieved through brute force. These centuries saw colonialism at its peak. and where imperialism exists violence follows. But the twentieth century is different in that empires were giving way to independent republics, especially after the Second World War. Soap Operas, which form the bulk of cultural programming, are truly representative of the rest of the electronic media. A careful study of soap operas helps us understand media in general and media’s role as vehicles of ideological propaganda in particular (History Today, 10).
The soap operas serve as vehicles of ideology in two different ways. The more obvious way is through advertisements and sponsorship. Advertisements are essentially messages to the target audience as to what is good for them, what is it they should aspire for, what it that will gain them respect, etc., is. Of course, the process is not based on force but manipulation and exploitation. In a study conducted by Cynthia Frisby for the Journal of Advertising Research, the relationship

Psychological Stress and Depression and its Treatment

Students with emotional disturbance frequently require services from counseling that apply different eligibility criteria. The teenagers of the age of David are quite diverse in terms of their needs and strengths. The students present with a complex range of disabilities, from conduct disorder to schizophrenia.
Counseling centers in the school campuses endeavor to support the personal and professional growth of students. It is the responsibility of counseling centers to support as many students as possible by facilitating the mental health with the resources available to them. Many counseling centers are multifaceted, offering students direct services, personal, career, and group counseling, and broader outreach programming and consultation. Counselors in the schools work individually and with other educators to meet the developmental needs of students, including those with special needs or learning disabilities. This program should focus on the academic, career, and personal/social developmental needs of students, including those with special needs as the case of David.
Young people like David with high academic ability who excel during their elementary and secondary school years are not necessarily guaranteed similar success in their higher studies, especially when they migrate from their hometown to different places for studies. The transitions academically and socially from school to high school and college are well recognized, but these challenges may seem even more daunting for students who represent the first to pursue higher education from their immediate families. Although the theoretical literature offers several explanations related to underachievement concerns in gifted school-aged students, limited research exists pertaining directly to gifted young people of college age. In addition, issues such as immaturity, self-esteem, unrealistic academic expectations, and inherent learning difficulties have been examined by various researchers for their contribution to academic problems among otherwise talented students (Richard, 2002).

MySQL program

MySQL program Executive Summary This is a discussion paper that analyzes the importance of MySQL progam in an organization. To discuss the paper strategic role of the system to a company, business needs driving the need of the system and the information used in the system are analyzed.
Introduction
A database system is a kind of computer application that is devised to deal with several data, but to keep those data in such a manner that retrieving any snippet of information is proficient than if one just discarded them anyhow all over the location. Finding and retrieving these stored data needs a method with a potential to selectively find the accurate data (MySQL is one of such software). MySQL is a database administration application. A database is a prearranged compilation of information. It is the subsequent most extensively applied open source RDBMS (relational database management system) (DuBois, 2013).
The strategic role the system
The strategic role of MySQL in a company is to manage their database. The MySQL Database Software denotes a client/server application that comprises of a multi threaded SQL server, which maintains diverse backends, numerous different client applications and libraries, managerial tools, and a broad variety of APIs (application programming interfaces) (DuBois, 2013). A relational database keeps data in different tables instead of putting the entire data in one huge storeroom. The database frameworks are prearranged into material files optimized for pace. MySQL role in the company is to assist in retrieving and accessing relevant data from the database. The fact that there is optimization in retrieval and management of the data in the organization due to MySQL, the company can optimize their operations since time to serve customers is extensively reduced by the software.
Business requirements driving need of MySQL
The key to an excellent database is the first procedure for classifying and comprehending the commerce drivers involve. This is to assess why the software is required and what it is needed to perform.nbsp.Other assessments include: the kind of the databases information, how data will be input and retrieved, kind of data to be stored, and the interrelations of information or data stored.
Another main aspect is the design technology, or structured strategy, to assist separate the data that is need. To enhance this it is essential to agree in advance, construct, then advanced and triad until it is accurate. nbsp. MySQL adequately satisfies the requirements of the business since it optimizes time of data retrieval and provides the above requirements.
The Information Used in MySQL System
MySQL is a quick, user-friendly being applied for numerous small and big enterprises. MySQL is an extremely influential application in its functionality (DuBois, 2013). It deals with a big subset of the functionality of the most powerful and expensive database collections. MySQL enhances huge databases, up to fifty million arrays or more in excel. It is customizable. The common data expressions used to retrieve data include SubSELECTs:
MySQL is competent of procedure a query in the form
SELECT * FROM first table
WHERE x IN (SELECT y FROM second table) (DuBois, 2013)
Conclusion
MySQL is a database system that assists to retrieve and manage data from company databases. MySQL role in the company is to assist in retrieving and accessing relevant data from the database. MySQL adequately satisfies the requirements of the business since it optimizes time of data retrieval and provides the above requirements.
Reference
DuBois, P. (2013). MySQL. Addison-Wesley

Programming the technology

The availability of customers’ information at numerous sources initiated concerns about its privacy. Customers began to worry about the theft of their information and also about its usage for different purposes.
There are many sources of data from where the security breach may initiate and privacy of the individual may be threatened. Kahn (2010) stated some of them, namely healthcare records, financial institutions, residence and postal records, business transactional data etc. The need of the hour is for the organizations to understand the meaning of privacy. it does not mean to stop the data collection process, rather it means to understand the boundaries and limitations by which the customer’s data should be used. Business organizations, health-care establishments, financial institutions need to ensure that the usage of the customers’ information complies with the terms that were communicated to the customer at the time of the data collection. Since otherwise, it is considered unethical and illegal (in some instances) to use the information for analytical purposes for the betterment of their business.
There are an increasing number of instances of security breach around the world. Waters (2008) quoted a survey that constituted of 1000 companies. it was concluded that almost 90% of them allowed their employees to leave the office premises with confidential data on their USB devices. This is just one of the examples of how customer’s data is not protected in the hands of the organizations. another common happening in which the customer’s privacy is threatened is the theft of computers and laptops in which data is not encrypted. Few other techniques that go against the privacy rights of the customers are hacking, phishing, eavesdropping, intrusion etc. Waters (2008) also stated that security breaches cost UK billions of pounds every year.
Some

Describe the areas of application for java programming

Android applications All are actually written in Java programming language, with Google’s Android API, which is similar to JDK. Couple of years back Android has provided much needed boost and today…

Engineering Technology

Describe the areas of application for java programming

Android applications All are actually written in Java programming language, with Google’s Android API, which is similar to JDK. Couple of years back Android has provided much needed boost and today…

Engineering Technology

a

1. Happy Dog Inc. produces three types of dog food. Puppy
Blend is produced for dogs that are less than a year old,
Adult Blend for dogs between 1 and 8 years old, and
Geriatric Blend for dogs older than 8 years. Each blend,
sold in 5-pound bags, has a unique recipe that requires,
among other ingredients, exact quantities of certain raw
materials.
Demand (in
Chicken
Fish Meal
Soy Flour
5-lb. bags)
Puppy Blend
2.5 lbs.
1.0 lbs.
0.5 lbs.
2,000
Adult Blend
1.5 lbs.
2.0 lbs.
0.5 lbs.
8,000
Geriatric Blend
1.0 lbs.
2.0 lbs.
1.0 lbs.
1,000
Availability of
10,000 lbs.
20,000 Ibs.
5,000 Ibs.
raw material
a. Formulate a linear programming model that pro-
duces as many bags of dog food as possible without
exceeding the demand or the available supply of raw
material.
b. Reformulate the linear programming model if the
company is now interested in maximizing their profit
(price – raw material cost) from dog food produc-
tion. Assume that Puppy Blend sells for $9.50 per
bag. Adult Blend sells for $8.50 per bag, and Geriatric
Blend sells for $9.00 per bag. Further, chicken costs
$2.50 per pound, fish meal costs $1.25 per pound.
and soy flour costs $2.00 per pound. How does this
new information change your linear programming
model?
Operations Management

a

1. Happy Dog Inc. produces three types of dog food. Puppy
Blend is produced for dogs that are less than a year old,
Adult Blend for dogs between 1 and 8 years old, and
Geriatric Blend for dogs older than 8 years. Each blend,
sold in 5-pound bags, has a unique recipe that requires,
among other ingredients, exact quantities of certain raw
materials.
Demand (in
Chicken
Fish Meal
Soy Flour
5-lb. bags)
Puppy Blend
2.5 lbs.
1.0 lbs.
0.5 lbs.
2,000
Adult Blend
1.5 lbs.
2.0 lbs.
0.5 lbs.
8,000
Geriatric Blend
1.0 lbs.
2.0 lbs.
1.0 lbs.
1,000
Availability of
10,000 lbs.
20,000 Ibs.
5,000 Ibs.
raw material
a. Formulate a linear programming model that pro-
duces as many bags of dog food as possible without
exceeding the demand or the available supply of raw
material.
b. Reformulate the linear programming model if the
company is now interested in maximizing their profit
(price – raw material cost) from dog food produc-
tion. Assume that Puppy Blend sells for $9.50 per
bag. Adult Blend sells for $8.50 per bag, and Geriatric
Blend sells for $9.00 per bag. Further, chicken costs
$2.50 per pound, fish meal costs $1.25 per pound.
and soy flour costs $2.00 per pound. How does this
new information change your linear programming
model?
Operations Management

Describe how

catching exceptions
can help with
file errors. Write three

Question

Describe how catching exceptions can help with file errors. Write three

Python examples that actually generate file errors on your computer and catch the errors with try: except: blocks. Include the code and output for each example in your post.

Describe how you might deal with each error if you were writing a large production program. These descriptions should be general ideas in English, not actual Python code.

Python Programming

Describe how

catching exceptions
can help with
file errors. Write three

Question

Describe how catching exceptions can help with file errors. Write three

Python examples that actually generate file errors on your computer and catch the errors with try: except: blocks. Include the code and output for each example in your post.

Describe how you might deal with each error if you were writing a large production program. These descriptions should be general ideas in English, not actual Python code.

Python Programming

this is a python programming

I Have Your answer to this problem in thequot;Millen. pyquot; like !`
Recall that amp; Python list can contain any type of element , even another list. As a result, we can have list of lists, licks of lists
of lists , and so on . with ever- increasing levels of nesting . This problem intends to put a stop In that sort of nonsense .
Complete the Flatten ! ! function , which takes a single list as its argument . The function examines its list argument and*
RECURSIVELY’ generates (and returns ; a new single- level ( non – nested; list that contains every element from the original
list, in the same onder it appeared in that list . For example , the list 12. 14. 61 . $1 contains a list as one of its elements !
Flatten ! ! will process this list and return the new single- level list 12. 4 6. $1. where the inner list has been eliminated!
and its elements have replaced the original sublist
The possible recursive strategy resembles the following*
. If the current list is an empty list . simply return an empty list ( This is your base case )
. Otherwise !
. If the first element of the current list is a list, return the result of flattening that list plus the result of flattening the
reminder of the list . ( This is your first recursive case )*
. Otherwise , return a list containing just the first element plus the result of flattening the remainder of the list . ( This
Is your second recursive case )
Hint : Python has a special function named is instance !’ that can be extremely helpful here. isinstance !’ lakes
two arguments . amp; value to examine , and the name of a Python type (in this case . List) . It reams True or False
depending on whether the first argument belongs In the specified type . For example , the function call is instance ( 12 .
int ) returns True . while the function call amp; singtance ! ‘ 3 . 14 ‘, Float ; returns False.
Function Lull
Heturn Value
Flatten ! ! ! !
Flatten $ 1 21 1
121
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\13 . 6 . 1 . 01
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[ 151
\11 . 3 . 5 . 7 . 5 . 111
flatten ! ! !$1 . 32 . 36 . 55 , 193. 541 . 50 .
15 . 32 , 36 . 55, 53 . 59 . 98 , BB ]
leei’ll
Flatten ! ! ! !131 1 1 1 1\
131
Flatten $ 165 , 152 . 411 . 17. 124. 351 . 931 .
165 , 52 . 41 . 7, 14. 35, 93, 73, 33 . 5^ ^ ^` .`
73 . 33 . 91. 14. 163, 24 . 1 127 , 381 . 178 .
$3 , 24 , 27 , 89 , 78 , 75, 13, 31 , 841
75 . 131 . 311 . 841 1 1\
Python Programming

this is a python programming

I Have Your answer to this problem in thequot;Millen. pyquot; like !`
Recall that amp; Python list can contain any type of element , even another list. As a result, we can have list of lists, licks of lists
of lists , and so on . with ever- increasing levels of nesting . This problem intends to put a stop In that sort of nonsense .
Complete the Flatten ! ! function , which takes a single list as its argument . The function examines its list argument and*
RECURSIVELY’ generates (and returns ; a new single- level ( non – nested; list that contains every element from the original
list, in the same onder it appeared in that list . For example , the list 12. 14. 61 . $1 contains a list as one of its elements !
Flatten ! ! will process this list and return the new single- level list 12. 4 6. $1. where the inner list has been eliminated!
and its elements have replaced the original sublist
The possible recursive strategy resembles the following*
. If the current list is an empty list . simply return an empty list ( This is your base case )
. Otherwise !
. If the first element of the current list is a list, return the result of flattening that list plus the result of flattening the
reminder of the list . ( This is your first recursive case )*
. Otherwise , return a list containing just the first element plus the result of flattening the remainder of the list . ( This
Is your second recursive case )
Hint : Python has a special function named is instance !’ that can be extremely helpful here. isinstance !’ lakes
two arguments . amp; value to examine , and the name of a Python type (in this case . List) . It reams True or False
depending on whether the first argument belongs In the specified type . For example , the function call is instance ( 12 .
int ) returns True . while the function call amp; singtance ! ‘ 3 . 14 ‘, Float ; returns False.
Function Lull
Heturn Value
Flatten ! ! ! !
Flatten $ 1 21 1
121
\Flatteni13 . 5 . 1 . 01 1
\13 . 6 . 1 . 01
\Flatten ! ! 151 1 1\
Flatten 1 1 1 . 3 . 5 . 171 . 5 . 11 1 1
[ 151
\11 . 3 . 5 . 7 . 5 . 111
flatten ! ! !$1 . 32 . 36 . 55 , 193. 541 . 50 .
15 . 32 , 36 . 55, 53 . 59 . 98 , BB ]
leei’ll
Flatten ! ! ! !131 1 1 1 1\
131
Flatten $ 165 , 152 . 411 . 17. 124. 351 . 931 .
165 , 52 . 41 . 7, 14. 35, 93, 73, 33 . 5^ ^ ^` .`
73 . 33 . 91. 14. 163, 24 . 1 127 , 381 . 178 .
$3 , 24 , 27 , 89 , 78 , 75, 13, 31 , 841
75 . 131 . 311 . 841 1 1\
Python Programming

Help me sumarise this article pleaseTHE COGNITIVE IMPLICATIONS OF OBESITY AND NUTRITION IN

Question

Help me sumarise this article please

THE COGNITIVE IMPLICATIONS OF OBESITY AND NUTRITION IN

CHILDHOOD Naiman A.Khan, Lauren B. Raine, Sharon M.Donovan, and Charles H.Hillman ABSTRACT

The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has tripled since the 1980s and is strongly linked to the early onset of several metabolic diseases. Recent studies indicate that lower cognitive function may be another complication of childhood obesity. This review considers the research to date on the role of obesity and nutrition on childhood cognition and brain health. Although a handful of studies point to a maladaptive relationship between obesity and aspects of cognitive control, remarkably little is known regarding the impact of fat mass on brain development and cognitive function. Further, missing from the literature is the role of nutrition in the obesity-cognition interaction. Nutrition may directly or indirectly influence cognitive performance via several pathways including provision of key substrates for optimal brain health, modulation of gut microbiota, and alterations in systemic energy balance. However, in the absence of malnutrition, the functional benefits of specific nutrient intake on particular cognitive domains are not well characterized. Here, we examine the literature linking childhood obesity and cognition while considering the effects of nutritional intake. Possible mechanisms for these relationships are discussed and suggestions are made for future study topics. Although childhood obesity prevalence rates in some developed countries have recently stabilized, significant disparities remain among groups based on sex and socioeconomic status. Given that the elevated prevalence of pediatric overweight and obesity may persist for the foreseeable future, it is crucial to develop a comprehensive understanding of the influence of obesity and nutrition on cognition and brain health in the pediatric population. The obesity epidemic continues to affect a remarkably high proportion of the world’s population. It is projected that the percentage of adults who are overweight or obese around the world could increase from 33% in 2005 to 58% by 2030 (Kelly, Yang, Chen, Reynolds, He, 2008). In the United States, Corresponding author: Naiman A. Khan, University of Illinois, 313 Louise Freer Hall, MC-052 906 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, 51 over 30% of adults are obese and estimates of childhood overweight (85th percentile BMI-for-age) and obesity (95th percentile BMI-for-age) prevalence stand at approximately 32% and 17%, respectively (Ogden, Carroll, Kit, Flegal, 2012). Consequently, the estimated deaths attributed to obesity and its comorbidities have increased by 77% since 1991 (Mokdad, Marks, Stroup, Gerberding, 2004). Given that childhood obesity is projected to nearly double over the next 20 years, accumulation of excess fat mass has become the most pressing public health concern among children in the developed world (Wang, Beydoun, Liang, Caballero, Kumanyika, 2008). Although elevated BMI has been associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes in adults, the impact of obesity on cognitive health in childhood remains unknown (Hildreth, Pelt, Schwartz, 2012; Jeong, Nam, Son, Son, Cho, 2005; Stanek et al., 2011). Current knowledge is equivocal and is based on studies that have widely divergent methodologies. Furthermore, the majority of studies in children examining the obesity-cognition interaction fail to assess nutritional intake, which might have independent or synergistic effects on both obesity and cognition. Although the human brain develops rapidly over the first 2 years of life, functional development of the hippocampus and frontal lobe—regions involved in relational memory and cognitive control (inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility)— continues throughout childhood (Bryan et al., 2004; Johnson, 2001; Lenroot Giedd, 2006; Thatcher, 1991). This protracted functional development may provide critical periods for impact by behavioral factors such as diet. However, the degree to which nutritional intake influences cognitive function throughout the lifespan may also be influenced by the preexisting nutritional and health status of the individual. CHILDHOOD OBESITY: PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Overweight and obesity are clinically defined as excessive fat accumulation that may impair health (Caterson Gill, 2002). Given the high costs of fat mass assessment techniques, weight adjusted for height [expressed as body mass index (BMI), calculated as weight in kilograms divided by square of height in meters] is most commonly used for identifying overweight and obesity. Due to the variability in height and weight that occurs during growth, assessment of a child’s BMI necessitates comparison to a reference population of the same gender and age (Ebbeling Ludwig, 2008). Following the rapid rise in childhood obesity in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s (Ogden, Flegal, Carroll, Johnson, 2002), during which obesity increased three-fold, significant increases between 1999-2000 and 2009-2010 were only seen at the highest BMI cut-off and among adolescent males (Ogden et al., 2012). Although a possible link between public health campaigns and 52 the recent stabilization of obesity prevalence has been suggested in countries including the United States, Switzerland, and Sweden, the reasons for this stabilization remain unclear (Ebbeling Ludwig, 2008; Pe´neau et al., 2009). Nevertheless, in the United States, obesity remains a major public health threat since over 9% of all infants and toddlers have a high weight-forrecumbent length and 12% of 2-5 year-olds are considered obese. In addition, the BMI distribution has continually shifted to the right since the 1980s, suggesting that the severity of overweight has increased substantially (Stifel Averett, 2009). These trends have resulted in a school-aged population that is significantly more obese than their historical counterparts and has a considerably higher risk for earlier onset of chronic disease. The causes of childhood obesity have been the subject of considerable debate and are covered elsewhere (Harrison et al., 2011). Currently accepted theories implicate the interaction between genetic predisposition and social trends toward higher caloric intake and reduced energy expenditure (Moreno, Pigeot, Ahrens, 2011). Parental obesity doubles the risk of adult obesity among both obese and nonobese children (Whitaker, Wright, Pepe, Seidel, Dietz, 1997). Evidence from epigenetics (i.e., the study of stable inheritance of gene expression that occurs without modifications in underlying DNA sequence) indicates that genomes interact with environmental signals to affect subsequent health and disease risk (Jime´nez-Chillaro´n et al., 2012; Wu Suzuki, 2006). Epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation, histone modifications and, more recently, a variety of noncoding RNAs (Jime´nez-Chillaro´n et al., 2012). The impact of such interactions may occur during and/or after intrauterine development. For example, fetal overnutrition as a consequence of maternal obesity may be implicated in the rise of childhood obesity (Danielzik, Langnase, Mast, Spethmann, Muller, 2002). Also, infants born to women with gestational diabetes have significantly higher fat mass than infants of women without gestational diabetes (Catalano, Thomas, Huston Presley, Amini, 2003). Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during gestation is related to subsequent excess fat accumulation in rat pups (Wu Suzuki, 2006), independent of offspring diet. Collectively, there is converging evidence supporting the role of early environmental programming in the development of childhood obesity. Although childhood obesity often persists into adulthood, the pathological processes of obesity-related morbidities begin in childhood (Biro Wien, 2010). Obesity is strongly associated with a constellation of metabolic disorders marked by abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and elevated proinflammatory markers (Despre´s et al., 2008; Huang, Ball, Franks, 2007). The early stages of atherosclerosis, the leading cause of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, can appear in utero, during infancy, or throughout childhood (Napoli et al., 1997, 1999). 53 OBESITY, NUTRITION, AND COGNITION Data from adult studies indicates that obesity may also cause structural changes in the brain. In a study in which diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used, scientists found among healthy adults that BMI was negatively related to white matter integrity in the corpus callosum and fornix fibers (Stanek et al., 2011). In a longitudinal study, increasing BMI during the onset of menopause was associated with a 15% decrease in cerebral gray matter volume in women after controlling for cardiovascular health markers (Soreca et al., 2009). Obesity and elevated markers of cardiovascular disease increase the risk for incidence of dementia later in life (Fitzpatrick et al., 2009; Whitmer, Gunderson, Barrett-Connor, Quesenberry, Yaffe, 2005). The evidence for the negative role of obesity in cognitive decline is compelling. However, knowledge of how obesity affects cognition during childhood has only emerged over the last decade, and as such is limited. COGNITIVE IMPLICATIONS OF OBESITY IN CHILDHOOD Studies assessing the impact of obesity on cognition vary in the age of children studied (prepubertal or pubertal) and outcomes evaluated (neuroelectric or academic achievement). Most have relied on BMI as the primary measure of obesity, neglecting the influence of body composition or fat distribution. This is a significant limitation, as body composition in children differs by age, gender, and stage of sexual maturity (Ahmed, Ong, Dunger, 2009; Bacha, Saad, Gungor, Janosky, Arslanian, 2003; Heyward Wagner, 2004). Additionally, individuals with excess central adiposity have a substantially higher risk for developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (Despre´s, 2006). To our knowledge, only one study has assessed event-related brain potentials (ERPs; see Chapter 3) among children with or without insulin resistance (Tascilar et al., 2011). Tascilar et al. (2011) investigated alterations in the P3-ERP among 10- to 11-year-olds. The P3 is a positive-going, endogenous ERP component that occurs approximately 300- 800 ms after stimulus onset (Hillman, Kamijo, Pontifex, 2012). In contrast to their healthy weight counterparts, the obese group of children had smaller P3 amplitude and longer P3 latency indicating a decrease in the allocation of attentional resources, and slower cognitive processing/stimulus evaluation speed, respectively. Furthermore, the obese group of children with insulin resistance had smaller P3 amplitude and longer latency compared to the obese group of children without insulin resistance. Kamijo, Khan et al. (2012) assessed cross-sectional relationships between direct measures of adiposity (percent fat mass and central adiposity), cognitive control, and scores on the Wide Range Achievement Test 3rd edition (WRAT3). Following adjustment of confounding variables (age, gender, IQ, SES, VO2max) percent body fat negatively predicted reading and spelling, but not arithmetic. 54 However, central adiposity negatively predicted performance on all three WRAT3 components. These findings suggest that insulin resistance and fat distribution are associated with cognitive ability in prepubertal children. Obesity, assessed using BMI-for-age, has been found to be negatively related to cognitive control in children as well (Kamijo, Pontifex et al., 2012a, 2012b; Li, Dai, Jackson, Zhang, 2008). Using ERPs, Kamijo, Pontifex et al. (2012a) showed that obese children exhibit lower response accuracy in a NoGo task requiring inhibitory control. Specifically, overweight children failed to display the typical frontal distribution for the NoGo P3 relative to the Go P3, indicating that obese status in childhood is negatively and selectively associated with prefrontal inhibitory control. Another aspect of cognitive control, action monitoring, has recently been investigated in relation to obesity. The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neuroelectric measure used to reflect the action monitoring system and larger ERN amplitude and longer reaction time following error detection is indicative of improved cognitive control (Falkenstein, Hohnsbein, Hoormann, Blanke, 1991; Gehring, Goss, Coles, Meyer, Donchin, 1993). It was recently demonstrated that obese children exhibit smaller ERN amplitude and lower post-error response accuracy compared to their healthy weight counterparts Kamijo, Pontifex et al. (2012b). Such a finding points to a maladaptive relationship between obesity and aspects of cognitive control and action monitoring processes. Among adolescents, extreme obesity (i.e., BMI-for-age 99th percentile) was related to impairments in attention, mental flexibility, and disinhibition (Lokken, Boeka, Austin, Gunstad, Harmon, 2009). Li et al. (2008) assessed relationships between academic performance, cognitive functioning, and BMI among a nationally representative sample of 2,519 children aged 8-16 years. Visuospatial organization and general mental ability was negatively related to BMI after controlling for demographics, lifestyle factors, and lipid profiles. Although BMI was not related to academic achievement, overweight children had lower working memory performance as well as lower average scores of the series of four tests (block-design and digit-span subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and the reading and arithmetic sections of the Wide Range Achievement Test). Collectively, the aforementioned studies suggest that obesity is implicated in lower performance on cognitive control tasks. However, the impact of obesity on academic achievement has been a controversial topic, and on this front, the evidence has been inconclusive. Scholastic Outcomes and Obesity in Childhood There is a paucity of representative datasets that evaluate obesity along with a wide range of school outcomes. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Class (ECLS-K) examined the link between change in 55 OBESITY, NUTRITION, AND COGNITION overweight status and school outcomes among a national sample of U.S. elementary school children (Datar Sturm, 2006). Datar and coworkers assessed changes in weight status over the first 4 years of schooling (kindergarten to 3rd grade). Their findings indicated that girls who moved from normal to overweight status were likely to score lower on standardized mathematics and reading tests, higher on teacher-reported externalizing behavior problems, and lower on teacher ratings of self-control compared to girls who were never overweight. However, there were no differences between girls who were never overweight and those who remained overweight. Additionally, there were no significant findings for boys on the measure of academic performance. A follow-up cross-sectional analysis at 3rd grade showed that the differences between overweight and non-overweight children on math and reading disappeared when individual characteristics were adjusted for (SES, mother’s education, etc.) (Judge Jahns, 2007). The most recent study related to the ECLS-K (kindergarten to 5th grade) considered all five waves of the study and their findings differed by BMI group (never obese, later onset, and persistent), time point (kindergarten, 1st, 3rd, and 5th grades), and gender (Gable, Krull, Chang, 2012). Girls who displayed later onset of obesity performed more poorly on math assessments at first and third grade. These effects were mediated by interpersonal skills and were accompanied with higher internalizing behaviors. Considering the work by Li et al. (2008), it appears that weight status has a cross-sectional relationship with lower academic performance. However, longitudinal data remain limited and the results from the ECLS-K studies do not implicate obesity as a causal factor in diminished academic outcomes in children. Recent evidence suggests that the relationship between obesity and cognition may not be unidirectional. In other words, aspects of cognition may instead determine obesity. Graziano, Calkins, and Keane (2010) investigated the role of emotion regulation and sustained attention and inhibitory control in development of obesity among 2-year-olds. Poorer inhibitory control at 2 years was predictive of obese status at 5.5 years. This relationship persisted even after controlling for BMI at 2 years, suggesting that poorly developed selfregulation skills may contribute to the development of pediatric obesity. Guxens et al. (2009) conducted a longitudinal study among 421 Spanish preschool children to assess whether cognition at age 4 would predict changes in BMI at age 6. Children with higher scores of general cognition at age 4 were less likely to be overweight at 6 years of age. After adjusting for maternal education and BMI, children with higher general cognition at 4 years were more likely to maintain a healthy weight status between ages 4 and 6 years. Interestingly, Guxens et al. (2009) did not observe cross-sectional relationships between cognitive function scores and BMI at age 4. An MRI study among 83 young females (18-19 years) showed that weight gain was related to low gray matter (GM) volume in regions implicated in inhibitory control. The 56 authors concluded that abnormalities in regional GM volumes, but not WM volumes, increase the risk for future weight gain (Yokum, Ng, Stice, 2011). However, it should be noted that other studies suggest no relationship between weight status and cognitive performance (Gunstad et al., 2008; LeBlanc et al., 2012). Gunstad et al. (2008) failed to find any association between weight status and several markers of cognitive performance (including cognitive control, verbal memory, and attention) among a healthy sample of 6- to 19-year-olds (N ¼ 478). Similarly, Leblanc et al. (2012) found no impact of obesity on standardized academic tests among 1963 fourth to sixth graders. Overall, the evidence for the negative influence of childhood obesity on cognitive function remains equivocal and thus controversial. However, it is recognized that obesity in adulthood is associated with poorer cognitive outcomes later in life including increased risk for dementia (Fitzpatrick et al., 2009; Whitmer et al., 2005). Although the mechanism remains unknown, insulin resistance appears to play a significant role in this pathology (Hildreth et al., 2012). Given that the majority of overweight or obese individuals are insulin resistant (Stefan et al., 2008), identification of modifiable risk factors in childhood could reduce the incidence of cognitive impairment later in life. Most studies in children utilize cross-sectional designs, lack adjustment of key covariates, and rely exclusively on BMI. These limitations notwithstanding, there is growing cross-sectional evidence suggesting that obesity has a weak negative association with cognitive health. Additional research is needed to determine which cognitive processes have greater susceptibility to the effects of overall adiposity and fat distribution. NUTRITIONAL EFFECTS ON COGNITION In vitro studies demonstrate that nutrients function as substrates for energy, form precursors for neurotransmitters, and serve in pathways involved in cell signaling and gene transcription in the brain. However, much of what is known in vivo is based on animal studies assessing cognitive decline. This focus on aged models has limited the knowledge on the role of nutrition in cognitive function in childhood. Nutritional effects on brain health may involve the composition of the gut microbiota, as well as dietary components. The Gut Microbiota The bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is vital for maintaining homeostasis and is regulated by the neural [both central (CNS) and enteric nervous systems (ENS)], hormonal and immunological components. The human gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that 57 OBESITY, NUTRITION, AND COGNITION influence host health and disease, including, among others, diet and nutrition, obesity, intestinal diseases, and cancer (Flint, Scott, Louis, Duncan, 2012). Pertinent to this review, growing evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in childhood obesity (Karlsson et al., 2012) and in brain development, including learning and anxiety (Manco, 2012), suggesting that the gut microbiota could be a central mediator, although to date this has not been directly investigated. A recent study demonstrated that the gut microbial species differed between preschool children (age 4-5 years) with excessive body weight (n¼ 20) versus normal weight (n ¼ 20). The amount of Enterobacteriaceae was significantly higher in those with excessive body weight. In contrast, A. muciniphila-like bacteria and Desulfovibrio were more abundant in children with healthy BMI. Further, there was a trend for decreased bacterial diversity in children with excessive body weight (Karlsson et al., 2012). Evidence from animal models provides further insight into the link between gut microbiota and brain development. An essential role for the microbiota in brain development was demonstrated by comparing mice with a conventional microbiota to germ-free mice, which displayed increased motor activity and reduced anxiety and altered expression of genes involved in longterm potentiation in brain regions implicated in motor control and anxietylike behavior (Bravo et al., 2011; Heijtz et al., 2011; Neufeld, Kang, Bienenstock, Foster, 2011). Importantly, a critical window exists after which microbial colonization did not reverse the abnormal behavioral phenotype (Heijtz et al., 2011). Additionally, provision of a single lactobacillus species (L. rhamnosus JB-1) reduced anxiety- and depressionrelated behaviors in mice, which did not occur in vagotomized mice, identifying the vagus as a major modulator of communication between gut microbes and the brain (Bravo et al., 2011). Thus, future investigations are needed to define whether differences in the microbiome between lean and obese children impacts brain development and cognitive function. Neurodevelopment and Nutrient Deficiencies The development of the brain occurs through several overlapping processes (migration, myelination, and synaptogenesis) that proceed at varying velocities from early gestation into childhood (Lenroot Giedd, 2006). Over the first 2 years of life, the brain achieves 80% of its adult weight (Dekaban Sadowsky, 1978). This rapid early development of the brain in relation to the rest of the body emphasizes the need for optimal nutritional intake during pregnancy and early postnatal life. Extensive reviews on nutrients necessary for healthy neurodevelopment have been presented elsewhere (Benton, 2010; Bryan et al., 2004; Georgieff Innis, 2005; Rao Georgieff, 2007). However, some micronutrients play especially crucial roles in hippocampal and prefrontal growth and function (Georgieff, 2007). 58 Neurodevelopment processes provide critical periods of growth during which the brain is especially sensitive to nutritional insult. For example, the closing of the neural tube, which occurs 21-28 days into gestation, requires adequate levels of folate—an essential B vitamin (Benton, 2010). Approximately 300,000 newborns worldwide are affected by neural tube defects (NTDs) often manifesting in the form of spina bifida and anencephaly (Gardiner et al., 2008). Epidemiological evidence shows a decline in the prevalence of NTDs since the U.S. food supply was fortified with folic acid in 1998 (Williams et al., 2002). Maternal intake of folate during early pregnancy has been linked to higher scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III), a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, in children at 3 years (Villamor, Rifas-Shiman, Gillman, Oken, 2012). However, additional studies are needed to determine whether folate supplementation in childhood enhances performance on specific aspects of cognition and memory. In addition to folate, lower intake of choline during pregnancy has also been suggested to affect risk for NTDs (Shaw et al., 2009). Choline has wideranging functions including neurotransmitter synthesis, cell structure integrity, and conversion to methyl donor betaine (Benton, 2010; Zeisel Da Costa, 2009). Deficiency of choline during the final stages of gestation in rodents results in poorer memory as an adult (Zeisel Niculescu, 2006). However, among pregnant women, supplementing with phosphatidyl choline, the main dietary source of choline, from 18 weeks to 90 days postpartum did not result in enhanced cognitive abilities (short-term visuospatial memory, long-term episodic memory, language development, and global development) in their children at 10-12 months of age (Cheatham et al., 2012). Given that 80% of the women supplemented in this study already met their daily choline recommendation at time of supplementation, it remains unknown whether supplementing pregnant women with chronically lower intake of choline would enhance infant brain development. In addition, it is possible that a longer follow-up period would have revealed lateemerging effects. Therefore, additional supplementation studies are needed to elucidate the role of choline in cognitive development in infancy and childhood. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism and its deficiency causes impaired myelination and demyelination of the spinal cord and the brain (Dror Allen, 2008; Healton, Savage, Brust, Garrett, Lindenbaum, 1991). Several mechanisms have been proposed for this effect including reduced phosphatidylcholine synthesis, elevated homocysteine, imbalance of neurotrophic and neurotoxic cytokines, and accumulation of lactate in brain cells (Dror Allen, 2008). Given that myelination is most active in the first 6 months of life, the brain may be especially susceptible to B12 deficiencies early in life (Lo¨vblad et al., 1997). However, the evidence 59 OBESITY, NUTRITION, AND COGNITION for impaired neurological development due to vitamin B12 deficiency in humans is largely based on case studies, and thus the long-term impact of suboptimal intake of vitamin B12 on cognitive development remains unknown. The role of vitamin D in brain development and function has also been gaining support over the past decade. Early life deficiency has been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, and deficiencies in adulthood are known to exacerbate Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and cognitive decline (Cui, Groves, Burne, Eyles, McGrath, 2013). The discovery that the brain synthesizes the active form of vitamin D, and expression of vitamin D receptors in the hippocampus suggests it may modulate proteins involved in learning and memory (Langub, Herman, Malluche, Koszewski, 2001). Although the evidence in early life is limited to rodent models, gestational vitamin D deficiency appears to cause permanent damage by altering the ratio of neural stem cell proliferation to programmed cell death in the brain (Levenson Figueiroˆa, 2008). Considering the surprisingly high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women (5% among white and 29% among black women) and newborns (10% and white and 47% among black neonates) in the United States (Bodnar et al., 2007), it is crucial that researchers elucidate whether vitamin D deficiency alters cognitive function in childhood. Among minerals, iron deficiency is the most common gestational micronutrient deficiency (Rao Georgieff, 2007; Stoltzfus, 2001). Perinatal iron deficiency has been shown to alter the neurochemical profile of the rat hippocampus resulting in impairments in energy status, neurotransmission, and myelination (Rao, Tkac, Townsend, Gruetter, Georgieff, 2003). Decrements in memory and learning have also been observed as a function of iron deficiency. Neonatal piglets consuming an iron deficient diet displayed lower acquisition on a hippocampal-dependent spatial T-maze task (Rytych et al., 2012). Among humans, newborns with low amounts of cord ferritin exhibit lower performance on mental and psychomotor tests at 5 years of age (Tamura et al., 2002). Another key mineral, Zinc, is a co-factor in enzymes that mediate protein and nucleic acid synthesis (Sandstead, 1985). Children born to zinc deficient mothers show decreased preferential looking behavior suggesting that zinc deficiency selectively affects hippocampal function (Merialdi et al., 2004). In addition to micronutrient inadequacies, protein/energy malnutrition between the third trimester and 2 months of postnatal life has enduring detrimental effects on global deficits in motor control and language development (Grantham-McGregor Baker-Henningham, 2005). In summary, brain structures displaying rapid growth during early childhood such as the hippocampus and cortex appear especially vulnerable to nutritional insult (Georgieff, 2007; Gotlieb, Biasini, Bray, 1988; Pollitt Gorman, 1994). 60 Nutrients and Cognitive Function in Children Children in developed countries rarely present with gross nutritional inadequacies, and supplementation in the absence of clinical deficiency remains a controversial topic. Nevertheless, the search for nutrients that enhance cognitive performance during growth is important because functional development of the hippocampus and frontal lobe continues throughout childhood (Bryan et al., 2004; Johnson, 2001; Lenroot Giedd, 2006; Thatcher, 1991). Breast milk is the optimal form of nutrition for the infant and its nutrient profile provides the basis for current nutrient recommendations for children younger than 2 years (IOM (US), Panel on Macronutrients, 2005). However, by 6 months of age, half of infants are consuming fortified infant formula (Li, Darling, Maurice, Barker, Grummer-Strawn, 2005). Furthermore, most studies of breastfed infants lack cognitive assessment of the child or mother. Few randomized controlled trials have been conducted and much of the evidence is based on observational studies. According to a meta-analysis, breast-fed infants may score 2-5 points higher on cognitive developmental tests compared to their non-breast-fed counterparts (Anderson, Johnstone, Remley, 1999). This difference may be even higher for children who are born preterm (Lucas, Morley, Cole, Lister, Leeson-Payne, 1992). After stratifying children based on breastfeeding duration and gestation status, preterm infants who were breast-fed performed better on naming vocabulary, pattern recognition, and picture similarities subscales at 5 years of age (Quigley et al., 2012). It remains unclear whether these positive effects can be attributed to specific nutrients in breast milk since maternal and lifestyle characteristics often confound the findings (Qawasmi, Landeros-Weisenberger, Leckman, Bloch, 2012; Von Kries, Koletzko, Sauerwald, Von Mutius, 2002). Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have been extensively studied for their role in brain development and cognitive function (Eilander, Hundscheid, Osendarp, Transler, Zock, 2007; Georgieff Innis, 2005). Among LCPUFAs, both DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) are preferentially accumulated in the forebrain during the third trimester and first 2 years of life (Lauritzen, Jorgensen, Olsen, Straarup, Michaelsen, 2005; Martinez, 1992). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in particular, plays a crucial role in maintaining cortical neuronal integrity (Joardar, Sen, Das, 2006; McNamara et al., 2010). Deficiency in DHA results in abnormalities in neurons, glial cells, oligodendrocytes, myelin, and nerve endings (Bourre, 2006). Although DHA and AA can be derived from their essential fatty acid precursors, alinolenic (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA), this conversion is not efficient in the human fetus and breast milk varies in its concentration of LCPUFA (Cetin Koletzko, 2008; Hoffman, Boettcher, Diersen-Schade, 2009; Jensen Lapillonne, 2009; Uauy, Mena, Wegher, Nieto, Salem, 2000). Therefore, it 61 OBESITY, NUTRITION, AND COGNITION was hypothesized that supplementing infant formula with DHA and AA would improve cognitive function in children. Supplementation of preterm infants with DHA improved visual acuity and short-term global development (O’Connor et al., 2001; SanGiovanni, Parra-Cabrera, Colditz, Berkey, Dwyer, 2000). However, the overall results thus far have been inconclusive and a recent meta-analysis concluded that LCPUFA supplementation did not significantly improve early cognition (Campoy, Escolano-Margarit, Anjos, Szajewska, Uauy, 2012; Qawasmi et al., 2012). Interestingly, among school children with learning disabilities and developmental disorders, supplementation with DHA has been shown to improve cognitive function (Kirby, Woodward, Jackson, 2010), indicating the potential benefits of supplementation during school-aged years. Supplementing infant formula with micronutrients (e.g., iron) has yielded mixed results as well. Among infants without iron deficiency, supplementing with iron does not improve and may even be related to lower cognitive function in those with elevated hemoglobin levels at 10 years of age (Lozoff, Castillo, Clark, Smith, 2012). Conversely, providing a cocktail of micronutrients along with DHA has been shown to improve verbal learning but not general intelligence or attention (Osendarp et al., 2007). Therefore, current findings suggest that nutritional status of the child (deficient or adequate) may play an important role in determining cognitive outcomes as a function of supplementation. In addition, future research should examine the efficacy of supplementation of combinations of nutrients rather than provision of a single nutrient for cognitive and brain health. Dietary components such as high saturated fats and sugars may also have a detrimental impact on brain function (Das, 2010), although much of this evidence is derived from animal models. Brain derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) appears to function at the crossroads of cognitive and metabolic regulation (Go´mez-Pinilla, 2008). BDNF modulates insulin resistance and glucose metabolism and deletion or polymorphisms of BDNF are related to abnormal hippocampal function among rodent and human studies (Egan et al., 2003; Go´mez-Pinilla, 2008; Nakagawa et al., 2002; Tonra et al., 1999). Exposure to a diet high in saturated fat and sucrose, independent of obesity, was related to decreased BDNF in the hippocampus and poorer learning and memory performance (Molteni, Barnard, Ying, Roberts, GomezPinilla, 2002). However, conclusive evidence for specific nutrients that can enhance cognitive function in children has been elusive thus far. Some studies have considered nutrition composition of meals and cognitive function. Breakfast omission has been linked to poorer performance on learning and memory among school-aged children and adolescents (Pollitt Mathews, 1998; Rampersaud, 2009). Modifying nutritional composition of meals may also affect short-term cognitive performance. School-aged children consuming 62 breakfasts with low glycemic index (GI) may perform better on attentional tasks when compared to no breakfast or breakfast with high GI (Cooper, Bandelow, Nute, Morris, Nevill, 2012; Ingwersen, Defeyter, Kennedy, Wesnes, Scholey, 2007). CONCLUSION Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive and brain health may be profoundly affected by weight status and nutritional intake. Obese children have been shown to exhibit lower performance on cognitive control tasks and findings from ERP studies indicate that overweight and nonoverweight children have differential underlying brain activity during task performance. In addition to weight status, central adiposity and insulin resistance are associated with lower cognitive control in children (Kamijo, Khan et al. 2012; Tascilar et al., 2011). Insulin resistance has already been implicated in adult cognitive impairment; however, additional work in children is needed to elucidate insulin’s role in brain function through the lifespan. Regarding academic achievement, there are no definitive prospective studies demonstrating a causal relationship between weight status and diminished academic achievement in children. However, cross-sectional studies indicate a negative association with obesity and academic achievement (Li et al., 2008). Therefore, additional longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether obesity is a determinant of lower academic achievement. The rapid development of the brain over the first 2 years of life makes it particularly susceptible to nutrient deficiencies (Georgieff, 2007). This is evident from observations of decrements in brain development and function among animals and humans following perinatal or early nutrient deficiencies. However, there remains remarkably little known about the effects of overall diet or particular nutrients on specific aspects of cognitive control among children without nutrient deficiencies. Emerging data suggest the potential for the gut microbiome to mediate brain development and childhood obesity risk. Considering that the gut microbiota is highly susceptible to nutrient intake as well, future studies should investigate how nutrients targeting the microbiome may modulate both obesity and cognition. Despite wide-scale intervention efforts, childhood obesity remains a major public health threat in much of the developed world (De Onis, Blo¨ssner, Borghi, 2010; Ogden et al., 2012). Given that this trend may persist for the foreseeable future (Wang et al., 2008), it is essential that researchers develop a comprehensive understanding of the cognitive implications of nutrition and obesity.

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Help me sumarise this article pleaseTHE COGNITIVE IMPLICATIONS OF OBESITY AND NUTRITION IN

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THE COGNITIVE IMPLICATIONS OF OBESITY AND NUTRITION IN

CHILDHOOD Naiman A.Khan, Lauren B. Raine, Sharon M.Donovan, and Charles H.Hillman ABSTRACT

The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has tripled since the 1980s and is strongly linked to the early onset of several metabolic diseases. Recent studies indicate that lower cognitive function may be another complication of childhood obesity. This review considers the research to date on the role of obesity and nutrition on childhood cognition and brain health. Although a handful of studies point to a maladaptive relationship between obesity and aspects of cognitive control, remarkably little is known regarding the impact of fat mass on brain development and cognitive function. Further, missing from the literature is the role of nutrition in the obesity-cognition interaction. Nutrition may directly or indirectly influence cognitive performance via several pathways including provision of key substrates for optimal brain health, modulation of gut microbiota, and alterations in systemic energy balance. However, in the absence of malnutrition, the functional benefits of specific nutrient intake on particular cognitive domains are not well characterized. Here, we examine the literature linking childhood obesity and cognition while considering the effects of nutritional intake. Possible mechanisms for these relationships are discussed and suggestions are made for future study topics. Although childhood obesity prevalence rates in some developed countries have recently stabilized, significant disparities remain among groups based on sex and socioeconomic status. Given that the elevated prevalence of pediatric overweight and obesity may persist for the foreseeable future, it is crucial to develop a comprehensive understanding of the influence of obesity and nutrition on cognition and brain health in the pediatric population. The obesity epidemic continues to affect a remarkably high proportion of the world’s population. It is projected that the percentage of adults who are overweight or obese around the world could increase from 33% in 2005 to 58% by 2030 (Kelly, Yang, Chen, Reynolds, He, 2008). In the United States, Corresponding author: Naiman A. Khan, University of Illinois, 313 Louise Freer Hall, MC-052 906 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801, 51 over 30% of adults are obese and estimates of childhood overweight (85th percentile BMI-for-age) and obesity (95th percentile BMI-for-age) prevalence stand at approximately 32% and 17%, respectively (Ogden, Carroll, Kit, Flegal, 2012). Consequently, the estimated deaths attributed to obesity and its comorbidities have increased by 77% since 1991 (Mokdad, Marks, Stroup, Gerberding, 2004). Given that childhood obesity is projected to nearly double over the next 20 years, accumulation of excess fat mass has become the most pressing public health concern among children in the developed world (Wang, Beydoun, Liang, Caballero, Kumanyika, 2008). Although elevated BMI has been associated with adverse neurocognitive outcomes in adults, the impact of obesity on cognitive health in childhood remains unknown (Hildreth, Pelt, Schwartz, 2012; Jeong, Nam, Son, Son, Cho, 2005; Stanek et al., 2011). Current knowledge is equivocal and is based on studies that have widely divergent methodologies. Furthermore, the majority of studies in children examining the obesity-cognition interaction fail to assess nutritional intake, which might have independent or synergistic effects on both obesity and cognition. Although the human brain develops rapidly over the first 2 years of life, functional development of the hippocampus and frontal lobe—regions involved in relational memory and cognitive control (inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility)— continues throughout childhood (Bryan et al., 2004; Johnson, 2001; Lenroot Giedd, 2006; Thatcher, 1991). This protracted functional development may provide critical periods for impact by behavioral factors such as diet. However, the degree to which nutritional intake influences cognitive function throughout the lifespan may also be influenced by the preexisting nutritional and health status of the individual. CHILDHOOD OBESITY: PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS Overweight and obesity are clinically defined as excessive fat accumulation that may impair health (Caterson Gill, 2002). Given the high costs of fat mass assessment techniques, weight adjusted for height [expressed as body mass index (BMI), calculated as weight in kilograms divided by square of height in meters] is most commonly used for identifying overweight and obesity. Due to the variability in height and weight that occurs during growth, assessment of a child’s BMI necessitates comparison to a reference population of the same gender and age (Ebbeling Ludwig, 2008). Following the rapid rise in childhood obesity in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s (Ogden, Flegal, Carroll, Johnson, 2002), during which obesity increased three-fold, significant increases between 1999-2000 and 2009-2010 were only seen at the highest BMI cut-off and among adolescent males (Ogden et al., 2012). Although a possible link between public health campaigns and 52 the recent stabilization of obesity prevalence has been suggested in countries including the United States, Switzerland, and Sweden, the reasons for this stabilization remain unclear (Ebbeling Ludwig, 2008; Pe´neau et al., 2009). Nevertheless, in the United States, obesity remains a major public health threat since over 9% of all infants and toddlers have a high weight-forrecumbent length and 12% of 2-5 year-olds are considered obese. In addition, the BMI distribution has continually shifted to the right since the 1980s, suggesting that the severity of overweight has increased substantially (Stifel Averett, 2009). These trends have resulted in a school-aged population that is significantly more obese than their historical counterparts and has a considerably higher risk for earlier onset of chronic disease. The causes of childhood obesity have been the subject of considerable debate and are covered elsewhere (Harrison et al., 2011). Currently accepted theories implicate the interaction between genetic predisposition and social trends toward higher caloric intake and reduced energy expenditure (Moreno, Pigeot, Ahrens, 2011). Parental obesity doubles the risk of adult obesity among both obese and nonobese children (Whitaker, Wright, Pepe, Seidel, Dietz, 1997). Evidence from epigenetics (i.e., the study of stable inheritance of gene expression that occurs without modifications in underlying DNA sequence) indicates that genomes interact with environmental signals to affect subsequent health and disease risk (Jime´nez-Chillaro´n et al., 2012; Wu Suzuki, 2006). Epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation, histone modifications and, more recently, a variety of noncoding RNAs (Jime´nez-Chillaro´n et al., 2012). The impact of such interactions may occur during and/or after intrauterine development. For example, fetal overnutrition as a consequence of maternal obesity may be implicated in the rise of childhood obesity (Danielzik, Langnase, Mast, Spethmann, Muller, 2002). Also, infants born to women with gestational diabetes have significantly higher fat mass than infants of women without gestational diabetes (Catalano, Thomas, Huston Presley, Amini, 2003). Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during gestation is related to subsequent excess fat accumulation in rat pups (Wu Suzuki, 2006), independent of offspring diet. Collectively, there is converging evidence supporting the role of early environmental programming in the development of childhood obesity. Although childhood obesity often persists into adulthood, the pathological processes of obesity-related morbidities begin in childhood (Biro Wien, 2010). Obesity is strongly associated with a constellation of metabolic disorders marked by abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and elevated proinflammatory markers (Despre´s et al., 2008; Huang, Ball, Franks, 2007). The early stages of atherosclerosis, the leading cause of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, can appear in utero, during infancy, or throughout childhood (Napoli et al., 1997, 1999). 53 OBESITY, NUTRITION, AND COGNITION Data from adult studies indicates that obesity may also cause structural changes in the brain. In a study in which diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used, scientists found among healthy adults that BMI was negatively related to white matter integrity in the corpus callosum and fornix fibers (Stanek et al., 2011). In a longitudinal study, increasing BMI during the onset of menopause was associated with a 15% decrease in cerebral gray matter volume in women after controlling for cardiovascular health markers (Soreca et al., 2009). Obesity and elevated markers of cardiovascular disease increase the risk for incidence of dementia later in life (Fitzpatrick et al., 2009; Whitmer, Gunderson, Barrett-Connor, Quesenberry, Yaffe, 2005). The evidence for the negative role of obesity in cognitive decline is compelling. However, knowledge of how obesity affects cognition during childhood has only emerged over the last decade, and as such is limited. COGNITIVE IMPLICATIONS OF OBESITY IN CHILDHOOD Studies assessing the impact of obesity on cognition vary in the age of children studied (prepubertal or pubertal) and outcomes evaluated (neuroelectric or academic achievement). Most have relied on BMI as the primary measure of obesity, neglecting the influence of body composition or fat distribution. This is a significant limitation, as body composition in children differs by age, gender, and stage of sexual maturity (Ahmed, Ong, Dunger, 2009; Bacha, Saad, Gungor, Janosky, Arslanian, 2003; Heyward Wagner, 2004). Additionally, individuals with excess central adiposity have a substantially higher risk for developing insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (Despre´s, 2006). To our knowledge, only one study has assessed event-related brain potentials (ERPs; see Chapter 3) among children with or without insulin resistance (Tascilar et al., 2011). Tascilar et al. (2011) investigated alterations in the P3-ERP among 10- to 11-year-olds. The P3 is a positive-going, endogenous ERP component that occurs approximately 300- 800 ms after stimulus onset (Hillman, Kamijo, Pontifex, 2012). In contrast to their healthy weight counterparts, the obese group of children had smaller P3 amplitude and longer P3 latency indicating a decrease in the allocation of attentional resources, and slower cognitive processing/stimulus evaluation speed, respectively. Furthermore, the obese group of children with insulin resistance had smaller P3 amplitude and longer latency compared to the obese group of children without insulin resistance. Kamijo, Khan et al. (2012) assessed cross-sectional relationships between direct measures of adiposity (percent fat mass and central adiposity), cognitive control, and scores on the Wide Range Achievement Test 3rd edition (WRAT3). Following adjustment of confounding variables (age, gender, IQ, SES, VO2max) percent body fat negatively predicted reading and spelling, but not arithmetic. 54 However, central adiposity negatively predicted performance on all three WRAT3 components. These findings suggest that insulin resistance and fat distribution are associated with cognitive ability in prepubertal children. Obesity, assessed using BMI-for-age, has been found to be negatively related to cognitive control in children as well (Kamijo, Pontifex et al., 2012a, 2012b; Li, Dai, Jackson, Zhang, 2008). Using ERPs, Kamijo, Pontifex et al. (2012a) showed that obese children exhibit lower response accuracy in a NoGo task requiring inhibitory control. Specifically, overweight children failed to display the typical frontal distribution for the NoGo P3 relative to the Go P3, indicating that obese status in childhood is negatively and selectively associated with prefrontal inhibitory control. Another aspect of cognitive control, action monitoring, has recently been investigated in relation to obesity. The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neuroelectric measure used to reflect the action monitoring system and larger ERN amplitude and longer reaction time following error detection is indicative of improved cognitive control (Falkenstein, Hohnsbein, Hoormann, Blanke, 1991; Gehring, Goss, Coles, Meyer, Donchin, 1993). It was recently demonstrated that obese children exhibit smaller ERN amplitude and lower post-error response accuracy compared to their healthy weight counterparts Kamijo, Pontifex et al. (2012b). Such a finding points to a maladaptive relationship between obesity and aspects of cognitive control and action monitoring processes. Among adolescents, extreme obesity (i.e., BMI-for-age 99th percentile) was related to impairments in attention, mental flexibility, and disinhibition (Lokken, Boeka, Austin, Gunstad, Harmon, 2009). Li et al. (2008) assessed relationships between academic performance, cognitive functioning, and BMI among a nationally representative sample of 2,519 children aged 8-16 years. Visuospatial organization and general mental ability was negatively related to BMI after controlling for demographics, lifestyle factors, and lipid profiles. Although BMI was not related to academic achievement, overweight children had lower working memory performance as well as lower average scores of the series of four tests (block-design and digit-span subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, and the reading and arithmetic sections of the Wide Range Achievement Test). Collectively, the aforementioned studies suggest that obesity is implicated in lower performance on cognitive control tasks. However, the impact of obesity on academic achievement has been a controversial topic, and on this front, the evidence has been inconclusive. Scholastic Outcomes and Obesity in Childhood There is a paucity of representative datasets that evaluate obesity along with a wide range of school outcomes. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Class (ECLS-K) examined the link between change in 55 OBESITY, NUTRITION, AND COGNITION overweight status and school outcomes among a national sample of U.S. elementary school children (Datar Sturm, 2006). Datar and coworkers assessed changes in weight status over the first 4 years of schooling (kindergarten to 3rd grade). Their findings indicated that girls who moved from normal to overweight status were likely to score lower on standardized mathematics and reading tests, higher on teacher-reported externalizing behavior problems, and lower on teacher ratings of self-control compared to girls who were never overweight. However, there were no differences between girls who were never overweight and those who remained overweight. Additionally, there were no significant findings for boys on the measure of academic performance. A follow-up cross-sectional analysis at 3rd grade showed that the differences between overweight and non-overweight children on math and reading disappeared when individual characteristics were adjusted for (SES, mother’s education, etc.) (Judge Jahns, 2007). The most recent study related to the ECLS-K (kindergarten to 5th grade) considered all five waves of the study and their findings differed by BMI group (never obese, later onset, and persistent), time point (kindergarten, 1st, 3rd, and 5th grades), and gender (Gable, Krull, Chang, 2012). Girls who displayed later onset of obesity performed more poorly on math assessments at first and third grade. These effects were mediated by interpersonal skills and were accompanied with higher internalizing behaviors. Considering the work by Li et al. (2008), it appears that weight status has a cross-sectional relationship with lower academic performance. However, longitudinal data remain limited and the results from the ECLS-K studies do not implicate obesity as a causal factor in diminished academic outcomes in children. Recent evidence suggests that the relationship between obesity and cognition may not be unidirectional. In other words, aspects of cognition may instead determine obesity. Graziano, Calkins, and Keane (2010) investigated the role of emotion regulation and sustained attention and inhibitory control in development of obesity among 2-year-olds. Poorer inhibitory control at 2 years was predictive of obese status at 5.5 years. This relationship persisted even after controlling for BMI at 2 years, suggesting that poorly developed selfregulation skills may contribute to the development of pediatric obesity. Guxens et al. (2009) conducted a longitudinal study among 421 Spanish preschool children to assess whether cognition at age 4 would predict changes in BMI at age 6. Children with higher scores of general cognition at age 4 were less likely to be overweight at 6 years of age. After adjusting for maternal education and BMI, children with higher general cognition at 4 years were more likely to maintain a healthy weight status between ages 4 and 6 years. Interestingly, Guxens et al. (2009) did not observe cross-sectional relationships between cognitive function scores and BMI at age 4. An MRI study among 83 young females (18-19 years) showed that weight gain was related to low gray matter (GM) volume in regions implicated in inhibitory control. The 56 authors concluded that abnormalities in regional GM volumes, but not WM volumes, increase the risk for future weight gain (Yokum, Ng, Stice, 2011). However, it should be noted that other studies suggest no relationship between weight status and cognitive performance (Gunstad et al., 2008; LeBlanc et al., 2012). Gunstad et al. (2008) failed to find any association between weight status and several markers of cognitive performance (including cognitive control, verbal memory, and attention) among a healthy sample of 6- to 19-year-olds (N ¼ 478). Similarly, Leblanc et al. (2012) found no impact of obesity on standardized academic tests among 1963 fourth to sixth graders. Overall, the evidence for the negative influence of childhood obesity on cognitive function remains equivocal and thus controversial. However, it is recognized that obesity in adulthood is associated with poorer cognitive outcomes later in life including increased risk for dementia (Fitzpatrick et al., 2009; Whitmer et al., 2005). Although the mechanism remains unknown, insulin resistance appears to play a significant role in this pathology (Hildreth et al., 2012). Given that the majority of overweight or obese individuals are insulin resistant (Stefan et al., 2008), identification of modifiable risk factors in childhood could reduce the incidence of cognitive impairment later in life. Most studies in children utilize cross-sectional designs, lack adjustment of key covariates, and rely exclusively on BMI. These limitations notwithstanding, there is growing cross-sectional evidence suggesting that obesity has a weak negative association with cognitive health. Additional research is needed to determine which cognitive processes have greater susceptibility to the effects of overall adiposity and fat distribution. NUTRITIONAL EFFECTS ON COGNITION In vitro studies demonstrate that nutrients function as substrates for energy, form precursors for neurotransmitters, and serve in pathways involved in cell signaling and gene transcription in the brain. However, much of what is known in vivo is based on animal studies assessing cognitive decline. This focus on aged models has limited the knowledge on the role of nutrition in cognitive function in childhood. Nutritional effects on brain health may involve the composition of the gut microbiota, as well as dietary components. The Gut Microbiota The bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is vital for maintaining homeostasis and is regulated by the neural [both central (CNS) and enteric nervous systems (ENS)], hormonal and immunological components. The human gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that 57 OBESITY, NUTRITION, AND COGNITION influence host health and disease, including, among others, diet and nutrition, obesity, intestinal diseases, and cancer (Flint, Scott, Louis, Duncan, 2012). Pertinent to this review, growing evidence supports a key role for the gut microbiota in childhood obesity (Karlsson et al., 2012) and in brain development, including learning and anxiety (Manco, 2012), suggesting that the gut microbiota could be a central mediator, although to date this has not been directly investigated. A recent study demonstrated that the gut microbial species differed between preschool children (age 4-5 years) with excessive body weight (n¼ 20) versus normal weight (n ¼ 20). The amount of Enterobacteriaceae was significantly higher in those with excessive body weight. In contrast, A. muciniphila-like bacteria and Desulfovibrio were more abundant in children with healthy BMI. Further, there was a trend for decreased bacterial diversity in children with excessive body weight (Karlsson et al., 2012). Evidence from animal models provides further insight into the link between gut microbiota and brain development. An essential role for the microbiota in brain development was demonstrated by comparing mice with a conventional microbiota to germ-free mice, which displayed increased motor activity and reduced anxiety and altered expression of genes involved in longterm potentiation in brain regions implicated in motor control and anxietylike behavior (Bravo et al., 2011; Heijtz et al., 2011; Neufeld, Kang, Bienenstock, Foster, 2011). Importantly, a critical window exists after which microbial colonization did not reverse the abnormal behavioral phenotype (Heijtz et al., 2011). Additionally, provision of a single lactobacillus species (L. rhamnosus JB-1) reduced anxiety- and depressionrelated behaviors in mice, which did not occur in vagotomized mice, identifying the vagus as a major modulator of communication between gut microbes and the brain (Bravo et al., 2011). Thus, future investigations are needed to define whether differences in the microbiome between lean and obese children impacts brain development and cognitive function. Neurodevelopment and Nutrient Deficiencies The development of the brain occurs through several overlapping processes (migration, myelination, and synaptogenesis) that proceed at varying velocities from early gestation into childhood (Lenroot Giedd, 2006). Over the first 2 years of life, the brain achieves 80% of its adult weight (Dekaban Sadowsky, 1978). This rapid early development of the brain in relation to the rest of the body emphasizes the need for optimal nutritional intake during pregnancy and early postnatal life. Extensive reviews on nutrients necessary for healthy neurodevelopment have been presented elsewhere (Benton, 2010; Bryan et al., 2004; Georgieff Innis, 2005; Rao Georgieff, 2007). However, some micronutrients play especially crucial roles in hippocampal and prefrontal growth and function (Georgieff, 2007). 58 Neurodevelopment processes provide critical periods of growth during which the brain is especially sensitive to nutritional insult. For example, the closing of the neural tube, which occurs 21-28 days into gestation, requires adequate levels of folate—an essential B vitamin (Benton, 2010). Approximately 300,000 newborns worldwide are affected by neural tube defects (NTDs) often manifesting in the form of spina bifida and anencephaly (Gardiner et al., 2008). Epidemiological evidence shows a decline in the prevalence of NTDs since the U.S. food supply was fortified with folic acid in 1998 (Williams et al., 2002). Maternal intake of folate during early pregnancy has been linked to higher scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III (PPVT-III), a test of receptive language that predicts overall intelligence, in children at 3 years (Villamor, Rifas-Shiman, Gillman, Oken, 2012). However, additional studies are needed to determine whether folate supplementation in childhood enhances performance on specific aspects of cognition and memory. In addition to folate, lower intake of choline during pregnancy has also been suggested to affect risk for NTDs (Shaw et al., 2009). Choline has wideranging functions including neurotransmitter synthesis, cell structure integrity, and conversion to methyl donor betaine (Benton, 2010; Zeisel Da Costa, 2009). Deficiency of choline during the final stages of gestation in rodents results in poorer memory as an adult (Zeisel Niculescu, 2006). However, among pregnant women, supplementing with phosphatidyl choline, the main dietary source of choline, from 18 weeks to 90 days postpartum did not result in enhanced cognitive abilities (short-term visuospatial memory, long-term episodic memory, language development, and global development) in their children at 10-12 months of age (Cheatham et al., 2012). Given that 80% of the women supplemented in this study already met their daily choline recommendation at time of supplementation, it remains unknown whether supplementing pregnant women with chronically lower intake of choline would enhance infant brain development. In addition, it is possible that a longer follow-up period would have revealed lateemerging effects. Therefore, additional supplementation studies are needed to elucidate the role of choline in cognitive development in infancy and childhood. Vitamin B12 plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism and its deficiency causes impaired myelination and demyelination of the spinal cord and the brain (Dror Allen, 2008; Healton, Savage, Brust, Garrett, Lindenbaum, 1991). Several mechanisms have been proposed for this effect including reduced phosphatidylcholine synthesis, elevated homocysteine, imbalance of neurotrophic and neurotoxic cytokines, and accumulation of lactate in brain cells (Dror Allen, 2008). Given that myelination is most active in the first 6 months of life, the brain may be especially susceptible to B12 deficiencies early in life (Lo¨vblad et al., 1997). However, the evidence 59 OBESITY, NUTRITION, AND COGNITION for impaired neurological development due to vitamin B12 deficiency in humans is largely based on case studies, and thus the long-term impact of suboptimal intake of vitamin B12 on cognitive development remains unknown. The role of vitamin D in brain development and function has also been gaining support over the past decade. Early life deficiency has been linked to neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, and deficiencies in adulthood are known to exacerbate Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and cognitive decline (Cui, Groves, Burne, Eyles, McGrath, 2013). The discovery that the brain synthesizes the active form of vitamin D, and expression of vitamin D receptors in the hippocampus suggests it may modulate proteins involved in learning and memory (Langub, Herman, Malluche, Koszewski, 2001). Although the evidence in early life is limited to rodent models, gestational vitamin D deficiency appears to cause permanent damage by altering the ratio of neural stem cell proliferation to programmed cell death in the brain (Levenson Figueiroˆa, 2008). Considering the surprisingly high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women (5% among white and 29% among black women) and newborns (10% and white and 47% among black neonates) in the United States (Bodnar et al., 2007), it is crucial that researchers elucidate whether vitamin D deficiency alters cognitive function in childhood. Among minerals, iron deficiency is the most common gestational micronutrient deficiency (Rao Georgieff, 2007; Stoltzfus, 2001). Perinatal iron deficiency has been shown to alter the neurochemical profile of the rat hippocampus resulting in impairments in energy status, neurotransmission, and myelination (Rao, Tkac, Townsend, Gruetter, Georgieff, 2003). Decrements in memory and learning have also been observed as a function of iron deficiency. Neonatal piglets consuming an iron deficient diet displayed lower acquisition on a hippocampal-dependent spatial T-maze task (Rytych et al., 2012). Among humans, newborns with low amounts of cord ferritin exhibit lower performance on mental and psychomotor tests at 5 years of age (Tamura et al., 2002). Another key mineral, Zinc, is a co-factor in enzymes that mediate protein and nucleic acid synthesis (Sandstead, 1985). Children born to zinc deficient mothers show decreased preferential looking behavior suggesting that zinc deficiency selectively affects hippocampal function (Merialdi et al., 2004). In addition to micronutrient inadequacies, protein/energy malnutrition between the third trimester and 2 months of postnatal life has enduring detrimental effects on global deficits in motor control and language development (Grantham-McGregor Baker-Henningham, 2005). In summary, brain structures displaying rapid growth during early childhood such as the hippocampus and cortex appear especially vulnerable to nutritional insult (Georgieff, 2007; Gotlieb, Biasini, Bray, 1988; Pollitt Gorman, 1994). 60 Nutrients and Cognitive Function in Children Children in developed countries rarely present with gross nutritional inadequacies, and supplementation in the absence of clinical deficiency remains a controversial topic. Nevertheless, the search for nutrients that enhance cognitive performance during growth is important because functional development of the hippocampus and frontal lobe continues throughout childhood (Bryan et al., 2004; Johnson, 2001; Lenroot Giedd, 2006; Thatcher, 1991). Breast milk is the optimal form of nutrition for the infant and its nutrient profile provides the basis for current nutrient recommendations for children younger than 2 years (IOM (US), Panel on Macronutrients, 2005). However, by 6 months of age, half of infants are consuming fortified infant formula (Li, Darling, Maurice, Barker, Grummer-Strawn, 2005). Furthermore, most studies of breastfed infants lack cognitive assessment of the child or mother. Few randomized controlled trials have been conducted and much of the evidence is based on observational studies. According to a meta-analysis, breast-fed infants may score 2-5 points higher on cognitive developmental tests compared to their non-breast-fed counterparts (Anderson, Johnstone, Remley, 1999). This difference may be even higher for children who are born preterm (Lucas, Morley, Cole, Lister, Leeson-Payne, 1992). After stratifying children based on breastfeeding duration and gestation status, preterm infants who were breast-fed performed better on naming vocabulary, pattern recognition, and picture similarities subscales at 5 years of age (Quigley et al., 2012). It remains unclear whether these positive effects can be attributed to specific nutrients in breast milk since maternal and lifestyle characteristics often confound the findings (Qawasmi, Landeros-Weisenberger, Leckman, Bloch, 2012; Von Kries, Koletzko, Sauerwald, Von Mutius, 2002). Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have been extensively studied for their role in brain development and cognitive function (Eilander, Hundscheid, Osendarp, Transler, Zock, 2007; Georgieff Innis, 2005). Among LCPUFAs, both DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) are preferentially accumulated in the forebrain during the third trimester and first 2 years of life (Lauritzen, Jorgensen, Olsen, Straarup, Michaelsen, 2005; Martinez, 1992). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in particular, plays a crucial role in maintaining cortical neuronal integrity (Joardar, Sen, Das, 2006; McNamara et al., 2010). Deficiency in DHA results in abnormalities in neurons, glial cells, oligodendrocytes, myelin, and nerve endings (Bourre, 2006). Although DHA and AA can be derived from their essential fatty acid precursors, alinolenic (ALA) and linoleic acid (LA), this conversion is not efficient in the human fetus and breast milk varies in its concentration of LCPUFA (Cetin Koletzko, 2008; Hoffman, Boettcher, Diersen-Schade, 2009; Jensen Lapillonne, 2009; Uauy, Mena, Wegher, Nieto, Salem, 2000). Therefore, it 61 OBESITY, NUTRITION, AND COGNITION was hypothesized that supplementing infant formula with DHA and AA would improve cognitive function in children. Supplementation of preterm infants with DHA improved visual acuity and short-term global development (O’Connor et al., 2001; SanGiovanni, Parra-Cabrera, Colditz, Berkey, Dwyer, 2000). However, the overall results thus far have been inconclusive and a recent meta-analysis concluded that LCPUFA supplementation did not significantly improve early cognition (Campoy, Escolano-Margarit, Anjos, Szajewska, Uauy, 2012; Qawasmi et al., 2012). Interestingly, among school children with learning disabilities and developmental disorders, supplementation with DHA has been shown to improve cognitive function (Kirby, Woodward, Jackson, 2010), indicating the potential benefits of supplementation during school-aged years. Supplementing infant formula with micronutrients (e.g., iron) has yielded mixed results as well. Among infants without iron deficiency, supplementing with iron does not improve and may even be related to lower cognitive function in those with elevated hemoglobin levels at 10 years of age (Lozoff, Castillo, Clark, Smith, 2012). Conversely, providing a cocktail of micronutrients along with DHA has been shown to improve verbal learning but not general intelligence or attention (Osendarp et al., 2007). Therefore, current findings suggest that nutritional status of the child (deficient or adequate) may play an important role in determining cognitive outcomes as a function of supplementation. In addition, future research should examine the efficacy of supplementation of combinations of nutrients rather than provision of a single nutrient for cognitive and brain health. Dietary components such as high saturated fats and sugars may also have a detrimental impact on brain function (Das, 2010), although much of this evidence is derived from animal models. Brain derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) appears to function at the crossroads of cognitive and metabolic regulation (Go´mez-Pinilla, 2008). BDNF modulates insulin resistance and glucose metabolism and deletion or polymorphisms of BDNF are related to abnormal hippocampal function among rodent and human studies (Egan et al., 2003; Go´mez-Pinilla, 2008; Nakagawa et al., 2002; Tonra et al., 1999). Exposure to a diet high in saturated fat and sucrose, independent of obesity, was related to decreased BDNF in the hippocampus and poorer learning and memory performance (Molteni, Barnard, Ying, Roberts, GomezPinilla, 2002). However, conclusive evidence for specific nutrients that can enhance cognitive function in children has been elusive thus far. Some studies have considered nutrition composition of meals and cognitive function. Breakfast omission has been linked to poorer performance on learning and memory among school-aged children and adolescents (Pollitt Mathews, 1998; Rampersaud, 2009). Modifying nutritional composition of meals may also affect short-term cognitive performance. School-aged children consuming 62 breakfasts with low glycemic index (GI) may perform better on attentional tasks when compared to no breakfast or breakfast with high GI (Cooper, Bandelow, Nute, Morris, Nevill, 2012; Ingwersen, Defeyter, Kennedy, Wesnes, Scholey, 2007). CONCLUSION Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive and brain health may be profoundly affected by weight status and nutritional intake. Obese children have been shown to exhibit lower performance on cognitive control tasks and findings from ERP studies indicate that overweight and nonoverweight children have differential underlying brain activity during task performance. In addition to weight status, central adiposity and insulin resistance are associated with lower cognitive control in children (Kamijo, Khan et al. 2012; Tascilar et al., 2011). Insulin resistance has already been implicated in adult cognitive impairment; however, additional work in children is needed to elucidate insulin’s role in brain function through the lifespan. Regarding academic achievement, there are no definitive prospective studies demonstrating a causal relationship between weight status and diminished academic achievement in children. However, cross-sectional studies indicate a negative association with obesity and academic achievement (Li et al., 2008). Therefore, additional longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether obesity is a determinant of lower academic achievement. The rapid development of the brain over the first 2 years of life makes it particularly susceptible to nutrient deficiencies (Georgieff, 2007). This is evident from observations of decrements in brain development and function among animals and humans following perinatal or early nutrient deficiencies. However, there remains remarkably little known about the effects of overall diet or particular nutrients on specific aspects of cognitive control among children without nutrient deficiencies. Emerging data suggest the potential for the gut microbiome to mediate brain development and childhood obesity risk. Considering that the gut microbiota is highly susceptible to nutrient intake as well, future studies should investigate how nutrients targeting the microbiome may modulate both obesity and cognition. Despite wide-scale intervention efforts, childhood obesity remains a major public health threat in much of the developed world (De Onis, Blo¨ssner, Borghi, 2010; Ogden et al., 2012). Given that this trend may persist for the foreseeable future (Wang et al., 2008), it is essential that researchers develop a comprehensive understanding of the cognitive implications of nutrition and obesity.

English

Python Question on the following Inputs

Item Name

Item Cost

Life

itemName= input(quot;Enter the name of item purchased: quot;)
yrPurch = int(input(quot;Enter the year purchased: quot; ))
estCost = float(input(quot;Enter cost of item: quot;))
estLife =…
Python Programming

Python Question on the following Inputs

Item Name

Item Cost

Life

itemName= input(quot;Enter the name of item purchased: quot;)
yrPurch = int(input(quot;Enter the year purchased: quot; ))
estCost = float(input(quot;Enter cost of item: quot;))
estLife =…
Python Programming

Our (Time Warner’s) only competitor is District X currently provides bundled services

Question

Our (Time Warner’s) only competitor is District X currently provides bundled services

at $84.95. We are currently charging a 10% premium over their price, but there are unsubstantiated rumors that they are contemplating a 10% price increase. We don’t know their cost structure, so we don’t know whether their potential price increase is driven by cost increases or is merely a strategic move on their part.

Historically, when we both charge the same price, our market share is about 65%. When we charge a 10 percent premium over their price, our market share declines to about 60%. It appears that in those instances where they have charged a 10% premium over our price, our market share is about 70%. Please provide a recommendation regarding whether we should maintain our current price or reduce our price to $84.95.

Please factor into your recommendation that we pay programming fees to providers that amount to $32.50 for each subscriber. In addition, maintenance, service and billing costs are about $7.60 per subscriber. At present, there are about 110,000 households in the relevant area.

Questions:

1. Draw the payoff matrix (note that Time Warner and District x are the only ones in the market.

2. Based on the payoff matrix what recommendation would you give regarding whether Time Warner should maintain its current price or reduce it to $84.95? Explain your answer.

Economics

Our (Time Warner’s) only competitor is District X currently provides bundled services

Question

Our (Time Warner’s) only competitor is District X currently provides bundled services

at $84.95. We are currently charging a 10% premium over their price, but there are unsubstantiated rumors that they are contemplating a 10% price increase. We don’t know their cost structure, so we don’t know whether their potential price increase is driven by cost increases or is merely a strategic move on their part.

Historically, when we both charge the same price, our market share is about 65%. When we charge a 10 percent premium over their price, our market share declines to about 60%. It appears that in those instances where they have charged a 10% premium over our price, our market share is about 70%. Please provide a recommendation regarding whether we should maintain our current price or reduce our price to $84.95.

Please factor into your recommendation that we pay programming fees to providers that amount to $32.50 for each subscriber. In addition, maintenance, service and billing costs are about $7.60 per subscriber. At present, there are about 110,000 households in the relevant area.

Questions:

1. Draw the payoff matrix (note that Time Warner and District x are the only ones in the market.

2. Based on the payoff matrix what recommendation would you give regarding whether Time Warner should maintain its current price or reduce it to $84.95? Explain your answer.

Economics

The opening Q M in Action vignette in Chapter 8 of the textbook discusses how Chevron uses a linear programming

Question

The opening Q.M in Action vignette in Chapter 8 of the textbook discusses how Chevron uses a linear programming

tool and sensitivity analysis to plan refinery operations and to improve profitability. As a manager you will be required to analyze situations quantitatively to minimize costs or maximize profit.

What other considerations might a manager at Chevron have to account for while planning production in such a complex environment?

Business

The opening Q M in Action vignette in Chapter 8 of the textbook discusses how Chevron uses a linear programming

Question

The opening Q.M in Action vignette in Chapter 8 of the textbook discusses how Chevron uses a linear programming

tool and sensitivity analysis to plan refinery operations and to improve profitability. As a manager you will be required to analyze situations quantitatively to minimize costs or maximize profit.

What other considerations might a manager at Chevron have to account for while planning production in such a complex environment?

Business

Need help with that lab java programming Need help

Task 1 . Define an elegant class
Design an elegant class for pupils who are good
at arithmetic operations , such as addition
subtraction multiplication , and division . The
data type of operands may be integer or float .
For example , the add methods can be defined as
following . They are overloading methods
pu
PU
blic int add intox into the float addsint x
float y )
public float add float
public float add float
Noat you
int you
return x ty !
return ( float ( x + y )
hell
of properties , constructors and methods of Thi
class Pupil as shown in Figure
PUTHI
TESTING
NEXT
Must be home – kan
Figure I Model for Pupil
Java Programming

Need help with that lab java programming Need help

Task 1 . Define an elegant class
Design an elegant class for pupils who are good
at arithmetic operations , such as addition
subtraction multiplication , and division . The
data type of operands may be integer or float .
For example , the add methods can be defined as
following . They are overloading methods
pu
PU
blic int add intox into the float addsint x
float y )
public float add float
public float add float
Noat you
int you
return x ty !
return ( float ( x + y )
hell
of properties , constructors and methods of Thi
class Pupil as shown in Figure
PUTHI
TESTING
NEXT
Must be home – kan
Figure I Model for Pupil
Java Programming

Wixon Widgets has two decentralized divisions which make two different types of widgets

Premier and

Question

Wixon Widgets has two decentralized divisions which make two different types of widgets; Premier and

Popular. Because of increasing demand, each manager has been lobbying to the Headquarters for purchasing an automatic programming machine that would mechanize part of their operations. Unfortunately, these machines have huge capacity and none of the divisions of Wixon seem to have enough demand to justify purchase of these machines. The managers and the Headquarters have agreed to purchase these machines on a cost sharing agreement. At present they are considering four different options. The incremental contributions of Premier and Popular divisions for each of the four machines and the respective cost of the machines are as follows:

Cost of Machine
Popular’s Contribution
Premier’s Contribution

Machine 1
100,000