The Effects of Water Pollution on Child Mortality

Water pollution is “contamination of water by undesirable foreign matter.” It has impacts on our sea, our surface, and our groundwater (Yanful 140). This underlines the fact that water pollution will certainly affect day to day life. According to Encyclopaedia of Public Health, “Infant and child mortality are deaths to children under age 1 and under age 5…. Child mortality (often called under-five mortality) is measured as a probability or the proportion of children dying before their fifth birthday… Infant mortality is defined as the probability of dying between birth and exactly one year of age expressed per 1000 live births” (Encyclopedia of Public Health 755). Though there are various reasons attributed to infant mortality or child mortality, water pollution can be treated as the most significant among them.
It is a fact that infant mortality and child mortality occur in various parts of the world. However, the majority of the studies agree that the child mortality rates are higher in underdeveloped and developing countries when compared with the developed nations in the world. An overview of the reports related to this issue unveils that the majority of the underdeveloped nations are there in the African continent where the number of children died in infancy is quite alarming. According to the latest report of the World Fact Book of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Afghanistan, Mali and Somalia are on the first three places having the higher infant mortality rate (U.S. Central Intelligence Agency 2014). They are marked with more than a hundred infant deaths in 1,000 live births.
The statistical pieces of evidence proposed by various organizations concerning this issue reveal the present state of child mortality. Globally, two million tons of sewage, industrial and agricultural waste is discharged into the world’s waterways and at least 1.8 million children under five-years-old die&nbsp.every year from water-related disease, or once every 20 seconds.

Do Childrens of Alcoholics Have Adjustment Problems

Social problems are always created for an individual and people surrounding him as alcoholics frequently get into trouble with the law, destroy their interpersonal relationships, end up in debt, cause deaths due to driving under its influence and as they cannot hold down a job or complete their education.

The extrapolation derived from the data on drinking practices from the surveys of household probability suggests that there are nearly 29 million children of alcoholic patents and an anticipated 22 million of them are either 18 years of age or older and nearly 6.6 million are below the age of 18 years. Regrettably, even though it is a known fact that this magnitude of population and the possibility of these individuals suffering from a variety of problems, well-controlled research is not yet done. Along with descriptive epidemiological investigation, a range of other forms of studies is needed. Systematically sound research can offer groundwork for the enhancement of early intervention and effective preventive programs to eradicate the potential adverse effects of alcoholism.

Even though the children of alcoholic parents are at a higher risk for alcoholism, it should be observed that a huge percentage of these children do not necessarily develop this disorder. Different patterns of alcoholism are suggested by research both with high environmental risk and genetic vulnerability. It is likely that some individuals with high risk do not develop alcoholism they may employ coping mechanisms. Multiple copying mechanisms are clinically observed in these children and many of them grow up to be free from psychopathology or alcoholism.

These studies of the coping mechanisms are employed by the resistant individuals that may have a special value for prevention and treatment programs.

Challenges to Expert Knowledge in Understanding and Managing Risk

51250 Diseases from poisonous substances in the environment are commonplace due to pollution and climate change is also a threat to human existence. People can be harmed in their daily activities and in different ways hence making the management of risks very complex. Expert knowledge in understanding and managing risk is therefore required and essential in the prevention of risk especially in known circumstances and also to reduce the negative consequences associated with risk. However, even expert knowledge can be contested in various ways thus adding to the uncertainty of risk. Risk is defined by Carter and Jordan (2009: 59) as “the state in which there is the possibility of known danger or harm which if avoided may lead to benefits and particular and known outcome combined with consequences of the outcome.” It is an inherent danger in anything. It is also a probability or a situation of uncertainty that something might happen. Carter and Jordan regard risk as to the central element of life in a risk society. For Tim Jordan, the risk is “a combination of known and unknown outcomes and consideration of which allows for managed uncertainty” (A Risky World? 2009, track 3). Hinchliffe on the other hand, views risk as to the balance between benefits and costs. This is especially so for economists who must consider costs and benefits of any project or activity before engaging in it so as not to suffer loss. In our daily activities, we encounter various risks hence we can say that risk is unavoidable though manageable if we are aware of it. Ulrich Beck in his social theory argues that we all live in a risk society (Beck 1992, cited in Carter &amp. Jordan 2009: 81). Risk comes from various sources. In the past, the risk was apparent in industries but due to rapid technological and scientific advancements and transformation to knowledge economy as well as globalization, risk in contemporary society is inherent everywhere.&nbsp.

Constitutional Law Horton v California

The long-term outcome of the Terry Horton vs California case The Terry Brice Horton, Petitioner versus California case in 1990 was tabled on February21, 1990 and heard by the United States Supreme Court with a decision being arrived at on June 4, 1990. The fact in this case was that a police officer instigated a warranted search in the home of a robbery suspect. The warrant only outlined the proceeds of the robbery, and not weapons, although the weapons description was available. However, the officer came across weapons which were included in the police report in plain view and seized them, however, the officer was unable to find the proceeds of the robbery (US Supreme Court, p.132).
In this case, the court came up with a plain view doctrine, which is under the Fourth Amendment to the US Constitution (Eyer, 467). There are actually two flaws in the plurality conclusion of Coolidge. First, evenhanded law enforcement is attained by the application of objective conduct standards, other than standards that rely on the police officer’s subjective state of mind (Eyer, 483).
Secondly, the suggestion that the inadvertence requirement allows the police officer from carrying out general searches is not persuasive enough. This is because that interest is already being served by the need that an unparticularized warrant cannot be given and that a warrantless search is actually circumscribed by the exigencies, which would make a justification of its initiation. This would a pose a problem in future if a reference is made to this case (US Supreme Court, 137-142). Prohibition against the general warrants and searches is dependent on privacy considerations, which in this case are not implicated when an law enforcement agent with a legal right to have access to a certain item in plain view goes ahead to seize it without a warrant(Cretacci 22-27).
In the current criminal justice system, to ensure validity of a warrantless seizure of an object in plain view, two conditions need to be satisfied, besides the crucial predicate that the officer actually did not violate the Fourth Amendment when he/she arrived at the scene from which the object could be viewed plainly (Carmen, 45-46). First, the object’s incriminating character needs to be ‘immediately present’. In this case, this was actually not fulfilled since the cars in Coolidge were in plain view, their value of probability remained unknown up until after an examination was done on the interiors. Secondly, the officer needs to have a legal right accessing the object itself. Since these two conditions were not fully adhered to, the judgment delivered did not consider all the facets of the case thus, creating debate in future judgments (Bloomberg Law).
The court was faced in what is currently referred to as pretextual search. One collects evidence described in the warrant but he is only interested in seizing evidence in connection to another crime which he/she does not have a warrant. This search is pretextual and its fruits need to be suppressed. Therefore, the US Supreme Court would be at logger heads with current penal code (Eyer, 483).
The officer found the weapons in plain view and seized them, but he did not find the rings. The Fourth Amendment prohibits warrantless seizure of crime evidence in plain view, although the discovery of the evidence was not inadvertent. This is because inadvertent discovery requirement does protect possessory interests (Eyer, 482).
According to the Bloomberg Law, dependence on privacy concerns is actually misplaced if the inquiry concerns the scope of an exception that simply gives permission an officer a legitimate right to access an item and seize it without a warrant. Most participants in the criminal justice system recognize that the warrant requirements not only describe the things that are to be seized, but also protects the privacy interests by prohibiting general searches.
In the legal system, the scope of search is actually limited to those places where the probable location where the item is believed to be found as outlined in the warrant. In that sense, once all the items described in the search warrant have been found, the search is required to stop and no further privacy invasion is allowed.
In this case, the Court also does not disagree with the unconstitutionality of a search which actually goes far off track of a search for the items revealed in the warrant that it becomes a general exploratory search for whichever evidence of wrongdoing that may be established.
In the criminal justice system, most Courts reiterate that conversion of specific warrants into general warrants is deemed unconstitutional besides emphasizing the requirement for unscrupulous compliance to the needs that warrants specifically the place that is to be searched and particular things to be searched (Carmen, 114-116). On that perspective, a warrantless search needs to circumscribe by those exigencies that justify its establishment. Summarily, since the court ruled that the weapons were found inadvertently basing on the evidence of the weapons to be admitted at trial, Horton was convicted which is against the Fourth Amendment.
Works Cited
Bloomberg Law. 2012. Horton vs California. 17 January 2014 .
Carmen, Rolando V. del. Criminal Procedure: Law and Practice. New York: Cengage Learning, 2012.
Cretacci, Michael. Supreme Court Case Briefs in Criminal Procedure. New York: Sage Publications, 2008 Print
Eyer, Robin. "Comment, the Plain View Doctrine After Horton v. California: Fourth Amendment Concerns and the Problem of Pretext". Dickinson Law Review 96 (3): 467, 482–83. 1992 Print
US Supreme Court. Horton V. California: Certiorari to the Court of Appeals of California, Sixth Appellate District. California: United States Supreme Court, 1990.
Terry, Horton, Petitioner versus California case in 1990 496 U.S. 128, 110 S. Ct. 2301, 110 L. Ed. 2d 112 (1990).

Effect of AIDS in the Workplace

To combat this lack of information, it is necessary to illuminate the cause, ways of transmission, effects on the immune system and incidence and prevalence of the disease to help educate the business owners about how it could impact their concerns. By enumerating the effectiveness of policies and programs that are currently in place as well as the laws and regulations requiring such programs, employers may be able to identify gaps and shortfalls in their current procedures. Special attention will be given to the context of a small, privately-owned retail shop in Texas as a point of illustration how the national and state laws might differ as well as how these policies might relate to the smaller business sphere. Recommendations regarding how to alleviate or reduce some of these issues will conclude the report.
HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) which leads to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is the most infectious disease that has presented itself in more than a century. HIV made an evolutionary jump from chimpanzees to humans. In all probability, the transfer occurred from using chimps as a meat source. The virus originated, however, in two types of monkeys which were consumed by the chimpanzees. A hybrid of the monkey virus (SIV) spread through infected chimpanzees and a mutated form was eventually transmitted to people in the form of HIV-1. As do chimps, humans carry two types of the disease. HIV-2 is the less virulent of the two. According to Paul Sharp of the Institute of Genetics at University in England. “Because of the similarity between chimpanzees and humans, any virus that successfully adapts to spreading among chimps would be a candidate for a further jump to humans, a potential HIV-3” (cited in Lovgren, 2003). To date, one percent of the world’s population has contracted HIV and the disease is responsible for taking the lives of nearly three million people in 2005 alone.

Recommendation and rationale the idea of building prisons

Recommendation and rationale the idea of building prisons I oppose the idea of building more prisons in the of Washington. This follows the minimal benefits derived from using prisons to curb crime in the state. Imprisonment leads to an increase in crime, if the prisoners do not get a chance to improve their skills, or behavior. Once these prisoners get released into the world, without a significant change in their well being, the possibility of committing crime still exists. This follows exposure to a criminal society, which includes fellow prisoners. The interactions of prisoners, while still in prison makes individual prisoners to harden, thus increasing their ability to commit further crimes. Therefore, crime cannot be reduced by more prisons. This follows the idea that one cannot produce behavior change by suppressing negative behavior with an intention of shaping good behavior (Gendreau, &amp. Goggin 1999). In addition to this, exposing a criminal to severe punishment destroys the quality of life. The prisoner gets to draw from the society, but does not give back to society. Consequently, other techniques, which encourage criminals to lead a positive life, such as vocational training, should be emphasized. Potential criminals, who include at risk children, should be provided with quality education, which leads to better opportunities in the future, instead of criminal engagements.
Strategies for promoting alternatives
The ability of other methods to yield greater benefits to the entire state, as opposed to imprisonment justifies the position of not building more prisons. Adopting techniques, which reduce crime from an early age of an individual’s life, for example, benefits the society in a number of ways, which necessitates that legislators concentrate their efforts on establishing such mechanisms.
Quality early childhood education for all, for example, allows children to access education at a tender age. Subsequent access to such education allows the children to concentrate on building their professions, thus shifting their minds from criminal activities. On the other hand, children who do not access education at an early age get the opportunity to interact with criminals in their neighborhoods, thus increasing their possibility of engaging in crime. As the “economic opportunity institute” reports, 70 percent of the children who do not access quality early childhood education pose a higher probability of being arrested for a criminal activity by the time they reach 18 years, compared to those who access quality early childhood education. More to this, leaving out at-risk children from early childhood education multiplies their risk of becoming chronic lawbreakers by five times. This means that building more prisons does not serve to reduce crime. Instead, handling the root of the problem can bear better fruits, and give benefit the community a better return on investments made.
Other programs, such as cognitive-behavioral programs also reduce the prevalence of crime in society. They equip the criminals with a mentality that allows a significant number of these criminals to reform and lead a positive life. A 6.9 percent reduction in recidivism as explained by Drake, Aos, &amp. Miller (2009), helps in combating crime, compared to the expense of building more prisons. In addition to this, providing existing criminals with an opportunity to gain vocational skills that can help them lead a better life after prison promotes their quality of life and well-being. This means that criminals need to be helped, through ways that yield economic benefits for the state, instead of methods that deprive the state of its resources, as well as a good number of people who can contribute to the prosperity of the state.
References
Drake, E., Aos, S. &amp. Miller, M. (2009). Evidence-Based Public Policy Options to Reduce Crime and Criminal Justice Costs: Implications in Washington State. Victims and Offenders 4, 170-196.
Economic Opportunity Institute. (n.d). The Link between Early Childhood Education and Crime and Violence Reduction. Economic Opportunity Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.eoionline.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/early-learning/ELCLinkCrimeReduction-Jul02.pdf.
Gendreau, P. &amp. Goggin, C. (1999). The Effects of Prison Sentences on Recidivism. Ontario: Public Works and Government Services Canada.

The Comparison between Stocks of Chinese Companies in U S and Stocks in China using SAS

The stock market has grown rapidly over the years from the commencement of big firm’s addition in the last few years. Moreover, at the present more than 80% of the overall capitalization of Hong Kong Stock Exchange (HKSE) market that abides to the US rules and regulations and is open to the outside investors. This is in consistence of China as a mainland creating a market of H share. Putting together the listed firms on the list and in trade in these 3 exchanges, the stock exchange of China is the 2nd biggest worldwide, just following the markets of US equity.
On the other hand, the equity market of China has become substandard, in particular in comparison to the GDP growth. In December 31, 1991 since as per December 31, 1990 there was barely any listed stock. Ironically, the composite of Shanghai has the most terrible performing index globally. The big question here is. how is it that the world rapidly evolving economy with a realistic growth rate factor of GDP being 8 since the year 1991, gives a bad performance in the stock market. I can say not much research on this has been done to address this big question. This is then, is the aim of this paper.
When USA had problems, investors began searching for new markets, in which there would be high probability of earning cash. In the last 30 years China has shown growth economically, though its stock market shows bad results in performance. Consequently, this has caused attraction to quite a number of investors. In spite of its quick growth economically, Chinese stock market fails to show any significant improvement. Moreover, Chinese stock market got particular features that ought to be done analysis and assessment by those wishing to invest. The stock market of China was no go zone for a given period due to the unique characteristics of its market that had cut down its market integrity. I believe this market has been influenced by the

The Pervasiveness of Obesity in the United States

Obesity condenses eminence of life, enhances the probability of untimely death, augments the jeopardy for numerous persistent diseases, related to heart such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, other related disorders encompass high cholesterol levels, sleep apnea, overweight resulting in orthopaedic problems, early signs of puberty in case of obese kids, reduced life expectancy, stroke, enhances the possibilities of witnessing Type 2 diabetes, elevated BMI, cancer, arthritis, metabolic disorders and other related anomalies (US Department of Health and Human Services: The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Obesity).
Obesity not only brings concern about health but it adds to the financial burden too. Obesity augments the health care costs. Estimates reveal that obesity accounts for approximately 10% of yearly medical expenses, increasing the obesity-associated medical costs to $147 billion in 2008. Obesity has reached an alarming position in the USA, and two well-distinguished categories have been demonstrated namely obese and extremely obese. Findings disclose that over one-third of adults of United States adults were found to be obese during the year 2007–2008 (Flegal, 2010).
According to The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the incidence of obesity in the United States could be estimated by means of data for height to weight ratio. The prevalence rate of obesity display that there was a steady increase in obesity equally in both the sexes belonging to all ages from 1976 -1980 to 1988-1994. On the other hand, the trend in obesity augmentation between 1988-1994 and 1999-2000 was significant in other ages except for the males belonging to the age between 40 to 59 years. While data analysis from 2001-2002 to 2003-2004 recommended escalating trends since 1999-2000 in males and not in females (Flegal, 2006).​
The government is showing great concern about the "obesity epidemic" as 60% of Americans are obese. In Fat Politics, Eric Oliver unearths the real story behind America’s "obesity epidemic."&nbsp.&nbsp.

Project Management and Scheduling

The expected time for an activity represents the average time it would take if the activity is performed over and over again. It is known empirically that the probability density function of activity duration closely follows a Beta distribution, which defines the following relationship (Heldman &amp. Baca, 267)
Standard Deviation is used for calculating the variability associated with the high degree of uncertainty in estimated time durations.&nbsp.
The time analysis elements such as the forward pass (Early Start time ES and Early Finish time EF) and the Backward Pass (Late Start time LS and Late Finish time LF) are used to find the Critical Path. These times are calculated using the Expected Time (te) for the respective activity relative to the zero date (date when the project clock starts ticking) of the project.

The Backward Pass Late Start (LS) and Late Finish (LF) values are calculated considering that the earliest completion time of the project for the last activity and then working backward towards the predecessors. For all the last activities, the LF will be equal to the respective EF value. Therefore, values of LF for the activities O, N, M, I and C are equal to the respective values of EF.

The Critical Path can be determined by finding the Total Slack for each activity. Total Slack for any activity is the maximum time by which the start of an activity can be delayed without affecting the critical path.

The path with the longest Expected time duration is the critical path. Activities on the critical path have slack as 0 since these activities cannot be delayed at all. Each path from the Start to the Finish node is defined along with the respective time duration. The Expected Completion Time (Et) for each path is equal to the expected duration of the constituent activities. For Example, A-E-H-K-I is calculated as: Et (A-E-H-K-I) = [te (A) + te (E) + te (H) + te (K) + te (I)] = 2.500 + 6.166 +2.833 + 2.000 + 2.500 = 15.999

Speculative markets finance

Additionally,the speculator has not to worry of any loss since the American Puts have the opportunities to exercise immediately, therefore will gain access the different values of mispricing at any given time even at its expiration (Shockley 12-45).
A synthetic Long call will be created when the long stock position is to be combined with long put of the same series. Therefore, to get the long synthetic stock position for the we assume that. Maximum profit = unlimited
The total position of the two individuals will be profitable if the stock is less or greater than $45 or. Such a scenario is known as strangle since the individuals hold two profitable positions to make profits under the bear and bull respectively.
The value of a call option is adversely affected with the underlying stock price (in the case $ 390) is expected to drop by a rate equivalent to the value of the dividend on the ex-dividend date. However, as the above case is a call option the owner of the stock receives the cash dividends as of the ex-dividend date, hence the call option can be discounted by a figure as high as the dividend.
Therefore, the Amazon call option priced $ 390 and N (d1 ) denotes the probability or the expected value of receiving the Amazon call option at the expiration of option. Therefore, when S rise to $1000 the N (d1 ) will reduce accordingly indicating that as S grows the chances of exercising the option at the expiry date becomes small due to the increment of market volatility for that stock given as 25%. Under this case the probability if decrement of the amazon may be reflected as the 390/1000= 0.39.
With the stock value dropping to $50, the present value of the contingent adjusted to the risk becomes less than the exercise price of the option during the expiration date, therefore, making the call value to be zero at its expiration date holding that the probabilities are normally distributed.
Ashley can create a bear spread via simultaneous

Precise Molded Products Inc

Precise Molded Products, Inc of Introduction According to Sower (2003), quality can be too expensive that it needs to be checked out regularly. As organizations seek to improve the quality of their products, they might encounter challenges that may even cancel their quality advantage. Looking closely at the case of Precise Molded Products Company, one can conclude that a wonderful job is done by the technicians considering the amount of work done within one hour. In fact, the technical work in this whole case study is the measurement part, which is comparatively done well because only a few products are rejected as a result of length (Sower, 2003). This implies that, the staff might be concerned more with the technical part of production at the expense of the other parts such as the wrapping part that records the highest number of rejects.
A critical analysis of both wrap and short suggests that wrapping does not require much expertise to do it, whereas measurement may require one to have knowledge of what they are doing. Sower (2003) asserts that the biggest cost of quality results from carelessness of the workers. Employees may become careless due to fatigue, lack of motivation as well as poor working conditions. It has been noted that, workers who are highly motivated when doing their work, make less mistakes (Sower, 2003). Moreover, if employees are overworked the probability of making many mistakes is very common. Consequently, managers should always ensure that all their employees are well kept in order to avoid small mistakes. By so doing the cost of quality will greatly be reduced.
Mistakes that cause rejects cannot be avoided but can only be reduced because man is to error (Sower, 2003). Mistakes like discoloring and stains are caused as a result of simple human errors. Products may be handed by employees in a way that they are not supposed to be handled causing damage. Appearance of a product plays a very big role in the rejection of the product since a customer will dislike anything that is not appealing to the eye. Thus managers should ensure that products are presented in a way that is appealing to the customer. In addition, customer satisfaction also encompasses good delivery services, production of a variety of products and the product taste should be to the preference of a customer (Sower, 2003).
The quality manager specifically complains of a rise and fall of rejects depending on the days. Sower (2003) explains that this is a clear reflection that the firm is experiencing accuracy as well as effectiveness problems. This can only be attained through a clear evaluation of how employees carry out their work with the aim of identifying and outsourcing the problems. On the other hand, expertise knowledge cannot be overlooked when talking about quality. High quality is always characterized with high expertise since a person who has knowledge concerning something, will give it his best during the production process. Workers should be allocated work according to where they are best suited (Sower, 2003). This will give them confidence in doing their work hence avoiding small mistakes.
References
Sower, V. E., &amp. Quarles, R. (2003). Cost of quality: Why more organizations do not use it effectively. ASQ World Conference on Quality and Improvement Proceedings, 57(2), Pp. 625-637.

Pets and health and lifestyle

Pets and Health and Lifestyle Pets and Health and Lifestyle Pets have a positive impact on the lifestyle and health of an individual. They not only serve as companions but also act as mood alleviators and assist in overcoming anxiety. People become so attached to their pets that they treat them as family members and do not wish to part from them. This strong bond has led to investigations which have proved that pet ownership provides for enhancement in the quality of life of individuals. Not only is it associated with improvements in physical and mental health but it also assists in the social wellbeing of an individual (Fetters 2014). The social impact of pet ownership will first be discussed followed by its positive effects on the physical and mental health of an individual.
Pets form an underlying reason for social interaction between people. Thus they tend to make an individual socially active. For example when people take their dogs for a walk, they tend to stop and talk to other dog owners. This leads to social contact and helps a person to become active. Such interactions are also a common sight at pet shops or at veterinary clinics. Another important aspect linked with animals that enhances social skills is the fact that people find it easier to interact and talk to people who are walking with their pets. This is because it is a common notion that people who own pets are nice and caring (Fetters 2014, Robinson and Segal 2014).
Physical activity is another benefit linked with owning pets and this improves the physical health of an individual. Pets require attention and no matter whether the pet is a dog or a parrot, a person has to perform some activity for them. This prevents a person from total physical inactivity. An added benefit is for the people who take their animals like cats and dogs for walks. A study has revealed that people who take their dogs for walks have a lesser probability of gaining excessive weight in comparison to the normal population (Fetters 2014).
Pets have a significant role in stress reduction and in preventing anxiety and thus they are important in maintaining good psychological health as well. Being alone makes an individual depressed and thus the partnership of an animal keeps a person busy and prevents depression. Not only this, people who stay isolated from others seek comfort by staying with their pets. It has been suggested that spending time with pets and playing with them helps to relieve stress by altering the hormone levels in the body and making an individual energetic (Fetters 2014).
To sum up, it can be understood that pets are linked with many positive aspects. Pet owners are not only at advantage socially but they also have lesser risks of developing psychological and physical health problems. Pets form the basis for social interaction amongst different people. They also enhance physical activity and reduce the probability of depression and stress in the pet owners.
References
Fetters, K.A. (2014, May 28).“The Health Benefits of Pets.” Livestrong.com. Retrieved from http://www.livestrong.com/article/557659-the-health-benefits-of-pets/
Robinson, L. and Segal, J. (2014). “The Therapeutic &amp. Health Benefits of Pets.” Helpguide.org. Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/life/pets.htm

Health Promotion Program

205000 Today, the rise of lifestyle diseases like diabetes, hypertension, obesity etc. have become hugely worrying aspects of healthcare programs. It has necessitated an in depth research for evolving effective mechanisms of control and prevention to curb this rapidly growing tendency amongst the population. The paper would be addressing the various issues of diabetes for developing health promotion project for effective diabetes management, prevention and control amongst Afro-American population in Ohio for better health and welfare of the society at large. In the contemporary times, diabetes has emerged as major health issue across America. 25.8 million people in America have diabetes and 7 million of those have undiagnosed diabetes (cdc, 2013). Moreover, 1.9 million new cases of diabetes were detected in 2010 and if this trend continues, one out of every three American adult would be diabetic by 2050! (ibid). It is a dangerous lifestyle disease because it not only reduces life expectancy but it is also the seventh most common cause of death. It also adversely impacts the quality of life and damages heart, kidney, eyes etc. with fatal outcome if not treated timely. Most importantly, being a lifestyle disease, it is preventable and can be managed if diagnosed early. Intervention techniques used in early stages can control diabetes and improve quality of life that would lead to higher life expectancy. Diabetes is marked by high level of sugar content or glucose in blood which is not utilized and which damages organs like heart, kidney etc. There are three main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes. type 2 diabetes. and gestational diabetes mellitus or GDM. Type 1 diabetes is characterized by inability of pancreas to produce enough insulin to control glucose in sugar, In type 2 diabetes, cells resist insulin but can be activated through lifestyle changes and medication. Gestational diabetes is type 2 diabetes experienced by pregnant women in their third trimester and pose considerable risk to mother and unborn child. Most importantly, minority population is at disadvantage as there is inequity in health status across racial and ethnic population. African Americans are twice as likely to be diabetic and 2.2 times higher death rate than white adults (odh, 2012). As such, within the healthcare industry, leadership initiatives in the management of healthcare programs and projects become hugely critical issue for developing and implementing health projects successfully across the defined population. The paper would be looking at the various aspects of diabetes management and would exploit intervention mapping process as developed by Bartholomew et al. to develop new diabetes management project for Afro-Americans in Ohio. Profile of Afro Americans in Ohio and diabetes management In Ohio, 885,815 or 10% of adult population is affected by diabetes and 200,000 of these are either diagnosed with GDM with high probability of acquiring type 2 diabetes at later stage of their life. Marginalized population, especially Afro-American population in Ohio is at greater risk of getting diabetes. According to Ohio Department of Health factsheet (odh, 2012), 14.9% of black population and 6.3% of Hispanic population in Ohio has diabetes. The estimated statistics for Afro-Americans is alarming and needs to be addressed urgently. Reducing health disparities in health

Researchweek11

61500 Teachers can improve children’s attitudes toward school, behavior at school, and academic achievement through the use of effective methods of directions and management. Researched effects of programs offered to teachers, parents, and children. The gap that I see is the application of the social factors in isolation and the extent of impact they have on juvenile behavior being explained by the use of the social learning theory. Also one can achieve a much superior understanding of the individual, societal and psychological aspects of juvenile delinquency. Theory/Theories or Conceptual Framework(s) Related to the Area of Inquiry: The theory that I plan on incorporating in my research is the Social control theory. Social control theory refers to a perspective which predicts that when social constraints on antisocial behavior are weakened or absent, delinquent behavior emerges. Rather than stressing causative factors in criminal behavior, control theory asks why people actually obey rules instead of breaking them. This theory stresses the idea that people in a society commit delinquent or criminal acts because of the weakness of the forces restraining them, not because of the strength of forces driving them to do so. It asserts that social controls, like arrest, imprisonment, loss of income, etc. increase the costs of violent behaviors (Psychology glossary). Purpose of Your Research: The purpose of this research paper will be to investigate the social causes of violent juvenile crime. The social elements examined will be that of domestic violence, substance abuse, peer pressure and perhaps media exposure. The social control theory will aid in the explanation and examination of these factors and together accumulate to enhance our understanding of how dire the impact of social elements on today’s youth’s ability to commit crimes is. Your Proposed Research Approach/Methodology: Mixed method research. Describe Your Proposed Design: The mixed method research design that suits research into my area of interest is sequential explanatory strategy. Similar to sequential explanatory strategy, it is conducted in two phases. However this strategy is characterized by the collection and analysis of qualitative data followed by the collection and analysis of quantitative data. In turn, priority is given to the qualitative aspects of this study. The purpose of this strategy is to use quantitative data and results to assist in the interpretation of the qualitative findings (Knowledge base, web). Proposed Research Population and How You Would Draw Upon this Population for your Research Inquiry: Under 18 boys and girls with a juvenile record, who are primarily high school students and belong to the American culture. The method of non probability sampling I believe will be most appropriate for carrying out my research. In fact to be even specific purposive sampling technique which aids exploratory research and encompasses obtaining data from specific individuals, in case of my investigation this would be juveniles. This will ensure internal validity of the study as the chosen sample will be a certain fraction of the population. With the help of self report surveys. questionnaire or poll participants will select a response by themselves without researcher interference. Examples of Research Data

Susan Wolf

The essay "Susan Wolf – Asymmetrical Freedom" discusses Asymmetrical freedom of Wolf. According to Wolf, an agent’s actions are psychologically determined only on condition that his actions are determined by personal interests. By this, he means that his desires or values, and own interests are wholly determined by his environment or heredity. If people’s actions are determined, there is a high probability of the idea of psychological determinism being true. Considering what not being determined by his interests would mean for the actions of an agent, or for an agent to be capable of acting despite his interests, Wolf argues that the agent can act against everything that he cares about and what he believes in. For instance, if a son of an agent was in a burning building, yet the agent is standing and watching the building consumed by fire, then a person could think that such behavior ought not to be regarded as an action, but as spasms that are beyond the control of the agent. If it is an action, then they are so bizarre that an agent who did not bother to help may have been insane to have the ability to perform it. Wolf’s views suggest that if people require an agent to be psychologically undetermined, they cannot expect him to be an agent of good morals. This is on grounds that if people expect that his interests do not determine his actions, then probably they cannot be determined by his ethical or moral interests. However, if people expect that his interests should not be determined by something else….
We believe that his actions are determined by the precise kinds of interests and that the right sort of reasons determines their interests. On the other hand, an agent who is not determined psychologically has no ability to carry out actions that are right. If his actions can never be suitably correct, then in doing right actions, he can never go wrong. One problem emerges from this situation, and that is that the undetermined agent seems to be free from moral reasons. Consequently, the satisfaction of the state of freedom tends to overpower the satisfaction of the state of value. Philosophers have got intuitions wrong, since there is an asymmetry in people’s intuitions concerning freedom that has been for a long time been overlooked. Consequently, it seems that the answer to the issue of free will can only be found in two options: either the verity that the action of an agent was determined will always be compatible with him being responsible for the action or the fact that the action of the agent was determined will often rule his responsibility out. Wolf suggests that the solution lies in the idea that both the incompatibilities and compatibilities are wrong. To be responsible beings, we need suitable combination of indetermination and determination. Susan Wolf’s views on the issue that being psychologically compelled or determined by good is compatible with the compelled agent being responsible for his action is plausible. This is due to the reason that an agent cannot be blameworthy in his morals if he is determined in the way he acts. In my view, determination is compatible with the responsibility of an agent to perform a good

The Wayne Williams

Early fiber evidence collected showed 2 types of fibers present at the crime scene. "a violet-colored acetate fiber and a coarse yellow-green nylon fiber with the type of tri-lobed qualities associated with carpets".
The yellow-green carpet fiber that was found on the body of Cater was later compared and analyzed alongside a similar looking yellow-green carpet that was found at the home of Williams. He used the carpet to cover the floor of his home. The carpet, thanks to the cooperation of the manufacturer DuPont, was traced down to the company that manufactured the fiber known as Wellman 181B, a common carpet that was commercially sold by the manufacturer. Due to the high volume of carpet sales, connecting the yellow-green carpet to Williams and the murder became a game of odds. The importance of connecting the fiber to him became even more imperative when the dog that Williams owned showed up on the body of other murder victims as part of trace fibers (Ramsland, K., “Fibers and Probability Theory”).
In an effort to create a convincing case, the prosecution decided to include a 2nd victim in the Williams murder trial. That of Jimmy Ray Payne who had trace fibers similar to those found in Williams’ car, a single rayon fiber that was consistent with the carpeting in Williams’ station wagon. Chevrolet, the car manufacturer informed investigators that there was a. “1 in 3,828 chance that Payne had acquired the fiber via random contact with a car that had this carpeting installed.”…
The importance of connecting the fiber to him became even more imperative when the dog that Williams owned showed up on the body of other murder victims as part of trace fibers (Ramsland, K., “Fibers and Probability Theory”). In an effort to create a convincing case, the prosecution decided to include a 2nd victim in the Williams murder trial. That of Jimmy Ray Payne who had trace fibers similar to those found in Williams’ car, a single rayon fiber that was consistent with the carpeting in Williams’ station wagon. Chevrolet, the car manufacturer informed investigators that there was a. “1 in 3,828 chance that Payne had acquired the fiber via random contact with a car that had this carpeting installed.” (Ramsland, K., “Fibers and Probability Theory”). By introducing trace fibers from the 10 other murders that held similarities to the fiber collected from the home and car of Williams, the prosecution was effectively allowed to build its case by the Georgia courts. The investigation of the Williams serial murders came down to a numbers game simply because of the trace evidence found at the scene of the crime for each victim. Every time a comparison was done, there was a similarity either with the car or home carpet fiber of Williams. During that era of early forensic investigation, these similarities were considered damning evidence that in theory, proved who committed the crime. When combined with the fact that the prosecution successfully connected 28 fiber types to Williams, along with testimony from witnesses who swore that they had actually seen him with each of the murder victims, the fact that Williams failed his polygraph test 3 times, and the suspicious injuries that were

Establising Integrity and Anticipating Ethnical Challenges

Participant observations can be considered observations that reveal only the public persona, while the responses of the interview will be intended to reveal the under layers of a relationship. While the public personal can indicates some of those layers, the responses in the interview will hopefully establish a more realistic picture.
The concept of the “shared” construction cannot be ignored as participants are eager to give answers they hope the interviewer is looking to hear. The analysis of the interview will have a built in challenge that seeks to glean unprompted insight from questions that will undoubtedly prompt certain types of responses. When writing about the interviews, it will be important to have a previous concept of which answers will more often be the result of prompting.
The anticipated participants will be approached through contact with religious institutions who recommend couples whose marriages appear to have been long lasting. It is anticipated that content couples will be willing to share their experiences. The culture of the religious institution usually creates a culture of people who want to share their experiences. In approaching religious leaders to recommend couples, these “gatekeepers” are more than likely to recommend those they believe to be content, creating a probability of finding the right couples to interview about a romantic relationship.
It will be essential for couples of both male and female gender be approached in order to have a balanced interview. This study will not be using couples in a homosexual relationship because this dynamic is influenced by the culture both within and outside of that configuration. This would be beyond the scope of this particular study. The political, social, and cultural influences would change the focus.
Consent will be obtained through a simple form. The purpose of the study will be openly

If Children Are Never Exposed To Risk They Will Never Be Able To Cope With Risk

Exposing children to risk help them to cope with the risk by developing resilience towards the risk’s effects, but may have negative effects on the development of the children physically, psychologically, and behaviorally.
Supportive Argument
Children have to experience managed risks to develop coping mechanisms. Children that are exposed to risks become more successful in resisting and overcoming life situations that are stressful such as poor performance in educations (Youngminds.org.uk, 2015). Children that are not exposed to free to socialize with various people develop people phobias as they grow, for example, they eventually lack the confidence to deliver a speech to a crowd. Children not exposed to risk have of mastery over life control, for example, children whose parents make all decisions are bound to have difficulties in sell control (Newman 2004).
Counterarguments
Negative consequences linked to exposing children to risks are long-term despite being meant to help children cope with risks. Exposing children to risks such as criminal activities and drug abuse become violent and chronic juvenile offenders (Cho, 2014). Risks are cumulative, and its presence enhances the likelihood that it will emerge, for example, a child born in a family of alcoholic parents has a high probability of engaging in drug abuse (Newman 2004). Risk exposure is linked to various health and mental illness among children including depression.
Conclusion
Managed risk exposure to children forms a major aspect of a child’s ability to cope with the risk. Children exposed to risk can overcome stressful situations and accept real-life conditions. However, exposing children to risks may lead to long-lasting effects on the development of the child. From my point of view, children are at a better position of managing and developing coping mechanisms in spite of the difficult experiences from exposed risks. Children should not be excessively protected from risks that enhance their coping skills.&nbsp.

Cost of capital weighted avareage cost cash flow marginal cost

Cost of capital Cost of capital The relationship between risk and return to investors determines when and where to invest. To the risk averse investors, they prefer low returns with lower risks while the risk takers would invest in high-risk securities with high returns (Chandra, 2008). In most cases, probability of getting high returns is associated with high risks. This relationship also makes the investor be aware of their risk tolerance which improves on the investment approach. The relationship further explains that the risk takers will always ignore the risk involved and concentrate on returns on the investment.
Annual Discount Rate
13%
Initial investment
-20000
-20000
1st year Return
10000
0.885
8850
2nd year Return
8000
0.783
6264
3rd year Return
9000
0.693
6237
4th year
8600
0.613
5271.8
Net Present Value(NPV)
6662.8
Calculation of IRR
Cash inflows
10000
8000
9000
8600
total=35600
35600/4=8900
20000/8900=2.2472
Year
cash flow
22% PVIF
Present value
1
10000
1.22
12200
2
8000
1.488
11904
3
9000
1.816
16344
4
8600
2.215
19049
Present value of inflows
59497
PVIF 12%
1
10000
1.12
11200
2
8000
1.254
10032
3
9000
1.405
12645
4
8600
1.574
13536.4
Present value of inflows
47413.4
59497
22%
59497
22%
47413.4
12%
40000
Cost
12083.6
19497
22%+19497/12083.6(10%)=22%+1.61351(10%)=22%+16.13%=38.13%
3).Weighted average cost of capital refers to the average rate return a firm expects to reward its investors through bonds or equity. The weighted average cost of capital entails the entire rate of return that is utilized by the firm to determine viability of a company. The weights of both equity and debt financing are combined to determine weighted average cost of capital.
Weighted average cost of capital= (weight of equity *cost of equity) + (weight of debt * cost of debt)
Weighted average cost of equity= (0.45*0.6) + (0.2*1.06) = 0.482 =48.2%
Weighted average cost of debt = (0.35*0.09) = 0.0315 =3.15%
Weighted average cost of capital = 48.2 + 3.15 = 51.35
=51.35%
4).
5).Project X
Initial investment -20000
Year Cash flow PVIF at discount rate 14%
1 10000 0.877 8770
2 8000 0.769 6152
3 9000 0.675 6075
4 8600 0.592 5091.2 +
NPV 6088.2
Project Y
Initial investment -40000
Year cash flow PVIF at discount rate of 14%
1 20000 0.877 17540
2 13000 0.769 9997
3 14000 0.675 9450
4 16000 0.592 9472 +
NPV 6459
Profitability index=PV of future cash flows
Initial investment
Project X=26088.2 Project Y=46459
20000 40000
=1.30441 =1.16148
Using the net present value, project y is more viable than x since it yields higher returns. This is contrary to profitability index approach which indicates that project x is more viable than y with a higher ratio of 1.3044.
6).
a). E(X) = x1p1 + x2p2 + x3p3 + . . . + xnpn.
= (30*0.10) + (50*0.20) + (75*0.40) + (90*0.30)
=70
b). Standard deviation is a measure of the amount of variation of values from the average.
Standard deviation =Square root of the expected value
Therefore square root of 70
=8.3666
This value is high which indicates that the data points are spread out over a large range.
References
Chandra, P. (2008). Financial management: Theory and practice. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Pub.

Failing Middle Schools

Failing Middle Schools FAILING MIDDLE SCHOOLS: A CASE STUDY OF ACCOUNTABILITY AND TURNAROUND REFORM Introduction World leaders believe that middle schools significantly play a crucial role in enabling the nations. The term “middle schools” or “middle schooling” have been a popular discussion in schools over the past decade. Recent studies, however, have drawn insights on the need to re-conceptualize the role of the middle grade in the public education system.
&nbsp.Merely 10% to 20% probability graduated on time. Moreover, more students continue to fail courses and may not achieve on-time promotion to the next grade. Lack the skills, knowledge, and self-confidence to succeed in high school and feeling distanced from his or her peers, the student continues to fail, does not earn promotion to the 10th grade. Furthermore, school principals have also expressed concerned about some schools’ lack of sufficient staff to carry out their several non-instructional tasks such as the roster chairs, work of technology coordinators, Special Education liaisons, social workers and others (Useem, E., and Teoh, M. 2003).
Schoolings success according to Balfanz, R. (2009)in improving student outcomes were dependent on the manner by which it operates under situations in which teaching is promoted and considers three major conditions which are the teacher career structures, teacher time, and teacher leadership. Some works of literature also suggest that more teacher collaboration, as well as the higher workload on teachers in middle schooling,&nbsp. is required, as compared to the case in traditional schools. Staff development must also be a focus in order to achieve a stronger professional community. The school should provide opportunities to teachers to benefit from career advancement and find ways as to how can they retain the benefits of teachers who practice the traditional subject-based teacher leadership, at the same time sustaining its strength in curriculum relevance, pastoral care, and constructivist pedagogy.
Problem Statement
Research Questions:
1. What is the Level of Reading Competencies among Middle School Students in Selected Middle Schools?
2. To which extent do Middle School teachers involve in professional development, in terms of the following:
a. Attendance to Seminars d. Enrolled in Continuing Education b. Attendance to Pieces of training. Membership to Professional Organization c. Attendance to Conferences f. Research Conduct and Presentations
Failing Middle Schools 2
3. Are the Level of Reading Competencies among Middle School Students in Selected Middle School, strongly relates to the extent of Middle School Teacher involvement in professional development, when categorized based on:
a. Degree acquired b. Length of School Serviced. Rank/Position e. Class Size
Purpose of the study

Risks Posed by Sex Offenders

A major part of the labor force of Nationwide Professional Service (NPS) is sourced from private employment agencies that provide labors at low wages on a temporary ad hoc basis of employment. Also, a high percentage of the labor forces in NPS are sourced from various faith-based agencies that are aimed at the rehabilitation of the mentally ill people, homeless people and people who are looking for an opportunity to start life anew. The Nationwide Professional Services (NPS) works in collaboration with one such faith-based agency known as New Person Ministries which operates in South Florida. The New Person Ministries (NPM) helps for rehabilitation and provision of jobs for persons who had been convicted of sexual crimes at some point in their lives. The labors sourced by this agency include sexual offenders who belong to the sexual predator lists and the sexual offender’s list of the State of Florida. The sex offenders attending the rehabilitation programs are not fully normalized and there remain chances of threat for the visitors from these sex offenders. The risk assessment with respect to a sex offender is done on the basis of considering the statistical probability of the sex offender committing similar sexual offenses. The sex offenders generally have a type of mental disorder or abnormality which may instigate them to repeat their crimes without any consideration of the punishments that may follow the crimes. The DRNC is being held in the American Arena area of Miami where security threats are high. Thus, this may encourage the sex offenders included in the labor force of Nationwide Professional Services (NPS) to repeat their crimes. This would mean exposing the visitors and attenders of the DRNC to high threats and risks of being victims of crime.

There are some differences between the individuals enlisted in the Sexual Predators list and those enlisted in the Sexual offender’s list. Sexual predators are those people who are convicted of the violation of various sections of the Criminal Codes. Attempted violations of these criminal codes of a state also lead to the enlistment of the individuals in the Sexual Predator list.

Literature review of pornography and correlation of aggressive effects on men

Bernstein, Penner, Clarke-Stewart and Roy (2007) assert that men who watch pornography are more likely to commit rape and other forms of violence towards women. In the researchers’ experiment, the male participants in a room were asked to administer an electric shock every time the person in another room made a mistake. The individual in the other room was an employee who was also a subject in the experiment. The intensity of the shock could be varied. Concurrently, the amount of shock represented the amount of violence. There was no shock, but the subjects in the experiment believed that the shock was real. Before the experiment, some men in the experiment watched a film highlighting several men raped a woman. The study outcome showed that men who watched the film administered more shock than those who did not watch it (Berstein et al., 2007). The researchers concluded that pornography increases resentment especially towards women. The researchers also discovered that aggressive pornography affects men differently. For instance, very promiscuous and hostile men are more affected compared to men who are not hostile towards women (Berstein et al., 2007).
According to Davis, Norris, George, Martell and Heiman (2006), pornography enhances sexual aggression. The researchers came to this conclusion after evaluating various variables like the attitudes that increase sexual aggression (rape and the actual aggression behavior). The researchers proved that exposure to pornography especially the violent ones and alcohol increases hostility. This is because these materials increase men’s attraction to sexual aggression, which in turn increases their probability of practicing rape. The researchers identified sexual arousal as a major factor that increases the aggression. The increase in sexual arousal is one of the causes of the increase in rape cases, in many countries. Regular exposure to rape films

Testing CAPM

For better clarity in the results, the number of replications was set to 1500. The bias and the accuracy of the significance tests are provided below for each observation value.
From the above results, the bias for the YSeries is -0.331 and has a very low standard deviation of 0.008. The RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) is an absolute measure of the residuals. A low value indicates a better fit. The RMSE is relatively higher for the Intercept in comparison to the RMSE values for the XSeries and YSeries, suggesting that the latter two parameters exhibit a better absolute fit to the given data. The EDFs from the analysis is shown below:
Based on the above results, X5% should be 1.96 for the null hypothesis to be true. However, the upper tail quantiles in the case of both variables (XSeries and YSeries(-1)) lead to the rejection of the null hypothesis since their 5% values exceed the critical value of 1.96.
The null hypothesis in the case of both the variables is that H0: µ = µ0 for a given value µ0 (sample mean). The alternative hypothesis in either case states that Ha: µ ≠ µ0, indicating a two tailed test.
The power indicates the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when the true mean differs from the hypothetical mean. From the above two cases, the power for YSeries(-1) is much greater than that for the XSeries indicating a greater probability for rejection of the null hypothesis in the case of the latter.
The figure below shows the bias for the parameters when configured for 30 observations. It appears that the bias has reduced in the case of both estimators as a result of this increase in the number of observations (compared to the earlier simulation with 10 observations) indicating that the new estimates provide a better fit. The RMSE values have also reduced suggesting a similar conclusion. However, the higher RMSE value for the intercept indicates a comparatively lower fit with respect

Environmental factors

Skinner’s Concept of Environmental Factors Skinner’s Concept of Environmental Factors Q1. B.F Skinner developed the operant conditioning theory, which was based on the assumptions that it was possible to understand individual behaviors by studying the causes of an action and its resulting consequences (Rochelle, 1995). Skinners concept of operant conditioning involved changing of behavior by the use of reinforcement provided after the desired response. He proposed three types of responses or operant, which could follow behavior namely: neutral operant, reinforces and punishers. Skinner described the neutral operant as environmental responses that neither increased nor decreased the possibility of the behavior being repeated. An example is to ignore the behavior of Bob completely so that it is neither encouraged nor discouraged. Reinforcers, which may be positive or negative, are environmental responses that increase the probability of the desired behavior being repeated. Positive reinforcement may include rewarding Bob every time he engages in the desirable behaviors in order to promote it. Negative reinforcement may also be used such as forcing Bob to give the parents or teacher money whenever he engages in the undesirable behavior. This would strengthen desired behavior by stopping or eliminating an unpleasant experience. On the other hand, punishers are environmental responses that weaken the behavior and decrease the probability of the behavior being repeated. Punishment may involve deducting Bob’s pocket money or reducing time spent with peers whenever he engages in the undesirable behavior.
Q2.
Modern principles of learning are based on behavior modification strategies developed based on the theory of operant conditioning. One may choose to reinforce desired behavior, ignore it or punish the undesired behavior. The most commonly used technique is the reinforcement of desired behavior. There are two main types of reinforcements, namely primary and secondary reinforcement. Primary reinforcement involves the use of rewards to strengthen the desired behavior itself. Secondary reinforcement on the other hand is rewards that strengthen a behavior by providing conditions that promotes primary reinforcement (Rochelle, 1995). An example of behavior modification therapy is the use of token economy and behavior shaping. Token economy reinforces target behavior using secondary reinforcers such as tokens, which are latter exchanged for primary reinforcers such as rewards. Children are given fake money, buttons or stickers as a reward for good behavior. Apart from token economy, behavior shaping is also used to promote desired behavior. This is achieved by providing affirmation, encouragement, compliments and approval for when the desired behavior is practiced by children. Behavior modification strategies are used in educational psychology to shape skill performance. It is also used in clinical psychology is handling and managing psychiatric patients (Rochelle, 1995).
Reference
Rochelle, M. (1995). B. F. Skinner: A Reappraisal. Britain :Psychology press.

Sexual Harassment In The Workplace And Military

51250 Sexual harassment in the workplace is a vocal or physical activity with sexual temperament conducted in the time of recruitment or in the workplace by the manager or the employee or any person of the concerned unit that makes the person who is receiving it, uncomfortable as it is unwelcomed and causes the individual to feel offended. It is a form of sex discrimination and it violates the ‘Title VII of 1964 Civil Rights Act’ in the United States which was amended in 1972 (Equal Rights Advocates, Inc, 2012).Sexual harassment crops up in most of the professions as well as industries. Sexual harassment can be referred as ‘organizational violation’. Certain reports have shown that majority of ethnic women are at superior threat than the white women in terms of sexual harassment as they could experience dominance from the white men (Equal Rights Advocates, Inc, 2012).Sexual harassment can be of various types such as deliberate touching, sexual looks, and gestures, sexual comment, sexual signals, gaping at someone and making sexual signals among others. Sexual harassment can depressingly affect an individual as the person may lose confidence, can get angry or can get humiliated which will lead to hampering the performance of the individual (Equal Rights Advocates, Inc, 2012). Since mixing female into male-dominated situation raises the probability of sexual harassment, the experience of female soldiers relating to sexual harassment is needed to be analyzed properly.&nbsp.

MiniProject (Second)

All management projects contain risks of one sort or another. These arise from interactions between the project objectives and uncertainty. A risk is “an uncertain event which, should it occur, would have an effect on achieving the objectives”. (APM PRAM Guide, 1997) The business, technical and project risks are listed below. The impact level of each risk is stated in the table, and these are given ratings and assigned priorities. Important recommendations are given on how the risks should have been managed.
6. Change in production train specification made it necessary to add another five feet to the length of the new building (only discovered when holding down bolts for the new train were laid out on site). Similarly for catalogue descriptions and specifications for other equipment
6. Manufacturing drawings for the critical long-lead equipment sat in a junior clerk’s in-tray awaiting approval and caused a two week delay and contributing to a later construction schedule conflict in tying-in the new services
Uncertainty (or probability of occurrence) is classified as either very low (1), low (2), medium (3), high (4) or very high (5). The impact level is graded and scored the same. The two figures are multiplied to give the priority rating.
The fact that not all stakeholders’ roles were clearly defined and especially that the project managers were not even aware of the importance of some stakeholders until much later was a great risk. For instance, “The VP Production and VP Sales and Estimating were important stakeholders who got involved in the project much later than they should have been.” (Group 1) And, the local inspection authority’s latest safety standards were not taken into account for the paint disposal arrangements. This was a potential environmental risk.
The inadequate pre-planning was another great risk and an important part of this was project design, budgeting and scheduling.

System of Checks and Balances in the United States Constitution

of the of the 2 March Describe the system of checks and balances in the United States Constitution.
The national government of the United States’ system of checks and balances can be generally described by the separation of powers. Hence, the United States’ constitutional government is comprised of three separate branches of government: (1) executive. (2) legislative. and (3) judicial, and each of these branches holds the power to assess and check the powers of the other two. The whole objective of this separation is to ensure that there will be no abuse of power.
The legislative branch represented by the Congress has the lone authority to lay down the law for the United States, and it cannot pass its legislative responsibilities on to other branches or organizations. The executive branch is conferred “with exemptions and qualifications” in the President of the United States. he also has the power to veto laws (Davis 1). The president is not obliged to enforce the law. instead, the president’s minions should perform these duties. Lastly, the judicial branch of the government has the authority to decide over cases and disputes. This power is conferred to the Supreme Court and lower courts as recognized by the Congress. Each branch of the United States national government possesses powers that it can utilize to check and balance the functions and activities of the other two branches.
2. What was George Washington’s achievement as president? What was his worst failure? Overall, was his administration a success for the nation? Was it a success for the Federalists?
Declaring George Washington’s greatest achievement would always be subjective and indefinite in nature. but, in all probability, he desisted from taking more power than what was appropriate (Wood 105). After his resignation as the Commander-in-Chief of the continental Army, the people wanted him to become the King of the newly-formed nation. nevertheless, he refused to accept this fate, and instead, he wanted to have a democratic and free country. He was thorough of upholding a good standing by precluding political conspiracy. He showed no attention and notice over partiality and cronyism.
Perhaps his greatest failure was when he approved the passing of The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, which provided slaveholders the right to regain their property. also, to help a runaway slave is a grave crime, which eventually permitted the proliferation of slave chasers within the United States’ territories. This is a rather subtle move to sustain slavery, which is contradictory to his desire to create a democratic and free country.
On the whole, Washington’s administration led the successful emancipation of the slaves, which although hampered in his initial decision to implement The Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, eventually reciprocated by successfully liberating the Blacks. This is a perfect indicator to his administration’s success because that’s what defines America: a free and democratic country. Furthermore, this appears to be a success to the Federalists in that owing to his dedication to republicanism and public integrity, he was deemed the “Father of his country” due to his neutrality.
Davis, Zoe. Presidential Vetoes. Senate Library, 2001. Web. 3 March 2013.
Wood, Gordon. The Radicalization of American Revolution. New York: Knopf Doubleday
Publishing Group, 1992. Print.

DecisionMaking under Uncertainty

Decision-making under uncertainty Decision making under uncertainty involves looking for additional information to make adecision, checking on the attitudes of the manager towards risk, and making a choice among risky alternatives for the course of action. Risk is the probability of threat, damage, loss, liability, or any negative consequence resulting from internal and external vulnerabilities and can be avoided through taking precautionary measures. Uncertainty is a situation where there more than one possible outcome in a given situation (Samuelson and Stephen, 500). Risk and uncertainty differ in that in risk, the outcome is unknown but the distribution of the outcome is not known however in uncertainty, both the outcome and the distribution of the outcome are not known (Samuelson and Stephen, 501).
Probability of an outcome is the odds that the outcome will occur (Samuelson and Stephen, 501). The three types of probability discussed in the book are relative frequency, subjective probability, and theoretical probability. The difference in these methods in generating probability is that the theoretical probability assigns equal likelihood to all possible outcomes of an experiment, therefore, the chances of an event occurring is 1/n for each possible outcome. Relative frequency probability type gives the probability of an event through finding the ratio of the times the event occurs and the number of trials undertaken. Subjective probability determines the probability of an outcome “represents the decision maker’s degree o belief that the outcome will occur” (Samuelson and Stephen, 501).
Statistical inference involves the use of statistical techniques for generating conclusions from a set amount of data through observation or sampling. Statistical inference using historical data involves the generation of conclusions from data that was collected a long time ago. Statistical bias using historical data creates bias in rapidly changing markets because of a change in the conditions of the market when the information was collected and the current market situation. The basis of the data collected could have changed and the current conditions reflect a difference. hence, the conclusions made reflect on the past and not the market situation currently as there are frequent changes in the market conditions resulting in statistical bias. The other reason for the bias in statistical inference of historical data is that statistical inference is affected by the random variation of the data over time and this variation results in the change of the inference made at a point in time. The expected value and its standard deviation aim at dealing with risk by deciding on a certain value that one expects from a given risky situation. In expected value and its standard deviation, the decision maker chooses the option that maximizes his/her expected value.
Risk neutrality in decision-making results in lack of consideration for future direction in the value of the asset if it will increase or decrease. Despite the fact that this decision-making method has the advantage of speed where many option are easily calculated in a short time, there are limitations associated with risk neutrality in decision making including inability to calculate price option over time, since it decides the price at the expiration date only. The inability of the decision maker to consider early exercise before the expiration of the duration owing to the consideration of the expiry date of the asset is the second limitation of risk neutrality decision-making model. Early exercising does not give the decision maker any advantage in risk neutral decision-making. therefore, it is affected by changing economic times that could have resulted in better returns from the asset.
Work Cited
Samuelson, Williams &amp. Stephen, Marks. Managerial Economics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons, 2012. Print.

Moving to another country

Latin Immigration. The combined effects of globalization and the end of the Cold War have meant that people are on the move like never before. Millions of individuals from poor countries migrate to richer ones in an effort to better provide for themselves and their families through legal channels and, in their absence, illegal ones. In general, the United States has strict immigration policies. in addition to enforcing existing measures, it has introduced new ones, including the construction of a fence along the Mexico–U.S. border to curb illegal migration into the country. Despite these measures, the number of irregular labor migrants from various countries only seems to be increasing.
Empirical evidence suggests that the decision to migrate abroad is strongly influenced by economic factors, particularly opportunities for employment and a higher wage1. The decision to migrate depends on the income that an individual expects to receive in the destination country relative to the income expected in the home country.
General ethnocentrism seems to be a powerful antecedent of immigration opinion, typically displaying larger effects than economic concerns. While ethnocentrism dominates economic concerns in explanations of Whites’ immigration policy opinions, attitudes toward Latinos in particular account for nearly all of the impact of ethnocentrism since 1994. Journalistic attention to Latino immigration roughly parallels actual rates of immigration from Latin America, suggesting the media shaping of policy opinion around this group may be driven by real-world demographic patterns.
As in the Todaro(1969) model, expected income in the destination country depends on actual earnings there, the probability of employment and the cost of migrating abroad. In light of the special circumstances in which illegal migration takes place, expected destination income is assumed to depend on the probability of being captured and deported as well as on the illegality tax on an individual’s earnings abroad
The probability of being captured can be defined as the proportion of all individuals attempting to illegally enter the country in any given period who are actually prevented from doing so. It depends on both the average number of attempts to migrate illegally and the rate of apprehension on each single attempt.
Although legal, documented international migration still constitutes a major flow of of labor to the United States, illegal, undocumented migration across the borders represents a troublesome phenomenon. The 1986 passage of the Simpson-Rodino Immigration Reform and Control Act designed to curb inflow of illegal migrants through imposition of employer penalties and increased border apprehension showing the Congressional concern over impact of illegal migration.
The economic impacts include domestic unemployment and wage structures, added cost of social services and changing demographic picture in recipient areas, high unemployment in home country in the home country, lower but still positive unemployment in destination country, no equilibrating wage rates in home and destination countries, discriminatory domestic wage structures between domestic and illegal workers and physical constraints on labor mobility
While U.S. laws mandate that authorities prevent illegal entry and punish firms that hire unauthorized immigrants, these laws are imperfectly enforced. Lax enforcement may reflect political pressure by employers and other interests that favour open borders.
References
Gelletly, L. A. (2004). Mexican immigration. Philadelphia: Mason Crest Publishers.

Effects of the US Economic Meltdown on France

Bank failures, reduction in total production, unemployment, and overall poverty was the basic characteristics. The impact of this great depression was different in different countries. Most of the French invested in gold at that time. Less exposure to the stock market gave France the opportunity of less exposure to stock market-related risk. Many French companies were locally funded. This makes their performance less volatile than those of the US companies. Although the relative intricacy varied, the great depression brought a shock to the French economy. http://jch.sagepub.com/cgi/pdf_extract/4/4/21
The present financial crisis has its source in the United States. The amazing similarity between these two depressions is the failure of regulation. Either the regulation was absent, or it was not strong enough to protect its objectives from the possible misuse. The importance of regulation is the message of this financial crisis.
The root of the US financial crisis lies in its highly non-regulated banking and financial market. The problem started with the uncontrolled sanction of loans, especially mortgage loans. Banks and other lending bodies were not careful enough to check the repayment capacity of the borrower. Banker and other lenders were taking the undue advantage of a Tax regulatory system. They were misusing it to full fill their non-feasible credit business expansion plan. When the creditors were unable to repay the amount of the debt were increasing at an alarming rate. The complex structure of debt instruments made it difficult to understand. The common people either couldn’t anticipate or were misguided about the debt instruments. Very long ten sure of this type of financial instruments is one of the biggest risks involved in it. In case of non-payment, the future instalment amounts get increased by a considerable amount. This reduces the probability of future repayment. Accumulation of loan amount first makes the client bankrupt. The&nbsp.mass number of such incidence in society creates the possibility of finding potential buyers of the property.&nbsp.

Null Hypothesis Experiment Resources

What factors are most important in determining whether obtained results will be satisfied?
Obtained results are the results that the test demonstrates overall. The factors that are most important when determining whether these results will be satisfied are the hypothesis, the research itself, and the statistical significance of the research.

Type I and Type II errors are both types of errors that can be made in significance testing. A Type I error occurs when a null hypothesis is rejected, and it should not have been rejected. A Type II error occurs when a false null hypothesis is not rejected. The probability of a Type I error is designated by the Greek letter alpha (a) and is called the Type I error rate. the probability of a Type II error (the Type II error rate) is designated by the Greek letter beta (ß). The false-positive rate can be defined, according to Type I and Type II Errors (n.d.) as:

the proportion of negative instances that were erroneously reported as being positive. It is equal to 1 minus the specificity of the test. This is equivalent to saying the false positive rate is equal to the significance level. This means the false positive rate = number of false positives/total number of negative instances.

5. What factors are involved in choosing a significance level?&nbsp.&nbsp.&nbsp.“Statistical Significance” states (1997):&nbsp.&nbsp.Decide on the critical alpha level you will use (i.e., the error rate you are willing to accept).&nbsp.Conduct the research.&nbsp.Calculate the statistic.&nbsp.Compare the statistic to a critical value obtained from a table.&nbsp.If your statistic is higher than the critical value from the table: Your finding is significant.&nbsp.You reject the null hypothesis.&nbsp.The probability is small that the difference or relationship happened by chance, and p is l less than the critical alpha level (p &lt. alpha ).&nbsp.If your statistic is lower than the critical value from the table: Your finding is not significant.&nbsp.You fail to reject the null hypothesis.&nbsp.The probability is high that the difference or relationship happened by chance, and p is greater than the critical alpha level (p &gt. alpha ) (para 6).&nbsp.

According to “Type I and Type II Errors” (n.d.): “The false-negative rate is the proportion of positive instances that were erroneously reported as negative. It is equal to 1 minus the power of the test. False-negative rate = number of false negatives/total number of positive instances. Type II errors can be caused by a lack of sensitivity or, In many cases, an oversight.

Statistical significance means that the noticed mean variations are probably not due to a sampling error. Even a small sample, if it is large enough for the test, can work for statistical significance. Practical significance, on the other hand, considers if the difference is adequate enough to be of help in a practical sense.

A researcher may wind up with non-significant results if the significance test demonstrates a high probability value.&nbsp.

“The Banks &amp

Financial Institutions" The Banks &amp. Financial Institutions avail the benefits of higher interest rates by lending to Sub-Prime customers but expose the capital to higher risks. The Banks used a mechanism of distributing the risk of lending to the investors outside the Banking system through a process called “Securitization” (A phenomenon that occurred in the booming Credit Derivative Market). This phenomenon occurred extensively in the US Sub-Prime Mortgage Market that helped the banks to increase the number of risky products but still reduce the liabilities on their balance sheets (apparently!!) because the money is flowing through so-called “conduits” from investors to the borrowers. As per experts, the primary drawbacks have been imperfections in the Credit Markets given a poor valuation of assets acquired against the credit instruments thus resulting in uncertain asset valuation &amp. high credit risk exposure. Even the rating agencies couldn’t predict the Sub-Prime crisis through their valuations because the securitization process was too complex and the Bank’s risk assessment was inadequate in screening the borrowers and informing the investors about the risks in the securitized products. The system became so huge that the root of the risks was completely covered by hyped data and analytics about the new credit instruments. [Schmitz, Michael. C and Forray, Susan J. pp28-30. Clerc, Laurent. 2008. pp1-4]
Every bank has a native underwriting process to support the “Credit Approval System” for evaluation of credit risk resulting from a possible exposure when&nbsp.scrutinizing a loan application. As per Basel Capital Accord (Basel-II), the primary parameters that are assessed during scrutiny of a loan application are Probability of Default (PD), Loss Given Default (LGD), Exposure at Default (EAD) and Maturity (M).&nbsp.

Involvement in Iraq

US Involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan US Involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan The current US involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan is causing great anxiety across the globe. Such short term concerns have been set against the backdrop of the war on terror, as well as US unilateralism which pushed it ever since the occurrence of 9/11. Prior to the 9/11 attacks, a neoconservative euphoria had already engulfed Washington. This was evident through the US attitude towards its international agreements. The Bush administration was adamant of its disapproval towards ratification of the test-ban treaty. The Bush administration thus opposed the strengthening of toxic and biological weapons. After US invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan on the premise that the two latter nations were involved in the generation and manufacture of biological weaponry, the US was able to quell international concerns of terrorism brought by the two Middle East countries (Tucker, 2010). However, even after quelling Iraq and Afghanistan’s terrorism threats, the US is still very much mixed up in Iraq and Afghanistan. This paper will question whether or not the US involvement in the two nations is necessary. It is irrefutable that the US invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan has ensured global peace and security.
For almost a decade now, American foreign policy has been pegged on the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. At the beginning of 2011, there were 50,000 US soldiers in Iraq and 100,000 in Afghanistan. The involvement of the US in both countries is still robust despite the decline of American soldiers compared to previous years (Rashid, 2008). This involvement is entirely uncalled for, and is rather improper. The US should no longer be involved in the affairs of Iraq and Afghanistan, especially because of the cost implication associated with such involvement. In American history, Iraq has been the second most expensive choice of war, after Vietnam in the 1960s (Tucker, 2010). In order to deter the further use of military and economic resources in the two nations, it is pertinent that the US seizes its involvement in the countries.
While US troops were expected to leave Iraq by December 2011, several thousand soldiers remained. The main role of the troops has been to advise and train Iraqi police and military forces, as well as conducting antiterrorism missions. After the loss of 4,300 American lives and more than one trillion dollars, it is evidently time for America to cut its losses and accept the positive effects of the war and simply withdraw from Iraq and Afghanistan (Woodward, 2010). War is a costly affair with regard to financial losses and the loss of lives. The latter loss is perhaps the most disheartening. therefore, because of the high probability of losing more lives, it would be better to discontinue America’s involvement. In addition, the US has already attained significant strides in the war against terrorism. Iraq and Afghanistan are currently enjoying relative peace, which further shows the futility in US involvement. However, Iraq is still marred by constant political, ethnic and religious strife as the nation has been unable to arrive at a consensus on how to share the nation’s wealth from its energy resources. This is further evidence of the futility of US involvement in the nation. Despite US assistance, Iraqis still have to make individual substantive shifts with regard their political, religious and ethnic viewpoints. This means that while the sum of US efforts is substantial, it is rather difficult to ensure peace if Iraqis do not play their integral role.
In conclusion, from the aforementioned reasons, it is evident that the US involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan should seize and the US should withdraw its troops. This move is bound to save on economic resources, as well as deter the loss of American lives.
References
Rashid, A. (2008). Descent into chaos: The United States and the failure of nation building in
Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia. New York: Viking Adult Publishing.
Tucker, S. C. (2010). The encyclopedia of Middle East wars: The United States in the Persian
Gulf, Afghanistan, and Iraq Conflicts (5th ed.). Connecticut: ABC-CLIO.
Woodward, B. (2010). Obamas Wars. New York: Simon &amp. Schuster Publishing.

Economics of Sports Projects

Unit Project 4(Simple Regression) Variables Dependent variable: Final data (y-axis) Independent Variable: First half x2 (x-axis)
Source of data
(Input your data source)
Regression results
Linear graph of final against first half
&nbsp.
Coefficients
Standard Error
t Stat
P-value
Intercept
-0.396408932
3.685410309
-0.1075617
0.915237539
0
0.5780696
0.110802072
5.21713712
2.40038E-05
Coefficients
Intercept
Independent Variable
Correlation coefficient
0.3964089
0.5780696
0.728985248

Standard error
Intercept
Independent Variable
Correlation coefficient
3.685410309
0.110802072
11.88148308
Z-statistic
Z statistics based on fisher’s transformation of coefficient r is
On a
Therefore the valueon a standard normal distribution, from the above p-value, the z statistics is 0.000024.
Showing where zero and one fall on the normal distribution provided, when the estimate µ, is the expected value of the coefficient.
If µ is the expected value of coefficient, using,
For 0: and for 1: this makes both 0 and 1 to lie on. That is 1 lies between 1 and 2, while 0 lies between -1and -2
Is the coefficient sufficiently different from zero? Explain.
We use the correlation coefficient value provided in question 4.
The calculated value of is greater than 3.725, the upper 0.05% point of distribution. So we reject Ho at 0.05% level and say that the coefficient is sufficiently different and greater than zero. Our coefficient displays a positive correlation between final scores and first half performance.
Is the coefficient sufficiently different from one? Explain.
Using fisher transformation of r, our hypothesis is
This has a normal distribution of
The value of 4.539 is greater than 4.4172 the upper 0.0005% point of a standard normal distribution, therefore reject Ho and say that the coefficient is sufficiently different from 1.
Project 5(Hot Hand)
Fill in the following
prob(hit/3 misses)
prob(hit/2 misses)
p(hit/1 miss)
p(hit)
p(hit/1hit)
p(hit/2 hits
p(hit/3 hits)
ρ
0.8333
0.7
0.58333
0.52
0.4076
0.5
0.5
-0.08606

Do your conditional probabilities show evidence of the hot hand? Explain.
There is no evidence of hot hand. Interpreting the above conditional probabilities, a player has higher percentage of making a hit after making a miss and in comparison a player has a lower chance of making a hit after making a hit. Evidently, there is no shooting streak since probability if making a hit after three misses is 83.3% which is higher than the probability of making a hit after three hits with a probability of 50%.
Does your correlation coefficient ρ show evidence of the hot hand? Explain.
The calculated correlation coefficient is negative. This therefore does not show evidence of the hot hand. Given a player has made one or two hits. their opponents will usually try to improve their defensive mechanism on the particular player and therefore take away the players successive shooting streaks. Defensive strategies can be the probable cause for the negative correlation between successive hits.
Fill in the following.
Wald-Wolfowitz runs test results is presented below,
Probability of observing 50 or fewer runs while 47.5 were expected (standard deviation (50) = 4.7664)
hits
misses
runs
expected runs
z-statistic
52
48
50
47.5
0.5312
Show where your runs number falls on the distribution
Z value is 0.5312, use extrapolation method to approximate the percentage value and then refer to the distribution above.
Z value of 0.5224 has a percentage of 30%, while a Z value of 0.6745 has a percentage 25%.
Divide by 2 since this is a two tailed distribution,
The runs number falls in the13.6% distribution section. This value lies between 1 to 2 and -2 to 1 section.
Is this evidence of the hot hand? Explain.
The evidence suggests existence of hot hand. The Z statistic reported above test the significance of the variation between the expected and the observed number of runs. There is always a significant difference between the expected value and observed value for individual players. Run tests performed on each player within individual games reveal compelling results.
Considering the 76ers and their opponents, data obtained of 727 basketball players show game records of more than two runs. When the observed number of runs and expected number of runs are compared there is no sufficient evidence to provide any basis for rejecting the hot hand hypothesis. Clearly 13.55% calculated is less than 13.6% tabulated therefore we accept the null hypothesis.
References
Reifman, Alan. Hot Hand: The Statistics Behind Sports Greatest Streaks. Washington, D.C: Potomac Books, 2012. Print.

Should Canada North America and Central America form an American Empire or superstate similar to the European Union

Should Canada, North America, and Central America form an American Empire, or super similar to the European Union?
It would only amount to an immature proposition to place Canada, North America and Central America under an imperial super-state where unforeseen implications are rather predictably plausible based on historical events. This theoretical economic and political union has helped in conceptualizing the NAFTA which paid off in 1994 when trades economically prospered among Mexico, the U.S. and Canada. It had even promoted what appeared as the second part or the Security and Prosperity Partnership (SPP-NAU) which was initiated on March 2005 in Waco where the three leaders, President Bush, Canadian Prime Minister Martin, and President Fox of Mexico conferred to deliberate upon bringing the North American countries as one. The leaders had agreed to settle for a condition in which both political and economic policies on security and antiterrorism would be integrated encompassing sectors as immigration, energy, transportation, and customs and to be complied with by the nations involved.
Combining regulations to such extent might to some point yield the desired results however, since it would eventually expedite border crossing and facilitate an approach that favors ease in clearance of commodities and people at the continental level, one would not afford but imagine how it would give further allowance to entries beyond good cause. Once boundaries become freely movable, there would be huge probability toward illegal trade of goods as in smuggling, drug trafficking, and prostitution. Additionally, the common security perimeter would most likely induce elements that run counter to preservation of culture unique for each nation (Edwards).
Super-state formation, on considering adoption of foreign policy, may entail threat to laws or acts made to protect both human health and environment. Just like the initial step by NAFTA, SPP has also targeted to modify certain regulations that enable corporations or private business firms to file charges against provincial and municipal governments. Later on, this would lessen the chance for environmentalists to express and defend their concerns since the new set of standards regard commercial motives more than environmental impact and would thus limit favor on establishing safety measures on humanitarian aspect. As it turns out, the union inhibits a sense of democracy especially when Amero becomes the new currency upon the mergence (Wells).
The associated plan to establish a global transportation system is initially difficult to gauge given the complexity of the transportation infrastructure to serve the citizens of the entire super-state. To adapt to a design that needs to be compatible with the transport means and framework which Americans, Mexicans, and Canadians have gotten accustomed to individually might require an appreciable financial assistance beyond the intended allocation. If this be the case, U.S. in particular can be found in numerous incidences of loss while its state of economy has not yet fully recovered from the aftermath of economic and political crises in general.
Works Cited
Edwards, James R. Jr. “The Security and Prosperity Partnership: Its Immigration Implications.” Center for Immigration Studies.. June 2007. Web. 17 Oct 2010.
Wells, Allison. “North American Union Agenda: Canada Being Sold Out to Mexico and the U.S.” The Canadian National Newspaper Exopolitics Headlines. 28 Dec 2009. Web. 18 Oct 2010.

Remedies and Restitution Justifying Punishment

102500 Therefore punishment must act as a deterrent as well as retribution in order to reduce crime. The amount of punishment for various crimes predicts the future behaviour and choice of people with criminal backgrounds. Politicians campaign about tough punishments to discourage people who have a tendency to commit crime. Tough punishments were imposed on criminal to substantiate the concept of deterrence evolved among the followers of social thinker Jeremy Bentham in England. Bentham’s philosophy of utilitarianism states that a prospective criminal calculates from the point of view of benefits as well as costs of the person’s action. Hence before committing a crime of stealing property or money, the person will consider the amount of punishment received by a criminal for similar crime and thereby there are chances for deterrence. Deterrence may be divided into general and specific deterrence. General deterrence is defined as a condition when the general public presume that the cost of an offence is more than its benefits by considering the intensity of punishment for an offence. The effectiveness of general deterrence increases when the general public is continuously informed about the probability and intensity of punishment for various offences. The information should create a feeling that offenders will be caught, prosecuted and awarded specific punishment for a specific offence. When people are fully aware about the methods of punishment for specific crimes, people will develop an instinct to get rid of criminal activities and when they know that punishment is severe, it will instigate fear about the outcome of committing offence. Public hanging of criminals was believed to be an efficient public deterrent. However, specific deterrence is the contrast of general deterrence. It applies and aims to change the decision and attitude of criminal who have already

Propasal

Criminal Research on Kidnappings CRIMINAL RESEARCH ON KIDNAPPINGS The goal of this research is to prove the hypothesis, “Individuals from richer families tend to be victims of kidnappings while individuals from less privileged backgrounds tend to be the instigators of kidnappings”. The independent variable in this study will be “the victims from rich families”. On the other hand, the dependent variable will be “kidnappings” and “instigators of kidnappings”. In other words, “kidnappings” and “instigators of kidnappings” depend on the existence of “victims from rich families”. This research will take on quantitative method, which will aid in testing the hypothesis scientifically. Qualitative data will be derived from a reliable source, which is the population, and this will be through conducting a sample survey. This research will have both theoretical and practical importance. This paper seeks to establish the hypothesis that individuals from rich families are more likely to be kidnapped.
Purpose and Overview
The type of crime that will be included in this proposal is kidnapping. During kidnappings, kidnappers unlawfully abduct and detain an individual against his or her wishes or intentions. A crime qualifies to be a kidnapping when an individual is unlawfully taken or moved to a different location without his or her consent. In most case, kidnappings are usually carried out with the objective of terrorizing the victim, asking for ransom, or influencing a political decision in exchange with the kidnapped person. Additionally, in many situations, children are largely the victims, although, adults too at times usually find themselves victims. Kidnapping is an offence, which according to law, has been categorized into degrees in relation to its magnitude (Hart &amp. Zandbergen, 2009).
Theory
Kidnappers opt for the criminal activity of kidnapping in order to make ends meet. Kidnappers abduct and detain individuals, from rich families in exchange for rewards or ransoms.
Hypothesis
Individuals from richer families tend to be victims of kidnappings while individuals from less privileged backgrounds tend to be the instigators of kidnappings.
Methodology
Type of Research
The best type of research that will be applied when approaching the problem of kidnapping is descriptive. Through descriptive research, the important variables. dependent and independent will be established, which will aid in conducting the research. The descriptive research will start by exemplifying the problem, conducting a literature review, developing a research tool, identifying the population and sampling, data collection, and thereafter analyzing the data.
Quantitative method
This research will take on quantitative method, which will aid in testing the hypothesis scientifically. Qualitative data will be derived from a reliable source, which is the population, and this will be through conducting a sample survey. The data will be analyzed with the aim of establishing whether they correlate or associate with one another. For instance, through quantitative research, the study will try to prove the hypothesis, “Individuals from richer families tend to be victims of kidnappings while individuals from less privileged backgrounds tend to be the instigators of kidnappings”, to be true (McCord &amp. McCord, 2011).
Importance of the research
My research has both theoretical and practical importance. In theoretical importance of this research, firstly, my research will assess the factors that lead to the kidnapping crime. Secondly, my research will give an insight regarding the victims and instigators of this crime. Thirdly, in practical importance, my research will benefit the law enforcement by providing them with information that will aid in kidnapping investigations (Fass, 2006).
Background of the research
Kidnaps in most cases, occur as a result, of kidnapper’s intention of asking for ransom. Annually an estimate of about more than 8,000 kidnappings occurs worldwide. Additionally, it is estimated that ransoms asked after kidnappings worldwide total up to more than $500 million annually. Equally important, about 40% of kidnapped victims usually experience safe releases after their families or concerned parties pay up the ransom. On the other hand, there are some cases, in which ransoms are not paid, this is because of negotiations or kidnappers knowledge that no ransom will ever be paid (Kaplan, 2004).
Consent form
CONSENT FORM FOR RESEARCH STUDY
Title of Project:
Name of researcher:
Please tick box to affirm
I authenticate that I have read and fully comprehend this data sheet, which relates to the above study.
I comprehend that I am participating voluntarily and I have the right to withdraw from the study at any time.
I understand that the information I will provide in this study will be handled in a confidential manner.
I agree to participate in this study.
_____________ ________ _________
Name of subject Date Signature
____________ ________ _________
Name of Researcher Date Signature
Research Approach
The best research approach, which will be used in this study, is deductive research. This is so since a hypothesis and a theory was established for the study. The study will aim at either confirming or rejecting the stated hypothesis. The reason for choosing deductive theory is that the study will entail steps like formulating a theory, a hypothesis, observing and concluding with confirming the theory (Kaplan, 2004).
Independent and Dependent variables
The independent variable in this study will be “the victims from rich families”. On the other hand, the dependent variable will be “kidnappings” and “instigators of kidnappings”. In other words, “kidnappings” and “instigators of kidnappings” depend on the existence of “victims from rich families” (Ram, 2008).
Research Variables
The variables in the research will be of two types the independent and the dependent variables. Other variables are sex, age, marital status, job occupation, residence, race, nationality, income, employment rate, and police response.
Validity and Reliability
The first step in determining the validity and reliability will be by ensuring that all the procedures employed during the whole process of research are scientific. Scientific procedure will ensure that the results from the research will be repeatable if performed by a different group of researchers. The second step of determining the validity and reliability will be through performing a pretesting procedure on the data-collecting tool before the actual data collection procedure commences. Validity will be measured by randomizing the population, which will be used as the source of data for the whole research process. A precise measurement will be through breaking validity into two that is internal and external validity. Internal validity will be measured by critically examining how the study design has been structured in terms of the expected scientific research method. External validity will be measured by scrutinizing the results and causal relationships in the study (Kaplan, 2004).
Reliability of this research will be established quantitatively this will be through ensuring that the quantity of data will be measurable, accurate and consistent. For instance, the sample population will contain a preferable number of respondents who fit the desired characteristics of this research. Reliability of this research will also be established through following up the respondents if clarification for any information is needed (Kaplan, 2004).
Choosing the sample
The population that I will employ in this study will incorporate victims of kidnappings. The kidnappings will include those in which the kidnappers have asked for ransom payments. Probability sampling will be the best approach that I will use to sample from the target population, and in this category, simple random testing will be ideal. Simple random sampling will provide an equal opportunity for any character in the sampling frame to be included in the study. The mere idea of employing a probability sampling will ensure randomness (Kaplan, 2004).
Research questions
1. Has anyone ever attempted to take the child away from its guardian against his or her will?
2. Has there ever been an instance where someone attempted to attack, defile, molest, or rough up the missing child.
3. Has anyone threatened the child with a weapon, stick, bat, or rock in the past year?
4. Has an authority like a babysitter attempted, in the past year, to touch the child inappropriately, or tried to make the child do the same to them when they were unwilling?
5. Has anyone the child knows well, or casually tried to coerce the child into sexual activity that was unwanted by the child/
6. Has anybody ever kidnapped or attempted to kidnap this child before?
7. Has anyone at home or school made any threat face to face to the child, Have there been any incidences of bullying reported by the child.
8. Has the child ever run away from home under any circumstance? How soon were they found?
9. Does the child suffer from Emotional and Behavioral disorder, EBD, and are they prone to solitary playing and existence?
10. Has the child been insisting on visiting a specific location, say an amusement park? Have her guardians taken her there yet, or was she still expectant?
11. Are both of the girl’s parents still together? If not was there a custodial battle and was it satisfactory for both parents.
12. Has any convicted child molester been released from jail in the child’s community? If so, has been into any form of contact with the child? Do they visit the same store? Does his child go to the same school as the subject?
13. Is there a family member with mental disability? Where were they on the day of the kidnapping and what were their demeanor?
14. Does the child have any mental disorder?
15. Do any dangerous areas like ponds, dams, or quarries exist?
Participant research has several pros and cons (Concannon et al, 2008). The researcher gains access knowledge that would otherwise have remained unknown. This helps him get a better grip of the aspects under study. However, the suspects may alter their behavior if they realize they are being investigated, and thus present themselves more desirably. The researcher may also develop sympathies, or develop a bias that is exaggerated towards them. This will alter the dynamics of the case.
Scale or Index questions
The essence of including scale or index questions in a survey is to ensure that a response is given a variety of answers. The variety of answers in scale or index questions aid in measuring a variable in quantitatively. A formulated question can consist of options such as strongly agree, tend to agree, agree, disagree, tend to disagree or strongly disagree (Babbie, 2010). Ultimately, scale or index questions eliminate the notion of respondents either giving a yes or no response.
Scale or index questions
1. Individuals from wealthy families are more likely to be kidnapped.
a) strongly agree
b) tend to agree
c) agree
d) disagree
e) tend to disagree
f) strongly disagree
2. Most kidnappers are likely to be individuals from deprived families.
a) strongly agree
b) tend to agree
c) agree
d) disagree
e) tend to disagree
f) strongly disagree
3. Most kidnapped individuals are usually released after payment of ransoms.
a) strongly agree
b) tend to agree
c) agree
d) disagree
e) tend to disagree
f) strongly disagree
References
Babbie E. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. Sydney: Cengage Learning.
Concannon, D. M et al. (2008). Kidnapping : an investigators guide to profiling. Amsterdam: Elsevier/Academic Press.
Daudarand Y, Chin V. (2004). LINKS BETWEEN TERRORISM AND . International Centre for Criminal Law Reform , 1-6.
Fass P. (2006). Kidnapped: Child Abduction in America. London: Oxford University Press.
Hart T, Zandbergen P. (2009). Crime Mapping: A Journal of Research and Practice. Center for the Analysis of Crime Statistics.
Kaplan D. (2004). The Sage handbook of quantitative methodology for the social sciences. New York: Sage Publications, inc.
McCord J, McCord S. (2011). Criminal Law and Procedure for the Paralegal. Sydney: Cengage Learning.
Ram C. (2008). Regulating Intrastate Crime: How the Federal Kidnapping Act Blurs the Distinction between What Is Truly National and What Is Truly Local. Heonline, 768-793.

Transferring for Better Opportunities

2500 According to the essay findings, it can, therefore, be said that Tufts University offers more than academic excellence. I take it as a more challenging school as my whole being would be put to the test, physically, mentally and socially. I love challenges and going beyond my limit would be a great achievement for me. These are the reasons why I took transferring to Tufts University into account, believing it would be an instrument to my achievements both in academics and athletics. Swimming is really a part of my life which I can not separate with and I see the chance of doing it in this school. The various activities in the school like photography and being in student organizations have been well thought of as well. Sure, Duke’s University has these to offer however, it is a huge school compared to Tufts. Being a smaller college, I see the probability of my active involvement in the aforementioned activities higher. As a foreign student, there are greater limitations to the accomplishment of the things I like to do in a bigger college so I believe Tufts University would be the perfect school I can go to. With all these said, I look forward to working with Tufts University in the pursuit of an excellent life.

Analysis of Irreversible Climate Change Study by Solomon

IPCC Problem According to Solomon et al., human endeavors have subsequently increased concentration of varied greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Oreskes mentions in her article that according to UN, latest findings, probability of humankind influencing the recent climate change is 50:50 unlike former years (Oreskes, 2005). Solomon et al. mentions that the continued, uncontrolled release of gases such as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere would bring dire consequences that man would not be able to change for many coming years. It is time various stakeholders across the globe rethink about the future generations and the impact our current activities will cause them. Besides, if emissions of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide into the atmosphere continue, we would experience even more serve climate changes in the next millennium or longer (Solomon et al., 2008)Impact of climate change on the world

Adverse carbon dioxide emissions in the atmosphere in coming years will lead to drastic climate changes that will exist on short and longer scale. However, these changes are bound to be irreversible (Solomon e al 2008).The various climate changes caused by anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have a great impact to the world in general. Some of these changes occur promptly in association with warming while other changes buildup under sustained warming due to the time lags of the involved process (Solomon et al. 2008). Some of these impacts by climate change are Arctic sea ice retreat, a major increase in heavy rainfall and flooding, permafrost melts (Solomon et al. 2008). Other impacts of climate change in the world are increased intensity of hurricanes, loss of glaciers and snowpack with attendant changes in water supply (Oreskes, 2005).Solomon also states in his article that these climate changes will cause adverse increase in sea levels that will eventually lead to unavoidable inundation of many small islands and low-lying coastal areas.
Irrevocable sea level rise
Increase in emission of carbon dioxide in the environment will lead to irreversible sea level rise (Solomon et al 2008). According to Solomon, the latter occurrences can be understood via various phenomena take place. For instance, warming causes the ocean to expand thus leading to rise of sea level. In addition, loss of land ice also contributes majorly to sea level rise as the world warms. According to study, using current ice discharge data suggests that ice sheet contributes close to 1-2 m to sea level in the next century (Solomon et al 2008).
Measures to mitigate the problems
There are several measures that ought to be put in place to limit the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and curb the problems the latter causes in the atmosphere. For instance, we ought to put extreme policies that prohibit the burning and emission of green house gases into the atmosphere. The latter will reduce the concentration of carbon dioxide and other green house gases in the atmosphere (Solomon, et al).
According to eraskas, if the rate if production of these dangerous gases were to stop, their concentration would eventually decline due to the atmospheric removal process (eraskas, 2005).subsequently none of these physiological phenomena that lead to drastic climatic change are natural and stoppable. The only way to stop all this menace is to start using alternative fuels and fossils that do not liberate green house gases like methane and carbon di oxide into the atmosphere (eraskas, 2005).
References
Solomon S, et al Irreversible Climate Change, 2008 Oreskes N,The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change, 2005

Family Functioning and Weight Loss in a Sample of African Americans and Whites

The strategy employed was designed to adopt a sampling strategy that restricted the weight loss goal as ≥4 kg in a sample of African Americans and Whites. (Carmen D. Samuel-Hodge, 2010)

The researcher employed a sample of African Americans and Whites as his data source while evaluating six family functioning constructs completed by 291 participants in a trial of weight loss maintenance. The analysis was limited to 217 participants in households with at least one other family member, all providing final weight measurements. (Carmen D. Samuel-Hodge, 2010)

Weight-ing: The Experience of Waiting on Weight Loss
The research as contained in the report ‘Weight-ing: The Experience of Waiting on Weight Loss’ was designed to explore the meaning of waiting on weight loss using Van Manen’s guide to phenomenological reflection and writing. (Glenn, 2012)

The strategy employed was set up to analyze why the weight has become an increasing focus of contemporary culture, weight becoming synonymous with health status, and weight loss with “healthier.” (Glenn, 2012)

The data source employed was random as the report was grounded on human science research (i.e., herme­neutic phenomenology), the reflective study of pre-re­flective experience which was based on experiences of the common and uncommon, considering relations to time, body, space, and the other with the aim of evoking a felt, embodied, emotive understanding of the meaning of waiting on weight loss. (Glenn, 2012)

The comparative and cumulative effects of a dietary restriction and exercise on weight loss
The research contained in ‘The comparative and cumulative effects of a dietary restriction and exercise on weight loss’ report was designed to assess the independence of changes made in diet and physical activity for weight loss, and to examine the comparative and cumulative effects of these behavioural changes on weight loss outcomes. (CL Dunn, 2006)

The strategy employed was to study the outcome variable of the body mass index (BMI) change from baseline to a 2-year follow-up while maintaining the primary independent variables which were changes in physical activity and dietary fat intake, assessed as continuous measures using the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire and Block Fat Screener Questionnaire, respectively. The two-way ANCOVA was used to assess the relative effect on BMI of behavioural changes. (CL Dunn, 2006)

The report was based on longitudinal data collected from 674 women and 288 men enrolled in a 2-year weight loss program introduced into a managed care setting. (CL Dunn, 2006)

The researcher in ‘The comparative and cumulative effects of a dietary restriction and exercise on weight loss’ report opened their mind to the different ways of conducting the research by realizing that there are different ways that they could test their theories. Variety ensured that they attracted accurate results because of the researcher as they had a wide database to draw from in forming their conclusions. (Geursen, 1998)

Analysis
Whenever a researcher is faced with the dilemma of deciding what sort of design he is to employ to carry out his research, there are pertinent questions that should guide him. Key among these is what questions he seeks to research on, i.e. what hypotheses he seeks to test during the research. The research design will be guided by the hypotheses so as to predetermine what sort of structure the research will adopt. After formulating the hypotheses, everything else flows from it.

There are different kinds of sampling strategies. These include probabilistic and non-probabilistic sampling strategies. Probabilistic sampling is employed whenever it is important to have a representative sample of the data while non-probabilistic sampling as a strategy is used whenever the researcher would want to increase the number of conclusions drawn from the research. Each strategy is important in its own respect but there would be a lot of bias in probabilistic sampling as opposed to non-probabilistic sampling because the researcher would have a preconceived data sample to draw from as opposed to just conducting the research and forming conclusions based on the observations derived from the field. Non-probabilistic sampling as a strategy could lead to an overestimating of the actual research considering that it does not employ any restrictions whatsoever in its approach, as opposed to probabilistic sampling which requires a predetermined sample, therefore, the probability of overestimating would be very small. (Geursen, 1998)

The measures to be employed are dependent on what the researcher intends to achieve during the research, i.e., the research design. In the very same way, the sources of data to be employed are wholly dependent on what type of research one intends to conduct, i.e. the research design and the accompanying hypotheses and theories. This is why it is very important to have a structure in your research as one step always flows into the other, leading to congruency. The type of data can be primary or secondary. primary data being actual data collected from the field while secondary data being data gotten from other sources other than from the main source, e.g. books, the internet. (Kandace J. Landreneau, 2003)

Of the three reports, the one that achieved accurate results as compared to the others was the report on ‘Weight-ing: The Experience of Waiting on Weight Loss’ as it employed a non-probabilistic approach as its strategy thus ensuring that there were no restrictions on the type of conclusions that were to be collected. (Glenn, 2012)
&nbsp.

Analysis the Effects of Globalization in Life

Throughout the academic semester, for example, I have been able to learn numerous things which have enriched my life immensely. Though some occurred subconsciously, others were instigated by the class assignments I undertook.
The English class has offered me numerous opportunities to improve my life through the learning experience. The exchange of materials written by myself and others has profoundly enhanced my perspective of sharing. Sharing can be used as a way of analyzing oneself to find the strengths and weaknesses that exist. Finding the weaknesses in oneself can be an extremely difficult task to achieve. Through the criticism, and comments of other people on can be able to analyze himself or herself in a very objective manner. Objectivity in analyzing oneself reduces the probability of becoming paranoid. Critical analysis of oneself can make an individual substantially appreciate the positive and negative comments made by others concerning one’s personality or activity. Throughout the semester, I have been exchanging my articles with other students so that they can present to me their views on the articles. The criticisms I received from my colleagues have been essential in developing my writing ability. New ideas have come to my attention through the reviews offered by friends concerning my writing.
I have also been able to offer my reviews of others’ style of writing. Through reading their articles, I have been able to get their line of thoughts. This has helped develop my own ability to generate ideas presented in articles I normally write. While interviewing one of my friends called Gideon Park, I came across an intriguing issue which he raised. He believed that structures for essays limited the ideas and creativity of a writer.

Machine Learning Algorithms and Tools

Machine learning focuses on automatically learning complex patterns and then making intelligent decisions based on data provided.&nbsp.There are different machine learning algorithms used in the real world but our focus will only be on two of these algorithms namely supervised learning and unsupervised learning.

Supervised Learning
Supervised learning is a technique that defines the effect of a set of observations, called inputs has on another set of observations, called outputs (Valpola). The inputs are assumed to be at the beginning and outputs at the end of the causal chain.

The model works by training on a collection of records called the training set. Each of the records in the training set contains an attribute while one attribute is designated as the categorical variable, i.e. the one that needs to be predicted. This prediction is done by finding a model for the categorical attribute as a function of the values of the other attributes.

Once, this learning takes place, a previously unseen data set is given to the machine to assign classes to the categorical variable. The goal is to assign classes as accurately as possible. Usually the training set is divided into two segments, the training segment, and the test segment, with the training set used to build the model while the test set is used to validate its results.

Example of supervised learning is when it is applied to reduce the direct marketing costs incurred by a company. The goal is to reduce the cost of mailing by targeting a specific set of customers who are more likely to buy a new cell phone product. The approach towards solving this problem will be to first use data for a similar product. Then, collect various demographics i.e. age, lifestyle, income, company interaction, technological knowledge, etc. Once, all these attributes are collected we will use this information as input attributes to learn a classifier model. Then the model will be used to predict the dataset of the current customers, only the ones’ who will have a high probability of buying will be targeted (Linoff, 1997).&nbsp. &nbsp.

Quantitative Easing Monetary Policy

41000 Firstly, the policy is used to increase bank reserves via the central bank liquidity appliances and are absolutely executed as it depends on the ordinary channel of credit creation which reduce the risk of bank runs and does not pose any exit problems (Klyuev, De Imus and Srinivasan 9). Creating a habit of energized trades based on pure essential fundamentals’ is an outstanding way for traders to raise their probability of success and produce consistent profitability. It also allows purchases of long term securities that operate with minimal credit risks since it sends a signal that the central bank desire to lower the long term rates thus it’s a way to commit to an accommodative opinion since it will take time to unwind. The policy allows one to borrow by providing credit in a direct manner to end borrowers which is more impressive than going through banks when banks’ role and /or readiness to lend are impaired. This is possible since the inflammatory pressures must be equalized by means of lending out the money and the bank has the possibility of restoring reserves to higher levels. This will furnish a powerful signal to the market participants since the bank is ready to go to large extensiveness to resuscitate the economy. The central bank can be highly specific in effect intending to achieve important and distressed markets. Quantitative easing is also beneficial when used as a device to create inflation in order to evade deflationary periods in the economy leading to rapid economic recovery after extended recessions (Yotov 64). The quantitative easing policy greatly contributes to the act of diminishing systematic risks that may arise at the zero bound condition. It causes improvements in marketing certainty and provides a foundation of the recession of the economy where the increase in the stock market leads to increased consumption and thus strong performance of the US economy. The improved market strategies are used to raise the levels of the economic status by trying to earn more money on the available goods that give rise to profitability opportunities thus saving the economy (Klyuev, De Imus and Srinivasan 13).&nbsp.

“5 Policy Ethics &amp

Decisions" The variations between scenarios 1 and 2 are primarily owing to variation in respective initial abundances, and the rate of decrease in population is almost identical. However, the scenario 3 estimates vary significantly from the other scenarios both in terms of rate of decrease in population as well as overall final abundance.
The final abundance estimates are useful when it is used with respect to the initial abundance, as this gives an indication about the growth rate/ decline rate, and the sustainability of the metapopulation.
With the growth rate at 1.08, the final abundance is higher in all the cases. the final abundance grows by 16-20% in scenarios 1 and 2, while the final abundance is about equal to the initial abundance in scenario 3. However, the probability of extinction is scenario 3 is slightly lower than the other scenarios.
Similar pattern is visible when the growth rate is at 1.02. the final abundance reduces by 58-59% in scenarios 1 and 2, while it reduces by 64% in scenario 3. Probability of extinction is about the same in all cases.
4. How do the results differ if the average dispersal distance is reduced to 150 map units (15 km or 9.3 miles) or increased to 200 map units (20 km or 12.4 miles) from the original distance of 18.5 km (11.5 miles)?
The overall pattern remains same. however, the effect of dispersion distance on final abundance is less pronounced that of change in growth rate. On increasing the dispersion distance to 20 kms, the final abundance reduces by 14-19% in scenarios 1 and 2, and to 33% in scenario 3.
Changing the carrying capacity of Philip Flat changes the overall pattern. When the carrying capacity of the Philip Flat is increased to 130, the reduction in final abundance is lower in scenario 1 at 15% as compared to 20-25% in scenario 2, and 34-38% in scenario 3.
The PVA is highly sensitive to errors in the growth rate. The final

A Business Analysis of Ryanair

Despite the economic slump and the sluggish recovery of economies in Europe, Ryanair has continued to grow traffic by gaining substantial market share from BA (British Airlines), Lufthansa and Air France. In the four months of the 1st half of fiscal year 2010, Ryanair had already reached 36.4 million passengers which was a 15% significant increase from the first five months of fiscal year 2009. The load factor, which shows the probability of continued increase, has been found to be stable at 85%. Conservative estimates by Ryanair executives and industry analysts indicate that the number of passengers for 2010 can be as much as 66 million (CAPA, 2010a). The main reason for this growth is that as people have lesser disposable income, Ryanair’s fares become a wise choice for the thrifty customer. Figure 1 provides historical data on the total number of passengers served per year from 2006 to 2010:

Ryanair’s strength also lies in its cost discipline attitude that enabled it to post industry leading profit margins in the 1st Quarter of 2010 with 20% and expected to grow reach 30% points by the 2nd Quarter while other competitors are posting negative profit margins. Despite suffering from a 2.0% Euro revenue reduction in the 1st half of 2010 compared to 2009 as a result of declining average fares, Ryanair managed to offset this and post positive net profit margins by a 17% reduction in operating expenses. Critics argue that this reduction was primarily due to a 42% reduction in fuel costs. Fuel constitutes 35% total operating expense. Nonetheless, the company had also achieved significant cost savings by reducing airport and handling costs at individual airports by implementing web check-in initiatives. This initiative alone was estimated to cut costs by 50 million Euros each year. Company-wide pay freeze and an increase in the number of staff receiving lower than average pay rates have also contributed to the reduction in potential operating expense (Binggeli &amp. Pompeo, 2009)

Money Credit and the Role of the State

It has been argued by Keynes (2006) that it has been added by the author that there is a situation in which there is no rent on the agricultural land and this is the situation when the usual and the ordinary rates of the profits on the agricultural stock as well as the belongings of the related to the cultivation of land are the ones that equalize the value of the whole produce thereby this is the situation in which there is no rent on the land. This is the aspect that has been considered as an important factor and it has been said that the rent on the lands mater when the productivity of the land is higher as has been mentioned by Ricardo. In addition to this, it has been added by Ricardo that if the productivity that is being reflected by the land is the same as the profits being gained than the rents are lower and there is a situation in which no rent is to be implanted.

Dillard, (2005) says that an additional point that has been added by Ricardo is that the probability of an increase in the population on the land is higher. Moreover, there is a slight probability that the population rate increase is higher than the increase in the capital thus the increase in the population is faster as compared to that of the capital thereby the wages as noticed might be the ones that decline.

One of the main points that have to be added here in the discussion that has been added by Ricardo is that the profits that arise from the agriculture might increase as a result of the use of the newer and the better technologies on the agricultural fertile land.

It has been&nbsp.added in this case that the land that has been cultivated for the first time, the rate of return will be the same as earlier and it can be the fifty percent or the hundred quarters of the wheat. But in this case, it has been seen that the general profits are the ones that are regulated by the profits that are made on the stock and this is the profits that have been made on the least possible employment of capital on the agriculture on that particular land.

Consumer Decision Making and Behavior

During the previous decade, an ever augmenting studies have been apprehensive with predicting the probability that an individual will decide an exacting alternative from amongst all probable alternatives, given the location of the individual and the locations and distinctiveness of the alternatives (Kenneth, 2003). Previous studies have adopted a diversity of model arrangements to undertake this research difficulty in the context of spatial shopping behavior. For instance, a number of researchers have employed the revealed preference technique, which efforts preliminary to draw from preference structures by scaling a parallel matrix of location kinds and subsequently, narrates these preference structures to obvious preference probabilities by some mathematical function or decision rule. Though obvious differences exist among these a variety of approaches that researches have utilized to foresee consumer decision making and behavior, they all have in general that the functional form of the utility expression in the model is incidental from data on observed spatial choice behavior (Foxall, 2005).
Consequently, scholars of the present period have shown increased concern for determining the way in which consumers form preferences in laboratory experiments (Kenneth, 2003). The consumer decision making procedure is concerned with buying processes and the phase in which a purchaser might be concerned when making purchases (Kenneth, 1998). These phases are usually referred to in intricate models of consumer buyer behavior as crisis recognition, information investigates information assessment, purchase decisions, and post-purchase evaluation (Wansink, 2006).
In this part of the paper, I will demonstrate that how the consumers identify the problem and recognize their needs: Problem recognition took place when a customer recognizes a buying difficulty or purpose, an unsatisfied or unfilled require&nbsp.(Kenneth, 2003).&nbsp.

Anorexia Nervosa on Women in the UK

Anorexia Nervosa on women in the UK People has distinct eating habits. While there are some eating habits that may allow us to stay healthy, there are some that are guided by a powerful dread of getting obese, which harms the health of the individual. One such disorder is anorexia nervosa.
According to the Royal College of Psychiatrists (2015), 95% of people suffering from anorexia in the United Kingdom are women. Though the actual numbers of people suffering from anorexia are not known since most cases go undiagnosed, it is estimated that 5% of women aged between 15 and 30 in the United Kingdom suffer from anorexia. The Royal College of Psychiatrists (2015) also suggests that women between the age of 15 and 30 have a high probability than men of suffering from anorexia. This makes women ten times more likely to suffer from anorexia. It is estimated that 10% of women in the United Kingdom suffering from anorexia succumb to it every year. Anorexia is a common disorder among the age bracket of 15 to 30 years and may become severe leading to hospitalization.&nbsp. &nbsp.
&nbsp.

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

This paper explores BPD’s Pathophysiology, epidemiology, causes, signs and symptoms, and its prevention among others.
According to D’Angio and Maniscalco (2004), the Pathophysiology of Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is much complex and is yet to be fully understood. The following are some of the factors connected with BPD:
Inflammation: The infiltration of granulocyte into the lungs of newborns developing BPD is well documented (D’Angio &amp. Maniscalco, 2004). Animal samples of infant lung injury provide evidence for the role played by granulocyte in BPD’s pathogenesis. There is a fast development of Neutrophil in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of newborns with RDS (D’Angio &amp. Maniscalco, 2004). In infants who are later diagnosed with BPD, the decline in Neutrophil counts is delayed. Proinflammatory mediators like cytokines, which attract inflammatory cells into the lungs have been connected with the development of BPD in infants (Mighten, 2012, p. 135. D’Angio &amp. Maniscalco, 2004).
Architectural Disruption: Cellular injury, as well as the destruction, caused when inflammatory cells discharge reactive oxygen and proteases result from granulocytes infiltration into the lung. “The lung protease/antiprotease balance appears to be tilted toward proteolysis in infants who develop BPD” (D’Angio &amp. Maniscalco, 2004, p.309). Infants with a high probability of developing BPD show higher elastase levels.
Fibroproliferation: Transforming growth factor (TGF) – β has been shown by most studies to have a serious inhibitory impact on lung development besides other fibrogenic effects (D’Angio &amp. Maniscalco, 2004). Higher levels of TGFβ have been identified in infants who are later diagnosed with BPD (D’Angio &amp. Maniscalco, 2004). Delayed development of the lung has also been connected with ‘new’ BPD.

Oil is a commodity which is important for any economy You are required to produce a report on the oil industry and its impact on the UK economy This should be based around the issues discussed in the article written for the BBC news as well as your own

With oil prices being doubled, there is strong probability that the overall output level will decline. (Rogoff, 2006)
UK economy is facing one of the toughest economic challenges in its recent history. What started as a subprime mortgage crisis in the US has actually affected the UK and rest of the European countries also. There have been consistent decline in GDP, increase in level of unemployment as well as reduction in the manufacturing output. In such a scenario, raising oil prices can increase overall cost of output and resultantly decrease the manufacturing output and pace of economy more. Libyan conflict, as well as other political conflicts in Middle East, can further increase the prices and, hence, UK economy may suffer as a result of this change.
One of the key factors affecting the demand and supply in energy market is the political and armed conflicts in Middle East Region. Since the region is one of the highest oil producing regions in the world, political and military conflict in the region can create external shocks for the supply side of oil in the market. Political and armed conflicts actually can reduce the supply of oil in the market and, resultantly, short term price hikes are experienced due to constrained supply.
Another important factor which has been discussed in the case study is the overall situation in the North Africa with possible ripple effects on the Middle East Region also. (Bbc.co.uk, 2011). The conflicts in countries like Libya can seriously reduce the overall supply of oil in the market.
World oil market is considered as relatively inelastic because changes in prices normally do not result into reduction in the demand for the oil. Increases in prices also do not induce increase in production because it takes time actually to develop infrastructure facilities to meet the additional demand. However, it is also important to understand

Health Care Services and Health Status of a Country

The important health status indicators include infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, maternal mortality ratio, neonatal mortality rate, the under-five mortality rate (child mortality rate). Good health indicator should show positive outcomes based on the quantity and quality of people’s health status.
Life expectancy at birth is the most vital health status indicator of any country which directly focuses on the economic condition of the country. Life expectancy at birth refers to the mean number of years that a newborn baby can expect to live if current mortality conditions prevail throughout the person’s life. This indicator focuses on the age-specific probability of death of an individual by considering the present rate of death for people of varying ages in a country. Health status of a country is positively influenced by an increase in life expectancy at birth. In economically sound countries like the United States, life expectancy at birth is around 77 years. The countries having a medium financial status like Jordan, life expectancy at birth is around 72 years. While in poor countries like Mali, life expectancy at birth is around 48 years. Thus, the financial status of the country is directly proportional to the life expectancy at birth of that country. To address the major health concerns in poor countries various prevalent health problems should be attended to enhance the life expectancy at birth of the specific country. Thus, based on the need of the country adequate and equal access to health care services could be delivered to enhance the life expectancy at birth. The enhanced life expectancy at birth could definitely achieve physical, mental and social well-being of the poor income country.

Data Collection Techniques and Funding Opportunities

Sampling needs to be critically marked i.e. sampling will be stratified. The number of patients will be differentiated into different categories because this can enhance the focus on a certain percentage of people who can show a higher probability of lower medication errors. Medical cards and day-today reports can also be used as an effective tool to identify hypothesis readily. The reason behind using this tool is because it allows gaining valuable data within a very short span of time. Considering the case of SSC and CMT in lowered medication error, this manner of data collection is likely to be proven as effective. There can be limitations underlying with the process because there are fewer instances of people making use of CMT (Green, 2010).
It should also be noted that the above-mentioned tools are basically provided by a medical institution as per consent granted by the patient’s family or patient and organization. These medical records are highly sensitive and cannot be claimed without consent and copyrighted documentation for its utilization in the research work. As a matter of fact, the researcher shall approach the authorities and write application forms for the families as well as the administration of the medical organization. This will surely take some time for clearance but once the consent is received then it will be easier to carry on with the research work i.e. data analysis.
Funding Opportunities
There could be a number of health care institutions that can be approached considering the significance of the research. It is surely the need for research regarding SSC and CMT relationship in having an increased number of awareness of communicable diseases.
Other than medical institutions that are involved in the contribution of innovation and assessment of medical phenomenon, there are various committees that provide research funding. These funding institutions serve the goal of evaluating the lack of literature (Dupin &amp. Chupin, 2013).
In particular, organizations that are basically involved in overall technological advancement within the medical field may provide funding as well as assistance. Nursing is a field where research and development play a very imperative role. Thus, there can be a lot of funding opportunities other than proper institutions. Non-profit organizations allow re-directed funding for such projects because they have a global reach and outlook to different research backgrounds. This will need entailing the application process completely i.e. there need to be focused participants who are relevant to the research. Also, there is an evident need of documentation which will give an outlook of the analysis section of the research.&nbsp.

Regression/ANOVA (probability and statistics)

Statistics Report The aim of this paper is to present a report on the comparison of home and away scores of each country using regression/ANOVA. The report will also include tests that were carried out to test if the scores of different countries exhibit any form of correlation. Correlation between the score of the countries when playing home and away and the interaction between the sum of score of different countries will also be reported on. The eight countries that were included in this survey are Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Pakistan, India, South Africa, England, Sri Lanka, and West Indies. Six pairs of scores (home and away) were recorded for each country
The overall average score for both home and away matches was 373.95.
A test for difference between means (ANOVA) of home and away scores for all countries gives a p-value 0.543. Comparing this value with that of alpha (α =0.05), it is observed that the calculated p-value is greater than α. This indicates that the test is not significant. The test also gave an F- calculated value of 0.922. Comparing this value with the F-crit value of 1.793, we observe that the former is lesser than the latter, i.e. F-calculated is greater than F-crit. Based on the calculated values of α and F, we concluded that the difference between the scores is statistically significant (Spiegel, 1992, 45). The F value is 0.922 and the p-value is 0.543, therefore there is not enough evidence to reject H0 at 95% level of significance.
Tests on the correlation between different measures are not significant too. Testing for the correlation between the score of different countries, a p-value of 0.35 and F-tabulated value 1.132 are obtained. Based on these values, there is enough evidence to reject, H0 at 95% level of significance and conclude that there is no correlation between the scores of different countries. As expected, different countries train differently and this accounts for the lack of correlation.
A second test on the correlation between the scores of the countries when playing home and away yields similar results. From this test, a p-value of 0.437 and F-tabulated value 0.611 are obtained. Based on these values, there is enough evidence to reject H0 at 95% level of significance and conclude that there is no correlation between the scores of the countries when playing home and away. Although there is supposed to be a correlation between home and away scores, it must be realized that home advantage every team every differently.
A third test on the correlation between the interaction of the sum of score of different countries yields similar results. From this test, a p-value of 0.623 and F-tabulated value 0.757 are obtained. Based on these values, there is enough evidence to reject H0 at 95% level of significance and conclude that there is no correlation between the interaction of the sum of score of different countries yields similar results. There could have been some interaction as each country played the same amount of matches home and away, however, the difference is not statistically significant.
Reference
Spiegel, M.&nbsp.R. (1992). Theory and Problems of Probability and Statistics, 2nd ed.&nbsp.New York: McGraw-Hill.

Simple leaner regression

Question In the CAPM model, B0 is the risk free rate of return and its value is expected to be positive (usually the Treasury bill). The slope, B1,is the beta coefficient in CAPM model and measures the volatility of an asset’s return compared to that of the overall market. The benchmark value is 1.0 (perfect slope). The value can be more than 1.0 to show that a stock is more responsive to market changes or simply riskier than the market. The value can be less than 1.0 which indicates that the stock is less responsive to market changes (or is less risky).
Question 2
The plotted trajectories of x and y are shown in the chart below. As shown, a positive linear relationship between the two variables is expected.
Question 3
Obs
y
x
y2
χ2

=0+1χ
ɛ = y –
1
3.32
0.72
11.02
0.52
2.39
1.34
1.98
2
1.40
1.68
1.96
2.82
2.35
2.12
– 0.72
3
0.65
– 0.72
0.42
0.52
– 0.47
0.19
0.46
4
0.93
0.81
0.86
0.66
0.75
1.42
– 0.49
5
– 1.21
– 0.35
1.46
0.12
0.42
0.49
– 1.70
6
– 1.62
– 2.30
2.62
5.29
3.73
– 1.08
– 0.54
7
1.41
0.80
1.99
0.64
1.13
1.41
0.00
8
0.18
0.40
0.03
0.16
0.07
1.09
– 0.91
9
1.88
– 0.65
3.53
0.42
– 1.22
0.24
1.64
10
1.35
0.39
1.82
0.15
0.53
1.08
0.27
Total
8.29
0.78
25.74
11.30
9.68
8.29

Completed table
obs
Y
X
SQY
SQX
YX
Y_HAT
E
1
3.32
0.72
11.02240
0.518400
2.390400
1.355465
1.964535
2
1.40
1.68
1.960000
2.822400
2.352000
2.091122
-0.691122
3
0.65
-0.72
0.422500
0.518400
-0.468000
0.251979
0.398021
4
0.93
0.81
0.864900
0.656100
0.753300
1.424433
-0.494433
5
-1.21
-0.35
1.464100
0.122500
0.423500
0.535513
-1.745513
6
-1.62
-2.30
2.624400
5.290000
3.726000
-0.958791
-0.661209
7
1.41
0.80
1.988100
0.640000
1.128000
1.416770
-0.006770
8
0.18
0.40
0.032400
0.160000
0.072000
1.110246
-0.930246
9
1.88
-0.65
3.534400
0.422500
-1.222000
0.305620
1.574380
10
1.35
0.39
1.822500
0.152100
0.526500
1.102583
0.247417
Eviews Summary Descriptive Results
Y
X
SQX
SQY
YX
Y_HAT
E
nbsp.Mean
nbsp.0.829000
nbsp.0.078000
nbsp.1.130240
nbsp.2.573570
nbsp.0.968170
nbsp.0.863494
-0.034494
nbsp.Std. Dev.
nbsp.1.447730
nbsp.1.117615
nbsp.1.659833
nbsp.3.141602
nbsp.1.482091
nbsp.0.856439
nbsp.1.136141
nbsp.Sum
nbsp.8.290000
nbsp.0.780000
nbsp.11.30240
nbsp.25.73570
nbsp.9.681700
nbsp.8.634939
-0.344939
nbsp.Sum Sq. Dev.
nbsp.18.86329
nbsp.11.24156
nbsp.24.79541
nbsp.88.82698
nbsp.19.76935
nbsp.6.601388
nbsp.11.61734
nbsp.Observations
nbsp.10
nbsp.10
nbsp.10
nbsp.10
nbsp.10
nbsp.10
nbsp.10
Question 4
The slope (β0) = (0.620455)(1.45)/(1.12) = 0.804
The intercept (β1) = 0.83 – (1.01)(0.08) = 0.766.
Question 5
SSR = Sum of (Predicted y – population mean of y)^2 = 6.6132
SSR
nbsp.Mean
nbsp.0.661329
nbsp.Median
nbsp.0.305059
nbsp.Maximum
nbsp.3.196195
nbsp.Minimum
nbsp.0.074847
nbsp.Std. Dev.
nbsp.0.994800
nbsp.Skewness
nbsp.1.938750
nbsp.Kurtosis
nbsp.5.352234
nbsp.Jarque-Bera
nbsp.8.570002
nbsp.Probability
nbsp.0.013774
nbsp.Sum
nbsp.6.613286
nbsp.Sum Sq. Dev.
nbsp.8.906647
nbsp.Observations
nbsp.10
Question 6
Variance of returns, σ2 = 2.10
Standard deviation of returns, y, σ = 1.45
Standard deviation, x = 1.12
Question 7
The slope is 0.804 and the p-value is 0.056. At 5% level of significance, the slope is not significantly different from zero. The intercept is 0.766 and the p-value is 0.079. At 5% level, the intercept is not significantly different from zero.
Variable
Coefficient
Std. Error
t-Statistic
Prob.nbsp.nbsp.
C
0.766310
0.381844
2.006865
0.0797
X
0.803721
0.359171
2.237714
0.0556
R-squared
0.384964
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Mean dependent var
0.829000
Adjusted R-squared
0.308084
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.S.D. dependent var
1.447730
S.E. of regression
1.204243
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Akaike info criterion
3.386435
Sum squared resid
11.60160
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Schwarz criterion
3.446952
Log likelihood
-14.93218
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Hannan-Quinn criter.
3.320048
F-statistic
5.007366
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Durbin-Watson stat
1.877887
Prob(F-statistic)
0.055623
Question 8
Testing whether the slope, 0.804, is bigger or lower than 1 is a one-tailed t-test. Since the calculated t-statistic is below the rejection level, we cannot reject the null hypothesis that the slope is significantly lower than 1. The stock is not more volatile than the market.
Wald Test:
Equation: EQ_CAPM_REG
Test Statistic
Value
df
Probability
t-statistic
-0.612004
nbsp.8
nbsp.0.5575
F-statistic
nbsp.0.374549
(1, 8)
nbsp.0.5575
Chi-square
nbsp.0.374549
nbsp.1
nbsp.0.5405
Null Hypothesis: C(1) = 1
Null Hypothesis Summary:
Normalized Restriction (= 0)
Value
Std. Err.
-1 + C(1)
-0.233690
nbsp.0.381844
Restrictions are linear in coefficients.
Question 9
SSE = 11.60
SST = SSE + SSR = 11.60 + 7.26 = 18.86
Question 10
Correlation coefficient = 0.62 (Excel I21)
Coefficient of determination, r2 = 0.622 = 0.38
Question 11
Done and tables pasted in the questions above.

CAUSE AND EFFECT OF A DEFFINITION

What is a hazard and risk? From my own experience I consider the words hazard and risk been used to mean the same thing.However, the two expressions are different in terms of meaning. a single dictionary provide the one definition for the two words.
The importance of the expression hazard could be befuddling. Regularly word references do not give particular definitions or join it with the expression risk. For instance, a single dictionary characterizes hazard as a risk or danger which aides illustrate why numerous individuals utilize the terms reciprocally.
There are numerous definitions for hazard however, the more basic definition when discussing working environment wellbeing and security is. A hazard is a wellspring of potential harm, hurt or unfriendly wellbeing impacts on something or somebody under specific conditions at work. I think this a clear definition of the word hazard.
Fundamentally, a hazard can result in damage or unfriendly impacts to people as wellbeing impacts or to associations as property or gear misfortunes. More often than not, a hazard is alluded to as being the real mischief or the wellbeing impact it brought on instead of the peril. For instance, the illness tuberculosis (TB) could be known as a peril by some however when all is said in done the TB-initiating microscopic organisms might be viewed as the danger or perilous biotic executor.
On the other hand, risk is the probability or likelihood that an individual will be hurt or experience an unfriendly wellbeing impact if laid open to a danger. It might additionally apply to circumstances with property or gear misfortune.
For instance, the danger of creating tumor from smoking smokes could be communicated as cigarette smokers are less averse to bite the dust of lung disease than non-smokers. An alternate method for reporting danger is a sure number, Y, of smokers for every 100,000 smokers will probably create lung tumor (contingent upon their age and how long they have smoked). Such dangers are communicated as a likelihood or probability of creating a malady or being harmed. Although perils allude to the conceivable outcomes for example, lung tumor, emphysema and coronary illness from smoke smoking) considers that impact the level of danger incorporate: what amount of an individual is presented to a dangerous substance or condition, how the individual is uncovered for instance taking in a vapor, skin contact), and how serious are the impacts under the states of introduction.
In sum, a hazard is any wellspring of potential harm, hurt or unfriendly wellbeing influences something or somebody under specific conditions at work whereas a risk is risk is the probability or likelihood that an individual will be hurt or experience an unfriendly wellbeing impact if laid open to a danger. I suggest that the two words be used in the correct perspective as in according to the environment wellbeing and security perspective. Generally, the two words have often be misused and it is a high time to clarify that they almost but not mean the same thing.
Work Cited
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/cause
William May. What is a cause and effect? London: Harvard University Press,

A Laser Testing Machine

As a response to this concern, the quality department has proposed that the testing methodologies have to be made more advanced and the current practices are inadequate. The quality team has proposed a laser testing machine that can replace the current destructive testing. The laser machine can scan all the weights manufactured by the company and can notify defects in an effective manner.
The laser testing method involves higher costs in terms of machinery, installation, maintenance, and training. The quality has estimated total investment of about $ 100,000 towards these expenses. The management, however, feels that the current testing methods are sufficient and the campaign will be profitable. However, the decision is still uncertain.
In order to reduce the uncertainties in making the decision, research is designed and carried out. The last 200 batches that were sold by the company were chosen as the sample. Each batch contains 50 weights and hence a total of 1000 products are considered for this research. After collecting data from the customer service department, it has been found that 40 instances were reported where weights have developed cracks, i.e., a total of 40 weights out of 1,000 were reported broken. Hence the probability of a defective weight (impact testing) is 0.04. The quality team has informed us that the laser machine will be very accurate and help identify the defective weights and will bring down.nbsp.In order to reduce the uncertainties in making the decision, research is designed and carried out. The last 200 batches that were sold by the company were chosen as the sample.nbsp.

Intangible Assets Management and Evaluation

3250

The present research has identified that identification of an intangible asset is possible if it attains a specific criterion. The criteria used in the recognition of these assets involve a demonstration by the entity that the item meets the outlined definition of an intangible asset and the recognition criteria. Intangible assets that meet the relevant criteria are measurable at cost, subsequently measured at cost or using the revaluation model and amortized on a systematic basis over their useful lives. However, intangible assets with indefinite useful life are not amortized. Examples of assets that may remain classified as intangible items include trademarks, patents, fishing licenses, and computer software and import duties. An asset is identifiable when it is transferrable separately, rented, exchanged or licensed. An intangible asset is recognizable if there exist probability of expected future economic benefits related to the asset will flow and entity or cost of the asset that is measurable reliably. Most often, it is confused how intangible assets can be classified as non-monetary when valuing them in the financial statements. In the definition, items such as cash, bank deposits, and trade receivables are monetary assets and remain excluded. In addition, brand image and goodwill are intangible assets instances that need separate identification before inclusion as business assets. Where there exists external acquisition of goodwill and brands, their cost and existence remain identified and capitalized. Internally generated goodwill is not recognizable as an asset since it is not distinguishable from the business. Moreover, goodwill does not arise from contractual or other legal rights. Its cost cannot remain measured reliably.

Summary11

and Section # of Summary 11 The chapter discusses the major ethical issues involved in the research work for criminologists. I will elucidate the main problems that the researcher faces in the research work in criminology and criminal justice. The chapter points out that there are four main ethical issues that the brazen out the social scientists including the criminologists: confidentiality, informed consent, harms and benefits and relationships.
The most important ethical issue in the criminologist research relates to the aftermath of the interaction of the researcher and the criminal. The researchers try their best that there is no negative impact of their entry into their lives so they maintain the confidentiality and the privacy of the participants’ information. The threats to the confidentiality of the data are rare but occur often and therefore, the researchers take every possible precaution to protect the data. At the same time, they maintain agreements with the government agencies such as police, customs and tax agents to thwart any demand for the disclosure of information. Basically, the harm to the participant of the disclosing of the information is greater than the benefits to the society at large and therefore, poses an immense ethical issue for criminologists.
Protection of the privacy of the personal information of the participant of the criminologists’ research poses another threat to the ethics of the society. The benefits to the society of the research must be weighed against the harms done by the disclosure of the information. At times, the researchers complain that the privacy law prevents them from the active beneficial research work. The disclosure of the personal information related to homicides, sexual abuses and frauds could jeopardize the safety of the respective participants. Therefore to ensure the safety of these people and the researchers, the reports and all other work related to research was anonymised.
Informed consent is another issue that confronts the criminologists. The participants must be provided with the lucid understanding of the research objectives and the consent process so that they are aware of all the possible interactions as well as possible dangers to them. The interests and the freedom of the participants must be protected from the researchers and that informed consent must be taken. The criminologists have the probability and the potential to affect the wellbeing of the participants as well as their future economic interests. These researchers must try to minimize the harm to the individual and at the same time, provide for the maximizing benefits to the participant as well as society. For instance: Researchers working on the corruption, violence and pollution should try to minimize the loss to these corporate entities as an ethical goal.
Another important ethical dilemma concerning the criminologists’ research work is the interpersonal relationship. Children and young people are often confronted with scenarios that have a long lasting impact on their lives. At the same time, conflicts of interest arise from situations. Researchers tend to favor those that provide them with the necessary funding.
Works Cited
Israel, M. Major Ethical Issues for Criminologists Ethics and governance of criminology research in Australia. (2004) pp. 18-

Week 4 DQ 1

Style of Leadership Style of Leadership Participative leadership style is the most effective to run an organization because the leader involves the entire team when there is a need for input, ideas and observations (Baack, 2012). Though the final decisions rest entirely on the participative leader, there is a high probability of the leader making the right decision. This is as a result of the involvement of the entire team who give not only a variety of new ideas, but also provide different methods of solving problems (Baack, 2012). Additionally, it is because all the team members approach the problem in unique ways due to the skills they possess. Thus, this gives more than one solution to a problem which can help solve a problem requiring more than one overall solution. The massive unique ideas provide different angles of solving a problem. With the characteristics expected from a leader, being well liked can help achieve these traits (Baack, 2012). Just mentioning a few. interested in change, open minded, good communicator, and being open to change all go down to having a good relationship with the employees. This good relationship is also important between the employees. It helps the parties earn respect without necessarily having to demand it in whatever way. Though the results matter a lot, being well liked by the employees really is also critical it creates an excellent working environment, and this can add to the success of the organization. In conclusion participative leadership style is the most effective to use when running an organisation (DuBrin, 2001). This due to the level at which the team members are involved, and this makes them easily accept changes in an organisation since they feel they are part of the organisation due to the involvement. Results matter a lot in any organisation, but there is a need for the employers to relate well with their employees because it can help in the performance of the overall team. A good relationship can be achieved by ensuring the presence of a good relationship.s
Reference
Baack, D. (2012). Organizational behavior. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
DuBrin, A. J. (2001). Leadership: Research findings, practice, and skills. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Probability Distributions

Burglary topped the list of the most committed crime with 44%. On satisfaction, the criminal justice ranked first with 5.4 points while sentencing closed the list with 5.0 points.
Correctional facilities play an integral role in criminal justice system. These facilities key responsibility is the incapacitation of a convicted person to deter recurrence of crime. They do so through the execution of the punishment given to a convicted offender by the court. However, they also provide other services such as rehabilitation and skill training. In US, the facilities fall under state or federal government although, private prisons also exists. The Federal Bureau of Prisons manages all the federal prisons while the Correction Departments in various states runs the state prisons. An offender gets an admission to prison after sentencing by a judge in state or federal courts. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) 2011, there were about 1.5 million prisoners in both state and federal prisons. Of this population, 40% were above 40 years old. The drug related offenders accounted for close to half the population of inmates in federal courts. Besides, the persons aged between 20 to 44 years committed most crimes accounting for 78% of the prisons’ population. In the same report prepared by BJS, approximately 92% of the prisoners are males. On crimes, apart from drugs, robbery, murder, assault, and burglary are the most common crimes in US.
Although, the BJS 2011 statistics showed that the population of US prisoners declined by 0.9%, the incarceration rates outnumbers countries such as Canada and United Kingdom. Therefore, the conclusion is that the criminal justice system has weaknesses that need address from stakeholders. One of the main challenges faced by the system is the disproportionate number of African American and Hispanics in US prisons. While they are the minorities, they make up about 70% of the prisoners. This disparity elicits a perception that

Research Articles

Statistical assignment: Parental attitude perception in children of working and non-working mothers Statistical analysis: Parental attitude perception in children
1. The full APA reference of this article is:Gürsoy, F., amp. Biçakçi, M. Y. (2007). A comparison of parental attitude perceptions in children of working and nonworking mothers. Social Behavior and Personality, 35 (5), 693-706.
2. The statistical analysis used in the results section of the article were. independent t-test, one way ANOVA, correlation test and chi square test of independence.
3. Examples of statistical analyses in the article.
T-test.
In the article, a t- test performed showed that the working status of the mother was important () in terms of the scores for perceived loving mother attitudes. In this example the t-test is performed to compare whether the working and non-working mothers have significant different average values. The mean of the working mothers was 67.22 and the mean of the non-working mothers was 64.34. The variable being measured is the perceived loving attitude of mothers between children of working and non-working mothers. The research question in this t-test analysis was that. is there a significant difference between the mean of the working mothers and the mean of non-working mothers in the perceived loving mother attitude?
One way ANOVA
One way analysis of variance showed that, based on perceived punishing father, there was a significant interaction between mother’s work status and gender [perceived punishing father: ()]. In this case the test is trying to determine, based on perceived punishing father attitude, whether there are significant difference among the means of the four different groups i.e. male children from working mothers, female children from working mothers, male children from non-working mothers and female children from non-working mothers.
Chi-square test
In the article, Chi-square test indicated that the mother’s education was effective in mother’s working status (). In this example, chi-square was used to test whether there was a significant statistical association between the working status of the mother and her education level.
Pearson correlation test
A correlation test was done between perceived loving mother attitude and perceived loving father attitude. The correlation reports was that there was a positive and highly significant relationship between the two variables (r= 0.472, p=.001). The research question. is perceived loving mother attitude and perceived loving father attitude correlated
4. The alpha level for the article is 0.5
5. T-test
The degree of freedom () is 278, the value of the test is
Using, the critical t-value is 3.09. Since the t-value is less than the critical t-value, this test was not significant.
One way ANOVA
The degree of freedom () is 279, the value of the test is
The p-value is 0.010. Since this value is lower than the critical p-value, this test was significant hence the null hypothesis must be rejected.
Chi-square test
The degree of freedom () is 2, the value of the test is
This value gives a p-value of .000. This p-value is lower than the critical p-value hence the null hypothesis which says that the two variables are independent is rejected. This shows that the test was significant.
Pearson correlation test
The degree of freedom is 2, the value of the correlation test r= 0.472.
Comparing the value with the critical value of p=0.001, the test was insignificant.
6. According to the selected test, the working status of the mother () was insignificant in terms of the score for perceived loving mother attitude. In the perceived punishing father attitude, the mother’s working status and gender had a significant interaction (). The article proved that the mother’s working status is significantly associated with her level of education (). Finally, the positive correlation (r=0.472) was not significant enough to suggest a relationship between perceived loving mother and perceived loving father attitudes.
References
Douglas, C. M. amp. George, C. R (2011).Applied statistics and probability for engineers. 5th Ed. New York: John Wiley amp. sons

Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology

Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology Affiliation) Sociocultural theorists believe that individuals become substance abusers because of socio economic conditions. Some of the Sociocultural theorists believe that individuals become substance abusers if they live in a family environment where use of substance is acceptable (Comer, 2010, p. 300). The Psychodynamic theorists perceive that individuals start depending on drugs while looking for nurturance that their parents failed to provide during their early ages. Theorists even believe that individuals develop personality traits of a substance abuser due to which they become substance abusers. Behavioral theorists believe that an individual might become dependent on a drug if he has experienced relaxation due to usage of that particular drug. Cognitive theorists believe that if the individual believes that usage of drugs will provide him relaxation or any other rewarding experience, he or she might become dependent on that substance. The biological theorists believe that an individual might be dependent on substance as his mother and father might even have been abusing substance. They even perceive that if one of the two twin individuals is abusing substance, the probability of the other twin of becoming a substance abuser is high. Biological theorists even believe that drug usage leads to decrease in the amount of neurotransmitters produced by the brain as drugs increases the function of neurotransmitters. This shows that individuals that abuse drugs rely on drugs for the increase of activity of neurotransmitters.
The most effective therapies for solving the issue of drugs are Sociocultural therapies. This is because in these types of therapies, individuals who are dependent on drugs help each other solve the problem. Individuals form groups and discuss their drug abuse habits and the reasons that have led to these habits and they provide comfort to each other and help each other. The prevention programs are even one of the most effective ways of solving the issue of drug abuse because in these programs people are informed about the downsides of using drugs.
The weakness of psychodynamic therapies is that these therapies help in solve issues that are related to drug abuse and these therapies do not solve the main problem of drug abuse. The behavioral therapies are not really effective if they are used without other therapies and behavioral therapies can only be successful if the substance abuser is willing enough to stop using drugs. The biological treatments work more effectively for those who are highly motivated and ready to stop drug abuse, on the other hand biological treatments turn out to be ineffective if they are not paired with other treatments.
Bibliography
Comer, R. J. (2010).nbsp.Abnormal psychology. New York: Worth.

Unconscious Participation At HighLevel Of Cognitive Processes

Some researchers and scientists might still have the notion to discredit the participation of the unconscious mind to the high-level thinking processes because the results obtained from the past studies came from experiments with task performance on the same stimulus. Another possible reason is the control learned after behavioral repetitions that the stimulus-response associations may have caused the unconscious stimuli to target the behavioral and neural effects. The claims were supported by many studies that showed scarcity in moving from the trained conscious mind to untrained conscious mind explains the possible effects of the unconscious mind might be linked to the strong sensory motor links connected to learning. The existence of the subconscious is part of the three states of consciousness of human beings: the conscious, subconscious and the unconscious. The conscious mind is the available thinking that people have pertaining to the logical and rational thinking. The subconscious mind is the unnoticed part of thinking which can readily be shifted to conscious thinking. The unconscious mind is very hard to be noticed since it is unconscious or the opposite of conscious. It is like the iceberg wherein the tip which is visible is the conscious mind and the majority of the iceberg remains hidden like the unconscious. The unconscious is the source of power like the past memories, feelings, and thoughts that are not instantly available to the conscious mind….
al., 2001, p. 1). Another possible reason is the control learned after behavioral repetitions that the stimulus-response associations may have caused the unconscious stimuli to target the behavioral and neural effects (Wokke et. al., 2001, p. 1). The claims were supported by many studies that showed scarcity in moving from the trained conscious mind to untrained conscious mind explains the possible effects of the unconscious mind might be linked to the strong sensory motor links connected to learning (Wokke et. al., 2001, p. 1). The existence of the subconscious is part of the three states of consciousness of human beings: the conscious, subconscious and the unconscious. Conscious mind is the available thinking that people have pertaining to the logical and rational thinking. Subconscious mind is the unnoticed part of thinking which can readily be shifted to conscious thinking. Unconscious mind is very hard to be noticed since it is unconscious or the opposite of conscious. It is like the iceberg wherein the tip which is visible is the conscious mind and the majority of the iceberg remains hidden like the unconscious. The unconscious is the source of power like the past memories, feelings and thoughts that are not instantly available to the conscious mind (Markopoulos, Ruyter and Ijsselsteijn, 2008, p. 15). Significance of the Problem Unconscious information processing is somewhat complex and the current understanding of the unconscious mind is not very clear or still in debate. The probability of unconscious mind to be tapped for higher levels of learning like high-level cognitive functions such as decision-making, inhibitory control and task selection is high that it may help in

CAREER PLAN

Part One of Your Career Plan: Self-Reflective Career Assessment Estimated Time to Complete: 4-7 Hours Due Friday September 21, at 11:59 PMLewis Carroll once asked, Who in the world am I? Ah, thats the great puzzle.1 The basic idea behind the Self-Reflective Career Assessment is that an understanding of who you are and how you see yourself in regard to others will influence your career choices as well as how you interact with others in the workplace. C. Edward Watkins, a counseling psychologist, observes that we each have unique ways in which we perceive and function in the world—our life-style.2 Our life style influences, all aspects of behavior in the arenas of the major life tasks.3 One such life task is work. As Watkins notes, First and foremost, career choice reflects an implementation of life-style. it involves putting the life-style into practice via one’s career.4 The reflective nature of the process that follows is designed to get you thinking about the meaning of work and of careers within your life.5
For your Self-Reflective Career Assessment to be useful, you need to be open, honest, and expansive in your responses to the questions that appear below.
The questions that follow are inherently personal. This is necessary for you to gain a greater understanding of yourself and what you are searching for in a career.
You can be rest-assured that your professor will be sensitive when reviewing and commenting on your responses.
If you have trouble articulating responses to individual questions then you may wish to have a person who you trust ask these questions of you, and record your responses. You could then edit, and further expand on, your responses as needed.
You will be evaluated on: (1) Completing all sections (2) How well written it is. (3) How comprehensive it is. and (4) The extent to which you bring in other resources relating to career planning in your writing.
You should save a version of this file at a location where you can work on it. When you are ready to submit this part of your Career Plan, go to the Assignments Link in Oncourse, and submit it as an attachment.
TIPS TO NOTE:
The articles listed below or those posted in the Resources folder on Oncourse may help you in thinking about the below question. Students who make effective use of these and other relevant resources will receive higher grades for this assignment.
Build a Life, Not a Resume, at http://www.aligningthestars.com/aligningthestars/career_perspectives.pdf
Drucker, Peter (2005) Managing Oneself. Harvard Business Review, March-April: 100-109.
Duffy, Ryan D. (2006) Spirituality, Religion, and Career Development: Current Status and Future Directions. Career Development Quarterly, 55: 52-63.
Hansen, L. Sunny (2001) Integrating Work, Family, and Community Through Holistic Life Planning. Career Development Quarterly, 49(3): 261-274.
Ibarra, Herminiaamp.Lineback, Kent (2005) What is Your Story? Harvard Business Review, January: 64-71.
Knowdell, Richard L. (1998) The 10 New Rules for Strategizing Your Career. Futurist, 32(5): 19-24.
Menkes, Justin (2005) Hiring for Smarts. Harvard Business Review, September: 100-109.
Otte, Fred L. amp.Kahnweiler, William M. (1995) Long-range Career Planning During Turbulent Times. Business Horizons, 38(1): 2-7.
Savickas, Mark L. (1991) The Meaning of Work and Love: Career Issues and Interventions. Career Development Quarterly, 39(4): 315-324.
Schultheiss, Donna E.P. (2006) The Interface of Work and Family Life. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37(4): 334-41.
A. UNDERSTANDING YOURSELF
Developing an understanding of your personality is important to developing interests will help to identify aspects that either impede or promote your ability to engage in a rewarding career path. Understanding your personality type will also better prepare you with the knowledge to engage in a path based on personal intrinsic/internal motivation. Complete the KeirseyTemperament Sorter-II (KTS-II)6 personality assessment using the following link:
The KeirseyTemperament Sorter-II (KTS-II) is the most widely used personality instrument in the world. The intention of the test is to help individuals discover their personality type.
Take the Keirsey personality assessment at: http://www.keirsey.com/sorter/register.aspx
Then, cut and paste the results page into this box below.
Custom Keirsey Temperament Report for:nbsp.Name
Your Keirsey Temperament Sorter Results indicates that your personality type is that of the
Idealists, as a temperament, are passionately concerned with personal growth and development. Idealists strive to discover who they are and how they can become their best possible self — always this quest for self-knowledge and self-improvement drives their imagination. And they want to help others make the journey. Idealists are naturally drawn to working with people, and whether in education or counseling, in social services or personnel work, in journalism or the ministry, they are gifted at helping others find their way in life, often inspiring them to grow as individuals and to fulfill their potentials.
Idealists are sure that friendly cooperation is the best way for people to achieve their goals. Conflict and confrontation upset them because they seem to put up angry barriers between people. Idealists dream of creating harmonious, even caring personal relations, and they have a unique talent for helping people get along with each other and work together for the good of all. Such interpersonal harmony might be a romantic ideal, but then Idealists are incurable romantics who prefer to focus on what might be, rather than what is. The real, practical world is only a starting place for Idealists. they believe that life is filled with possibilities waiting to be realized, rich with meanings calling out to be understood. This idea of a mystical or spiritual dimension to life, the not visible or the not yet that can only be known through intuition or by a leap of faith, is far more important to Idealists than the world of material things.
Highly ethical in their actions, Idealists hold themselves to a strict standard of personal integrity. They must be true to themselves and to others, and they can be quite hard on themselves when they are dishonest, or when they are false or insincere. More often, however, Idealists are the very soul of kindness. Particularly in their personal relationships, Idealists are without question filled with love and good will. They believe in giving of themselves to help others. they cherish a few warm, sensitive friendships. they strive for a special rapport with their children. and in marriage they wish to find a soulmate, someone with whom they can bond emotionally and spiritually, sharing their deepest feelings and their complex inner worlds.
Idealists are relatively rare, making up no more than 15 to 20 percent of the population. But their ability to inspire people with their enthusiasm and their idealism has given them influence far beyond their numbers.
Idealists at Work
Idealists, as a temperament, are passionately concerned with personal growth and development. They are naturally drawn to working with people and are gifted with helping others find their way in life, often inspiring them to grow as individuals and to fulfill their potential both on, and off, the job.
Your beliefs are the arbiter of your actions, even if you cannot articulate those beliefs specifically. You hold a strong, clear sense of the way the universe works, whats right and whats wrong, and what your purpose is in the overall scheme of things. In your ideal job, you can embody those beliefs in your relationships with other people. Because you likely have a talent for de-escalating situations and can almost always find just the right words, you often significantly improve the morale of organizations to which you belong.
Did the personality assessment seem to validate your self-perception? Do you agree with the assessment? What aspects have you previously identified about yourself that are similar to those described it the assessment? Did the assessment reveal any qualities that you identify with. but, perhaps had not realized before? [write at least 100 words]
Yes, to some extent the personality assessment was successful in validating my perception. I pretty much agree with the assessment and I am surprised to know that ‘idealist’ is the right word that describes my personality. I take it as a compliment. I was somehow aware of these traits in my personality but I didn’t know that I could be acting as a direct or indirect source of inspiration for those around me. I am strict in habits sometimes but there is also a room for flexibility.
B. Ambitions7
Please answer the following questions:
What ambitions did your parent(s) have for you when you were a child? [at least 20 words]
My parents wanted me to become a doctor because few of my relatives are related to this profession and hence, considered respectful.
How do you feel about those ambitions now? [at least 20 words]
I respect the ambitions my parents had for me. I believe that I will do the best in my current profession and make my parents feel more proud than they’d have been if I were a doctor.
As a child, what were your occupational daydreams? [at least 20 words]
As a child, I dreamt of become a firefighter. I used to watch movies and tv programs where firefighters were children’s heroes because of their efforts in saving lives of innocents without caring for their interests.
How do you feel about these daydreams now? [at least 20 words]
Now that I have grown up, I can’t think of becoming a firefighter practically because this profession requires courage and stamina. My personality traits do not quite match this profession and I believe my current career will definitely have something good for me.
C. Decision-making
Please answer the following questions:
Career Decision-making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ)
The CDDQ helps identify areas in which you have career making difficulties, and recommends how you could overcome these difficulties.
Take the CDDQ at: http://kivunim.huji.ac.il/eng-quest/cddq/cddq_main.html
Then, cut and paste the results page into this box.
Feedback for:nbsp.name
September 20, 2012
Based on your responses to the questionnaire, you will be presented with a summary of your personal difficulties in the career decision-making process.
First, you will be presented with the categories in which your responses reflect salient difficulties. Then, the categories in which your responses reflect moderate difficulties will be presented and finally, we will present our recommendations regarding the steps you can take in order to address those difficulties.
Your responses reflectnbsp.significantnbsp.difficulties involving:
Recommendations:
We recommend finding an expert career counselor who can provide you with answers to some of your questions about your preferences, abilities and talents, using professional assessment tests and questionnaires. The counselor will also help you deal with your difficulties in making decisions in general, and help you solve your conflicts related to career decision making.nbsp.
We advise you to search the Internet for information on relevant career options. Be aware that the quality of the information and its source are sometimes questionable. In case of doubt, try to check the information using several sources.nbsp.
Guidance in the stages involved in making career decisions can be found on this site. Of course, your career counselor will guide you through the steps in your decision-making process.nbsp.
The following are some general recommendations regarding information sources that can help you progress in the decision-making process. In addition, we are providing you with specific recommendations regarding the steps that might help you address each of your salient and moderate difficulties.nbsp.The Internet could be a very helpful tool in the exploration your career decision-making difficulties, whether you are visiting sites that charge a fee or not. The Internet is, without question, the most comprehensive and attainable source of information, and we recommend you start your search for information there. The internet will help you deal with your:nbsp.
Dysfunctional nbsp.beliefs
Lack nbsp.of nbsp.information about nbsp.the nbsp.decision nbsp.making nbsp.process
Lack nbsp.of nbsp.information about nbsp.occupations
Lack nbsp.of nbsp.information about nbsp.additional nbsp.sources nbsp.of nbsp.information
Unreliable nbsp.information
However, it is important that you are aware of the quality, objectivity and reliability of the source of information you choose to use. Some of the information is biased and comes to serve a commercial purpose. It is therefore recommended that you compare several sources of information.
We recommend that you to turn to a career counselor to help you address:nbsp.
Lack nbsp.of nbsp.motivation
General nbsp.indecisiveness
Lack nbsp.of nbsp.information about nbsp.the nbsp.self
Unreliable nbsp.information
Internal nbsp.conflicts
External nbsp.conflicts
Career counseling includes one-on-one conversations with a vocational psychologist, and tests and questionnaires that will help you get to know your skills, preferences, and fit to the different occupations. In some of the counseling centers you may find a vocational library, and access to computerized information and guidance systems. The cost of such counseling depends on your country of origin and therefore we cannot provide an assessment. It is recommended that you bring a printed copy of this feedback to your counseling appointment.nbsp.
Specifically,nbsp.
In order to deal with yournbsp.lack of motivationnbsp.we recommend you to collect information about the importance of career decision-making and about occupational interests, using websites on career decisions (key words: career/occupational decision-making). You may find these websites using any search engine. we cannot provide you with specific recommendations since they depend on your country of origin. However, it is important to be aware of the quality, objectivity and reliability of the source of information you choose to use. Relevant information may also be found in Future Directions websitenbsp.www.cddq.orgnbsp.in the sectionnbsp.PIC: three step decision-making process. If even after you visit these sites you feel as though you do not have the motivation to complete the decision-making process, a career counselor may be able to help you further.
In order for you to deal with yournbsp.general indecisiveness, we recommend that you turn to a career counselor. If you are unable to do so, the PIC Model (http://kivunim.huji.ac.il/cddq/pic2_g.htm), may be helpful. This model will guide you through a systematic, structured decision process and at least help you partially with your general indecisiveness. If you prefer a more interactive and personally-tailored guidance through the decision-process, many interactive career guidance systems (most of them require payment) are available on the Internet (for example, visit:nbsp.http://mbcd.intocareers.org/).
A career counselor could help you deal with or change yournbsp.dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs, which are probably halting your current decision-making process.
In order for you to gathernbsp.information regarding the decision-making process, we recommend that you visitnbsp.http://kivunim.huji.ac.il/cddq/pic2_g.htmnbsp.and learn about the PIC model and three recommended stages of the career-decision making process. We also encourage you to read about the 31 important career aspects (i.e. travel, salary) that you need to consider in this process. In addition, you could visit thenbsp.MBCD site,nbsp.http://mbcd.intocareers.org/nbsp.that will lead you step-by-step through the process of establishing a short list of occupations that match your preferences and criteria.
In order for you to obtainnbsp.information about the self, you could: 1) visit theMBCD site,nbsp.http://mbcd.intocareers.org/nbsp.that will help you clarify your vocational preferences in terms of aspects 2) turn to a career counselor that will help you estimate your professional abilities and skills.
In addition to the general information you could find on the internet (for example, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics,nbsp.www.bls.govnbsp.or the Occupational Information Networknbsp.http://online.onetcenter.org),nbsp.MBCDnbsp.(http://mbcd.intocareers.org/), or occupational-information libraries. Since occupations differ in their characteristics from country to country, it is recommended to look for occupational information in websites of your own country. You could also speak to someone who is currently employed in the profession of your interest or visit the relevant workplaces in order to obtainnbsp.occupational information. Field information obtained from observation is unique and can not be as effectively obtained through other means, but still you should remember that your information is based upon one experience and therefore can not be generalized to the entire profession. In order to collect information about various academic fields of study, you should visit the colleges websites and pay specific attention to the program of your interest.
We cannot provide you with specific recommendations regarding sources ofadditional information, since they depend on your country of origin. We recommend you to use search engines to look for relevant information on the Internet, while being aware of the quality, objectivity and reliability of the source of information you choose to use. Reference to relevant sources of information can also be obtained from your school, college or universitys counselor.
If the inconsistencies are related tonbsp.information regarding the self, we recommend turning to professional career counseling for assistance. If the inconsistencies are related to occupational information, we recommend turning to reliable and updated sources of information, such as occupational libraries, or universitys websites. We cannot provide you with specific recommendations regarding sources of information, since they depend on your country of origin. We recommend you to use search engines to look for relevant information on the Internet, while being aware of the quality, objectivity and reliability of the source of information you choose to use. Reference to relevant sources of information can also be obtained from your school, college or universitys counselor.
It is recommended that you turn to a friend or someone who you are close with in order to address the issues .internal conflictsnbsp.that you are struggling with. Consulting with others does not compromise your desire to make an independent decision. Other peoples opinions could very often be an important source of additional information that could provide you with another perspective and assist you in the decision-making process. If you still feel as though you need further guidance, we recommend that you visit a career counselor.
A career counselors objective opinion could help you solve yournbsp.external conflicts(i.e. with parents, peers) and help you bridge the gap between your wishes and those around you.
CareerDecision Style Questionnaire (CDSQ)
The CDSQ helps you learn more about how you make decisions about your career.
Take the CDSQ at: http://kivunim.huji.ac.il/eng-quest/dme.html
Then, cut and paste the results page into this box.
Career Decision-Making Profile questionnaire
nbsp.
Feedback for:nbsp.name
September 20, 2012
The following feedback is organized into three parts:
The first partnbsp.describes your personal career-decision making profile (style) using statements concerning those aspects that clearly characterize you.
The second partnbsp.of the feedback will present you with dimensions in which you are not clearly characterized (since your answers in these dimensions were close to the mean and do not reflect a defined tendency).
Finally, you will be presented with our general recommendation regarding career-decision making.
Following are the dimensions in which your responses demonstrated a definite tendency and our recommendations:
Locus of control -nbsp.
It seems that you believe that external factors, such as destiny or important people in your life, will be very influential regarding your professional future. The consequences of your decisions depend more upon external factors than your own choice. However, in order to choose the occupation best suited for you and to increase the probability of being satisfied, it is advised to be more proactive in the decision-making process and not to leave it to destiny and other exterior factors. You should also acknowledge that a lack of initiative in the decision-making process is itself a decision.
Effort invested in the process -nbsp.
It seems that you tend to invest a lot in the decision making process, both technically and mentally.
Speed of making the final decision -nbsp.
It seems that even after you have all of the information that you need, you take a long time to make a career-decision. It is indeed an important decision that needs to be properly attended to and not rushed, but still, it is important to take into consideration that prolonged deliberation might cause you to miss opportunities (for example, missing application deadlines).
Dependence on others -nbsp.
It seems that you want to be the only one responsible for your decisions and do not try to have others make the decision for you.
Willingness to compromise -nbsp.
It seems that you are willing to accept the limitations of reality in terms of actualizing your career choice (ie. application criteria, financial demands) and you compromise when needed.
Following are the dimensions in which your responses did not reflect a definite tendency:
Information gatheringnbsp.(much vs. little)nbsp.- the degree to which the individual is meticulous and thorough in collecting and organizing information.
Information-processingnbsp.(analytic vs. holistic)nbsp.- the degree to which one analyzes information into its components and processes the information according to these components.
Procrastinationnbsp.(high vs. low)nbsp.-the degree to which the individual delays beginning the career decision making process and advancing through it.
Consultation with othersnbsp.(frequent vs. rare)nbsp.-the extent to which the individual consults with others during the different stages of the decision process.
Desire to please othersnbsp.-the degree to which the individual attempts to satisfy the expectations of significant others (e.g., parents, partner, friends).
Striving towards an ideal occupationnbsp.(high vs. low)nbsp.-the extent to which the individual believes there is a perfect or flawless occupation for him or her.
Intuitivenbsp.- he degree to which individuals rely on internal (gut) feelings when making a decision.
In summary:
Career- decision making is important and challenging. There is no one way in which everyone acts while making a decision. Different people have different decision-making profiles. However, there are aspects of your decision-making profile that can make the process easier and more satisfying: Investing time and energy, and thoroughly exploring the different options will allow you to collect relevant information that will help you choose a career that suits you. consulting people who are close to you or with professionals can offer you an additional point of view regarding the possibilities that you are faced with and the aspects you should consider. Consulting people employed in occupations of your interests, or even visiting these workplaces in order to experience their daily routine up-close, could assist you in making a better career decision. It is also important to take into consideration the fact that compromising is an inevitable part of the process. acknowledging the need for compromise can make the decision easier.
In what ways could some of the ways in which you view yourself and your world undermine your ability to achieve career success and life happiness? Do you think you can overcome these things? If so, how? [write at least 100 words]
I believe that sometimes my confidence level goes down because of which I tend to make wrong decisions and this is one of the major flaws in my personality which could become an obstacle in my way of success. I can certainly overcome this weakness by repeatedly telling myself that I need to have complete faith in myself when it comes to decision making. Support from my family and close friends will also help me get rid of this personality shortcoming. Also if I engage myself in sports, my mind and body will be able to break the chains of low confidence and I would be able to focus better on my success goals.
D. Putting it all together- Assessing skills:
You have now completed assessments for personality and decision and completed a series of reflective questions designed to give an understanding of your personal preferences and predispositions that will affect your career path and life. Skills are an additional influential factor that needs to be addressed when in the process of career evaluation.
Assessment Instructions:
Go to http://www.careerinfonet.org/explore (sponsored by the Bureau of Labor Statistics)
Complete the sections on Assess Yourself by clicking on the links on the left-hand side.
Under Assess Yourself link, under the take assessments link and complete
The Skills Profiler
Copy and paste Your Skills Profile into the box below:
This Skills Profile compares your skills to those needed for a:
Human Resources Managers
Add another job to your profilenbsp.
Your Skills
The skills you have listed, with your ratings of your ability
Change your skills list or ratings
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Active Learning
Higher than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Active Listening
Higher than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Complex Problem Solving
Higher than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Critical Thinking
Higher than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Judgment and Decision Making
Higher than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Management of Personnel Resources
Higher than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Operations Analysis
Higher than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Social Perceptiveness
Higher than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Speaking
Higher than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Systems Analysis
Higher than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Time Management
Higher than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Writing
Higher than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Instructing
Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Learning Strategies
Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Negotiation
Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Coordination
Lower than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Monitoring
Lower than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Persuasion
Lower than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Reading Comprehension
Lower than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Service Orientation
Lower than Average
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Systems Evaluation
Lower than Average
nbsp.
Desktop computer skills
Spreadsheets
Presentations
Internet
Navigation
Word Processing
Graphics
Change your list of activities
Analyze data to identify personnel problems
Assess staff or applicant skill levels
Assign work to staff or employees
Categorize occupational, educational, or employment information
Compile information on findings from investigation of accidents
Conduct training for personnel
Consult with managerial or supervisory personnel
Coordinate employee continuing education programs
Develop job evaluation programs
Develop policies, procedures, methods, or standards
Develop staffing plan
Develop training programs
Establish employee performance standards
Establish recruiting procedures
Evaluate information from employment interviews
Explain rules, policies or regulations
Hire, discharge, transfer, or promote workers
Identify training needs
Implement employee compensation plans
Implement recruiting procedures
Interview job applicants
Maintain file of job openings
Maintain job descriptions
Manage contracts
Participate in staff training programs
Prepare or maintain employee records
Recommend personnel actions, such as promotions, transfers, and dismissals
Recruit employees
Resolve personnel problems or grievances
Resolve worker or management conflicts
Seek out applicants to fill job openings
Use conflict resolution techniques
Use interpersonal communication techniques
Use negotiation techniques
Write employee orientation or training materials
nbsp.
nbsp.
Job types that are a good match for your skills
These job types match your skills (and skills level)
Show All
Pagenbsp.nbsp.nbsp.1nbsp.nbsp.of nbsp.nbsp.16nbsp.nbsp.
Narrow this list by education, job growth and hourly wage.
nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.nbsp.Job Type
Your skills match
Economists
66.7%nbsp.(nbsp.14nbsp.ofnbsp.21nbsp.skills)
Education Administrators, Elementary and Secondary School
66.7%nbsp.(nbsp.16nbsp.ofnbsp.24nbsp.skills)
Industrial-Organizational Psychologists
66.7%nbsp.(nbsp.16nbsp.ofnbsp.24nbsp.skills)
Judges, Magistrate Judges, and Magistrates
66.7%nbsp.(nbsp.14nbsp.ofnbsp.21nbsp.skills)
Marketing Managers
65.2%nbsp.(nbsp.15nbsp.ofnbsp.23nbsp.skills)
Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers
65.0%nbsp.(nbsp.13nbsp.ofnbsp.20nbsp.skills)
Social and Community Service Managers
64.0%nbsp.(nbsp.16nbsp.ofnbsp.25nbsp.skills)
Financial Examiners
63.6%nbsp.(nbsp.14nbsp.ofnbsp.22nbsp.skills)
Psychiatrists
63.6%nbsp.(nbsp.14nbsp.ofnbsp.22nbsp.skills)
Actuaries
62.5%nbsp.(nbsp.15nbsp.ofnbsp.24nbsp.skills)

The Left Brain vs The Right Brain How Does this Impact Learning

Some other studies attribute the learning capacity to the left brain. One of the articles published in the website writes, An important factor in understanding learning styles is understanding brain functioning. Both sides of the brain can reason, but by different strategies…The left brain is considered analytic in approach while the right is described as holistic or global. The website also draws out the certain peculiarities of the left brain when it says, A successive processor (left brain) prefers to learn in a step-by-step sequential format, beginning with details leading to a conceptual understanding of a skill. A simultaneous processor (right brain) prefers to learn beginning with the general concept and then going on to specifics (Mathpower.com. 2014). This provides the fact that left brain is more analytical and therefore there is more probability for the left brain to control the learning activity.
The study of the brain has exposed certain interesting facts and perceptions. Daniel Sinclair, (2012) attempts an analytical study of brain in his book. A Vision of the Possible: Pioneer Church Planting in Teams and writes thus, Research has shown that a lot of learning differences are due to the two different sides of the brain, the left brain being dominant for some individuals and the right brain for others. While the left brain is more logical, sequential, rational, analytical and objective, the right brain tends to be more random, intuitive, holistic, synthesizing, and subjective. Sinclair also adds that The left brain focuses on facts, whereas the right brain looks at as a whole. The words of Withers and Keami (2003) are supportive to the previous argument when they describe the functions of the brain clearly. According to them, The left side focuses on language, reading and writing, mathematics and linear processes. The right side houses

8_Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Qualitative Plan

s are both the librarians and the library users, meaning that the study does not seek to obtain a sample from an unknown general population, which would in turn require that the sample is generalized to represent the entire population (McCabe, 2005).
While the challenges facing funding and sustainability of library service is a common challenge for different libraries in different states, each library has its own unique challenges, which may not be generalized. Therefore, the aim of the study is not to obtain a representative sample of the population, but a sample that is unique to the Clayton County Library System (CCLS), in terms of exposure, usage and experiences. This is because. it is only such a sample that would be in a position to give both comprehensive and reliable information regarding the library. Thus, instead of seeking to have a sample population that can be inferred to represent the general population, the main target of the study is to delve into the intricacies of the experiences of the librarians and the library users, as a means of reaching an informed conclusion regarding the sustainability of Clayton County Library, so that a diversified structure of funding can then be recommended, based on this information. Therefore, since the study is neither seeking a representative sample nor targeting generalization, the application of the purposive sampling strategy under non-probability sampling method is recommended for the study.
The selection of a representative sample for this study is important, to ensure that the information gathered through the interviewing process is not biased. However, this is a secondary requirement as far as this study is concerned, considering that the main objective of the case study is to obtain as detailed information as possible, regarding the experiences of both the librarians and the library users. Obtaining experiences does not pose any major risk of biases, considering that sensitive information regarding the

Epidemiology (article analyses)

Impact of Non-HIV and HIV Risk Factors on Survival in HIV-Infected Patients on HAART: A Population-Based Nationwide Cohort Study Summary This is a nationwide study that was carried out among HIV patients on HAART in Denmark to determine the effect of three risk factors on mortality among the patients. A cohort study design was used. The researchers identified a comparison cohort from the general population with which to compare the treatment group. The three risk factors identified were as follows. HIV-related risk factors, comorbidities, and drug and alcohol abuse. HIV risk factors were defined by viral load, CD4 cell count and/or AIDS related infections while cormobidity was defined based on the Charlson comorbidity index. The aims of the study were to estimate the impact of these risk factors among HIV-infected population as compared to the general population and to determine the relative risk death among successfully treated HIV-infected patients without such risk factors (Obe et al, 2011).
The sampling frame was based on all Danish HIV-infected patients who started HAART in the period 1 January 1998–1 July 2009 while the comparison cohort consisted of individuals matched on date of birth and gender. Only patients who had been on HAART for a period of one year were included in the study.
A major finding of the study was that probability of survival from age 25 to age 65 was substantially lower in HIV patients confidence interval compared to the comparison cohort. There was a significant increase in mortality among HIV-infected patients aged 25-65 as compared to the comparison cohort. However, among patients not exposed to the three risk factors under consideration, mortality was almost equal to that of the general population comparison cohort for the age group 45–65 but doubled for the age group 25–45. The probability of survival at 65 years of age was 0.48 among HIV-infected patients and 0.88 in HIV-free group. However, for HIV patients with no risk factors, the probability of survival at age 65 was 0.86. Generally, it was observed that risk-taking behavior does not automatically result in increased mortality among HIV-patients without other risk factors.
The study improves onto the general thought that proper management of HIV can substantively reduce mortality rates among HIV-infected persons. However, cormobidity as well as other risk factors as well as alcohol/drug abuse can increase mortality in HIV-infected patients on HAART. In conclusion, although HIV-infected patients on HAART still have higher mortality rates, the presence of other risk-factors, which can be identified early, further inflate this risk. Consequently, management of HIV among infected individuals should focus on early diagnosis, timely and effective HAART, and treatment of comorbidity and alcohol/drug abuse.
Reference
Obel N, Omland LH, Kronborg G, Larsen CS, Pedersen C, et al. (2011). Impact of Non-HIV and HIV Risk Factors on Survival in HIV-Infected Patients on HAART: A Population-Based Nationwide Cohort Study. PLoS ONE 6(7)

The effect on psychological and well being among children and their siblings with Autism Spectrum Disorder

This review thus is aimed at examining the existing effects that have been identified by previous studies and to identify gaps and areas that need to researched more.
Among all human relationships, sibling relationship normally last the longest since it involves the entire lifetime of an individual and it is thus important. The sibling relationship is distinctive in that it is accredited rather than achieved and typically, it is one of the relationships that encourage equality among all people where individuals are portrayed as having the same social worth. Nurturance and conflict in the sibling association provide them with experiences that substitute the growth of emotional understanding and a sense of self-belonging, which is vital for the relationship to continue prevailing. Sibling relationships begin at a tender age and as a child develop, the relationship continues to decrease and it is thus maintained through such activities as regular visits, frequent telephone calls and other joint family activities (Petalas, et al. 2012).
When one child is diagnosed with ASD, there is a higher probability that the sibling relation will be affected since these disorders impair verbal communication and can result to a poor reciprocating system. At infancy stage, the siblings of ASD children display less eye contact, fewer gestures, less turning and showing behavior than the typically developing children as according to the journal on siblings of individuals with autism.
The authors of the infant sibling studies argue that the exhibited developmental differences are due to genetic liability but Yirmiya differs and argues that the impairments may be due to environmental factors (Siegel amp. Zalcman 2009). The latter seems to be true since at infancy stage siblings of a child with autism spectrum are more likely to behave differently to their sick counterpart as compared to when there

Genetics &amp

oethical Concerns

Refusing certain mutations we play the role of God to some extent. Another, essential from an ethical point of view, disadvantage lies in the fact that this type of diagnosis may be available only to people with high fortune. That means that poor people are unable to use these methods. Because this is unfair, it is necessary to develop a state program that can provide an opportunity for low-income families to use this type of diagnosis. Finally, the worst thing in preimplantation diagnosis is that during the selection of healthy embryos some of them can be killed. It is a difficult bioethical issue.
Concerning the advantages of this diagnosis: firstly, and most importantly, in that way, we can provide a high quality of life for our children and their parents. People should never forget that even given birth to a child with a specific genetic disease, like Down syndrome, parents devote the child to suffer throughout all life. Second, we saturate our human population of healthy genes, which reduces the likelihood of recurrence of the disease. Second, we saturate our human population by healthy genes, which reduces probability recurrence of the disease.
Overall, the use of genetics is becoming broader significance in our lives. This applies to medicine, agriculture and many other things around us. Heredity of certain physical properties, such as body type, the composition of muscle fiber and type of sensorimotor reactions may affect the achievement in sport (Miah). The task of modern society is to prevent the parents to choose their children`s quality. This process should be natural and playing God it not possible from an ethical point of view. Thus, take into consideration that progress cannot be stopped, we should pay more attention to bioethical issues.

Two Tail Hypothesis

Two Tail Hypothesis
TEST 1
Null hypothesis there is no significance difference between gender mean and intrinsic means (Ho): µ2-µ1=0
Alternative hypothesis there is significance difference between gender mean and intrinsic mean (H1): µ2-µ1≠0
Hypothesis Test: Independent Groups (t-test, pooled variance)
Gender
Intrinsic
1.50
5.079
mean
0.50
0.755
std. dev.
66
66
n
130
df
-3.5788
difference (Gender – Intrinsic)
0.4121
pooled variance
0.6419
pooled std. dev.
0.1117
standard error of difference
0.05
hypothesized difference
-32.47
t
3.13E-64
p-value (two-tailed)
Since α=0.05 and confidence level is 95%. t- statistic=-32.47, critical value is ±1.96we reject null hypothesis because p-value 3.13-E64 which is less than 0.05 and adopt alternative hypothesis.
The analysis can be used by the manager to study if there significance difference between gender and intrinsic job satisfaction in the company. This would enable the manager to make a plan on which gender to recruit and to plan for any training.
TEST 2
Null hypothesis: There is no magnitude differences between Position mean and intrinsic mean (Ho). µ2-µ1=0
Alternative hypothesis: There is magnitude differences between position mean and extrinsic mean (H1). µ2-µ1≠0
Hypothesis Test: Independent Groups (t-test, pooled variance)
Position
Extrinsic
1.29
5.386
mean
0.46
0.416
std. dev.
66
66
n
130
df
-4.0985
difference (Position – Extrinsic)
0.1905
pooled variance
0.4365
pooled std. dev.
0.0760
standard error of difference
0.05
hypothesized difference
-54.60
t
1.67E-91
p-value (two-tailed)
The analysis can be used by the manager to study if there is significance difference between position and extrinsic job satisfaction in the company. This would enable the manager to make a plan on which strategy to use either Hourly Employee or Salaried Employee in respect of job satisfaction.
Since α=0.05 and confidence level is 95%. t- statistic=-54.60, critical value is ±1.96 we reject null hypothesis because p-value 1.67 E-91 is less than 0.05 and adopt alternative hypothesis.
T-test is used when the sample are small. it can be used to test the difference in population mean, that is when the population is n≤30 and the standard deviation of the population is estimated from the standard deviation of the sample(Anderson, D. at el 2009).nbsp. Whereas z-test is used when the population mean is known together with standard deviation (Anderson, D. at el 2009).nbsp.
Actually, it is because researchers do not have enough time to study the whole population. To study the entire population would be tedious and time consuming. therefore, representative sample from the population is appropriate in the data collection. In statistical inferences conclusions are drawn about attribute of population, e.g. the standard deviation or mean based on sample data analysis. Supposing there was a need to calculate the average weight of the population of youths in America, it would be unreasonable except at massive cost to weigh up each individual and calculate the mean weight. Another scenario is that testing process may be very destructive such that sampling becomes the only sufficient way. Thus, sampling is quicker, cheap and the only appropriate method of getting information about the population. In sampling the population has equal chances of probability to be chosen.
Reference
Anderson, D. R., Sweeney, D. J., Williams, T. A., amp. Anderson, D. R. (2009).nbsp.Modern business statistics with Microsoft Office Excel. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Operations Management course Memo

no. Business memorandum Bruce Chan, Managing Director Cc: Jung Lee, Production Manager Sarah Brooke, Head of Sales Department
Ref: ‘CX Technology’ by Ketan Bhole, Jordan Lee, Eileen Lu, Idrajit Sen.
Re: Evaluating the possibility of expanding into the automotive industry.
Introduction
Over the last 20 years, CX Technology has been one of the largest suppliers of cold forged steel speaker constituents to many renowned companies. Most of these companies have been loyal to the company during this period, allowing the company to fetch over 51 million US dollars by the close of 2007. However, as Bhole et.al state, the rate at which new clients are coming in is not encouraging, and this being a volatile industry, the company needs to secure its future (2). One of the surest ways of achieving stability is diversifying into the automotive industry.
Analysis of the situation
Although CX Technologies has been able to maintain its position in the market, growth has plateaued and with the incoming recession, business is set to go down further. Bhole e.al states that the company’s expansion into the Asian market recently and considering the positive outcomes of this expansion, the probability of succeeding into the automotive industry is high (7-8). According to observers, the automotive industry faces a bleak future, considering that many people are more apprehensive about rising gas prices, a factor that has led to lower vehicle purchases. The situation has been aggravated by the fact that the largest three manufactures have approached the government in search of caution against the recession.
According to Bhole et.al, possibilities for success are raised by the sheer size of the industry in the United States is a major motivating factor in this expansion (7). This allows for CX Technology to penetrate the market and offer competitively lower prices, since the company’s personnel are enough to provide the needed labor. With branches in Asia already, the company is in a good position to tap into the Chinese market and take advantage of the growing economy and demand for automobiles.
Alternatives
The company can alternatively continue operating in the current industry exclusively and continue to face stagnation.
The other option is to venture into making forged steel for bicycles, a field in which the company has had experience.
Making beer kegs is the only other available option for the company, although it is cumbersome to meet certain specifications.
Recommendations
Conduct more research, especially on the financial viability of such an enterprise in these economic times.
Enlist the services of MBA students from the MIT Sloan School of Management and get expert advice concerning the proposed venture.
Expand the branch in Taiwan, since it offers more lucrative opportunities for doing business in Asia.
Start operations both the U.S and Asian markets simultaneously.
Risk and sensitivity analysis
This is a risky project because it puts the entire future of the company at stake. If the decision is made to follow up with the plan, then the company risks running bankrupt, especially considering the current recession.
Future developments
If the proposal into expand to the automotive industry is passed, then feasibility studies need to be undertaken as soon as possible. The company’s entire workforce is to be notified about the new enterprise, so as to be prepared to provide the necessary labor.
Conclusion
In conclusion, every business needs to take a risk once in a while and test new opportunities. otherwise it risks stagnation and monotony. Venturing into the automotive industry seems like a worthwhile risk for CX Technology, in an effort to grow the company’s consumer base.
Work cited
Bhole, Ketan, et.al. CX Technology. 28 May. 2009: 1-13.Print.

Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Sampling

Predetermined sample size may guide sample size selection in quantitative research. On the contrary, during data collection in the qualitative study, the research waits until a point of saturation. Randomization is commonly used in quantitative research to reduce bias, whereas, in qualitative research, there are no such attempts during sampling. In qualitative sampling, a purposefully information-rich sample is selected from the overall population who provide information for the research. Such sampling techniques is considered a bias in quantitative research. Sampling techniques for quantitative research mainly draw upon probability principles. However, quantitative studies use non-probability sampling methods and designs.
Although differences exist between quantitative and qualitative research methods, both are similar in the sense that they both employ the concept of sampling. In both methods, research is carried out on a sample selected from the overall population. In most cases, the sample is a representation of the entire population. Both methods are used to conduct research and give valid and reliable results that can be used to solve problems in society. Both methods emphasize the value of accuracy and precision during sampling to ensure that the data is valid and reliable. Some scholars suggest the possibility of combining both qualitative and quantitative research techniques (Sandelowski, 2000).

Read instructions carefully

occurrence of selling and purchasing, dealings entirely ignored any consultation to the humanitarian aspect of trade considering each slave’s basic inalienable rights as humans, at least. A recount by a certain Taylor Jackson for instance, told of his own 1938 ordeal in the Nigger Traders Yard for three months, witnessing black slaves getting auctioned off in a normal process of being picked as the bidding chose. On a micro-level of evaluating, however, as modeled in the novel through Paul D who receives equivalent meanness when the schoolteacher determines to have him sold at a fixed value, there consequently arises a piercing realization of manhood, independence, and dignity taken off the fundamental self which comes between statistical scales that listed slaves of commerce on record like non-living objects.
To some, due perhaps to diverse probability of looking at common experience, it came rather less harsh despite the presence of whipping overseers up and about the place. An interview with an Arkansas captive named Nellie James revealed what was otherwise seldom type of master, with James stating that hers was reasonably kind to all his subjects and that her husband shared a proportional sentiment at the time their freedom from being held as a property was declared in youth.
Sethe, on the other hand, meets up the instant when she draws in further consciousness on how the Sweet Home manages to program their situations such that the menial laborers would be far from taking offense of them. Such discovery that grants proof to the schoolteacher’s inhumane treatment makes her taste repugnance especially on coming to fully discern that she is not in control of her life and children in the plantation. A few other narratives showed having undertaken parallel idea of reaching this much sensibility where most had gone mad at thinking of a way to escape. There were also those who claimed knowing slave women, ranging from mere acquaintance to close relatives, who

Nucor Uses an Integrated Approach to Employee Motivation

EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION CASE STUDY: NUCOR Identification of relevant problems The case study does not call for a determination of a of action, because there is no problem situation to resolve. The question posed at the end is, given the success resulting from the HRD policies of Nucor, what are the reasons for this success, and could the elements that contributed to this success be replicated in other organizations in order to yield the same positive results?
Identification of options or alternatives
If any set of alternatives need be identified, it could only be: Whether or not the Nucor model is applicable to other companies?
Analysis of the Nucor Model
1. How does Nucor’s approach to motivation build on recommendations from Maslow’s, Alderfer’s, and McClelland’s need theories? Explain.
Maslow’s Theory states that humans are motivated to fulfill their needs in hierarchical order: firstly the physiological, followed by the safety, social, internal esteem, external esteem and finally self-actualization needs. Nucor’s HRD program is consistent with Maslow in providing a fixed, though comparatively lower level, of regular pay, just enough for the worker to meet his basic sustenance. But at Nucor higher pay must be justified by higher productivity, which in effect pertains to the workers’ esteem needs through pride in their workmanship. By linking good workmanship with performance bonuses, Nucor is able motivate its workers to be rewarded not only financially but with a feeling of pride in their work.
Alderfer’s ERG Theory builds on Maslow’s Theory but groups the needs into a simpler hierarchy of Existence, Relatedness and Growth needs. But Alderfer differs from Maslow in that the ERG hierarchy need not be satisfied one level before the other, that is, a lower motivator does not need to be satisfied before higher motivators take over. In Nucor, this was evident in the situation in Hickman, where company electricians, without any order from supervisors, took the initiative to respond to an emergency including defraying traveling expenses from their own pockets and working 20-hour shifts to repair the damage. The case study states that this was done without any extra remuneration nor any kind of financial incentive. This is indicative of the ERG theory, since the workers fulfilled their relatedness and growth needs (i.e., pride in their company and commitment to their job) even above and beyond additional pay that would have meant to fulfilling existence needs.
On the other hand, McClelland’s acquired-needs theory (also three advances the proposition that an individuals’ specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by life experiences. The needs are classified as either achievement (nAch), affiliation (nAff) or power (nPow), and that a person’s motivation and effectiveness on the job are influences by these three needs. All three of these needs are present in Nucor’s system, where workers are allowed to work under their own discretion (nPow) such as the case of Hickman, to coordinate unmonitored with other members of the organization (nAff), and that recognition in the form of bonuses and rewards when the company does well (nAch).
2. To what extent are the hygiene factors and motivators influencing employee behavior at Nucor?
At Nucor, hygiene factors such as the regular pay are not as important to the employees as the motivators. As already mentioned, the electricians in the Hickman episode gave up their rest period, transportation fare, and the comfort of their own units in order to respond to the situation. Their sense of accomplishment and pride in their firm, both motivating factors, far outweighed the implied hygiene factor – additional pay commensurate to additional work done. At Nucor, motivating factors are given greater importance by workers than the hygiene or maintenance factors.
3. What role does equity theory play in this Case? Discuss.
Adam’s equity theory does not envision a needs hierarchy, but is simply based on the perception of a fair balance between an employee’s inputs (e.g. hard work, skill) and his outputs (salary, benefits, recognition). At Nucor this was achieved by rewarding good work with bonuses and rewards, and penalizing poor work with deductions and sanctions. A sense of fairness prevails only because Nucor was able to foster a sense of fairness, and that the company will take care of the employee who takes care of Nucor.
4. To what extent is Nucor’s approach to employee motivation consistent with expectancy theory? Explain.
Under the expectancy theory states that when deciding among behavioural options, individuals will choose the alternative with the greatest motivation forces, where a motivational force is the product of three perceptions: expectancy, instrumentality and valence. Nucor is consistent in its dealings with its workers to the point that they could confidently expect the commensurate rewards or recognition for the effort they have exerted (expectancy). The belief is engendered that if one does meet company expectations, he will be rewarded with greater pay or a promotion (instrumentality probability). Finally, because of the sense of pride in their firm, Nucor employees place great personal value in exerting the extra effort and taking pleasure in the achievement (valence).
5. What role does organizational culture play in this case?
The uniqueness in Nucor’s organizational culture is evident in the relationship between managers and rank-and-file. Managers have developed a camaraderie with their subordinates in that their remuneration is, like their subordinates, made to depend upon the group effort. As the case study quoted one employee, At Nucor, we’re not ‘you guys’ and ‘us guys.’ It’s all of us guys. Wherever the bottleneck is, we go there, and everyone works on it. The empowerment given employees and the work being shared by management bespeaks of a partnership that builds esprit-de-corps. Furthermore, units learn best practices from one another in a friendly yet constructive competition. The organizational culture is one of cooperation and collaboration.
6. Would it be easy for other companies to copy Nucor’s approach to employee motivation? Why or why not?
As to how well other companies could benefit from emulation of the Nucor model will depend very much upon the other company. It is not easy for a structured, centrally controlled company to turn its corporate culture around into one of dispersed control, collaboration and participation. Nucor’s experience is not just a list of policies or procedures that may quickly be transplanted. Its core is human and intangible, a relationship and common respect among individuals and a willingness to share stewardship of the firm that each employee perceives as his own and identifies with. As long as managers are willing to regard the rank-and-file as partners, and the rank-and-file to assimilate and identify with company objectives, then there is a great chance that copying Nucor would be easy.
Decision recommendations
For all its advantages, the Nucor model should be sought to be adopted by companies as far as the nature of their business will allow. Only when the nature of the business or the core values (such as those dealing with the social environment) of the company would not allow should attempts to adapt Nucor be abandoned.
Implementation tactics
An excellent tactic was given by the case study, where the Auburn workers were convinced of the advantages of the Nucor’s pay system. This refers to the payment continuing under the old formula while posting the possible returns to the employees under the new formula. Without coercion, the employees were eventually converted to the new plan. It is important, however, that coercion be avoided, and that persuasion and sound argument be used to win over minds and hearts.
Assessment criteria for success or failure
Success becomes apparent when productivity goes up and human resources problems (on discipline, infractions, and frequent turnovers) go down. Increase in the company’s profitability coupled with high morale would be excellent markers by which to assess success.
On the other hand, failure will be apparent where the new system would fail to yield higher productivity, and it may be perceived that the rank and file would revert back to old expectations or clamor for a return to the old regime.
REFERENCES
Adam’s Equity Theory: Balancing Employee Inputs and Outputs, Mind Tools Ltd., as seen in
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_96.htm. Accessed March 11, 2009.
ERG Theory of Motivation – Clayton Alderfer. Envision Software, as seen in http://www.envisionsoftware.com/articles/ERG_Theory.html.
Last Update: September 28, 2007 08:54. Accessed March 11, 2009.
Expectancy Theory, QuickMBA.com, Internet Center for Management and Business Administration, Inc. as seen in http://www.quickmba.com/mgmt/expectancy-theory/
Accessed March 11, 2009
Herzbergs Motivators and Hygiene Factors as seen in http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMM_74.htm
Accessed March 11, 2009
Historical Background of Organizational Behavior (prepared by Professor Edward G. Wertheim, College of Business Administration, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115)
As seen in http://web.cba.neu.edu/~ewertheim/introd/history.htm Accessed March 11, 2009
McClelland’s Theory of Needs, Net MBA.com, Internet Center for Management and Business Administration, Inc. as seen in http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/mcclelland/
Accessed March 11, 2009
Organizational Culture, Strategic Leadership and Decision Making
http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt4ch16.html
Accessed March 11, 2009
Stolz, R.F. (2005) Human Resources Executive Online: Tops of the Trade as seen in
http://www.hreonline.com/HRE/story.jsp?storyId=5326448. Accessed March 11, 2009.
Tayeb, M. (2005), International Human Resource Management: A Multinational Company Perspective, Oxford University Press, as seen in
http://books.google.com.ph/books?id=BoM4c8cM4IICamp.pg=PA206amp.lpg=PA206amp.dq=hrm+in+stone+cutting+companyamp.source=blamp.ots=CWqS6M3SUCamp.sig=wLDg46AshFCfK1hQtcg7f1RuLMUamp.hl=enamp.ei=3GGrSfv6K4_akAWQ4qTgDQamp.sa=Xamp.oi=book_resultamp.resnum=6amp.ct=result#PPA205,M1. Accessed March 11,

Homework Week 7 Chapter 7

Homework: Week 7, Chapter 7 The scope of statistics involves collection and analysis of data for decision-making, with its application in monitoring and evaluation particularly identifying its essence in research and industrial application. This paper seeks to respond to a case and to offer a reflection on descriptive statistics.
Case
A reporter randomly sampled 725 votes from a population of 12,457. Out of the sample, 338 votes were in favor of an issue on the ballot.
Confidence Interval
The 95 % confidence interval for the proportion that favored the issue is the set of values within the interval, 0.4299-0.5025.
This interval defines the estimated range of the population proportion with a probability of 0.95.
The reporter can say that the issue on the ballot is popular among a range of between 42.99 % and 50.25 % of the population. He must be precise to state the confidence interval within which the claim is made. However, he cannot be specific as regards a particular value within the range, because a significant level of variance is expected in the population (Triola, 2011).
Questions
If I were an editor of a newspaper reporting the results, I would seek to determine the validity of the result before printing the story. I would ask the reporter the following questions. What was your sampling criterion? What was your opinion on the issue prior to the research? What was your source of data?
Reflection: Descriptive statistics
Descriptive statistics demonstrates characteristics of sets of data. The statistics are divided into measures of central tendencies and measures of dispersion. While the measures of central tendencies include mean, mode, and median, measures of dispersion are majorly expressed through either variance or standard deviation (Triola, 2011).
Mean: Mean defines the average of a set of data and is obtained by dividing the sum of the considered values by the number of items.
Median: Median of a set of data is the middle placed quantity when the data set is arranged in either ascending or descending order.
Mode: The mode, on the other hand, is the value or a class of values that has the highest frequency in a set of data.
Standard deviation: Standard deviation defines the average deviation of each value in a set of data from the mean and is the square root of variance.
Manual computation of these quantities, whether as statistics or as parameters, has a lot of challenges such as computational errors, especially if large sets of data are involved. Application of statistical software has, however, made the computations easy through designed programs. Descriptive statistics are applicable in many real life fields. An academic institution may, for example, use the statistics to understand the performance of students in a class for evaluation. Similarly, descriptive statistics such as the mean can be used to compare two sets of data. The same applications can be adopted in industrial setups for evaluating processes and comparing either time series periodic performance of an item or the performance between two subjects over a period (Triola, 2011).
Reference
Triola, M. (2011). Elementary statistics using the TI-83/84 plus calculator. New York, NY: Addison-Wesley, Pearson Education

W5Data Security Policy

Modern technology poses modern confronts to the protection of entity privacy which existing (Laudon amp. Laudon, 1999). Privacy is the declaration of individuals to be theft alone, free from observation or intrusion from other individuals of organizations as well as the state. Declarations to privacy are also caught up at the place of work. Information technology and system pressure individual declarations to privacy by making the incursion of privacy inexpensive, cost-effective, and efficient (Laudon amp. Laudon, 1999).
Organizational information security strategies, measures, and standards are entirely significant reflections. Organization has to properly file and put into practice a successful information safety plan. Every category of such information safety serves a diverse function. The W5-Data Security Policy incorporates following main points regarding the organizational data (W5-data security Policy, 2009)
Security risk: The data and information security risk can be illustrated as the intensity of affect on organization activities (comprising operational jobs, illustrations, or status), organization possessions, or individuals ensuing from the procedure of an business information arrangement offers the possible influence of a hazard and the probability of that intimidation occurring (Rebecca, 2007).
The above section has presented the possible hazard situation is business. Such situation can lead to lot of possible information exploitation cases. Like that any worker can take information regarding any customer and blackmail him for some reason. That will make some bad image of the company information management. Lot of customers will hesitate to provide their information or even do no come to that company. This will case a serious business problem.
Data security procedures illustrate how to put into practice the data security strategy. Actions articulate the gradually comprehensive events essential to effectively fulfill a job that chains the

Communication to mitigate disasters

gger than 1.5 x 2 kilometres because we are unable to adequately control the focus of the map from http://webmap.city.burnaby.bc.ca/publicmap/viewer.htm. On the other hand, the vertical distance from 4788 Brentwood Drive is smaller than 1.5 kilometres whether northward or southward. The relatively short vertical distance attempts to offset the relatively bigger horizontal coverage of the map. On checking, however, the area covered by Figure 1 is about 6.9 square kilometres versus the 7.07 square kilometres implied by a 1.5-kilometres radius from 4788 Brentwood Drive. Based on the formula pi x radius-squared for area, a 1.5 kilometres radius implies 7.07 square kilometres.
The website http://webmap.city.burnaby.bc.ca/publicmap/viewer.htm, which is controlled and managed by the Burnaby City government, is developing a menu for estimating the population of a sector of Burnaby. However, the author conducted several hours and days of attempts to estimate the population of the area covered by Figure 1 using the menu and failed. Possibly, the website is not yet ready to execute the population estimation function at the time of author’s attempt to access the website although the website was updated last 17 September 2010. However, if we use the latest edition of the Burnaby Quick Facts that was produced in 2008, the material documented that one square kilometre of Burnaby has a population density of 2,275.6 individuals as of 2006. Thus, it appears reasonable to estimate that the area covered by Figure 1 has a population of roughly 15,702 persons as of 2006. Of course, we can project the population up to 2010 based on the population growth figures but there is no need for us to do that.
In a 2004 report, the United Nations Development Programme defined risk as the probability of harmful consequences or expected loss of lives, people injured, property, livelihoods, economic activity disrupted (or environment damaged) resulting from interactions between natural or

Decision Making and Rationality in the Modern World

Cognitive psychologists define ‘decision making’ as a mental task that occurs in weighing relevant information or selecting among options. However, decision making is highly vulnerable to failure due to individuals’ cognitive design (Hardman 2009, 117). Primarily, individuals often evaluate the probability of a situation by the simplicity or convenience with which models can be created in mind. The manner an issue is constructed usually radically influences individuals’ judgments. Individuals perceive, understand, and commit to memory information that confirms their original beliefs (Shapira 2002, 4). Individuals are also hesitant to discard a choice once they have put too much time, effort, and resources in it. Individuals are also very much inclined to have improperly high regard for their skills and knowledge.
nbsp.Cognitive psychologists from different schools of thought have the same opinion that individuals have an inadequate capacity for performing mental activities. Individuals can only hold a limited amount of information and they can process it in sequence, and retain in short-term memory (Plous 1993, 13). This essay tries to illustrate some of the factors that hinder good decision making, namely, (1) cognitive dissonance, (2) memory bias and hindsight bias, (3) context dependence.

Patient Internet Guide

PATIENT INTERNET GUIDE There are many internet sites nowadays which can be a good source of information especially to patients and their caregivers. Nevertheless, not all medical websites or blogs contain accurate or valid information since most sites is created to sell some products or services. If you want to learn more about a medical condition through online search, here is some useful advice:

1. Preferably, the site must be sponsored by a medical institution, organization or association. There is a high probability that medical professionals are behind the content of such sites. An example of which is Mayoclinic.com.

2. Avoid sites that look shabbily presented. Good sites invest money, effort and time to establish impact and credibility to the readers. As much as possible, the site must be a registered domain and not just a simple blog that can disappear anytime. Check the site’s domain name and standing in Better Business Bureau.

3. The site must have a disclaimer stating that the information presented is not in any way a substitute for medical advice.

4. Never give your personal information unless the site can be trusted. More importantly, the site must ensure that your personal information would not be shared.

5. Search for forums where people give feedback about certain sites. User experience is a reliable way to get good comments or criticism about a certain site. Avoid forums that have members arguing all of the time. Remember, you need information not arguments.

6. The site must present valid source of references for their journals or articles. Sites with peer-reviewed journals are highly preferable.

7. Never entertain sites that focus on selling a single brand or a group of products. Most likely, the content is pure advertising enticing people to patronize a certain product.

8. Begin your search on the top 10 list by search engines such as Google. These sites made it to the top since millions of people have visited such sites which make them more reliable.

Getting information from the Internet is a good idea as long as you know how to filter bad sites from valuable sites. Remember, a consultation with a real doctor is your first line of defense for treatment.

Scenario and Recommendations:

A family member is suspected of having Obsessive Compulsive Disorder which is why a loved one wants to gather more information about the condition. Certain symptoms have been observed that prompts the loved one to research about the condition. An online self-help guide for patients has become popular in some parts of the world as cited by one study on bulimia that participants also reported a high level of satisfaction with the idea of self-help via the Internet, its ease of use, usefulness and the text-messaging module ( Nevonen, et.al, 2006 ). One very good website that the patient or family member can go to is National Institute of Mental Health or http://www.nimh. nih.gov. The website is specifically created for the general public by the U.S. government to enlighten its citizens on various mental health care issues. You would immediately observe that the website has a good lay-out and presents the information on a logical manner. Also, the site is not promoting or selling any product since it is designed to be purely informative. The description for OCD is plain and can be understood by an ordinary person. There are hundreds of researches that can be accessed in order to learn more about certain medical conditions. There is also a disclaimer on the bottom which states that the website does not endorse any organization or product.

The other website which must be avoided by the patient is http://health.hpathy.com/ obsessive-compulsive-disorder-symptoms-cure.asp. The site has an elaborate discussion of OCD but also endorses some products since it has a SHOP page. Also homeopathy is part of alternative medicine which should not be a patient’s primary concern when learning about a disease or condition. There have been many studies about homeopathy that did not yield positive results so patients must steer away from such sites. Instead, they must explore first western medicine since the methods and system is scientifically validated.

References

Nevonen, L., Mark, M., Levin, B., Lindstrom, M., amp. Paulson-Karlsson, G. (2006). Evaluation of a new Internet-based self-help guide for patients with bulimic symptoms in Sweden.Nordic Journal of Psychiatry,60, 463-468. Retrieved December 1, 2010, from http://www.netunion.com/publications/ Nevonen_salutNordic.pdf

NIMH · Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, OCD. (2010, February 18). NIMH · Home. Retrieved December 1, 2010 from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-ocd/index.shtml

Corporate Governance in an International Context

Corporate Governance in an International Context Introduction It is a widely known fact that the board of directors of a firm determines not only its success but in corporate governance, the board of directors is at the apex of the internal control system and their structure and size largely determines the performance of the given firm (Jensen, 1993, pg. 862). The board typically has a legal authority to hire and fire employees and is involved in decision-making, monitoring and safeguarding the capital (Fama amp. Jensen, 1983, pp. 301-325). The purpose of this paper will try to link the structure and composition of a board with the overall performance of firms by conducting an empirical research using a sample of 30 UK listed companies from Morningstar Company Intelligence. The method of data collection employed in this detailed analysis is random sample of thirty out of 1779 UK listed companies that were selected from the Morningstar Company Intelligence. As mentioned earlier, besides broad focus on the board of directors, the study included specific analysis of important aspects of companies, such as turnover, ROCE, EPS, number of employees, board size, percentage of non-UK activities turn over, number of non-executive directors, CEO/chair duality, number of female directors and international directors. Analysis of this information was very imperative in fulfilling objectives of the research. Subsequently, we utilized the tool of SPSS to acquire descriptive statistics of the raw data along with doing descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis that will be very effective in presenting the data in understandable manner.
Empirical research is supposed to state a certain problem or a research question and then come up with theories and assumption. It is important to first design the research and after the methodology is determined, random sampling is employed so that the data can be gathered and analyzed.
A sample is a smaller (but hopefully representative) collection of units from a population used to determine truths about that population (Field, Miles amp. Field, 2012). Sampling is important because it saves the time, energy and resources and gives results that can be calculated mathematically and are accurate.
Probability sampling is a technique in which all elements e.g. people, families etc. have an opportunity to be included in the sample and the probability that any of them can be included mathematically. Simple random is a type of this technique and it selects the target population from the sampling frame in a completely random fashion. It is the least biased of all the other methods because there is no subjectivity and each member of the total population has an equal chance of being selected (RGS, 2013). If all the members of the population have an equal chance of being selected, this method of data collection is the most ideal because it is highly representative. It can only work, however, when the population is small, available, and homogenous because each member or subset has to have an equal probability of being selected for the sample. Each element is assigned a number and a table of random numbers or a lottery system selects the sample. Estimates are very easy to calculate in this type of a technique. For example, in a population of 500 people, each person has 1/500th of a chance of selection.
However, simple random sampling is not practical if the population is large as the lists of all the members would be hard to locate making the method inaccurate. Minority sub-groups might also be insufficient in the sampling frame to give them an equal chance of being selected and accounted for. The sampling frame derived for such a research technique usually comes from Registrar Office lists or a phonebook but for large populations, this might prove too cumbersome. A single researcher cannot possibly know the exact size of the parent population and cannot promise that each element would have the exact probability of selection.
The table 1 below summarizes the descriptive statistics of the variables used in the analysis, which shows the mean, median, minimum and maximum value, standard deviation, Skewness, and kurtosis.
Table 1: Descriptive Statistics for appropriate Variables
Minimum
Maximum
Mean
Std. Deviation
Skewness
Kurtosis
Statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Statistic
Turnover (2012)
.22
28574.00
1244.52
5185.81
5.39
29.38
Number of Employees
.00
37187.00
3485.60
8183.81
3.10
10.24
Return on Capital Employed (2012)
-279.36
335.63
18.79
100.63
.41
5.25
Earnings per share (2012)
-6.50
221.00
25.43
53.91
2.8
7.92
Percentage Non UK Turnover
.06
51578.00
1866.82
9394.23
5.4
29.92
Number of Board Members
3.00
12.00
6.50
1.79
1.2
3.03
Percentage Non-Executive Director
1.00
9.00
3.43
1.86
1.3
2.11
CEO/ Chair Duality
.00
.00
.00
.00
.
.
Percentage of Female Executive Director
.00
3.00
.76
.77
.92
.92
Percentage of International Director
.00
4.00
.26
.78
4.06
18.51
Valid N (list wise) 30
Table 2: Correlation Analysis
nbsp.
Return on Capital Employed (2012)
Earnings per share (2012)
Percentage Non UK Turnover
Number of Board Members
Percentage of Female Directors
Percentage of Non-Executive Directors
Percentage of International Directors
Return on Capital Employed (2012)
1
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
Earnings per share (2012)
.255
1
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
Percentage Non UK Turnover
.387*
.150
1
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
Number of Board Members
.378*
.329
.483**
1
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
Percentage of Female Directors
.315
.154
.165
.455*
1
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
Percentage of Non-Executive Directors
.024
-.036
.273
.494**
.377*
1
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
Percentage of International Directors
-.390*
-.132
-.053
.071
-.137
.446*
1
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
nbsp.
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
Table 3: Regression Analysis for Firm Performance
Standardized Beta Coefficient
Independent Variable
Dependent Variable
Return on Capital Employed
Dependent Variable
Earnings Per Share
Dependent Variable Percentage International Turnover
Turnover (2012)
.299
.119
1.097**
Number of Employees
-.012
-.046
-.110**
Logsize
.176
.263
-.019*
Percentage of Non-Executive Directors
-.040
-.184
-.001
Percentage of Female Directors
.147
.091
.003
Percentage of International Directors
-.354
-.060
.017*
Adjusted R²
.185
-.130
.999
*= .05-level. **= .001-level.
References
Fama, Eugene, and Jensen, M. (1983) Separation of Ownership and Control.
Field, A., Miles, Jeremy, and Field, Zoe. (2012) Discovering Statistics using R. Sage Publications Ltd.
Jensen, Michael C. (1993) The Modern Industrial Revolution, Exit, and the Failure of Internal Control Systems. Blackwell Publishing for the American Finance Association.
Journal of Law Economics, 48(3), pp.831-880.
RGS. (2013) Sampling Techniques. [Online]. [Accessed on 23 June, 2013]. Available at: http://www.rgs.org/OurWork/Schools/Fieldwork+and+local+learning/Fieldwork+techniques/Sampling+techniques.htm

9 6 Let U be an n × 1 vector with 1 as its

9.6 Let U be an n x 1 vector with 1 as its first element and 0s elsewhere.
Consider computing the regression of U on an n x p’ full rank matrix X.
As usual, let H = X(X’X)‘1X’ be the hat matrix with elements 11,].
9.6.1 Show that the elements of the vector of fitted values from the
regression of U on X are the h, j = l, 2, . . ., 11.
9.6.2 Show that the first element of the vector of residuals is l — h, and
the other elements are 411,-, j gt; 1.
Statistics and Probability

Find the zscore(s) for which 90%

of the distribution’s area lies between -z and

Question

Find the z-score(s) for which 90% of the distribution’s area lies between -z and

z. (Round answer to the nearest thousandths and use a comma to separate answers as necessary.) (Do not place a space in between your answers!)

Statistics and Probability

Please answer the following questions based on the reading

(Demmer RT, Zuk AM, Rosenbaum M, Desvarieux M.
1 Diabetes Prevalence
Name
Institution Affiliation 2 1. What is the research question (aim of the research)?
The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalent rate of undiagnosed and diagnosed…
Statistics and Probability

Question Final Shot

John Diggle needs to give up his trusted Glock for a more

Question

Stun Gun (cm):

4.9

14.1

7

7.2

5.4

8.6

are the conditions for the problem met?

All the conditions of the Problem are wet.
For Glock ( 2 ) : –
His togvamy
class
Frequency
5 – 10
14
10 – 115
15 – 20
T
6
5 10 15 20
It is positively skewed
For Stun Gunlu) quot; –
Histogram…
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A marketresearch firm was hired to determne the percentage of people in a market area who would purchase a

Question

A market-research firm was hired to determne the percentage of people in a market area who would purchase a

client’s magazine if a door-todoor sales campaign were undertaken. The firm stated that 40% would buy if contacted at home. If the marketing company tried the sales campaign at 300 randomly selected homes and assuming the market research was done properly and the 40% is reprensatitive how many sales are expected if the publisher attempts to sell to 5,000 homes?

If the market research was accurate what is the probablity that fewer than 100 individuals will buy? use the approximation to the binomial.

Suppose that the publisher actually sells the magazine to 70 people out of the 300 contacted.What would you conclude about the market research? About the campaign?

Statistics and Probability

How are these done using Excel?

1.

Consider a finite population with 5 elements

Question

How are these done using Excel?

1. Consider a finite population with 5 elements

labeled A, B, C, D and E. 10 possible simple random samples of size 2 can be selected.

a. List the 10 samples beginning with AB, AC, and so on.

b. Using simple random sampling, what is the probability that each sample of size 2 is selected?

2. In order to estimate the average electric usage per month, a sample of 196 houses was selected and the electric usage determined.

a. Assume a population standard deviation of 350 kilowatt hours. Determine the standard error of the mean for the following.

b. With a 0.95 probability, determine the margin of error.

c. If the sample mean is 2,000 KWH, what is the 95% confidence interval estimate of the population mean?

3. A researcher is testing a new painkiller that claims to relieve pain in less than 15 minutes, on average. What’s would be the hypotheses associated with the researcher’s test.

4. At a certain manufacturing plant, a machine produced ball bearings that should have a diameter of 0.50 mm. If the machine produces ball bearings that are either too small or too large, the ball bearings must be scrapped. Every hour, a quality control manager takes a random sample of 30 ball bearings to test to see if the process is out of control (i.e. to test to see if the average diameter differs from 0.50 mm).

a. State the hypotheses associated with the manager’s test.

b. Describe a Type I error for this situation.

c. Describe a Type II error for this situation.

Please assist with problem below Give an example of a problem dealing with two possibly

Question

Please assist with problem below.

Give an example of a problem dealing with two possibly

related variables (Y and X) for which a linear regression model would not be appropriate. For example, the relationship could be curved instead of linear, or there may be no significant correlation at all.

What is the impact of using a linear regression model in this case? What options, other than linear regression, can you see? You do not need to collect any data.

Statistics and Probability

Assist for a better understanding of below It is estimated 30% of all adults in United States

Question

Assist for a better understanding of below:

It is estimated 30% of all adults in United States

invest in stocks and that 84% of U.S. adults have investments in fixed income instruments (savings accounts, bonds, etc.). It is also estimated that 26% of U.S. adults have investments in both stocks and fixed income instruments.

Statistics and Probability

A financial analyst for a bank wants to analyze the relationship between customer’s credit scores and

Question

A financial analyst for a bank wants to analyze the relationship between customer’s credit scores and

home-ownership. She suspects that renters have on average lower credit scores than home owners, and that credit scores improve over the time that customers live in their current residence. A linear regression model with these two variables confirms her suspicions. However, she now wonders whether the time lived at current residence equally affects home owners and renters. To answer this question, which variable (or variables) should the analyst include in her regression model?

a.dummy variables for the renters who have lived in their current residence the longest
Statistics and Probability

Preston an official for a state’s department of safety wants to show that the population mean speed of passenger

Question

Preston, an official for a state’s department of safety, wants to show that the population mean speed of passenger

vehicles traveling on a certain expressway is greater than the posted speed limit of 65mph. Preston collects a random sample of 59 passenger vehicles traveling on the expressway and finds that the sample mean speed is 67.1mph

with a sample standard deviation of 7.5mph. The test statistic t for a hypothesis test of H0:μ=65 versus Ha:μ65 is t≈2.15

with 58 degrees of freedom. If 0.01p-value0.025 and the level of significance is α=0.10, which of the following statements are accurate for this hypothesis test to evaluate the claim that the true population mean speed of passenger vehicles traveling on the expressway is greater than 65mph?

Statistics and Probability

FOR NEXT 3 QUESTIONS USE THE FOLLOWING DIRECTION Manager of a grocery store wants to test to determine whether or

Question

FOR NEXT 3 QUESTIONS USE THE FOLLOWING DIRECTION: Manager of a grocery store wants to test to determine whether or

not the mean waiting time of its customers is significantly more than 4 minutes. He takes a random sample of 36 customers and finds that the average length of time it took the customers in the sample to check out was 4.6 minutes. A national study estimates that standard deviation of length of time of grocery store customers is 1.8 minutes. What is the computed value of test statistics for this study?

1.96

1.64

2.00

0.056

None of the above

Flag this Question

Question 39

2.5 pts

The P-value of this study is

between 0.005 to 0.01

0.01

0.025

0.0228

0.9772

Flag this Question

Question 40

2.5 pts

At 5% level of significance, it can be concluded that the mean of the population is

significantly greater than 4

not significantly greater than 4

significantly less than 4

significantly less than 4.6

Statistics and Probability

Problem Set 1 Pearson Correlation Coefficient AnalysisResearch Scenario

Question

Problem Set 1: Pearson Correlation Coefficient Analysis

Research Scenario:

A clinical psychologist would like to determine whether there is a relationship between observer ratings of children’s externalizing behaviors and scores on an established diagnostic interview assessing externalizing disorders (like ADHD, CD, etc.). He administers the diagnostic interview to 25 children and records these scores. He then trains an observer to independently rate carefully-defined externalizing behaviors for each of the 25 children. These scores are totaled for an overall externalizing behavior index. On both the interview and the behavioral ratings, a higher score indicates higher levels of externalizing behavior. These scores are listed in the table below.

Using this table, enter the data into a new SPSS data file and run a Pearson correlation coefficient analysis to test whether there is a relationship between the interview scores and the behavior ratings in this sample. scatterplot to show the relationship between the variables.

  1. Paste SPSS output.
  2. Results section based on your analysis including independent and dependent variables, confidence interval, effect size, 1 or 2 tailed and the p value.

Problem Set 2: Pearson Correlation Coefficient Analysis

Research Scenario: A social worker involved in suicide prevention efforts wants to study the relationship between social isolation and possible suicide risk. She collects scores from a sample of 13 patients on two measures: one is a measure of social isolation on which higher scores indicate higher isolation (possible range of scores = 0- 20), and the other is the Suicide Risk Scale (SRS, Plutchik et al., 1989), on which higher scores indicate a higher risk of suicide (possible range of scores = 0-15). These scores are listed in the table below.

Using this table, enter the data into a new SPSS data file and run a Pearson correlation coefficient analysis to test whether there is a relationship between social isolation and possible suicide risk. scatterplot to show the relationship between the variables.

Interview (Range 0
to 9)
Externalizing Behavior Index
(Range 0 to 25)
7
9
6
9
22
20
IN A WOOD
12
10
9
-JU
16
19
21
22
4
7
7
3
13
19
16
12
9
Statistics and Probability

I am having trouble with this question Can anyone help me fine some articles related this? 1

Question

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1.

Take a look at the article by Cryer (link below). It is an old article that listed the deficiencies of using Excel as a statistical software. However, Microsoft has fixed many of these problems in the latest version of Excel.

Find on the internet an article that discusses the pros and cons (advantages and disadvantages) of using Microsoft Excel for statistical analysis. the link, and the title.

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1e9w-0EOn-4dn7qsSdy3tQzMYIX11ND1r/view?usp=sharing

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Question

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What is the

probability that nobody takes their own phone in the limit as N →∞?

(You do not need to compute the probabilities numerically in this problem, but the derivation of your final expression should be clear.)

Statistics and Probability

(What best describes the question bellow)Question 1 Two 95% mean confidence intervals indicate a

Question

(What best describes the question bellow)

Question 1: Two 95% mean confidence intervals indicate a

difference between means at less than the alpha = .01 level when:

-The endpoints do not touch

-The endpoints just barely overlap

-The endpoints overlap by about 25% of their range

-We cannot use single mean confidence intervals to determine differences.

Statistics and Probability

A group of students with normally distributed salaries earn an

average
of
$6,800 with a
standard

Question

A group of students with normally distributed salaries earn an average of $6,800 with a standard

deviation of $2,500

Find the cutoff for the salary that corresponds to the lower 25% of all salaries. Use Excel, and round your answer to the nearest integer.

Please help! i know the mean is 6800 and the SD is 2500 but am totally lost after this!

Provide your answer below:

Statistics and Probability

1 Cort Industries owns assets that will have​ a(n) 75 % probability of having a market value of $ 58 million one

Question

1.cort Industries owns assets that will have​ a(n) 75 % probability of having a market value of $ 58 million one

year from now. There is a 25 % chance that the assets will be worth only $ 28 million. The current​ risk-free rate is 2 %​, and​ Acort’s assets have a cost of capital of 4 %. a. If Acort is​ unlevered, what is the current market value of its​ equity? b. Suppose instead that Acort has debt with a face value of $ 26 million due in one year. According to​ MM, what is the value of​ Acort’s equity in this​ case? c. What is the expected return of​ Acort’s equity without​ leverage? What is the expected return of​ Acort’s equity with​ leverage? d. What is the lowest possible realized return of​ Acort’s equity with and without​ leverage?

2.Hartford Mining has 60 million shares that are currently trading for $ 3 per share and $ 70 million worth of debt. The debt is risk free and has an interest rate of 5 %​, and the expected return of Hartford stock is 11 %. Suppose a mining strike causes the price of Hartford stock to fall 20 % to $ 2.40 per share. The value of the​ risk-free debt is unchanged. Assuming there are no taxes and the risk​ (unlevered beta) of​ Hartford’s assets is​ unchanged, what happens to​ Hartford’s equity cost of​ capital?

A
2
a) If Acort is unlevered, what is the current market value of its equity?
million
4
equity value of assest= (75% x 58)+(25% x 28)
50.5
5
expected curant market value
50.5
6
cost of capital of =…
Finance