Can I Have Some Ideas On Possible Thesis’ I Could Use For The Following This


Can I have some ideas on possible thesis’ I could use for the following:


assignment provides you with an opportunity to discuss an insight you gained in this unit by comparing the development of one specific Islamic and one specific Christian region in 600-1000 C.E. Using examples of significant leaders, political and social structures, beliefs, and cultural products (stories, philosophies, theologies, artifacts, art, and architecture), note similarities and differences in the two cultures, and also indicate influences they share. What insight about the historical development of these two cultures did you gain from the comparison?


What Are The Pillars In Different Marketing Managementmarketing Management Model Narrowing Down To Focused Strategy With Screening Criteria Customers Needs And Other Segmenting Dimensions Segmentation Product Company Objectives And Resources Targeting Collaborators Competitors Current And Positioning Prospective Promotion External Market Environment Political Amp; Legal

What are the pillars in different marketing managementmarketing management model narrowing down to focused strategy with screening criteria customers
needs and other
segmenting dimensions segmentation product company
objectives and
resources targeting collaborators competitors Current and positioning
Prospective promotion external market environment political amp; legal. economic, social amp; cultural. technological Universityo‘l
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How Are China And India Different?A China Is A Nuclear Power And India Isn’Tbthere Is A


How are China and India different?

A- China is a nuclear power and India isn’t

B-There is a

significant difference in the size of their populations

C-India has moved its economy away from isolation and emphasized markets over state control, but China has not

D-There is a significant difference in their political systems

E-China has sustained economic growth but India has not been successful at obtaining higher growth

Social Science

Pick Any Company To Enter Another Country Not The The United States 1

describe how


Pick any company to enter another country not the the United States.

1. describe how

transaction costs in the host country will affect the firm’s entry strategy.

2. describe the most salient political and economic risks the firm will face upon entering that new market.

3. explain how cultural and demographic factors could affect the country’s strategy in the new market give examples.

4. I explain how international trade and intellectual property factors could affect the country’s market entry.

5. explain how currency and foreign exchange issues can affect the company’s strategy and performance in the country.

Social Science

A persuasive arguement Was Saddam Husseins execution an essential point in establishing democracy in Iraq

dictator was responsible for various war crimes, said to have been the reason behind many assassination of various political figures and other crimes. His campaign againt the Kurds in the north of Iraq and the use of chemical weapons against innocent people was something that would be unjustifiable at any stage or at any forum. Not only was his regime responsible for countless deaths and near genocides in the country of Iraq itself but it was also responsible for deaths and environmental disasters in Iran and Kuwait.
Saddam Hussein was born in Iraq in a village to the north of Baghdad in 1937 and grew up in very humble surroundings. He led a life of poverty and even illiteracy from which he crawled out of by scratching his way and taking any opportunity that was given to him. At the age of ten he moved in with his uncle in Baghdad who was an army officer and from there he began to indulge in politics (Moore, n.d).
Saddam’s political affiliation and his manner of engaging in political activities was not always a great way of doing things. He was only twenty one years old when he was involved in a failed assassination attempt at the then prime minister General Abdel-Karim Qassem and had to leave the country (N.A, Saddams Rise To Power, n.d). From the start the life that was led by this man was considered as that of a man on a criminal path. He was jailed for in 1963 after his party the Ba’ath lost power in the country and then in 1968 he once again led this party to power via a coup.
Many hold that Saddam was a messiah for the nation and did many good things. He had nationalized the Iraqi oil industry that lead to wealth coming into the pockets of the Iraqi citizens and caused quite a bit of harm to the international companies that were making profits. He also made education compulsory in order to improve the literacy rate of the nation. This program was made mandatory and a punishment of three year jail time was to be enforced and during this time many

“””Cold War Abroad and at Home”” on Group Discussion Board”

1250 Cold War Cold War produced a threat to the whole world in terms of power and liberalism. The communists were taking over the world slowly as highlighted by Nixon and McCarthy and the U.S had to take an action on a global perspective. After the World War II it was seen that the communists were spreading all throughout the world and as they were gaining power it was assumed that they would soon try to take over the U.S itself even though it was a super power at that time. In those times, it can be said that the cold war was becoming an existential threat as China was overtaken by the communists and the states of Korea and Vietnam were on their way to a communist government. The development of Cold War was furthered by the U.S government itself by making out theories which ascribed the stakeholders to be involved in a mass takeover. In those times, the war itself acted out as a threat to national security and a political necessity too. It could easily break through the walls of national security as communism was breaching the borders all over the world to gain strength. Similarly the concept of Cold War was gaining popularity in the United States and with the Red Scare the government had to take an action against the culprits so as to ease the tension in their lands. On a larger scale the threat to national security could not be ascertained as yet but the political necessity to carry on the actions was determined. It can be said that the war itself became a political necessity after going through the evidence.

Economic Impact of Festival in Qatar

From a general point of view any festival has following impacts on any country/city /society: Festival helps the country to boost its economy. Festival helps to foster community pride in a large way. Festivals help people to teach and at the same time learn new things from the visitors, and Festival often helps a country or any community to strengthen its relationship with the neighboring nations. (Grames &amp. Vitcenda, 2012).
In this paper the main objective is to analyze the economic status of Qatar from an overall perspective, measure how it able to grow in a span of last ten or so years and how various festivals of Qatar helps the country to boost its economy. The paper will also focus on government spending in various kinds of festivals in Qatar and whether those spending by the government able to yield good result in terms of stable economic relation with others, boosting the economy as a whole, developing the overall infrastructure of the country etc.
Diversity in the festival is one of the main attractions of Qatar. Over the year Qatar is started to gain popularity among rest of the world due to its variety of international festival. Doha is the capital of Qatar and also the hub of every kind of economic, social and political activities. Doha is the main country which represents the cultural diversity of the country of Qatar in front of rest of the world. Doha is well recognized in every part of the globe for its food festival, film festival, ethnic cultural activity etc. Doha is one of the fastest growing cities in the world. The growth of the city is mainly due to high volume exports of oil, liquefied natural resources (mainly gas) and other petrochemicals. The city is very modern with high sky-scrapers and high standard of livings among the people of the city. The city is in the center of attraction by hosting the various international conference and local festivals.

Compare the function of IGOS and INGOS

However, in the modern culture, these organizations are playing an important role in the world politics by influencing the global security and peace through their global collaborative function and working for the social and economical development of the member states. These organizations perform their functions according to the rules and regulations of intergovernmentalism, which means that a complete harmony is required. Whereas, Non-Government Organizations (NGO) are developed by some private personnel for the welfare of the society, which can also be international in their scope. These organizations do not posses any sort of government accreditation and established merely on the basis of mutual agreements among different personnel to raise funds through donations and grants from different philanthropists and international humanitarian organizations. However, they are recognized by the UN and many other international organizations as important political and welfare institutions. These organizations are termed as international organizations due to the scope of their functionality, whereas in the real sense these organizations are not purely international organizations because they are not developed to coordinate the functions and efforts of the members for their mutual gains.
The following table shows a compression between the objectives and functions of these two organizations. We will also evaluate that which organization better serves the humanity and promote the human rights in the world.

Describe how campaigns for public office are organized Why is it important to secure the undecided voters in a close election In your own estimation what were the significant domestic and foreign policy issues in the 2008 presidential campaign

In other words, those voters who have claimed, either truthfully or not, that they have yet to place their allegiance to a specific candidate or political party. Such closeness that highlights the need for considerable effort being put into the format of public campaigns, so that each candidate at the end of the race will be able to say that they worked as hard as they could for every single vote, including those that were at anytime considered to be undecided. In the quest for public office, the candidate with the strongest campaign is faced with the real possibility of winning at the end of the day. To win, it becomes imperative to have the necessary money/people involved with the campaign, garner as much of the undecided vote as possible and to understand the relevant domestic/international issues of the present election cycle.
To form a campaign, “New candidates for public office often lack the organizational support base that incumbents often have already at their disposal. This means they have to build a grassroots activist base from scratch. Smart campaigns focus on the integration of direct contact tools – phones, Internet, mail, door-to-door – to create a support network of activist volunteers. Such an organizational program has as its goal the building of a large, functioning grassroots organization for your campaign – be it for a candidate or an issue. Despite the help your campaign may receive from party committees, elected officials and a variety of political committees and interest groups, smart campaigns also build organizations of their own, grassroots structures that are primarily loyal to your candidate or cause. Building such an organization takes time, money and attention. And to do it most efficiently and effectively, it requires extensive use of careful polling, targeting, Internet transactions, telephone calling, direct mail and informal person-to-person contact,” (Faucheux, p.1).

Don Quixote reflection

Don Quixote Reflection. The Problems of Irony and Honor Balzac d, “Women’s honor is a man’s greatest invention” to derive a relationship between the empowerment of women and the efforts that men have put towards its achievement. In Quixote’s work, the issue of female empowerment comes out clearly in a number of scenes. It is possible to analyze Balzac’s statement from the portrayal of women in Quixote’s work. Quixote invention of Dulcinea shows how much he adores her and the high esteem he possibly accords to women. He states “… her rank must be at least that of a princess since she is my queen…” to show how much he has a high esteem of her (Cervantes 112). However, the other characters appear to be questioning her worthiness as they insist on knowing her lineage and beauty. It appears that men invent the value of a woman just like Balzac states that women’s value is man’s greatest invention. However, it is ironical how men judge a woman’s value from her appearances and origin. We expected the value of a woman be judged the same way of as that of a man, irrespective of her family status and beauty.
In a different scene, we learn men’s attitude towards one of the female characters, Marcela. One of the young men refers to Marcela as “that devil of a village girl…” and blames her for the death of Chrysostom, a famous student-shepherd (Cervantes 103). The young man has a condescending attitude and has little honor for a woman. This is ironical that the same men that Balzac identifies as the inventors of women’s honor are the same who look down upon women in the society. This conception of this young man portrays women as inferior beings who cannot be respected in the society. Later on, we learn that Marcela is not to be blamed for the death of the student shepherd as Quixote says that she is worth respect and no one should find her guilty of the mentioned crimes. In this scene, we find Quixote standing by the right of Marcela and requesting that other men respect her. Through a series of intervention to empower women, Quixote appears to be the inventor of honor of women. This complies with Balzac idea that men are the inventors of the respect for women.
Today, the irony of women’s honor as the invention of man is clear and shown in almost all spheres of life. Contemporary men are still tied to the classical belief that men superior to females. Consequently, men dominate in homes, leadership and political realms, and religious spheres. While there are some men who champion for the empowerment of women, it is clear that most men are opposed to the idea of supporting women to achieve equality in the society. Men still suffer from a superiority complex, and this makes them oppose the empowerment of women, which is ironic to Balzac’s statement that men should invent honor for women. From a critical point of view, this statement is ironical and would be more truth if applied in the reverse version. However, the role of this statement is to provide an insight for men to champion for the respect of women, rather than look down upon them. Probably, Balzac referred to the men who are like Quixote and are willing to fight for the rights of women with courage.
Works Cited
Cervantes, Miquel. Don Quixote. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press.
2012. Print.

What Steps Can Be Taken By the Nations of the SubSaharan Africa to Address the Causes of Poverty

The Poorest Continent Case Study
Question 2: What Steps Can Be Taken By the Nations of the Sub-Saharan Africa to Address the Causes of Poverty? Can The Governments of Developed Nations Help in This Process? Should They? How?
The current scenario witnessed in the Sub-Saharan region in Africa depicts several shortcomings within the economic structure that strongly hinders the sustainable growth of the economy to a large extent (Naudé, “Development Progress in sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa”). For instance, the region is currently witnessed to suffer from various demographic and social challenges in terms of diseases and inequality. Political interventions and corruptions in the economic structure are also considered to be noteworthy challenges that in turn hinder the development in the region (Handley &amp. Et. Al. “Poverty and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Overview of the Issues”. Pinkovskiy &amp. Sala‐i‐Martin, “African Poverty is Falling…Much Faster than You Think!”). In other words, the economic structure of the region is highly affected by its totalitarianism ideology in lieu to its unequal distribution of wealth and power (Karadeli, “Failed State Concept and the Sub-Saharan African Experience”).
It is in this context that proper measures should be taken by the economy to identify the root causes of poverty. With this concern, the economy can intend to reassess its political structure and legislative measures in order to identify the flaws in its regulatory and political measures which can be regarded as the root causes of poverty to persist and increase in the economy (Handley &amp. Et. Al. “Poverty and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Overview of the Issues”). The economy should also take certain initiatives in identifying the flaws relative to social health measures (International Monetary Fund, “Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa Sustaining the Expansion”). From an overall point of view, it can be stated that the economy should reconsider its various segments in order to identify the root causes of poverty in the economy.
The government of developed nations can certainly play a crucial role in assisting the Sub-Saharan Economy to revitalize its economic structure and thus attain progress. With this concern, the developed economies should come forward to assist the poorest region in the world, not only to guide the Sub-Saharan economy towards development, but also to reduce global wealth disparity. The assistance of more capable governments in terms of monetary funding and political as well as social guidance shall certainly prove to be highly advantageous for the economy to develop with the ideology of collectivism.
Works Cited
Handley, Geoff. &amp. Et. Al. “Poverty and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Overview of the Issues.” Results of ODI Research Presented In Preliminary Form for Discussion and Critical Comment, Working Paper 299 (2009): 1-75.
International Monetary Fund. “Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa Sustaining the Expansion.” World Economic and Financial Surveys (2011).
Karadeli, Cem. “Failed State Concept and the Sub-Saharan African Experience”. Journal of Arts and Sciences 12 (2009): 111-126.
Naudé, Wim. “Development Progress in sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa”. Working Paper No. 2010/07.
Pinkovskiy, Maxim &amp. Sala‐i‐Martin, Xavier. “African Poverty is Falling…Much Faster than You Think!” February 27, 2012. Columbia University, 2010.

What is a good tax

The people in the state do not see the need as to why the government should reduce its expenditure but expenditure should be sufficient to meet the needs of the people.
Most of the former politicians in Illinois State have faced significant challenges in their effort to come up with a good tax. One of the former Governors of the state by the name Scott Walker worked hard to cut the rights of the public employees to participate in collective bargaining. Deputy Director of the local council of the American Federation State said that the governor had an obsession of destroying the unions belonging to the public employees. The same director said that Mr. Rauner was trying to stir up the bitterness of the public employees who include teachers, firefighters, and police officers.
The unions in Illinois State are always against a leader who tries to change the tax system of the state. Mr. Rauner may have a good idea of increasing the tax income of the state and improve economy of the state in the end. Most unions do not understand that when the economy is stable, having low unemployment rates will increase the tax income and government expenditure too. There is need for the citizens in the state to give the politicians independence to come up with a good tax system that will benefit both the employed and unemployed. A good tax is one that will enable the unemployed to venture into small-scale businesses and earn a living out of it.
Davy portrays a good tax as one that is sufficient enough to avoid cutting of the benefits of the retirees because they have saved enough to rely on and survive on during their retirement period. However, Mr. Rauner said that the only problem he had was with the union leaders in the public sector who donated to political leaders. He claims that the government union has power to influence politicians in contracts negotiations about pensions, scales of payments,

Shang and Qin dynasty Han dynasty

Contrasting the economic elements of the Shang Dynasty with that of the Qin Dynasty it can be stated that the element of maintaining an agrarian economy essentially remained consistent during this epoch however, the pivotal difference in the economic setup of these dynasties is that the advent of the Qin dynasty marked the establishment of a monetary system. Moreover, the political sphere of China under the Shang dynasty was characterized by the unprecedented and supreme power of the emperor who was responsible for all matters of governance in all areas of the citizens’ lives. However, the Qin dynasty maintained a hierarchal system of political governance whereby the nation’s administration was made more efficient by granting territorial assignments to respective governors whose appointment was not conducted on the basis of familial connections or the right to ascend to governorship.
The social structure under the Shang dynasty comprised of an exclusive focus upon the stratification of China’s communities on the basis of hierarchy and chain of command. This notion implies that while, the king remained all powerful the common man did not have access to the most basic rights under the regime. While, this aspect remained analogous in the Qin dynasty the primary difference in both governments is that of the inclusion of administrators and governors who previously did not exist during the Shang dynasty.

All Due respect

His research concentrated more on the Yazuka groups, which forms the biggest population in the country (Hessler, 2012). It has political, social and economic affiliation when it comes to the overall analysis. According to the concentration in this area, Hessler found out that the only expert in organized crime in Japan largest newspaper was an American. Adelstein knew no Japanese when he went to Tokyo from rural Missouri where he was brought up (Hessler, 2012). According to the author, this gave him the capability to carry out his research without being suspected by the group which could have led to his elimination.
The most common group of criminals in Indonesia is the yakuza. In this report by Hessler, it shows that for one to be a member of the group, one has to undergo initiation rites. For example, members of the Yazuka “decorated their backs and arms with tattoos” (Hessler, 2012). This made them stand out from the other citizens. Also to show respect to seniors, one had to chop off his finger as a sign of apology to a wrong done. It is also evident that this group becomes violent if other civilians who try to interfere with their ability to meet their goal as a group. This group uses blackmail as a tool to meet their objective, loan sharking and corruption which is most evident in government offices.
The author found Japan to be less dangerous as compared to United States where only one murder was committed which was ten times lower than in United States of America. This was seen to be supported by the law that incriminated anyone who owned a gun, a bullet or even pulled the trigger since the three were charged as three different crimes and subjected to three different penalties. In contrast to this, in United States, no big deal is there to own a gun or even a bullet, which makes the crime rates to be high (Hessler, 2012). Hence, this has helped to minimize the crime rates in one way or the other. For example, it makes it

Early Challenges to the System

Early Challenges to the System What were the main consequences of the rise of Pan-Arabism? Contrary to the initial anticipations of ensuring Middle Eastern states had acted in one force against numerous political threats that threatened their existence, instead this ended up being far apart. Hence, not being able to boast of Pan-Arabism then seen to amalgamate these states especially against French and British forces. Conversely, the emergency of numerous wars and conflicts ensued that have existed up to date with the Palestinians still not being able to recover own region from Israel as they anticipated. This is because those championed the process of Partition Plan (1948) ended up aiding the enemy (Jews), which is even evident up to date. The inception of humiliation was especially during after the utter defeat of the six-day war that completely disoriented Arab region including even the Egypt1. This even yielded to serious divisions in the region despite generally professing one creed though having other smaller sects among them.
Why did the movement fail to produce Arab unity?
Besides the untimely passing on of the region’s informal leader Nasser, the region had serious divisions especially in Lebanon most of them fuelled by divergence in creed and small religious sects. These included Christians and Islamic sects like Shi’ites, and Sunnis, which gave foreign forces continue to divide them further2. Additionally, there were also aspect of conflicting interests characterizing the region’s leaders who due to were they originated emerged with differing voices. This is despite the entire Islamic religion seeing possibility of uniting itself as one religious bloc. However, this could not do manage for individual states prefer local autonomous sects.
Ajami, Fouad. "The End Of Pan-Arabism." Foreign Affairs 57, no. 2 (79 1978): 355-373. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (Accessed November 13, 2014).

My Political Socialisation

41000 My father reads political news from newspapers and political magazines as well as watching a lot of news and political discussions online. Views were weak but as I have developed the knack for politics and have surrounded myself with political friends including my father, I have found that my views are changing from being weak to strong. I cannot really confess to being that strong but I am not weak either. On the issue of voting, however, I am fairly strong enough in political affairs to change and be sure to make the correct voting decision based on my political analysis of the candidates. I have engaged in a few political activities and one peaceful political demonstration. I am however yet to identify a good political organization to become its member but it is on my agenda and will soon happen. These political activities have been influenced by my friends and my father. The political demonstration was my friends’ idea and influence which my parents did not agree to, however on the other political activities, my father has pushed and encouraged me and some even joining me to carry them out. Lucky for me, I have interest in politics even though they did not develop that long ago. What however impeded their quick development was the lack of political interest my mother and older siblings had and I spent a lot of time with them more than with my father because of his work. However, when he reduced his work travels and was home more often, I found my political niche slowly shifting.

Religious discrimination in Lebanon

However despite the country’s diversity in religious factions, it has not been a beautiful scene in in the country’s development over the years due to discrimination based and biased on religious lines (HRW). The discrimination based on religious factions has been evident in the Lebanese political and social structures of the country. Political landscape carries more weight for wrangles based on the very religious discrimination because every faction wants the bigger piece of the cake of dominance.
It can be traced back to the 1860 conflict between Maronites and the Druze to the old Lebanese civil war of 1975-1990 which was as a result of the conflict between the Muslims and the Christians. In the early 19th century around the wake of World War II Lebanese political structure was designed in a way it recognized a historic agreement amongst the Lebanese leaders that political goodwill will be divided according to positions in the governmental structure in agreed fair proportions for the Christians and Muslims (Khalaf 2013, p.43). This particular political concept in the mid-1970s appeared to be losing ground resulting to “hell breaks loose” a civil war that was seen to be a sort of competition for power between the majority Muslims and the minority ruling Christians.
Before the old Lebanese civil war that was in every way a struggle between the Sunni Islam and the Christians was a Druze and Maronite (Christians) conflict (Khalaf 2013, p.65). The conflict happened in the mid 18nth century in the north of Mount Lebanon area entailing the rebellion of Christians Maronites peasants against the Druze lords that spread to the south and as a result more than 20,000 Christians were killed, 370 Christian villages destroyed and a large number of churches destroyed (Sisk 2011, p.109). Maronite peasants were against the heavy taxes and feudal practices

World War I

2500 The Treaty of Versailles, signed on June 28, 1919, was the result of a negotiation of the “Big Four” – Woodrow Wilson, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, French Premier Georges Clemenceau and Vittorio Orlando of Italy. The Treaty faced opposition from the United States’ Senate, since they saw that it would only aid another European conflict, after the horrors of the I World War. Henry Cabot Lodge, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee was the leader of those who had particular opposition to the League of Nations, which was an integral element of the Treaty. Article 10 of the League Covenant required a pledge that all the Nations in the League come to help one another in case of an attack against any of them. The lack of a clause that such action could only be materialized through a unanimous vote of the council infuriated the Senate. Clearly the only solution was to stay away from any European conspiracy and conclude a separate peace with Germany. While Wilson’s Fourteen Points forced Germany to sign a blank check as an account for the damages of the War, they had to go through an inevitable bout of isolationism, which could have resulted in the rise of Hitler and the II World War. Moreover the major European nations like Britain, France and Italy felt that Wilson’s view of the League of Nations may affect their national interests – thus impeding his vision of a World Parliament. The Senate’s opposition was based mostly on its fear that the situation will lead to other major European conflicts, which was not at all unfounded. Moreover, America as a nation had an isolationist stance at that time, never wanting to get involved in international political turmoil. The Senate wanted to be left alone and not be dragged into the new world order. They were strongly against the Versailles Treaty and refused to ratify it.

Singapore Prosperity

Singapore Prosperity
Singapore has ultimately risen above all odds to become one of the world’s Economic power houses. It has been used as a bench mark of economic analysis across different parts of the world. However, of great importance is to focus on the several aspects that have contributed to this splendid success in almost all spheres of the Singaporean society. After forty years of economic reconstruction, Singapore has attracted the interests of not only economic analysts but also global investors that do not hesitate to invest in the island nation.
Economic growth occurs at the predisposition of a conducive investment environment. The government definitely has a hand for the attainment of this conducive environment. This brings us to the analysis of the government structure and how its policies in one way or the other has contributed to Singapore’s spectacular economic growth. The people’s Action party has been greatly accredited of transparency, accountability and effective management not to forget sound policies that have been put in place to foster remarkable growth.
Having only been ruled by just one party since independence, an aspect of stability has been initiated in the Singaporean political system which extremely puts great focus to economic growth rather than political destructions. It has developed policies that encourage domestic trade without much interference to the several foreign investors that have played a key role in its immense growth. Leadership transition has been peaceful playing a great role in stability making it a high affinity destination for investors.
Singapore’s effective policies and able leadership was witnessed during the climax of the worst ever global recession that even shook economic giants such as the United States. The prime minister fostered bank lending of which the government also contributed without much interference to its GDP.Within no time after the introduction of this measures, Singapore bounced back to its economy fact living other economic titan states in the turmoil.
Contrary to the common perspective that the private sector has got leverage over public enterprise, Singapore has stood the test of time to prove otherwise. It goes against the popular notion and treads its own economic course which baffles both its admirers and Critiques.
Works Cited
Lehman, Fabrice. Peace and Prosperity through World Trade: Achieving the 2019 Vision.
Melbourne: St. Martin’s Press, 2010. Print.
Monks, Robert. The New Global Investors: How Shareowners can Unlock Sustainable
Prosperity Worldwide. Sydney: Capstone Press, 2009. Print.
Mun Wai, Chia. Singapore and Asia: Impact of the Global Financial Tsunami and Other
Economic Issues. Melbourne: World Scientific Publishing Company, 2009. Print.
O’Sullivan, Mary. Corporate Governance and Sustainable Prosperity. Sydney: Palgrave
McMillan, 2008. Print.
Wilson, Peter. Challenges for the Singapore Economy After the Global Financial Crisis.
Melbourne: World Scientific Publishing Company, 2011. Print.

Panindian Confederation

Pan-Indian Confederation Tecumseh’s war for retaining the identity of his tribes, after the Treaty of Greenville, marked an era of great significancein the history America. Even though Tecumseh tried his level best, by following planned strategies and his excellent oratory skills, his efforts went in vain against the U.S. army lead by Indiana Governor William Harry Harrison.
Tecumseh’s younger brother’s Tenskwatawa’s premature act had surely been the prime reason of defeat. But an analysis of the series of events following the signing of the Treaty of Greenville and strategies of the U.S. military forces seems to be favouring the U.S sides anyways. When Tecumseh set out to convince other tribes to join him, the challenge before him was not just creating an army, but arousing among the tribal people the sense of unity that might have led them to victory. Before convincing the tribes to fight for the sake of their identity and existence, he had to settle the inter-tribal conflicts and ideological differences among his own people and bind them together with a strong unifying force.
Tecumseh’s efforts were showing results to quite an extent until Tenskwatava’s negligence towards his brother’s strategies led them nowhere. Amidst, all this while he was away in the south spreading a doctrine of political and military unification, his younger brother’s excitation ruined everything. Tecumseh’s army was thrashed by Harrison’s men. The British who supported the tribes had their own vested interests of acquiring colonial wealth, they joined in more for their own motives and less in support of the Indians.They fled as soon as the U.S. Army came into action. During the American Revolution U.S. had developed such a standard of political and military strengths that it was naive of Tecumseh’s one-man army challenging them without planning an effective winning strategy. This is another reason why the U.S. army found no difficulties in suppressing the upheaval.
All these factors combined together were the reasons behind the defeat. Lack of
unity, arms, forces and above all the lack of spirit among the people itself can be accused of defeat. Tecumseh’s speeches motivated the people, his oration influenced people from vast stretches in Canada to Mexico but ultimately it was the call from within among the tribes that might have made a difference and lacking this spirit the ball was never in Tecumseh’s court.
September 28, 2011
1) Gregory Evans Dowd, A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle For Unity, 1745-1815
2) Howard Zinn, Kethy Emery, and Ellen Reeves, A People’s History of the United States (The New Press 2003)
3) “Tecumseh” ,&nbsp.New World Encyclopedia&

International political economy

International political economy The current sanction that have been propagated by the West on Russia, have got their own toll on the trade, fiscal and corporate policies of Russia. A fierce debate has already been generated in Washington D.C following the approach that the sanction by Mr. Obama has taken. The same application of sanctions have been adopted by European countries by responding with tough rhetoric thus, triggering the question, what else needs to be done to contain Russian on its front towards Ukraine?
Considering the corporate policy, it would be arguable that the most obvious way by which the sanctions against Russia could be fronted is through the exertion of further diplomatic pressure. Sticking to diplomacy considering the permanency of Russia as a member of the UN might though appear tricky even if the General Assembly were to pass non-binding resolutions on Russia.
Therefore, what options could the West have against Russia in regard to the invasion on Ukraine? Could fiscal policy restrictions be more feasible than corporate policy sanction? What else could be done, should Russia choose to ignore the sanctions leveled against it as has currently been seen? Through fiscal means, the West has managed to isolate Russia by freezing the assets of most of its prominent personalities including that of President Putin and his close allies. Consequently, travel bans have been issued against these people and still much is still needed.
Before engaging into war, trade restrictions must seem like the most feasible sanction that the West has left against Russia. In instances that it has been able to, the Western countries are isolating Russia such the cancellation of the G8 meeting and suspending Russia membership in the same. However, the option of exploration of economic sanctions in themselves might turn to hurt the Western economy considering the numerous trade allies it has with Russian firms. This pegs the concept on whether the West should just watch and wait for Russia to fall back into line.
Work Cited

Happy Days

America’s Happy 50s It is undeniable that 1950’s were arguably happy moments for America. The 50s marked an end to a prolonged war and unrest. Whereas the World War II period was marked by instability, political unrest, economic crisis and familial issues, the 50s brought in a new dispensation of relaxed mood, economic growth, technological advancement, and general peace of mind. Indeed, the Americans began to enjoy better living conditions, better wages, and became the first beneficiaries of new technologies. The 50s benefited many Americans, encouraged family, and societal bonding. Additionally, the improved economic conditions catapulted many Americans from low class to medium income earners. Most families could afford a car, and top of range products such as fridges, televisions among others. It is also worth noting that 50s marked an era of tremendous growth in the housing industry as well as transport infrastructure and networks. The increased number of affordable houses and high quality road networks made life easy for Americans. On a different note, entertainment became entrenched in people’s lives hence improving social life for Americans. Most significantly, Americans were enjoying high quality of life compared to many countries in the world. This made Americans feel at the epitome of the world.
However, not everybody enjoyed the happy moments. An appreciable portion of Americans was already on their old age and had suffered the aftermath of World War II making it difficult for them to enjoy the 50s. Additionally, political critics and conservatists spent more time critiquing the government instead of taking advantage of the overwhelming opportunities present during that time. Left behind were the uneducated citizens, and African Americans who could not fit in the job market. Without a good source of livelihood, such groups could not enjoy the benefits of 1950 era. However, the 50s was by general means, good moment for America.

Qualifying Exam Theories

International organizations backed by World Bank have been advocating poverty alleviation through economic policies that are international in nature but have the potential to influence national policies (Introduction to international relations: Social constructivism, 2012, p 170). There is an emerging ‘global anti-poverty agenda’ that has changed the rules the way people, government and other public organizations are tackling poverty (Noel, 2006). There are several theories that have emerged to explain and tackle poverty. however, all theories seem to agree upon the issue of tackling the problem as inherent and arising in the social structure, which is also seen to be the best solution seems (Altatis, 2012).
Liberalism postulates freedom of thought and expression and opposes conservative and authoritarian views. It is a doctrine aimed at helping the outward welfare of men and does not take into account the inner welfare. It is concerned with the outward conduct of men. This doctrine recognizes that inner welfare cannot come from outward, materialistic possession. However, it posits equality of material possessions based on division of labor and individual capability to labor and materialistic possession.
Outer well being as advocated by liberalism and its proponents is very much needed for man as it gives every individual a chance and the right to equal opportunity. This theory is based on equality of men in line with the natural law and law of enlightenment and demands equality of political and civil rights to all men. It is based on the assumption that differences between men are artificial and that all men are created equal, and hence need to be given equal rights (Mises, 2012).
With equality under law, each individual will have the right and freedom to work to his capacity to be able to attain social equality. Although private ownership is said to create differences in terms of material possession, liberalism with its stress on materialistic

Multiculturalism in Canada in political view

Multiculturalism in the country helps in integrating immigrants and removing barriers to participation in Canadian lifestyle, this makes the immigrants feel welcome in the society, which results in strong sense of national pride and belonging (Patels, 2006).
The Muslim community in Canada has high socio-economic status and its contribution to society is evident in their strong presence in various sectors that include politics, health care, the hospitality industry and media. Multiculturalism policy in Canada was officially adopted in 1971 and its foundation is mutual respect among Canadians from all backgrounds. Institutionalization of multiculturalism encouraged genuine acceptance of the various cultures without fear of accommodating different cultures could lead to weak Canadian laws. Several polls performed in 2006 and 2007 illustrate that Canada is less bothered by the global increase in anti-Muslim attitudes and the resulting polarisation, when compared to other nations. The 2006 survey by Focus Canada indicate that 83% of Canadians believe that Muslims make positive contribution to the nation (Simanovsky, 2012). Moreover, international polls indicate small likelihood of Canadian Muslims believing that fellow citizens are harsh toward them, when compared to Muslims from other nations. One example of Muslim community incorporation into Canada society is the selection of Canada’s first Muslim mayor in politically conventional towns in the country (Simanovsky, 2012).
The country deserves the reputation of being an all-encompassing society that commemorates diversity. even though, the system is not perfect, Canada embraces other cultures while adhering to the various country laws and policies (Simanovsky, 2012). Community relations in Canada are quite peaceful and the country has reduced tension and violence in comparison to European nations. Multiculturalism

Competition Between Political Parties

61500 It is a group comprising of numerous individuals striving for a common cause but all supports the set of common governmental goals. It may be 2 or 3 or many party system. However in a party, people are the representatives always desiring to create equality and fraternity in a country to maintain peace and order. But, in the most imperative thing that need to be maintained is the rules and regulations of the government like: equal speaking power of the citizens, voting rights, rights of all basic needs etc (Hofmeister &amp. Grabow, 2011, p. 4). Apart from political party, another type of group that also works for the benefit of general public is pressure groups. In recent age, maximum extent of the citizens do not try to engage in politics through voting and so without joining the political parties, they become politically active through their active membership in groups, organizations and associations of varied kinds. These type of parties are also known as pressure groups (Hofmeister &amp. Grabow, 2011, p. 5). The parties or groups are some sort of permanent organizations that help in contesting elections with the aim to acquire the crucial positions in the government of the state. These small fractions of individuals or groups work for a common cause keeping at par with the rules and regulations of the state. Thus, these parties act as a device to highlight the desire or interest of the citizens among the higher authorities of the state or country (Hofmeister &amp. Grabow, 2011, p. 6).

William Z Foster and the Tragedy of American Radicalism

&nbsp.The life of William Zoster is, therefore, a tragedy, not only a personal tragedy in the diminishing importance that was accorded to his views but also an American tragedy in that Foster’s commitment to the working class deviated during his life towards the embracing of power and the elitist movement in Communism. (Barrett, 1999)&nbsp.The life of William Zoster is, therefore, a tragedy, not only a personal tragedy in the diminishing importance that was accorded to his views but also an American tragedy in that Foster’s commitment to the working class deviated during his life towards the embracing of power and the elitist movement in Communism. (Barrett, 1999)

William Z Foster, the son of a poor Irish immigrant father and a Catholic mother, was born in 1881 in Taunton, Massachusetts. Foster began as a regular worker at the young age of ten and by the time his twenties were over, he had been a metal workers, worked in a foundry and in fertilizer plants, had driven a streetcar and had also held a variety of railroad jobs, shipping out to various countries like Australia, England, South Africa, and Chile. (Freeman, 1995).&nbsp. When he was a young man, he joined the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) and was the leader of a very successful organizing drive in the Chicago stockyards in the signing up of immigrant, unskilled workers. This was later expanded on a national scale and culminated in the 1919 steel strike.&nbsp. He secretly joined the Communist Party, however as a result of the growing sectarianism within the Party and conservatism of the union movement, he began to feel increasingly isolated. According to Johanningsmeier, Foster’s “…physical and political powers were diminished, when his dream of a powerful movement for industrial unionism arising from within the AFL was reaching fruition.” (Johanningsmeier 276).

After a trip to Europe, Foster became convinced that an overthrow of capitalism could be achieved by a strong and militant minority working within the reformist trade unions. According to Barrett (1999), Foster’s radical beliefs during his youth became informed by syndicalism rather than labor republicanism.


Prof’s Arab-Israeli Conflict and the Hope for Peace The claim that “historical tragedies … occur when right clashes with right” seems, on its surface, to be a nearly perfect explanation of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The fact is, both sides have the righteousness of a realistic argument on their side. Both Israelis and Palestinians have “a historical claim to the land of the Levant,” with Israeli society first having sanctuary there after their flee from Egypt, and Palestinian peoples living there almost continuously since the area first became Islamic (Pendergast 18). Furthermore, the Israel is further right in their claim that Jews probably need a state of their own – after the tragedies of the holocaust, where the entire people was nearly exterminated, it is impossible to argue that Jewish safety is not augmented by the state (27). Both sides thus have the “right” on their side, leading them to feel entirely justified in any actions they take to achieve their aims – after all, they are in the “right.”
This argument obscures, however, the fact that a just cause is not all that constitutes being in the right. The actions one takes to achieve one’s goals are also incredibly important, and both Israel and Palestine put themselves in the wrong in this way. Israel has waged wars that have cost countless civilian lives, while some Palestinians have resorted to terrorist tactics, targeting civilians in the attempt to achieve their aim. So while the fundamental argument of both sides might keep them in the right, their tactics place them squarely in the wrong.
This quotation may be an apt one – certainly it has been impossible for lasting peace to be achieved in the middle east for some time now, despite monumental efforts by everyone involved. The Six Day’s war, rather than leading to lasting peace, for instance, only intensified the conflict within the Levant itself (Shoshan 38), and the more recent war against Palestine by Israel served only to inflame opposition and further empower Hamas.
This quote obscures, however, the fact that there is still a possibility of peace, and simply because the current political situation is not conducive to it does not mean that it will never happen. One of the fundamental problems with conflict in the middle east is the fact that there has rarely been representative governments – before the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and the recent Arab Spring, dictators or clans have been the norm of power in the Middle East. This is conducive to violence, because a) democracies have little qualms going to the war with dictators, as they can brand the war as a mission to free an enslaved people, and b) dictators are always willing to go to war for the chance of solidifying or expanding their power. The recent Arab Spring, however, has brought fledgling democracies to the table, which has already helped the political situation, by making, for instance, an integration of Hamas and Fatah more likely, and creating a truly representative Palestinian government (McCaffrey, 98).
Works Cited
McCaffrey, Paul.&nbsp.The Arab Spring. Ipswich, MA: H.W. Wilson, 2012. Print.
Pendergast, Tom, Sara Pendergast, and Ralph Zerbonia.&nbsp.Middle East Conflict.&nbsp.Detroit: UXL/Thomson Gale, 2006. Print.
Shoshan, Malkit.&nbsp.Atlas of the Conflict: Israel – Palestine. Rotterdam: Uitgeverij 010, 2010. Print.

How Successful is Social Identity Theory in Explaining Stigma and Prejudice

Prejudice has been defined as unfounded negative, or positive thoughts and feelings towards a person founded exclusively on that person’s membership to a social group (Worchel et al, 1988). Consequently, if a person is prejudiced towards that social group, or a member of that social group, it is because the individual is perceived as being a member of a social group which has been defined by that culture to be of lower value than their own group membership, such as a racial sexual or political group to name just a few (Pennington, 2000). Stigma has been defined as a feature that can be negative and destroy confidence in the person (Goffman, 1963). In addition, Goffman (1963) puts forward that if another individual’s responses manipulate their actions and form their identities, then the individual tries to be in command of how others see them by manipulating what they disclose about themselves. Johnstone (2001) suggests that stigma within society considerably restricts prospects that should be accessible for every individual in that society. Traditionally, the meaning of stigma has been derived from the Greek word stigma, which refers to a ‘mark of shame or discredits. a stain or an identification mark or characteristic’ (Merriam-Webster Dictionary, 1990, p. 506).
Social identity theory proposes that that social group membership, also known as collective identity, can produce a big impact on an individual’s self-esteem. Therefore, the individual will try to preserve their self-esteem by having a positive view of the social group to which they belong. In addition, it has been shown that if the individual increases their understanding and awareness of their collective identity then their self-esteem may arise, however, this can be hard to do if the social group the individual belongs to& a marginalized group that encounters prejudice from other social groups (Aviram &amp. Rosenfeld, 2002), such as a racial minority or a mental disability. &nbsp.

Piracy in Somalia

Lawlessness has been a feature of the Somali condition since the early days of the Civil War which ravaged the country, making it one of the poorest places on earth. Accordingly, rampant lawlessness is directly related to both the implosion of Somalia’s domestic security as well as the piracy problem off the coast of Somalia. Piracy in Somalia is an important policy problem with international ramifications and from a strategic management position, worth extensive analysis.
What can the international community do to solve the piracy problems off of the Somali coast? Is there a role for international actors in solving this problem? If so, who should act? Do regional actors have a role in providing maritime security along the Gulf of Aden, and if so, do they have the means to safeguard the shipment of goods through this region? What roles can NATO and the European Union play in ensuring security along these troubled shores? Should the world’s military hegemon, the United States, act to ensure that international law is followed off the coast of Somalia? These questions, and many more, will be addressed with reference to the problems associated with piracy in Somalia.
The African continent, although the cradle of humanity and endowed with vast natural resources, is home to some of the poorest countries on the planet. Accordingly, Africa is characterized by a growing population and a basic lack of resources to sustain this high-level growth. Seeking to explore poverty and malnutrition in Sub Saharan Africa through an analysis of the political and economic situation in Somalia, one of Africa’s poorest countries, the following will show the linkages between poverty and political instability. In the context of Somalia, it is apparent that political instability perpetuates economic stagnation and any attempts at resolving the poverty crisis in the region.

Strategic Analysis Case Study

Current paper focuses on the examination of the performance of a specific British firm, O2. this firm has achieved to keep its position in its market and further expand its activities through the continuous review and update of its strategies. The specific issue is analytically examined in the sections that follow. the position of the firm in its industry will be identified and evaluated taking into account the response of the firm to the challenges set by the global political and financial crisis. The position of competitors will be also examined while specific suggestions are going to be made regarding the potential improvement of specific parts of the corporate strategy. Appropriate theoretical models (like PESTEL analysis and ANSOFF matrix) will be used in this paper in order to show the changes in the firm’s performance through the years. in this way the choice of this firm as a ‘model’ for business analysis will be justified.
In Stakeholder analysis all people or groups of people influencing the firm’s performance have to be identified. In order to understand and evaluate the role of various stakeholders in the performance of O2, it is necessary primarily to identify the firm’s stakeholders. at a next level, their role in the firm’s performance within its industry is going to be appropriately evaluated. The firm’s stakeholders can be listed as follows (a numeric scale from 0-10 [10 is the highest grade] has been used in order to identify the impact/ importance of stakeholders for the performance of O2 and their influence on the firm’s success).
The influence of the above listed stakeholders on the performance of O2 has to be further assessed and evaluated taking into account the conditions of the British market but also the conditions of the international market. It is clear from the list presented above that the firm’s customers have a significant influence on the firm’s success within the British market (given the rank 9).

The Politics of Ethnic Incorporation and Avoidance

This gap will for all time live in the class society. Also there is the political face of it, whereby the economic and political policy’s are established and preserved by the government mainly for the special benefit of the ruling class, the wealthy influential not for the advantage of working individuals, people of color. This economic dismay that we are experiencing is similar for the Latinos and Blacks. This shows the unjust, undemocratic and unequal society we are dwelling in.
Few researchers have found out that the mean wealth of the white family is twenty times that of a Black family. The wealth ratios are very unequal rising up a few questions. Is it the color? Is it the inability to do certain things? Looking at inflation, in 2005-2009 the medium fell 53% amid the black households, evaluated with a simple 16% amid the white families.
Looking at home equality, Blacks declined by half, illustrating how many were left out. An analysis carried out suggests that the Blacks were forefront of the housing real estate market boil of the 1990s and in the early 2000s however that have since been amid the situations experiencing the steepest turn downs in the housing standards.

Voter ID The Social Economic Legal and Political Aspects of Voter ID Laws

It is evident that the state also accepted personal care home identifications, or college identifications provided the documents were current with the expiration dates indicated. An examination of Governor Tom Corbett’s speech concerning the enactment of these laws reveals that the governor proposed for the enactment of the laws stating that he signed the bill because he believed that the bill was a scared principle protecting the rights of the citizens. The governor described this as a principle that encouraged the one person one vote issue. It is evident that the governor did believe that the enactment of the laws did put in place simple standards that would protect the integrity of the elections. However, it is evident that some sources argued that the main reason as to why the Corbett might have signed the bill is because he was under the republican led legislature. This was the same case in eight other states, which include. Kansas, Alabama, Tennessee, Carolina, Wisconsin, and Texas. Some of the politicians did believe that the enactment of the laws would have prevented fraud related to voter impersonation. However, these were followed by reactions from other politicians who believed that voter impersonation fraud was rare in most states (Barnes 29).

Other political consequences that accompanied the enactment of voter identification laws included. the reactions from supporters in states such as South Carolina who suggested that. the enactment of the new voter identification laws resulted in the casting of votes even in the names of dead people. However, it is evident that when the state’s election commission carried out its investigation, no evidence of fraud or clerical errors was obtained. It is believed that such a demonstration might have been driven by political factors because even investigations from the courts revealed that nobody had been convicted of voter fraud.

Business across Cultures

However, expansion into global markets also brings with it certain risks which organizations have to manage in order to successfully build their presence into new markets. (Dlabay and Scott, 2011)
International organizations, in order to successfully enter into any foreign market, has to actually understand the social and cultural context of the market, its political and economic systems along with further understanding the regulatory environment of the market. What is also critical to understand that global organizations have designed and developed their strategies in a manner which can help them to manage a trade-off between the risks and returns and ensure that all the risks are identified and assessed strategically in order to allow the organization desired results?
This paper will therefore discuss and compare the Republic of Congo with that of the UK in terms of its political, economic, regulatory environment, etc. This paper also aims to use different theories which can be used to analyze entry of City College Norwich into the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Democratic Republic of Congo or DRC is located in Central Africa in the northeast of Angola. The total area of the country is over 2 million kilometers, less than one-third of US, with both and sea and water covering the whole area and as such country is accessible from land as well as seas.
The overall population of the country is over 77 million with the majority of the population belong to Congolese origin. 50% of the population is Roman Catholic followed by Protestants. Muslims and other religions also exist in the country however, overall the country is a Christian majority country. It is also important to note that over 43% of the population falls in the age group of 0-14 years old whereas a significant portion of the population is between the age of 15 to 54 years. (, 2015)

Impact of the Oxford Movement on Religious Life in England

The effects of the Oxford movement trickled down to the people of England starting from the Church of England itself and also to the Anglican Church in general. Some of the common names associated with the movement included John Newman, Richard Froude, and John Keble, etc. Their influences were felt in the spiritual and doctrinal levels.Why the Oxford movement impacted upon religious life in England
The Oxford movement brought to the forefront some of the problems within the Church of England. One of the major forces that caused the movement occurred in the year 1832 where there was the passage of the Reform Act. This Act required that ten Irish bishops be eliminated from the Church. One of the major participants of the movement was John Keble. He voiced his objections against that reform and even described it as a form of apostasy by the nation. He voiced these complaints in a Sermon at Oxford during the year 1833.Leaders within the movement were essential in reminding the people of England that there was a lot of liberalism within the Church of England. Some of the evils which they fought against included.

  1. immorality
  2. liberalism
  3. skepticism
  4. rationalism
  5. critical rationalism

The leaders of the Oxford movement felt that adherents to the Anglican faith were not as devoted as they should be to the church and the clergy. Standards of worship had declined and something needed to be done in order to change this. They also felt that tradition no longer formed a central part of worship and there was a need to return to that.The movement protested against the involvement of the government in matters of the Church. This was highlighted in the famous sermon of 1833. Newman asserted that the church was a holy institution and as such should be left to run its own affairs without interruptions from external bodies. He also spoke against the way the government had ruined the apostolic succession principle which required that bishops should be succeeded in a religious and not a political manner.

African and american politics of social change

Before the era of the civil rights movement, there was no existing political or social movement in America with profound effects on the political and legal institution (Wendy, 2008).
The civil right movement sought to restore the missing and the violated rights of the black people living in America as guaranteed by the fourteenth and fifteens amendment. The movement altered the relation between the state and the federal government. this is because many of the times the federal government was forced to enforce laws protecting the black people in America. The civil right movement resulted to the reemergence of the judiciary in America. this included the Supreme Court whose role was to protect the individual liberties against the majority power. Even with the incredible progress from this movement, the existing racialism and inequity between the black and the white proved difficult to eliminate. With the progress, the blacks still faced lower wages, racial discrimination, and their neighborhoods still had higher crime rates. For the younger black the movement was too mainstream to generate the intended social changes, they wanted something that could give blacks the same opportunities as the whites both economically and socially. They felt that the movement comprised more of the white perceptions than the black perception. The head for the civil rights movement was reverend martin Luther king. he was also the head of the "southern Christian leadership conference." (Wendy, 2008)
The black power movement, on the other hand, rose mainly after the civil rights movement gained momentum, this in the early 960s going on. The movement marked the turning point for the differing relationships between the blacks and the whites in the United States of America. The movement had some proactive and positive force which aimed at helping

American Political Parties

791, divisions began to grow as Madison urged Jefferson to join him in organizing against Hamilton leading to formation of the Democratic – Republican Party mainly by anti-federalists. The founders of this party included: Madison, Jefferson, Robert Livingstone and George Clinton of New York and Senator Aaron Burr of Virginia. In midterm Congressional elections, the party garnered majority seats in Congress with 65 members. Madison was supported by Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, New York and Pennsylvania while New England opposed him (Reichley 32). The Democratic – Republican Party appealed to rural population and farmers. it was an agrarian party. It also advocated economic and social equality and liberal ideals.
The French revolution also was an issue at the time and its supporters formed democratic societies (Democratic or Republican) and campaigned in 1794 elections for Republicans (Democratic – Republican Party). They were joined by some federalists’ to become majority party in 1795. Washington did not seek reelection for third term thus the 1996 elections pitted Adams a federalist against Jefferson a Republican. The Republican Party was defeated narrowly by Adams with 71 votes against 68. Thomas Pinckney a federalist got 59 votes and Burr (Republican) 30 votes. Jefferson became the vice president (Reichley 39). The party build up organizations to support Republican candidates and in mid elections Republicans garnered majority seats in Congress. In New York, Burr managed to get a uniform vote for the party ticket. The party got support from evangelicals who were Presbyterian New lights. Support also came from converts of rural families in South and Western frontier (Baptists and Methodists) and Catholics because of it equalitarian ideals (Maisel, 31-75). In 1800 elections Republicans won with narrow margin with Jefferson 73 votes and Aaron Burr 73 votes, Adams 65, Pinckney 64. Due to tie, the winner was decided by House of Representatives whereby

The Geopolitical Stability of China

According to a majority of people, China has enjoyed a wave of tremendous growth over the past decades and has done this without the influence of the rule of law or the rights of property. This success rate puts a question on why other countries found in Euro-America should go ahead and spend millions of dollars in an effort to promote the rule of law and governance. This perception is because not only do the developing countries like China assume the World Bank proposed rule of law, but they also assume the preexisting harms that extract the same legal rules would do. China has faced a lot of blame for not considering and dealing with the legal issues that concern property ownership and conflict resolution. Consequently, this means that any attempt they make towards extracting legal rules or common templates will equally harm other countries that are on the developing course.&nbsp. In the political context, China remains a socialist state, although it’s a state which has endorsed the rule of law and the market economy. Therefore many have the fear that with increased anti-democracy diplomacy, China’s ambitions would be more harmful to the west that is a model to the rest of the world. For example, some have linked the recent Russian authoritarianism tilt to the markets without democracy model that China has imposed on other countries globally (Peerenboom, 2007).
Another legal issue that drives the threat view of China’s modernization is the problem with human rights. China’s record on civil and political rights leaves less to one’s desire. As a result, critics fear China may decide to take advantage of its rapid growth to defend and advocate for those rights. even when opposed by western powers. They also fear that despite the current secular-liberal based rights policies, China will use its power to go against all odds. just to defend its rights.&nbsp. Heavily politicized debates have seen critiques accuse China’s adoption of the divide and conquer strategy that they believe will universally impact negatively on the western nations. leading to an era of civilization crash.

Obama’s Military Strategy in Afghanistan

Al Qaeda central is no longer based in Afghanistan, Bin Laden and his core operation are all my accounts now based across the border. They suspected that Pakistan’s Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) is now the origin of al Qaeda, where the central command of al Qaeda located. Therefore they also needed army troops to threaten the terrorists lurked in Pakistan. The Taliban movement in Afghanistan has clear and deep relations with al Qaeda and also compassionate to it, but the evidence is present that shows al Qaeda is also present in Afghanistan today, which could intimidate the U.S homeland in any direct way.

If the American army is removed from Afghanistan then there are chances that the Taliban and al Qaeda revolt becomes strong enough to collapse the Afghan government. And if this government is replaced with a neo-Taliban system of government or the Taliban were able to fortify real political control over some of the major bordering fraction of the Afghan area then maybe al Qaeda re-establish and start threatening the U.S and whole world again. Therefore U.S has to assure the presence of its military enforcement in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan because they are weak states whose failure could provide havens for al Qaeda and other terrorist groups.

To have a check and balance on Pakistan with the help of political and military pressure is necessary because Pakistan is far richer and better connected to the outside world than Afghanistan and provides an ideal state for al Qaeda in case of its failure. Pakistan is much more perilous because it expected to be a safer place for the al Qaeda, and the risk of nuclear weapons falling into al Qaeda’s hands would be grave indeed. U.S has to stay in Afghanistan and control its military movements, because U.S is now so unpopular in Pakistan, that the U.S cannot deploy major ground forces there to help Pakistan’s government against fighting terrorism and extremism. (Biddle 2009)

The policies of the U.S towards Afghanistan and the Middle East are not changed to such extent as was expected.

Analysis of Concepts of European Identity

After World War II those who wished of a united Europe were searching for ways to uphold a strong sense of European identity. Even though, thoughts on a European identity conceptualized ten years earlier to World War II the political, social, and economic disorders linked with World War II, basically changed the European order. Hence it became necessary to assume Europe in different ways. The formation of the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Economic Community (EEC), were the outcome of those views (Williams, 1987). As the hurdles to trade within the EEC began to drop in the 1960s, that resulted in the start of the discussion of a sprouting United States of Europe. This was not only just a formal economic entity but it was presumed as a possible hub of identity for its inhabitants.

The discussion over the nature and significance of European identity goes deep into many of the critical matters facing Europe today (Deflem and Pampel,1996. Delanty, 1995. Hodgson, 1993). Making the debate difficult are the suppositions that are made about the very nature of identity itself. These assumptions are the creation of political-territorial growth over the past centuries that have cast the state in the role of architect and symbol of international society (Murphy, 1996. Taylor, 1994). Hence, the concepts of nation and state became conflated and national identities to be considered as if they were the major matter of investigation in the learning of international relations (Connor, 1994). European identity is supposed to be unsuited with state identity and to include a primary obligation by European people to Europe as a distinct political-territorial body operating in a world of ‘nation-states.’

Blacks and Whites in America The Alternative Beats of the Same Heart

61500 California in that era remained engulfed in race perceptions. In the book If He Hollers Let Him Go Chester Himes reflects the ceaseless struggle of the black race, and their valiant efforts to establish a rightful place in mainstream of American political, economic and social life. Bob Jones, the black character in the novel, struggles relentlessly to maintain his essential dignity amidst the hostile circumstances he is placed in and firmly believes that he is as brilliant as any white man could be in his position, whereas for Madge Perkins her inner world is seething with anger and resentment against the blacks for no particular reason. Bob Jones is an intellectual who constantly reflects the choices available to him amidst a host of hostile life situations that confront the black race in America. He is not married and his age is estimated to between 30-35. He is challenged by adverse comments relating to his race at every turn of his day to day activities, especially in interactions with his colleagues. The author writes that Jones awakes each day in fear, and lives steeped in fear. "It came along with consciousness. It came into my head first, somewhere back of my closed eyes, moved slowly underneath my skull to the base of my brain, cold and hollow. It seeped down my spine, into my arms, spread through my groin with almost sexual torture, settled in my stomach like butterfly wings. For a moment I felt torn all loose inside, shriveled, paralyzed, as if after a while I have to get up and die." He is the only foreman in a shipyard during World War II but he is not getting the respect that he is expected for his authority in the organization and the white subordinate staff, white men and women, are not willing to obey his instructions with implicit obedience. His actual authority is thus ineffective. His life was like being lodged in an open-air prison, not with physical but mental torture.

Gorbachevs New Foreign Policy

The transformation in foreign policy thinking profoundly impacted policymaking and was based on the realization that the real security threat to Russia came from the deteriorating economy due to excessive military spending. Rather than applying the overt exhibition of military power, Gorbachev chose to apply political influence. The ‘New Thinking’ aided the Soviet Union in garnering wide approval of many nations. Its peace-making policy that released Soviet control over Eastern Europe ultimately led to the collapse of communism and the end of the Cold War. Its success would entail radical changes not only in the way the economy functions, but in social and cultural policy, in Soviet political life, and ultimately, in the way in which the Soviet Union deals with the larger international community. By-products of the ‘New Thinking,’ perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness) initiated far-reaching governmental policy changes that affected virtually every aspect of Soviet life. These new concepts were a distant departure from previous Soviet practices.

Gorbachev’s foreign policy approach was a direct result of domestic concerns. Gorbachev viewed economic and political restructuring as not simply the basis of domestic revitalization, it was essential to sustain the Soviet Union’s position as an international power. Gorbachev described the connection between his domestic and foreign policy programs. “The success of efforts at internal reform will determine whether or not the Soviet Union will enter the twenty-first century in a manner worthy of great power.” (Juviler, 1988 p.1) New Soviet government leaders, led by Gorbachev, introduced radical changes to the Soviet system. He initiated perestroika, a series of economic reforms meant to eliminate ineffective administrative structures without fundamentally altering the state-run economy. Politically, Gorbachev introduced glasnost so as to decrease the control of the state and Communist Party interests, the obstacles to economic reform.

Various Things that Can Be in Order for Nations to Live in Peace

Peace may also suggest the existence of the healthy or newly healed international and interpersonal relationships, sincere attempts for reconciliation and prosperity in matters of economic or social welfare as well as working political order and establishment of equality that serves the real interests of all. Peace can only be achieved by ensuring that all cases of violence are critical. The paper will discuss the various things that can be in order for nations to live in peace.
The nature of conflicts has changed significantly in the past two decades. The state of conflicts has evolved from nations fighting each other to various forms of conflicts and violence that incorporate non-state actors such as organized crimes, gangs, and rebels as well as armies fighting for separation, independence and political control. Cases of conflicts have existed in almost all continents in the world and have led many losses of lives. Unlike the cold war that existed in the last century, current forms of violence often have no clear military, ideological or political objectives (Burton, 282).
These types of conflicts are not easily solved or addressed with traditional instruments such as military and diplomacy means. The drivers of violence often include a broad range of factors including social, political, environmental and political issues. They can include joblessness, management of natural resources, political exclusion and corruption, human rights abuse, inequalities, and injustices. On many occasions, it is often challenging to define a precise cause and the roles of various factors that are interrelated and may end up leading to violence. Addressing the different types of conflicts requires a multidimensional approach that spans the development of security, justice and political area (Burton, 284). Solved conflicts will result in a peaceful nation and peace can only be achieved when all forms of conflicts have been prevented.

Main Features of Cohesion on Politics

Taking an excerpt from the speech, “I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood”. The connection is evident that sons, in either case, are son which is the bottom line.
According to Goddard, (1998), and Hutcheon, (2000), stylistically the speech is a political treatise, or a work of poetry delivered masterfully like an improvised sermon. Former slave owners and former slaves are both able to bear sons and become like brothers. This connection is that former slave owners and former slaves are supposed to be like brothers. But Martin Luther King could see this in a dream that would come true (Morris, &amp., Hirst, 1991. Halliday, 1985).
The bursting biblical language and imagery used especially in the first parts of the speech portray a picture of the seething American nightmare of racial segregation against the blacks. The former slave owners are the whites and the former slaves are the blacks. His use of the phrase, “now is the time”. For example, now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all God’s children. Now is the time to lift our nation from the quicksand’s of racial injustice to the solid rock of brotherhood. This reflects the need for urgency in realizing the dream. It calls for action, and it is the kind of urgency seen in America today, of it has to happen now. This implies that now is the task that is given the first priority (McCarthy, 1991).
A greater part of King’s approach was more visionary and eloquence to the nonviolent movement against black segregation in America. The second part of the speech deals with the dream in a fairer future of racial harmony and integration (Halliday, 1978. Todorova, 1999). The part of the speech that says. I say to you today, my friends, that inspire of the difficulties&nbsp.and frustrations of the moment I still have a dream.&nbsp.

Why Is Panhu Such a Political Entity

There are the chief grounds explaining why Panhu is considered a political entity. Having been with a company of an invading political figure in the character of Di Ku, he appears to embody a subject whose success implies either acquisition of rank or political reward of choice.

The Yao people have become highly associated with such merits when the ‘Yaoren’ who lived in the mountains (Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hunan) were privileged to take no part in paying taxes and have no administrative responsibilities. In profound reference to the exemplary deeds of the Yao/Moyao ancestral lines that trace back to the time of Panhu, eventually, generous provisions extended to the descendants who were known to possess strong relations with the culture of the dragon-dog. Through the continuous honour and respect for Panhu, people of the mountains further took advantage of the socio-political fortunes including exemption from all taxes, autonomy, especially freedom from the control of the influential communities and powerful Chinese officials (Eli 2005).

Definition of a Hero and the List of Achievements

There are conditions that mold heroes and gain fame among the people (Walton 68). The conditions may sometimes be seen unsolvable but it depends on how the individuals involved solve and reside over them and the decisions they make under the circumstances are what make them important figures in the sight of the people.
Being a hero differs from being a celebrity in such a way that a hero is strictly someone without negative traits and is always on the supportive side of life concerning the conditions of the people. A celebrity is just a famous individual who gains his fame from different activities of which some may be illegal like terror acts, illegal businesses and other immoral activities (Bolden 46). Heroes do face strong challenges before they happen to be the reference figures for society (Levi 68). The challenges drive them to their extraordinary and admirable conclusions. Many heroes around the globe have a great influence on the lives of the people and many admire their strengths. The people who become heroes in society exhibit some valuable characteristics in common. These characteristics are. determination, perseverance, ambition, and courage.
According to my definition and description of a hero, there is one person who has greatly changed the perception of people about the political leadership world especially the black race (Africans). He is the incumbent president of the United States of America. Obama is an African-America with a Kenyan origin. His father was a Kenyan and spent a big part of his life in the United States of America where he married an American woman. Obama was born in America where he grew up to become a full-fledged man. Obama challenged many Africans by vying for the senate seat in the US parliament but this was not a great challenge to the Africans since it seemed normal to many of them.
He then gave the African society a great challenge and inspiration when he vied for the presidential seat in the US. This seemed impossible to many since they knew that he had African roots and being accepted by the white people would be a big dream. This was because he was in the race with a white American, and did not have a reputable background. America is a large nation and a superpower that required able leadership made it impossible for many people from the African race to believe in his step in life.

Country Analysis

is a landlocked country in north-eastern Africa with most of the people belonging to the different tribes but many of them are not Muslims unlike that of Sudan itself. South Sudan had one of the longest civil wars in Africa starting from 1972 and ending in 2005 with a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). Much of the country is dependent on subsistence farming due to the ancient nomadic agriculture. Frankly speaking, the country has very few resources except oil but has plenty of challenges to tackle before it can make any significant progress. (186)
Political situation – it is quite ironic how a young country like South Sudan which had just emerged from a long and protracted civil war is now again embroiled in another civil war that is being fought between two former political allies. Its current president Salva Kiir Mayardit has accused his former vice president and other accomplices of trying to stage a coup detat. President Kiir belongs to the Dinka ethnic tribe while his ex-deputy Mr. Riek Machar belongs to the Nuer tribe. The conflict has drawn outside forces from nearby Uganda who are helping government troops fight the rebels lead by Machar and other allied tribes. This new ensuing political instability due to a power struggle along ethnic lines has disrupted the development plans of the young country and has killed at least 10,000 from both sides with 400,000 who fled to neighboring countries while another 1 million people are displaced internally.
The current conflict poses a serious risk to South Sudan and if allowed to linger, it can be the source of further political instability that weakens government institutions and possibly make it a failed state like Somalia where there is no central government. Although the people of the country had identified themselves as members of a group distinct from pre-partition Sudan as they are not Muslims but Christians and animists, the new government has so far failed in its mission and vision to implement a new

The Sport Events Sector

Today, sports events are the most developed than they have ever been throughout history. So many different kinds of sports share a similar timeline in modern history because their organization and spectatorship were linked to technological advancements in the form of radio, telephone, and television.

Demographic Profile of Consumers of Sport Events
The demographic profile of consumers varies from one sports event to another depending upon a range of factors including the popularity of the game and the socioeconomic and political context in which it is organized. Stoldt and Vermillion (n.d.) carried out research to study demographic profile of the consumers of a Professional Golf Association (PGA) event and found that the consumers were predominantly male i.e. 73.9%, 70.1% of the consumers were educated till college or more, 63.2% consumers were in the age range of 30 to 60 years, and 51.9% of the consumers had annual incomes of at least $100,000. This suggests that most sports consumers are educated people belonging to the middle class or elite and are in the mid-age range. These findings are consistent with the research findings of Clavio (2008) who found that 87.8% of the users of college sport message boards were male, with 90.8% of users being White and 76.0% of the users educated at least till the undergraduate level. Clavio (2008) also found that 42.2% of the users earned at least $100,000 annually. These findings suggest that there is generally more male spectator of sports events than female spectators and that an overwhelming majority of sport event visitors are highly educated.

Growth Potential of Sport Events
The growth potential for sports events is huge. Although the general economic return is greater for the larger-scale events, the smaller community events also possess the considerable potential to yield benefits. The opportunities related to sports events accessible for the stakeholders and destinations of sports events and the event organizers continue to expand as well as diverse along with the growth in the rates of participation in the sport and events.

Differences in the Accounts of the Iran Contra Affair between Christopher Andrew and Tim Weiner

To the astonishment of the gathered press corps, Ronald Reagan admitted that money earned from covert arms deals with the Islamic Republic of Iran had been used to provide weapons for the Contra rebels in Nicaragua who were essentially agents of Washington. The scandal set off many theories and speculations as to the motives, modus operandi and the legitimacy of such a transaction.&nbsp.

At the outset, it has to be mentioned that Christopher Andrew’s version of the Iran Contra Affair is more extensively researched and documented in detail when compared to Tim Weiner’s. The two striking aspects of Andrew’s text are its portrayals of President Reagan as a weak and confused Commander-in-Chief and the implicating tone with which he describes the hand of National Security Council staffer, Lieutenant Colonel Oliver L. North, who according to Andrew “was working on a plan to divert profits from arms sales to Iran to the Contras,” (Andrew, 482). In the text, we find a whole array of allegations directed at Oliver North including perjury charges, manipulating with documentary evidence and his refusal to obey orders from higher authorities. While not absolving Reagan of his executive deviances in the affair, the reader gets the impression that North has been unfairly condemned by the author. Tim Weiner, on the other hand, centers his attention on the role of the CIA and its intelligence officers for the scandal. Weiner seems to suggest that the White House attempted, by applying political pressure, to attribute major responsibilities for the Iran Contra affair on the CIA (Weiner, 478). The Reagan Administration team also distanced itself from the CIA and its head Robert Casey, claiming that the agency had overstepped its authority. In essence, the Weiner account connects the CIA to the Iran Contra Affair, while the Christopher Andrew account seems to suggest that the CIA had an insignificant role to play.

Bill of Rights and Intention on Limiting the National Government Powers

The Supreme Court is a political institution like the other branches of the government such as the executive thus cannot be relied upon to make decisions on the original intention of the bill of rights. Supreme Court decisions and interpretation of the constitution is not always wrong, but the political influences experienced results to an opinion that reflects the current political tide (Garry 30).
There is no explicit wording in the constitution or bill of rights that applies on to the federal government. The Constitution applies universally to all citizens and institutions in the whole nation and so do the bill of rights. The constitution and the bill of rights are thus inseparable and apply universally to the federal government, state or local authority governments. Article VI, Section 2 of the constitution is clear on the intention of those who framed the constitution since it states that ‘the constitution shall be Supreme law of land, and judges in every state shall be bound by the constitution’. Since the constitution framers implied that the judges in every state must obey the laws regardless of any contradictory state laws, it is clear that the intention was to limit the powers of both levels of government and protect the rights of all citizens in the country (Garry 67).
From the ten amendments, it is only the first amendment that states that ‘Congress shall make no law’, but none of the other articles Congress shall not make such laws. It is clear from the other nine amendments that this is constitutional general statements that protect the rights of all citizens against excessive powers of federal, local and state governments. The first amendment was worded differently due to the prevailing political units and inhabitants in every state since most states were bound by religion and origin (Garry 123).
The bill of rights does not intend to restrict government powers since historically there was no federal militia but state militia. The 2nd amendment states clearly that ‘a well-regulated militia is necessary for free states’ referring to the state entities with the armed and peaceful militia.

British Imperialism on India

The benefits which the Indians would gain from British rule were taken into account, it was desirable for the British to rule the Indians.
At the beginning of the 18th century, the East India Companys inauguration in India was one of the most significant commercial events. The East India Companys trade was built on the lure of Indian produce. India offered foreigners the skills of its craftsmen in “weaving cloth and winding raw silk, agricultural products for export, such as sugar, the indigo dye or opium, and the services of substantial merchants and rich bankers”. During the 17th century, the effective rule of the Mughal emperors throughout much of the subcontinent provided security for trade to flourish.
However, by the end of the century, the Company was militarily active throughout India and rapidly extending elsewhere. British involvement in India during the 18th century is comprised of two stages, one ending and the other beginning at mid-century. In the early part of the century, the British were a trading presence at certain points along the coast. But from the 1750s they began to wage war on land in eastern and south-eastern India and to reap the reward of successful warfare, which was the exercise of political power, most notably over the affluent province of Bengal. By the end of the century, British rule had expanded from Ganges valley to Delhi and over most of the peninsula of southern India. By this time the British had established a ruthless dominance that would enable them in subsequent years to subdue all the remaining Indian states by either conquering them or forcing their rulers to become subordinates.
What opinion in Britain came to recognize as a new British empire in India remained under the authority of the East India Company, even if the importance of the national concerns now involved meant that the Company had to submit to increasingly close supervision by the British crown and to frequent inquiries by parliament.

Modest Proposal on the Basis of that of Jonathan Swifts

Reckless and greedy methods of garnering short-term profit have led to a catastrophic crash in the stock markets and attendant impairments to the broader economy. But there is nothing inevitable about these outcomes. Such cycles of boom and bust in capitalist market economies are by no means laws of nature. To the contrary, they are totally man-made. They are specially designed and promulgated by the ruling elites of this country – the top one-tenth of the top one per cent of the population. This narrow profit motive and lack of concern for the greater common good has accelerated the process of deterioration of the environment. I am highly indignant about the nature of our economic system and the ethos of the political class that abets unjust practices. I am also restless to think of alternatives to the system, which we have tolerated and been complicit with for too long. As a symbol of my disillusionment with the both our lawmakers and business leaders, I have come to believe that the only meaningful change has to be propelled from below, meaning that they originate from the masses. Hence, I shall propose a novel change to our social norms which would greatly reduce the risk of economic and social crises in the future.

I hereby propose that the youth of the country abstain from all sexual activity till the age of 25! I am sorry fellow students – I know how impossible a task this is for most of you! But being disciplined sexually during our teens and early adulthood will lead to great benefits for the economy, culture and beyond. I’ll explain how. At a time when the nation is going through the economic slowdown, a measure of austerity needs to be followed. And there is nothing austere about activities like dating, romance and sex. In fact, these are luxuries even during a boom period for the economy, let alone during a crisis. For boys and young men, keeping their girlfriends happy and satisfied is a costly business.&nbsp.

Modern Economical Landscape of Philippines

Teacher Economic opinion of the Philippines If there is any country in the whole which should have progressed long time ago but did not is Philippines. After the WWI, Philippines was the second best performing economy in Asia next only to Japan. Its universities also were one of the best in the world where its state university UP (University of the Philippines) was only second to University of Tokyo. When Martial Law however set in 1972, the downward spiral begun where corruption became institutionalized and power concentrated on political dynasties and oligarchs. Almost all aspect of Philippine society deteriorated that for a long time, it became the basket case of Asia.
Its biggest bane is its political landscape. It is marred with corruption, political dynasties, red tape and nepotism. Investors shy away from the country due to the difficulty of doing business there. As a result, the local economy suffered where unemployment is high subjecting many of its population to abject poverty. Also, many of its best brightest minds left the country to work and migrated overseas ( At present, this flaw in the political and economic infrastructure of the Philippines is not yet corrected as the remittances of its Overseas Foreign Workers are still the biggest contributor to its economy.
The second issue why the economy of the Philippines is not strong is because it does not have its own industrial and technological backbone. Its economic base consists merely of business processing units and assembly plants which are primarily owned by foreign enterprise. These enterprises can leave anytime exposing the vulnerability of the Philippine economy.
My two recommendations for Philippines for the Philippine economy to become prosperous 50 years from now are to reform its political system and build its own industrial and technological base. It can reform its political system by prosecuting corrupt officials and passing into laws that will democratize its political system such as banning political dynasties and nepotism. Its recent prosecution of corrupt officials under the former President Macapagal Arroyo supports this recommendation as investor’s confidence increased. Investment flourished amid a global crisis. During the period 2011-13 when the global economy is slowing down, Philippines registered a GNP of 7.2% which is considered as one of the highest in the world (NCSB). The reform undertaken by the present administration of President Aquino resulted in an upgrade of its credit rating in two succeeding years making it now a BBB+ which is already an investment grade (Martin). This indicates that once the political issue in the country, Philippines is bound for a take- off.
Also, to make its progress durable and long-term, Philippines must have its own industrial and technological base. It can do so by thinking long-term and investing in Research and Development. Investment in Research and Development includes an increase in the budget allocation of its universities and upgrade of its scientific infrastructure. It will take time before these investments will give result but it will be more durable because it will not only create jobs, but products and services that are patently Filipinos that will create value for the country.
Philippines has a remarkable and talented workforce with a very rich natural resources. Once its political and industrial issues are addressed, the country could become one of the strongest economies in the world.
Works Cited
Javines, Regel. "Revisiting Philippines… to Become the NEXT “Tiger (Target) Economy” in Asia?."&nbsp.Revisiting Philippines… to Become the NEXT “Tiger (Target) Economy” in Asia?. N.p., 1 Oct. 2011. Web. 9 May 2014. .
Martin, Kathleen. "S&amp.P gives Phl another credit rating upgrade."& N.p., 9 May 2014. Web. 9 May 2014. .
"NSCB – Philippine Economy posts 7.0 percent GDP growth in Q3 2013."&nbsp.NSCB – Philippine Economy posts 7.0 percent GDP growth in Q3 2013. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2014. .
"Philippine economy cant do without OFW remittances – Neda."&nbsp.Rappler. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2014. .

What is happening to jounalist and protesters at the RNC in the twin cities must include info retrieved from written as well as video sources

Teacher (dd month yyyy) Controversial Media and Protester Arrests mar the 2008 RNC As Senator John McCain accepted the presidential nomination from the ruling American political party on the last day of the Republican National Convention (RNC), some four hundred people including media representatives were arrested and jailed outside the building in St. Paul, Minneapolis. As per the usual custom, droves of protesters had turned up for the event, the major theme being the anti-war movement and the unrest amongst non-Republican voters that it has been this political party’s agenda to declare war on seemingly any nation that could secure a stronger future for the United States and the Republican Party.
The protesters present at the RNC represented various groups as well as many different independents who felt the need to speak out against the last eight years of Republican reign in the United States. although protesters (despite their Constitutional right to do so) can generally expect to be detained by police in such a setting, there were a high number of media bystanders amongst the arrestees. According to Poynter Online, most of the arrests were made by police on the final day of the Convention: Thursday September 4th. The police are reported to have used flash-bang grenades on the swarms of protesters and media representatives while dressed fully in riot gear, and to have made the majority of Thursday’s arrests in an area of St. Paul several blocks away from the Convention itself (retrieved 6 September 2008).
Democracy Now! reported that a great deal of Thursday’s arrestees were present to protest the arrests of Monday’s protesters who had remained jailed for an agonizingly long period according to friends and families (retrieved 6 September 2008). The online media report also states that journalists as well as protesters arrested during the Convention were given written citations for “unlawful assembly”. Pepper spray, smoke bombs and concussion grenades are reported to have been used to keep the thousands of protesters from the main downtown St. Paul area where Republicans had gathered for five days of rallying speeches and the final nomination of their presidential candidate for the upcoming US election.
At the end of the five days, it is estimated that more than eight hundred people were arrested by the police. The latter made their final attempt to stop protesters by blocking off several bridges that protesters were crossing across Interstate 94 towards downtown St. Paul. These detainees endured the barrage of police tactics for hours as they were arrested and led away two at a time. According to Amy Goodman of Democracy Now, the media “get a record for trying to cover a protest”. St. Paul Sheriff Bob Fletcher seems to feel that this is of little concern since the arrests were a tactical procedure discussed beforehand by the police department. When asked whether she was afraid of being arrested during the Convention, protester Sherry Honkala was recorded on video during a passionate speech to crowds in St. Paul stating “what i’m afraid of is if we continue to let our voices be cut off” (YouTube, retrieved 6 September 2008).

Works Cited
“Al’s Morning Meeting.” Poynter Online. Retrieved 6 September 2008
“Nearly 400 Arrested on Last Day of RNC, Including Over a Dozen Media Workers.” Democracy Now!. 5 September 2008
“USA Reality – 2008 RNC, Poor Peoples March.” YouTube. Retrieved 6 September 2008

A Christmas Carol by Chales Dickens

A Christmas Carol by "Charles Dickens" due: Life is sometimes difficult, denying people the opportunity to make merry. Poverty is a significant prevalence in some communities. Poverty has a lot of impact on the social, political and economic perspective. In a way, poverty prompts change as people try to overcome it.
The lives of the average working class between 1830 to 1950 took a different direction. This implies that the working class embraced poverty and struggling situation in a positive manner. Despite this situation, family love was maintained in the social order. The normal problems found in a common family setup were there. The problems included poverty, overwork and insanitary housing which were faced by the middle class, affecting their bodily and spiritual health. In A Christmas Carol, the family was however happy and contented with one another, looking happier in the partying mood. Scrooge on his part kept a close eye on the last of the children, Tiny Tim (Charles 2012). The rise of masses in this period benefited the actual masses as a result of working together and uniting in fighting their problems. Their moral and religious union was maintained. For instance, in the story A Christmas Carol, Cratchit’s family is portrayed as one buried in poverty. They were poorly dressed in scanty clothes and leaking shoes. Like in the Cratchit’s family, Mr. Scrooge, the Founder of the Feast, is predicted as a character liked by the others. They tend to celebrate him, and continue feasting on this Christmas day despite their problems. However, Mr. Scrooge is portrayed as the Ogre of the family, whose name threatens everyone in the party.
Leisure and sport were other phenomena that characterized this period. The two represented cultural products of a changed and hierarchical society. Leisure was appreciated as an activity which allowed people to enjoy their lifestyles, giving them the freedom from the politics of the time. For instance, the situation of poverty and sufferings did not deter Cratchit family from loving each other and embracing the happy moments, such as that of Christmas.
In conclusion, it can be seen that problems and suffering should not be a limit to people’s joy and merry-making. The Cratchit family is such a family beating all odds to make a happy moment for all. They have forgotten all their sufferings and engaged in leisure and feasting. The citizens as represented by the Cratchit family were full of love, affection and social warmth for each other. The values formed the basis for demand for greater human selflessness. Their values presented a life of sentiment, something which was crucial in the recognition of solidarity amongst the citizens.

Charles Dickens (2012). A Christmas Carol.

Forget the rhetoric Look at the reality The UK is as much an EU member state as any other Discuss

Despite the rhetoric, it is essential to note that the UK is an integral part of the EU and its proposed exit would not be as easy as it seems. This country has over the years developed so many ties with the EU that it would be impossible to imagine it existing outside the Union, especially when one considers the influence that it has within it. This paper seeks to show that the UK is as much a member state of the EU as any other and that its ties with the latter are so deep that they cannot be severed.
The United Kingdom is one of the founder members of the EU and it is for this reason that this country has invested so much in it. The UK has been a member of this entity since 1973 and as such can be considered to be among the states that form the core of the EU (European Commission, n.d). The result of this membership is that the UK has since 1973 worked towards ensuring that its economy has become integrated with that of other EU member states and this has made it possible for the country to develop at a much faster rate. Following the massive dent that the Second World War had put on the UK’s economy, its joining the EU can be considered to have been a boon because it allowed for the faster development of the economy and this helped towards its recovery. As a founding member, the UK has a voice in the decision making of the EU and this has helped in ensuring that it retains its influence on the European continent. a factor that would not have been possible had it not been a member state. Moreover, the UK has developed strong political ties with other EU member states and this has ensured that negotiations concerning different issues take place easily and makes it possible for better cooperation between them (Schütze, 2012). The UK, like other EU members, has benefitted a lot from being a member because the Union has made it possible for the peaceful settlement of disputes that might have risen as a result of extreme nationalism and

Speeches of the Security Members during the Resolution over Syria

Even though, America and NATO expressed their concern regarding the affairs in that region their worry was the intimidation masqueraded by Islamic terrorism (Amnesty International, 2012, Pg.123-124).
The latest Sino-Russian support over Syria in the UN Security Council, the General Assembly and other global meetings is suggestive as it reveals a mutual sense of dangers, and solidarity to develop a policy to resist America, NATO and other regional nations where their course of action threatens Chinese and Russian interests. This paper shall analyze the latest Security Council debate, which led to the resolution S/2012/77 and criticized the extended brutality caused by the Syrian authorities. I shall particularly analyze the five speeches made by the representatives of the Security members, which includes, USA, China, Russia, Syria and Azerbaijan countries (Khashan, 2011, Pg.120).
In the context of the latest Security Council, the debate that led to the veto resolution S/2012/77, the Syrian government is under criticism regarding its brutal actions, and the purpose of this debate was to stop violation of human rights and attacks caused by Syria. Instead of endorsing the move to full capacity, the Russian and the Chinese ambassadors, Vitaly Churkin and Li Baodong respectively, implemented a mutual policy purposed at creating a resolution that would not be harsh on both the Syrian authorities or remove president Bashar from office. In endorsing their policy, they claimed that implementing such a resolution would provoke external armed intrusion in Syria, and this may cause an outbreak of a bloodier civil war (International Crisis Group, 2011, Pg.100-101).
Vitaly Churkin emphasized that Russia’s idea was an objective solution that would eradicate human violence and attacks and commence a political healing in Syria. He said that Russia had already arranged a meeting with President Al-Assad the following week, in order to obtain a concession that would create a peaceful dialogue between the regime and the opposition parties.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Brief the dred scott v sanford case and the raines v byrd case

They believed, according to the Court, that African Americans were "beings of an inferior order, and altogether unfit to associate with the white race, either in social or political relations, and so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect."
There were two dissenting opinions in this case. One by Justice Mclean and one by Justice Curtis. They argued that the court should not give an opinion on an issue that they had said was beyond their jurisdiction and that the constitution didn’t say what the other judges thought it said.
In 1994, the Republicans won control of Congress. They wanted to legislate a Line Item Veto for the President, so the President could veto aspects of a bill (in the past the constitution seemed to imply a president could only veto bills as a whole). A number of congressman disagreed with this idea and sued.
The court reasoned that under the constitution a federal court could decide cases only when the plaintiffs had a concrete injury and a personal stake in the issue. The court said the congressmen only had an institutional interest in the matter of the line-item veto—there was no personal

Strategic issues in banking and insurance

In developed world where most of the sector is de-regulated and enjoy substantial degree of freedom and autonomy, political influences may not be there however, in developing countries, this may not be the case. Developing countries do not have very well grown financial sector and most of the institutions are either directly owned or controlled by the government themselves or governments have the substantial share in them. This allows the government to largely influence the banks especially to engage into practices which may not be in direct interest of the deposit holders of those banks.
The era after 9/11 have seen a new shift into the industry in terms of influence of political forces on it. The anti-money laundering rules, terrorist funding etc were some of the key strategic issues which put extra pressures on the banks and insurance companies to devise methods and strategies which can effectively help in tackling issues like illegal money laundering, channeling of funds through SWIFT etc to the supposedly terrorist organizations etc.
The current economic trends especially the crisis emerged due to the subprime mortgages is considered now as one of the great strategic challenge faced by most of the players in the financial sector industry. Subprime mortgages are considered as the threat which has largely been created by the banks themselves as they tend to violate their own prudent lending policies in order to capture the market. This has therefore provided them an opportunity to earn at the cost of incurring high cost. “Sub-Prime lending typically has been characterized as lending at relatively costly interest rates and fees to credit impaired or otherwise high risk borrowers.” (Lax, Manti and Raca). Subprime loans are among the newly popular mortgage products, such as interest-only loans, for people with strained budgets, including first-time buyers. Homeowners increasingly use them to refinance and consolidate household debts

Evaluate the utility of the anthropological concept of the chiefdom as a means of analysing the kingdoms (tuatha) of Early Christian Ireland

In looking cultures such as the early Christian chiefdoms in Ireland where the evidence is not clearly established, the anthropological approach allows for the use of research from a variety of resources to be utilized in creating a concept of the nature of the culture.
In Ireland, according to the research and information gathered by anthropologists and archaeologists, after the spread of Christianity through the nation, there still existed a series of chiefdoms under which the rule of the land was governed. The tuath designed communities of early Christian Ireland were based on the needs of agriculturally based society. The evidence that is left from these cultures is based on evidence of settlements that can be attributed to the work in the last part of the 19th century by W. G. Woodmartin, and T. J. Westropp who began excavations and created maps that laid out the foundation of the settlements of the tuath agricultural communities (Edwards, 2006, pp. 9). Continuing excavations and discoveries support the theory of how the culture of the time period was structured, however it requires the use of theories of anthropological research and an understanding of the multiple disciplines under
Chiefdoms, as described by Earle (2000), are usually a population that is no more than a few thousand people, have some what of a system of inherited status within its social structure, with a chief that is primarily concerned with the economic welfare of his people (pp. 1). Within the development of political governing entities, the chiefdom sits somewhere between the hunting gathering societies and the developed state that is the basis of national formation that is the current model of social and political structuring. The chiefdom, according to Carneiro (2003), was part of an evolutionary cultural development that started with bands of people, moved to tribes, then chiefdoms, which eventually ended with the state as the political culture in

The Historical Status of the Vietnam and Afghanistan Wars

The Vietnam War is far much beyond the Afghanistan War, the effects of the explosives determine a lot in gauging the country against another. Since the end of Vietnam War, it took long before the world regained standardized health status (Alexievich 12).
The effects of the poisonous explosives that were launched in Vietnam affected the unborn babies who got challenged physically. This was meant to wipe out human races so that the Viet Cong and Tet would expand their territory. This was worse compared to the Afghanistan War that mostly consisted of normal bombs and explosives which only hurts the people in contact with (Marshall 15).
Considering the state of technological advancement, I would like to take into account the situations that innocent civilians and the political leaders underwent during the Vietnam and Afghanistan wars, economically the global economy suffered high rates of inflation that dates till then. The global community should embrace peace to enhance humane understanding and sympathy for the poor civilian population.
Most of the leaders and politicians are the main source of disagreement with the different governments. However, they are able to strategize in order to gain supremacy of property. The long term effects impact the common man and the poor children, youths and women. Both the cases in Vietnam and Afghanistan, the affected individuals require a lot of counseling as this may help the disparate personalities determine their way back (Alexievich 08).
Once the government is through with the war, leaders are awarded heavy positions while the poor continue to starve to their graves which are also sources of income. Being psychic, most of the people who were involved in the wars live to regret their experience and consequent illnesses at the expense of the countries they represented (Noddings 73).&nbsp.&nbsp.

AntiPolitics Sentiments

Self-serving politicians have caused the populace to develop a strong dislike for politics. The low political interest and anti-political sentiments can be overcome through intentional steps to understand the needs of ordinary people. Therefore, politicians should take time to discuss with their policies with the public even when they are occupying powerful positions. It is recommended that politicians make policies through consultative processes. Structured decision-making processes ease tension and reduce anti-political sentiments.
In many parts of the world, people have been developing disenchantment from politics. The persistence in alienation has been increasing. According to Hansard -Audit of political involvement-, the start of the 21st-century assessment indicated the desire of the British people to have meaningful and significant improvement in the government and political systems. Over six out of ten Britons had little or no faith in the political systems. An increasing number of people have lost confidence in the political system. This has been clearly seen through the desire to have an overhaul of the electoral system. The focus has been to make a system that is inclusive and reflective of the needs and desires of the people. Political participation by citizens is a multidimensional issue. The rise of anti-political sentiments has been stirred by poor governance and insensitivity from the leadership. There is a dire need to develop a policy that encourages inclusiveness and political equity (Hansard Society 2011, 17).

Evaluation of Effectiveness of Product Placement in Movies and Online Games

The role of the product placement has been shifted from being a background prop to now being an important part of a movie. There are many films like Castaways in 2002 where Tom Hanks who was a FedEx employee was left to drift alone after a plane accident with many FedEx packages. It helped him survive on the deserted island alone. Similarly, there are many instances in games like Burnout Paradise where political ads of Obama were shown. This shows that product placement is an important strategy for marketers in the present time. This report will take a look at the effectiveness of product placement in movies and games.
Product placement is defined as the paid inclusion of branded products or brand identifiers within a mass media program through visual or audio means. This kind of strategy is adopted by the marketers to increase the brand familiarity and sales of the brand. It helps to capture more eyeballs for the marketer. Basically, it increases the product presence among the customers more than ever before.
There are many advantages to product placements. These include overcoming the problem of zapping. Zapping occurs which when people switches between the channels. Because of product placement, people are unlikely to engage in zapping because the brand appears in their favourite movie or video games which they can’t change. Hence they watch the product while watching the movie. In addition to this in such films, the product is endorsed by a celebrity which h appears to have a significant influence on the attitudes of the consumer towards the product. Further through product placement, the advertisers are able to target very specific audiences since the demographics of those who attend the kind of movie can well be understood at prior. Product&nbsp.placement can have a longer lifespan than usual commercials. Whenever a movie or a video game is released on a DVD or on TV, the product placement is present in it. According to a research it was seen that audience s like product placement since it improves the realism of a movie or a video game.

Marxism and Pluralism Theories

The Marxist theory, laid down by Karl Marx, is an ardent follower of a class structure within the state. Marx said that there remained a vast demarcation between the capitalist and the socialist structures of society and in order for the weaker sections to rise. there normatively should be a revolution on part of the working class. The capitalist society exploited the working classes with respect to power and wealth and used labour in order to gain more and more resources and climb the social ladder. They were not concerned about the plight of the working class at all. Thus, all the political power rested within the hands of the capitalists.
The questions however remained, could the working class not rise and abolish the suffering that it was subjected to by the capitalists, overnight? “Certainly, on paper, the working class could do away with the state However, this would be only a formal, juridical act to the extent that the workers had not seized power in a society already so rich and with such an abundance of material goods and services that social conflicts as such, that is, centring on the distribution of these products, could disappear. and that the necessity for arbiters, watchdogs, police, to control all that chaos disappeared at the same time as did the relative scarcity of goods. This has never happened in the past and it is hardly likely that it ever will.” (Mendel, Ernest)
The main reason for Marx’s theory was to establish how power was divided between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have-nots’ of society. how there was a competition for the scarce resources that existed and how the politically powerful capitalists were the ones that had gained access to everything.

I Have a Dream A Critical Discourse Analysis

In the context of American society, the black people or the African American minorities of the American nation have faced several problematic conditions that are deeply related to the ideals of democracy asserted by the Americans.
Martin Luther King, one of the progressive leaders and activists that advocates the Black Rights and acceptance to the American mainstream society, has delivered a speech entitled “I Have a Dream” that is worth analyzing.
Before proceeding in the with the Discourse Analysis, it is worth note-taking that there are certain factors that inherently affected the very matter of addressing the social issues related and associated with the interplay of language and power during the time and social context of Martin Luther King in the American society back then. There is also a synthetic analysis that will be applied with the meanings, rhetoric and social conditions that Martin Luther and other Black Americans or African Americans, to be politically correct, face.
The very speech of Martin Luther King, “I Have a Dream”, was delivered after a protest march that the Black Americans held at the Washington DC, the edifice of political power in the United States of America (Alfayez, 2009).
The pressing social repression of Blacks due to racial hatred, deprivation of rights and other abuses have been the key factors that gave way for the occurrence of the said protest and delivery of a very assertive speech (Nordquist, 2011).
In a very general sense, the speech of Martin Luther King emphasizes the dreams, hopes, and aspirations of the Black people in America who have been constantly harassed by the injustices perpetrated by the White People, to whom which the political power of the American society rests and maneuvered accordingly to their own interests.
In terms of the emotional perspective, the speech is delivered in a very strong-willed manner that can move people to understand the dilemma&nbsp.of the people being repressed back then and to be emphatic about the struggles that they have endured before the occurrence of the said event that can be considered as a political move in the facets of America as a nation and as a society.

Can marx help us understand society today

However, the increasing inequality in the world shows that the application of some of his ideas could improve the modern society.
Karl Marx developed a theory of society. His theory explained how society works (Jeffries, 2012). In addition, he focused on the nature of capitalism. As a result, his theoretical frameworks are important tools for evaluating the modern society. However, he regarded Capitalism as being extremely unsatisfactory. In addition, he was so concerned with getting rid of it that he advocated its violent overthrow and replacement with Communism (Jeffries, 2012). Consequently, most people would be wary about the application of his theories to a modern society that has seen the negative effects of Communism, the impact of capitalism and the importance of protecting democracy. Consequently, it is important to note that his ideas contribute towards understanding the modern society without endorsing an application of his radical ideas. &nbsp.
Marx postulated that the economic situation in a society plays a significant role in shaping all other aspects. The form of production determines the social institutions and ideas that the society adopts. In addition, it determines its laws, morality and education system. For example, the wealthy people in a society are bound to have Conservative ideas while the working class is more likely to embrace the ideals of the Labor Party. Similarly, the young people who have nothing at stake in the current political system and hold a more idealistic view of life may be more willing to embrace the ideals of the Liberal Party. &nbsp.
Marx demonstrated that there were four types of societies. He used the means of production to arrive at the four distinct societies. They include, the primitive, slave, feudal and capitalist societies. The modern society is mostly capitalist in nature. A few capitalists own and control the productive resources in the world. In contrast, the workers only own their labor and have to work for

Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Technologies

Hydroelectric power, on the other hand, can also result in land wastage and the dams often result in depreciation of water levels and drying up of rivers drastically affecting aquatic life forms. Biomass combustion and geothermal plants release greenhouse gases in qualities that are comparable to coals as well as sulfur and nitrogen dioxides which pollute the air and cause acid rain. Finally, there is nuclear power, which poses catastrophic threats in case of accidents and the release of radioactive water and gases into the atmosphere in addition to the production of GHG from emergency diesel engines.

In most of the world’s countries, the primary sources of energy are carbon-based fossil fuels, this is however finite considering the fact that it takes millions of years for them to form although they are depleted in substantially less time. They are gradually becoming harder to extract as well as more expensive and this has in retrospect resulted in political conflict as nation’s battle each other in competition for these resources (Asif and Muneer, 2007). In addition, the environmental impacts of fossil fuels have proved dire owing to the inevitable production of GHGs, which follows their combustion. The corollary has been a myriad of negative environmental effects such as a marked increase in the greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere that is threating to drastically change the global climate. In addition, the CLC that is also byproducts of burning carbon fuels has depleted the ozone layer and this exposes the world to dangerous infrared shortwave radiation, which poses a plethora of health danger for life on earth (Drabyk, 2001). More direct and short term impacts of fossil fuel include massive pollution of air and water the former resulting in acid rain, health problems such as Asthma and the latter mainly merging in oil seepages and leakages in water bodies. The innumerable problems attributed to fossil fuels and their apparent finiteness has necessitated a shift to renewable energy that many touts as the only feasible source of energy.&nbsp. &nbsp.

The USled Invasion and Occupation of Iraq in 2003

While vying for political, economic and military supremacy, the two giants waged proxy wars in countries of the developing South like Vietnam and Afghanistan, wherein they faced defeats but the after-effects of the war had to be faced by the developing countries themselves.
The Israelites developed a strategy of forcing the Western powers to move the soviet Jews into Palestine with the US financing their resettlement, which according to Zionist leader Anatoly Shcharansky was one of the most significant factors contributing towards the collapse of Soviet Union.
Possibly one of the most influential episodes in the series of events preceding the US-led invasion of Iraq was the Afghan ‘Jihad’ of the 1980s. The CIA led by three US administrations and its different associations in countries like Pakistan, Britain, and China, etc trained Pakistani, Afghani and Arabic Muslims as ‘Mujahideen’ in order to drive out Soviets present in Afghanistan. The US planned to continue the supply of money, arms and technical assistance to the rebels. Following the defeat of Soviet forces in Afghanistan, the Afghan Taliban movement took control over the country from the years 1996-2001 but was ousted by the US in the wake of the 9/11 attacks. The US was sympathized with, until its attack on Iraq, which had no weapons, no relation to 9/11 and had not led any attack on the US first-ever.
The war in Iraq reported an enormous amount of casualties and deaths. The total number of US soldiers who were wounded from March 2003 rose to 32,223 in number by November 2011.1 The total deaths for US and coalition in Iraq war from March 2003 to November 2014 has been recorded as 4,806 with 32,244 soldiers being wounded.2 On the other hand, the estimate for Iraq war death toll has been put around between 100,000 and one million. According to an article published by Guardian in the year 2008, a survey by British polling firm Opinion Research Business (ORB).

The Response

The prisoner’s argument that he cannot provide any more information about himself that could perhaps help to the furtherance of the case if he cannot look at the evidences against him, is very reasonable. Their questioning and detaining of the prisoner bring the judges to examine, their actions as well because of the various considerations such as the political and moral laws which seem to contradict what needs to be done. In the eyes of the law, the prisoner has his rights that need to be respected but there are also a number of issues such as security that need to be greatly considered. Here arises the problem on how the JAG must decide on this situation. To help the JAG decide on the matter, this paper will discuss some philosophies of great thinkers such as Hammurabi, Moses and Cicero in order to enlighten and guide him through a well-meditated and highly informed resolution.
In the code of Hammurabi, suspicion is not enough for one to be punished. The detainee has been imprisoned for four years already without even enough evidence against him. During the hearing, the judges claimed that they have proofs against the prisoner, making him a threat to humanity. However, during their deliberation, the judges had to admit that the claims against the prisoner are not enough to prove him guilty as charged. Looking at the code of Hammurabi, the judges had all the right and reason to question the legal status of the hearing. There was not enough evidence that was produced against the accused but he was still imprisoned for four years. The detainee was stripped of his rights to perform his duties and responsibilities toward his family and to improve his life or even to exercise his craft and skills. He has been imprisoned based only on the testimonies of an unknown source who, on the contrary, can also be considered questionable.
On the issue about the status of the hearing, it could be considered that it was nothing but an

Modernization and Education in Egypt

The growth of education during the time of Muhammad Ali not only has changed the focus within Egypt but also has altered the political, social and religious realms within Egypt, specifically because of the political support toward education.
The alterations that began with Muhammad Ali were not only based on the political rulership of this time frame but also were created because of economic and societal impacts which led up to the demands within educational realms. Through the 1700s, there was a growth in the exchange between Egypt and Europe, specifically with areas such as France, Spain, and Britain offering an exchange of goods. The Ottoman rule offered free trade, stability and victory over different powers and ruling entities. This allowed the country to grow and prosper under rules of exchange and building wealth and prosperity. Egypt became known for trade with coffee and exchanges with merchandise. However, Ottoman authorities in the mid-1700s altered this exchange by stopping the import and export between both countries first by trading too much coffee and other goods then later declining the amount which could be exported because of a lack of goods. The same problem with decline occurred with the textiles, specifically because the Ottoman Empire didn’t provide the same quality of cloth and with rulings from France such as the Marseille chamber of commerce, which limited the number of imports and exports from Egypt. This was specifically because France was able to produce similar types of cloth to enhance their economy without the exchange. These several areas of decline with merchants then led to an economic downfall through the 1700s in Egypt (Marsot, 1984: 15). One component that led to the need for education was because of the economic boundaries that were created in the 1700s and the need to have alternative crafts to sustain the social order in Egypt.

Thomas Jefferson and the New American Nation

Usage of terms such as “necessary” creates an impression of the strong need for the Americans to take the proposed action, which is well connected to their human nature. The line, “One people” can be translated to send a strong message that the Americans and the British were different people brought together politically and breaking the “political bands” which was a necessity for the survival of the Americans. This choice of words was intended to capture the attention of America’s friends (Dolbeare &amp. Cummings 49-52).
However, there is one line in the Declaration that gathers much controversy and debate. The usage of the line, "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among them are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness” poses an intention that could have well been deeply thought to bring a diverse interpretation by the Americans, the British and possible allies who could assist the Americans in their quest for independence. This line consists of a group of principles pertaining to human rights that are naturally and rhetorically read and interpreted together. The principles brought out include: of equity. inalienability of the rights. examples of the rights. and an implication of the necessity that the government should secure these rights and the right of the people to abolish abusive governments (“Declaration of Independence”).
It can be said that Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence wills not only the freedom but the establishment of an equal footing within the American soil once the colonial powers are put to rest. However, the sound and uplifting message of such line “… that all men are created equal…” is, in one way, problematic up to this day.&nbsp.

Was the Falklands a vital factor in Thatcher’s political survival

123000 Britain in reaction to this, established a navy task force to attack the Argentine navy and the air force. Their main aim was to put in place an amphibious operation which would assist them to win back the Islands. On June 1982 Argentina surrendered leaving the Islands under the control of the British. This brought the conflict to an end. A total number of 907 people perish during the attack. among these were 255 British and 652 Argentine most of who were soldiers, sailors, and airmen. In addition, several people got injured and three islanders also perished. The two countries had a strong case which was inconclusive. Even though the British argued that they had put the international law into consideration it was not well-founded. According to Gamba (1987) an analysis made with the involvement of the Government, the Royal Navy and Parliament It showed that several impertinent factors and pressures majorly determined the decision of the task force being sent to south Atlantic. The government survival threat due to the argentine invasion factor greatly determined how the conflict was conducted. This situation had a great impact on Thatcher survival in office hence. all the actions put in place was mainly to favour her. Despite the various achievement of the British military the Falkland’s crisis was not solved appropriately The main focus in this paper is the impact of international war participation on political leader’s survival in office. The relationship that exists between the performance in war and the fate of political leaders afterwards is of great significance. In most cases leaders who involve their nation in war are more likely to be faced with domestic political hazard which may interfere with their retention of political power. As compared to the democratic leaders, the authoritarian leaders incline to war for a longer durations when they successfully come to power. In addition, democratic leaders are involved in wars which have lower chances of defeat than the authoritarian leaders. In this case, Margaret Thatcher is central to all the events that took place in the Falklands conflict. The British Prime Minister was criticized by the British press after she invaded the Argentine Falkland Islands. She was perceived as having been slow in reacting to the situation. This greatly affected her political fortunes. Prior to the war, it was uncertain that Thatcher and her party would be re-elected. However, a year later after she managed to repel the argentine forces successfully, Thatcher together with her party was returned to by a large majority to the parliamentary power in the general election that took place in 1983. The Falkland conflict had political impacts that were strong in the two countries. In Britain, Margaret Thatcher was under pressure from the parliament and she had to utilize this opportunity in order to ensure she survived in office. On the other hand, in Argentina Galtieri’s Junta opted to invade the Falkland’s for political survival while considering the domestic situation in his country. The intention In most cases armed conflict is pursued with specific intentions which include. obtaining the just causes objects, to correct the impact of aggression and injustice, to pursue peace and reconciliation in the presence of conflicts, and to immediately bring hostilities to an end. The British government Margaret Thatcher being

Abraham lincoln biography

The process of abolishing the slave trade and slavery in the country gained momentum during his reign and this led to the liberation of the American minorities (Denson 31). In this paper, Abraham Lincoln’s life, times as a leader, ideals, struggle for freedom and the view of analysts will be presented. Early life Born in 1809 in Hodgenville Kentucky to Thomas and Nancy Lincoln, Abraham lived in a small village and spent most of his early life working in his parent’s farm. Though growing up as a lone child, Abraham was born with other siblings including a sister Nancy and a brother Thomas, both of whom died while still young. The stay in Kentucky was marred by suppression and suffering as his parents were unable to get title deeds to own their farmland thus forcing them to locate to Indiana (Ferguson 86). The Indiana land ownership law was more accommodative than the one in Kentucky and the state enacted stricter laws on slavery. In Kentucky, slavery and the use of slaves were rife and this contributed to their relocation to Indiana, a state that had the northwest ordinance, which forbade the use of slavery. The Christian faith of Lincoln and his parents within the Baptist church contributed to his early hatred for slave trade and slavery in the state of Kentucky (Holzer 128). …
He later joined the military while in new Salem where he served in the black hawk war of 1832 and served various leadership positions in the military (Ferguson 90). Law and politics As a young American, Abraham developed strong ideals and beliefs in the development and strengthening of the democratic space of the United States. These strong ideological beliefs and view made him grow into one of the most respected members of the Whig party. During his times as an active political activist and pro-democracy crusader, Lincoln met Mary Todd, a daughter of an influential banker in Kentucky, a lady she later married 1842. Lincoln unsuccessfully contested for the representative seat but later won the Illinois representative seat in 1946 forcing him to relocate to Washington DC with his family. During his time in the United States national congress, the southern and northern states were sharply divided over the issue of slavery (Denson 28). The northern strongly opposed the use of slavery as advocated for the use of free labor for production and farming. As a result, the north outlawed slavery and slave trade while the south depended on slave trade for their cotton plantations. As a result, a large population of black slaves were owned and manipulated by southern plantation owners who exposed them to deplorable conditions. The southern also enacted strong pro-slavery laws which provided legal support for the owners of slaves and gave room for the development and growth of slave trade. As a representative of Illinois, Lincoln strongly opposed the use of slaves and the spread of slave trade into the western state. After the end of his term, Lincoln moved to Springfield to set a law firm with his partner William Herndon (Goodwin

Plato’s Republic

61500 For this reason, most theorists that try to explain the role and the characteristics of political institutions primarily refer to human nature, as influencing politics in all their aspects. Plato seems to follow a different practice. More specifically, in Republic politics and political institutions are analyzed and evaluated without a direct reference to human nature. However, if studied carefully the Republic reveals a close relationship between human nature and politics. For this reason it would be wrong to claim that Plato did not take into consideration human nature when developing his explanations for politics. rather Plato incorporated his views on human nature in his dialogues so that human nature is explained simultaneously with politics. The particular practice is analyzed below aiming to show that in Republic human nature has been the basis for the explanations for political institutions, even if the relationship between these two concepts is not always clear. 2. Human nature and politics for Plato Plato’s Republic has been developed in order to explain the role and the elements of politics, as appeared in the particular era. Still, the Republic is not fully related to politics. it can be also used in order to understand human nature. A thorough review of Republic would help to verify the importance of human nature for Plato. Of course, the Republic is a text dedicated to politics. however, it is the study of politics that helps readers to understand also the thinking and the social life of individuals in the particular period. The direct relationship between the politics and the human nature, as this relationship is reflected in Republic, can be understood by referring, indicatively, to certain parts of Republic. In the first volume of Republic, in book A, Socrates discusses with Kefalos, the father of Polemarhos. In the above dialogue Kefalos notes that he now, that he is quite old, enjoys the discussion more than when he was younger (328d). For this reason, he asks from Socrates to visit Piraeus more often so that he has the chance to discuss with him. Socrates replies to Kefalos that he also can learn from Kefalos important details in regard to the particular period of time, the senescence (328e). Socrates claims that Kefalos would help him to understand whether this period of time is difficult or not (328e). The specific part of Republic makes a clear reference to human nature. aging is an indispensable aspect of human life so that it can be characterized as an element of human nature. In the dialogue that follows, Kefalos offers to Socrates explanations in regard to the particular period of human life (329a-d). Further on, the interaction between this period and human life and the social and political life of individuals is clearly explained (330a-331d). the dialogue between Kefalos and Socrates ends with the explanation of the potential relationship between this period of human life and justice (331c-d). In the next dialogue, Socrates discusses with Polemarhos the elements of justice. Socrates aims to explain to Polemarhos the actual role of justice within society. The explanation given by Socrates is based on certain arguments. Reference is made to the view of Simonides that ‘friends should always seek for the good of their friends and they should never seek for their bad’ (332a). Polemarhos agrees that this view is right (332a). The above view reflects human behavior, as part of human nature. The involvement of human

North American Archaeolgy Iroquoian Confederacy

3750 North America Archaeology- Iroquoian Confederacy The Iroquoian Confederacy has been argued by some scholars to predate the arrival of Europeans, while other scholars contend that it was formed in response to the earliest European presence in the Northeast. What evidence supports both of the claims? The suggestion that Iroquoian confederacy predated the arrival of the Europeans is based on the findings on archaeological sites. Iroquoian confederacies started with neighbouring communities uniting to form single communities. This coalescing may have occurred between the fourteenth through to the sixteenth century (Birch 196). It is evident that the findings suggest that in the 14th century warfare was an essential factor in Iroquoian life suggesting the adoption of fortified villages. According to Fagan, neighbouring villages in the Iroquoian society came together for self-defence purposes. Cannibalism is an act prevalent in this period evidently supported by the existence of split, cut cooked human bones in archaeological sites, in south Ontario. This act waged war between tribes of northern Ontario and south Ontario. The war was due to the need to revenge the death of their kinsfolk (Fagan 157). Fagan states that the constant warfare exposed communities to premature death resulted to hardship by disrupting subsistence. This warfare led neighbouring communities to combine for self-defence archaeologists suggest that the fortified middle Iroquoian communities present the first development of western Iroquoian country (Fagan 157). This trend brought significant changes in societies. Neusis suggests that alliances between Iroquoian communities were maintained through intermarriages archeologically evident through the clustering of communities dated to the 5th century. However, intermarriages proved not to resolve conflicts among the communities like the competition for resources (Neusis 589). The difference in pottery styles, burial practices, and house types signified the division that existed among the Iroquoians living south of Lake Ontario, and Iroquoians living north of Lake Ontario. Social complexity in the Iroquoian society was a result of the fusion of communities. There is evidence to support the occupation of dense local populations in certain areas. Communities were separated by largely uninhabited land (Fagan 159). Iroquoian communities had unique talents, for instance there were communities skilled in medicine and healing rituals. Such unique talents strengthened the link among Iroquoian societies. Fagan suggests that, before the end of the 16th century, Iroquoian tribes of both Ontario and New York established loosely knit confederacies targeting to reduce blood feuds and warfare. The confederacy sole responsibility was to settle grievances among the Iroquoian communities (Fagan 160). According to Trigger the confederacy was a force that replaced hunting bands with larger groups, followed by tribes. Confederacies prevented unnecessary blood feuds. it promoted maintenance of cultural and political identity. The confederacy already existed upon the arrival of the Europeans. Trigger suggests that European contact only triggered the strengthening of the confederacies (Neusis 591). However, there is evidence that he Iroquoians had indirect contact with the Europeans evident from European artefacts located in Iroquoians settlement areas. This as many archaeologists explain is due to the fur trade that took place in the northeast. What did membership in this Confederacy do for its members during the colonial era? The Iroquoian confederacy governed the Iroquoian society. The organisation assisted members of its society in preventing blood feuds. The confederacy adopted a diplomatic policy when dealing with outsiders. The confederacy unified the northern Iroquoians. The confederacy instilled upon members correct social behaviour, which entailed politeness and hospitality towards one another (Fagan 158). According to Neusis, the confederacy resolved conflicts among the Iroquoian societies that arose in the process of competing for resources. The confederacy strengthened the Iroquoians alliance against other societies at the same time it reduced cases of warfare among Iroquoian communities (Neusis 589). The confederacy strengthened the political influence of the Iroquoians. They dominated Canada and United states for close to 200 years. The confederacy enabled Iroquoians win against their enemies in war. The great law of peace adopted by communities in the Iroquoian confederacy advocated against killing among Iroquoians (, The Iroquois Constitution”). The community’s under the Iroquoian confederacy shared unity in events such as sharing of resources even sentimental ceremonies such as mourning. The unity of the communities under the confederacy enabled the sharing of military skills and diplomacy. This strengthened the community enabling then conquer empires. What was life like for the enemies of the Iroquois during this same period? The Iroquoian confederacy principal function was promoting peace among its member societies. Foreigners were welcomed into their communities, but the foreigners had to abide by the rules spelt out in the confederacy constitution. The confederacy had the power to declare war upon their enemies a win against their enemies the war chiefs ordered their scouts to take all the weapons of war from their enemies ( “The Iroquois Constitution”). A victory by the Iroquoian confederacy against their enemy permitted them control over their enemies by forbidding the defeated group from participating in any warfare against other nations. Enemies defeated by the Iroquoian league had to join the great peace. Rebellion from the enemy after continuous persuasion did lead to a declaration of an indefinite war until the Iroquoian league wins the war. The Iroquoian league amalgamated their neighbours such as the Algonquian tribes. According to Neusis, this event was protohistoric and not a response to the European contact (591). Warfare launched by the Iroquoian league against their enemies was aimed at capturing captives for their sacrifice ceremony to the sun symbolising fertility and life. Fagan states that the Huron and Algonquians feared the Iroquoian league (Fagan 246). Works Cited Birch, Jennifer. “Rethinking the Archaeological Application of Iroquoian Kinship.”Canadian Journal of Archaeology 32 (2008): 194-213. Print. Fagan, Brian. The First North America: An Archaeological Journey. London: Thames &amp. Hudson, 2011. Print. “Introduction to the Iroquois Constitution.” Gayanerekowa, n.d. 05 November 2012. Neusis, Sarah, W. Seeking Our Past. USA: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.

Christina of Markyate

102500 Christina was educated which also made her unusual for her time period. Through a unique biography written during her time, Christina has become immortal through literary history in the story of her life and of the many ways in which she fought to hold true to her virtue in order to serve God. The book, The Life of Christina of Markyate: A Twelfth Century Recluse is intended to provide readers an insight into the life of a prioress so that they can live by her example. It is believed that the surviving copy of the book was written near the middle of the fourteenth century, perhaps written at St Albans under the direction of John of Tynemouth for a series on the lives of saints that he was assembling. The original text is available which is written in one persons handwriting, although there are notes on the pages from others, and is said to be quite beautiful (Talbot 1). The manuscript, that came to belong to Sir Robert Cotton and was within the Cottonian collection, was damaged during the fire of 1731. However, only the first page and the last page seemed to have sustained any significant damage (Talbot 3). The only things that are known of the one who wrote the biography is that he was a monk in the monastery of St. Albans. It is clear that the biography, in its original form, was written by someone who was close to Christina and who was very familiar with Geoffrey de Gorham, the wealthy abbot of St Albans who offered support to Christina. The writer refers to ‘our monastery’, thus creating the impression that the monastery where Christina made her place, St Albans, is also his monastery (Talbot 6). Through the personalized way in which he describes the lives of the characters in her life, it is probable that he knew them all. Christiana was born into an Anglo-Saxon noble family at the end of the 11th century. Her name was originally Theodora, but she changed her name to Christina. Her family was in danger, however, because of the French occupation of England and in this situation, the Anglo-Saxon nobility was almost powerless. Christina went with her family to St Alban to pray and the effect that the visit had on her was to turn her devotion to God. She swore her virginal state to God as a devotion to a life in his service. However, a man decided to marry her and asked her father for permission. Her biography suggests a great many ways in which her parents tried to trick her into losing her virginity to her future husband, but through her own tricks and prayer, she was able to keep sacred her virginity (Amt 139). Christina is portrayed as being very intelligent, an intelligence that is recognized by her parents. One of the aspects of Medieval life for women was in the commoditization of their lives. Women were essentially sold into marriage in exchange for whatever the parents of that woman needed, whether that be political considerations, money, or social prestige. Through Christina, her parents could find a match that would benefit their lives. Talbot translates that her biography states “For if she remained chaste in love of Christ, they feared they would lose her, and all that they could hope to gain through her” (Talbot 69). As a woman, Christina was intended to be a product rather than a person, an object rather than the subject of her own life. In her refusal to her parents in front of the Fredebertus of the monastery, she states “.

Why did the Ottoman Empire collapse in the end of the 19th and early part of the 20th Centuries including World War I Be sure to analyze the reform efforts of Mahmet Ali and then the Young Turks Ultimately why did they fail

The collapse of Ottoman Empire [Insert al Affiliation] The Ottoman Empire also knows as Turkish Empire was a Sunni Islamic established by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in 1299. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, the Ottoman Empire was meticulous at the height of its supremacy under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (Khater, 2004). Since, the Ottoman Empire was an outstanding multilingual empire and multinational controlling much of Southeast Europe, the Caucasus, North Africa, Western Asia, and the Horn of Africa (Gelvin, 2005). However, following a lengthy epoch of military setback against European powers, the Ottoman Empire progressively declined in the late 19th century. Therefore, we shall candidly try to explicate on the collapse of Ottoman Empire at the end of the 19th and early part of the 20th and analyze the reform efforts of Mahmet Ali and the Young Turks.
The forces that shattered this old and once powerful state was the loss for the Empires to Europe, and indeed the horrific conflicts caused by WWI hence amplifying instability and chaos. It divulged it to external assault by the European opponent and deteriorating its control over the resources and population it claimed to rule. Conversely, reform attempts in the Ottoman Empire by Mahmet Ali and the Young Turks were efforts of updating the economy administration, and military of the Islamic empire that united much of the Islamic world in the Levant (Gelvin, 2005). However, due to decline in economic factor and political corruption associated with Ali and the Young Turks this destabilized them in the face of Europe’s expanding power. Consequently, the empire lost its military and technological superiority. Whereas the European army were persistently advancing their artillery, the Ottomans let them languish, thus putting them in a susceptible situation against their opponents
Consequently, the impact of WWI on the Middle East led to the destruction of the old order as it resulted in the loss of multinational by the Ottoman Empire hence fostering it declines (Khater, 2004). Finally, the shock of World War I destroyed the Ottoman Empire once and for all, hence by 1918 Empire ceased to exist, leading to mushrooming of recent secular state such as Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Israel.
Gelvin,&nbsp.J.&nbsp.L. (2005).&nbsp.The modern Middle East: A history. New York: Oxford University Press.
Khater,&nbsp.A.&nbsp.F. (2004).&nbsp.Sources in the history of the modern Middle East. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Turkey political system

One of the non-Muslim communities is the Greek community. Another community is the Armenian community. A third community is the Jewish community. Recognition of these communities is in line with Turkey’s compliance with the Lausanne Treaty. The Turkey nation includes other homogenous communities. The community includes the 15 million member Kurdish community. Furthermore, the other Turkish groups included immigrant communities. One of the communities is the Circassian community. A second community is the Albanian community. A third community is the Bosnian community. Georgia is another community. Moreover, the Turkish community is ruled by several political parties. One of the parties is the Justice and Development Party (AKP). The Islamic AKP party is a conservative party that espouses democratic ideals. The AKP government’s cultural and societal policies implements democratic religious concepts. Mustaf Kemal “Ataturk” and his Turkey-based concepts (Ataturk Movement) Mustafa Kemal or Ataturk is recognized as one of Turkey’s well known leaders. He founded the Republic of Turkey (Crossland, 1). Ataturk did not espouse the philosophical theories of Karl Marx. He did not propagate the political theories of Lenin. In fact, Ataturk did not directly espouse any philosophical theories. He never borrowed any philosopher’s theories. Moreover, Ataturk did not even create his own unique philosophies. Ataturk was more of a manager than a thinker. Ataturk was more of a pragmatist. Further, Ataturk did not imitate some of the Brazil government leaders’ positivism philosophies. A pragmatist is a person who decides on a case to case basis, not based on standard policies, theories, philosophies or procedures. Ataturk was a down to earth or practical leader. Ataturk…
Turkey today is embroiled in a territorial dispute with the neighboring Cyprus government. The issue arose between the Greek government leaders and Turkey’s AKP government leaders, in terms of their Eastern Mediterranean hydrocarbon mining. The Greece government ordered the establishment of an exclusive economic zone. Turkey’s AKP government felt the establishment of the zone was economically disadvantageous to the Turkish nation. Mining quarrel focused on the drilling of oil in the area. The democracy will produce de-bureaucratization and de-securitization of the Greek and other foreign issues. Further, Turkey’s AKP government prioritized creating cooperation and camaraderie with its Muslim neighbors. Turkey contributed its share to the resolution of the Palestinian-Israeli crisis. Turkey’s President Sezer visited Damascus to create close ties with its neighbors. The AKP government’s beneficial relations with Syria irked the United States.

Globalization of one place

However, contemporary globalization marks a critical shift among the nations by bringing the society and its forces into greater proximity to one another. In the Tropic of Chaos, Christian Parenti sheds lights on a new dimension regarding the impact of the increased globalization in the face of climatic changes. He analyzes how the extreme weather had bred to humanitarian crisis, state failure and banditry, ultimately accumulating for a greater catastrophe among the nations. In this paper, we shall analyze the contemporary globalization of Mexico and how it has been influenced by the extreme weather changes and other external forces.
Mexico has been a rapidly developing economy from the beginning of the twentieth-century, marked by its progressive changes in the economic and sociopolitical components. The economic and political significance of the country places it at a remarkable spot in the global sphere. Therefore it is important for the country to gain knowledge about the opportunities and potential drawbacks that globalization would bring into its economy. “Cutting agricultural subsidies, democratization, and giving poor countries a place at the table at trade negotiations are all steps in the right direction.” (Rivoli 256). It could be evident that globalization affects different social sectors of Mexico differently, causing economic, financial, political and environmental disturbances to the nation. The local responses, to these forces of globalization in Mexico, particularly the business and agricultural sectors, cause the major changes to its economy, consequently, facilitating or sustaining the nation’s development globally. Critics have pointed out that the contemporary globalization “puts jobs and communities at risk in the rich countries and exploits cheap labor in the poorer countries. increases threats to the environment. and undermines the foundations of democracy and social stability by subjecting national

What is the definition of policy

Policy Policy New policies have been developed as a result of the adoption of a new health care delivery system in the United States of America. These policies have been necessitated by both political and economic factors. Additionally, social factors also do have an influence on the development of nursing policies. Florence nightingale was very instrumental in the development of policies aimed at enhancing health. In fact, she is considered as the founder of the nursing profession. Florence nightingale was very instrumental in formulating public health policy. Her policies have had a significant impact on the nursing field worldwide since she was among the first to offer or advocate for a full public health care system. Clear and well thought out policies are vital especially in times of rapid change in the health care field to advocate for improved communication within organizations so as to advance public health.
Policies determine the care accorded to families, communities or individuals when accessing health care services. Thus, policy is primarily defined as a course of action which is followed by an institution, government or business to achieve the desired goal. According to Parahoo (2014) health policy is defined as both the private and public policies which are directly linked to the provision of health services. The primary purpose for the formulation of policies is to safeguard the health of the public. Thus, policies basically serve as a management tool for risk management while promoting health. McDonald (2006) states that Nightingale’s holistic approach to the concept of health focused on critical elements that mainly influenced health. These are good child care, safe childbirth, good nutrition, decent housing and access to clean air and water. Thus, policies enhance and increases safety in nursing practice (parahoo, 2014).
McDonald, L. (2006). Florence Nightingale and public health policy: Theory, activism and public administration. In Origins of Public Health Policy CSAA Meetings, York University.
Parahoo, K. (2014). Nursing research: principles, process and issues. Palgrave Macmillan.

The results of the US involvement in Iraq

Nevertheless, the US invasion on Iraq has been considered as one of the most momentous and controversial foreign policy decisions that have ever been made by the American government. Different scholars and political analysts of the world have been divided over the explanation of the American war on Iraq. With a group of them agreeing that it was necessary to maintain world peace by silencing Iraq while the other group finds it unnecessary and a war that had a different motive than just maintaining the world peace. Today, effects of American presence in this country and the impacts of the invasion are still evident. It would be observed that the leadership in Iraq was transformed from dictatorship to democracy a government where the Iraqi citizens had more influence on policies of the government.
Also, the presence of America in Middle East helped contain the major militant gangs of the world. Taliban and Al-Qaida. a great step towards uplifting the lives of the different citizens of Iraq and Middle East. But did this solve the Iraqi problem of leadership? Was the government established Democratic? Did this end terror in the region? Iraqi together with several other nations of Middle East today is perceived to be home to the most brutal and dangerous militia group in the world-ISIS. This brutal group has continued to violate the universality of the human rights as stipulated under the UN Human Right Convention of 1948. Now, do we blame America for going in Iraq or do we blame the extremists in Iraq? These are few of the questions that linger in the minds of many individuals today. The truth is that America has had a stake in what is happening in Iraq and the presence of America in Iraq is what has resulted to both the emergence of al-Maliki system of governance and the rise of militia groups in Iraq. This research paper seeks to establish the effects of America presence in Iraq and its influence on the emergence of al-Maliki governance and militia groups in

Risks and Opportunities of Urbanization

Risks and opportunities of urbanization The number of mega cities and their populations has been increasing and the trend is predicted to continue, especially in developing countries. Characteristics of the mega cities identify their effects on the cities and these have consequences on sustainable development and form the focus of this discussion.
High population density of megacities identifies their potentials to promoting sustainable local and international economic and political developments. Factors such as availability of cheap skilled labour and identity of the cities as centres for economic and political decisions show the cities’ ability to define their destinies and destiny of global stakeholders due to high-level interdependence. The high population, which is growing, may however be a threat to sustainability due to depletion of resources and resultant resource scarcity. High population density, especially with cities that lack proper planning, is also a threat to living standards and welfare because of compromised garbage and sewage systems and this has potential adverse effects to resource allocation and utilization for sustainable development. Dynamism among the cities is another factor to sustainable development and while dynamism in economic activities promotes economic development, unplanned activities such as land use undermine future developmental prospects. Planned ventures as realized in “settlement, infrastructure, and land tenure” however ensure planed approach to sustainable development of the mega cities and emerging cities. Increased significance of social and economic gap, as people converge in the cities, is however a source of conflict and a threat to present and future development. Poor governance, compared to developing complexity levels in mega cities is another threat to the cities’ developmental prospects (Kotter, 2004).
While effects of development and expansion of mega cities offer developmental prospects, some of its factors are a threat to sustainable development and development and implementation of strategies for managing the threats are recommended.
Kotter, T. (2004).Risks and opportunities of urbanization and megacities. FIG. Retrieved from:

Drones for Domestic Video Surveillance

Drones are easy and are expected to revolutionize security surveillance as well as being considered essential asset in future despite privacy concerns and other abuses.
People of different political ideologies have raised debate regarding the use of drone with opponents complaining of infringement of fundamental privacy (Yanklowitz Web) interests and right to associate with others freely while proponents emphasize on potential benefits such as protecting public safety (Locke Web). Thompson asserts that issues of security and interests have always been triggered by arrival of surveillance technology in the past since law enforcers can now see through walls or track one’s movement from the sky (7). It is therefore apparent that many people question the proper balance between the necessity of the government to keep people safe and the privacy needs of the public even though the public support drone usage in some circumstances and less enthusiastic about using them as part of routine law enforcement.
It is therefore undeniable that drones have limited abilities such as failure to communicate with civilians for more detailed intelligence and the fact that they cannot go from door to door. Moreover, some drones are lethal and can therefore not be used for surveillance and the public feel paranoid and feel like the government watches them. Yanklowitz argues that privacy concerns are the main challenges to domestic use of drones because continuous surveillance may torture, shame and even make one loss dignity (Web). Drones let the government spy on the public at home in various circumstances such as while taking showers or doing some sensitive things that may require some form of privacy hence depriving rights of the public and lowering their dignity.
Thompson explains that home plays an integral role in American life and is accorded the greatest fourth amendment protection by ensuring that the right of

The Significance of the Luxembourg Crisis

This paper will look into one of the most challenging concerns encountered by the members of the European Economic Community (EEC), the ‘Luxembourg crisis’. The Treaties of Rome established EEC. In these Treaties, free trade, liberalization, mobility of people and federalism creating the supranational institution European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) were the principal and foundational principles of the Treaties. Although opened to all countries of Europe, the initial members of the EEC were limited to six countries namely France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and The Netherlands.
The Luxembourg crisis is a result of France’s unilateral renege of the importance of qualified majority votes and re-asserts the “right to veto a proposal in the Council of Ministers by declaring that a vital or very important national interest was at stake” (Moravcsik 1991, p 20). The ‘Luxembourg crisis’ is largely influenced by Charles de Gaulle. This action is deemed as the most threatening event in the history of European integration (Dinan 2007, p. 1141). It is also known as the ‘Luxembourg accord’ or ‘Luxembourg compromise’ or the “empty chair crisis”. In this regard, this paper will address the question “what is the significance of the ‘Luxembourg Crisis’ in the context of the development of the West European Integration?” The paper does not only seek to have a historical look during the foundational period of the EEC, but it asserts the position that it has a significant impact on the political and economic interaction that has been continuously happening among the European countries fifty years after the happening of the Luxembourg crisis.
Undoubtedly, after WW II, one of the primary concerns that West European governments had to deal with was the rehabilitation of their own individual countries. However, the establishment of the&nbsp.European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), more than the economic vision of a common market for Europe, the move was political.

The Obligations of the Carrier under a Bill of Lading Are to Properly

There are a number of purposes among which is the evidence of the contract of carriage, statement of the condition of goods received and whether the goods received match the contract description, document of transfer without transfer of ownership rights (2004). Obligations of the carrier under the Bill of Lading include proper and careful loading, keeping and stowing of the goods received alongside with proper discharge of the goods on the board. While, undoubtedly, consideration should be given to human input, the present technological development, and long industry experience significantly lower the possibility of human mistakes during the transportation process.

Crude oil is widely used as a source of energy alongside with production of plastics and manufacturing. As an item of strategic importance, crude oil has for a long time been an object of various political confrontations. The issue is rooted in supply and prices on the commodity: transportation infrastructure emerged in an attempt to satisfy the rising demand for crude oil and products made out of it. Crude oil is transported from production sites to refineries by water and by land. About 62% of all crude oil is shipped by means of maritime transportation: barges and tankers, the remaining part is moved mainly by pipelines, trucks, or trains. Thus, consideration should be given to the two major means used in the industry: oil tankers and pipelines (Hopkins, T. D. 1992).

The safety of the commodity during the transportation process largely depends on the technological aspects of the cargoes used. Oil tankers are classified in accordance with their size: while coastal tankers can carry only about 50,000 tons of dead weight, ULCC is Ultra Large Crude Carriers and can transport over 300,000 deadweight tons. An increase in size of tankers and, consequently, an increase in the amount of chemicals transferred requires special security systems to be installed inside the tank to guarantee protection from the oil spills. The&nbsp.majority of tankers are owned by independent tanker companies, thus technological characteristics responsibility is transferred on the owner.&nbsp.

Sectarian conflict in Iraq

The first two pages provide an in depth analysis and commentary on the evolving nature of the conflict. It argues that the roots of the conflict have been present since the creation of the country in the aftermath of World War I by the integration of former Ottoman Empire provinces. Further the politics of the country has been based upon totalitarianism and centralized government that has been effective and efficient in suppressing any manifestation of Shiite or Kurdish nationalism and fundamentalism. After this the research study focuses on the efforts of the Iraqi and American administrations in resolving the sectarian problem. Despite superficial attempts to negate the concept of sectarianism the root causes of the conflict persist. The research paper uses the political theory of realism in order to understand the causes and nature of the sectarian conflict in Iraq. Finally it makes recommendations which will assist policy makers in eradicating the scourge of sectarianism in the country.
Iraq was created after World War I by the British administration by joining together former provinces of the Ottoman Empire. Three ethnic and sectarian groups, Kurds, Sunnis, and Shiites inhabited this area. During the Baath party regime of Saddam Hussein, the Sunni elite had managed to suppress any manifestation of Kurdish or Shiite resurgence. However the United States invasion of Iraq and overthrow of the Saddam Hussein regime has dangerously changed the balance of power and monopoly once enjoyed by the Sunni elite. Shiites and Kurds have carved out their respective zones of influence where they dominate the state and security apparatus. Fighting in Iraq has increasingly turned towards a sectarian conflict between Shiites and Sunnis. The struggle has also been a broad part of the struggle between Arab states and Iran to protect and defend their interests in Iraq. Sectarian clashes have led to the wholesale expulsion or killings of minorities with enclaves being carved out

Importance of International Law on Human Rights

At a global level, the international human rights law is the body entrusted in keeping and promoting these statutes internationally, regionally and even nationally. The United Nations (UN) through the United Nations Security Council and the United Nations Human Rights Council is the only universally recognized entity that exerts jurisdiction on human rights issues. Countries adhere to international law by consenting to at least partially acquiescent to international law or jurisdiction according to the 1920 Statute of the Permanent Court of International Justice. This and subsequent statutes comprise the various international treaties, declarations, and guidelines that constitute the international human rights instruments. The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) of 1948 form the basis of most of these human rights instruments, which have generated various international and regional instruments that guide the international laws on human rights (UNHCHR, 2009) [see Table 1].

Although there is no principal body entrusted with enforcing international human rights, several judicial entities exist including the International Criminal Court (ICC), which presides over war crimes and genocide, the European Court of Human Rights, and the Inter-American Court of Human Rights that normally work under the guidance of the UN Human Rights Council (OHCHR, 2009). At the state level, 110 countries have set up National Human Rights Commissions to monitor and promote human rights.

In many developed western countries particularly the United States, the notion of human rights has developed over time but can be traced to the influence of British political theorist John Locke who ascribed to the view of natural rights of an individual. The US Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights have thus emphasised the importance of individual and collective rights.&nbsp.

Analysis of the Novel Disgrace by J M Coetzee

82000 In the novel ‘Disgrace’ (1999), Coetzee uses the novel’s protagonist who is named David Lurie to discover the consequences that social and political change has in generating the base of individuality in a person. Through the protagonist David Lurie, the writer brings out the negative impacts the ethnic and sexually biased political and social programs have upon both the advantaged and disadvantaged people exposed to the system. This impact is revealed in David Lurie through the way he constructed his original personality, and when his personality becomes completely weakened as a result of the social and political transformation. According to Stratton, ‘the primary determinate for David’s identity is his sexuality’ (Stratton 83). David Lurie’s sexuality is clearly shown in the first chapters of the novel. on Tuesday afternoon David paid a visit to Soraya, the prostitute and he said, “solve the problem of sex quite well” (1). It is also seen when he took advantage of his student, Melanie Isaac, he “wakes…in a state of profound wellbeing, which does not go away” (20). Lucy portrays that society values men more than women and through this power over women they sexually abuse the women. Though the value David depicts is out-of-date even as the novel was set in a post-feminist time, that is 1999, it has remained part of David’s identity. This value has been seen to create problems in his life and the life of women he meets. The social value displays him as a servant of Eros who diminishes women. he takes women as a tool to quench his desires. The social value he carries was a great sign of ‘disgrace’ after the court hearing and is seen in his relationship with his daughter and divorced wife, not one but two. David Lurie’s incapability to keep fruitful relations with women in his life is a further impact of the male-controlled values that he personifies. It is evident in the novel that David had married and divorced twice, and his incapability to sustain a marriage is stressed by the narration. the old tone has entered, the tone of the last years of their married life: passionate recrimination.

Criminal Justice with Chinese Characteristics

Advancement in the legal system in China was backtracked by several factors including the cold war, world war two, and the disruptive political campaigns that followed after that. Real reform began in 1970 when legal institutions began to be formed (Gelatt, 2001).
The Renmin jiancha Yua (procuratorate) is the agency that prosecutes criminal offenses. The agency has evolved over the years from the one the emperors used to the present-day system. For instance, the imperial secretary position has evolved into the present-day public prosecutor. The procuratorate is part and parcel of the government and it is mandated by the National People’s Congress. Unlike in the United States where there are various legislations that are created by the different states to meet their unique legal requirements, China’s system has only one code that is applied across the board (Gelatt, 2001)

Rising of Oil Prices

3750 On the one hand, the western world led by the United States as the world’s largest consumer of energy, has been practicing geo-political policies that would ensure control and supply of this vital natural resource. on the other, the realization of the value of this near monopoly resource by the world’s leading oil producers has upset the supply, demand and price equation in a most significant manner. This conflict of interest has resulted in what we are witnessing today: cartelization of the oil industry, soaring oil prices, weakening the dollar, rising inflation and worst of all, war/threat of further wars in West Asia – the major oil-producing region of the world. At USD 110 per barrel, there are ominous signs of not just in the US but a serious worldwide economic downturn.&nbsp.In the West Asian region, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, and the Gulf countries are among the world’s largest oil producers. The US, UK, and other European oil corporations were controlling the oil exploration and refining industry here and setting the price of this vital commodity. The growing economies of the western countries and Japan needed ever-increasing volumes of the oil products, which had to be imported mainly from the Gulf region. The Arab-Israel conflict and the formation of the oil cartel – Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), led to the first oil price shock. In the words of Meyer et al., “…possession of a monopoly resource by OPEC countries …a rising tide of nationalist self-awareness, old resentment at exploitation …would force renegotiation of the terms on which petroleum was to be made available… The&nbsp.outbreak of the Yom Kippur war in 1973 and the subsequent oil embargo led to a quadrupling of the oil prices” (Meyer et al., p.6). The days of cheap oil were over once and for all, although the later fluctuations in the prices were generally in tune with the increased availability of non-OPEC supplies, the occasional breakdown of cartel arrangement, supply/demand situation etc. For example during 1982 – ’83, oil prices fell by 15% (Meyer et al., p.95) due to a decrease in US demand. Disruption of supplies due to the recent militant events in Nigeria, Africa’s largest oil producer, has also impacted oil prices (Shanmugam &amp. Singh). Similarly, Russia’s stranglehold on supplies of oil and gas to east European nations dictates the energy prices.

Global civilization

What were significant changes instituted by Napoleon Bonaparte and how did his rule change Europe permanently? Napoleon Bonaparte had an influence onthe political and social outlook of French society after the French Revolution. While the revolution had left the political corridors in a state of disarray, Napoleon gave the society a more organized and unified outlook. Napoleon brought about the spirit of nationalism in the French army that had been dejected previously in the form of loss in the Seven years War against the Great Britain. The nationalistic spirit ingrained by Napoleon Bonaparte led to an overall rise of revolt against the status quo forces of Europe. The legend of Napoleon came about in form of effective internal governance. Code of Napoleon and other associated functions were the gift of his works. Napoleon Bonaparte consolidated his power and in turn enforced the influence of France in the affairs of Europe. For next fifteen years Napoleon single handedly took upon the rest of the European states and created panic in their ranks.
Discuss the events leading to the fall of Tsar in Russia and Emergence of revolution and Rise of Lenin?
The Tsarist government and rule came to an end towards the later part of First World War. It was brought about by number of events. The disturbances and nerviness within could be felt from the middle of 19th century. The decay of the monarchy from within was another factor. The appearance of the likes of Rasputin did not help the cause and made it further worse. The elements of Rasputin only added controversy and scandal to the existence of the monarchy (Garrard &amp. Newell, 2006, 180). The war with Japan did not go too well either. The Dumas established as an attempt to bring about reforms did not auger well for the Tsar.
In the light of these events, the commoners were dissatisfied and demanded a revolution. Vladimir Lenin was the pioneer of this entire movement and he organized the party of Bolsheviks in an effective manner to stage an upset and revolution.
Importance of Woodrow Wilson 14 points?
Woodrow Wilson was the first American President who aimed at breaking the American isolation from the global affairs. This came about in the form of the 14 points of Woodrow Wilson at the end of the First World War. Being an important global player, it aimed at imposing its influence and contributing towards the global peace. The 14 points were an effort towards restoration of the peace and avoiding of similar affair and account. Woodrow Wilson had aimed at bringing about an early end to the war that was causing direct damages to the humanity.
Although there were number of significant points in the 14 point agenda, yet the establishment of the League of Nations was one of the direct gifts of Woodrow Wilson’s ideas. League of Nation came about as the first of its kind as a global entity established towards global peace and cooperation. Demanding more effective participation from the global players was another important point of 14 point agenda. Stressing for a more democratic third world representation were few of the basic principles and ideas that summarize Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points. Unfortunately for the global peace, W. Wilson did not get the approval of Congress and in turn these 14 points could not be implemented in letter and spirit.
Garrard, J., &amp. Newell, J. L. (2006). Scandals in Past and Contemporary Politics. Manchester University Press

Why is stress such a major concern for employers today

People, who can take it as an opportunity or challenge, can improve their performances and make a mark. The different factors that cause stress are known as stressors.
The environmental stressors include economic, political and technological changes. Organisational structure is always influenced by economic environment of the country and this has been more closely realised in the current global financial turmoil. Because of economic slowdown in most of the developed nations, organisations have been forced to change their structure in the form of cost reduction, halting production and most importantly reducing employee strength by lay off or even permanent job cuts. This has created immense stress on employees. Their anxiousness gone to extreme high as their job security declined.
Organisations are often forced to change their structure because of various political reasons. When a country is politically restless, organisational structure also becomes unstable because of that. For an instance, when East Germany integrated to West Germany many people were under stress of loosing job, changing organisational culture etc.
Another important environmental factor is technological change. In this advanced age of information, everyday a new technology is getting invented. Because of these new technological inventions, an employee’s skill or experience might become obsolete at a very short period of time. Consequently, a person might come under huge stress of loosing importance in the current system of operation. Some times implementation of new technology in organisation leads to even reduction in number of employees if few of them found not suited for that new platform. These things make employees to come under huge mental stress.
Role demands include the pressure of performing a job which the person is not supposed to do, when the role itself is not clear to the

Managing in the Public Sector The Prison Service

While a prisoner is certainly placed under boundaries of the law, s/he does not stop being a human being and it must be noted that s/he has the same right to be treated humanely and with as much importance as those who are not with him/her in prison. The treatments and the rights are controlled by those who are supposed to manage Her Majesty’s prisons and even though things such as the Human Rights Act 1998 and the European Convention on Human Rights have improved conditions for many prisoners, there is still a lot more which can be done (Valette, 2002).

This is certainly recognized in the corporate objectives outlined by the UK Prison Service but it must also be noted that the external environment of the world at large and the UK, in particular, is changing rapidly and in the next ten to fifteen years significant alterations can be expected. There are political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal changes that impact the various stakeholders in the prison system which include the government, inmates of the prison system, managers, policymakers and the public at large (Hill and Ham, 1997). Therefore an analysis of these factors is quite important for all students of public policy.

The prison situation and handling prisoners are seen as a responsibility of the government and there are certainly political implications in how they are handled. For example, the Economist (2006) reported that more than a thousand foreign criminals had been released from prison but had not been asked or forced to leave the country. It is certainly a political question in terms of a debt to society that foreign criminals should be treated just as local criminals are but the labor government’s home secretary Charles Clarke had to listen to calls for his resignation based on this question.

The political stakeholders are the government of the day who have to come to terms with how prisoners have to be treated. They&nbsp.can not afford to spend more money on them without angering those who think that the same money might be better spent elsewhere (Cohen et. al., 2006).

Religious Tolerance

This paper will examine how secular societies have lost respect for radical religions, thus effecting their attitude toward more traditional and tolerate religions.
Western societies have become too politically correct. With the trend of increasing political correctness, Western culture has become over tolerant of religious differences. In the wake of overly tolerant attitudes toward other religions, Western societies left themselves open for the 9/11 attack and the London bombing. This has swung the pendulum in the opposite direction creating a zero-tolerance policy for any one of the Islamic faith.

One must question the willingness of Western cultures to have the attitude of religious tolerance. The answer is simple. Western cultures have fought for civil rights, especially religious freedoms. To understand Western views, one must examine not only the definition of religious tolerance but the social and moral facets of this issue as well.
Looking at this definition, it could be that the 90-s political correctness has shifted many from the centre towards either the softheadedness or the narrow-mindendness. This is perhaps why, as we turn to a new century, the New Labour Government is critically re-evaluating the effects of this policy. This comes in the form of demand on those who are tolerated to embrace integration process rather than resort to the unhealthy creation of parallel communities. In other words, they are asked to be tolerant in return for being tolerated. This seems a reasonable proposition and is a necessary departure from the historical context of religious tolerance. In John Locke’s A Letter Concerning Toleration he emphasises ‘the mutual toleration of private persons differing from one another in religion’. The recent address by Prime Minister Tony Blair, whilst seen as signalling a mixed message on multiculturalism, implies&nbsp.that ethnic and religious minorities settling in the UK, in return for being tolerated have a community duty to integrate and this tolerance on their behalf is of a social rather than religious nature.&nbsp.

The Social Construction of Sexuality Homophobia as a Weapon of Sexism and Masculinity as Homophobia

The postmodern era is widely acknowledged as the age of liberalization. Liberalization in every aspect of human life, starting from economic to political, from social to psychological has received the highest importance. Unfortunately, as we all know there is always a huge gap between theory and practice, even in this era of postmodernity, maintaining such a gap in certain aspects of human life is encouraged. Sexuality or the idea of sexuality is one such aspect, where maintaining the gap between theory and practice is encouraged, consciously or unconsciously, starting from common societal level to intellectual plain. Sexuality is essentially an idea that has been formed by the society. Notion of the Western World about sexuality is based on the ‘the Christian equation of sexuality with sin, which must be redeemed through making babies.’ (Hubbard, 2003, p.65)

The prevalent social conception about sexuality is that it must be aimed at procreation. Sexual orientation must have only a single form and people are strictly discouraged by the society from being involved in any other form of sexual orientation or pleasure other than heterosexuality. A child is taught in a completely different way about sex and sexuality by his/her parents or people around him. But the idea developed by him/her about sex and sexuality is completely in contradiction with the idea of sexuality that he develops in his mind. On one hand, a child is taught by his/her parents that sexuality is directed towards one goal and that is to become father and mother. But, when they step into their adolescence the entire society and its diverse cultural experience encourage their fantasy to enjoy sexual pleasure with their counterparts. Due to such consequences we are seeing, “Teenagers do not act “responsibly” – teenage pregnancies and abortions are on the rise and teenage fathers do not acknowledge and support their partners and babies.”

The League of Nations the French Revolution the Vietnam War

1250 The main objective of the League of Nations establishment was to stop the First World War. The league provides a forum to solve international disputes could in a peaceful manner, through the league’s Assembly.&nbsp.The French revolution was between the year 1789 and 1799. The ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte concluded the revolution. The French citizens redesigned the political landscape of their country in a bid to outdo obsolete institutions set up during the feudal and absolute monarchy system. Enlightenment ideas influenced the revolution. The French craved for the adoption of concepts of popular sovereignty and rights that were inalienable in the country. Reforms created a constitutional monarchy. Feudal codes and old regime taxes ended. The revolution shaped modern nations by depicting to the world the immense power in people’s wills.

The Selection and Description of Supreme Court Justices

The first nine Supreme Court Justices were named in 1789, but it was not until 1816 that the Senate authorized the formation of the Committee on the Judiciary for the explicit purpose of considering and confirming (or rejecting) the nomination of an associate or chief justice for the Supreme Court. It was only at this time that some sort of check and balance was deemed necessary because of the lack of specificity of the terms of the Constitution regarding the selection of justices. It gave the president too much leeway in selecting a nominee and left the confirmation of such an important post to the whims of a directionless Senate, who is supposed to “advice and consent”. Note that deliberate and investigate is not included in this definition of the Senate’s role in the justice selection. However, wise heads determined in 1816 that even if it was not subscribed in the Constitution, it should be established to confirm the legitimacy of the appointment. The system worked quite well but in 1987 the proceedings became quite contentious enough to arouse public interest. It was in the nomination of Robert Bork and the Roe v. Wade case that the Senate hearings became a matter of public debate.
However, no other case has attained this level of public notice with regard to Supreme Court Justice selections since and between 1994 and 2005 was quiet because it was the time that the nine members of the Supreme Court remained constant. This ended with the retirement of Justice Sandra Day O’Connor in July of 2005 and the death of Chief Justice William Rehnquist in September of that same year.&nbsp.President Bush found himself in a position compelled to name successors to the two vacancies. President Bush complied by naming John Roberts and first Harriet Miers and then Samuel Alito to fill the positions. (Dorsen, 2006) This sparked renewed interest in the process of selecting and confirming justices to the Supreme Court. This paper seeks to provide an overview of this process as well as the political aspects that have influenced the process in recent years.&nbsp.

Development Nature and Organization of a New Independent School in the Middle East

In fact, due to the well-established nature of some of these divisions, it is sometimes difficult to approach the subject at all or to debate its merits and problems. Private schools need to position themselves to meet these sometimes conflicting demands. It is therefore essential that principals have an excellent understanding of the social dynamics in the region in order to know how to best strike this difficult balance. They have to be informed about the political and cultural divisions within the society the school serves and they have to know how best to teach issues relating to diversity and difference without upsetting the social customs of the place.

Bearing these issues in mind, the purpose of this research is to examine the reasons for the establishment of NIS (New Independent School), a real and existing education institution, in the Kingdom of Bahrain in the Middle East and to investigate how the school has managed to meet the demands it faces. A comparison will be drawn between the reasons for the establishment of this specific educational facility and the reasons for the development of other independent schools within the Kingdom of Bahrain, as well as for the establishment of similar schools in Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. In order to structure my thesis, I will take the NIS International School in Bahrain as my case study. By examining the development and organization of this school in relation to other schools in the area I will be able to explore the effects of religious extremity and tolerance, co-educational issues, and the amalgamation of extremely diverse cultures, along with several peripheral yet pertinent issues such as the nature and personality of the school parent body.

My special interest in this area is two-fold: firstly, I have been the director of one such international school since its inception in 1993 to its present state of over&nbsp.4000 students, including 38 different nationalities.