Its own people with the aid of aggravators such as the Jews were greatly responsible for its downfall.As marriage is naturally intended as a means to procreate and to build a good foundation for a new being, Hitler had considered that early marriage would be more appropriate. Having a young couple on their fullest capacity is the only possibility that marriage’s main function will be practically fulfilled.Blood sins are sexually transmitted diseases, considerably affecting not just the couple but the very innocent child as well. In that sense, individuals infected with such should be renounced of his sexual practice.To put an end on its suffering and avoid infecting others, an organism that is no longer healthy and can fight for its life must expire. It may sound brutal, but very practical and natural to its sense.For Hitler, a race should be pure having their culture preserved as it continually develops his people. His organic theory implies that race should be unmixed, thus keeping its fine traits, and be able to further grow, being undisturbed by any impurities. He considers Aryan race as founded pure, perfect, and superior to other races. He attributes that almost all signs of human development were products of the Aryans.His emphasis on pure race implies his own political theory. For he had considered that any breed alteration may affect purity, the same thing is true with a nation. When a nation becomes so bombarded with so many forces, it becomes distracting. That happens on democracy, when excessive freedom, gives the people so many choices that eventually lose their focus towards their main goal. Their national objective then would be compromised being so vested with their own self-interest.When he speaks of inner unity, he pertains to a nation letting itself be influenced only by a single force that binds its people together which is national solidarity. Again for him, democracy would just open the door to other conflicting visions. That would then explain why and how he had managed to put down democracy.
There are advocates of non-proportional plurality and proportional electoral systems alike, the merits of all these differing electoral systems to constitutional designers will be assessed, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of each electoral system in turn. Constitutional designers would have to consider the merits of each electoral system depending on what their objectives were, for instance, whether proportionality was considered to be more important than strong government or vice versa.If the sole political objective of any group of constitutional designers was to help establish a strong government they could look to introduce a non-proportional plurality electoral system. The electoral system that would provide the best example for constitutional designers is the simple plurality system. The simple plurality system is better known as the first past the post system. Britain is the best example of a country that actually uses the first past the post system to elect MPs to the House of Commons, which its advocate’s claim produces strong government, and it also creates a strong line between MPs and their parliamentary constituencies.1 Under the first past the post system the candidate with the most number of votes wins the parliamentary seat, it does matter about the size of their majority, all they need is one more vote than their nearest rival. The way in which the first past the post system operates has favored two main parties, originally the Conservatives and Liberal parties, with the Labour party replacing the liberals from the 1930s.2 The period between 1945 and 1974 was the heyday of the two-party systems in Britain with the Liberals only having MPs due to electoral arrangements with the Conservatives. The first past the post system has except for rare occasions produced governments with a workable parliamentary majority.
y rate of 45 million people worldwide and The Third Pandemic, which originated in the Yunan Province of China in 1892 and ended in San Francisco in 1909. The Plague continues to erupt sporadically up to present times when advances in antibiotic treatment have fortunately made us better equipped to deal with it. 2 Following closely on the heels of the cataclysmic Famine of 1315 – 1317, the Great Pandemic of 1347 – 1352, variously called the Great Dying, the Pestilence, the Black Death, and the Bubonic Plague, was a blight that would forever change the face of Europe. 3 The City-States of Italy were among the nations which bore the brunt of it’s’ ravages. Both Venice and Florence suffered devastating attacks from the Bubonic Plague, with similar effects on their demographics, religion, economy, and culture: however, in the long term, while the plague led to Venice’s political downfall, it was one of the seeds responsible for the blossoming of the Italian Renaissance in Florence.The pathogen responsible for the Bubonic Plague is the bacillus Yersinia Pestis, isolated and identified by the French bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin in 1894. It is endemic in rats, where it persists in the bloodstream of its’ host. The vector which carries the pathogen and causes it’s’ spread is the Rat Flea (Xenopsylla cheopis), which ingests the pathogen when it bites an infected rat. The bacillus rapidly proliferates in the digestive tract of the flea, where it solidifies and blocks digestion. The ravenous flea continues to bite rats and unable to swallow, regurgitates the rats’ blood, along with the pathogen, into the rats’ bloodstream. Infected rats either die or suppress the infection and continue to host the pathogen. When the population of animal hosts decreases, the fleas bite men and the human immune system, ill-equipped to handle the pathogen, succumbs. The Plague in humans is of three types: Bubonic Plague, Pneumonic Plague, and Septicaemic Plague.
There are three options from which Irina may choose to achieve her purpose which is to seek a permanent residency status in Australia. These are the following: apply for a territorial asylum status under Subclass 800. apply for a protection visa (subclass 800), and. apply for a Distinguished Talent Visa (Migrant or Resident which are Class BX),A territorial asylum visa is one of the types of political asylum visa. It is indicated as Class BE under Schedule 1, Section 1131 of the Migration Regulations 1994. This visa is a two-stage process. First, Irena must write to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of her intention to seek political asylum. If the Minister grants her one, she must then proceed with the formal procedure under Section 1131 of the said Act. This is because under Section 3, subsection (aa) of the said law, she must, at the time of the application, attach documentation which evidences thegrant by a Minister to the applicant of territorial asylum in Australia, and was issued by or on behalf of the Commonwealth. The other pertinent requirement under the said provision is for the applicant to be actually in Australia.In a recent case involving a Chinese diplomat, Chen Yonglin who sought the Minister’s approval for political asylum in Australia, the Australian Senate Foreign Affairs, Defence, and Trade Committee conducted a hearing into the case in connection with the inquiry on asylum and protection visas. It was established during the said inquiry that the government through the Minister, in considering political asylum applications, is guided by the following criteria: national interest, legal obligations, humanitarian considerations, and public opinion. It was also learned during the said inquiry that three government agencies are actually involved in deciding political asylum cases: ASIO which will determine the security risk status of the applicant. the immigration agency will determine the suitability as immigrant of the applicant, and. external affairs, the humanitarian aspect of the application (Mr. Chen Yonglin’s Request for Political Asylum 2005).
I am impressed by the major five positive impacts of social media, which have influenced the world. The first impact of the social media is the sharing of news very quickly. it can say that social media is a source of video or audio news. Currently, all the news channels are using Facebook, twitter, google+ to share the news headlines for the readers and the viewers. It is proved that now the news is more accessible with the help of social networks to aware of the whole world. Quickly sharing of news was not possible than before. The second impact of social media is to bring the interaction between every nation and country in all over the world. Most people use social networks to keep in touch regularly saving time by quick clicks to send short sentences. New friendships with totally cross-cultural people are the result of social networks. The third impact is the establishment of political-landscape to influence people’s perspectives. The sources of social media have generated an effective political awareness and organization for the people, and the political parties also observe their people’s views for re-establishing the party manifestoes. During election campaigns, the views of the citizens can predict the election results very early. the example of President Obama is the proof of his re-election on the basis of social networks’ results. The fourth impact of social networks is to expand the circles of education by promoting different educational programs. Social networks are also useful for the children to advance the communicational skills to becoming a more educated person, as the learning process starts from childhood goes on for whole life. The fifth impact of social networks is the downfall of expensive advertising agencies through cheap and easy publicity of the brands. No doubt, social media has become a source of efficient marketing. Now the consumers and theproducers can talk directly to discuss the products very easily.
However, the divergent opinion on exactly the location of Japan arose in the 19th century as asserted by Ferdinand (2007, p. 655). A Japanese scholar suggested for Japan to break away from the rest of Asia in order to join their more developed imperial powers during that time. This concept historically ‘betrayed’ Japan and hence the origin of different opinions whether Japan is part of Asia. This paper presents a discussion on Japan’s locality, politics, business, education, spiritual life, families, and working aspects of Japan.The political organization of Japan was by a succession of Monarchs just like in many countries of Asia. The common citizen did not own properties or had no human rights but in the name of the ruling family. The status quo of one family would continue unless another powerful family overthrew it (Steiner, Krauss Flanagan, 2014, p. 479). This system of government was common in other Asian countries like China, which had an empiric system of government.Development in the political structure of many nations has been in place over the years. For example, Japan developed a new form of government as a result of its growth in the economy. The new form of government of Japan instead of a monarchy system provided a better way of managing their influx of capital. Their economy continued to grow almost the same rate as most Asian countries an indication that Japan is part of the Asia continent. After the Second World War, most countries surrendered to build a new political system. Japan and other allied countries of Asia adopted a democratic government where the nation is ruled by two houses of the parliament. The system of government, the diet was common in many Asian countries including Japan in the 1940s. The new political system required countries to build their electoral process through which they could select their leaders of choice (Steiner, Krauss Flanagan, 2014). The Japanese Diet system of governance declared that the emperorwas the symbol of the state.
Representations of crime and punishment offer, in varying measure, titillating glimpses of the seductions of deviance, moral boundary maintenance and an anxiety-arousing frisson of fear. It is further mentioned that election campaigns did not mention crime as an important issue until 1970 when Margaret Thatcher developed law and order into a major arena of ideological conflict. Thus it is evident that the UK had realized the importance of community safety and crime prevention during the late 1970’s which prompted the government to chalk out policies and framework for crime prevention. This paper examines the emergence of crime prevention and community safety in the context of the ‘crisis’ of governance that afflicted the United Kingdom during 1970 and 1980.Reiner (2000, p.81) mentioned that the increases in recorded crime levels were fuelled further after the mid-1970s by the consequences of the fundamental shift in the political economy represented by the return of free market economies and the deregulation of an increasingly globalized market. It is further mentioned that the consequences of crime and social cohesion are enormous because of the widening of social divisions, and growth fo social exclusions. As social exclusions, economic, insecurity and inequality grew. the motives and opportunities of crime multiplied and the restraining effects of both formal and informal social controls are eroded. Dingwall and Davenport (cited in Fennell, 1995, p. 21) mentioned that the United Kingdom today faces a problem of crime which could not possibly have been forecast at the end of the Second World War. It is further stated that crime rate increased from 50,000 reported crimes in 1950 to 1.6 million in 1970 which further increased to 2.5 million in 1980. It is further stated in a comparative study by Biles that in the period between 1960 and 1979 the recorded crime rose by 177 percent in England and Wales (Fennel, 1995, p27).
Proceeding with a historical overview of the conflict, the competing Israeli-Palestinian narratives will then be reviewed, following from which Oslo, despite its eventual failure, will be used to establish the possibility of reconciling the said narratives.The origins of today’s conflict between the Jewish and Palestinian people lie in the birth of political Zionism at the end of the 19th century and the development of Arab nationalism in response to colonization during the British and Ottoman empires in the 19th and 20th centuries.1 Violence between the two groups first erupted in the 1920s and has continued to plague their relationship ever since. After World War I, the British promised Palestine to the Palestinian Arabs for a homeland while simultaneously guaranteeing it to the Zionists as a Jewish homeland.In 1947, a British royal commission recommended the partition of Palestine in order to create a Jewish state, which ceded 55 % of Palestine to the new state of Israel.2 This recommendation was approved by the United Nations (UN) but rejected by the Arabs. Therefore, in 1948, when the first Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion declared the independence of Israel without specifying the state borders, seven Arab states attacked Israel. The 1948 war was the first military clash between the two nationalist movements of Zionism and Arab nationalism, comprised of conventional state-to-state, military-to-military combat in the name of national security.Ultimately, Jewish forces defeated the opposing Arab forces, and the UN then negotiated armistice agreements between Israel and Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria.3 As a result of this war, the state of Israel won additional land but lost old Jerusalem, a city that is considered sacred and holy to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. At this time, the West Bank of the Jordan River was ceded to Jordan and the Gaza Strip to Egypt.
The implementation of the Social Security Act in 1935 was particularly symbolic of the constitutional conflict between government and the judiciary (Alter, 2006). Whilst the Social Security Act had been passed by Congress, the Supreme Court had yet to rule on its validity. These proposals were unchartered waters for federal authority and it was inevitable that it would be challenged in the courts and until the Supreme Court ruled, the status of the New Deal reforms was ambiguous (Dubofsky, 1992).The eventual striking down of the New Deal reforms raised issues pertaining to the minority control of power held by the Supreme Court (Garraty, 1973). FDR’s desire to gain momentum with what he perceived as necessary measures to help America out of its post-Depression after effects was the driving force behind the court packing measures (Garraty, 1973). Whilst the court packing measures ultimately failed to gain significant ground, it has been argued that the lasting legacy of FDR’s court packing plans was to create a constitutional shift, which in turn redefined the political structure of American government (Manza, 2000). The focus of this analysis is to evaluate FDR’s court packing plans in context of the New Deal reforms and critically consider the lasting impact of the plans on today’s political structure.Firstly, it is important to highlight that the controversy surrounding the New Deal was fundamental in reshaping and redefining the constitutional role of the Supreme Court in American government (Malamud, 2003). The initial role accorded to the Supreme Court under the Constitution is set out in Article III, section 2 of the Constitution. Article III on a strict interpretation arguably grants narrow original jurisdiction, with cases involving more than one State and cases involving the individual vis-à-vis the Federal government solely being within its remit (Alter, 2006). Conversely, the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Courtincludes all other cases with the right to reject appeals (Niskanen, 1996).
This paper illustrates that fighting existed between the nobles, royal families, and other kingdoms as peasants scrambled for more land. Regarding the feudalism system, only royal, noble, and middle-upper classes received consideration as members of the society. Although the peasants were bound to the land, they did not have any rights. Subsequently, they were referred to as ‘excluders’ to the society. In this social context, any crimes were against the sovereign as the society regarded them honorable. Further, the society intended to instill fear to the peasants through torture and public execution. Such situation was meant to ensure automatic obedience among the peasants. The contextualized punitive powers gave not only pain to the body, but also left terror to the soul. Foucault shows torture and public execution as the ‘surplus power’ of the sovereign and a technology of power over the body. The political logic of punishment in relation to the performance display of power considers crime as an offense to the rectitude of those that abide by the law. For instance, if an individual commits an unlawful act, whether they do not cause harm or injury to the individuals, it is an offense that demands reparation. Essentially, any intervention of the sovereign in a case meant an offense against him. Further, every offense or crime considered as ‘potential regicide’ had an ideal punishment where it constitutes all possible tortures. Since crime is an offense, punishment, torture, and public execution are seen as vengeance. Therefore, destroying a body piece by piece through the infinite power of the sovereign constituted not only the ideal but the real limit of punishment. In addition, punishment restores sovereignty by displaying the infinite force on a body. Consequently, chancellery formed in 1789 indicated the universal idea relating to concerns of execution and torture. The situation was typical to end the physical confrontation between the sovereign and criminals. Henceforth, execution became shameful and revolving. In his book, Foucault asserts that on the side of power, where it betrayed tyranny, excess, the thirst for revenge, and the cruel pleasure is taken in punishing results in revolting. On the victims’ side whose thought is reduced to despair, is expected to bless heaven and the inherent judges that seemed to have left him.
The practice of wine consumption is gradually becoming a fashion trend among the youth, particularly, the population of the urban centres. This trend is majorly visible in China. In India, although there are strong government regulations against the practice of consuming wine, the young generation of the country are increasingly showing greater interest towards wine drinking. This paper presents a comparative study of the social-economic, political and financial conditions of two countries, India and China. Based on the information revealed, a particular country is chosen in which an Australian wine-producing firm might invest in making international expansion. 2. Market Research Market size and potential growth Country China India Potential demand Drinking wine is one of the oldest traditions in China. This tradition can be dated as long as 5000 years back in the history of the country to. Brewing was a dominant industry in China. Wine made from food grains (such as rice) and grapes are the most favourite drinks for the people of China. This shows that the potential demand for wine in the country is quite high. Recent studies reveal that wine consumption by the population of China is showing an increasing trend over the period of last ten years. According to various researchers, consumption of wine by the Chinese would almost become double of the current figure (UPENN, 2012). The pattern of changes in the society as well as the economy has been the major thrust behind the changing trends in wine consumption in China. The market for wine in India is changing. The rise of the retail industry and the growing middle class in India acts as a catalyst to the growth of the wine industry in the country. According to recent research, wine consumption in India reflects tremendous growth since the beginning of the 21st century. Wine market in India has increased by almost 30 percent between 2003 and 2010. As a result of globalization, India has been exposed to western culture. The middle class in the country is fast accepting and adapting to western fashion. Although India does not have a heritage of drinking wine, the practice of wine consumption is increasing, particularly, on social occasions. In the past, only the males in the elite class used to patronize a wine-drinking culture. However, presently, the high-income middle class is gradually becoming a loyal customer base for wine sellers. Costs Cost of the product is determined by the cost of the raw material used in the production of the good and cost of other inputs. Grapes are one of the major ingredients used in wine production. China has grape vines covering 1.25 million acres. Half of the produce is dedicated to the production of wine (G. G. Brostrom and J. Brostrom, 2008). Since there is adequate availability of grapes in China and cheap labour is also available, the costs of producing wine in China is not very high. In India, the government protects the domestic wine industry against competition from foreign producers. Although cheap labour is available in abundance, other ingredients, such as grapes, are costly. This makes the cost of producing quality wine quite high in India. Sellers often discriminate among the target customers with regard to pricing policies. While prices of certain products are lowered to attract more customers, while the prices of premium brands are kept high.
In the late 1890s, citizens of the United States of America found themselves at the bottom of a financial hole. It was an economic crisis that citizens and politicians alike could not grab the reins on to regain control. Unfortunately, where there is economic crisis, political crisis is usually just around the corner as politicians from all sides attempted to get their own tight grip on the situation. William Jennings Bryan, a former congressman from Nebraska, was among the politicians desperate to put an end to the economic crisis and stood behind the movement of Free Silver to help citizens climb out of their debt1. While the majority of the politicians were more concerned with helping those that funded their campaigns, Bryan was among the very few who were truly concerned for the well-being of his potential voters. He fought for them diligently, knowing that by not allowing silver to be used as currency, people would be pushed over the edge as they would further feel the strain of their out-of-control debts. However, the other politicians wanted gold to remain the only currency, which would mean that citizens would never be able to get out of debt. While silver would mean rampant inflation, it would also increase the nation’s prosperity and provide a quicker solution to the nation’s debt. Unfortunately, gold was the ideal currency for bankers and businesses as there would be no inflation to harm them, and they were reluctant to see it set aside for silver. Bryan was not bothered by the strong stances held by bankers, businessmen, and the politicians who were pro-gold. If anything, Bryan was baffled that politicians, the economy, and citizens alike could greatly benefit from using silver as legal tender, yet still have many people against using silver. Though the arguments against silver could hardly be debated, Bryan felt that the needs of the citizens, the struggling masses, who produce the wealth and pay the taxes of the country,2 especially the farmers, were more important than the greed of bankers and businessmen. Bryan’s famous speech was spoken completely on behalf of the citizens that needed the financial relief, impressing the importance of adding silver to the legal tender that included gold, stating that politicians shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold3. It was Bryan who made it clear the kind of damage that could be caused by not allowing silver to be circulated as legal tender. As such, Bryan helped to change how citizens were viewed by politicians, making them an important part of the decisions that were made for the nation as a whole.
Failure on gas could hit GDP by $14bn Tasker (2013) reported that Australian government is developing new gas supplies in New South Wales (NSW) but failure of this development would not only affect the wholesale price index of market in the country but also cause reduction in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by more than $14 billion in next 22 years. Although, Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association (APPEA) states that the country has a significant amount of scope to develop its gas and petroleum reserve in the east coast but there is an argument that development of coal-seam gas would negatively affect the economic growth of the country. Tasker (2013) reported that at present, NSW imports gas from other states and developing gas would definitely reduce gas price in the state. There are three pertinent issues in this case such as 1- developing CSG assets in NSW would increase resource capability of Australian government and that would decrease wholesale price index and volatility of economy in the country (Tasker, 2013). Developing gas reserves in NSW would help the Australian government to create jobs in the area between Newcastle, Sydney, and Wollongong. 2- Developing CSG assets in NSW would be a matter of great interest to local oil companies in Australia. As of now, 95% of gas resources are being imported by NSW and local companies need to pay heavy amount of tax to use the imports but development of gas resources in NSW would probably increase resource availability of local Australian oil companies and due to the availability of gas, gas export-driven revenue for local oil companies would shot up (Tasker, 2013). 3- Developing the gas sector would probably increase national competitiveness of Australia and provide an opportunity to multinational oil companies to enter the gas market in NSW. However, developing gas and oil sector in NSW could decrease command of international companies over Australian companies regarding the supply of gas and crude oil. It’s expected that Australian companies would go for low-cost local gas supply rather than importing it from International players and such change in the supply-demand equation would decrease the bargaining power of international oil companies (Tasker, 2013). Australian businesses must grab Indonesian opportunity Durie (2013) reported that Australian government is trying to increase business transactions with Indonesia and it is quite evident from the visit of Australian Prime Minister to Indonesia in order to strengthen the business, economic and political tie-ups. At present, Indonesia is the fourth largest country in terms of population in the world and the country can be the potential doorstep for Australian companies to enter the business environment ASEAN countries. The Australian government is also taking help of the leading companies such as Leighton, ANZ and Coca Cola to decide the business and trade policies that could increase ease of doing business in Indonesia. Three implications of this article can be briefed in the following manner. 1- Australian government is trying to boost up its economy and GDP growth by increasing trade transactions with Indonesia (having GDP growth over 6%) and also trying to achieve the first-mover advantage for exploring trade opportunities in Indonesia. Developing trade relationship with Indonesia would help the Australian government to access agricultural yield of the later and that would address food shortage issues in the country Durie (2013).
They are mercantilism, liberalism, and Marxism.Admittedly, mercantilism advocates extensive state regulation of economic activity for the sake of national economy. That means mercantilism wants to have all economic activities subservient to the interests of the state. The theory argues that if there is no formal authority given to the state, the result will be a ‘state of nature’ which is marked by brutality. So, it is necessary to surrender individual preferences and likes to universal good. Thus, according to mercantilism, collectivism is more important than individualism, and strengthening of state’s power and wealth is the best way to ensure public welfare (Keegley and Blanton 2012, p.457).The early mercantilists took into consideration the fact that the wealth of a nation is measured in the form of the quantity of gold and silver in its public treasury. In order to strengthen the same, the government intervenes in the local and international economy. While the state activity in the domestic economy includes effective collection of revenues, the efforts in the international sphere appear in the form of protectionism. In other words, mercantilism argues that the solution to solve inequality for a state is to ensure balance of trade. In the words of Crane (1997, p. 35), a state is supposed to run a balance of trade surplus, maintain an inflow of specie, in order to retain its position in the international economy where all states are acting in self-interest.Later on, Adam Smith started criticising the claims of mercantilism, and developed a new line of thinking. According to him (cited in Sally 2002, p. 112), the market has an ‘invisible hand’ of itself, which is sufficient to meet the self-interests. In other words, when markets function freely, based upon division of labour, there will be maximum efficiency and growth.
These elements are examined below in greater detail to determine if The Da Vinci Code is grounded in historical fact. The novel traces its modus operandi on the famous mural by Leonardo Da Vinci The Last Supper where Jesus is depicted dining with his disciples. The first disciple to the right of Jesus has been claimed by the author as being Mary Magdalene or Jesus’ wife (41). Before proceeding any further it is pertinent to note that Leonardo Da Vinci was an artist, inventor, mathematician, engineer, physiologist and numerous other things but he was not a religious figure by any given means. Instead the exact opposite is true of Leonardo’s life and his association to the church or any other form of organized religion is not highly credible in terms of historical fact (Nicholl). Expecting someone such as Leonardo Da Vinci to be close enough to religious orders to know their secrets which he painted in cryptic forms is rather incredulous. This reveals poor research on the part of the author as does his treatment of Mary of Magdalene. The novel mentions Mary of Magdalene as hailing from the Tribe of Benjamin (59) though there is evidence to the contrary. Magdalene derives itself from the historical town of Magdala which is located in northern Israel. However the Tribe of Benjamin was actually located in the southern reaches of Israel (Olson and Miesel). Given also that Israel has been largely settled for the last two millennia there is no question of the Tribe of Benjamin being nomadic or mobile. Hence there is little doubt that Mary was part of the Benjamin Tribe which the author has used to trace her royal heritage (57). Instead the use of the Tribe of Benjamin for locating Mary of Magdalene’s heritage can be traced directly back to the iconic Holy Blood Holy Grail (Olson and Miesel). However the author denies any connection to the aforementioned book vehemently in interviews. The author has also remarked that a potential political union came into being through the marriage of Jesus and Mary of Magdalene (249) such that there was potential of making a legitimate claim to the throne. It is worth considering why Solomon’s kingship could be considered as carrying any meaning in today’s world to augment a conspiracy theory. Just as King Solomon is irrelevant to today’s politics, society, economics and the like, he was irrelevant to the time when Jesus roamed the streets of Jerusalem for the very same reason – he had been dead for quite a while. Expecting the Catholic Church to create a cover up story to disconnect Jesus’ offspring from the kingship of Solomon is absurd as there were and there are no connections between Jesus and the kingship of Solomon. The author has shown little respect for Arab and religious traditions from the land of Jesus. It was common and still remains common for Arab women to be identified through the names of their near male relatives such as fathers, husbands as well as children or through the names of places where they hail from. This tradition of naming is not limited to any particular region, creed or faith but instead it is part of common Arab culture and tradition. Hence it is common for such naming schemes to be found all over the Arab world whether you are Jew, Christian or Muslim. However when Mary of Magdalene’s name is examined it is apparent that she was not being
The image showing a captive without pacho (traditional clothing) shows how prisoners or captives were treated in that land. For a human being to be denied the right to be properly clothed is a sense of humiliation or disrespect in the society. Looking at the picture, it is evident that the prisoners in the land of Israel were treated as useless or rather insignificant. The fact that they lack clothing can also portray that prisoners were not allowed to be in social places. Captives were not allowed to participate in various political activities like voting, inheriting power from their fathers as well as other social activities like wedding. The fear between the Palestine and the Israelis is clearly portrayed when the author says he could see Israelis who were soldiers as well as settlers through the eyes of two Israeli ladies he stood with. It can be drawn that all Israelis men underwent basic military training and for one to acknowledge or recognize a soldier at first sight, it means the soldiers had a unique way of dressing through dresses incorporated with swords, their sandals, helmets, and horses. It can also be said that the Israelis were ever ready or alert to protect their soil from their enemies who were mainly Palestine. This fear is further shown when the author invites his new friend so that he could show her the Palestine he saw. He reveals that there was some kind of fear or tension when they passed near an Israeli who is between Palestinians or surrounded by them. From this, it can be drawn that the Israelis and the Palestinians were not in good terms. He lived with the Palestinians for a while and they were kind and friendly to him. However, the moments he is with the Israeli lady, things change and they are no longer kind to him. This shows that the hatred between the two groups was imminent. He explains further that the Palestinians were not pleased with the Israeli lady walking in their market. First, they did not believe a woman could walk that free. women were not regarded important and did not enjoy the same privileges as men. Secondly, by seeing the Israeli lady in their territory, they felt under siege. This could have been the main cause of the conflict between the two groups. The author describes how the Israelis treated their enemies who were Palestinians. He uses a character named Ghassan and describes all the activities that followed after his capture. The character was interviewed then subjected to torture. It can be drawn that the Israelis were not kind to the Palestinians. The author uses the hooded character Ghassan to represent the Palestinians held captive in the Israelis’ territory. Hood is a kind of clothing that covers the entire head and ears meaning the captives were to remain ignorant on what was happening around them. they were isolated and blinded so that they could not recognize their torturers, hence, they could not testify against them. The picture of the torture room portrays the ruthless and inhuman treatment Ghassan experienced. The struggling voice of the character and the silent body language simply shows how traumatized the victim is. The hood also symbolizes some form of unease among the captives. Moving around with the hood also reveals some degree of entrapment
This is confirmed by the case facts say: Federal Express took a leading role in lobbying for air cargo deregulation that finally came in 1977. These changes allowed Federal Express to use larger aircraft (such as Boeing 727s and McDonnell-Douglas DC-10s) and spurred the company’s rapid growth. By the mid-2000s Federal Express had the world’s largest all-cargo air fleet, including McDonnell-Douglas MD-11s and Airbus A-300s and A-310s. The planes have a total daily lift capacity of more than 12,000 tonnes. In a 24-hour period, the fleet travels nearly 500,000 miles while its couriers log 2.5 million miles a day, the equivalent of 100 trips around the earth.Deregulation is also an economic policy that is implemented through political action. Deregulations lessen in effect government control in how a business conducts its business. In the case of the cargo industry, the government has allowed industry players to acquire bigger aircraft that could move goods better for the player in the industry.The changing need and wants if customers because of changing technology. People need to communicate and thereby documents these events. The proliferation of the Internet has made it accessible to almost everybody who has computers and even cell phones and hence what originally caused Fed Ex to generate revenues by delivering mails has stopped because customers could now communicate via electronic means and store and transfer documents in a similar manner.The business of Fed Ex requires the use of aircraft which must take into consideration the reality of changing weather conditions to run the business. At one of the company’s sources of a major operation, the weather is favorable to Fed Ex. Case facts say, the Memphis weather was excellent and rarely caused closures at Memphis International Airport and that the airport was also willing to make the necessary. There is low bargaining power of buyers.
A series of emergency decrees were declared in Germany. Hitler suspended many civil rights such as freedom of press, speech, and assembly.He created half-truths that strengthened German pride by blaming all their troubles on Communists and Jews. From the Nuremberg Laws in 1935 to Kristallnacht in 1938, Hitler slowly detached Jews from German society. Under the cover of World War II, the Nazis created a detailed and exhaustive system to work Jews as slaves and exterminate them.The core concept of Nazism is that the German Volk is under attack, and must become united, disciplined and self-sacrificing, in other words, they must submit to Nazi leadership, in order to win against this nefarious Jewish plot to subjugate the German nation. Ultimately, the Nazis sought to create a largely homogeneous and autarchic ethnic state, absorbing the ideas of Pan-Germanism.According to Hitler’s ideology Germans descended from Aryans and were pure-blooded and superior to all other races thus had the right to rule over them. The Nazis claimed that other races, such as the Slavs and the Poles, were lesser beings fit only to serve the Aryans. The Jews were, even lower than the Slavs. Hitler held that Aryans were the builders of society while Jews were parasites fit only for annihilation. This bigotry had a political scheme as well. Hitler blamed the Jews for the defeat of World War I, which he termed the stab in the back and made the focal point of his propagandas.The Jew remained our implacable enemy and attempted everything to dissolve our Volk so that he could rule. That why we must fight until he is annihilated, and we will annihilate him! We want to be free, not only from within but also from without!The Volk only identified with people of similar German origin. Those not of that origin was not Volk. The Jews in particular were seen as coming from nowhere. They were outsiders with no relation to the land they occupied.
Consequently, the euro debt crisis is crucial as one intends to study its spillover effects. This is because the crisis was characterized by decisions and events at a political level (Acharya and Steffen, 2012, p. 12). In this case, the Euro debt crisis will be viewed as a financial phenomenon that affected the European region. Historical events associated with the Euro sovereign debt crisis will investigate the negative watches and downgrades on European governments, financial markets, stock, and bond markets. The Euro sovereign debt crisis reached its peak in March 2012 after Greece conducted the largest sovereign debt restructuring. Countries such as Spain, Ireland, Italy and Portugal were also facing serious financial crisis. It is essential to note that all member states of the European Monetary Union provided loan guarantees. As a result, the creditworthiness of the region was at stake (Ahearne, Griever and Warnock, 2004, p. 316). The effect of this event was that all member states of the Euro, even states that had sound public finances, were subjected to downgrades or placed on negative watches by global rating agencies. Some of the countries lost their investment grade statuses. This is an alarming signal for international investors. Before, the first country was downgraded, speculation against the EURO was attracted and the stock markets turned down. As a result, some countries began losing their access to capital markets. European Union politicians devised a plan to accuse credit rating agencies, which worsened the crisis (Andrade and Chhaochharia, 2010, p. 2431). Changes in funding conditions used by banks are important in the assessment of financial intermediaries. These intermediaries supply credit to the economy. Since 2009, the remuneration on deposits in core European Union countries remained unchanged. However, there were large dispersions compared to the period prior to the crisis. The costs of the deposits increased significantly in several peripheral countries (Angeloni and Wolff, 2012, p. 19). This reflected the difficulties that banks were experiencing as they tried to obtain funds through market sources. In 2012, these rates decreased owing to the improvements in market confidence that triggered the cut in ECD interest rates. Funding difficulties experienced by peripheral countries adversely affected the financial conditions, non-financial corporations and households. For instance, the charge of short-term loans to a non-financial corporation augmented unexpectedly in peripheral countries, in 2011. In countries such as Portugal and Greece, the interest rates neared the levels of 2008 (Arezki, Candelon and Sy, 2011, p. 9). Reactions of the European Money Markets The sovereign debt crisis sent ripples all over the international banking systems. This prompted interventions by central banks and governments on a scale that is comparable to the programs instituted during the 2008 financial crisis. European authorities pledged financial support to the tune of 1 trillion EURO. This support was meant for the recapitalization of the challenged Euro area countries (Arteta and Hale, 2008, p. 59). The European Central Bank injected an exceptional amount of liquidity in order to mitigate the effects of the banking system balance sheet disclosure especially the deteriorating sovereign debt. European banks hold huge amounts of debt securities in government. They hold these debts as securities because the Capital
This research will begin with the definition of fascism as a form of totalitarian government, with an authoritative dictator who takes control of the entire nation, its people and economy. It is a political ideology with a radical nationalism concept, which initiates a ‘revolution’ for promoting the fascist principles. Basically rejecting the idea of socialism, capitalism, and democracy, Fascism is anti-liberal in nature and has a sound emphasis on ethnocentrism and militarism. Benito Mussolini in Italy and Adolf Hitler in Germany are the two notable dictators, who embodied fascism in their countries and claimed ultimate power over it. The form of fascism adopted in Germany and Italy by these leaders greatly differed in various cultural, social, economic and political ideologies. The Italian fascism was shaped by Mussolini for his pursuit of nationalism while the German fascism was distorted to the social and political beliefs of Hitler. As defined by Roger Griffin, Fascism is a political ideology whose mythic core in its various permutations is a palingenetic form of populist ultra-nationalism. It is a form of counter-revolutionary politics that arose during the World War period. The socio-political changes including the rise of socialism and communism in the aftermaths of the World War gave way for a new political setting in the name of ‘Fascism’ in Italy and other European countries. The rapid social upheavals as well as the devastation of societies and economy were the instrumentals to the rise of Fascism and Nazism in these countries. The Fascist ideology established by Hitler was based on his own personal reflections, Mein Kampf, which means My Struggle, written during his days before hailing power. On the other hand, Mussolini shaped his ideology after he took control over the Italian State. Mussolini’s Fascism stresses on dictatorship with extreme rights, typically excising power over the people and the nation, embracing an overarching state ideology. (Griffin, 1993).Similarly, Hitler’s Fascism favors aggressive nationalism, totalitarianism, fanaticism, and seeks blind obedience of its followers towards their authorities. Despite their different stands on espousing the ideologies of Fascism, they established it in a successful manner. Hitler and Mussolini were both dictators, both lead totalitarian regimes in their countries and cooperated together during World War Two. (Husic, n. d.).In 1919, when Italy was devastated in the aftermaths of the World War, it prospected for a new political aspect, which Mussolini took it as an advantage to gain control over the country. Taking this perfect opportunity, he introduced Fascism into Italy and established his rule under the autonomy of the king. However, with his followers, he organized paramilitary forces which terrorized the country with violent attacks and ultimately, took over the sovereign government under his power. (Payne, 1983). Similarly, Hitler’s Nazism was the ideologies and policies of Fascism which stressed on the superiority of the Aryan people. Hitler called for the unification of the German-speaking people into a one single empire. He was determined in creating a racially pure state which led to atrocities like Holocaust. He organized various military forces to maintain his power all over the country as a fascist dictator. Unlike Fascism, Hitler’s ideology held racism as its prior importance while the state was at a secondary in preference.SimilaritiesBoth Mussolini and Hitler had common socio-political viewpoints for dominating the world with their barbarism and fanaticism, which together created
Research by Kearney (2008) found out that India is leading in cross-border mergers and acquisitions followed closely by Malaysia. This is attributed to the fact that the government of these two countries provides substantial tax incentives to companies to engage in high-tech business deals and enhance export. In contrast, Chinese companies have shied off MA deals because of political interferences according to Wolff (2008, p.91). However, since China is developing very first, many companies from developed countries are seeking mergers with its domestic companies, with findings showing that at least one of every four cross-border transactions involves a merger according to Harrington (2004, p.21). Nevertheless, research indicates that the U.S. companies lead in the acquisition and acquired. This dramatic increase in a merger between companies as a globalization strategy has taken many people by surprising leaving many companies, which have not made such a move wondering whether to merge or not to merge (Hoover 2000). This is because pundits have given varied opinions regarding mergers as a market penetration strategy. For instance, AT Kearney argues that global level mega-mergers are inevitable as part of the cycle of consolidation and concentration in globalizing industries where firms seek to gain leverage and accelerate their presence. Ghemawat Ghadar (2000, p.65), on the other hand, had a different view claiming that business leaders need to look away from mergers and be more innovative in their approach to international business. This paper will evaluate the arguments of the pro-merger and anti-merger school of thought. It will conclude with my personal position regarding whether mega-merger is a good or bad policy to pursue in international practice.To begin with, the business environment has become very competitive, and many companies today seek to globalize their processes in order to beat the competition. In fact, many big corporations today have a global presence with those that have not gone global planning to do so as noted by McGarvey (1997). However, as earlier indicated, mergers have been on the rise over the last few years as the most preferred internationalization strategy. A.T Kearney (2008, p.1) in his school of thought argued that mega-mergers are inevitable as firms seek to leverage and become competitive. This school of thought has been based on a number of advantages associated with mega-mergers. In this regard, Riley (2012) reveals that obtaining loans and credit from bans today is a major challenge for many companies. This is because of the economic recessions that have affected many countries following the recent financial crisis and sovereign-debt crisis in most countries in the world. For instance, a report by DePamphilis (D 2011, p. 16) showed that bank lending to small businesses dropped by $15 billion in the first quarter of the year 2011. As a result, the pro-merger school of thought suggests that mega-merger can make a firm more valuable, making it easy for firms with difficulties obtaining funding easy. Richard Levychin, a certified public accountant, and partner at KBL argue that the success of a merger can be obtained using the formula 1 +1 = 3, 4 or 5 (Sherman 1997, p.17). As a result, the pro-merger school of thought concludes that mega-mergers are good for firms because it increases business revenues while reducing redundancies and overheads.
Write a paper on C. Wright Mills and theories on the sociological imagination. Describe the theory and provide evidence supporting your thesis (three reasons for choosing your theorist). C. Wright Mills inherently believed that people need to comprehend the history of their society, so that they can better understand the workings and functioning of the society, the people who live in it as well as themselves. Through this, they will also be able to gauge what their ethics and moral values are. After having an understanding of these issues, the individuals can engage themselves in communal issues faced by the society at large rather than leading an isolated life. This will further allow him to take in hand the problems of his life, which are caused by society. These theories also have vast implementation in the political context. For instance: the implementation of these theories can be seen in the anti-war protests over Iraq. This is because the moral aspects and theories of war aid in creating a sociological imagination of many who may not possess anyone. Sociological imagination is required by many individuals to comprehend the society and the forces which have gone in creating it. If this understanding is not available, then the individual may not be able to understand himself as an individual, nor his/her place in the society. In other words, sociological imagination provides the insight and enables the individual to comprehend the larger and potent forces, which are at work within the society and also tells how they interact cohesively with each other and last but not the least, impacts the life of the individual (Mills, 1959). To elucidate Mills explained that: What they need, and what they feel they need, is a quality of mind that will help them to use information and to develop reason in order to achieve lucid summations of what is going on in the world and of what may be happening within themselves (Mills, 1959). Furthermore, Mills argued that if an individual is devoid of such imagination, then he will be isolated from the society and to an extent, also from their true selves. It creates bewilderment and also makes one feel secluded from society. This kind of sociological imagination frees the individual from this isolation by providing him with the knowledge to put his life in a perspective, which includes the contemporary situation of the individual as well as how this contemporary situation evolved and the juxtaposition of the two, which is shown clearly by Elwell’s words: The sociological imagination is simply a quality of mind that allows one to grasp history .biography and the relations between the two within society. The sociological imagination enables one to switch from one perspective to another, thereby forming a comprehensive view of the socio-cultural system(Kpohazounde, 2010). By possessing this knowledge, an individual can become a very proactive and functioning participant in the society. C. Wright Mills also places heavy emphasis on moral and ethical values in his sociological imagination, which is the edifice for the individual and the society. These moral values are shared by and also formulate and shape the moral values of the other. However, the forces present in the society and the incessant transitions cause people to re-adjust themselves and also their values to such changes, which create a questioning of the ethics of the society. This according to Mills is morally insensible. There are also some personal troubles of milieu which are troubles and problems experienced by the individual. If a person does not have a sociological imagination, he will not be able to see most of the problems, which are due to the structure in society and also due to the failure in one or more than one of the society’s institutions. The apparent lack of insight may also cease the individual from realizing that the only solution to this problem is not just at a minute individual level, but also at the social level, where he is unable to ever resolve his problems. Hence, the individual is struggling with his troubles and is also constantly endeavoring to liberate himself from these problems (Prevos, 2004). According to Mills, the solution to this dilemma is what he calls the public issues of social structure. When an individual has knowledge of the sociological imagination, he in turn realizes that the major underlying cause of his problems is the impact of living in a society, which does not function properly. When an individual has this understanding, he can also see that other people share these troubles, and that the only solution is not just to struggle on an individual basis, but also to combine with those who have shared these experiences (Mills, 1959). References Mills Wright C, The Sociological Imagination, Published in 1959, http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/~psargent/Mills_Intell_Craft.pdf, Accessed 7th October, 2011 Prevos Peters, Sociological Imagination, Published on 14th June 2004, http://prevos.net/ola/imagination.pdf, Accessed 7th October, 2011 Kpohazounde Grace, The Sociological Imagination, Published in February 2010, http://dimension.ucsd.edu/CEIMSA-IN-EXILE/publications/Students/Grace-1.2010.pdf, Accessed 7th October, 2011
International investment is at a high level since India is an important business destination. It has a vibrant middle-class one factor that makes it a covetable business destination (Bose, 2009: 125). In any economy, infrastructural development is the main facilitator of business. India boasts of The Golden Quadrilateral road network that connects main metros of Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai that is expected to facilitate business further. India is also rich in resources and has a readily established industrial system. Globalization is a ubiquitous term world over. it is synonymous to the integration of ideas, telecommunications, and infrastructure throughout the world that involves lifting of certain barriers (Makar, 2008: 57). As a word, it has been in existence since the 1960s. It is a gradual process and it can be positive or negative. A consensus as to what the exact meaning of the term has never been reached. Globalization is termed differently by different scholars, but all of them agree that it is a continuous process. It involves integration and interconnectedness. Globalization encompasses various aspects such as politics, environment, culture, and economics. India is a highly globalized economy (Gesteland, and Gesteland, 2010: 266). India’s economic relations There had been a shift in the economic relations of India since the 1990s at a time when most economies were growing rapidly. The myriad of political and economic interactions with other world economies has increased tremendously (Bose, 2009: 125). Various factors have facilitated this paradigm shift. one such is the end of the cold war that saw the United States, Japan and the rest of Europe willingness to build trade relations with them. After a momentous economic crisis in India in 1991, the country embarked on reforms to address the causes of the crisis. The main cause was limited integration with the rest of the world economies inefficient economy. The country’s efforts in nurturing a technical human resource and indigenous companies in pharmaceuticals have given its relevance in the global economy today. The keen interest accorded to international norms by its governments and acceptance of these norms by the population has given her an upper hand in business (Cappelli, 2010:453). Some of India’s neighbors she previously presumed as lesser developing countries have taken on the current and are threatening to overtake it (Devonshir, 2012: 225). This implies India has a task of staying relevant to the world economy. The state of India’s economic relations may have changed rapidly over the past period. India’s relations with the main economic power hubs like Japan, the United States, and Germany has increased. The U.S is her current main trading partner. India is the nineteenth principal exporter and the tenth chief importer worldwide. Timeline of major changes in India’s ER. The economic history of India begins with the Indus Valley Civilisation that was enormously dependent on trade. The period was marked by urbanization and developments in trade. Political harmony was also experienced. During that time, India is estimated to have had the largest economy of the ancient time. Central planning which included extensive public ownership regulation and trade barriers facilitated this development.
Democracy was never followed in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), be it the Chinese media or press, all were owned by the Chinese government. And the most annoying dilemma to which the U.S was confronted since the beginning of Chinese independence was the failure of the U.S government to introduce political reforms in China. Since the beginning, the U.S was interested in bringing democracy to China, to which he allegedly failed.On the other hand, Chinese media has always vehemently condemned the United States as a real enemy over a series of crises and why it shouldn’t blame the U.S as the press and media are the well known governmental bodies of PRC: the bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade. the row over human rights, trade, and Taiwan. the alleged Chinese espionage on U. S. nuclear intelligence, and a U. S. spy plane crashing into a Chinese fighter plane. These all examples escort us to the fact that nationalist feelings are China’s genuine hunger for international status, for which today PRC has changed its dimensions with the media hailing the upcoming 2008 Olympics and WTO membership as milestones of national importance. (Chuan Lee, 2003, p. 2)According to Xiaogang, there is something unique about the press in China’s transition to the market, namely the duality of its formal and informal roles. On the formal side, all media are required to toe the official propaganda line. Press controls in China are not based upon codified censorship but are issue-specific. In order to ensure that the media interpret the news in a way favorable to the regime, the state decides what the press can and cannot report, who deals with particular issues and how these news items are to be presented. On the informal side, journalists have been attempting to break free from state control as their media seek liberties in the marketplace. Though all Chinese media have bureaucratic affiliations, their operations have been increasingly commercialized, and they can express opinions, which are quite different from those prescribed by their bureaucratic affiliations. (Xiaogang, 1999)
Certain adjustments and flexibility of human rights are to be affected with some exceptions in modalities. Steadfast impositions of any kind would lead to an imbalance in trade relations. The issue is not a matter of having to choose between rights and commerce. It’s a matter of putting rights on a par with commerce (Broadbent.E, 1996). In the global competition of the trading world, seeking low-cost labor and maintaining minimal labor standards have become a driving force towards global outsourcing. When the global marketplace is viewed through this glass, liberalized trade is found to lower1 both environmental and human rights norms, especially labor standards focussing mainly the competition. In practice, the global market and global trade have produced negative impacts in many aspects. The negative impacts may be ascribed to the unequal distribution of the benefits obtained from economic integration. Improved economic performance of countries is known to violate basic civil and political human rights laying an impression that growth, in itself, is in no way a guarantee of a greater commitment to fundamental rights and freedoms(D.Bronson and S.Rousseau, 1995)Economic Integration is simply the coordination of economic policies among the countries that have entered into a trade contact. Economic integration is associated with both plus and minus factors making it a mixed formula with the aim of achieving mutual development in the field of economic strength. It comprises many subdivisions of processes/modalities such as PTA(Preferential Trade Agreement), FTA(Free Trade Area), Customs Union, Common Market, Economic Union, and Monetary Union. Social and political perception of economic integration is the area where the challenges to economic development are to be met. The main difference between PTA and FTA lies in the restriction or liberalization among the member countries and non-member countries. Most Favoured Nation principle among member countries of WTO requires a country to grant any trading partner the same extent of treatment in terms of international commerce as it does to any other trading partners.
In 1977 he was elected to the House of Representatives of the 95th Congress convocation and was re-elected in 1979, 1981, and 1983. In 1985 he was elected to the U.S. Senate from the state of Tennessee and reelected in 1991. In 1991 he announced his candidacy for a U.S. presidential candidate of the Democratic Party. At the Democratic National Convention, he became a candidate for vice president. In November 1992 he was elected vice president of the United States and re-elected to that position in 1996. Al Gore is married and has one son and three daughters. He lives in Washington, DC.The book Earth on the Balance (1992) was written at a time when Al Gore was the chairman of the Senate Committee on ecology and environmental protection. In it in an accessible and vivid form, the problems of maintaining the global ecological balance in the current situation are considered. According to many critics, it is one of the most professional researches on environmental problems, ever issued from the pen of a political activist. This certainly gives the book a special flavor and keen readers interest, especially in the third part, where the author offers a number of specific practical measures to improve environmental law and keeping the natural balance in third world countries.In the second part The Search for Balance which, from my point of view, is the most conceptually rich, the author analyses the social, economic and ideological reasons that have made a destructive attitude to the environment possible, which was until recently characteristic of the industrialized world and which even today distinguishes the policy of most developing countries.The book combines a deep analysis of economic and social causes of the current ecological crisis and the great factual material with, in my view, idealistic notions about the possibility of consolidating the efforts of developed countries in the fight against the impending danger.
George Washington is known as the Father of the Nation for various reasons. Not only was he the first president of independent America but he was also the head of the Revolutionary Army. As the Commander in Chief of the Revolutionary Army it was mainly because of his steadfastness, leadership and his explicit refusal to give in did the Colonists win the war in their favor. He made a bold attack on the Hessian fort in Trenton which turned the tables in favor of the Colonists as compared to the British. When it was time to take charge of the Continental Congress, because it proved again and again that it was incapable of leading a young nation, Washington took charge and that too in the most explicit way. Washington was a powerful, charismatic personality. merely looking at him convinced many people to predict great heights for this man including the title of the Leader of the Nation. The organizers of the Constitutional Convention were of the opinion that only because of the charismatic and strong personality of George Washington did they enjoy success in the Convention. Hence, it was fortunate for America when Washington, who was also known as the ‘indispensable man’ not only attended the Convention of Philadelphia in 1787 but was also chosen to become its president and he indeed, did serve this position. Washington holds an exemplary position in the leading political and mainly military circumstances of the American Revolution. He became involved early in 1767 when he stood up against the political standing of the parliament of Britain. When the Battle of Lexington and Concord broke out he assumed military position as the Commander in Chief of the Continental Army. He depicted his readiness to go to war when he appeared in military attire in front of the Second Continental Congress. The Continental Army was formed on the 14th of June and the very next day was Washington appointed as its General or Commander in Chief. The job he took on was vast, corresponding local wants and needs, rivalry amongst his inferiors, spirits amid the grades and shots by Congress to administer the army’s dealings too narrowly, wishes of state governors for support, and an infinite requirement of funds to clothe, feed, arm, equip and move the troops. As it became more and more tensed politically for the colonies to continue peacefully Washington chaired a meeting in June 1774 and Fairfax Resolves were adopted then. These resolves called for many actions the most important being the assembling of the Continental Congress. Washington attended the First Virginia Convention in August and as it became more politically tensed in 1774 he helped train the militias of the country in Virginia and convened enforcement to boycott all those goods by the British which were instituted by the Congress. Washington is known most for his long lasting effects as the President of the United States of America, his first two terms being the most prominent. The Constitution gained popularity and one reason for that was the appointment of Washington as its Chief executive. Washington was a dedicated patriot and time and again he passed various opportunities to gain supreme authority. When he arrived in the Capitol, he waited for the convening of the Congress before assuming his duties the President of America. His popularity was as such that people wanted him to be treated as King however, he passed that
Mo Ibrahim Foundation exposes the unsung African leaders who have made tremendous achievements. Winning this award brings them into the limelight and the international arena for recognition. Similarly, winning this award gives them good exposure and puts them in an advantageous position of competing for other competitive awards for their achievements have been recognized (Nsehe 3). There are cases where their contributions are not recognized, and their good work perishes as soon as they leave the office. Therefore, the award is of benefit in exposing the deserving African leaders.Africans head of states and governments have been reluctant in leaving offices for the past years. They have deployed various tactics to delay their terms in office through driving political coup, committing crimes against humanity and manipulating institutions. Some of these characteristics have been witnessed in the reign of Mugabe, Kabila, and Museveni among others. They have sustained bad governance in their countries, which puts the lives of citizens at risk. The prize is given to leaders who have made tremendous contributions in their nations by promoting good governance and putting structures for prosperity, which eliminates such characters.The prize award is also distributed to nations that have shown the potential of improvements. It makes political institutions to reinforce a good working system, which allows for prosperity (Nsehe 6). This makes it discourage bad governance as every head of state wants to get the money, hence strives in meeting the criteria. Similarly, money encourages the controlled use of money, which is transferred to African countries because it indicates that nations are awarded money based on their merits and accomplishments. Because of this, the prize encourages African head of states to establish good institutions that promote the prosperity of their nations.
The main factors are one of the lowest wages in the world, availability of educated workforce, a steady exchange rate, and a growing economy. As it is expected that china would enter into WTO, the company has already declared that it would make China its base of exports around the world. At present, Philips has more than 25 % of its total production from China. The surprising fact is that Philips is just one among the many Western companies which reached China with the intention to exploit the existing suitable workforce. According to reports, the two major Asians powers- China and India- possess more than 35% of the global workforce. That means it has become impossible for companies to keep these nations out of the equation. In the case of Philips, the lure came from China on which it depends for almost a third of its production. Factors that Make China Attractive According to the existing consensus (cited in Harney, 2008, p. 16), the companies that depend on Chinese labor are capable of reducing their labor by 30 to 80 percent. The second attracting factor is the huge Chinese domestic market that gets accessible if production is from China. The third factor is its strategic location which is near to European and Asian markets. The remaining two points are the possibility of getting intermediate goods from downstream manufacturers and making use of the Chinese research and development. Though these are all points favoring Philips’ intention to solely depend on Chinese labor, there still is the need to look again into the decision to avoid its workforce in other nations. Admittedly, ‘outsourcing’ is an effective way of competitive advantage. However, before deciding to go to a nation, there are various factors that need to be taken in to consideration. According to Porter (1998), they are costs and availability, time required to fill orders, issues of security including intellectual property, safety and transportation costs, infrastructure of the nation, political risk, market access, foreign exchange, technological capability (p.65). Now, it is necessary to look into these factors in China along with many other influencing factors. Are wages really lower and will they be the same in future? Bill Powell of the Times Magazine reports that the price of labor in certain parts of China has gone up by as much as 50% in the last two years alone. Powell (2011) opines that with this rise in labor cost, many companies which depended on Chinese labor for decades have started to look for viable alternatives. That means the future will see a considerable rise in labor costs. the only factor that attracts companies to China labor. So, if Philips depends too heavily on Chinese labor by closing its manufacturing units in other nations, the company will lose its cost advantage when the labor cost goes up. According to the reports from Venture Outsource (2012), while the United States witnessed a 19% rise in labor cost between 2002 and 2008, the growth was more than 100% in China in the same period. Thus, thinking that the labor cost in China will remain cheaper for longer times is just an irrational assumption. McCormack (2011) writes about the various hidden costs associated with Chinese production, which often go unnoticed. As McCormack points out, shifting production to China adds 24 percent to the product price. shipping adds another 17 percent. looking for a suitable Chinese vendor adds 1
Government 2 12 May What are the benefits of having lifetime appointments to the Supreme Courts? The benefitof having lifetime appointments to the Supreme Court is political in principle. It is a matter of fact that the judicial branch of government in the United States is not the strongest among the three branches since it focuses mainly on upholding the Constitution, without taking any side of political ideologies. The lifetime appointments of members of the judiciary are necessary so that they will not be swayed by partisan politics during national election campaigns. This is considered prudent and wise so that a judicial member will not be influenced by the appointment power of the president. 2.) If universal health-care access becomes a reality, what will happen to hospital emergency rooms? During the 2009 US elections, Presidential Candidate Obama offered the idea of amending the healthcare coverage of the country. This proposal was intended for the creation of a health insurance exchange, which would set up a government-backed insurance system in competition with private health insurance companies. However, numerous concerned politicians debated on this topic. Republicans, on one hand, believe that implementing Obama’s suggestion would lead to an increase in government expenditures by almost $2 trillion, an overwhelming tax burden to the American citizens. Worse, it does not take any serious steps to reduce costs for the health care system. Most Democrats argued that the country is ready to apply the universal health-care, which would guarantee the poverty-stricken Americans an outright health insurance. As of 2011, the US ranks 3rd in terms of population. Promulgating Obama’s plan would lead to a decrease in mortality rate and inflation in the number of hospital patients, possibly resulting to crowded emergency rooms. Therefore, chances are the quality of service that the hospital could offer might not be sufficient for everyone. 3.) Would Americans be willing to wait several months for heart surgery, example? It is worth waiting for a heart surgery, as long as the system works. Usually, there is a system and screening before one is part of the queued list for those eligible for a heart surgery. Now, it actually depends on how the system works on moving the line. First, there are various cases of heart ailments that differ in severity. Some candidates must be upgraded along the line if their case is really dire. Secondly, the availability of organ resources needed. The availability of donated organs is also connected with those who actually need them, in which those whose cardiac ailments seriously need a transplant are also placed ahead in the line. 4.) What is creative sentencing? Do you agree with creative sentencing? Is it appropriate? Creative sentencing is a method of punishment that deviates from the normal penalty that is laid down by the laws and statues of the country. I must say that I agree with creative sentencing for the reason that it is an innovative way of penalizing lawbreakers. It does not merely send a criminal to a correctional facility to eat and sleep, instead, the judge sentences the latter to do a task to help him fully contemplate and reflect on his actions. It is therefore enforced in his mind that he must not repeat committing a crime, not only because it has a corresponding punishment under the law, but also because it is wrong and harmful to others, in one way or another. It is obvious that our country needs a new propaganda in disciplining its inhabitants, and creative sentencing serves as an effective tool in doing so.
Liberalism and Marxism (and Gramscianism) In the theory of Liberalism, Adam Smith is one of its well-known proponents. His ideas on liberal capitalism focus more on how behaviors and market competitions are controlled by the invisible hand, believing that merchants or individuals are relying on their own in contributing greatly to economic improvement without the need for the intervention of the government.4Also, the collective individual initiatives are just as important as the contribution of each individual, because morality done on a personal level and through the perspective of others is important in order to maintain order and peace under liberalism.5 In essence, under the theory of Liberalism, there is an assumption of having similar thoughts and ideas among people, which makes it easier to assess whether an individual’s actions will benefit others or not. …This, in turn, will increase the likelihood that people will start thinking similarly, making it easier to govern them.6 Also, there will be no inequality because everyone is experiencing similar circumstances, and unless there are problems in the ruling body itself, under Marxism there will be peace, equality, emancipation, and justice because people share the same ideas and beliefs like in Liberalism.7 Liberalism and Marxism may share some similarities such as the importance of equality, but these two theories differ in other aspects. For example, the core belief of Liberalism is that markets wield power over economic growth but does not increase the gaps between various social and economic classes because of morality. However, this is contested by Marxism ideas, saying that while everyone may acquire benefit from participating in trade and commerce, the equality of gains will not be absolute among all parties. Because of this, there can be the unequal distribution of wealth, with merchants gaining more wealth over members of the market or the consumers as the result of differing relative gains for the merchants and the consumers.8More often than not if there is the unequal distribution of commodities there is also an unequal distribution of wealth, and vice-versa. Also, Liberalism is highly-idealistic in terms of giving importance to morality, and the fact that the margin between the rich and the poor are not decreased this means that Liberalism does not function as it is supposed to because not all participants in commerce regularly engage in fair trade and fair markets.
There are Catholic countries, for instance, which have influential religious sectors that influence public policy and the polity in general. Then, there is the theocratic form of government, found in few states that effectively combined religion with the government. This is now the focus of this paper. It is difficult to determine the extent of influence of non-theocratic countries but highly influential clerics or religious institutions because of the sheer diversity of these cases. In order to provide clear arguments, this paper will evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of theocracy. What is Theocracy? Unarguably, once theocracy is mentioned, one would inevitably think about Iran and grim faced clerics issuing edicts and penalizing nonbelievers. While there is some semblance of truth to this, theocracy does not necessarily get defined according to the Iranian model. According to DeMar (2008), the Iranian form of government is considered ecclesiocracy wherein the Church is the primary and absolute governing institution of society. (p. 207) Rather, the system is a category for a kind of government that recognizes God as the government and that the family, the Church and the various levels of civil jurisdiction answers to this singular ideal government. If one turns to the 2012 Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, the definition states that it is: 1) government of a state by immediate divine guidance or by officials who are regarded as divinely guided. 2) a state governed by a theocracy. An excellent example is the state of Israel. In this case the government is not ruled by rabbis but by civil servants but that governance is strongly influenced by religion, hence, the so-called concept of divinely guided. It is not unlike saying that the government of Israel is being held by men until such time that the messiah reassume his rule. With this cleared, one could finally identify the system’s advantages and disadvantages. Advantages Fundamentally, theocracy could enforce discipline and obedience from individuals and governance would therefore be easy. Policymaking and policy implementations would be swift. There would be less dissension and polarization. The citizenry will be inclined to follow rules and would be morally upright. There are numerous other related variables but the idea is clear: the religious variable will reinforce the government’s power in the exercise of its mandate, responsibilities and objectives. Put in another way, in theocracy, governments appear to be more legitimate from the point of view of its subjects. The case of Israel is an excellent demonstration. It was created only in 1948 but it has rapidly become a developed and powerful state, starting from scratch. It has fended off a wave of attacks from many of its Arab neighbors and the sheer determination and efficiency of the Israeli in the series of conflicts demonstrated the strength of a country united by the religious element that closely resembles but more potent than ideology that drives nationalism. Indeed, Lenzi (2006) explained that theocracy is really nothing but a form of government that uses a particular religion as a political ideology. (p. 208) Disadvantages According to the definition of theocracy, it can characterize a democracy or other form
Cultural Diversity as a term refers to various civilizations or human cultures in a specific country, region or the world (HM Government, 2011). In a workplace, cultural diversity can transform to become a people’s issue that focuses on the similarities and differences that people bring to the organization. In the workplace, cultural diversity is a challenge to almost all the current business organizations and from this aspect, it is a source of strength. Conducting international businesses in places with diverse cultures is a global challenge among all professionals. Technically, professionals are affected greatly by the cultural diversity since they get a direct chance to interact with many cultures and people whose beliefs and customs could be conflicting. For example, the culture of American Indians is different from that of African Americans In areas and departments like department of youth affairs, youth services center and other youth work institutions, cultural diversity has strong impacts for example, it may act as a source of conflicts or enrich the youth work experience by exposing both the youth worker and the youth to different cultures, beliefs and customers and promote harmony. Youth workers in the UK work with people from the different cultures because of the multicultural setting in the country and as such, they are likely to experience the major cultural diversity impact in their profession. The countries business culture is often mainly based on their own values. When divergent cultures mix or come close, the maximized chances between them can become controversies and this may end up as becoming ineffectual and unproductive work, which can directly affect their profession or business environment. (Batsleer, 2008:56). The textbook definition of cultural diversity is the cultural difference and cultural varieties that exist in the world, institutions or current society. According to Cox (1991), cultural diversity is the sum of the divergent ways in which people are viewed in terms of skin, racial inclination, culture, sexual orientation, socioeconomic background, religion, personality and the divergent ways in which an individual affiliates with the society. This could also be a particular group that they blend and can identify with comfortably (Davies, 2011:24). Navaro, a tool developed to positively ensure the organizations ultimate success considers cultural diversity as an essential aspect of organizational success, for instance, in youth work institutions as long as it is used effectively. On the other hand, if it is taken for granted, it can destroy an organization across the board, for example by creating an attitude of inferiority-superiority or majority – minority (Mckee, 2011:10). Importance of the cultural diversity in the practice/organization LSI (2012) states The different contexts in which youth work is practiced will have a bearing on how these NOS are applied. The relevant national, regional, local and political context, as well other applicable standards of performance or competence, should be taken into account when reading and applying the Youth Work NOS (LSI, 2O12:2). This observation shows the value that cultural diversity has on youth work. Evidence on why cultural diversity is an important issue for this organization /practice in relation to youth work can be seen through the fact that Youth workers who work on the mobile youth venue identified that vast majority of the young people who regularly attend the mobile youth venue sessions come from non-Asian families. Then youth workers made an inquiry of their working area population proportion and found out that Asian families are well presented in that area (Taylor, 2003:45). Youth workers made a logical assumptions that if there were Asian origin young people in that area and they never attended the youth sessions, there might be discriminatory dynamics among young people from Asian and non-Asian origin, that blocks them to share the space. Therefore, it became very important target for the
WitnessesIn so doing, consider the trial’s ramifications both at the time as well as how historians view the trial today.The failure to impeach United States President Andrew Johnson was a landmark political event. it shaped the independence of the future executive branch of government socially, politically, and legally. The events occurred during an era of political turmoil in the United States, the reconstruction of the country. President Johnson’s vociferous opposition to the will of Congress could have ousted him from his position through impeachment. However, the failure of the motion established the independence of the executive branch of government. Secondly, this trial highlighted the fact that presidential impeachment is inevitably conditioned by political and legislative debates of the day and therefore cannot be equated to regular trials. The third significant aspect of this trial was the debate generated around the explicit construction to be attributed to the ambiguous term ‘high crimes and misdemeanours’1 as grounds set out in the United States Constitution for the impeachment of a president. In this aspect, impeachment motions in the present day are also conditioned by the social context, because they are still influenced by the contemporary public view. The precise legal construction of ‘high crimes and misdemeanors’ also still remains a contentious issue. However, the media today plays a crucial role in all major political issues through its influence upon the shaping of public opinion, which contrasts with the impeachment trial of Johnson, as the media did not play such a momentous role then, in influencing political developments.Andrew Johnson was elected Vice-President of the United States and took office on 4 March 1865.2 Consequently, with President Lincoln’s assassination on 15 April 1865, Johnson was elevated to the presidency.
Effects of the Westward Expansion of the Colonies of the United s The expedition to the west was politically organized when the US Army Corps sent forces to explore the west in 1838 (Katzman 328). They gradually built relations with the Indians who were the main dwellers in these lands till the date. The presence of the army helped the settlers to migrate overland by protecting them from the assault of the Indians while the Federal government held several lands in control for distribution. The farmers pleaded for preemption such that they could cultivate the land and later buy it at a low price. Gradually the Americans moved far into the west in search of fertile lands irrespective of being converts to Christianity or having religious freedom. They even began trading with the Indians, which led to several treaties with them. Inspite of these peace treaties war continued as the Indians hardly assumed to be bounded to treaties and the US government was loyal to its duty of protecting the movement towards the west. In 1848 San Francisco was a small region, which grew into a big city based on rapid commercialization, and industrialization while the mining industry became popularized. The move towards the west was initiated owing to a search for new and better opportunities in terms of land for farming and jobs to survive. The Midwest became the attractive zone for the settlers and the industrial revolution encouraged commercialization. The proprietors of the lands began to promote their commodities by proving adequate connectivity with the east. As the forest areas became reduced in the east during 1849 the lumber industry moved westwards to Michigan and Minnesota. This would ensure they were not moving away from civilization. Again, the professions gradually shifted from farming to other activities like lumbering and mining. Industrial revolution brought about machineries, which saved labor, and farming became smoother. Moreover a processing system was set (Katzman 323). The cities of Chicago, Detroit and Cleveland held the key to the economy of the west. The pigs were converted into packaged meat while grains were turned into flour. This was also the time for the fur trade to decline essentially because silk became popularized, the beavers were falling short in numbers owing to over hunting and the fur induced diseases in men. Since the political framework would shift with people moving westwards the Whigs and Democrats tried to keep their hand out of the issue of slavery. While Democrats favored the expansion owing to more favorable grounds for the society, the Whigs were suspicious of the movement and insisted for more commercialization within the present territories of the nation. . Texas gained freedom from Mexico and California also became a republic but the practice of slavery now shifted westwards between 1820 and 1860. Here the Indians found their regular livelihood challenged and in conflict with other racially inferior groups like the Mexicans. Overall the efforts of the government and the military assisted by the wings of industrial revolution help in mass transportation of Americans to the west. In the late eighteenth century there were a few hundred of white settlers in the Northwest while late by 1860 around 7 million of them settled here (Katzman 320). Population in cities like Ohio and Michigan multiplied rapidly. Work Cited Katzman, David, A People and A Nation, Cengage
Generally, political regimes and the French authority were the main causes of the sufferings experienced by the French peasants. The paper will, therefore, look at the political regimes in France in relation to Tinnon life of a simple man. It will also seek to look at the political leanings for the life of a simple man in the French Society. According to Guillaumin, Tinnon is described as a person who lived a life just like any other peasant in the French society (15). He spent most of his early childhood herding sheep and pigs. From the readings of Guillaumin’s The Life of a Simple Man, Tinnon had very little awareness of politics in general. Throughout his lifetime, he spent very little time being concerned with political matters. According to Guillamin, Tinnon is called an old socialist by the young people he was within a room taking coffee and smoking cigarettes (264). He pretends that he has a headache and he is supposed to go take care of his cows. Moreover, during the discussions, Tinnon contributed rarely in the talks that were politically driven. From the readings in the book, the peasant had very little knowledge about the political happenings in the society. He spent most of his time partying and dancing with very little knowledge about politics. From the beginning, the peasant known as Tinnon herded animals. He used to be woken up by his mother at five o’clock morning hours to go and herd sheep. In (6) Before five o’clock in the mornings my mother pulled me out of bed. This shows that being a poor boy brought up in the rural French community, he had to do just as his parents told him. He did his duty of herding, most of his entire life and had very little time with getting acquainted with the political world.
The public elects the president to serve a term of four years after which he can be reappointed to power again, (Brannen Baker, 2005). The presidential position term is renewable once through reappointment. The executive ensures that the national laws implemented and enforced, (Ferguson, 2006). This is done in order to ensure that the daily responsibilities of the federal government are carried out smoothly. These responsibilities include collecting of taxes, representing the political and the economic interests of United States to the world and safeguarding the affair of the nation within its borders. The president enacts and implements the legislative laws. The president also bargains contracts, and he heads the armed forces and the state. Legislature The congress also labeled as the legislature comprises of the senate and the members of the house. The senate comprises of two legislators from all the states and the assembly involves the two houses. Similarly, the senate consists of about one hundred senate members, each state with two representatives, and the public appoints the senate members from their states. They serve for the period of six years after which can be reelected for another six-year term. The nation’s assistant president heads the congress, (Gershman, 2008). However, he is not expected to vote unless in a special case like when a tie between two powers occurs. The senate also has the duty of approving the presidential nomination to the cabinet as well as other related posts…. The senate should rectify the contracts made by the government by approximately two-thirds approval votes. The representative body consists of state representatives from various regions. The population they represent from their respective states determines these representatives. Presently, there are about 436 house members. The increasingly populated states give more representatives to the legislature that the scarcely populated states. The representatives are appointed by the public to rule for a term of two years, and the representatives appoints the speaker of the house. The crucial role of the legislative department is to make state laws, by first drafting the law and later discussing it, (Hall McGuire, 2005). The congress votes whereby by if the law is voted in by at least two thirds, is adopted as law for the nation upon approval by the president. The judiciary The judiciary entails the Central Court of the US (that head the judiciary) and minor national courts, (Garcia, 2003). The difficult cases from the legislative department are taken to the judiciary for hearing. The body rules whether a case is legal from the constitution or not. The president chose such justices and the senate approves them. The power of the Supreme Court is final and thus cannot be challenged by any court. Theories Collective action This theory explains how people can cooperate to over social dilemmas they face. Collective action hypothesis suggests that people have the power to discern cooperation values and social rules. This is a shift from the normal capacity of a human being, in which he exhibits self- interest and short-term benefits. This extends the accomplishment of the collective action. However, the solidarity attitude can be eliminated if
turbid and they were compelled to share their environment with foreign entities together with policies that were far from nature’s law. the indigenous people of Australia embarked on a platform different from their natural environment. Such change on one hand provided them with an improved health care system and on the other introduced them with different diseases previously unknown to them. The change in types of disease exposure for the indigenous people of Australia after they realized similar exposure and were subject to government policies are worthy of consideration and is expected to result in an understanding of their present health status. Furthermore, it is also interesting to find out that how these historical and political factors have impacted the Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) and thereby influenced the health status of the contemporary Australian indigenous people (Australian Human Rights Commission, 2007). The present paper tries to analyze these aspects to conclude the same.It is widely believed that the indigenous people of Australia were in far better health than the contemporary European people back in 1788. Unlike the European people smallpox, measles, influenza, tuberculosis, scarlet fever, venereal syphilis and gonorrhea were absent among them. They usually suffered from hepatitis B, common bacterial infections, and some intestinal parasites. Most of the deaths among indigenous people were from trauma and cases of anemia, arthritis, periodontal disease, tooth problem were common among them. However, as a whole the disease exposure and its subsequent impact on the Australian indigenous population were far lower among the indigenous Australian people than that of the European population of the 18th century. However all these have changed once the European settlers made their way into the Australian inland. Diseases previously unknown to Indigenous Australian people started to take its toll from them and smallpox resulted in huge loss of lives. Not only these diseases impacted the immediate sufferer rather they also initiated severe social disruption and epidemic that depopulated the Australian indigenous people.
The research has had significant influences from various sectors of society. These range from financial considerations, whereby governments and private sectors provide funding for the progress of the projects, to legislation by government banning or allowing the research, to religious views and beliefs of the people. As a result, stem cell research has had to go through baptism by fire, and it is still prohibited in some countries while others do not have a clear policy if any on the topic. The research has faced ethical issues because it utilizes human embryos for extraction of stem cells. This paper seeks to discuss the effects of the various factors on the research such as the influences of political interests. media being one of them, religious beliefs and financial challenges on embryonic stem cell research. Discussion Financial Challenges Financial challenges play a great role in research involving stem cells. This is in the form of purchases of equipment meant for use in the research (Connor, 2009, Para. 9). Just like any other field, in medicine, the issue of commercialization has caused debate on a wide scale. Financial challenges in this case are brought out in the form of ethical issues. For example, introducing commerce in stem cell research makes stem cell tissues and embryos into tradable goods and commodities. Also, researchers could have commercial interests in the research which could afflict interests. All these are manifestations of financial challenges in the field of this research. In addition, sale of human tissues elicits debate on the legality and acceptability of the issue in society. The other financial challenge that affects stem cell research is that of the efficiency involved in harvesting stem cells (Hollowell, 2005, Para. 18). This is because harvesting stem cells requires the extraction of women’s eggs. This translates to approximately 1.7 billion human eggs to treat 17 million diabetes patients requires. The cost to extract these eggs would be really expensive putting into consideration that to extract one egg from a single patient one requires nearly $100,000 (Hollowell et al, 2005, Para. 18). These costs are really high and require an organization to shoulder the financial burden while funds may not be forthcoming. As a result, the research either slows down or ends up being disbanded due to lack of funds. There is also the issue of the government funding for stem research in some countries. There is a strong opposition to the use of taxpayers’ money to cater for the research (Hollowell, 2005 Para. 52). This is because both private and government players have analyzed scientific data emanating from the research. As a result, they have concluded that the research is a waste as many have failed. In addition, some private companies that have the finances to give out are reluctant to fund stem cell projects. This is not as a result of the failures or of the potential failures that scientists face but as a result of receiving inadequate applications for the funds (Hollowell et al, 2005, Para. 64). The applications fail to qualify because they are unable to withstand the peer review process meant to vet them. Moreover, funds are becoming a rare commodity for embryonic stem cell researchers. This is because for corporations and the private sector to fund the stem cell research there is a need to conduct trials on animals first (Hollowell, 2005, Para. 26). Early trials have had side effects on the animals such as development of malignant
The good thing about these social revolts is their capacity to bring forward advantages on the part of various social movements which continue to evolve, making them more sophisticated and expert on achieving their objectives. In this paper, the proponent tries to explore significant proofs which substantially points out social movements in Latin America to have been successful in achieving their objectives. The case of Rural Landless Workers Movement The Rural Landless Workers Movement (MST) is a case of how a social movement has been successful in Latin America based on the achievement of its objectives. There are specifically two important points MST has substantially done in order to fulfill its objectives. The first point is its ability to maintain strong level of leadership towards its members. It has become a highly structured group knowing that it involves thousands of members. In groups like this, a modern approach in leadership is necessary in order to unite the team with only one vision and goal. Furthermore, MST learned enough the power of taking advantage on achieving allies. As a result, MST was able to combine forces with other social movements in Brazil. The very presence of these various social movements in Brazil alone is a substantial proof that people have seen them as potential tools in achieving objectives through a specific social transformation. All of these proved that social movements in Brazil can be the best and powerful way on how the masses of people substantially can achieve their personal claims in a society where everyone seems to have varying social, political, and economic needs. The (MST) in Brazil, having more than 300,000 members and consisting of 350,000 peasant families, is a highly organised social movement in Latin America with allies in other social movements such as urban Homeless Movement, the Catholic Pastoral Rural (Rural Pastoral Agency), sectors of the trade union movement (CUT), the left-wing of the Workers Party (PT) and academic faculty and students (Petras, 2009). This social movement is capable of organising effective tactics in allocating land for their thousands of landless rural workers and their families on the lands of giant latifundistas, plus being able to succeed in placing their agrarian reform on the national agenda, and elected Lula Da Silva of the Workers Party in the 2002 presidential elections (Petras, 2009). MST is a picture of a highly sophisticated social movement having been able to penetrate the core foundation of social transformation. Its ability to create a better foundation for its entire movement is a specific proof that it has substantially created a remarkable way on how to obtain its specific objectives. Its ability to organise a large social group of 300,000 members and 350,000 peasant families was enough to create a strong allies with other social movements. What is depicted in this issue is the thought that in Brazil alone, social movements have become so widely considered and even have created a powerful force to influence the ongoing social transformation. This is the very reason why MST for instance was substantially able to penetrate and influence
The leaders are accountable for their actions and behaviors, and usually do the right thing because otherwise they would have to present their case in front of the publics. Political authority seems justified when there are norms and procedures that take care of the political manifestations and when people are given what they deserve the most – democracy. In essence, it is always a good practice to make use of the political authority to understand the nuances of the Western liberal democracy. This has been demonstrated through the works of Plato, Locke and Mill. The political authority is therefore a very common concept within the political discourse as it encompasses of people from different strata of life. The political authority is a very dire requirement within the political obligations which have been questioned by the works of Plato and Aristotle, and which remain significant even in the time and age of today. It is also a fact that within democratic set ups in a number of countries around the world, there is a good amount of discussion regarding political authority in particular as its role cannot be denied its due right. Within United States, political authority has been given much emphasis because it gives freedom to the people from the domains of the government. Indeed morality is a social contract for our mutual benefit. The ethical domains need to be in line with the way people conduct their lives. This means that people should adhere to the moral righteousness and thus give in their very best with regards to the manifestation of their actions and behaviors. Morality asks of people to be fair and forthright about their dealings and be clean related with their thinking mechanisms. They must put the good of the whole society in retrospect more than their own good (Thiroux 2003). What this eventually does is to demonstrate a sense of goodwill within the society and thus the people generally look up to one another in times of help and distress. Morality is indeed a state of mind, which gets represented in a whole lot of ways. In essence, human beings are generally good natured souls, who care about one another in a very open and direct way. Yet there are some individuals who think of their own gains more than anything else. This mars the ultimate basis of stability and growth within the society and essentially hurts the cause of the society in the larger scheme of things. Thus the human beings are a combination of both good and the bad within any society. One must understand that living morally is indeed something that comes out as a very natural and clean process. It is not at all hard and strenuous by any stretch of imagination. The need is to have a proper mechanism under which morality could be represented in a variety of ways, by the people, for the people and to the people (Morgan 1983). One should take up the Kantian theory of ethics which speaks exclusively of the moral domains within any society of the world. Since Kantian theory focuses on the manifestation of ethical norms and procedures more than mere feelings and emotions of mortals, one would absolutely buy this theory on any given day. In essence personal belief systems revolve around the rationale presented by Immanuel Kant in his theory. One should believe that he has hit the nail on the head whilst referring to the details related with the moral representation of people’s dealings in day to day lives. Morality is important to the day to day situations since people view things very differently on a normal basis. If individuals start acting in a very ethical fashion, it would not be much distant when one views the entire society as a combination of good men and women within its folds. Indeed a moral system needs to be structured and very clear in its content so that people
This paper asks what happened to Egypt before and after the 2011 Revolution. The 2011 Egyptian Revolution is not a product of overnight mobilization, but of decades of political repression and socio-economic problems, and so after it, the country continues to grapple with various social, economic, and political issues. The causes that built up the 2011 Egyptian Revolution came from the economic, social, and political inequalities that intensified during Mubarak’s regime, and not from mere overnight mobilization techniques. Egypt showed positive economic growth rates, but it masked underlying inequities. Hafez Ghanem, a senior fellow in the Global Economy and Development program, asserted that though the economy improved under Mubarak, it did not resolve widespread socio-economic issues. He states: [These economic policies] failed to be inclusive as they left about 45 million Egyptians trapped in lower middle class status living on $2-$4 a day and provided few opportunities for youth who felt economically and socially excluded. (Ghanem para.1). Ghanem is saying that Mubarak showed an economic bubble that had no sustainable center. The lower middle class and the youth experienced the worst hits because economic opportunities were not accessible to them. At the same time, political inequality is experienced through repressive practices against those who oppose the government. Mohamed El-Bendary described police violence against protesters, under the guidance of the Egypt’s Interior Ministry. Protesters, according to El-Dostour, an independent Egyptian opposition newspaper, called the Minister of Interior Habib El-Adli as the head of a militia and not a minister of interior because he used the police to interrogate, shoot, and hurt protesters (El-Bendary 77). Mubarak denied instructing the police to shoot at civilians and to conduct other brutal activities, and yet, the same police units ensured protection for his family members and cronies (Ghanem para.1). These reports and examples demonstrated that Egyptians wanted Mubarak and his entire regime out because they no longer served the will and welfare of the people. Social issues also plagued Mubarak’s administration, which culminated to the protests in 2011. The youth and the lower class, in particular, felt the overwhelming negative effects of crony capitalism and police violence in their lives. Lynch describes protests that increased in the middle of the 2000s, which portrayed: …episodic bouts of political and labor unrest: protests organized via Facebook by the April 6 movement (named in support of a 2008 strike in the industrial city El-Mahalla El-Kubra), labor strikes, and protests by lawyers and judges. (33). Lynch shows that social problems included labor issues and economic inequities that affected people’s political and social status. On February 1, 2010, named as the day of determination, protesters called for one million people to join them in Tahrir Square (El-Bendary 67). Mubarak appointed a vice-president to appease protesters, but he stressed that he would
Evaluate the Articles of Confederation as a guide for successful democracy in the United s. The Articles of Confederation was the document thatserved as the precursor to the official constitution of the United States. The former was ratified in 1781, the latter was signed and accepted in 1789. The leaders of revolutionary America felt the need for unity among different states and the necessity to define the relative powers of the Continental Congress and the individual states. and this led Congress to entrust the drafting of a federal constitution to a committee headed by John Dickinson. The product of this tentative exercise is the Articles of Confederation which was submitted on July 12, 1776 to the Second Continental Congress. The three talking points it generated in Congressional sessions were the apportionment of taxes according to population, the granting of one vote to each state, and the right of the federal government to dispose of public lands in the West. (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2009) So concerns for the development and establishment of democracy did not figure during initial discussions. At the same time, one could argue that the template for equal representation of all states is an indicator of impending installation of democratic practices. Through Articles 1 and 13 there is no explicit mention of democracy or egalitarian citizen representation. The Articles are born out of concerns of the ruling elite, who are exclusively White Anglo-Saxon Protestant males (WASPs). they were also propertied slave owners. In fact WASP domination of American political and business society continues even today, albeit in a weakened form, making incredulous the claim that the Articles served as a guide for democracy in the country. Indeed, several historians are of the opinion that the Articles of Confederation (and later the Constitution) are inadequate due to the limited powers they endowed to the central government and democratic institutions. Identifying this inadequacy, George Washington famously remarked that the Articles were little more than the shadow without the substance and mooted the idea of a stronger federal government. (Lind, 2002, p.40) By taking a look at the content of the 13 Articles, one can see that implementation of democracy is not high priority. For example, The preamble and Article 1 established a perpetual union of the Thirteen Colonies under the style of the United States of America. Article 2 asserted that each state retained its sovereignty and every right not expressly delegated to the central government, while Article 3 characterized the confederation as a league of friendship, for common defense…..Article 5 provided that each state send annually not less than two nor more than seven delegates to Congress, though each state was to have only one vote. Article 6 left the conduct of war to Congress, and Article 7 empowered the state legislatures to appoint military officers up to and including the rank of colonel…. (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2009) While there are hints and gestures in the Articles that point toward democracy, there is no explicit laying out of democratic processes and institutions as we understand today. Hence it is reasonable to conclude that the Article of Confederation serve as a poor guide for successful democracy in the United States. It might also explain why most Presidential candidates are drawn from upper middle-class or elite sections of the population. Works Cited Confederation, Articles Of. The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2009. Lind, Michael. Do the People Rule?. The Wilson Quarterly Wntr 2002: 40+. United State of Confusion?. The Mirror (London, England) 11 Apr. 2007: 8.
In The Fetishism of Commodities and the Secret Thereof, Karl Marx (1867) notes that the mysterious character of commodity stems from its exchange value, not from its use-value, and he calls this phenomenon as commodity fetishism. The aim of this paper is to scrutinize what roles commodities do play in contemporary culture in an attempt to unveil the secrets of commodities.Before proceeding to the analysis of commodities’ roles. three key concepts, namely commodity, commodity fetishism and culture must be described briefly. According to Marx (1857), the basic definition of a commodity is as follows: an object outside us, a thing that by its properties satisfies human wants of some sort or another. Hence, for him, the commodity is a sensuous and material thing with useful qualities, catering any kind of human needs and wants. Furthermore, Marx, divides the essential properties of commodities into two categories of having use value and exchange value. In ‘Introduction to a Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (1859), he describes use-value as an aspect of commodity and he gives wheat as an example of useful things with different properties. In this sense, use-value denotes the immediate physical entity, which serves social needs but does not express social relations of production. For Marx (1859), contrary to use value, exchange value is irrespective of commodities’ natural form of existence. However, through the exchange, the use-value is transformed into exchange value, and becomes the commodity, which is the embodiment of universal labor-time in a particular use-value. Thus, the exchange value expresses the human labor bestowed upon an object.Nevertheless, although commodities are mere products of human labor, this social relation is hidden from the eyes by means of fetishism and the process of material production is veiled under its mystical veil. In exchange, this social relation between men, appear as relations between things, due to what Marx called commodity fetishism.
Analysis of Environment 5 1.1. PEST Analysis 5 8 1.2. Industry Life Cycle 8 2.0. Competitive stance of Barclays in India 9 2.1. Porter’s Five Forces 9 Section 2 13 2.1. Scale and Scope 13 2.2. Analysis of Strategy 14 2.3. Evaluation of Sustainability 15 References 17 Bibliography 21 Introduction After realising the potential of the emerging markets, many internationally operating business institutions have shifted their focus from developed economies to developing economies, such as China, Russia, and India (Raman, 2009). Following the trend, Barclays Bank Plc, which is by its origin an England-based financial institution, decided to expand its business in India in the year 2006. Conversely, the organisation had already entered the market almost 30 years before the commencement of retail banking in the economy (Barclays, 2011). The paper focuses on the business environment of Barclays Bank Plc in India and services rendered by the company in the economy. With this concern, the paper discusses the macro-economic factors existing in the Indian Banking Sector through PEST analysis. It also intends to identify the strategic alliances adopted by the company with the assistance of Porter’s Six Forces analysis and evaluate its appropriateness in overcoming the challenges existing in the economy. With the objective to analyse appropriateness of the strategies adopted by the company, the discussion of the paper presents a comprehensive outlook of the current status of the industry in the economic region. It also represents the various facts regarding the strategic behaviour of the company. Section 1 1.0. Analysis of Environment 1.1. PEST Analysis Political Factors The Indian political system has a great influence on the commercial sector of the economy. The current scenario of the political environment in India possesses few advantages and disadvantages which in turn can affect the banking sector to a large extent. For instance, the economy possesses a well-structured regulatory framework to control commercial banking and on the contrary a high inflationary rate which is most likely to have an effect on the growth of the banking industry (The Times of India, 2010). Moreover, in the current fiscal year the government of India have subscribed to recapitalise the public sector banks in order to assist them in achieving a target of 15% in terms of outstanding loans (Scribd, 2011). One major reason which can be identified in this context is the growing concern of the political leaders in the economy to improve the financial market trends with an objective of stimulated economic growth. This reformation will certainly make the competition fiercer in the market and thus affect the operations of Barclays in India. Economical Factors The GDP rate of the economy is recorded to continuously increase and currently figures around 5.75% (as was recorded in March 17th 2011). According to the economists, the economic growth rate shall persist to increase in the next few years (Ganesh, 2011). The interest rate of the economy is forecasted to continue on a high percentage (i.e. 5.75%). However, the inflationary rates of the economy are also recorded at an increase with 9.30%. Interest Rates of the economy currently figures to 5.75% and thus reflects a challenging business environment (Ganesh, 2011. Trading Economics, 2011). The economic situation of
Stephen Williams and Gerard Friell discover why and how, contempt same political and military agitations, the western empire all but broke down and the eastern empire lived and amalgamated its strength confront of the incursive weak, barbarians, and immature imperial and machinations around the globe. The article explores the threats from the huns, due to the fact of tribal power. The article discusses about the factors of durability during establishment of Roman Empire. It highlights the administrative, fiscal and diplomatic experience.The Rome That Did Not Fall examines the remarkable convalescence of the eastern empire, equating the straight and varying growths in east and west, and retracing the development of new accomplishments and schemes in the east_diplomatic, political, military and fiscal (Williams, Feriell 1). It gives a clear and explanatory discovery of the Roman Empire in fifth century.The end of the Roman Empire is written by BRYAN WARD. It discusses about the decline of Roman Empire. It highlites the factors and facts that are related to the decline of the Roman Empire. It covers both the sequential annihilation of the political, military, and economic and other related social schools of Rome and the barbarian encroachments that were concluded as its final sentence in Western Europe (Perkins 1).The Roman Empire decline was slow, it didn’t occur overnight. Many authors look this decline in several different perspectives. The slow decline took place over…. s raise the question about the importance of this date, this is not just because the legitimate emperor Julius Nepos, identified by the East Roman Empire, used to live in Dalmatia, until he was killed in 480. More significantly, the Ostrogoths who safely assumed themselves maintainers of the direct line of Roman traditions. And as Bryan noticed, the Eastern Roman Empire was losing its strength and continuously facing decline until the on May 29, 1453 when the Fall of Constantinople occurred. The author takes the new perspective of the Fall of Rome, by arguing that the caused the demise of the Empire. He has concluded that the fall of Rome was because of the political instability, reduced tax revenue and foreign invasion (Demandt 12). The invasion left long term damage on Rome. The invasion lessoned about the long term capability to equip the hordes with predictable outcomes. As regular invasions instigates provisional rebellion as self help by implementing imperial resources. He argues that some people did not see the decline of the Rome as a bad thing for the involved. On the other hand, many authors consider the decline of the Rome as a disaster. The author also points the series of facts, and decision which caused the huge disaster in Rome (Jones 284). Western Europe has now recovered a lot but it took around thousand years and still there is room for recoveries. Rome still needs to recover a lot in order to retain its previous position back. The decline was a huge disaster and it needs more efforts and strong policies in all sectors in order to regain its position. Proper implementation of strong policies will surely help a lot in achieving the powering position of Rome (Heather 41). Western Europe has actually recovered a lot but it took a long to retain back its
The practices are significant in the enhancement of employee satisfaction. There are many factors that may affect might affect employment relations, such as political influences, changing technology, cultural issues, social and economic factors, business cycle as well as psychological factors. The government plays a significant role in employment relations and is recognized by many employers in many states including the UK, US, and Australia among other thriving economies. Each state has its own regulations regarding collective bargaining, which are influenced by policies. The labor law has a strong influence on employment contracts and the behavior of employers in regards to their relationship with employees. The government, being the sole institution mandated to develop new laws and to discard the ones that seem inappropriate, has the capacity to determine how the employer-employee relationship should be. The changes in regimes governing the state greatly influence the manner in which organizations operate. Trade unions are applied as the tools for strengthening the employees’ collective bargaining Hollinshead et al (2003). However, they are met with resistance from different circles especially when the government promotes non-collective mechanisms in industrial relations. The unions are sometimes viewed as the major drawbacks in the efforts to encourage investors to create employment opportunities. They are viewed as hindrances towards the maintenance of a free labor market. For example as Dundon Rollinson (2004) observe, the unions were considered to be the cause of rampant unemployment in Britain since 1979. This made the government make efforts that are geared towards increasing the freedom of managers, reduction of government influence on formal structures of organizations, and increasing the management’s capacity to control the human resources.Government policy usually has a significant influence on the outlook and the anticipation of employers.
Constitution. The U.S. constitution was finalized on July 4th 1776 and was drafted by Thomas Jefferson. A significant portion of the Declaration, pointed at the tyranny of King George III, and his refusal to grant the right of self-governance to the Americans. This was used as a base / foundation for the formation of the Constitution. Due care was taken to ensure that the setbacks and abuses faced during the rule of King George III were prevented. This was done by including provisions that ensured the protection of basic human rights, a right which was denied during the reign of the King. … The new constitution guaranteed a basic set of rules in the interest of the nation, which included the protection of liberty of the people. and the right to democracy i.e. the dispersion of power which was initially concentrated in the hands of a few. This rule was included specifically, in response to the tyranny experienced by the colonists, during the reign of King George III when the power was highly concentrated and the common man hardly had a say in matters important to them. The colonists had experienced severe setbacks under the reign of the King, which was mainly on account of his atrocious laws and a total disregard for the well being of the Americans. There was a severe lack of ethics in the laws formed under the King’s rule, which hindered the progress and development of not only individuals but of the nation as a whole. Hence, the key emphasis during the formation of the new constitution was to include principles of ethics and morality, in order for the laws to be fair and just. The basic concepts of self-government and a basic respect for the individual are the key laws, which were proposed and included in the new U.S. Constitution and can be considered as intrinsically ethical in nature. Furthermore, various religious ethics such as the Judaeo-Christian ethics and political ethics also formed a significant part of the new constitution. The constitution provided for equality among all, its people, a rule which is the foundation of social ethics. The social contract theories propagate the formation of equitable social living arrangements for all. The abolishment of dictatorship and the advocacy of self-government, is also a distinguishing force, which represents a highly ethical view, which is
These periods in time had a demonstrable and defininitive impact upon how the economic cycle, the American dream, and risk taking came to be understood. Firstly, in order to understand the Industrial Revolution, it must be understood that this was a period of runaway growth for almost each and every industry within the United States. Although it is oftentimes tempting to assume that the Industrial Revolution was only concentric upon benefiting the moguls that owned the iron and steel mills throughout the Northeast, almost each and every sector of the American economy experienced a level of growth as a result of this point in time. However, it must also be understood that the individual worker was at a distinct disadvantage for much of the Industrial Revolution. … ervasive spirit of the era was one that believed that the growth that was being experienced and exhibited throughout the economy could somehow continue to be sustainable in perpetuity. By way of comparison, the period of the Great Depression evidenced a distinctly different, arguably opposite, societal, economic, and political approach. As a result of the fact that there were few if any jobs, investment was drying up, trust and availability of the currency was drying up, and little if any safety net existed for the people of the era, a true level of malaise and depression set in and defined the era. This is of course denoted with regards to such factors as the stagnation of the labor markets and the ultimate hardship that individuals felt with regards to the outlook for bettering their position in life. Obivously this has a direct correlation to the extent to which the American dream was believed to be a reality. Due to the fact that the means of creating American way of life was all but removed, it became incumbent upon the government and political sectors of the system to intervene and express the will of the people to fix the problems that were systemically plaguing and beleaguering the system. Such a point of view is rather well represented within the famous film It’s a Wonderful Life. Although a complex plot is woven around different types of hardship that cannot be defined purely economically, it is the economic hardship that is the final straw in prompting the main character towards the course of action that he takes. The economic hardship and the social fabric are two elements that are extensively represented within the film and two elements that factored heavily into how the Great Depression was felt within the United States
Local people are strictly prohibited to get into the area until the investigation process is in progress and police advice the people for not to come across the street and try to avoid it. However, even after several primary investigation process police is still unable to identify any criminals or suspects. As the shootout was held in the evening the police have decided to close the road from late evening. Even though the investigation is taking place still the criminals are still free and no one is yet arrested by the police. The case is in progress and the murderer is still undetected. Moreover, the increasing number of crime in Australia is affecting its social and political stability to a large extent. Thus, the local people are getting affected by the increasing criminal activities in Australia (The Australian, 2014).The Social Structure Theory mainly implies the relationship between various attributes of the society. The social structure theory is mainly based on the three modules those are a strain, cultural deviance theory, and social disorganization theory. The objective of these components of the theory is to provide support for understanding individual behavior towards the criminal behavior. In this context, the cultural deviance fits appropriately for the case. The cultural deviance theory is a combination of the social disorganization and strain theory. The criminal activities taking place within the society, which is mainly witnessed amid the lower grade people with a poor mentality. From the above case, it is found that the crime has taken place in a roadside area. Police, however, suspects that there might be some involvement of the mafia gang who are experts in this kind of activity as referred to in the case. The cultural deviance theory signifies that the upbringing or the family culture of a person can lead them towards the crime.
The Vietnam Quagmire According to Halberstam, the Vietnam War was precipitated by what can be considered to be American interference in the political leadership and affairs of Vietnam. What started as America’s military aid to Vietnam in its resistance wars against the French turned into an uneasy relationship between the Americans and Diem. Diem was the president of Vietnam who was a devote Roman Catholic, anti-communist and shy (Halberstam 3). Diem changed his ways form a conversationalist to a monologist, which made him act alone, an attitude that constantly put him at loggerheads with the Americans. It is a generally accepted premise that America’s involvement in the Vietnam War was a total failure as characterized by the fact that most Americans returned from the war a disappointed lot. This paper seeks to discuss the Vietnam War according to David Halberstam in his The Making of a Quagmire by answering questions with relation to his postulates. Question #1 The war in Vietnam and the involvement of the United States (US) served to teach a very important lesson where foreign relations and policy are concerned. The Vietnam War served to teach America and the rest of the world that one cannot impose their ways and values on other people. This was acerbated by the use of military force by the Americans in an effort to coerce President Diem to adopt American style politics and systems of governance. America engaged itself in the Vietnam War without a clear exit strategy, an aspect that further complicated by the fact that the US did not have a set agenda on what was its end goal or objective in the war (Halberstam 4). These factors contributed to chronic suspicion by the Vietnamese leadership and the people, an aspect that did not improve relations between Americans and the Vietnamese. It led to the continuation of a purposeless war attributed to the loss of senseless and massive casualties for both sides an event that could have been avoided if America had approached this issue in a different manner. Question #2 During the Vietnam War the Buddhists in the South of Vietnam played a vital role that was seen as progressive in terms of what the country needed at that time. Buddhism was a popular and widespread religion before the coming of Christianity, and rise to power of a devote Roman Catholic priest saw the discrimination of Buddhist elements both in government and society (Halberstam 7). Buddhism acted as a unifying factor for the Vietnamese people in their fight for justice against President Diem’s oppressive regime. Buddhism comprised the majority of Vietnamese population, and it contributed significantly to a populist uprising against the minority elite and the eventual ouster of Dictator Diem. Question #3 The covering of the Vietnam War by the world press and especially the American press was widely criticized by the US government. This was about by the fact that press reporting from Vietnam was not very popular in Washington. This was characterized by disputes between Time reporters in Vietnam and their editors in New York (Halberstam 16). The press’ responsibility during the Vietnam War was to offer true accounts of what was happening on the ground irrespective of which side they represented. It would be correct to say that the press was right in what it reported because it was not. there would have been inconsistencies in true accounts of what was happening on the ground. This is exemplified by Americans authorities turning on reporters because they did not depict what they wanted the world to see and hear about their failures in the war. Reporters received criticism about their coverage of the war and indication that their work was correctly illustrating the true picture on the ground. General Cao’s claims about what was happening on the battlefield and the actual situation on the battlefield did not match each other according to press reports on the ground (Halberstam 11). The positive effect of the media in the Vietnam war can be discerned in the Vietnam’s government crackdown on those caught listening to Voice of America (Halberstam 17). The media’s role in the Vietnam War served its right purpose and this notion is strengthened by the fact both sides in war were against some of its elements that did not serve their purpose. Work Cited Halberstam, David.The Making of a Quagmire: America and Vietnam During the Kennedy Era. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman Littlefield, 2007. Print.
Back in his country, America, Hoover put down on paper economic, political, and spiritual features which assisted Americans to generate the materials required to bring peace to the globe and at the same time offer spiritual and social commitment to provide economic help to the people wrecked by war. Hoover was significant to the American people in that his philosophies were greatly influenced by the America’s founding fathers. For instance, Hoover’s ideas were shaped by the civic religion and American exceptionalism, which was characterized by the codes of the constitution and declaration of independence. In addition, he believed that the Uniqueness of the U.S was shaped by its economic system and strong religious heritage, which promoted equal opportunity to everybody. In his work American individualism, Hoover argues that the world witnessed the spread of revolution because of the failures of the governments in war. These wars, Hoover asserts was conflicts or disagreements of social philosophies, which were caused by great inequalities, and injustices of centuries. However, as the people try to fight these injustices and inequalities with the hopes that misery and suffering would be replaced by happiness and equality, there is still much left of the U.S, which has to be tackled, by reason and intelligence in order to shape the future of the U.S. Hoover states that even those people who were less affected by the war have been infected by these ideologies. Beyond this, many people have hopes of civilization ennobled and cleaned or purified by the services and sacrifices of the war. they had thought and imagined the unity of reason achieved in war would be transferred in broad unity of action in feedback of the responsibility of civilization in peace. Unfortunately, the purpose of revolution, which was to attain peace and prosperity, has not been attained. Hoover argues that among the six great social ideas or philosophies are at struggle or fight in the universe for ascendency. This is what he called American individualism. In Europe, individualism is manifested via reservations of classes and castes. Hoover asserts that American individualism was evident in the manner in which the American people developed creed and decided to live with it. He says that more than five years of contending with economic and social disintegration, with primary motivation of social forces, continued political dislocation and the significance of wider thought upon their broad issues to humanity has been the spirit of America. Unfortunately, from this struggle, emerges an unashamed individualist known as American individualist. For a long time, America has been slowly nurturing and developing the principles that make up progressive individualism. Hoover argued that individualism is not good in the sense that it would offer a long group of inequalities, of dominations, injustices and of tyrannies. However, America has tempered the entire conception or idea of individualism by the injection and introduction of a definite principle and from this code. it follows that effort of domination, either in the government of in the course of commerce and industry or not. If America would possess the values and principles of individualism, their stimulation to the intellect, initiative, and development, to increased development of spirituality and thought, they must be tampered with that fixed and firm principle of equality of opportunity and
Secondly, democracy should rest on majority rule and individual rights, protection of basic human rights like freedom of speech, religion, conducting free and fair elections where the citizens have the right to participate.In the sovereign rule, the highest authority rests with the people. however, in other forms of governments, namely authoritarianism and communism, the sovereign power lies on some individuals or a small group of people in the society (Woolfe Rawcliffe, 2005 p.4). Moreover, there are many requirements that a nation must meet to be defined as a democratic nation. This paper explores the nations of North Korea and Burma as nations that do not meet the basic characteristics of a democratic nation. The nations do not have a clear process of elections, as one is a monarchy while the other is governed by the military. In addition, the human rights records of both countries are not good, while the ruling elite of the two countries views their system as democratic but by the characteristics of democracy, they are far off.Burma, a nation in the Asia Pacific, has a limited level of democracy. It is under military juntas – the State Development and peace council (SDPC) rule have, for a very long time, been involved in repressive acts. and human rights are not observed among other oppression. For instance, the key opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi of the National League for Democracy has been under house arrest for a long time. In addition, Burma has not conducted parliamentary elections since 1990. however, the nation the ruling military junta endorsed a new constitution in 2008 that was passed in a referendum which is seen as fraudulent by many (Martin, 2010, p.1).In the 1990 parliamentary elections, the National League for Democracy won the elections but the military turned them down (Congress, 2010, p.14486). In addition, the juntas set up laws that would limit registration, organization, and operations of political parties.
The world attempts to adopt progressive attitudes toward capitalism, individual human rights, and political equality, some nations remain philosophically opposed to these Western values. But as globalisation continues, and countries are axiologically merged together, this thinking in terms of Western vs. Eastern or First-world vs. Third-world becomes adversative to the social movements we are witnessing at the beginning of the 21st century.Nevertheless, there still remains an element out there in the world that says some civilisations are as incompatible as oil and water. Political scientist Samuel P. Huntington has identified this in a theory he called the clash of civilisations, which states that the primary source of political conflict in the post-Cold War world is the differing identities of wide regions of individuals. These identities result from religion or culture and can diverge from one another to quite an extreme. As opposed to ideological conflict, the clash of civilisation is the result of clashes in religious or cultural identities. This has come about probably as a result of religious extremism in parts of the world, particularly in the Middle East. As Huntington says, The clash of civilisations will dominate global politics. The fault lines between civilisations will be the battle lines of the future (Huntington).One might wonder what impact this perspective might have on the prospect of American intervention in the affairs of the Middle East, a region whose civilisation is extremely different from that of the West. The answer lies in recognising the simple fact that the United States is but a representative of Western civilisation. Western powers have been meddling in Middle Eastern affairs for nearly a hundred years, ever since the fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I.
There have been different women through the centuries who have succeeded in having adventurous lives in spite of social customs that were created to confine them to the home. Khaizuran. Al-Khayzuran was a woman who travelled extensively in an era when women were severely restricted in all aspects of social life. She was born at the height of the Abbasid Empire, in Yemen. However, she would be kidnapped by Bedouin traders who then sold her to the Abbasid court as a slave (Hansen and Curtis 253). After she began to serve in the house of the next Caliph Al-Mahdi, she became personally involved with him and married him. She would bear two future caliphs Harun Al-Rashid, and Al-Hadi. In spite of living in a society that deeply oppressed its womenfolk, Al-Khayzuran was able to acquire and wield political power after marrying the most important man in the kingdom (Spodek 57). Her relatives were even awarded positions due to her influence in court. She also deeply influenced her sons who would be future rulers. Even though Al-Khayzuran wielded unusual power for a woman of her day, she only managed to do this because she was the wife of the caliph. The position of women in her society did not benefit from her ascension to power. Gudrid. In some cases, women actually made the decision to go against the grain and take power for themselves. Gudrid, who was the sister-in-law of Leif Eriksson made just such a decision. Leif Eriksson was the man who landed on the American continent five centuries before Christopher Columbus did. After reaching the New World, Leif left never to return. Gudrid, however, wanted to remain there. She attempted to settle in the land that was named ‘Vinland’. Even though women were not viewed as warriors in the same way that men were, they had some more freedoms than their sisters in the medieval era would have in the next few centuries. Viking women, like Gudrid, could own ships as well as farms (Hansen and Curtis 286). Sometimes they relocated with their husbands, just as Gudrid did, when their men went in search of new lands to conquer. However, during such campaigns, they were often left behind to tend to commercial activities as well as the lands that were left behind when their husbands left. Moreover, even in campaigns, there were many times when women were required on trips. Li Qing-Zhao. While this type of freedom cannot be compared to that enjoyed by women in the 21st century, it was still much more than that enjoyed by women in other areas in the world. For example, for Li Qing-Zhao, who lived during the Song Dynasty life was much harder. Women in the Song dynasty were confined to homes and could not hold business related or political leadership positions. In addition, they could only improve their status by bearing male children. Li Qing-Zhao was a unique woman of her time who became a poet in spite of all the restrictions that she was bound by. She also travelled to many places as a result of adversities such as invasions from other nations. After her husband lost his battle with Malaria, Li Qing-Zhao would spend the rest of her life wandering from place to place. When she settled in Hangzhou in 1132, her writings in
It was a time of religious intolerance when a strict theocratic rule existed in most of Europe. An example of the extreme power of the Papacy at around this period was its ability to wage wars against other countries. This powerful papacy launched the Crusades which fought for a period of two centuries against the Muslims who conquered and occupied the Near East, especially Jerusalem. It also fought against other perceived enemies of the faith such as those pagans in the Slavic region, the Jews, the Mongols and other peoples it considered as heretics. In the real sense, the papacy was a power unto itself and exercised both religious and temporal powers. It concerned itself with matters of the state and even kings bowed to it. It was against this backdrop that the Reformation movement began that was started by a simple act of Martin Luther. He questioned some of the questionable practices of the clergy during his time. He saw how the clerical powers had been abused at the expense of ordinary people and how it strayed so far away from its original religious mandate of saving the souls. It is necessary to give a brief background in order to understand the context in which Martin Luther challenged the papal authority and the manifest abuses of the system (Jacobs 7). Discussion The Catholic Church at around this time can be characterized, to put it mildly, as very corrupt. Candidates for the papacy outmaneuvered each other, engaged in political intrigues, some popes and priests were married and had families (before celibacy was imposed) and the general atmosphere within the Catholic hierarchy was far removed from religious matters. The main protest of Martin Luther was centered on the granting of indulgences.
This thinking was developed in the wake of the Peloponnesian War, a war that shook the inner parts of the different Greek city structures and foundations. His view was that a change in the hierarchy of system with regards to the weaker areas did not have such an effect on the prevalent system within that place but had a certain amount of intolerance as well as commotion as far as the hierarchy of order was concerned, one that related with the stronger states. This meant that the disturbance played quite a fair deal in changing the overall stability of the system as a result. According to him, the war became quite a certainty because the growth of Athenian power was having its toll on the people and more so related to the fear aspects of the Spartan inhabitants.As far as international relations are concerned, Thucydides holds the view that his realism is somewhat having quite a strong impact on the overall perception thus created by the analysts, one that discusses the international relations as a result. Thus these analysts made up for the modern-day thinking ideologies and similar mindsets. As political scientists study the work of Thucydides, they conclude that there has been an endeavor to communicate the silent universals which did their bit at serving the exact basis for the foreign policy which was present within America at the time and not to forget the teaching doctrines which were in the direct perspective of the post World War II period. Thucydides can be credited as the first person who made use of words like anarchic and immoral when one spoke of the regime of international relations and the related concepts that came along with it. Thucydides’ view was given complete significance in the wake of the ‘Melian Dialogue’ which spoke of his testament towards the absence of regulation and equality or justice.
The recent warm Indo-US relations didn’t establish overnight. There are three major developments which took place in last 15 to 20 years that forced both the countries to come close to each other for their national interests. The foremost development was the end of Cold War era which remained focal point of US foreign relations. India had nonalignment policy during that period. Therefore, end of Cold War created a room for both countries to change their foreign policy in terms of new scenario. Second, India set up excellent financial reforms at the start of 90s. It was the first time when Indian government opened its borders for international trade. Huge population of India was a huge market for US multinational private sector companies. Lastly, the world has seen a tectonic shift at the start of 21st century, and of course India has come as one of the emerging countries. (America’s Strategic Opportunity with India: The New U.S.-India Partnership Author(s): R. Nicholas Burns). The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 offered New Delhi a golden opportunity to deepen its security links with Washington. New Delhi promptly endorsed President Bush’s declaration of war on terrorism and promised full cooperation. … In the presence of such diversities, India per capita GDP is $1122 which is definitely a mark of its greatest democracy. Traditionally United States is a great supporter of enhancing the democracy on the globe and in this context it always has appreciated the Indian contribution for establishing the democracy in a third world country. However India, despite of being an incredible polity and having remarkable democratic value, still seems short of preserving US interests with respect to political system. India is not promoting the democracy to flourish in other countries. Actually, the effects of colonialism are still evident on Indian culture and that’s why the country is still hesitant, however, its own contribution to set the largest democracy is the feature which forces the Washington to keep Indian governments to create political reforms across the world (Toward Realistic U.S.–India Relations). Both India and the US share the common view of China as a potential and major future threat. and, have common interests in circumscribing the rise of China. In the long term, there is the possibility of establishing strategic relations with each other to contain China by using the other as a core element for balancing Beijing, especially at a time when each has trouble with China (Nicholas Burns, 2007, p.139). The likelihood of India becoming a military counter to China or its attractiveness as an alternative market, however, is questionable and certainly not immediate. A big concept of relationship is highlighted by many self-proclaimed realists in America and India that the US-Indian cooperation shouldn’t be conceptualized as a way to set competition against China. Washington must
Closed shops: The position or status of closed shops varies in the provinces of Canada. A closed shop can be a type of union safety contract where the employer confirms to hire union associates simply, and employees ought to stay associates of the union continually. Union security measures, as well as specially the closed along with union shop, allow unions higher bargaining strength than they’d have experienced under an openshop set up. Statutory Freeze: Labour statutes within every single province as well as in the federal legal system offer a freeze in a couple of specific circumstances: in negotiating for any renewed collective settlement and in bargaining to get a very first collective contract. From the very first agreement scenario, many statutes give 2 distinct freezes, the one that starts once the union applies pertaining to certification, then one that takes place as soon as the union is licensed. In negotiating for a restoration contract, usually the older collective agreement may expire prior to the latest agreement is agreed upon. Positive Obligation of the state: Positive obligations grant states not to avoid particular steps, but to take action. Similarly with the individuals experiencing human rights requirements, states ought to stop third parties from messing up the standard of living. The labor law will be important in implementing the action plans from government that brings prosperity in society. Part B short Answers: Answer 1. Explain the Legal status of Unions… The status of Unions has been changing during the period of 1920 and 1960s. Both countries almost had similar workplaces for the workers. During that period there was a rise in the popularity of memberships for labor unions. However, after 1965 in USA there was a marginal decline in the popularity of labor unions but in Canada this concept was on a steady way. The reason behind this fluctuation was the impact of globalization. In Canada there has been a tough competition regarding the manufacturing industry. It was made very easy to join unions simply by signing a special card. This process is also called card check. There are four points under this: the legal status of unions in Canada has encouraged the democratic culture practices, they have made the employment and social objectives wide spread for their members. While reviewing the Canadian labor law Federal Force stated that the trade union of Canada has a high level of internal democracy and they truly have feeling and show keen interest for their members. Then the next point is that, unlike American and British unions Canadian unions do not have any stain like corruption and uncontrollable militancy. However, there were quite a few incidents of corruption but, they were not the main part of labor union, many of them were expelled to make sure that the true leadership is widespread. Thirdly, the political continuation has never been there. in other words, the demand for prolonged union affairs internally had positive aspects for the effectiveness of organizations. Those who wanted union democracy never acquired that influence they had in America and Britain. Then the last thing, self-government has a deep influence on Canadian legislator and courts, the way the British common law concept of union was. The membership concept was taken completely personal and contractual, and this is why they do not view it internally the union matters. Membership had been there without a political or group pressure.
The period in the history of Kuwait in which the country was a part of Basra’s Ottoman ‘vilayet’ was also being followed by the gulf war of 1990/ 1991. A series of political events led to the stage of the war that was fought between the contrived coalition forces of the United States of America and the military troops of the then ruling leader Saddam Hussein. The frontiers of the countries of Kuwait, Saudi Arab and Iraq were decided in the conference of Uqair in the year 1922 by the then high commissioner of the British controlled Indian Army, Sir Percy Cox, for the city of Mesopotamia. The commissioner resolved the constituents of the frontiers of the country, cutting through different series of ridiculous claims and arguments that seemed to be almost impossible for the period. This event was one of the contributors to prepare the stage for the Gulf war. Finally in the year 1930 the high commissioner of the British army in Baghdad passed the judgment of the encouragement of the absorption of Kuwait into the geographical boundary of Iraq gradually by the government of Britain. According to the British government and their representatives the sacrifice of a small and expandable state of Kuwait would not be a huge concern if there had been an existing demand by the struggle of powers of the then period. Kuwait depicted as an ‘oil well’ was being maintained by the United Nations serving as the proxy for the western world. The colonialism policy of the British government along with the imperialism strategy of the United States of America proved to be economic, provided the accommodation were mutually congenial for both, and for the protection of the hegemony of the western world in the fulfillment of the interest of democratic freedom over the natural oil reserve of the Gulf countries. They were being buttressed by the feudalistic policies of the other regional countries. Previously the government of the United States of America was indifferent regarding Iraq’s conflict with Kuwait, evidence from the period of late nineties or the period of the beginning of the year 1991 showed the strategies of the American government were in favor of war against Iraq. The United States of America provided a positive signal to Iraq, for the invasion of Kuwait by the later. However they emphasized on the lack of commitment from their part in the supply of troops to back the invasion of Kuwait. There were quick moves on the part of the government of United States on the economical, military and political fronts during the period of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq though no serious opposition was provided by United States on the country’s invasion. The result was too threatening for the government of Iraq. Saddam Hussein was named the ‘new Hitler’ and ridiculed in Britain, apart from the United States and elsewhere. This led to the introduction of economic sanctions that were comprehensive under the auspices of the United Nations. (Simons, 1–3: Schmid, 3) This invasion of Kuwait by Iraq resulted in the providence of a sanction by the Security Council of United Nations, which imposed tremendous impact on the economy of the country and more devastatingly on the lives of the countrymen. United Nation Sanction on Iraq During the period of the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq under the governmental leadership of Saddam Hussein the sanctions were mainly applied by the United Nations to pressurize the government of Iraq, which would act as an indirect force to make them leave. The sanctions mainly and predominantly focused on
Muslims believe in the holy war and observe the pilgrimage to Mecca which Christians neither believe in nor practice. During the Medieval period, both Christianity and Islam promulgated their religious beliefs and practices in territories where the majority existed. Christianity employed the use of missionaries whereas Islam employed offensive practices such as conquests, political rule and returning crusaders in spreading their faith (Spielvogel 238-243). 3. The expansion of trade The expansion of trade during the High Middle Ages resulted from developments in voyages of exploration by Vikings, growth of states, contacts with the Muslim world and the arrival of the Portuguese. Vikings exchanged goods as they sailed along trade centers in search of profit. The existence of various environmental zones and agricultural practices influenced trade to flourish. These resulted to the evolution of settlement as well as prosperity that in turn contributed to urbanization and the growth of states. In addition, contacts with Muslim merchants in the Trans Saharan trade involved the trade in kola nuts, gold, ivory, and slaves. The arrival of the Portuguese opened an outlet for West African manufactured products such as cloths. The utilization of Arab script and Muslim officials in complex bureaucracies remained as the impact of the expansion of trade on medieval society (Spielvogel 252-254). 5. The decline of papacy The papacy of the Roman Catholic Church had reached the peak of its power with the doctrine of temporal universal authority over secular rulers and fullness of power. However, the claims of temporal supremacy kept losing ground due to the growth of European secular monarchs. This created conflicts between papacy and the territorial states it never conquered.
19 Apr. Women and the advancement they have made in society: The status of women in the society has improved manifolds in the last five decades, and their rights have generally been acknowledged. Today, women are much more educated than they were fifty years ago. They have come at par with men and work shoulder to shoulder with men in every matter. The per capita income of women has increased over the years. Women have made their representation noticeable in the social and political scenario. Moreover, extensive local, national and global networks of women have succeeded in putting women’s concerns on the global agenda and catalyzed the creation of legal and institutional mechanisms to address these concerns (Perspective: The eradication of violence). Today, many NGOs are functional that work for the rights of women. Despite the rapid advancement of women in the society, women have continued to be the victims of domestic violence. A lot of women are mutilated, humiliated, raped and abused every day. However, the reaction of society to such issues has changed in the favor of women. In the past, many such cases went uninvestigated for many reasons. Either women were too shy to bring such issues in front of the society and put their modesty at stake, or else, the systems were not as established to ensure an efficient working against the criminals. However, in the contemporary age, women have become quite vocal regarding the injustice they are offered which has shaken the foundations of violence in the society. Women have physically achieved much of what they have long waited for. Nonetheless, they need to be psychologically stronger in order to escape being victimized as usual. Works Cited: Perspective: The eradication of violence against women and girls. One Country. vol. 18. issue 3. 2006. Web. 19 Apr. 2011. .
However very soon, it was expelled by Joseph Stalin in the year 1927 and such rule became completed in the year 1991. The year 1991is a remarkable year for the citizens of Soviet Union as USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republic) also regarded as Soviet Union Collapsed. It is regarded as one of the largest countries that collapsed due to the sudden blast of a nuclear super power thereby shattering the entire world. So, it is one of the most well-known dates in the history of Soviet Russia (Lorimer, The Collapse of ‘Communism’ in the USSR Causes and Significance). This essay mainly highlights the reasons for the fall of the communalism and USSR of Soviet Russia along with the pros and cons of such a collapse. Other than this, it also highlights the effect of such a collapse in the entire world in both positive and negative ways. Apart from this, a small evaluation part is also presented in the essay to evaluate the positive and negative effects of such a collapse along with a conclusion as well. History of Soviet Union The Soviet Union came into existence from the revolution occurred in the month of October that overthrew the Russian Provisional government and as a result, the Soviet Party came into power. It was dominated by Bolsheviks and followed by Russian civil war. The Soviet Union is also traditionally regarded as the successor of the Russian Empire (Lorimer, The Collapse of ‘Communism’ in the USSR Causes and Significance). The Soviet Union was ruled by the last Russian Tsar named Nicholas II from March 1917 to 1922. At the end of the year 1922, the predecessor to Soviet Union came into existence as the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, an independent country. Therefore, in 1922, the country of Soviet Union developed mainly due to the union of several neighboring countries such as Russia, Ukrainian, Belarusian and Transcaucasian Soviet Republic. Thus, after World War II, both Soviet Union and United States became engaged in cold war as they tried to make their individual influence in the entire world. The entire national politics at that time was dominated by the parties of the Cold War and the prime cause of this U.S.–USSR struggle was to attain planetary authority of their individual socio–economic systems as well as defeat of the hegemonic spheres of influence of the country. At that time, despite the presence of Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), a five-year planned economy comprising of a (post-New Economic Policy), and repudiation of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact secret protocols, remained as the main character of Soviet society till 1985 (Lorimer, The Collapse of ‘Communism’ in the USSR Causes and Significance). At this time, in order gain influence Soviet Union extended their maximum power over Eastern Europe and Cuba and also a considerable control was also maintained over the citizens of the country. At that time, the country was ruled by Leonid Brezhnev known as Brezhnev Era, experienced high economic growth and prosperity, but soon ended with a very weaker Soviet Union facing numerous social, political, and economic problems. Along with this, the average annual income also lowered, resulting in a quite devastating condition within the country. On the other hand, United States looked over the other parts of the world to extend their line of influence and power. Therefore, it may be depicted from the above scenario, that inspite of numerous best rulers, the social and economic condition of Soviet Union may not be
Until lately, Arabic countries in the last two decades have demonstrated their strong need for political changes and democracy in their countries. Tunisia was the first, followed by Egypt’s riots that have persisted since then, and followed Libya before the Middle East, where the world watched Islamic movements match in union against repressive governments to claim for their rightful democracy (Hamid aucegypt.edu). The western powers have since taken strategic positions, policies and redefined their foreign relations with external nations to promote peace and the sparked democracy in the society. The democratization of the Arab countries has been the United States and European Union’s long-term interest since the break out of the uprising.It was not the first time to have witnessed the western military intervention in the Arab countries during the time of the wars. Historically, the United States is known to have sent its military personnel in different areas, like the 1982-85 intervention in Grenada and many others (Adams and Newell 35). Most people doubt the presence of military intervention to promote democracy. It has often been considered a harsh move for governments to absorb, hence they let go of the powers, but play no significant role to change citizens’ revolution. Military invasion is often the last resort after attempts to bring peace internally fail. The western powers have confronted the recent issues including a war on terror without shying war for the safety and well-being of the global society. The USA has often applied quite a hard force compared to the European Union, but they have all shown a greater purpose to secure their own countries and promote democracy internally and those they relate to externally.
However, these activities were instilled to ensure the colonials developed their interests, and did not prioritise the interests of the colonised states. The colonised states had little or no control over these activities, which clearly indicates that colonisation was directed towards expanding the interests of the colonising countries. There are many aspects where the interests of the colonising countries were prioritised than the interests of the colonised countries. These are reflected from the economic focus, political environment and social interaction. Though the colonised countries had their fair share of advantages, most of these activities were directed towards strengthening the economic, political and social standing of the colonising countries (Havinden and Meredith, 1993:23). For instance, the French had a massive advantage in taking over their colonies. They exchanged cheap commodities with resources that were regarded as expensive. For instance, they brought knives and other commodities, while taking resources such as fur, cotton and other cash crops that were vital in production of other commodities. Though Africans gained, the European territories and other colonisers had greater stakes (Fieldhouse, 1986:42). As such, the European countries and other colonisers developed their economies at a faster rate, while the colonised countries did not record the same developments. In addition to this, the colonising countries destabilized the traditional values and customs of the colonised countries. They did not have intensions of understanding the customs and values of the colonised countries, and imposed their own. In the late years of the 1800, European powers felt the urge to invade, occupy and colonise some territories in Africa. This was a period that expressed the need for Europe to control the African territories as they were unexploited places in the world. The African continent was rich in resources, but there were not optimised and fully used. In their own vision, the European countries wanted to instil formal imperialism in the African continent, as it was a basic thing that lacked. They developed the best way to implicate the formal imperialism by fully eradicating the informal imperialism. This clearly shows that Africans were still stuck to their native ways, which was not impressive, especially to the colonisers. The people that were colonised had their own way of life, which was considered a backward trend. To eradicate such, they decided to colonise to instil formal way of life (Mahoney, 2010: 230). This meant that the Africans and other territories that would be colonised would follow the trends of the colonial powers. They would instil various ways that would increase production, performance and economic reliance of these territories. In actual sense, the colonials came with their strategies, economic plans and prospective that would be given to these territories. In using these trends that were introduced, the African territories and other territories that were colonised would improve (Fieldhouse, 1986:27). However, all this was not done as a mutual agreement. Though some territories collaborated with the invasion of these Europeans, they did not consent to the invasion of the colonial driven development strategies. Since the European countries had the financial muscle and a streak of resources, they were better placed to
However, she completely neglects the very reality that she is also guilty of human rights violations by imposing and inflicting the horrible and humiliating punishments upon the sex offenders in the form of stoning them to death because of developing extra-marital sexual relationships with one or more person(s). Since stoning to death maintains neither any religious background nor is it observed in any other part of the world except Iran, the dreadful act of stoning witnesses no justification in its nature and scope. The present study aims to analyse the implementation of the punishment by exploring its validity through the Islamic jurisprudence on the one hand, and its cultural and revengeful historical background on the other in order to prove or disapprove the validity of the so called justifiable penalty observed by the Iranian government of contemporary times. Stoning is one of the most popular traditional punishments applied by the authorities on the sex offenders and adulterers, so that the viewers and spectators can take it as an exemplar and could avoid sex offences altogether in their individual and collective life. Since the Iranians consider stoning a highly effective method to prevent the masses from violation of the moral ethics and religious values, in order to protect the nation from becoming prey to the moral decline at large, stoning is vehemently practiced in all parts of the state on offenders without any discrimination of caste, class, community, region, age and sex. At a time when momentum is gathering across the world to abolish capital punishment, the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI) currently ranks second for number of executions, after China, and first for per capita executions in the world. According to the World Coalition against the Death Penalty, Iran executed at least 317 people in 2007, almost twice as many as in 2006 and four times as many as in 2005. In 2008, at least 346 executions were recorded. (FIDH, 2009: 3) Hence, this type of ruthless punishment is admired, projected and supported by the Iranians without taking into considerations the severity of the trial the offenders undergo by becoming prey to the slow and painful death penalty. The history of stoning in Iran is not far to seek. on the contrary, it finds its roots over three decades ago, when the religious leadership came at the helm of the government after the successful revolution against the pro-western monarchical regime of the Emperor Raza Shah Pahlavi in February 1979. Amnesty International says that at least eight people were stoned to death in 1986. Somehow, few people have linked this to the passing of a law that year which allowed the hiring of judges with minimal experience and that it led to an increase in the number of judges from a traditional religious background. (Wooldridge, 2010: quoted in bbc.co.uk) Though the revolution was the reaction to the prevailing class discrimination of the monarchical Iran, yet it was hijacked by the religious leaders, who introduced strict laws in the name of religion and inflicted severe and harsh punishments upon their political and social opponents. Stoning and floggings were also introduced in the country, and the sex offenders became the worst prey of the religious regime, which left no stone unturned to suppress the liberal masses under the chariot
Many people claimed that the film depicted child sexuality, blasphemous acts, and vivid description of evil. They further claimed that it was not suitable for children that were 17 years and below. There was evidence of some viewers fainting, breaking down, and even committing suicide. Consequently, some clerics and Protestants condemned the film. However, the Catholic News claimed that the age needed such a film to make it realize that evil was present, and thus exorcist was still vital. The Exorcist applied kairos, logos, ethos, and pathos to appeal to the audience and pass its views and solutions to the issues that faced the people of that era.The film applied logos to convince the audience to start attending church to eliminate a rampant evil within the society. It showed that evil and goodness existed. The basis of the film was a historical event wherein 1949, a demonic possession had been exorcised from a boy in Mount Rainier, Maryland (Cull). The people at that age believed that such practice belonged to the old age but had gone down due to the increased awareness of the mental diseases. However, the incident shocked the people, as it was unusual. The film used the evidence to appeal to the audience that evil existed. The awareness of sin would make them believe that goodness also exist and start going to church. The story also came into being at a time of political crises in an attempt to show the existence of evil (Frentz and Farrell 27). It thus used kairos to appeal to the audience of the time that evil was real. The increasing spread of communism worldwide as evidenced by spy scandals and labor disputes threatened the existence of America. In late 1969, the American soldiers killed about 200 Vietnamese civilians at My Lai. Additionally, the era still had many Americans regarding the 1963 murder of President John F. Kennedy as the initial sin of the age. The action of the film occurs in ahome, the most uniquely privileged realm of the American post-war culture.
This product comes in different flavors and it contains vital vitamins and natural ingredients vital for boosting the health of human beings. Reasons for Selecting Indonesia for Introducing Energy Drink Indonesia is one of the countries with the highest population. hence they can offer adequate market for the Energy Drink product. The marketing research study carried out by the management team of the Monster Energy Drink Company discovered that tea is an imperative commodity and drinking tea has become one of the cultural aspects in many countries such as Indonesia. Tea has for a long time gained popularity and higher rate of tea consumption has been proven good for boosting health. For instance, tea is well known for increasing stamina, cholesterol reduction and detoxifications purposes (Euro monitor, 2012). Therefore, the introduction of the Energy Drink product in Indonesia was due to the need of offer a modern form of tea beverage, which targeted younger consumers who wanted to boost their energy. Moreover, Indonesia has the largest population and the extensive marketing research carried out revealed that Indonesia will be the best energy tea market (Instate Pty Ltd., Australia. Dept. of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, 2004). The research further indicated that Indonesia being the largest religious nations including Muslim across the globe, launching this product will enable the company to become successful. There is a large market potential for the Energy Drink product because it is the largest economy in Southeast of Asia. Understanding the targeted market or carrying out market analysis before introducing any new or innovative brand product is crucial. This is because it will enable the company to understand the psychological behaviors of customers or their consumption behaviors. hence enabling the company product to thrive effectively in the market. Thus, the main aim of the company is to enter into the Indonesia market. thus attract the market share while delivering a high quality and innovative brand image. General Environmental Analysis in Indonesia The internal and outside atmosphere affects the commercial environment in diverse ways. The external analysis focuses on the threats and opportunities that exist in the Indonesian environments and the ways these can be influenced by varied factors such as social, technological, political and environmental aspects. To begin with social aspects, Indonesia has varied social aspects that can influence the marketing of Energy Drink products in the market. Therefore, understanding different social behaviors of the Indonesia will enable the company to respond effectively to any threats. thus improving business performance. The social economic trend may impact the business activity of the company such as unemployment levels due to increase population rate, disposable incomes, culture and lifestyles (Gregory et al, 2012). However, understanding these aspects will enable the company to respond well. thus enabling the Energy Drink to thrive effectively in the Indonesian market. Technology changes across the globe have enabled many companies to improve the business performance and generate higher revenues. Energy Drink is one of the companies that will
Introduction:It can be understood that culture in any country may get influenced by several factors one major factor being the language. Language is a crucial element in the determination of culture since it is the only medium through which the cultural values and principles are spread and maintained among the citizens of the country. This report focuses on understanding how and why Arabic language plays an important role in the Arabic culture. Role of Arabic Language in Arabic Culture:Arabic language is known to be one of the most important languages in the world. The language has been found to play a very important role in the culture and actions of Arab-Muslim society. In the Middle East region more than one hundred million people may be found to use the language as their language of speaking. During the eighteenth century when the Arab Empire had encountered severe problems in maintaining their political stability, it was the Arabic language that emerged with its power and contributed in building a bonded relationship among the Muslim states. Thus the language played a significant part in preserving cultural unity and continuity in the Muslim world (Chejne, Chejne Chejne, 3-5). If the significance of the Arabic language is studied with respect to the Arabic culture, it can be realized that the language has an important role to play in the Arab-Muslim culture. The language enabled a relationship between the Arabs and the Muslims in the support of the language as well as the cultural principles that they followed. Several authors have been found to significantly focus on the importance of Arabic and mentioned Arabic as the language of culture. The language was used in the circumstances of religious disturbances between Christians and Muslims, in internal conflicts among the Arabs, or with other countries. The language took a major part in conveying the cultural principles in the East to the West and this was executed by converting the languages of Arabic cultural books into other languages. Thus this initiated and encouraged an association between the East and the West in regard to the cultural beliefs (Chejne, Chejne Chejne, 13-16). Studies reflect that the Arabic language is the faithful register of Arab cultural achievement as well as the basis for politico-cultural resurgence across the entire world of Arab (Chejne, Chejne Chejne, 18). The language was found to be the driving force as the Arab country aspired to be superior over other countries in its nationalism actions as well as culture (Chejne, Chejne Chejne, 18).Conclusion:The Arabic language being a very popular and influential language has a major role to play in the Arabic culture. As reflected from the studies in the report, it can be understood that the Arabic culture played a significant part in the forming associations between the Muslims and the Arabs that has effectively influences the cultures of these societies even in the present times. It can thus be concluded that the Arabic language has a major role to play in the Arabic culture. References1) Chejne, Chejne, Anwar G. Chejne. Arabic Language, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 1999
Management involves achieving competencies in human resources management, administration, and organizational leadership among other areas (Koontz Weihrich, 1990). In addition, organizational image and identity refer to that which is most central, distinct and most enduring about an organization. In other words, the image and identity refer to who we are as an organization (Whatten Mackey, 2002). This definition indicates the other organization and ‘we’ are one and the same thing, which cannot be separated by any means. For example, a Human resource manager is involved in recruiting, training, and creating policies to motivate and retain the workforce within an organization. In performing these functions, the HRM performs a political function by creating and allocating people to positions of power within the organization (Devanna et al, 1981), and how payments and rewards are distributed. On the other hand, the manager is functional as they have to design policies and strategies that have to ensure the recruited employees contribute to the development and improvement of the firm. The manager performs a rational activity by having well organized and structured policies that will help in achieving certain ends to the benefit of the company while at the same time rewarding employees for their input. Likewise, organization image is a political process as it uses the power of influencing perception. An organization has to improve its image so as to appear more aligned within a certain goal, which influences the public’s perception. The strategies and policies put in place to enhance and achieve this image constitute the functional process. Its rationality is in the purpose of achieving an end, which is attracting more customers and investors through an improved corporate image, while at the same time gaining the support of employees. However, the current developments in organizational study have resulted into critical theories that find the mainstream management to be poorly structured in effectively addressing all the concerns of stakeholders (Adler, Forbes, Willmott, 2007) This is because. the current management structure gives more advantage to managers. sometimes misuse these positions to benefit the organization at the cost of stakeholders. According to Contu Willmott (2003), there is an unstable institutionalization of power within the capitalist type of organizations where profit-making is the sole purpose of such organizations. On the other hand, Lukes (2005) explains organizations that have decisions emanating from the decision-makers only have one-dimensional power prevailing in decision making, instead of having an agenda control type of decision making. As Heydebrand (2007) elaborates, the new organizational critic theories argue that the basic importance of power at the very initial level of management is to prevent grievances and unnecessary conflicts through consent. It seeks to define the social reality including what people are actually thinking, acting, feeling and shaping the very definition of what is free and unfree, good and evil, or true or false (Heydebrand, 2009, Herbamas, 1990). Thus management conflict is central to important functions in the organizations such as bargaining, mediation in labor laws, other extra-legal disputes, and negotiations (Stone, 2001).
The reason for the overwhelming success of the Sky is its monopoly on the Premiere football leagues. The company had paid an amount as high as 300 million pounds and took the rights of the Premiere football league and in the course beat the BBC and ITV in the competition and since the initiation of Premiere league Sky has its monopoly. From then on for the first time, viewers had to pay for watching a live football match. This monopoly of Premier League has made Sky the richest TV channel and in recent times, it is also the owner of football clubs.The sports rights of Sky has focused our attention on the term culture industry which is a term coined by Adorno and Horkheimer of the Frankfurt School. The culture industry can be rather explained as the effects of capitalism in culture rather the commoditization of culture. The scholars have said that the popular culture is analogous to a factory producing standardized cultural goods through popular media like the TV, films, magazines, and radios to manipulate the masses to passivity so that the mass starts believing that whatever is shown through the popular media is correct and needs to be followed, it actually makes the mass dependant on the media content and the media content directly or indirectly becomes the popular culture. The culture industry gives rise to needs which are not the actual ones and such needs are motivated by capitalism or it would be better to say the growing globalism trends. Adorno and Horkheimer argued that mass culture or the culture industry has a political connotation and the single culture which is created by the culture industry actually is market-based in the sense it is in line with the growing commercial market rather it would be simpler to say that it is such designed that the masses become market obedient. Both Adorno and Horkheimer were influenced by the theories of dialectical and historical materialism of Karl Marx which pays a major focus on the growing capital markets.
The process of demographic transition starts with a decline in mortality and decline in fertility which lead to first increased and then decreased population growth. The last phase of the demographic transition is characterized by the slow population growth and hence falling population. This last phase is again featured by the aging of the population. The decreased birth rate and decline of mortality cause falling population and increased life expectancy. The speed and depth of the demographic transition are influenced by factors like migration, health, political and cultural issues.Aging has become an important issue in most of the developed and developing countries challenging the whole social security system. The larger proportion of the world population is becoming more and more elderly. It has been estimated that 26% of the OECD population will be over 60 years of age while at present the proportion is only 19%. By losing earned income and deteriorating health, aging causes economic insecurity to the people. Family support continues to be the most important financial support in most of the Asian Countries. But in other parts of the world majority of elderly find difficulty to avail family support and hence they are compelled to depend on the assistance provided by the state, pensions and also charity.A social security system is the main way through which a society can construct a protection net for its elderly people to help them for making the future plans and protect them from and to protect them from dearth. The future demographic developments would present significant challenges for social security systems. Besides, the recent financial crisis has shown that social security networks may be affected seriously during economic turmoil. Hence under the changing demographic conditions of a volatile country, optimization of pension financing continues to be an important issue.
The continued existence of the notwithstanding clause speaks to its utility. Its origins are entirely important to Canadian Federalism. Essentially the notwithstanding clause was the result of a political compromise necessitated by the need to recognize the constitutional notion of parliamentary sovereignty, the autonomous provincial paradigm, the need for patriation of the Constitution of Canada. Despite widespread criticism, the notwithstanding clause serves useful purposes. Not only does the clause balance parliamentary sovereignty with judicial supremacy, it provides a method by which parliament safeguards against the risk of judicial errors in the interpretation and enforcement of the fundamental rights and freedoms contained in the Charter. Indeed, had it not been for the compromise resulting in the notwithstanding clause, Canada would not have received the support of each of the Provinces and therefore would not have had the Charter after all. This research study analyses the notwithstanding clause and both sides of the debate. It is determined that despite its criticism, the clause is not only necessary for providing a balancing act between parliamentary sovereignty and judicial supremacy, it was also a necessary compromise for facilitating constitutional traditions and for supporting and obtaining federalism. In other words, the notwithstanding clause plays an important role in the development of Canada’s constitution and the relationship between the legislative and judicial limbs of the federal government. This study is therefore divided into three main parts. The first part of the paper discusses the origins and the use of the clause in practice and its implications. The second part of the paper discusses the arguments against the usefulness of the clause and the final part of the paper discusses the arguments in favor of the clause. The Charter contained in the Constitution Act 1982 guarantees fundamental rights and freedoms and applies to both federal and provincial laws, policies and practices on the part of both federal and provincial government.
In your opinion, is there still political uncertainty in Brazil?
With its president’s lack of political authority to push the lawmakers to commend strategies
expected to generate a foundation for…Business
How are capitalists able to get a profit from the production and sale of products according to the
political economy? What is the role of unemployment in enabling capitalists to get profits? Economics
Rideshare, an on demand transportation company offers free rides to political marches for its ridership. THis
decission is a ________ issue.
Can I have some ideas on possible thesis’ I could use for the following:
assignment provides you with an opportunity to discuss an insight you gained in this unit by comparing the development of one specific Islamic and one specific Christian region in 600-1000 C.E. Using examples of significant leaders, political and social structures, beliefs, and cultural products (stories, philosophies, theologies, artifacts, art, and architecture), note similarities and differences in the two cultures, and also indicate influences they share. What insight about the historical development of these two cultures did you gain from the comparison?
What are the pillars in different marketing managementmarketing management model narrowing down to focused strategy with screening criteria customers
needs and other
segmenting dimensions segmentation product company
resources targeting collaborators competitors Current and positioning
Prospective promotion external market environment political amp; legal. economic, social amp; cultural. technological Universityo‘l
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How are China and India different?
A- China is a nuclear power and India isn’t
B-There is a
significant difference in the size of their populations
C-India has moved its economy away from isolation and emphasized markets over state control, but China has not
D-There is a significant difference in their political systems
E-China has sustained economic growth but India has not been successful at obtaining higher growth
Pick any company to enter another country not the the United States.
1. describe how
transaction costs in the host country will affect the firm’s entry strategy.
2. describe the most salient political and economic risks the firm will face upon entering that new market.
3. explain how cultural and demographic factors could affect the country’s strategy in the new market give examples.
4. I explain how international trade and intellectual property factors could affect the country’s market entry.
5. explain how currency and foreign exchange issues can affect the company’s strategy and performance in the country.
dictator was responsible for various war crimes, said to have been the reason behind many assassination of various political figures and other crimes. His campaign againt the Kurds in the north of Iraq and the use of chemical weapons against innocent people was something that would be unjustifiable at any stage or at any forum. Not only was his regime responsible for countless deaths and near genocides in the country of Iraq itself but it was also responsible for deaths and environmental disasters in Iran and Kuwait.
Saddam Hussein was born in Iraq in a village to the north of Baghdad in 1937 and grew up in very humble surroundings. He led a life of poverty and even illiteracy from which he crawled out of by scratching his way and taking any opportunity that was given to him. At the age of ten he moved in with his uncle in Baghdad who was an army officer and from there he began to indulge in politics (Moore, n.d).
Saddam’s political affiliation and his manner of engaging in political activities was not always a great way of doing things. He was only twenty one years old when he was involved in a failed assassination attempt at the then prime minister General Abdel-Karim Qassem and had to leave the country (N.A, Saddams Rise To Power, n.d). From the start the life that was led by this man was considered as that of a man on a criminal path. He was jailed for in 1963 after his party the Ba’ath lost power in the country and then in 1968 he once again led this party to power via a coup.
Many hold that Saddam was a messiah for the nation and did many good things. He had nationalized the Iraqi oil industry that lead to wealth coming into the pockets of the Iraqi citizens and caused quite a bit of harm to the international companies that were making profits. He also made education compulsory in order to improve the literacy rate of the nation. This program was made mandatory and a punishment of three year jail time was to be enforced and during this time many
1250 Cold War Cold War produced a threat to the whole world in terms of power and liberalism. The communists were taking over the world slowly as highlighted by Nixon and McCarthy and the U.S had to take an action on a global perspective. After the World War II it was seen that the communists were spreading all throughout the world and as they were gaining power it was assumed that they would soon try to take over the U.S itself even though it was a super power at that time. In those times, it can be said that the cold war was becoming an existential threat as China was overtaken by the communists and the states of Korea and Vietnam were on their way to a communist government. The development of Cold War was furthered by the U.S government itself by making out theories which ascribed the stakeholders to be involved in a mass takeover. In those times, the war itself acted out as a threat to national security and a political necessity too. It could easily break through the walls of national security as communism was breaching the borders all over the world to gain strength. Similarly the concept of Cold War was gaining popularity in the United States and with the Red Scare the government had to take an action against the culprits so as to ease the tension in their lands. On a larger scale the threat to national security could not be ascertained as yet but the political necessity to carry on the actions was determined. It can be said that the war itself became a political necessity after going through the evidence.
From a general point of view any festival has following impacts on any country/city /society: Festival helps the country to boost its economy. Festival helps to foster community pride in a large way. Festivals help people to teach and at the same time learn new things from the visitors, and Festival often helps a country or any community to strengthen its relationship with the neighboring nations. (Grames &. Vitcenda, 2012).
In this paper the main objective is to analyze the economic status of Qatar from an overall perspective, measure how it able to grow in a span of last ten or so years and how various festivals of Qatar helps the country to boost its economy. The paper will also focus on government spending in various kinds of festivals in Qatar and whether those spending by the government able to yield good result in terms of stable economic relation with others, boosting the economy as a whole, developing the overall infrastructure of the country etc.
Diversity in the festival is one of the main attractions of Qatar. Over the year Qatar is started to gain popularity among rest of the world due to its variety of international festival. Doha is the capital of Qatar and also the hub of every kind of economic, social and political activities. Doha is the main country which represents the cultural diversity of the country of Qatar in front of rest of the world. Doha is well recognized in every part of the globe for its food festival, film festival, ethnic cultural activity etc. Doha is one of the fastest growing cities in the world. The growth of the city is mainly due to high volume exports of oil, liquefied natural resources (mainly gas) and other petrochemicals. The city is very modern with high sky-scrapers and high standard of livings among the people of the city. The city is in the center of attraction by hosting the various international conference and local festivals.
However, in the modern culture, these organizations are playing an important role in the world politics by influencing the global security and peace through their global collaborative function and working for the social and economical development of the member states. These organizations perform their functions according to the rules and regulations of intergovernmentalism, which means that a complete harmony is required. Whereas, Non-Government Organizations (NGO) are developed by some private personnel for the welfare of the society, which can also be international in their scope. These organizations do not posses any sort of government accreditation and established merely on the basis of mutual agreements among different personnel to raise funds through donations and grants from different philanthropists and international humanitarian organizations. However, they are recognized by the UN and many other international organizations as important political and welfare institutions. These organizations are termed as international organizations due to the scope of their functionality, whereas in the real sense these organizations are not purely international organizations because they are not developed to coordinate the functions and efforts of the members for their mutual gains.
The following table shows a compression between the objectives and functions of these two organizations. We will also evaluate that which organization better serves the humanity and promote the human rights in the world.
In other words, those voters who have claimed, either truthfully or not, that they have yet to place their allegiance to a specific candidate or political party. Such closeness that highlights the need for considerable effort being put into the format of public campaigns, so that each candidate at the end of the race will be able to say that they worked as hard as they could for every single vote, including those that were at anytime considered to be undecided. In the quest for public office, the candidate with the strongest campaign is faced with the real possibility of winning at the end of the day. To win, it becomes imperative to have the necessary money/people involved with the campaign, garner as much of the undecided vote as possible and to understand the relevant domestic/international issues of the present election cycle.
To form a campaign, “New candidates for public office often lack the organizational support base that incumbents often have already at their disposal. This means they have to build a grassroots activist base from scratch. Smart campaigns focus on the integration of direct contact tools – phones, Internet, mail, door-to-door – to create a support network of activist volunteers. Such an organizational program has as its goal the building of a large, functioning grassroots organization for your campaign – be it for a candidate or an issue. Despite the help your campaign may receive from party committees, elected officials and a variety of political committees and interest groups, smart campaigns also build organizations of their own, grassroots structures that are primarily loyal to your candidate or cause. Building such an organization takes time, money and attention. And to do it most efficiently and effectively, it requires extensive use of careful polling, targeting, Internet transactions, telephone calling, direct mail and informal person-to-person contact,” (Faucheux, p.1).
Don Quixote Reflection. The Problems of Irony and Honor Balzac d, “Women’s honor is a man’s greatest invention” to derive a relationship between the empowerment of women and the efforts that men have put towards its achievement. In Quixote’s work, the issue of female empowerment comes out clearly in a number of scenes. It is possible to analyze Balzac’s statement from the portrayal of women in Quixote’s work. Quixote invention of Dulcinea shows how much he adores her and the high esteem he possibly accords to women. He states “… her rank must be at least that of a princess since she is my queen…” to show how much he has a high esteem of her (Cervantes 112). However, the other characters appear to be questioning her worthiness as they insist on knowing her lineage and beauty. It appears that men invent the value of a woman just like Balzac states that women’s value is man’s greatest invention. However, it is ironical how men judge a woman’s value from her appearances and origin. We expected the value of a woman be judged the same way of as that of a man, irrespective of her family status and beauty.
In a different scene, we learn men’s attitude towards one of the female characters, Marcela. One of the young men refers to Marcela as “that devil of a village girl…” and blames her for the death of Chrysostom, a famous student-shepherd (Cervantes 103). The young man has a condescending attitude and has little honor for a woman. This is ironical that the same men that Balzac identifies as the inventors of women’s honor are the same who look down upon women in the society. This conception of this young man portrays women as inferior beings who cannot be respected in the society. Later on, we learn that Marcela is not to be blamed for the death of the student shepherd as Quixote says that she is worth respect and no one should find her guilty of the mentioned crimes. In this scene, we find Quixote standing by the right of Marcela and requesting that other men respect her. Through a series of intervention to empower women, Quixote appears to be the inventor of honor of women. This complies with Balzac idea that men are the inventors of the respect for women.
Today, the irony of women’s honor as the invention of man is clear and shown in almost all spheres of life. Contemporary men are still tied to the classical belief that men superior to females. Consequently, men dominate in homes, leadership and political realms, and religious spheres. While there are some men who champion for the empowerment of women, it is clear that most men are opposed to the idea of supporting women to achieve equality in the society. Men still suffer from a superiority complex, and this makes them oppose the empowerment of women, which is ironic to Balzac’s statement that men should invent honor for women. From a critical point of view, this statement is ironical and would be more truth if applied in the reverse version. However, the role of this statement is to provide an insight for men to champion for the respect of women, rather than look down upon them. Probably, Balzac referred to the men who are like Quixote and are willing to fight for the rights of women with courage.
Cervantes, Miquel. Don Quixote. Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press.
The Poorest Continent Case Study
Question 2: What Steps Can Be Taken By the Nations of the Sub-Saharan Africa to Address the Causes of Poverty? Can The Governments of Developed Nations Help in This Process? Should They? How?
The current scenario witnessed in the Sub-Saharan region in Africa depicts several shortcomings within the economic structure that strongly hinders the sustainable growth of the economy to a large extent (Naudé, “Development Progress in sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa”). For instance, the region is currently witnessed to suffer from various demographic and social challenges in terms of diseases and inequality. Political interventions and corruptions in the economic structure are also considered to be noteworthy challenges that in turn hinder the development in the region (Handley &. Et. Al. “Poverty and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Overview of the Issues”. Pinkovskiy &. Sala‐i‐Martin, “African Poverty is Falling…Much Faster than You Think!”). In other words, the economic structure of the region is highly affected by its totalitarianism ideology in lieu to its unequal distribution of wealth and power (Karadeli, “Failed State Concept and the Sub-Saharan African Experience”).
It is in this context that proper measures should be taken by the economy to identify the root causes of poverty. With this concern, the economy can intend to reassess its political structure and legislative measures in order to identify the flaws in its regulatory and political measures which can be regarded as the root causes of poverty to persist and increase in the economy (Handley &. Et. Al. “Poverty and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Overview of the Issues”). The economy should also take certain initiatives in identifying the flaws relative to social health measures (International Monetary Fund, “Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa Sustaining the Expansion”). From an overall point of view, it can be stated that the economy should reconsider its various segments in order to identify the root causes of poverty in the economy.
The government of developed nations can certainly play a crucial role in assisting the Sub-Saharan Economy to revitalize its economic structure and thus attain progress. With this concern, the developed economies should come forward to assist the poorest region in the world, not only to guide the Sub-Saharan economy towards development, but also to reduce global wealth disparity. The assistance of more capable governments in terms of monetary funding and political as well as social guidance shall certainly prove to be highly advantageous for the economy to develop with the ideology of collectivism.
Handley, Geoff. &. Et. Al. “Poverty and Poverty Reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Overview of the Issues.” Results of ODI Research Presented In Preliminary Form for Discussion and Critical Comment, Working Paper 299 (2009): 1-75.
International Monetary Fund. “Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa Sustaining the Expansion.” World Economic and Financial Surveys (2011).
Karadeli, Cem. “Failed State Concept and the Sub-Saharan African Experience”. Journal of Arts and Sciences 12 (2009): 111-126.
Naudé, Wim. “Development Progress in sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Botswana, Ghana, Mauritius and South Africa”. Working Paper No. 2010/07.
Pinkovskiy, Maxim &. Sala‐i‐Martin, Xavier. “African Poverty is Falling…Much Faster than You Think!” February 27, 2012. Columbia University, 2010.
The people in the state do not see the need as to why the government should reduce its expenditure but expenditure should be sufficient to meet the needs of the people.
Most of the former politicians in Illinois State have faced significant challenges in their effort to come up with a good tax. One of the former Governors of the state by the name Scott Walker worked hard to cut the rights of the public employees to participate in collective bargaining. Deputy Director of the local council of the American Federation State said that the governor had an obsession of destroying the unions belonging to the public employees. The same director said that Mr. Rauner was trying to stir up the bitterness of the public employees who include teachers, firefighters, and police officers.
The unions in Illinois State are always against a leader who tries to change the tax system of the state. Mr. Rauner may have a good idea of increasing the tax income of the state and improve economy of the state in the end. Most unions do not understand that when the economy is stable, having low unemployment rates will increase the tax income and government expenditure too. There is need for the citizens in the state to give the politicians independence to come up with a good tax system that will benefit both the employed and unemployed. A good tax is one that will enable the unemployed to venture into small-scale businesses and earn a living out of it.
Davy portrays a good tax as one that is sufficient enough to avoid cutting of the benefits of the retirees because they have saved enough to rely on and survive on during their retirement period. However, Mr. Rauner said that the only problem he had was with the union leaders in the public sector who donated to political leaders. He claims that the government union has power to influence politicians in contracts negotiations about pensions, scales of payments,
Contrasting the economic elements of the Shang Dynasty with that of the Qin Dynasty it can be stated that the element of maintaining an agrarian economy essentially remained consistent during this epoch however, the pivotal difference in the economic setup of these dynasties is that the advent of the Qin dynasty marked the establishment of a monetary system. Moreover, the political sphere of China under the Shang dynasty was characterized by the unprecedented and supreme power of the emperor who was responsible for all matters of governance in all areas of the citizens’ lives. However, the Qin dynasty maintained a hierarchal system of political governance whereby the nation’s administration was made more efficient by granting territorial assignments to respective governors whose appointment was not conducted on the basis of familial connections or the right to ascend to governorship.
The social structure under the Shang dynasty comprised of an exclusive focus upon the stratification of China’s communities on the basis of hierarchy and chain of command. This notion implies that while, the king remained all powerful the common man did not have access to the most basic rights under the regime. While, this aspect remained analogous in the Qin dynasty the primary difference in both governments is that of the inclusion of administrators and governors who previously did not exist during the Shang dynasty.
His research concentrated more on the Yazuka groups, which forms the biggest population in the country (Hessler, 2012). It has political, social and economic affiliation when it comes to the overall analysis. According to the concentration in this area, Hessler found out that the only expert in organized crime in Japan largest newspaper was an American. Adelstein knew no Japanese when he went to Tokyo from rural Missouri where he was brought up (Hessler, 2012). According to the author, this gave him the capability to carry out his research without being suspected by the group which could have led to his elimination.
The most common group of criminals in Indonesia is the yakuza. In this report by Hessler, it shows that for one to be a member of the group, one has to undergo initiation rites. For example, members of the Yazuka “decorated their backs and arms with tattoos” (Hessler, 2012). This made them stand out from the other citizens. Also to show respect to seniors, one had to chop off his finger as a sign of apology to a wrong done. It is also evident that this group becomes violent if other civilians who try to interfere with their ability to meet their goal as a group. This group uses blackmail as a tool to meet their objective, loan sharking and corruption which is most evident in government offices.
The author found Japan to be less dangerous as compared to United States where only one murder was committed which was ten times lower than in United States of America. This was seen to be supported by the law that incriminated anyone who owned a gun, a bullet or even pulled the trigger since the three were charged as three different crimes and subjected to three different penalties. In contrast to this, in United States, no big deal is there to own a gun or even a bullet, which makes the crime rates to be high (Hessler, 2012). Hence, this has helped to minimize the crime rates in one way or the other. For example, it makes it
Early Challenges to the System What were the main consequences of the rise of Pan-Arabism? Contrary to the initial anticipations of ensuring Middle Eastern states had acted in one force against numerous political threats that threatened their existence, instead this ended up being far apart. Hence, not being able to boast of Pan-Arabism then seen to amalgamate these states especially against French and British forces. Conversely, the emergency of numerous wars and conflicts ensued that have existed up to date with the Palestinians still not being able to recover own region from Israel as they anticipated. This is because those championed the process of Partition Plan (1948) ended up aiding the enemy (Jews), which is even evident up to date. The inception of humiliation was especially during after the utter defeat of the six-day war that completely disoriented Arab region including even the Egypt1. This even yielded to serious divisions in the region despite generally professing one creed though having other smaller sects among them.
Why did the movement fail to produce Arab unity?
Besides the untimely passing on of the region’s informal leader Nasser, the region had serious divisions especially in Lebanon most of them fuelled by divergence in creed and small religious sects. These included Christians and Islamic sects like Shi’ites, and Sunnis, which gave foreign forces continue to divide them further2. Additionally, there were also aspect of conflicting interests characterizing the region’s leaders who due to were they originated emerged with differing voices. This is despite the entire Islamic religion seeing possibility of uniting itself as one religious bloc. However, this could not do manage for individual states prefer local autonomous sects.
Ajami, Fouad. "The End Of Pan-Arabism." Foreign Affairs 57, no. 2 (79 1978): 355-373. Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost (Accessed November 13, 2014).
41000 My father reads political news from newspapers and political magazines as well as watching a lot of news and political discussions online. Views were weak but as I have developed the knack for politics and have surrounded myself with political friends including my father, I have found that my views are changing from being weak to strong. I cannot really confess to being that strong but I am not weak either. On the issue of voting, however, I am fairly strong enough in political affairs to change and be sure to make the correct voting decision based on my political analysis of the candidates. I have engaged in a few political activities and one peaceful political demonstration. I am however yet to identify a good political organization to become its member but it is on my agenda and will soon happen. These political activities have been influenced by my friends and my father. The political demonstration was my friends’ idea and influence which my parents did not agree to, however on the other political activities, my father has pushed and encouraged me and some even joining me to carry them out. Lucky for me, I have interest in politics even though they did not develop that long ago. What however impeded their quick development was the lack of political interest my mother and older siblings had and I spent a lot of time with them more than with my father because of his work. However, when he reduced his work travels and was home more often, I found my political niche slowly shifting.
However despite the country’s diversity in religious factions, it has not been a beautiful scene in in the country’s development over the years due to discrimination based and biased on religious lines (HRW). The discrimination based on religious factions has been evident in the Lebanese political and social structures of the country. Political landscape carries more weight for wrangles based on the very religious discrimination because every faction wants the bigger piece of the cake of dominance.
It can be traced back to the 1860 conflict between Maronites and the Druze to the old Lebanese civil war of 1975-1990 which was as a result of the conflict between the Muslims and the Christians. In the early 19th century around the wake of World War II Lebanese political structure was designed in a way it recognized a historic agreement amongst the Lebanese leaders that political goodwill will be divided according to positions in the governmental structure in agreed fair proportions for the Christians and Muslims (Khalaf 2013, p.43). This particular political concept in the mid-1970s appeared to be losing ground resulting to “hell breaks loose” a civil war that was seen to be a sort of competition for power between the majority Muslims and the minority ruling Christians.
Before the old Lebanese civil war that was in every way a struggle between the Sunni Islam and the Christians was a Druze and Maronite (Christians) conflict (Khalaf 2013, p.65). The conflict happened in the mid 18nth century in the north of Mount Lebanon area entailing the rebellion of Christians Maronites peasants against the Druze lords that spread to the south and as a result more than 20,000 Christians were killed, 370 Christian villages destroyed and a large number of churches destroyed (Sisk 2011, p.109). Maronite peasants were against the heavy taxes and feudal practices
2500 The Treaty of Versailles, signed on June 28, 1919, was the result of a negotiation of the “Big Four” – Woodrow Wilson, British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, French Premier Georges Clemenceau and Vittorio Orlando of Italy. The Treaty faced opposition from the United States’ Senate, since they saw that it would only aid another European conflict, after the horrors of the I World War. Henry Cabot Lodge, Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee was the leader of those who had particular opposition to the League of Nations, which was an integral element of the Treaty. Article 10 of the League Covenant required a pledge that all the Nations in the League come to help one another in case of an attack against any of them. The lack of a clause that such action could only be materialized through a unanimous vote of the council infuriated the Senate. Clearly the only solution was to stay away from any European conspiracy and conclude a separate peace with Germany. While Wilson’s Fourteen Points forced Germany to sign a blank check as an account for the damages of the War, they had to go through an inevitable bout of isolationism, which could have resulted in the rise of Hitler and the II World War. Moreover the major European nations like Britain, France and Italy felt that Wilson’s view of the League of Nations may affect their national interests – thus impeding his vision of a World Parliament. The Senate’s opposition was based mostly on its fear that the situation will lead to other major European conflicts, which was not at all unfounded. Moreover, America as a nation had an isolationist stance at that time, never wanting to get involved in international political turmoil. The Senate wanted to be left alone and not be dragged into the new world order. They were strongly against the Versailles Treaty and refused to ratify it.
Singapore has ultimately risen above all odds to become one of the world’s Economic power houses. It has been used as a bench mark of economic analysis across different parts of the world. However, of great importance is to focus on the several aspects that have contributed to this splendid success in almost all spheres of the Singaporean society. After forty years of economic reconstruction, Singapore has attracted the interests of not only economic analysts but also global investors that do not hesitate to invest in the island nation.
Economic growth occurs at the predisposition of a conducive investment environment. The government definitely has a hand for the attainment of this conducive environment. This brings us to the analysis of the government structure and how its policies in one way or the other has contributed to Singapore’s spectacular economic growth. The people’s Action party has been greatly accredited of transparency, accountability and effective management not to forget sound policies that have been put in place to foster remarkable growth.
Having only been ruled by just one party since independence, an aspect of stability has been initiated in the Singaporean political system which extremely puts great focus to economic growth rather than political destructions. It has developed policies that encourage domestic trade without much interference to the several foreign investors that have played a key role in its immense growth. Leadership transition has been peaceful playing a great role in stability making it a high affinity destination for investors.
Singapore’s effective policies and able leadership was witnessed during the climax of the worst ever global recession that even shook economic giants such as the United States. The prime minister fostered bank lending of which the government also contributed without much interference to its GDP.Within no time after the introduction of this measures, Singapore bounced back to its economy fact living other economic titan states in the turmoil.
Contrary to the common perspective that the private sector has got leverage over public enterprise, Singapore has stood the test of time to prove otherwise. It goes against the popular notion and treads its own economic course which baffles both its admirers and Critiques.
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Pan-Indian Confederation Tecumseh’s war for retaining the identity of his tribes, after the Treaty of Greenville, marked an era of great significancein the history America. Even though Tecumseh tried his level best, by following planned strategies and his excellent oratory skills, his efforts went in vain against the U.S. army lead by Indiana Governor William Harry Harrison.
Tecumseh’s younger brother’s Tenskwatawa’s premature act had surely been the prime reason of defeat. But an analysis of the series of events following the signing of the Treaty of Greenville and strategies of the U.S. military forces seems to be favouring the U.S sides anyways. When Tecumseh set out to convince other tribes to join him, the challenge before him was not just creating an army, but arousing among the tribal people the sense of unity that might have led them to victory. Before convincing the tribes to fight for the sake of their identity and existence, he had to settle the inter-tribal conflicts and ideological differences among his own people and bind them together with a strong unifying force.
Tecumseh’s efforts were showing results to quite an extent until Tenskwatava’s negligence towards his brother’s strategies led them nowhere. Amidst, all this while he was away in the south spreading a doctrine of political and military unification, his younger brother’s excitation ruined everything. Tecumseh’s army was thrashed by Harrison’s men. The British who supported the tribes had their own vested interests of acquiring colonial wealth, they joined in more for their own motives and less in support of the Indians.They fled as soon as the U.S. Army came into action. During the American Revolution U.S. had developed such a standard of political and military strengths that it was naive of Tecumseh’s one-man army challenging them without planning an effective winning strategy. This is another reason why the U.S. army found no difficulties in suppressing the upheaval.
All these factors combined together were the reasons behind the defeat. Lack of
unity, arms, forces and above all the lack of spirit among the people itself can be accused of defeat. Tecumseh’s speeches motivated the people, his oration influenced people from vast stretches in Canada to Mexico but ultimately it was the call from within among the tribes that might have made a difference and lacking this spirit the ball was never in Tecumseh’s court.
September 28, 2011
1) Gregory Evans Dowd, A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle For Unity, 1745-1815
2) Howard Zinn, Kethy Emery, and Ellen Reeves, A People’s History of the United States (The New Press 2003)
3) “Tecumseh” , .New World Encyclopedia .online
International political economy The current sanction that have been propagated by the West on Russia, have got their own toll on the trade, fiscal and corporate policies of Russia. A fierce debate has already been generated in Washington D.C following the approach that the sanction by Mr. Obama has taken. The same application of sanctions have been adopted by European countries by responding with tough rhetoric thus, triggering the question, what else needs to be done to contain Russian on its front towards Ukraine?
Considering the corporate policy, it would be arguable that the most obvious way by which the sanctions against Russia could be fronted is through the exertion of further diplomatic pressure. Sticking to diplomacy considering the permanency of Russia as a member of the UN might though appear tricky even if the General Assembly were to pass non-binding resolutions on Russia.
Therefore, what options could the West have against Russia in regard to the invasion on Ukraine? Could fiscal policy restrictions be more feasible than corporate policy sanction? What else could be done, should Russia choose to ignore the sanctions leveled against it as has currently been seen? Through fiscal means, the West has managed to isolate Russia by freezing the assets of most of its prominent personalities including that of President Putin and his close allies. Consequently, travel bans have been issued against these people and still much is still needed.
Before engaging into war, trade restrictions must seem like the most feasible sanction that the West has left against Russia. In instances that it has been able to, the Western countries are isolating Russia such the cancellation of the G8 meeting and suspending Russia membership in the same. However, the option of exploration of economic sanctions in themselves might turn to hurt the Western economy considering the numerous trade allies it has with Russian firms. This pegs the concept on whether the West should just watch and wait for Russia to fall back into line.
America’s Happy 50s It is undeniable that 1950’s were arguably happy moments for America. The 50s marked an end to a prolonged war and unrest. Whereas the World War II period was marked by instability, political unrest, economic crisis and familial issues, the 50s brought in a new dispensation of relaxed mood, economic growth, technological advancement, and general peace of mind. Indeed, the Americans began to enjoy better living conditions, better wages, and became the first beneficiaries of new technologies. The 50s benefited many Americans, encouraged family, and societal bonding. Additionally, the improved economic conditions catapulted many Americans from low class to medium income earners. Most families could afford a car, and top of range products such as fridges, televisions among others. It is also worth noting that 50s marked an era of tremendous growth in the housing industry as well as transport infrastructure and networks. The increased number of affordable houses and high quality road networks made life easy for Americans. On a different note, entertainment became entrenched in people’s lives hence improving social life for Americans. Most significantly, Americans were enjoying high quality of life compared to many countries in the world. This made Americans feel at the epitome of the world.
However, not everybody enjoyed the happy moments. An appreciable portion of Americans was already on their old age and had suffered the aftermath of World War II making it difficult for them to enjoy the 50s. Additionally, political critics and conservatists spent more time critiquing the government instead of taking advantage of the overwhelming opportunities present during that time. Left behind were the uneducated citizens, and African Americans who could not fit in the job market. Without a good source of livelihood, such groups could not enjoy the benefits of 1950 era. However, the 50s was by general means, good moment for America.
International organizations backed by World Bank have been advocating poverty alleviation through economic policies that are international in nature but have the potential to influence national policies (Introduction to international relations: Social constructivism, 2012, p 170). There is an emerging ‘global anti-poverty agenda’ that has changed the rules the way people, government and other public organizations are tackling poverty (Noel, 2006). There are several theories that have emerged to explain and tackle poverty. however, all theories seem to agree upon the issue of tackling the problem as inherent and arising in the social structure, which is also seen to be the best solution seems (Altatis, 2012).
Liberalism postulates freedom of thought and expression and opposes conservative and authoritarian views. It is a doctrine aimed at helping the outward welfare of men and does not take into account the inner welfare. It is concerned with the outward conduct of men. This doctrine recognizes that inner welfare cannot come from outward, materialistic possession. However, it posits equality of material possessions based on division of labor and individual capability to labor and materialistic possession.
Outer well being as advocated by liberalism and its proponents is very much needed for man as it gives every individual a chance and the right to equal opportunity. This theory is based on equality of men in line with the natural law and law of enlightenment and demands equality of political and civil rights to all men. It is based on the assumption that differences between men are artificial and that all men are created equal, and hence need to be given equal rights (Mises, 2012).
With equality under law, each individual will have the right and freedom to work to his capacity to be able to attain social equality. Although private ownership is said to create differences in terms of material possession, liberalism with its stress on materialistic
Multiculturalism in the country helps in integrating immigrants and removing barriers to participation in Canadian lifestyle, this makes the immigrants feel welcome in the society, which results in strong sense of national pride and belonging (Patels, 2006).
The Muslim community in Canada has high socio-economic status and its contribution to society is evident in their strong presence in various sectors that include politics, health care, the hospitality industry and media. Multiculturalism policy in Canada was officially adopted in 1971 and its foundation is mutual respect among Canadians from all backgrounds. Institutionalization of multiculturalism encouraged genuine acceptance of the various cultures without fear of accommodating different cultures could lead to weak Canadian laws. Several polls performed in 2006 and 2007 illustrate that Canada is less bothered by the global increase in anti-Muslim attitudes and the resulting polarisation, when compared to other nations. The 2006 survey by Focus Canada indicate that 83% of Canadians believe that Muslims make positive contribution to the nation (Simanovsky, 2012). Moreover, international polls indicate small likelihood of Canadian Muslims believing that fellow citizens are harsh toward them, when compared to Muslims from other nations. One example of Muslim community incorporation into Canada society is the selection of Canada’s first Muslim mayor in politically conventional towns in the country (Simanovsky, 2012).
The country deserves the reputation of being an all-encompassing society that commemorates diversity. even though, the system is not perfect, Canada embraces other cultures while adhering to the various country laws and policies (Simanovsky, 2012). Community relations in Canada are quite peaceful and the country has reduced tension and violence in comparison to European nations. Multiculturalism