Need Help On These Review Questions For Event Management Screen

The Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution permits government agencies to take land from private citizens through the process of eminent domain.
a. True b. False According to the text, which of the following is NOT one of the factors utilized when preparing the building site for construction?
a Creating the physical characteristics necessary to build b. Securing proper zoning
c. Putting together financing opportunities
d. Meeting environmental concerns According to the Pentagon of Sales Training Succes , which of the following is not one of the
items. a. Product b. Public Relations
c. Performance d. Philosophy e. Practice It is important to make your final choice of vendors before you create your project budget.
a. True b. False Contingency fees, which should always be included in a project budget, should be over –
estimated to maintain the project’s financial solvency. a. True
b. False One of the most common methods of borrowing money to finance a new facility is the use of
promissory notes known as bonds. Which of the following is NOT a type of bond commonly used?
a. Personal bonds issued by individuals Governments from around the world
State and local governments
The Stock Exchange La rge Corporations 9999′ Since junk bonds carry a much higher risk, they are often issued at lower interest rates than other types of bonds.
a. True
b. False Which of the following is not part of the Sales [effectiveness Mg]; 3. Philosophy b. Interpersonal Skills c. Product Knowledge d. Self-Management Skills Management

Hello! I Need Assistance With The Assignment Attached

Suppose you and your friends went out together for lunch. However,…Philosophy

It Is Logic Question To Prove My Answer From Philosophy Class

i attached my file about the

Running head: PHILOSOPHY 1 Philosophy
Student Name
Course Title
Feb 24, 2017 PHILOSOPHY 2
Philosophy Firstly we will assume in this case that color of the cap of the third student is red. As in…Philosophy

What Are The Treatment Options Other Than Prison? What Is The Moral And Ethical Responsibility Of All Of


What are the treatment options other than prison? What is the moral and ethical responsibility of all of

us to ensure that all people have the resources, supports, services, and opportunities they need so that we can build healthy and safe communities for all people, as Crystal Dieleman proposes in her TedTalk (Tedx Talks, 2015). What is our personal responsibility to help treat those with mental illnesses?


It Is A Study That Reflects Human Life Culture Trends And Ideas Of The Time As Well As It’S Relation To Our Life Today

major Western Philosophers from the early Greek thinkers to the famous philosophers of modern times, with


the major Western Philosophers from the early Greek thinkers to the famous philosophers of modern times, with

an emphasis on their attempt to answer the BIG, seemingly unanswerable questions humans have asked since the beginning of time — What is life? What is justice, What is happiness, Does God exist? etc. It is a study that reflects human life, culture, trends, and ideas of the time, as well as it’s relation to our life today.

Did western philosophers meet this goal? Could you please explain how, why, or to what extent it did, or did not, meet this goal?


Rene Descartes in Philosophy

The book contains six different meditations and opens with Descartes discarding away all information and knowledge he had ever known before. This laid ground for him to begin a new search for knowledge and wisdom. The distinction between mind and body and the existence of other material things is the last piece of meditation in the book (Rozemond, 2006).
The sixth meditation deals with the existence of material things and the difference between mind and body. This meditation has two main arguments that Descartes uses to prove that the mind and the body are two distinct realities. The first argument states that since it is possible to conceive the mind and the body as two different things, God can cause them to exist independently. This argument fulfils the traditional criteria for metaphysical real distinctions. The second argument states that while the body is divisible, infinite and extended into space, the mind is unitary, indivisible and un-extended into space. These two distinct natures of mind and body distinguish the two elements as distinct and independent realities.
In this meditation, Descartes attempts to find proof about whether material things can exist out of self and God. He then proceeds to prove that the mind is distinct from the body. With regard to the latter, Descartes begins his proof by asserting that God is capable of creating anything that Descartes himself can clearly and distinctly perceive. He follows this argument by stating that if God is capable of creating things that are independent of the other, then such things are distinct and different from each other.

Globalization The Eclectic Paradigm and WTO Governance Likelihood

One of the primary aspects of how globalization impacts international business is the inter-dependency of international trade. Whereby historically economies were limited to geographical boundaries, having economic systems wholly contained within a national infrastructure, today with the presence of global product trade, it is altering the global economy. For instance, this can be witnessed in China, a country that maintained a very immature capital market until the 1990s as a result of the historical command economy that was centrally controlled by the Chinese government. As China’s economy began to expand as a result of government deregulation, GDP and exportation became a favorite activity to ensure rapid economic growth. As a result, in order to become competitive with the rest of the developed world, it was necessary for businesses (once dominated by a government) to adopt capitalistic and neoliberal ideologies which allow for capital assets and production systems to be wholly owned and managed by private business leaders (Degen 2008).
As a result of this change toward capitalism in a previously Communist nation, it became more inviting for foreign businesses to establish joint ventures and strategic alliances with growing Chinese companies to gain a foothold for market entry. A government in China no longer owned majority equity stakes in businesses which ultimately led to opening new competitive opportunities for smaller firms that could not previously compete with government-controlled business group conglomerates. As a result, Western management philosophy (as one relevant example) became entrenched in Chinese businesses with an emphasis on human capital development and organizational culture development rather than operating under tightly-controlled and centralized hierarchies of authority.

The Defeat in Vietnam Showed the Limits to American Power

A product of justifications stemming from the Cold War, anti-communism sentiments, Vietnam became the benchmark by which American military limitations can be measured.
Following the American victory over Japan in 1945, the U.S. and the Soviet Union became engaged in a battle over political ideology and power that played out on a worldwide scale, the Cold War. Communism was America’s enemy and after witnessing the Soviets build a wall in Berlin and continue to aspire to conquer other Eastern European nations, which came to be known as ‘satellite countries’ of the Soviet Union, the U.S. drew a metaphorical line in the sand in Vietnam. Many thousands of ground troops were deployed during the decade-long war despite claims by some after the atomic bomb destroyed two Japanese cities, that boots on the ground would only be necessary for a clean-up role after ‘the bomb’ was dropped. The debacle of Vietnam was the cause of an anti-military sentiment among the majority of Americans which contributed to the Cold War’s demise. Vietnam also caused America to redefine the purpose of the military and question the extent of its ability to force its will in foreign lands such as the jungles of Southeast Asia. America was also forced to question its overall foreign policy philosophy and subsequent strategies.1 “U.S. foreign policy, from its abandonment of isolationism at the ending of the 19th century to its status as the sole remaining superpower, has always been centered on the promotion and conservation of its own interests and ‘the advancement of civilization,’ the exercise of power to assert itself beyond the bounds of the American continents in ‘the interest of civilization and of humanity’ and its own selfish interests.”2 This re-evaluation period lasted from the mid-1970s until March of 2003.

The U.S. entered both the Cold War era Vietnam War and the recent invasion of Iraq&nbsp.spread democracy to oppressed peoples (the official representation) and with great optimism for victory. &nbsp.Both conflicts supplied a similar paradigm: the ability of America to use its military power as an ideological, social and political tool is limited. &nbsp.


For instance, Immanuel Kant is opposed and condemned on the basis of his notion that only humans serve as the object of honor. The critics argue that Kant does not present anything in favor of displaying kindness towards animals, nor does he condemns exercising butcheries on the creature that is unable to speak or deliver a single word even. Kant does not give animals the status equal to man but is of the view that since the animals are unable to describe their pains and sufferings, they should be treated with kindness in the same manner as it is displayed towards the person. Hence, if Kantian philosophy is considered in its true prospect, it becomes crystal clear that the renowned philosopher lays stress upon the same moral values adopted by an overwhelming majority of the individuals belonging to various cultures and societies of the world.
Moral values maintain the direct relationship with religious beliefs, social norms, and cultural values. All existing religions and culture preach kindness towards animals, and the same is emphasized upon by the philosophers. Neither religion, nor society allows harsh treatment of animals, but the life of the animals cannot be stated as honorable, precious and prestigious and that of the persons (i.e. humans) In his work under the title the Metaphysic of Morals, Kant declares that man is bound to pay his duties and obligations to himself and his fellow beings i.e. persons and nature of duties towards animals is surely different from those which are towards human beings.

Becoming a Subject of Truth

Becoming a of Truth There have been wide explanations to the of truth and its meaning. Many philosophers have devised theories with an aim of explaining this topic. Ideally, philosophers have disagreed on very fundamental aspects of human life and their beliefs. However, there is no universal definition of truth and its meaning. In evaluating, Kierkegaards response that we may only live in truth by "becoming a subject", we will need to define the dominant theme, pragmatism. It refers to a belief that human ideas carry some meaning or truth if and only if they produce practical results that are effective to our aims. Indeed, the issue of truth has been a subject of discussion in the field of philosophy for many years with the knowledge that though something might seem to be true, its meaning may not be necessary true.
Whereas rationalists believe that truth is universal, some philosophers like James believe that truth happens to an idea while Kierkegaards observes that we can only live in truth by "becoming a subject.” The practicability of truth is very significant in trying to understand the topic because results are facts that can easily define truth. Indeed, some philosophers have in the recent past made us believe in some of their theories about the truth in relation to the universe, human mind, and existence of super beings only to encounter negations from certain practical results. As such, a human idea will only qualify to be a truth if the expected results from the assumption of truth are effective and relevant to the current goals.
Hence, when Kierkegaards responds that we may only live in truth by "becoming a subject," his idea correlates with the practicability of truth. Actually, human beings manifest the truth in the way they speak and act if they are part of that truth. Inclusion plays a great role in advocating for truth. Where an individual is part of a plot, they will be more obliged to search and advocate for truth since they will be part of the accrued results. The realities of events and processes associate with the practical results that come up in real time. These results stand in the line between the truth and a lie. In many cases, such results prove opposite of truth. However, where an individual are directly involved in the events and processes the actual truth and its meaning come in handy. Imagine a lawyer representing a criminal in a court of law where he convinces the criminal on how he will be acquainted based on the lawyer’s defense and the law. The judge will always prove the lawyer wrong by seeking the facts in law. Nevertheless, it is not always easy to become a subject in the search for truth and its meaning. Hence, cases of humans believing in things they perceive to be true yet their meaning and results do not reflect the truth are still dominant. Indeed, an idea may be true but its meaning and results tend to the contrary. Kierkegaards response of living in truth by "becoming a subject,” is the surest way of guaranteeing truth in its meaning and practical results. Otherwise, seeking the truth from exclusion will lead to negative meanings and results of truth.

Literature Paper choose 1 from 1)Daoism and Confucianism in Writing 2)Confucianism in Cultural Studies 3) Traditional China (4) Yingying and Decima

His writings deal primarily with individual morality and ethics, and the proper exercise of political power by the rulers.
Confucianism is a philosophy of living rather than a religion and may guide ones life while one practices other religions without contradiction. Confucius was a Chinese scholar and statesman who lived over 2000 years ago. He established an ethical and moral system that governs all relationships.
Confucianism views the family as the basic unit of society. Certain reciprocal relationships and responsibilities must be observed to preserve harmony. The relationships exist between ruler and subjects, husband and wife, father and son, elder brother and younger brother, and friends. A specific hierarchy is observed that places highest importance on rank and age in all interactions. Saving face (not being publicly embarrassed) and not causing shame to another are important. Since the family is the core unit, all actions of an individual reflect on the family and on all members of the family. Life is most valued when the virtues of kindness, righteousness, propriety, intelligence, and faithfulness are observed.
Hence the Chinese practice three religions (more appropriately referred to as belief systems incorporating religion, and philosophy of life) simultaneously. It is like a good swimmer who knows that there are three elements related to winning a competition: his mental preparation, his physical readiness, and a sense of affinity with the water that surrounds him.
2. If the sons of emperors and princes are without quality they should be reduced to the ranks of the common people. If the common people have quality, they should be elevated to the ranks of the rulers.
4. (Superior men: Men of noble character, not noble birth.) Anyone can be a superior man. It is only necessary to decide to be one. (Demanded honesty, rigorous self-control and virtue of his students).
5. A Superior man thinks of what is right. a

The Crucibles John Proctor as Tragic Hero According to Arthur Millers Tragedy and The Common Man



Miller persuasively supports the character of John Proctor as a tragic hero by explaining different attributes of a tragic hero that are also found in the character of John Proctor. Proctor was a respectable and moral righteous man who was proud of his smartness and diligence. At the same time, his personality embodies several flaws like his excessive pride, fatal flaw, anger, hatred for corrupts and his unwillingness to remain passive. As the judge, Danforth said, “Proctor is beyond speech in his anger” (Miller, The Crucible, Act III), however, these characteristics were not actually his personality flaws but his failure to deal with these attributes eventually turned him into a tragic hero. According to Miller "the flaw, or crack in the character, is really nothing–and need be nothing, but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lot without active retaliation, are "flawless." In the light of Miller’s philosophy, the tragic flaw within Proctor character averts him from accepting any change in his social status and dignity in the eyes of the people around him. He got the chance to save his life but he refused to admit witchcraft and chose to die for the sake of his name. “How may I live without my name? I have given you my soul. leave me my name!”(Miller, The Crucible, Act IV)". It implies that Proctor had the chance to live with his wife but he failed to avail the chance due to his tragic flaw that impeded him from exchanging his life for his pride and social dignity. He complies with Miller’s definition of a tragic hero and proves him among “those who act against the scheme of things that degrades them” (Miller, p4). Thus, the tragic flaws of Proctor character inhibit him from saving his life and he chose to stick on his principles rather selling his name and dignity in exchange for his life.

Platos detailed description

Response paper about Plato’s detailed of how it should be decided who will rule. To adequately respond about who should rule and have political power according to Plato’s perspective, it would be necessary to recall his philosophy about meritocracy and leaders in his celebrated work The Republic. In the book, Plato outlined who, what and the circumstance or policy that would make somebody to rule.
To have a just “policy” or “basis” for somebody to rule, Plato outlined the need for a society that subscribes to meritocracy. By meritocracy, it meant that having a station in society depending on one’s capacity, intelligence, talent and hard work. It is far from monarchy which a child of king or queen automatically becomes a ruler by birth right. In Plato’s meritocracy, a child of the king does not have to rule if he or she is unfit to have a political power. Rather, a child of a peasant can even be a ruler provided that the person has demonstrated the qualities necessary to become a ruler.
The ruler comes from a ruling class which Plato designates as the Guardians. The Guardians has a heart of bronze and silver which meant that they have the physical capability and also the intellectual prowess to rule. In short, they are the class who has the potential to rule. They should be the smartest and the strongest. Guardians must also have wisdom which can be acquired by diligent study of which the truth can be found. Plato did not discriminate by birth but by capability and will of who should rule and exercise political power over a state.
The policy or tests to become the Guardian that will rule is unforgiving according to Plato’s standards. The person will have to engage in diligent study and gymnastics (the term for exercise during Plato’s time) to become intellectually and physically able to rule. In addition, a ruler must also live an ascetic life and far from the life of a privilege person so that the ruler will not get spoiled which will weaken him. For Plato’s perspective, living a life of comfort will weaken a ruler because it will prejudice him to perpetuate the life that he is beginning to like. To guard against this character weakness, it is mandated that a Guardian or ruler must live a simple life.
A Guardian has no possession also and is not even paid despite the tremendous political power that he has. Whatever that he has should be donated by society at large for is not paid for ruling. The rationale for this stringent life was that for the Guardian to focus solely on ruling. That is, if he will dispense a law or administers justice or that of the state, that he may do so for the interest of the state and greater majority and to himself.
To some extent, this idea of Plato about the ruling class is still carried to this day where we expect our leaders to unselfishly serve with meager government salaries.

International Ethics

International Ethics Three of the important issues faced by the current international community according to me are humantrafficking, torture and illegal immigration. Human trafficking is the trade in humans for the purpose of sexual slavery, forced labor or for extraction of body organs (Scarpa, 28). This is one of the major ethical dilemmas of the world today violating the basic fundamental human rights. Torture is also a major ethical dilemma for the international community today. As, a Foreign website of UK states, being a major signatory to UN Convention against Torture "Torture is one of the most abhorrent violations of human rights and human dignity” (Great Britain, 12). Lastly, illegal immigrants pose serious problems to the states, imposing enormous economic costs and are a major concern in the times of today.
In the recent years the outbreak of the global war on terror has raised serious issues of human rights and distributive justice in the international system. According to scholars "the term&nbsp.distributive justice&nbsp.refers to fair, equitable, and appropriate distribution determined by justified norms that structure the terms of social cooperation" (Beauchamp and Childress, 226). Moral and ethical troubles take place with distributive justice when there is tug war for resources. Also with the ongoing war on terrorism serious human right violations are observed, bloodshed of innocents, torture and targeted killings of many etc. Human rights are relevant to terrorism as concerns both its victims and its perpetrators ( Zalman).
It is believed by many that for a state to emphasize on its national security, it has to steal away the rights of others resulting in concerns of human security and distributive justice. These beliefs however vary in different schools of thoughts. Where war is inevitable for realists, the idealists view it unnecessary, unethical and immoral.&nbsp.Idealism holds that a state should make its internal political&nbsp.philosophy&nbsp.the goal of its foreign policy which is never war. A “realist” foreign policy of a state places national interests and security above ideology, ethics and morality (Ziring et al, 9). The idealist school believes that foreign policy must reflect the ethical, moral and philosophical values of the country. Realists approach would defend and promote violation of human rights and distributive justice for the defense of national security however an idealists approach would condemn that.
As a Secretary of Foreign Policy and International Ethics I would design an assessment which would pretty much overturn the current framework. I believe the nation today is violating international ethics and causing serious human rights concerns throughout the world in the name of national security and pride. Based on an idealist framework I would suggest major changes to US foreign policy bringing end to all acts of violence, war and conflicts. I will initiate strategies to aid development of the underdeveloped countries and make sure that no such act is committed by the US which is a source of condemnation from the international law. Abiding by the international law of ethic would be the top most priority. Issues such as the war crimes, torture in war prisons, target killings of suspicious individuals need to be dealt with urgently to bring about peace and pacify the current heat and hatred that has engulfed the world. I have greatly enjoyed and learned a lot in this course of Ethics and International Affairs. The study of impact of international systems on regional, national and local levels in various parts of the world has enabled me to apply a deep understanding of multiple worldviews and power structures. I have studied the principles of justice and morality in relation to the dilemmas related to current policy developments, global institutional arrangements, and the conduct of important international actors. I would love to research on the ongoing Ukraine Crisis or the various ethical crimes such as human trafficking occurring in the world today.
Works cited
Beauchamp, Tom L and James F Childress. Principles of biomedical ethics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994. Print.
Great Britain. Human Rights: Annual Report 2007. London: Stationery Office, 2008. Print.
Scarpa, Silvia.&nbsp.Trafficking in Human Beings: Modern Slavery. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.
Zalman, Amy. Human Rights &amp. Terrorism: An Overview. Terrorism Issues, 2014. Web. 6 Mar 2014. .
Ziring, Lawrence, Jack C. Plano, and Roy Olton.&nbsp.International Relations: a Political Dictionary. Santa Barbara (California: ABC-CLIO, 1995. Print.

Existentialism According to Two Philosophers

&nbsp.The reader realizes immediately that what is important about this character is not his actions, so much as his thoughts. Actions – if any – are the result of a decision, a choice. Even when he hands ‘the prisoner’ a glass of tea, or takes a pot of ink from a drawer, Daru does so not as a reflexive action, or one taken automatically or without consideration, but as a deliberately thought-out deed over which he seems to have some control.
This is a kind of irony that comes from the pen of Albert Camus, an existentialist (although he denied it) writer whose philosophy was one born of the belief that life offers no clarity or meaning (Camus 1991). He places Daru in a spot, literally and metaphorically. From this place, this man cannot emerge unless it is through a deliberate deed. True, he did not ask Balducci to arrive with the prisoner, yet even in the introduction during the blizzard, Camus injects an atmosphere of anticipation and expectation. He seems to tell the reader that life – even if it does take place in a desert. emotional, philosophical, or otherwise – has a habit of presenting one with predicaments and obligations that require accountability (Camus 1991). Daru, in his dead-end job, had to dole out grain to the families of his students, something over which he seemed to have doubts. He is suddenly given the responsibility of taking an Arab prisoner to the prison at Tinguit: a dilemma which is at once personal, official and philosophical. Camus does this to illustrate his concept of inescapability: if you are alive, you will encounter this kind of problem that requires some sort of choice. Not making a choice is not an option that life offers. Even doing nothing is a default choice. In his Myth of Sisyphus, he shows this through the absurdity of life’s meaningless tasks, that are repetitive and devoid of meaning, and gives them to Daru to show there are no escaping life’s quandaries.

The Critical Success Factors to Send an Appropriate Marketing Message

Consumers over the age of 50 comprise a significant portion of today’s total national consumer count, between approximately 12.2 and 18.2 percent of the population in the United Kingdom and the United States (Henslin, 2003). These percentages are projected to grow dramatically as more consumers approach the age of 50, and while older consumers are experiencing longer lifespan estimates.
Research indicates that most older consumers in Westernised cultures maintain substantial difficulty in applying the label of "old" to themselves, suggesting that today’s marketing tactics should be not be focused around terms such as senior citizen, golden years, sunset years, or even the word aged (Norton, 2007). In fact, a sizeable boom in the over-50 group’s consumption of anti-aging products and products designed to preserve health and youth is on a steady rise (Tenser, 2006). What this suggests is that today 50+ consumer remains less focused around aging issues, but believes in a "new old" philosophy, highlighting a less stereotypical attitude toward growing old.
Despite these changing attitudes, Crawford (2006) offers that today’s over-50 group is "mad as hell" because they are not being represented (or represented appropriately) by today’s marketers. Of further importance, today over-50 consumer is recognized as a group with minimal brand loyalty and does not often reflect a commitment to any single brand (50+ Power, 2004). If the over-50 consumer group displays no brand loyalty, the process of creating a customized marketing message for this market segment can be a difficult task
It is crucial, therefore, to perform marketing research to uncover today’s 50+ consumer attitudes regarding their roles in society, as well as measuring lifestyle and behavior characteristics, in order to effectively market to this growing demographic group. Since today’s aging consumer believes they are grossly under-represented in the product. advertising, there is likely a better strategy to create customized messages which will be widely received by this potential market.

The Stoics believed that it was important that one’s emotional state not be impacted by one’s circumstances whether they be good or bad Why did they feel this way What is a possible benefit of living this way What is a potential pitfall

Your full full September 25, Philosophy – Emotional Stoicism is an ancient school of philosophy the roots of which date back to the 3rd century BC. The believers of this school of philosophy believed that it is important that ones emotional state should not be influenced by his/her circumstances regardless of the nature of those circumstances. They had a strong belief about the existence of the link between destructive emotions and judgment errors that a person can make because of his/her circumstances. Therefore, they believed that a person should not modify his/her emotional state because of the internal and external circumstances as it can lead to the destruction of whole society.
The main benefit of living this way is the development of a peaceful society. This occurs when people living in a society do not impose the severity of circumstances on their emotional state. It is very easy to understand that when people do not disturb their emotional state because of their situations, emotional stability, peace, and tranquility prevails everywhere in the society which is a very positive aspect of Stoicism school of philosophy. The potential pitfall in living this way can be the emotional immobility for situations which demand a person to show related emotions. However, this is just a potential pitfall which cannot overshadow the benefits of living in accordance with the Stoicism school of philosophy.
Works Cited
Not required

Buddhism as a Philosophy of Enlightenment Meditation Morality and Wisdom

When I listened to Boundless Light Sangha (live meditation and Dharma message service) sitting at my home, I realized that Buddhism is much more than we think it is. I came to know many things about Buddhism that I didn’t know before and yes, definitely some misunderstandings were cleared. Buddhism is basically more of a saintly religion which focuses mainly on the personal religious development and accomplishment of profound insight into the genuine nature of life. It is a philosophy of enlightenment, meditation, morality, and wisdom.The biggest conflict people have about Buddhism is whether it is a religion or not. It primarily depends on how you define religion. Some people define religion as the belief in the presence of one or more than one deities. According to this definition, Buddhism is not a religion. But, others exclude deities from the definition of religion and according to them, Buddhism is a religion. According to Webster’s New World Dictionary, religion is any defined set or system of worship and belief which involves adoration of a supernatural entity. Pertaining to this definition, Buddhism would not be considered a religion. But then again, as I described earlier, there are more than 300 million practitioners of Buddhism all around the world and this wasn’t possible if all these people didn’t regard it to be a religion (In Guralnik, 1970).

The second biggest misconception most of us have about Buddhism is that it is a pagan religion which means that they usually believe in gods or gods other than the usual worldwide accepted Christian God. However, Buddhists don’t usually restrict themselves to God or god(s). They are mainly focused on Dharma, which is not a belief in God or god(s). It is a belief in reality or truth. Therefore, when a tragic or depressing event occurs in our lives or our loved ones, Buddhists, like people of other religion won’t ask “Why did you do this to me, God?!”

Ideology and Social Movement in China

This interrelationship is of great significance in the development of Chinese culture, social movement and modernization.
Thesis Statement: The purpose of this paper is to investigate what happens to ideas and ideologies when they are transplanted to settings other than their own original time and context. The main focus will be on Confucianism applied to the challenge of modernization in China, modern western liberalism in pre- and post- May 4th era, and Marxism in both pre- and post- 1949 China.
Until 1917, Chinese literary language was regarded as the key cultural domain or “the national essence”, and was one of the few elements of China’s tradition that did not succumb to the challenge of modernization presented by western imperialism4. The Chinese Civil War (1927 to 1949) drew to a close with the Chinese revolution of 1949 and later led to the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976).
By this time, traditional Chinese culture was believed to have expired, though the decline began soon after 1895. However, Mao Tse-Tung, the Chinese communist leader and others believed that modernization was “a self-renewal of China’s inherent tradition…of thought and culture,”5 and this was the basis on which Western sciences and technologies were transplanted into China while rejecting the socio-political and ideological culture of the West. From the end of the 1970s, contemporary and modern western philosophical trends were gradually incorporated into Chinese ideologies, eliminating dogmatism and old traditional thought hardened by lack of reform.
Confucius (551-479 BCE), the Chinese philosopher, thinker and educator, established various guidelines towards living human life optimally. Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese philosophy and ideologies. One thousand years before the conceptualization of humanism in the West, Confucianism stressed on the value of humanity, the&nbsp.very first school of thought to do so. Besides Confucianism, other schools of the Chinese tradition include: “Taoism, Mohism, Legalism, Buddhism, Logicianism, etc”.

Discourse Community Analysis

The language used in neighborhoods is quite different from other discourse communities. The neighborhood community which I am going to discuss here is of my childhood which brings back my thoughts about how I developed as a mature individual. It was through our usage of language that people knew as to which neighborhood we belonged to.
Language comprises an important part of the daily communication sector between individuals. If languages for specific discourse communities were not recognized then it would be completely impossible for individuals to segregate communities or to identify them. The language which I am going to emphasize in this essay revolves around me and my fellow childhood friends who were my neighbors. The language that we used in our neighborhood was clearly understood by our members only and if any outsider intruded in our territory it would be quite difficult for him to grasp the original meaning of our words. A common philosophy was made in our neighborhood as to who should be taught our norms and who should be not. Although new neighbors were welcomed by us in the neighborhood but it took them sometime to get settled with the new discourse community.
By usage of language here it is meant that all the aspects of language ranging from minute to the broad ones are being considered here. These aspects of language can include words, gestures, phrases and facial expressions. We the children of our neighborhood had specific nicknames for our friends. In our language these friends were called ‘buddies’. Not only was language verbal only but it also consisted the broad factors of appearance. We had specific sort of signs in our appearance which helped the other ‘buddies’ to recognize us. As one of my neighborhood friend was called ‘Cappy’, it denoted that he always wore a cap. And similarly a friend

Influence of HK movies

Therefore, it should be claimed that Hong Kong movie genres has combined centennial values of Chinese nation and transferred them to the contemporaries in an “easy-going” and comprehensible manner. Key words: kung fu movie, gangster movie, comedy/action comedy movie. Introduction Hong Kong cinematograph is often compared and contrasted to Hollywood cinematograph. Still, there is a need to claim that the importance of movies produced in Hong Kong is in their uniqueness. Such genres as kung fu movie, gangster movie and action comedy and comedy movie are discussed in the paper further on. The most important integrative components of Hong Kong movies are: following Chinese traditions, interpreting centennial arts of combat to the contemporaries and inspiring them with patriotism, brevity and a power of a spirit and providing modern Eastern and Western families with a perfect opportunity to spend their evening while watching movies of Hong Kong cinematograph. This is a zestful cocktail of Hong Kong cinematograph. Moreover, it should be noted that every genre has contributed a lot to the Eastern and Western audiences. …
The main idea relevant to contemporary researchers should be focused on the central importance of Chinese philosophy, spiritual heritage of the Eastern world and the way these issues are interpreted in the modern Hong Kong cinematograph. Hong Kong Action Comedy Movie Hong Kong action comedy movies are, supposedly, the most important products of Hong Kong cinematograph. There are three basic components in these films that are so much attracting to the audience. Firstly, these films comply with Chinese traditions. secondly, these films follow the best traditions of Hollywood action films and thirdly, these films border with transculutral imagination of the audience about “good” cinematograph. There is much deeper sense beyond action comedy genre than the audience can think. There is much more philosophical background beyond the play of handsome Ekin Cheng and Nicholas Tse. Whether digital effects are used or not, a good spirit of humor and positivism is present in action comedy movie of Hong Kong in any case (Yau, 2001). It is especially important to discuss the important role these films play for Hong Kong people and Westerners nowadays. This can be explained by overall tendencies of globalization. Different national and cultural borders are being blurred and there is a need to create such kind of a cultural product that would be appealing for representative of any nation (Ma, 1999). There were different stages in the development of comedy movie in Hong Kong. At first, politicians criticized spiritual load of the films. in 70s death of Bruce Lee (Baker, 2008) set different accents in this type of films. 80s was a period of Jackie Chan upheaval and the genre of

How has the European Convention on Human Rights contributed to international human rights law

The researcher states that the twentieth century became a landmark in the evolution of the international human rights law. The atrocities of the Nazi regime and mass exterminations of humans during the two world wars led the world to review its attitudes toward the fundamental human rights. The European Convention on Human Rights was created with the goal of extending the coverage of the international human rights laws on European countries, enforcing compliance with the foundational standards of human rights protection, and ensuring greater integration among the European states. Since its inception, human rights protection has become the main aspect of states’ legislative and judicial performance in Europe. The contribution of the European Convention on Human Rights to the international human rights law is difficult to overestimate. The convention meets the standards of subsidiarity in the international human rights law and creates the foundation for interpreting the most controversial emerging human rights issues. Simultaneously, the convention by itself and its principles are not without controversy. Despite the significance of the European Convention on Human Rights, its effectiveness and results greatly depend upon the political and social atmosphere in European states. many states choose to enforce the Convention only for the purpose of membership in the European Union. As a result, the effectiveness of the European Convention on Human Rights is more virtual than real and does not extend beyond the actual court cases to tackle with the discrimination against the fundamental human rights….
Another reason was that European states needed greater unity and integration, and a convention similar to the ECHR could glue the European states in their way to achieving the common economic and social objectives. This being said, the ECHR became the first and, probably, the most significant political and legal achievement of the Council of Europe in 1949 (Ware &amp. Miller 1998). At that time, the Council of Europe was made up of only 10 states (Ware &amp. Miller 1998). Nevertheless, “every member of the Council of Europe had to accept the principles of the rule of law and of the enjoyment by all persons within its jurisdiction of human rights and fundamental freedoms” (Ware &amp. Miller 1998, p.7). In other words, all member states of the EC had to enforce strict compliance with the principles and premises of the Convention. It is no secret that one of the main goals of the ECHR was European integration (Weil 1963). The philosophy of European integration was rooted in the pre-first-world-war conditions of politics, which suggested that fragmentation, separation, and opposition weakened European states in the fight for peace and stability. The idea of uniting Europe lost its relevance between the two world wars, and during the Second World War Hitler managed to unite Europe by force (Weil 1963). However, as soon as the hostilities were over, and Winston Churchill became a leader of the European movement toward peace, the idea of building a union similar to that in the United States, was revived (Weil 1963). It should be noted, that Britain made one of the major contributions to the development and implementation of the ECHR: the final version of the convention owed a lot to British ideas of human rights and European statehood (Ware &amp. Miller 1998). Simultaneously, when

Business report based on the a given case study Highland Limited



Frank in order to repay the loan had to sell of his centre at Shiel Bridge. Frank Rose took help from his wife Fiona and Andrew Robertson who were willing to put in funds and thereafter Fiona and Andrew took over the running of the business. Frank Rose concentrated more on the Outdoor Centre while Fiona looked after the accounts and Andrew became the Managing Director. The business operated from small cottage. The company moved into a new location in April 2008 and one of the main customers of Highland Limited, Weir’s of Glasgow made the company big enough to get viable. The relationships between the staff were informal. But steadily the employment increased post November 2008. The company did not have enough resources to meet the demands of the market and thus the company did not make any attempt to attract new customs. Approaches to retailers were discouraged as Andrew Robertson believed that until they had the capacity to satisfy the demands of the market it would not be profitable to go to the retailers. The company faced a twist when it had started operating with Stoner garment, a brand of western Oil Limited. The company was eager to supply waterproof and protective clothing to the lucrative market of about 2000 workers. This provided Highland Limited with an advantage as being a local supplier the company would be able to produce jackets according to the demands and deliver at a minimal time. Therefore Highland Limited together with Stoner Garments decided to design jackets which would be acceptable to Western Oil in terms of both quality and price. Therefore by providing garments to the Western Oil the company was able to achieve success and the legal framework adopted by the company was applying the norms and regulation. Highland Limited was a company in which philosophy and raison d’etre mattered a great deal. The company realised that although the company objectives was to maximise the profits there were also secondary objectives which the company also wished to pursue. The objectives were embodied in the company’s philosophy but never written down. There was difference in the way people saw the philosophy. Thus the factors that the organisation needs to consider in reviewing its mission statement, goals and business plans for the future is firstly the company needs to develop a mission statement, a mission statement is only the starting point of the organisation. Next task is to identify a set of goals which would accomplish the organisations missions. The company needs to establish one year plan, three year and five year plan for expanding its market share in the market. Thus to achieve the goals the company have to develop short term objectives

Growing into an online business shoes online shop

The online store will have the option to expand as needed to various regions without adding in extra prices with brand name shoes. This alternative will assist in changing the available fashion for shoes that are within the region. Business Philosophy The philosophy of “If the Shoe Fits” will be to provide high quality shoes at a low price. The company is based on offering all products with honesty, integrity and trustworthiness. All company policies will based on ensuring that every customer is satisfied with the quality of shoes while finding the best wear of the season. Industry The growth industry for online shoes and shopping is one which is continuing to grow. In the United States, there is an average of $21,627 billion sales per year with over 28,000 stores across the country. Athletic wear is the most popular style sold, followed by women’s shoes, then men and children’s shoes. The competition is one which is continuing to grow and which is noted by price, demographics and disposable income which each individual has. It is also found that styles of shoes alter according to the season and the trends that are within fashion. The growth in the United States is comparable to fashion shoes that are in every region of the world, specifically with the UAE beginning to follow with growth in the economy and new developments that are leading into more opportunities for development. However, the fashion trends and designer looks have not led to the stores completely moving into the region (Fulbright, 2011). The figures emerging with shoe stores in the US and globally continue with the expectations in the shoe industry,…
The growth industry for online shoes and shopping is one which is continuing to grow. In the United States, there is an average of $21,627 billion sales per year with over 28,000 stores across the country. Athletic wear is the most popular style sold, followed by women’s shoes, then men and children’s shoes. The competition is one which is continuing to grow and which is noted by price, demographics and disposable income which each individual has. It is also found that styles of shoes alter according to the season and the trends that are within fashion. The growth in the United States is comparable to fashion shoes that are in every region of the world, specifically with the UAE beginning to follow with growth in the economy and new developments that are leading into more opportunities for development. However, the fashion trends and designer looks have not led to the stores completely moving into the region (Fulbright, 2011).
The figures emerging with shoe stores in the US and globally continue with the expectations in the shoe industry, specifically with the focus of shopping online. The global figures are continuing to rise with those who shop online with over 86% shopping over the Internet on a global level. For the UAE and Middle East, the average shopper for online clothing or apparel is at 67%. This compares to Europe and North America, both which are at an average of 92%. The global average for shopping online is continuing with books and clothing being the two top purchases online with books averaging at 41% and clothing and shoes having purchases of 35% globally. For clothing and shoes, the Middle East and UAE has 16% of purchases over the Internet. This is compared to North America at 39%.

Global Humanitarian Assistance of UAE

Abu Dhabi serves as the capital of the United Arab Emirates thus making it the center of the state’s political, industrial and cultural activities. In terms of governance, the United Arab Emirates is a Federal Monarchy while its political system draws its formation from the state’s constitution of 1971, which consists of several intricately related governing bodies (United Arab Emirates Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2012).
In essence, the United Arab Emirates is neither a constitutional monarchy nor a republic as the rulers of each monarchy, emirate, retain supreme power within their emirates but a single president retains supreme power over the entire United Arab Emirates. The emirs of the seven emirates choose one of their members to serve as the president of the entire federation, but the chosen emir retains the monarchial character of the individual emirate he heads. In light of this dispensation, the constitution of the United Arab Emirates solely addresses the relations between the emirates and does not impose a constitutional system of governance. Economically, the United Arab Emirates has an open economy, which boasts of a high per capita income and a sizeable annual trade surplus.
The economy of the United Arab Emirates is as well one of the most developed economies in Western Asia with a comparatively high Human Development Index. With the world’s seventh largest oil reserves and the world’s seventh largest reserves of natural gas resources, the United Arab Emirates has a relatively high economy. This strong economic potential has influenced the states increased participation in the delivery of global humanitarian assistance. In this regard, the United Arab Emirates is a major donor of emergency relief to nations affected by conflicts as well as naturals disasters in developing countries. In light of this, this paper seeks to addresses the global humanitarian assistance of the United Arab Emirates expressing the extent to which the United Arab Emirates has engaged in issuing humanitarian assistance across the globe. Global humanitarian assistance of the United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates is a renowned contributor of global humanitarian aid having translated its global development and humanitarian aid into an instrument of foreign policy. The philosophy underlying this development is the Islamic belief that helping those in need is a primary duty. Consequently, the United Arab Emirates as well believes that part of its wealth derived from oil and gas resources ought to be dedicated to assisting less providential countries and individuals. In light of this, the World Bank in 2010 recognized the United Arab Emirates as one of the world’s most bighearted contributors to global foreign aid. Global Humanitarian Assistance, an organization that scrutinizes the distribution of charitable aid from governments, in its 2010 report included the United Arab Emirates as the first non-European nation in the international top 10 humanitarian aid donors per head of population. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development as well recognized the United Arab Emirates as the fourteenth most generous donor in the globe (Suryatapa, 2010). In essence, the United Arab Emirates is a renowned contributor in global humanitarian aid having undertaken massive humanitarian aid projects in the developing world. The provision of global humanit

Utopian literature through the time of World War II

This research will begin with the definition of utopia, by the very sense of the word, is the fantasy of a non-existent society and it could not have crept into literature as far it did without the help of its pivotal device called ‘science fiction’, which, in the words of Darko Suvin, is characterized by ‘cognitive estrangement’. Understandably, the literature produced through the period of World War II and after was more dystopian in nature than utopian, considering the pessimism generated (by the events in the contemporary world) among intellectuals giving rise to the portrayal of degraded societies as in H. G. Wells’s “The Time Machine“. Often, the pessimism manifested in the title itself like Chad Walsh’s From Utopia to Nightmare (1962), “New Maps of Hell“ by Kingsley Amis and “The Future as Nightmare: H. G. Wells and the Anti-Utopians“ (1967) by Mark Hillegas. Utopian literature, its suggestive nature notwithstanding, is interesting only because it reflects mankind’s worst fears at a crucial point in history and not because it contains anything that has the potential to make the world a better place. The dystopian predictions of doom by a host of writers, from John Brunner to Margaret Atwood, never came true. It is worth recalling here, however, that Ray Bradbury’s apprehension (that television would kill books) in his 1953 iconographic work “Fahrenheit 451“, was not entirely misplaced….
It points out how knowledge can be harmful unless it is combined with wisdom by the example of a scientist who “studies the composition of atom from a disinterested desire for knowledge and incidentally places it in the hands of powerful lunatics” (Yardi 103). Interestingly, Lost Horizon written by James Hilton in 1933 prophesies a devastating war that engulfs most parts of the world in less than a decade. In the classic, Hilton envisions a utopian civilization with Oriental character in a remote monastery, Shangri-La, in the Himalayas where wonderful people live. The faith of the Shangri-La monks is a combination of the features of Christianity and Buddhism, the motto being ‘everything in moderation’: the rule is moderately strict, only moderate obedience is expected and people are moderately sober, moderately chaste and moderately honest. The book, for most part, is a deep meditation on noble ideas like pacifism and philosophy, instead of being a mere adventure story. Shangri-La people teach us that exhaustion of passions is the key to the beginning of wisdom and that the most impossible things in life become possible if we believe in them. Nevil Shute’s On the Beach (1957) portrays a massive nuclear war and the resulting radioactive dust marking the end of the world. Another post-apocalyptic masterpiece The Day of the Triffids (1951) by John Wyndham, with its ever-present threat of walking plants and blinding comets, is more like a horror novel than mere science fiction. Without any mention of nuclear warfare, this book still deserves to be labeled apocalyptic for its story is centered on rebuilding the society after a devastating

Chinese Intellectual History

The thinkers had developed their thoughts by using their individual philosophy. They suggested their own ideas about the military, political as well as economic policies to make a single ideal monarchy. They inferred that a strong centralized ruling system can only solve the prevailing problem in the country. This will end the continuous war among the six independent states. Because this long-lasting turmoil hampers the everyday life of common people, hinders the production and growth of the states and brings poverty in the economy. The war is happening only because of the desire to achieve power over the others by all of the states. But all of the thinkers, in their thoughts, mentioned that this single monarchist should be ideal ruler who should possess some moral qualities. This would be a “sage monarch”. They suggested that the ruler should behave in a different way in person and adjust in different ways to the outer world. The monarch should try to implement several policies that can bring peace and unity in the “All under Heaven” (Pines 2). …
The Confucians said that the ideal monarch should follow the early Western Zhou kings. They prioritize the implementation of ritual performances. The Mohists criticized the prevailing warfare. They suggested quick reduction in the government expenditure and a hierarchical political structure should be made. The ranks would be given in accordance to the wealth of a person in the society. Every bureaucrat should obey the person above his rank. They also imposed the idea of moral value with universal love. In such love, all people should treat others in the same fashion irrespective of the relationship between them. The Daoists recommended that the ideal ruler should practice psychosomatic training by meditation. The ruler would not be engaged in the active ruling of the government and would let to take place things and events in natural way. This way, everything in the universe would be arranged in their own way (Ivanhoe and Norden 1-312). The above schools of thought argued that single monarchy is essential for peace in Heaven. Another school of thought is the legalists who suggested that one single state must be created. This creation can be done by implementing one strong armed force and by developing policies to strengthen the military forces, legal activities and economic resources of one single state. This state, by using its strengths and resources, therefore, could achieve the power over the other states. This article will examine the idea what Yuri Pines highlighted in his book that how the thinkers analysed their conception of getting peace in a time of change in political system. The article would not discuss about all of them but about the idea of only one

Ethical Manuscript



Nursing care is given to people in all health care surroundings. Increasing difficulties and rapid changes in health care arises the need to develop patient care, technical advances, revolutionize the practice of nursing and so on. Nursing theories do not give direction on how to care for the adults and elderly, or on how to sustain them in the developmental process of aging. Therefore, there is a need to increase a nursing care model that in excess of modern theories takes an aging person into deliberation. Others agree that nursing needs to increase more circumstances that would create certain theories to guide nurses on how to treat the aged people. The two main new theories in nursing are – “the functional consequences theory and thriving theory” (Mauk, 2010, p.65). Nurses are mainly depended on for managing this detonation of new equipment, frequently without knowledge of their basis. While equipments and new procedures offer chances to progress health care delivery, actual and potential impacts arise with relation to these new procedures as well as tools and can be a reason for medical errors committed by them. Multidisciplinary methods regarding patient care require nurses to be obedient of the implications of evidence-based performance on the control of nursing. Nursing shortage means a condition where the demand for nursing experts, for instance registered nurses, exceeds the number of nurses actually available, locally, nationally or globally. In the book ‘Transformational Nursing Leadership: A Vision for the Future,’ Anne M. Barker suggests that most nursing departments have a written “philosophy of nursing, which states that nurses use the nursing process” (Barker, 1992). The stable purpose of the nursing division should contain some statement about the use of the nursing procedures. Frequently this is not affirmed in the departmental objectives. But sometimes, staff nurse candidates are questioned or chosen by considering their nursing procedure. (Transformational nursing leadership: a vision for the future, pg-133, 1992. Anne M. Barker.) Demographic transformations in the coming decades may be worsened due to the shortage of nurse assistants in hospitals as well as homes. As the population grows, demand for nurse assistants is expected to grow dramatically, while the supply of workers who have traditionally filled these jobs will remain almost unaffected. Following are the impacts that scarcity of nursing causes to the health care manufacturing and the state financial system: •Nursing is a well-paid profession as compared to the rising number of low-wage service jobs being formed. This raises independence and reduces the need for assistance. • The nursing career increases job opportunities and thus results in employment of people. •Dislocated employees can get a full time job and ensure good wages with the help of nursing. This is chiefly true in the case of rural areas like Minnesota, where job chances are restricted. •Nursing is a specialized career and it proposes the capacity for people to obtain degree, gain

Sun Yat Sen and Democracy in China

With these ideas in mind Sun set out with the task of materializing his ideas of establishing democracy in China. Commonly recognised as the “Father of Modern China” Sun was successful in neutralizing the power of the Qing dynasty and was elected as the President of the Republic of China and later became the forerunner of the Nationalist Party in China. The paper focuses on the elaboration of contributions that Sun Yat-Sen made in China for establishing democracy. The prime agenda is to seek an answer to what extent was Sun successful in establishing democracy in China. The paper is disintegrated into several segments in order to critically analyze and reach optimal inferences 1. Introduction Sun Yat-Sen (1866–1925 AD), also known as the ‘Father of Modern China’, was an ardent advocate of constitutional democracy. A Chinese thinker, political leader, and a medical practitioner, Sun-Yat-Sen is renowned for his contribution in the collapse of China’s two thousand years old autocratic imperial system. Sun Yat Sen’s philosophy was motivated by the modern western culture and he tried to incorporate in China the very characteristics of the same along with the traditional Chinese tradition at its base in order to make China competitive on the global platform. Majority of Sun Yat-Sen’s constitutional thought was built on blocks of ancient Chinese political philosophy with regionalized Oriental political tradition, which might not be easy for outsiders to understand. Considerable volumes of works by Sun Yat-Sen influenced heavily the governmental structure of Republican China between 1928 and 1949. Sun’s prescribed models of democracy were a true…
Majority of Sun Yat-Sen’s constitutional thought was built on blocks of ancient Chinese political philosophy with regionalized Oriental political tradition, which might not be easy for outsiders to understand. Considerable volumes of works by Sun Yat-Sen influenced heavily the governmental structure of Republican China between 1928 and 1949. Sun’s prescribed models of democracy were a true mixture of distinctive cultural norms of the East and the West (Chiyeung Ip, 2008: 1-2).
With a combination of the Western elements and Oriental theory of constitutionalism, Sun Yat-Sen’s philosophy provides valuable information and solution for problems of the liberal democratic policy faced by the other countries .The policies address the domination of the ‘best marketed’ politicians of “low-caliber” over the best statesmen. the powerless state of the electorate and also the difficulties faced in the promotion of democratic and socio-economic reforms together. But at the same time he is criticised for the blending of Confucian political ideas (Chinese ethical and philosophical systems developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius) with liberal democratic elements. Considering the criticisms, SunYat-Sen sometimes have been regarded as illogical and disorganised (Chiyeung Ip, 2008: 8).

Impact of Financial Meltdown on Luxury Fashion Goods Market

. 17 4. Research Methodology…………………………………… 17-18 4.1 Research Philosophy………………………………….. 18-19 4.2 Data Collection……………………………………….. 19-20 4.3 Credibility and Verification…………………………… 20-21 5. Findings and Analysis…………………………………….. 22 5.1 Case Study……………………………………………… 22-23 5.1.1 Global Recession and Luxury Market…………… 24 5.1.2 Philip Rocou and his Strategies………………….. 25 5.2 Primary Research on Luxury Goods………………….. 26.-32 5.3 Primary Research on Online Selling ………………….. 32-36 6. Conclusion…………………………………………………. 36-37 7. References…………………………………………………… 37-40 8. Annexure………………………………………………. 41-43 Contents of figures and tables Table 1 representing impact on employees 28 Table 2 representing impact on product 29 Table 3 representing Behavioral Pattern of customers 29 Table 4 representing organizational impact 29 Table 5 representing post-recession effect in customer 30 Table 6 Representing Response of brand during economic turndown 30 Table 7 representing post-recession strategy of organization 30 Fig 1 representing effect of financial crisis on organization 31 Fig 2 representing effect of financial crisis on employee 31 Fig 3 representing interest level of people towards luxury brand 34 Fig4 representing frequency of purchase of luxury brand 34 Fig 5 representing opinion regarding benefits of online selling 35 Fig 6 representing satisfaction level in online shopping 35 Fig 7 representing online shopping as manufacturing tool 36 1….
The paper tells that during the last decade, the international economy has witnessed inflation, recession and other serious economic hazards. It had raised serious concerns for the future of world economy. The developing countries of the world were most affected in the economic turmoil. This also had an impact on the global fashion commodity industry. To counter the effect the industry players used new demands and reformed the luxury goods industry. Study of the performance of the key player in the market like Philippe Rousseau reflects the impact of the economy on the market for the luxury goods. In order to revive the market various strategies were developed by the marketing teams. The latest use was that of the online tools for the promotion and selling of the products. A new concept of online selling emerged in the market and the companies dealing with luxury goods were fast to reap benefits out of it. The concept of ecommerce was also hugely appreciated by the customers and the popularity of many businesses was back on track. Before the economic downturn the consumers of the world had become more fashion conscious and they started showing their interest towards the fashion goods. People belonging from the high society of the economy had spent considerably over the luxury fashion goods. But a change in behavior was noticed significantly. The nature of the industry was a driving factor in determining the level of impact it had by the economic turndown. The choice of factors for bringing out the industries out of trouble also varied significantly and it depended a lot on the customer profile.


From the case, eco-feminism is displayed from the protests of the women who pushed the government into reconsidering their lagging policies. Ecofeminism, generally, uses similarities between the oppression of women and that of the natural world in analyzing ecological issues. Ecofeminism advocates for a fundamental shift, from the constructions of the dominant groupings within the society, in the regard of how they think and interpret the relationship between the natural world and humans. It seeks to establish the specific roots of the destruction of the ecology and the environment. It explains the control over the environment as based on the general patterns of control and……
ists greatly, the attempts to create a universal environmental philosophy – as many of the related problems are assigned abstract, universal answers – which form part of the problem in question. Further, this perspective is in its early stages of development, thus, the theorists urge that the approach to environmental problems get their basis on new ways of thinking. Lastly, it points to the significance of the dualism of connections, for example male/female, mind/body, reason/emotion and objectivity/subjectivity in shaping an understanding of the world. This kind of understanding will be significant in establishing a less destructive interrelation between the natural world and humans (Warren, 1997, p. 47). An identifiable strength of this theory is that it calls for open-mindedness in adopting new ways of thinking – when addressing the matters surrounding the domination of women and the natural world. Also, the strength is that it gives significance to the dynamics of the natural world, which cannot be applied to the dynamic nature of the world – as it reduces it into an abstractive form. The model also places importance on the adoption of new models of thinking among both women and men – as a way of arriving at constructive meanings. However, the theory does not succinctly create a linkage between the oppression of women and that with the natural world. Here it would address the aspects of – one being the cause of the other, and an account of the domination to be accorded more ethical priority. From the account of the author, the model is capable of portraying the natural world in its dynamic manner – through its provision on the need to adjust to the dynamic nature of humans, the natural world, and the linkages thereof (Warren, 1997, p. 23). This model

Research method for hospitality and tourism assessment a case study on Hilton hotel)



The paper tells that tourism and hospitality are two economically important and interconnected industries that have a number of interconnected professions, such as customer service, cleaning, maintenance and cooking. Tourism is the process of a person travelling to a place that is not their usual environment and staying there for a period of more than one day, but less than a year. People travel for a range of different reasons, including business and pleasure, and because of this they have different objectives and desires. Some travellers have a lot of time, and like things to be relaxed and easy-going. Others, such as businessmen, are much shorter on time, and require fast and efficient service. Many people will travel from one side of the world to another, or will travel many times within a short period of time. Tourism has been a rapidly growing industry, driven by increases in the ability to travel and the prevalence of people with disposable incomes. The hospitality industry works to provide accommodation to both tourists and locals, and are places where are wide range of different cultures and expectations meet and interact. Hotels often become a hub for such interactions, and both staff and managers must deal with the myriad of wants and needs that arise from these different cultures. Because of the prevalence of travelling, hotels are an important part of the hospitality industry, and they provide people with a place to stay when they are far away from home. The hotel industry is a competitive environment, and because of this, hotels must work not only to attract new customers but also to retain the ones that they do have (Dominici and Guzzo, 2010). There are many hotels for guests to choose from, and many make decisions based on past experience or recommendations from people that they trust. Customer satisfaction is an important component of this. Guests who consider that their overall experience at the hotel was a positive one are more likely to return than those who were disappointed in their stay. Consequently, customer satisfaction is an important aspect of the hotel industry, and is part of the business philosophy for most hotels (Abbasi et al., 2010). Companies that have the ability to recognize and predict what their customers will need have a competitive advantage within the market (Hayes, 2008). The interaction between staff and guests is strongly related to customer satisfaction (Gallarza and Saura, 2006). This research will focus on customer satisfaction within the hotel industry and the effects that culture and ethnic background has on how customers perceive their stay. This will be done using a case study on the Hilton hotel to examine the way in which guests from different cultural and ethnical backgrounds are treated during their stay, and to what extent their needs and expectations are met. This research and its conclusions will be directly related to the hospitality industry and the organisation which is being studied. It will help to identify areas where difference between cultures are resulting in decreases in customer service and will allow recommendations to be given as to what can be improved. This is an important area of research, especially in modern times, where the economy is struggling. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods will be used to meet the objectives of this study. In both cases, this will be primary research as this allows for accurate and time sensitive data to be collected. The quantitative method that will be used is surveys. These are beneficial as they can be distributed to a large number of people and thus can obtain a representative sample of the population (Keeter et al., 2000). Studies have shown that surveys often have a low return rate due to the respondents being short on time (Kaner et al., 1998). Consequently, a multiple-choice questionnaire will be used, and the number

Feminism and Femininity over lifespan



This paper focuses on the notion of feminism and femininity over lifespan in its core. In the initial stage highlight is made on the different aspects of feminism and a brief discussion about femininity. Then the paper shifts its focus on the theories developed by two eminent psychologists Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud on feminism. ‘Differentiated Disunity’ ushers after deviation from the undifferentiated unity. According to ‘Undifferentiated Unity’ all are same in the sphere of society. There is no such distinction among the social agents in the society with respect to class and status. But conflict among the individuals lead to the creation of differentiated disunity where man creates differentiation among themselves with respect to class and societal status and thus emerged the so called differentiation between the slaves and feudal lords and thus human domination of one class over the other generated as a consequence. Marx proposes of a society where there will be no differentiation between individual. Yardstick of measurement of every individual will be always equal. From the concept of differentiated disunity the concept of feminism develops. As a consequence of the phenomenon of domination ‘feminism’ emerges as a dimension of a philosophy and comes with its multifaceted theory along with its implication. The crux of feminism originates from the inequality between the genders. According to the Feminist sociologists arguments which crops up is that they experience injustice and inequalities in favor of men. This gives rise to the notion that determination of the lives of the women gets concentrated in the hands of men (Feminism, n.d.). Different aspects of feminism Having a fundamental knowledge about feminism basic disintegration of the different class of feminism needs to be discussed. Although feminism is a vast arena of study categorization can be done into four main groups. They are: a) Liberal Feminism, b) Marxist/Socialist Feminism, c) Black Feminism and d) Radical Feminism Liberal feminism The liberal feminist advocates equal distribution of rights between men and women. Women should not be in any case subordinated or discriminated on the basis of their sex. Every individual should be treated in accordance with their talent and merit.(Feminism, n.d.). The Equal Pay Act, 1975 has been successfully implemented in order to eliminate the discrimination of the women with terms and condition of employment. Marxist/Socialist Feminism According to the Marxist/Socialist Feminists social class affects the life chances and acts as a key factor in determining the relationship between men and women in the society. They blame the notion of capitalism for the dominance of the women in the sphere of society. Capitalism leads to the augmentation of the conflict between the sexes. Inside the nucleus of capitalism the women are treated as ‘reserve army of labor’ excluded from the crafts and earning by providing service , rather they are treated In such a way that they are treated for only free services in the households. These feminists are proponents of communism who think that it is only through the attainment of communism that the conflict between the sexes can be curbed to the fullest (Feminism, n.d.) Black Feminism It is a recent concept which entails focus on the importance of race and ethnicity has developed in recent years as an attempt to entail focus on the importance of race and ethnicity. They argue for the existence of racism model and states that white feminist acts as persecutors to black women. Arguments are also there that various racism models neglects women of other ethnicities like Greeks, Filipinos and Chinese etc (Feminism,

Business entities

The former is considered to be a prescriptive approach, and the latter an explanatory, descriptive, or predictive approach. Normative business ethics is the domain of philosophers and theologians, while empirical business ethics is considered to be the domain of management consultants and business school professors. Scholars who represent these different domains are said to be guided by different theories, assumptions, and norms which often result in misunderstanding or lack of appreciation for each others endeavors.
The normative approach, rooted in philosophy and the liberal arts, focuses its attention on questions of what ought to be, and how an individual or business ought to behave in order to be ethical. The empirical approach, rooted in management and the social sciences, is generally concerned with questions of what is, assuming that the organizational world is basically objective and "out there" awaiting impartial exploration and discovery. Empiricist answer questions of what is by attempting to describe, explain, or predict phenomena in the natural world using the agreed-upon methodologies of their social scientific training.
The social scientist may devalue the philosophers moral judgments because these judgments cannot be understood in empirical terms and cannot be verified by empirical testing or be used to predict or explain behavior. The social scientists statements about morality, on the other hand, are seen to be of little value to the philosopher because such statements do not address the essential questions of right and wrong. Normative ethical theories develop standards by which the propriety of certain practices in the business world can be evaluated. In contrast, the empirical approach focuses on identifying definable and measurable factors within the individual psyches and social contexts that influence individual and organizational ethical behavior. (Trevino 1994)
Gary Weaver and Linda Tevino have outlined three

Big Fish

Lecturer Big Fish – Series of Paragraph Topics Question Re-read the four (4) chapters en d “My Father’s Death Use two (2) examples from one of the chapters, to demonstrate how William Bloom is becoming a better story teller as the novel progresses. You may want to consider literary elements such as tone, metaphor, simile, symbol, allusion, personification and imagery (descriptive detail) to justify your argument.
The Big Fish is a novel authored by Daniel Wallace in 1998. The novel Big Fish was used to make a film called Big Fish, in the year 2003 by Tim Burton. The novel revolves around a story of a young male character called William Bloom and his father the main character called Edward Bloom. At his father’s deathbed, William Bloom tries to understand who his father is through memories. He therefore tries to understand his father’s exaggerations and the impact in reality. The novel involve first person narration. and the chapters involving “my father’s death” shows William planning his final discussion with his father, Edward Bloom, with a view of eventually understanding him.
In the novel, William Bloom using first person narration literary style and this has made the story telling capability very effective. In chapter one of the novel, William Bloom uses first person narration to explain the circumstances in which his father was born. his father was born during one of the worst summers, drought and famine was experienced in the land there was scarcity of food. The story is also mostly told in past tense, despite the first person narration style. He also says that the birth of his father was a blessing, because on that birth day clouds formed and it rained. William Bloom also uses first person narration in the first chapter of the book to demonstrate the cordial relationship his father had with animals. He explains that cows and horses liked his father, and they followed him around. and chicken once laid a mysterious small brown egg on his lap.
William Bloom also uses a lot of symbolism as indicated in chapter one of Big Fish. For example he equates his father to a big fish in order to illustrate or symbolize his abundant knowledge. Edward Bloom read widely on Philosophy, Arts and History and other literary areas. and hence, his knowledge was more than the librarian or any other person (Wallace 137). The big fish representation of the father also illustrates his extra-ordinary ability of communicating with animals. for example birds rested on his shoulders as he worked with his father in the field. William Bloom says that his father is a myth in the story. this symbolizes and explains the mysterious nature of his father, because has never understood him. The adventures his father told him were unbelievable and confusing for example. claims that he found and lost a dinosaur egg one day, and the day his father was born clouds formed mysteriously and it rained.
William does not understand his father Edward because he mostly wasn’t at home. The little he knows about his father was through the stories he heard over the years. As he watches his father die, William becomes desperate to know his father before death takes him but the he recalls his father’s life through myths and legends he collected. Through these tales William starts to understand his father’s great successes and failings. These tales enable William broom to reckon with his father, and he manages to say goodbye.
Works Cited
Wallace, Daniel. Big Fish: A Novel of Mythic Proportions. New York: Penguin, 1998. Print.


The objectives, goals and targets of marketing have to be monitored and met. The competitor strategies must be evaluated, estimated and exceeded. It is only through the effective use of market and its research that an organization can identify its customer’s needs and wants and try to deliver the value its customer wants .It is very important for the organization to ensure that its customers are satisfied.
Marketing uses the process of exchange to give the customers the value they desire on their products and services. Exchange transaction requires the customer to exchange value (money) for the product or services that completely satisfy their needs. Clearly, the greater the benefit provided the higher transactional value an organization can charge. It is thus the process by which companies create customer interest in their goods or services.
As an activity marketing can only take place where there is a market. It refers to the activity through which exchanges are undertaken. Marketing can be perceived as a social and managerial process through which the customers get what they want. They do it through the process of creating, offering and exchanging products of value for money.
Marketing can be considered as a function. It is a philosophy that has an impact on the over-all dealings of an organization with the marketplace. (David M. Reid. (1980). 19-23.) (Rick Wise, Niren Sirohi. (2005).8-13.)
The need for marketing rose as a result of the increasing needs, wants and demands of the customers. Needs are a basic requirement for human survival, while wants are the specific means by which individuals’ satisfy their needs.
The term, value is one of the most important notions in marketing. It is the difference between the total costs of making a purchase and the total benefits received. In short, it accounts for both, the benefits that a customer gets by making a purchase and also the costs it incurs in the process ( both the money cost and

Franchising in Indonesia

The term franchising may be defined as a business process where an established business (known as franchiser) licenses its trademarks for products and services with tried and proven methods of doing business to a franchisee (generally an aspiring entrepreneur) in exchange for a recurring payment, and usually a percentage of gross sales or gross profits and in most cases a fixed annual fees. Indonesian Government Regulation 16 defines franchising as “an agreement where a party (Franchisee) is granted a right to utilize and/or to make use of intellectual property rights or inventions or special characteristics of a business owned by the other party (Franchisor) based on payment as determined by the Franchisor for supplying or marketing certain products and/or services. The Franchisor and the Franchisee can be entities or individuals”.
McDonald’s is the world’s largest chain of fast-food restaurants. Hamburgers, chicken, French fries, milkshakes, and soft drinks are the main items that McDonald’s offers. More recently, it has also added salads, fruit, snack wraps, and carrot sticks to its menu.
McDonalds Corporation has developed a unique franchise business model. In addition to ordinary franchise fees, supplies, and percentage of sales, McDonald’s also collects rent, partially linked to sales. As a condition of the franchise agreement, the Corporation owns the properties on which most McDonalds franchises are located (
TONI&amp.GUY is considered as the most powerful hairdressing brand in the world. The company is constantly evolving artistically and commercially. It offers the best education on the planet and boasts fabulous product ranges and a dynamic and modern image.&nbsp.Moreover, TONI&amp.GUY is&nbsp.the only hairdressing company to be awarded Superbrand status and they truly represent the catwalk-to-client philosophy (

Mental Health Counseling Field (Social Work perspective)

Mental Health Counseling Field Mental Health Counseling Field Part A. Q 2 The Causes and Consequences of Poverty From a Marxist point of view, people are poor because of class inequality that exists in the society. The more advantaged in the society oppress the poor by exploiting them. In the mid-1800, the rich people utilized the services of the poor and made sure they pay them just enough, and not a bit more. This situation made the working people keep on depending on their employers. Karl Marx hypothesized that there exists no justice for the poor in the society. the socially disadvantaged class received dire punishment for smaller crimes as compared to the rich. It is the belief of Marx that a struggle among social classes will engineer the change required (Marx, 2008).
According to Kirst Ashman, structural reasons are common causes of poverty, which fall under the economic and political systems. The economic factor of poverty occur where wages are low for the working class and not adequately fulfilling the survival needs of the workers, hence they remain under the poverty line. The movements of industrialists to North America where there are cheap production costs have also increased poverty because the availability of employment has decreased (Ashman, 2010).
The consequences of poverty are declining healthcare where most of the employment paying their workers poorly provides no healthcare policies. Insurance policies have forbidding costs that the lower class people cannot afford to raise. Nearly 15 per cent of citizens in the U.S. do not have health insurance cover. Poverty in families causes poor educational quality. It is a fact that the highest number of cases of people dropping out of school are from the poor class in the society. The poor are not as educated as the rich are. The housing conditions of the poor are also unaffordable since of them live in inferior housings. Their property owners neglect them. Many of the poor people cannot afford to pay their rent. According to the Marxist, a culmination of socialist revolution is to be expected.
Part B. Q 1
Generalist Practice
Moshack, 2011, defines generalist practice as the application of diverse professional skills and roles in social work practice. The generalist practice is an ethical model based on a knowledge base, where social work is developed and based on values enhanced by social work (Ashman &amp. Hull, 2007). Social workers utilize this practice to engage, advocate and educate clients. They work with both individuals and communities in various social work settings.
General practitioners involved in mental health have the obligation to view clients from the perspective of strength. The purpose for this is to establish the unique nature of every person and to be able to recognize and the capabilities of every client. Social workers provide services to mental clients in settings such as rehabilitation and mental health programs. Their preference is because they have training based on generalist practices (Ashman &amp. Hull, 2009). The practices emphasize respect for the self-determination of clients and usage of the strengths of the clients with the expected outcome as client empowerment.
A vital benefit of social workers in mental health is that they view people as within their respective environment, that is, as an individual, part of a community or family (Ashman, 2008). Social work in mental health is multi-faceted, a combination of mental and social elements. Generalist practitioners in mental health have advanced skills in assessment, treatment and prevention of psychological, social, behavioral and emotional problems that negatively affect clients.
Kirst-Ashman, K. &amp. Hull, H. (2007). Understanding Generalist Practice. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Kirst-Ashman, K. &amp. Hull, H. (2009). Generalist practice with organizations &amp. communities. Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Kirst-Ashman, K. (2010). Introduction to Social Work &amp. Social Welfare: Critical Thinking Perspectives. Belmont, Calif: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.
Marx, K. (2008). The Poverty of Philosophy. New York: Cosimo Classics.
Mosack, V. (2011). Psychiatric Nursing Certification Review Guide For The Generalist And Advanced Practice: Psychiatric And Mental Health Nurse. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Speech on anorexia

Whatever the influence, it is clear that Anorexia can be influenced by external forces and these forces must be addressed immediately in order to create a healthier citizen population.
Contemporary marketing theory generally describes the utilisation of celebrity endorsements as a means to build consumer loyalty towards a particular product. Advertisements often display well-known celebrity women, fitting the generic female stereotype for beauty and fitness, as a means to create connection between the company’s brand and the end consumer. However, women in today’s society maintain a wide variety of different body types with only a handful of these consumers fitting the body profile of the proverbial Size Zero celebrity or model endorsement. In this situation, marketing efforts create a disconnect between healthy body image and personal self-esteem. The citizen (or the consumer) witnesses advertisements which illustrate the corporate viewpoint of body perfection, making the everyday woman feel both inferior to the celebrity being illustrated and that they are somehow abnormal. Oftentimes, this feeling of inferiority leads to radical changes in eating habits to avoid simply getting fat (or to try to mimic the body type of the celebrity). Over time, this methodology becomes an everyday part of life, becoming an obsession, leading to chronic health problems caused from malnutrition.
From a marketing and media perspective, clearly if advertising and promotional literature maintains the ability to impact citizens negatively and develop Anorexia where none previously existed, there needs to be changes to the current marketing philosophy utilised by a wide variety of companies today. Without the necessary social programmes in place to combat negative media influence on eating disorders, the only viable option is to change the method by which advertisers try to create connection with its consumers.
Additionally, outside of media influence, peer pressure often

NCAA Principles of Conduct and Divisional Philosophy

Drug Policy
NCAA has prescribed a policy to prevent athletes from using prohibited drugs. This policy is communicated to athletes through education, professional guidance, and drug testing procedures. In order to comply with this regulation, Duke College has given all the information regarding the issue on their site under a link called Drug testing Policy.
Variety of Sports for Both Men and Women
Under NCAA Guidelines, an institute must represent each gender in a variety of sports each season. Keeping consistent with the above mentioned NACC policy, Duke College is currently promoting various sports like basketball, Golf, Lacrosse, Rowing and many other sports for both the genders.
Another NCAA requirement is that all staff members of the university are prohibited to donate any team memorabilia like T-shirts, autographed football or basketballs and other items to any organization, event or an individual.
In accordance with the above-mentioned policy, Duke College has mentioned the above condition in their donation request form which can be downloaded from their site.
The principal of Non Discrimination
One of the prime requirement for all NCAA Division I members is to comply with the principle of Non-Discrimination. The Association wants its member institutions to give each and every individual equal opportunity without discriminating on the basis of race, ethnicity, religion, and gender.
The policy of Non-Discrimination Policy is followed by Duke College. The college promotes its athlete’s students without any kind of business. This can be seen from the site pictures in which duke athletes from various racial backgrounds can be seen playing together as one team.
NCAA Student-Athlete Opportunity Fund
In order to assist athlete students in their genuine needs, NCAA runs a Student-Athlete Opportunity Fund. Duke college students can tap this fund by downloading the form which is available under the Student-Athlete Development Link.
Division III
Another category in NACC is division III. Greensboro College which is affiliated to NACC Division III follows all of its requirements. The college site reflects some of the Division III policies like
Academic Performance
As per the NCAA Division III requirements, academic performances should be consistent with the general student body. In order to comply with the above-mentioned law, Greensboro College is running various programs for the student-athletes to maintain their academic level. All information regarding the various academic enhancement programs is mentioned on their site.
Equal Opportunities to both male and female
As per the NACC guidelines, the college must offer equal opportunities to both the genders and should also promote their skills without discriminating. As of today, the college is running 9 different sports games for men and 10 for females.
Financial Aid
All student aid must be administered by the institution as per the NACC Division III laws. All information regarding the aid is clearly mentioned on the recruitment page of the site.
Athlete Training
Greensboro College also runs various athlete training programs which are modeled on NCAA Division III guidelines. The college provides its athlete’s facilities like medical treatment, drug testing, insurance programs, physicians and various other facilities.
Encouragement Sports Participation
In order to ensure maximum participation, the college has introduced a number of sports for both men and women. Keeping in line with the philosophies of NCAA, the college has introduced a number of sports for encouraging maximum participation.&nbsp. &nbsp. &nbsp.

Toyota Production system

TPS is an integrated socio-technical system developed by Taiichi Ohno, Shigeo Shingo, and Eiji Toyoda. This system includes its management philosophy and practices. It assists Toyota in organizing its manufacturing activities and logistics and in effective interaction with suppliers and customers. The major objectives of TPS include resolution on the overburden, inconsistency, and elimination of waste. As Basu points out, this system addresses seven kinds of waste such as waste of overproduction, waste of time on hand, waste in transportation, waste of processing itself, waste of stock on hand, waste of movement, and waste of making defective products (Basu 11). Toyota believes that quality management is the key to global competitiveness and hence the company deploys the TPS as a tool for meeting customer tastes and preferences. The most fascinating feature of the TPS is that it can accurately identify wastes in production and effectively optimize various scheduling processes. In the view of some experts, the greatest strength of TPS is the way it develops people. Unlike a push system where employees just work according to the instructions they are given, the TPS greatly fosters employee creativity and this situation benefits the company to improve its productivity. In TPS, T stands for ‘Thinking’ as well as ‘Toyota’. The TPS encourages Toyota workers to come up with revolutionary production techniques and unique ideas that would contribute to the firm’s market competitiveness. It is noted that this system is highly potential to develop efficient leaders who can thoroughly understand various processes and hence train others. In addition, TPS is a better tool to develop exceptional teams of employees that can properly follow the company’s philosophy.
Similarly, this system greatly aids the organization to cut lead-time by eliminating all the bits

Mike Daisey’s American Utopia

Mike daiseys American utopia Show Utopia is a fantasy place or an illusion of things in which everythingis perfect, idealistic and is grounded on a utopian ideology. It is can also be referred to or dismissed as naivety or utopian. Mike Daisey a performer of American utopias, the master storyteller. His show is rich in personal stories, historical digressions and philosophical ruminations. The show has curiosity of high literate levels with histories, large secrets with a small and fuzzy line where truth and fiction reign (Duda, 1245).
He is a preeminent monologist in his shows and hails in theater as a master storyteller. A rare experience to see mike doing what he likes to do best, and telling new stories about things that actually matter to, an individual’s life experiences and teachings. The show is amazing with one of the finest solo performers in the generation. His show explores how to create public spaces in which human beings act out their dreams of a better life. In the show, he takes the audience everywhere to pursue the story, from his old world and its nostalgic theme of perfection to the anarchic drug fueled excesses of a Burning man (Curtis, 97).
He later takes the audience to the Zuccotti Park, which is the unlikeliest of the places where movement is born. Brutal police action mixed with gunplay and raving animatronic presidents together with giant dildos all are brought together to paint the landscape of the American dream. The groundbreaking monologues bring together. autobiography, journalism and high-level performance telling his hilarious and heartbreaking stories. Stories are a blend from hilarious comedies and brilliant observations that try to describe our life experiences (Duda, 1247).
Work citied
Curtis, William M. “Rorty’s Liberal Utopia and Huxleys Island.” Philosophy and Literature 2011 : 91–103.
Duda, John. “Archaeologies of the Future: The Desire Called Utopia and Other Science Fictions (review).” MLN 2005 : 1245–1249.

In two paragraphs compare and contrast rationalism and empiricism

Rationalism and Empiricism Rationalism adopts the position that knowledge is innate and a priori. According to this position, the mind can generate knowledge on its own without any external support. The underlying assumption in the rationalist position is that people are born with the natural capacity to generate knowledge. The rationalist’s method is the appeal to reason (Maritain 14). This means that the mind could rely on deductive reason in the process of generating knowledge. The belief is that it is possible to access the inner recesses of knowledge only if the individuals rely on consistent and logical search for solutions. Reason is the rationalist’s tool for determining the nature of knowledge about the objective world. The application of the tools, methods, and processes of logic, according to rationalists, should guide an individual to the kind of knowledge that conforms to the laws of logic. These usually begin from concepts that form in the mind.
On the other hand, empiricism is the epistemological school of thought that argues that all knowledge comes from the senses. According to this school, all people are born with their minds representing a blank sheet of paper so that all subsequent experiences generate knowledge for the individual. Empiricism argues in favor of sense experience as the fundamental basis of all knowledge (Maritain 26). We acquire knowledge by interacting with the subjective world before we form ideas and knowledge about the shape of reality. In this manner, all knowledge becomes a posteriori. It must necessarily proceed from sense experience. Empiricists argue that all knowledge is based on precepts, which form after some form of experiences. These are then ordered in the mind before they are synthesized into workable knowledge.
Works Cited
Maritain, Jacques. An EPZ Introduction to Philosophy. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005

Why incentive plans cannot work

We will be summarizing the main points of the article below.
The article by Kohn (1993) questions the assumption that rewards or incentives can do no good for the performance of employees. The article is not accepting the basic psychological assumption that underlines any incentive plan, and an explanation is given as to why incentive plans cannot work. The system of giving rewards to employees is criticized because of the ill founded assumptions. Implementation of incentive plans have been criticized previously but the philosophy behind rewards and incentives was not questioned. The empirical evidence against reward is seen as a problem with implementation rather than that of philosophy of incentive plans.
The argument given forward by the article is that rewards and incentive plans only yield temporary compliance of employees. Incentives, according to the article, do not increase the productivity or working potential of a person for a longer period of time. Rather rewards only force employees to comply with the organizational needs on a temporary basis. This effect is not at all a long term thing, and the world seems to be oblivious of the fact because of the limited research work on incentives. Studies on incentives and rewards are many but they seem to put forward the basic psychological relationship between reward and work. For many decades now this assumption has not been challenged in studies. This is why people have failed to realize that reward and incentive plans only breed temporary compliance.
Rewards and inventive plans are known for changing the attitudes of people towards something but the author contends that the effect of reward is not different than that of punishment. The effect of reward only temporary changes behavior and as soon as the effect of reward fades away, the behavior reverts back. This means that there is not intrinsic change in a person’s belief or attitude due

Justice as Fairness Reflective Equilibrium and Veil of Ignorance by Rawls

John Bordley Rawls has conducted a number of thought experiments related to determining principles of social justice. He is considered one of the leading thinkers in the tradition of liberal political philosophy.

Rawls was born in Baltimore, Maryland to William Lee Rawls and Anna Abell Stump. He spent his early childhood in Baltimore and went to school there before being transferred to Kent School. With his father a well-known lawyer and his mother a chapter president of the League of Women Voters, Rawls had a strong inclination towards education and it became evident that he would enter a scholarly field. Rawls first went to Princeton to study and after graduating in 1939 he became a member of the Ivy Club. At Princeton, he developed major interest in theology and its doctrines. In 1943, after completing a bachelor’s degree in Arts, he joined the Army. He had his first professorial responsibilities at Cornell and MIT. In 1962 he became a faculty member at Harvard, where his teaching tenure lasted for more than thirty years.With such a family background, Rawls’s adult life was a scholarly one with the major portion spent on his writings. However, during this period he also witnessed World War II and the Vietnam conflict which had a deep influence on him. During World War II, he was appointed as a soldier in the Pacific, where he visited the Philippines and Japan. After witnessing the effects of the nuclear bombings in Hiroshima, Rawls decided to quit the army in 1946. He had a strong faith in Christianity and wanted to study priesthood but, after witnessing Holocaust, his faith weakened. The Vietnam conflict compelled Rawls to identify the defects in the political system of the US. He considered the war to be unjust and conveyed as to how citizens could have no say in the government’s aggressive policies. Rawls was married to Margaret Fox in 1949, who was a Brown University graduate.Overview of Rawls’ philosophy
Rawls is famous for his remarkable contributions to liberal political philosophy. His ideas have received wide appreciation.&nbsp.

Theoretical Perspectives on Marriage and the Family

The book will serve as a good source of information for sociological students and researchers as it discusses manifold issues pertinent to their field of study. The first chapter ‘Family commitments: making choices in a changing society’ has great relevance in the current day global perspectives on marriage and family. The second chapter ‘American families in a social context’ narrow the topic into American trends in family life and childrearing.
J. M. White’s article ‘The current status of theorizing about families’ explores the topic ‘to what extent theories are applied by researchers and therapists when it comes to issues related to marriage and family’. The writer brilliantly makes use of a wide pool of recent literature to support his research. He deploys social science theory throughout the chapter while at the same time discussing the philosophy of social science in an extensive manner. It begins with the discussion of how researchers disagree on the concept of acquisition of knowledge and what the term ‘explanation’ indicates. The article further vehemently discusses the basic problems in social science theory and the basic concepts in theory. An important part of the article is the ‘insights’ which gives a serious discussion on ‘marital relationships and marital status, marital quality and marital stability, and marital exchange and divorce. Although its terse prose affects the readability of the chapter, its rich content and systematic presentation make it a relevant source of knowledge.
Abigail Ocobock’s research paper ‘The Power and Limits of Marriage: Married Gay Mens Family Relationships’ throws light on some unseen aspects of same-sex marriage giving particular attention to the marriage experience of the couples concerned. The writer explores the ‘potential’ of such marriages relying on extensive interviews with 32 legally married gay men in Iowa.&nbsp.

What should OSU freshman be reading

 What should OSU freshman be reading? If I were asked about what literary work every freshman at OSU should be reading, I could suggest that every first-year student should study the Odyssey written by Homer almost three thousand years ago. It is in fact a work of high artistic merit, which rises such important topics for discussion as faithfulness to family and devotion to homeland, and therefore is required for reading.
Homer’s Odyssey is everlasting and required for reading not because of its beautifully stated style but because of the eternal truths brought up by the Greek poet. The Odyssey shows that it is no matter how warm and reach are far-away lands, the heart and soul are always homesick: “Mine is a rugged land but good for raising sons – and I myself, I know no sweeter sight on earth than a man’s own native country” (Homer). Odysseus was beside himself with worry and continued to offer up his prayers: “Father Zeus, if you really willed it so – to bring me home over land and sea-lanes, home to native ground after all the pain you brought me…!”&nbsp.(Homer). The subject of relationship between a son and a father is also developed in the poem. It also highlights the importance of being a person, who honors parents, just like Odysseus, who demonstrates his devotion to his father in the following lines: “Odysseus’ heart shuddered, a sudden twinge went shooting up through his nostrils, watching his dear father struggle… He sprang toward him, kissed him, hugged him, crying…” (Homer). One may also consider the topic of returning home as the one of finding the way to one’s own self. Hence it appears that the poem may help the readers (in this particular case, the first-year students) to give heed to the values, which are of particular importance, like family, or love for one’s country.
Speaking about other literary works of Ancient Greece suggested for the students in their first year, one should stress that they are also of particular interest for the students. For instance, Plato’s philosophical text Symposium concerns itself with in-depth study of the concept of love. Promoting understanding of love the philosopher claims that “Love is born into every human being. it calls back the halves of our original nature together. it tries to make one out of two and heal the wound of human nature” (Cohen, Curd, Reeve, 2011, p. 337). Another work, a didactic poem Works and Days written by Hesiod is also deserving students’ attention. In his poem, Hesiod attracts reader’s attention by means of various mythological, ethic and working knowledge of different life aspects. It should be noted that these attainments are still of current importance. Hence, he writes “And whatever be your lot, work is best for you, if you turn your misguided mind away from other men’s property to your work and attend to your livelihood as I bid you” (Hesiod, 1914).
Reference list
Cohen, S. M., Curd, P., Reeve, C. D. C. (2011). “Readings in Ancient Greek Philosophy: from Thales to Aristotle”. Hackett Publishing: 1008. Print.
Hesiod. (1914). “Works and Days”. Translated by Hugh G. Evelyn-White. Retrieved from:
Homer.&nbsp.“The Odyssey”. Translated by Robert Fagles. Retrieved from:

What characterises the development of portraiture at the Rajput courts in the 17 th and 18 th centuries

They ruled in India from the 15th through the 17th Century and partly in the 18th Century. The development of Rajput portraiture led to a major shift in style of art in terms detail, colour, portrait depth, margins, religion, political, and social aspects, as compared to what the Mughals had established during their reign.
The painting in Hindu courts are more closely associated with the Rajputs, whereas those in the Indo-Islamic courts are closely linked with the Mughals. Rajput courts consisted of various themes such as those of religion, philosophy, famous rulers and court women. Mughal courts, on the other hand, portrayed secular themes. The Hindu paintings are what is referred to as Rajput and are named after Rajputana and the Hill Rajpput of the Punjab, whereas Mughal painting is closely connected to Islamic art. The Rajput paintings were a representative of religion and they were characterized by mysticism. Although Rajput art seemed to share a religious perspective with Buddhist art, what set Rajput apart was that it also reflected the faith and traditions of ordinary people. On the other hand, Mughal painting was sophisticated, diverse with characteristics of realism. The rise of Mughal painting was greatly influenced by Persian, Indian, Islamic, and to some extent, European art. With these characteristics, Mughal Art became something unique that constituted the Mughal Courts (Ananda 316).
Rajput painting, alternatively known as Rajasthani painting, is a miniature style of art that is closely linked with the royal courts of the Rajputs (16th to 19th Centuries), the independent Hindu states in northern and western India. Though it followed the Western Indian style of manuscript illustration, it was greatly influenced by Mughal painting. The miniature style of art employed during the reign of Akbar (famous ruler and Mughal advocate, 1556-1605) characterized most of the paintings in the Rajput court. The influence

Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Berkeley

His arguments especially the “master argument” for material substance invites us to think deeply and conclude that ideas built by means of someone’s sense, memory and imagination are the only tools to create the presence of a material substance. By studying the arguments of Berkeley, one learns to incorporate the ideas of different senses to perceive the various objects, substances, and materials. In short, Berkeley’s vision highlights the mind along with ideas and offsets Newton’s absolute space and time. The time becomes merely a succession of ideas in the individual’s mind, and space is reduced to an extension perceived by senses. (Fogelin, 2001)

Berkeley’s arguments positively relate with Phillonous who disagrees with the majority of the philosophers to believe in the existence of matter. He like Berkeley emphasizes strongly upon the mind and argues that everything in this world depends upon mind. Hylas, who was the student of Phillonous believes in the matter. He states that all the worldly experiences of life remain unexplained without the existence of matter. This philosophy of Hylas does not resemble that of Berkeley. Because Berkeley seems to stick on his famous principle, “Esse est percipi” (“to be is to be perceived”). Berkeley stated in his books that spirit itself cannot be perceived but can be perceived by its own effect. Similarly, Locke states that one has a relative idea of substances in general.

The Highest Good and Justice The Role of Philosophy

As a preliminary matter, it is important to note that Socrates’ teachings were mostly directed at the individual. The highest good, therefore, was a condition that each individual was capable of attaining. however, this highest good could only be known through reason and knowledge of one’s self. Socrates equated this highest good with knowledge and happiness. Significantly, though, he went to great lengths to distinguish true happiness from illusory pursuits of happiness. He did this by drawing distinctions between absolute levels of ignorance and fancy ideals of true knowledge. These distinctions, often grounded in Socrates’ claims that he knew nothing, provided the intellectual framework for subsequently exploring ultimate questions of goodness, justice, and proper forms of public administration. In effect, he tore down common assumptions, challenged certain modes of thinking, and in the process attempted to redefine both the proper focus and method of philosophical inquiry as well as the practical application of philosophy to man’s life and to social affairs.

Central to man’s pursuit of happiness was the intellectual process by which he confronted choices and made decisions. In many ways, Socrates reduced the highest good to a&nbsp.decision-making process in which a noble existence was chosen rather than succumbing to false inducements often colored with pleasure.&nbsp. He believed in a form of objective happiness, linking it ultimately to justice, “I think justice belongs in the best class of good, that which should be loved for its own sake and for the sake of its consequences by anyone who is going to be blessed” (358a1-3).&nbsp. Here in this passage, Socrates refers to the best good. the implication is that there are degrees of goodness and that the highest good is the ideal.&nbsp.&nbsp.Further, he refers to justice as one part of this best class of good. the other parts are an objective state of happiness, an honest and objective knowledge of one’s self, and an ability to know what is necessary and unnecessary.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Greek and hellenistic religion

22 October Ways to the Center: Greek and Hellenistic Religion
The chapter was primarily focused on the significant changes in Greek religion that took place during the Hellenistic Period. It describes how religion in Greece today were influenced by the consolidation of external religions that Greece. The change in the Greek religion came about as a result of the arrival of new religious beliefs from other countries. The first setting of this exchange took place in the Island of Crete where early trades were carried out. Most of the changes were caused by the addition of new religious beliefs from countries like Egypt and Syria.
The introduction of Egyptian deities which included Isis, Serapis, Atargatis and of Hadad afforded new channel for the Greeks who were trying to find contentment and self-actualization in both their current life and life after death. During the Hellenistic period, worships were no longer solely given to deities but also to Hellenistic rulers. Semi-divine rulers who regarded themselves as god-kings inspired pharaonic tradition, thereby, holding them worthy of the peoples exaltation. While Hellenistic religion adapted the idea of offering worship to rulers, rulers had never become gods.
The mixture of cultures and religion between Greece and other countries had stimulated the expansive practices of magic, which is still being practiced up to this present time. In the Hellenistic era, Greeks developed a rather spiritual and religious connection to certain magical forms like oracles, prophecies, charms, and trinkets to put off bad luck and other troubles, and to cast incantations. Furthermore, the belief that the future of human life can be determined by the sun, moon, and stars likewise cropped up. hence, the concept of astrology. Perhaps, it was due to the syncretic approach of the Greeks towards religion during the Hellenistic era that ushered in the creation of Hellenistic thinking: Stoicism and Epicureanism.
Crucial to the changes in the Hellenistic religion was the introduction of the Olympian gods and goddesses. In fact, the term Olympian Pantheon is therefore called because these deities are believed to have resided on top of Mount Olympus. This had also stirred the foundation of Olympic Games in order to give honor to the deities athleticism. Every deity was venerated with temples, shrines, and sculptures which, while each god is revered with his or her own temple, likewise honor other deities. Fiestas and rites were carried out in different Greek cities that venerate their own patron god. For example, festivals and other forms of celebrations in Athens were aimed for Athena, the city’s patron deity.
Hellenistic philosophy delivered a new benchmark of religious concepts. The most far-reaching of these systematic beliefs was Stoic philosophy, which believes that every person should live consistent with the sensible and logical instruction and order of everything that surrounds him or
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her, and which was thought to be responsible for the management of the universe. Every person had to agree to take their destiny as consistent to the divine instructions, and righteous actions have got to be done for their individual inherent value. Differing Hellenistic philosophy was expressed by Epicureanism. It believes that the universe is not governed by anything spiritual or mystical for that matter, but is governed by the mobilization of physical attributes. Also, it believes that every person should live life in a way that gratifies body and soul and dissuade the existence of pain.
Cynics broached standards and material ownership. Likewise, new philosophical studies of the works of Plato and Aristotle cropped up. These philosophies, in all ways, had pointed towards the adaptation of conventional Greek religion. Nevertheless, the philosophers and their protégés, did not flourish and yet their teachings were solely employed and understood by the select few.
Not like other nationalities including, but not limited to, Indians and Chinese, the Greeks had never established a main religion. Much of their religious structures were based on the pantheon of the boisterous deities who meddled in the dealings of humanity. The Greeks dearth of spiritual desire furthered the expansion of mysterious religions that turned out to be more sustaining for the people. Given that Hellenistic religion did not afford a foundation for ethical thinking, Greek philosophers toiled to fashion a discrete, distinct philosophical method.
The determination to appreciate occurrences and marvels by the use of logical scrutiny and observation turned out to be the trademark of Greek culture. Socrates advised concern over nonspiritual standards for ethical decisions. Aristotle affirmed the significance of restraint to achieve equilibrium in both politics and religion. The Stoics affirmed individual moral individuality. Other Hellenistic thinkers endeavored to make sense of suitable political makeups. Plato suggested a superlative government where thinkers and academics reigned. Majority of the philosophers during the Hellenistic period asserted the need for a pragmatic and stable system integrating egalitarian rudiments. A secular philosophy urged importance on the capacities of the human thoughts.
Brink, T. and Denise Carmody. Ways to the Center: An Introduction to the World
Religions. Covington: Wadsworth Publishing, 2005. Print.

Burnout on the workplace

…………………. College/ ………….. …………. BURNOUT IN THE WORKPLACE Have you ever been burnout due to the excessive demands of the organization? If yes, how did you overcome this stress? What impacts did it have on your followers?
Burnout happens to an employee when the tasks being assigned to him become no longer meaningful to him. It may result from stress or many other work-related factors like fatigue, frustration, helplessness due to constant pressure, excessive demand of the organization, insecurity, paternalism etc (Byars and Rue, p. 420)
In early years of my work in the field of Investment Manager, I experienced burnout due to that the organization’s demands were more than what I then have been performing. In those times, I often felt that the job is almost meaningless, but I learned how to overcome the issue. It was just the result of my perceptions of the job I was doing. The very fundamental work-philosophy I learned was that a worker can work as long and hard as he wants if he is really able to enjoy the work. When I tried to with confidence and hope that I can meet what the company entrusted on me, I became physically and mentally strong and that in turn helped me overcome burnout.
For my colleagues and team members, it was amazing how one who was burnout has almost turned to be one of the high-performing worker. When I successfully overcome the burnout, I could really help other six members in my team establish confidence and become strong both physically and mentally in performing their tasks as well.
2- In your opinion, what are the main sources of stress? And how can you prevent them?
Stress is a mental and physical condition resulting from the perceived threat of danger. The factors leading to it may vary from organization to organization. As I observed, the main sources of the stress are:-
1- Job Mismatch, in which an employee doesn’t possess the relevant and required skills or knowledge for doing the tasks being assigned to him. This can be prevented by job orientation and training.
2- Threat of Job Loss, in which the employee experiences mental distraction of job loss. This can be prevented by motivation and incentives.
3- Working condition, in which he feels dissatisfied due to that it is untidy, less comfortable etc. It can be prevented by ensuring better facilitation in the workplace.
5- Harassment, in which the employee feels distressed for being sexually or otherwise harassed. The HR manager requires to ensure no harassment will occur within the workplace.
3-If your employees faces burnout, how can you motivate them to work and find it interesting ?
Motivation itself is a tool to reduce employee burnout and stress. When an employee is found to have experienced burnout, the manager should, as first step, identify those jobs with the highest potential for burnout. For the manager to motivate his employees and help them find their jobs interesting, he may go for redesigning the jobs, clarifying their expectations, changing work schedules, ensuring better working condition etc.
A normal reason for burnout is excessive demand of the organization, but this can be overcome by motivating employees to schedule their tasks, plan what things to be done first or which particular activity should be given priority etc. If the employee can meet the expectations, he becomes both physically and mentally stronger and then as a result becomes enthusiastic in the job he is doing. Becoming happier in the job is the right-path to free from burnout.
Byars, L.L and Rue, L.W, Human Resource Management, Seventh Edition, 2004

Film review in mythic and propagandistic aspects



This was a period of incertitude for the Russians, during which communism was still unstable and so was the new Russia, hence the profound motivation for the Russian government’s use of propaganda to instill its political ethos in the Russian population. The film’s director Eisenstein takes great liberty and makes significant alterations to this historical record of events thus controlling the narrative structure and pacing of the film (Severson). This was Eisenstein’s attempt to create an effective and well-structured film that is not bound to the nuances of the historical record, but his key shots and scenes are in fact actual depictions of what took place in the Potemkin mutiny. The titular Battleship Potemkin was a true Russian navy ship and its crew that rebelled against their tsarist captain siding with the Bolshevics was a real record of the prototypical communist struggle before its eventual triumph in 1917 (Yahner). The sailors, who were the proletariats, are portrayed as the heroic everyman of the movie while the captain and the Tsarist soldiers, who were bourgeois, are scorned as the villains of the film. The film leverages on its fiery rhetoric and violent scenes to evoke anti-capitalism feelings in the audiences, while glorifying the communism philosophy. The film establishes its strong communist ethos through the character of Vakulinchuk, an Ukranian sailor in the Russian Navy who prior to his death in 1905 had served on the Russian battleship Potemkin and witnessed the events that had occurred. Similarly, the director further embellishes the films’ ethos through masterful editing skills rather than shooting the movie in a single scene-by-scene fashion as was the norm in the 1920s. Eisenstein pioneered most of the modern film editing techniques by flashing several characters and settings across the screen despite the limitation of technology at his time (Oheir). The fourth chapter of the film, the Odessa Staircase, became Eisenstein’s

Samoa (American Samoa Paradise Lost)

American Samoa: A Paradise Lost Discuss the dilemmas posed by implementing tourism in a traditional community. The film American Samoa: A Paradise Lost was released in 1969 in hue color. It revolves around the traditional life of the Polynesians of American Samoa. The Polynesians of that region are being challenged by the US who has the governing authority. The movie doesn’t completely revolve around the ill will of the Americans, it extends beyond that, and touches those delicate areas where the distinction between evil intentions and collateral damage merge under the haze. For instance, the educational programs on television might be helpful for children in learning English rapidly however. there is a downside to this. The problem starts when values clash. The differences of values between the two cultures can’t be undone with a snap of the figure, it takes time, while some values are never replaced as they are deeply rooted, and this is the dilemma shown in this sociological documentary when tourism is implemented in a traditional community.
Western philosophy revolves around independent thinking, to look at something without relevance, to observe and analyze something in the absence of a reference frame. This type of thinking and approach towards life cannot be imposed on the people that have been following another culture. Norms don’t change overnight, and an attempt to do so can damage the social fabric. Samoa’s culture lives and breathes by obeying authority, giving respect to elders and amending one’s ways by considering family values. The Americans introduced to the Samoa’s a different way of thinking. Their proposed way of life replaced values with money. They instilled the seed in their heads that they ‘need’ money and they need to think about their own selves first instead of sacrificing things and ambitions for their families. Thus mutual interests remain no more and get replaced by personal gains (Allen, 1968).
Plastic people are replacing real people. Children of Samoa might be learning English language on the television but they are also told to keep their bright smiling face up for the tourists as they take their pictures (Allen, 1968). Faking something for the onlookers is a new experience for the children, not something which is part of their culture.
The dynamics of Samoa island are little strange too, strange but very peaceful. The idyllic island has outlandish norms. The people here ignore family planning advice however they are completely into modern facilities like plumbing. The reason to highlight such traits is to only show that tourism in theory is completely harmless for the people and places. In fact it has helped deliver education in remote areas of the world. However, when something natural is twisted and tweaked without judging its pros and cons, a destructive path is taken. Allowing good plumbing is good but ignoring family planning is bad and tourism is expected to do just the right thing, not make matters worse.
As the documentary shows that Samoans are getting used to the Western culture. Children have finally learnt that they can grow up and do as they please, quite the opposite of their childhood instructions of obeying the authority and do as they are told to. The dilemma becomes much complicated when finances and economics come into play. The hut houses in Samoan had been destroyed in the storm but now they are replaced with all-weather houses that increase the protection of its inhabitants many folds. However the people fail to understand that their houses have been provided by institutions (banks) that want the money back. Not only that, those institutions want the money back with interest.
The dilemma though complicated is not an impossible one. Taking the benefits of Western civilization and throwing away the anti-value termites that annihilate the core of people’s beliefs, should be the solution. Tourism itself is not a dilemma, the intentions can be.
Work Cited
Allen, G. (1968, July 29). Paradise lost in Samoa? The Sydney Morning Herald, pp. 1-2.

Schooling as Growth

But the present trend seems to be upbeat on everything else except in the field of education. Education today is based and defined more in terms of stringent testing and examinations and a person is valued according to the number of qualifications he/she has.
Airing his views Anron Falbel stated that, “Today our social environment is thoroughly polluted by education – a designed process in which one group of people (educators, social engineers, people shapers) try to make another group (those who are to be “educated”) learn something usually without their consent, because they (the educators) think it will be good for them.” (Anron Falbel) Most of the schools fall within these parameters and there seems to be no release from its destructive grip.
Educationists and parents are beginning to realize that this is not what they want for their children. The answer to their prayer comes in the form of democratic schools. There are many such schools across the globe in places like Japan, Israel, Thailand and New Zealand. One such ancient and very popular school is “Summerhill” which comes in like a breath of fresh air to fill that vacant void. This school which is one of the most famous schools in the world was founded in 1921 and is situated on the East coast of England.
Summerhill School’s democratic approach that is based on the Philosophy of A.S. Neill has influenced scores of educational institutions around the world. Education at Summerhill is community based with most of the children coming from diverse backgrounds and boarding in the school premises. There is no strict syllabus drawn up and children are never pushed or compelled to study. They are free to choose what they want to study and when they want to study. According to a professor at Summerhill, lessons are not mandatory but it is more about inculcating the right values in the

A Comparison of the Religions of India

Comparing and Contrasting the Religions of India Comparing and Contrasting the Religions of India India is believed to be the birth place of many religions. The main religions that arose and are practiced in India are the Hinduism, Jainism, Sikhism and the Buddhism. These are the main religions with the highest number of followers in India. Other religions like the Christianity, Judaism, and Islam are also found in India but have few followers. These main religions basing on their characteristics and what each religion stands for have played a major role in influencing the cultures of India, Thailand, Tibet and Nepal. This is mainly because the people in these countries mainly practice the four eastern religions. Buddhism, Sikhism, Hinduism and Jainism all tracing their roots in India (Sudheer, 2014). To understand how the religions have influenced the cultures of these countries it is necessary to look at their characteristics, similarities and their differences.
Buddhism is believed to have originated from North India in the fifth century. Their main texts are the three pitakas. The Buddhists believe in a supreme being referred to as the Buddha. They also believe that the suffering experienced by the people is always as a result of the desire held by the people. Hinduism on the other hand is believed to have originated from the Indus valley. Their main texts are collectively referred to as the Veda. Hindus believe in many gods and goddesses. Hinduism is therefore a polytheistic religion. The Hindus believe in re-birth after death which is facilitated by one dying in a holy place. All Hindis are also expected to strictly follow and observe the caste system and to go for cleansing annually (Sudheer, 2014).
Sikhism started in the sixteenth century in India. This religion is believed to have originated from Guru Nanak. The main text that is used by the Sikhs is the Guru Granth Sahib. As opposed to the Hindus, Sikhs always believe in a supreme God who is believed to be an immortal creator. The believers and the followers of the Sikhism religion believe that the good life always achieves unity with God. Sikhs Like the Hindus believe in reincarnation which is also the re-birth after death. Jainism which is another main religion in India is seen as a group of Hindis that broke away from Hinduism in the sixteenth century. The Jains view the earth as a place full of misery. This is the sole reason as to why most Jains are either nuns or monks as a way of seeking their personal liberation (Sudheer, 2014).
The four religions share many common similarities and the characteristics. One of the similar characteristic is that they all believe in reincarnation. This is they believe that the human life revolves around the cycle of birth, life and lastly rebirth after death and the cycle continues. By this, the four eastern religions emphasis on the fact that the way one treats others follows someone in their next life. They all believe in the karma law (Becky, 2009). The other similarity is the fact that the four religions have a high emphasis on vegetarianism. This is as they all observe compassion for the animals even if it is not strictly followed and a requirement for all. The eastern religions also observe the nonviolence virtue in their doings.
The main difference between the four religions is that while the jains are strictly vegetarians the Hindus and Buddhists are not. Another main difference is on their belief in God. Jainism believes and practices religious dualism believing in two gods. Hinduism is purely polytheistic as they pray and believe in many gods. Sikhism, on the other hand is purely monotheistic as they believe in one God. They also have different religious leaders and routines. The Sikhs and Jains believe in equality as opposed to Buddhists and Hindus who believe in compassion (Becky, 2009).
In conclusion, the different religious practices in India have greatly influenced the Indian cultures and those of other countries where the four eastern religions are practiced. This is seen in the vegetarian cultures observed by the Jains. The culture of the cast system among the Hindus is another main influence. These countries also believe in nonviolence attributed to their beliefs.
Becky, C. (2009). Philosophy Things. Comparing Religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Zen Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Christianity, Islam. Retrieved from on 9th November 2014.
Sudheer B. (2014). Hindu Customs in Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism. Socio-Cultural Interchange between Religious Communities in India. Retrieved from on 9th November 2014.

The essential tension Tradition and Innovation in Scientific Resarch

Reading Log: “The Essential Tension: Tradition and Innovation in Scientific Research” Summary Kuhn (1991) in “The Essential Tension: Tradition and Innovation in Scientific Research” states that the basic scientist should not have prejudice so as to be able to recognize obvious and facts or concepts without having to accept them, and this is in effect should allow him to be as creative as possible (p. 459). In this article, Kuhn believes that the best results are achieved when one uses the tools that he has rather than wasting time thinking of other alternatives (p. 458). He brings to question the reliability of divergent thinking in scientific work and research. According to him, convergent type of thinking is just as important in the success of science as is the divergent type of thinking. He says that although these two thought processes are completely contradictory to each other, the tension they generate has the ability to bring out the best outcome in a scientific research. He compares this tension with how scientists normally abandon a scientific practice in pursuit of another one that is new or incompatible with the old one. He says that this revolution is one of the major factors of success in any scientific work (p. 460).
According to Kuhn (1991), essential tension is very important in the area of scientific research (p. 458). He says that this is the tension that is brought about by the combination of two completely different ways of doing things. He also says that revolution is essential in the success of any scientific undertaking. I concur with the author on the issue of conflict that comes about as a result of changing the way that we do things in our daily lives. However, I also do not think that opting for one way of doing things should result to a conflict. Revolutionalizing some aspects of some aspects of our everyday lives is inevitable, but the revolution should be done rationally. I think that two opposing ideas can be combined to come up with something excellent, better than what could have been achieved if only one idea had been used.
Technology has greatly influenced the way people carry out their everyday businesses. Before the computer age, most people used to keep hard copies of their documents. However this was a very efficient way of storing important information about individuals and companies. Therefore, when technology presented a new way of storing the same information, many people abandoned the old storage and opted for the soft copy mode of storage. This is not to say that it is very safe, but it is better than the old method. The ability to be flexible must be one that every individual should embrace in order to live in harmony with others. The world is changing at a very fast rate and anyone not willing to move along with the change is normally left wishing he would have joined the bandwagon.
In the business field, the focus has moved from being company oriented to being market oriented. The quality of products and services being offered by many of today’s companies is very high and this stirs up competition. The only way to stay relevant is to change marketing strategy and focus on the people for whom these products and services are created. In today’s world, the customer is king, and therefore, every thing has to be done to make him happy. This is different from how marketing was done in the past, when advertisements were not so much about the customer but about the company itself. Those companies that have turned to the new marketing strategies that focus on the consumer have greatly benefited as compared to those who decided to stick to the old way of doing things.
Kuhn, T.S. (1991). The essential tension: Tradition and innovation in scientific research. In Boyd, P.G. and Trout, J.D, The philosophy of science (pp. 455-473). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.


Travel is much more than just a leisure activity. Ultimately, travel can have a great number of benefits upon the individual besides merely helping them to fill a photo album with interesting and exotic pictures and places. All too often, the definition and understanding of travel has been categorized as a process by which an individual is able to unwind and merely spend a few hours of leisure time. As a means of better defining the way in which travel can be beneficial, helpful, and educational to the individual, this brief analysis will help to explain three particular ways in which this benefit can be realized. In this way, these benefits will be defined as the following: the means by which travel helps the individual to experience the world, the means by which travel allows for an interaction of new ideas/languages/people, and the means by which travel helps the individual traveler to bring back many of the ideas and understandings that they gain to their home.
Firstly, although it is obvious that travel allows the individual to experience the world, this experience is ultimately extraordinarily useful due to the fact that it is almost always different than what the person might see within their own geographic region. The differential and experience that exists within travel allows the individual to not only have a relaxing and leisure time, it also allows them to spend some time considering why and how their particular experience is different from the one that they would have had if they stayed at home.
Oftentimes, the differences in places and locations allows the traveler to interact with new ideas, new people, new cultures, and sometimes new languages. By interacting with all of these aspects, the traveler becomes more educated, more aware, and more cosmopolitan (Ahn 44). This level of worldliness helps the traveler to return to his or her original city or town and realize that key differences, sometimes good sometimes bad, exists.
Finally, through an understanding of these differences that has been described in the preceding section the traveler can oftentimes bring back home many of the ideas that they were exposed to during their travels (Börjesson 674). Due to the fact that no particular culture or nation is completely right or has found the best way to live life, many of these cultural and sociological interpretations of personal interaction, culture, religion, politics, and philosophy can be useful in helping to define the world in which the traveler interacts with at his/her home (Metz 322).
In such a way, the analysis that has been presented shows some of the ways in which travel can be beneficial. Although there are a number of many different ways, the ways which it been presented are with relation to the way in which travel cannot only be a benefit to the individual traveler but also to the society that they bring these good ideas back to (Crompton et al 47). In such a way, it is the advice of this author and of this paper,that all individuals should seek out travel experiences that push the limits of their comfort zone and introduce them to new and exciting ideas and cultures.
Introduction: Discussion of 3 main benefits of travel and the difficulty of only picking three.
I: Travel Presents the Traveler with Differences
A. Geographic, religious, cultural
B. Helps to broaden an understanding of the world
II: Travel Presents the Traveler with a Choice of What to do with these Differences
A. Challenges understandings and norms of society
B. Helps the traveler to question whether their own approach is the best
III: Travel Helps the Person to Bring Back Good Ideas from Diverse Places
A. No society has the answer to each and every question of life
B. A combination approach from many cultures and societies helps to explain life best
Conclusion: Travel is important not only for leisure but to help the individual better understand the world and make a positive impact upon their own circles.
Works Cited
Ahn, Young-joo, and Megan C. Janke. "Motivations And Benefits Of The Travel Experiences Of Older Adults." Educational Gerontology 37.8 (2011): 653-673. Academic Search Complete. Web. 28 Apr. 2013.
Börjesson, Maria, and Jonas Eliasson. "The Value Of Time And External Benefits In Bicycle Appraisal." Transportation Research Part A: Policy &amp. Practice 46.4 (2012): 673-683. Business Source Premier. Web. 28 Apr. 2013.
Crompton, Susan, and Leslie-Anne Keown. "Going On Vacation: Benefits Sought From Pleasure Travel." Canadian Social Trends 87 (2009): 44-53. Academic Search Complete. Web. 28 Apr. 2013.
Metz, David. "The Myth Of Travel Time Saving." Transport Reviews 28.3 (2008): 321-336. Academic Search Complete. Web. 28 Apr. 2013.

4 Discussion

Conscience for me is the ability that assists me in distinguishing whether ones own actions are right or wrong. When an immoral action or deed is committed then this leads to the feeling of remorse and similarly the feeling of rectitude when individual action conforms to moral values. Such moral judgments are based on reason wherein the conscience level questions the action and deeds of every reaction.
This conscience, the one intellect of man and that is aided by goodwill, by the use of the emotions, by practical experience of living can be develop on moral grounds wherein the involvement and formation of a consistent value system is administered to and this forms the base on which decisions concerning behavior is based upon.
Conscience is the “the little voice,” perhaps at times may nag, complain or make us feel harassed when actions are considered not in the right perspective. Sigmund Freud described conscience as the voice within the superego, the set of rigid moral precepts that helped to control the want and take aspects of the id.
Superego can be characterized as the sum of things learned in early life about right and wrong, wherein the self or ego functions within the bounds of a particular society. A person with poor superego control is considered id-driven.(Bonnie,1995)
Others believe that the conscience is the other voice of reason as viewed by Thomas Aqinas. Since reason is God-given to Aquinas therefore consciences is also God-given. But human beings have the capacity to develop reason, and so reason remains a facility that must be exercised and developed. To act conscientiously is to act on reason-based decisions. (Bonnie,1995)
Aquinas discusses people who have erring consciences and make wrong decisions based on faulty reasoning. He states that this may not be the person’s fault if he has not learned enough to know what is right or wrong.
Every human being on this earth has a conscience- deep down and is absolutely obligated to be and do good, and this obligation could come from God. Conscience is the voice of God in the soul.
We have been stating that conscience is merely a feeling but I feel it is more of knowledge that is required to understand the difference between right and wrong. This extent of conscience is based on knowledge and is not merely a feeling. This should be a knowledge rather than rational or analytical knowledge wherein this knowledge of mine is an absolute obligation to goodness, justice and charity and virtue and holiness. Secondly this knowledge is of moral facts. Thus knowledge forms the bases for conscience.
Now this conscience for me can lead to authority. The age we live in is filled turmoil and terrorism. And I feel that from young this conscience and knowledge has been brainwashed into thinking and believing that the rest of the world are slaves and that a terrorist by killing is gaining authority and power over everything. For I feel that if only these terrorists who have a conscience really stop to think and utilize this conscience in the good and moral manner then definitely terrorism can be murdered forever. For today this word ‘Authority’ has been changed from the word of respect to a word of hatred and this authority remains and individual’s conscience. For me the source of all evil is man himself for when man begins to think negative and about bloodshed that’s when this source the mind turns the conscience into amoral grounds.
As mentioned conscience is born and grows within us and it is up to every individual to utilize this conscience in the right manner. During my school days I remember there was a classmate of mine who was suffering from dyslexia which can be described as a learning disability which is manifested primarily with written language and reading.
The parents were totally involved with their elder child as the eldest always was a winner in everything. As my classmate had failed in his previous school, the parents shifted him to my school and here also my classmate was failing miserably.
I was constantly feeling pathetic the manner in which my classmate was treated by everyone. I was able to understand the turmoil that was occurring within the self. It came to a stage wherein the Principle was going to have my classmate removed. That’s when I began to think as to why cannot anyone find out what the problem is and attempt to find the solution. I began to interact with my classmates much to the dislike of my friends. It was at this moment I realized that my conscience was enabling me to make my decision.
I was mocked and ridiculed for spending time with the ‘weirdo’ –my classmate’s nickname. But it was that moment I realized my classmate was a talented painter. This made me think if he could paint then why cannot he learn? That’s when I met a psychologist who enlightened me about dyslexia.
Now is the moment of true conscience. Either I could keep silent and allow my classmate to be shifted to another school and still suffer or I could do something within my reach. Well it was conscience time for me and the ‘little voice’ within me said help and performs a good deed. That’s when I contacted the Principle and pleaded for assistance. The Principle was hesitant since student individual attention was unavailable as the teachers had to complete all subject portions.
I requested the Principle to give me an opportunity to prove that this student is indeed a clever individual. Well I got my chance and I bean to assist my classmate in studies. I also involved this psychologist who was ever willing to spend time counseling my classmate.
My classmate began to smile, something which he had forgotten about. My family members welcomed my classmate who was treated as part of the congregation.
Well did my conscience which supported my in my right decision and effort pay off?
Every good deed has a reward and my reward was my classmate passing in all the subjects and was promoted to the next grade.
This act of mine enabled my classmate’s parents to realize quality time along with love is the essence for a peaceful and fulfilling life.
Remember the conscience is what you want it to be and how you would require the outlook of life. Everything is in ones hands.
DArcy, Eric.(1961). Conscience and Its Right to Freedom. Sheed and Ward, New York and London.
Davies, Brian. (1992). The Thought of Thomas Aquinas. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
Saarinen, Risto. (1994) Weakness of the Will in Medieval Thought From Augustine to Buridan. E. J. Brill, Leiden, New York.

Dolan, Joseph V. (1971) Conscience in the Catholic Theological Tradition. In Bier, William C (Ed). Conscience: Its Freedom and Limitations. Fordham University Press, N. Y.
Kent, Bonnie. (1995). Transitory Vice: Thomas Aquinas on Incontinence. The Journal of the History of Philosophy. (Vol. 27)

Philosophy on how you will teach students who have autism

Teaching using visual aids is the most effective means of teaching autistic student. This is because students with this disorder are visual thinkers. they rely heavily on pictures to comprehend something. Pictographic and written cues assist these students learn and communicate (Arwood, Brown and Kaulitz 2009).
The main advantage of using visual aids is that, an autistic student will be in a position to remember a he have the chance of making relationships and recall easily later unlike the oral teaching strategy. Furthermore, visual approach assists to combat attention failure by facilitating focus on the message. Teachers should use visual supports to teach autistic students how to:
It is also imperative that a teacher understands autistic student motivators are different from normal students. This refers to the teaching method whereby there is the use of reinforces such as praise. This is because these students often develop an attachment to a single topic, object, Thus in order for the teacher to create learning interest he should clearly know these students preferences. In a scenario, whereby a student likes cars, then a teacher can for instance while teaching mathematics illustrate using cars.
Teachers should objectively offer structured or predictable classroom environments. This environment should be structured to provide consistency and clarity. This will ensure that autistic students know exactly where things belong and what is required of them in a specific state, and can anticipate what comes next. Teachers should ensure that the personalized plan for a student with autism should fit well into the overall classroom timetable. Teachers should vary tasks to prevent boredom, and alternate-group, difficult- activities to reduce anxiety and possibly prevent some inappropriate behavior.
In addition, incorporating physical activity and exercise at points throughout the day is

Comparing three poems in the book The Rose of Time written by Bei Dao

In Bei Dao’s poetry, the presence of ‘nature’ is essentially affected and afflicted by the poet’s oppressed self. but since Bei Dao rarely mentions the reasons of his discomforted and distressed soul explicitly in his poems, his poems turn to be emblematic of some meta-reality. Unlike Du Fu, Li Po, and Wang Fei’s poetry, Bei Dao’s poetry does not have any pure philosophy of ‘Nature’. Though few remarks for “nature” from Du Fu and others’ poems come directly to clarify their philosophy and thoughts on Nature, it is obvious that nature, in most of their poems, appears to serve the purpose of a background that is vast, endless, somber and generous as Nature itself is. Whereas Du Fu and other medieval poets’ “self” seek serenity and solace amid the vast and endless generosity of ‘nature’, Bei Dao’s ‘nature’ is enigmatic of the poet’s distressed present existence and, therefore, Du Fu’s nature envisions about untold but desired future.
More or less directly the country landscape appears in Li Po and Wang Fei’s poems as a symbol of freedom where the choked ‘self’ takes the deep breath to be free of the contamination of spirit and body. Mostly because of the prime concern of ‘nature’ with the spirituality of each of the two poets Wang Wei and Li Po, their presentation of ‘self’ in term of ‘nature’ is greatly spiritual. Unlike Wang Wei, and Li Po, Bei Dao’s presentation of ‘nature’ is affected by the poet’s current state. As a result, the mode of presentation changes from time to time in his poems. For an instance, in the poem “The Morning’s Story”, the “morning” is not any usual morning that the readers are accustomed to view in their daily life. Rather the readers grow curious when they are informed that another “morning established by the violence of language/ has changed the morning” (“The Morning’s Story”). Again in the same poem, the

Human Resource Management Ethics and Social Responsibility and International Strategic Management

Ethics is a subsidiary part of moral philosophy that is closely concerned with the behaviors and morality of individuals towards others.&nbsp. Social responsibility is related to ethical responsibility of any entity no matter if it is government, organization, corporation or individual. Each one of these entities has some responsibilities towards society. Ethical issues arise when any of the above-mentioned entities stop taking caring of ethics in what they do on large scale. For example, if a business entity takes bribes then it is against ethics and it is violating social ethics. Ethics and social responsibility go along with one another because ethical parameters determine one’s behavior and responsibility in society.
It is included in ethics to take care of one’s responsibilities according to the needs and want of the social environment. Being a socially responsible entity if an organization is releasing some chemical that is not suitable for the environment then this organization is violating the ethics laws. Social responsibility is the applied field of ethics because entities are directly in contact with the open environment. They ought to take care of cultural, legal and social standards as they are described and determined in ethics.
International strategic management is a unique management process that defines and determines the developing and basic principle strategies that can be acquired by any organization to expand on a broad level and compete to international competitors. Strategic planning is all about setting and determining a unique international strategy that can lead an organization to international markets. This strategy determines what an organization able to do to sell their products and services and what products and services it is going to sell internationally. This strategy includes the procedure of making and providing these goods and services to international markets, as well. It determines the use of different important resources and determines the targeted demographics where the organization will launch and sell its goods and services, as well.

Exploring Innovation for Ryanair Airline

By virtually every measure, Ryanair has managed to develop positive leadership innovation, process innovation and product/service innovation by creating new business models and business structures designed to bring long-term value to the business. This report identifies Ryanair’s strategies in innovation, an assessment of these innovations, and also a description of how the author of this report could contribute effectively to the long-term future of Ryanair.
Innovation is key to any successful enterprise. There are a wide variety of acceptable definitions of innovation, one of which is the successful creation and launch of a new product or service concept which provides a significant competitive advantage to today’s firms. Competitive advantage means utilising this new innovative idea or concept and applying it using a market-focused methodology which outperforms competing companies and gains market share in the process. This report highlights the activities of Ryanair, the low-frills, discount airline company, which provide innovation in the airline industry and a stronger business portfolio.
Ryanair was established in the 1990s as one of the first no-frills discount airline companies in Europe. The company, with this discount philosophy, has managed to increase its market share against major competitors such as Lufthansa and Air France-KLM (Done, 2009), which is not an easy task to accomplish considering how long these airline companies have been stapled airline carriers in Europe. When the company was first implemented, there did not seem to be heavy consumer demand for no-frills services, or perhaps the company simply lacked marketing focus, as the business was riddled with heavy losses and an inability to seize a higher volume of market share than that of its competition (Done). However, today, Ryanair has managed to redevelop its previous business model, making it more adaptive to consumer needs, which is bringing the business significant financial prosperity even in the face of rising fuel costs and other uncontrollable external business risks.

American Art in the Early 20th Century

Guernica is a perfect example of cubism, a style that Pablo Picasso was a pioneer in, combined with such genres as classicism and surrealism. As a prototype of cubism, each of the objects in the painting is broken, analyzed individually and brought together in an abstract form. This avant-garde style then shows a story through subjects from a variety of viewpoints instead of simply one viewpoint- a concept that fits perfectly into the philosophy of culture and the world.
Because viewpoints about this world also intersect at some point, many of the surfaces of the objects depicted in Guernica intersect as well. An example of this is the impression of a horse in the right of the painting, in which a human skull intersects the horse’s body while a bull seems to protrude beneath it, the horse’s knee cap contouring the bull’s nose on the ground.
Because Guernica has a classic and surreal style to it, the use of a bull or a Minotaur as a classical figure of terror and as an influence of the surrealists on Pablo Picasso also appears in Guernica. Finally, even though the spatial elements of the painting form a sense of discontinuity, one can feel through other formal elements of fine arts that Guernica is all about cruelty, viciousness, and despair in times of war.

Critical Reaction

Critical reaction Prehistory and the Rise of Civilization in the Near East and Egypt The rise of the human ancestors is a matter of just recent development, compared to when the planet earth came into being. The first human ancestors were hunters, and they only applied stone tools (Matthews, Noble and Platt, 7). The civilization process that has occurred over the years has seen the transformation in both the human nature and the consequent preference of tools. However, what is most interesting is the fact that civilization first occurred in China while Europe and America were left behind for so many years. This is because. by 6000 and 3000 BCE, metal tools were being used in East China, while Europe and America had to continue using the stone tools until later in the 1200 BCE (Matthews, Noble and Platt, 5).
Female power is another aspect that can be traced back to the very early stages of human development, where in the Paleolithic period, which represents the period of (40,000–10,000 BCE), women had already started to be painted, with the most emphasis of these paintings being on their breasts, navel, and vulva (Matthews, Noble and Platt, 6). Nevertheless, the streak of civilization would continue with Mesopotamia being the cradle of civilization, while Egypt played a very important role in the human civilization, through the rise of writing, medicine and science as the major Egyptian contributions to human civilization (Matthews, Noble and Platt, 24). Mesopotamia contributed greatly in agriculture, tools and weaponry advancement.
The Aegean: The Minoans, the Mycenaean, and the Greeks of the Archaic Age
Greek is the cradle of western civilization, just as Mesopotamia and Egypt form the cradle of human civilization. The fundamental characteristic of western civilization is the transformation of traditional leadership from godlike to humanlike, and the recognition of men and women as responsible for controlling their destinies (Matthews, Noble and Platt, 42). Literacy, politics and aesthetics are the major features of the Greek civilization contribution to the rest of the world. Urbanization, organized and centralized political leadership are also major features of the Greek civilizations, with cities, palaces and war artifacts indicating that the Greeks were living a fully urbanized and politically centralized lifestyle around the 1900–1100 BCE period. Technology also advanced during the Greek civilization, most especially during the Minoan and Mycenaean, where bronze tools and weapons, horses and horse chariots and ship building characterized these ages (Matthews, Noble and Platt, 45). Nevertheless, religion, literature, philosophy and science can be traced as the single most significant contribution of the Greek civilization to the rest of the world.
Classical Greek Civilization: The Hellenic Age
The Greek may have fallen defeat into the hands of the Macedonians, but the superiority of their way of life was never toned down. The only thing that seemed to diminish in its significance is religion, with the roles of the gods and the deities slowly degrading, as religion was increasingly becoming integrated into civic lifestyles (Matthews, Noble and Platt, 59). Instead, more secularism characteristic developed and gained popularity in the Greek Society during the Hellenic classicism, with music, theater, architecture, history and philosophy taking the center-stage (Matthews, Noble and Platt, 62). However, the most important contribution of the Hellenic classicism to the world is the art of warfare and defense mechanism. This is the period during which the Greek defeated the Macedonians, and focused on the art of war perfection. Perfectionism was also passed on to other aspects such as in sculpture and architecture. However, the most interesting thing is that it was the Greek who first brought up the representation of the Africans in art. This was however with very scientific and artistic interests, as opposed to the modern-day racial art representation of the blacks (Matthews, Noble and Platt, 66).
Works Cited
Matthews, Roy. Noble, Thomas and Platt, DeWitt. Experience Humanities (8th ed.). McGraw-Hill Higher Education -A. Kindle Edition, 2013. 1-85. Print.

Five Types of Customers in the Retail Setting

01 December 2008 Five Types s in the Retail Setting Knowing can propel a business organization to success. This is the philosophy which we live by everyday in the workplace. My assignment to the retailer outlets where our products are marketed has its advantages. For one, it enables me to meet a lot of people. Secondly, it introduces to me five types of customers shopping in our stores. Basically, there are five types of customers pushing their carts in retailers’ aisles namely loyal, discount, impulse, need-based, and wandering customers (Hunter 3).
Loyal customers are what every store wants. These customers are estimated to make up only 20% of the buyers but represents 50% of the sales (3). They buy because they simply prefer the shop, feel they belong, and find it hard or even impossible to source their goods from other retailers. These loyal customers visit the stores at a specific interval and often buy everything that they need in the outlet.
Sale is the favorite word of discount customers. They are remarkable for their enthusiasm to find the retailer which can offer them the biggest bargain in order to maximize their purchasing power. Their main concern is the price and the attractiveness of the store is dependent on the amount of savings that they can get. They shop at stores frequently but wouldn’t mind visiting another one when there are sales.
Impulse customers are those who make their to-buy lists but are often swayed into buying items which are outside of their planned list. These customers could buy on impulse after having a sudden strong craving for a food item while in the shops, or lured into a buying an item after seeing the benefits. These customers purchase what seems to be good at the time without considering other important factors such as budget and timing of the purchase.
Need-based customers buy only those items that they need. They cannot be swayed by discounts and does not purchase products in a whim. They plan what they need in advance and go to the store intending only to buy what they have originally listed, no more, no less. These buyers are very much often hard to influence in their purchasing decisions.
What exactly would call customers who just want to hang out inside the stores without any intention to buy any time? They are wandering customers. Instead of the products, they just want the experience of being inside the store going from aisle to aisle and enjoying the community inside the store.
Knowing customers are essential in a business organization. As described above, each of the five types of customers have different needs which should be addressed by the retailer in order to maximize its sales. However, I do believe that the challenge really is how to transform each of the four customers into loyal ones.
Works Cited
Hunter, M. “The Five Types of Customers.” n.d. 01 December 2008

Natural Philosophy Of Cause And Chance by Born Max

Investigation Casual relationship illustrates that change in a given variable leads to an effect on the other variable. Independent variable causes the change, while the dependent variable illustrates the effect. Room light level is the independent variable, while myopia is the dependent variable (Born, 2009).
2. This investigation type is research. This is because it entails collecting and analyzing the opinion of respondents. The parents illustrated light levels of rooms of their children, from birth to two years.
3. Experimental group entails the performance of the scientific procedure. The group has an independent variable, which is tested against observed changes. Control group separates the group from the experiment. the independent variable in this group has no effect over results.
4. This report analyzes and experimental group. This is because an independent variable has an effect on results. Children’s room light intensity influences myopia.
Question 6: Tom DeLay
1. The position the author takes in this article is the characteristic of Tom DeLay. The article illustrates that the un-Texan politician is usually mean. This implies that he has some weaknesses as a politician in the Texas polls.
2. The rhetorical devices used in this article aims at conveying meaning, with the purpose of persuading opinion. The author illustrates that Tom DeLay is hated and feared by other Washington politicians because he is mean and has foolish behaviors.
Question 8: Political Doctrine
1. The premise employed by the author illustrates the commitment to political doctrines. Political debates continuously happen, because of void political opinions. If a political belief is proved to be true, individuals must be intolerant to the other beliefs.
2.&nbsp. Individuals who have different opinions are instrumental in determining the rightness of a given political issue.
3. The passage follows a logical development pattern. This is because. it has the introduction, content and conclusion areas of political debate.

Credible Ethics

Task: Credible Ethics A morally right decision would be the transition point between two extreme points. the deficiency and excess. An action or the choice of the action meets the threshold of being morally right if it would develop a character that is of moral righteousness. This is according to the virtue theory of Aristotle. The theory also provides that it is morally wrong if coming up with a choice, or acting according to the choice would make the character morally vicious. For instance, anger is an emotion that many people undergo. It would make a vice if one never gets angry. That is, being not irascible. In this case, it is a deficiency. It would, as well, be a vice if one get too angry and, therefore, irascible. In this case, it is in excess. What would be a virtue would entail being mild. That is, not being deficient of anger or having excess anger, but the mean.
Aristotle is correct to state that virtue is a transition between two extremes, deficiency and excess. This is because moral virtues differ from intellectual virtues. Taking moral virtues from this perspective puts emphasis on the notion of the soul. The view brings the soul close to the body and refutes the ground that the soul is independent of the body. It emphasizes on the three components of the soul (passions, faculties and characters). In Aristotle’s view, the ability to control desires constitutes (moral) virtue (Fieser 36). For, instance, Aristotle does not praise or direct blames to people for experiencing anger as an emotion. He rather tends to praise the notion that characters only experience anger only when it is necessary, probably by situations that prevail. It, therefore, provides that virtue do not link with the capabilities of the person.
Works Cited
Fieser, James. Moral Philosophy Through The Ages. California, CA: James Fieser, 2000. Print.

Need questions filled out for me

Literature Assignment Is Confucius stressing on the importance of actual ritual or the inner attitude (P.1334) No, Confucius fails to address on the importance of actual ritual or the inner attitude by multiple justifications. First and foremost, Mozi one of the Confucious critic justify the failure by stating that Confucious is a helplessly outdated or old-fashion that stress only on the importance of rituals only when there are benefits attributed to it. For example, in the presence of a good meal obtained from sacrificial occasions Confucius may intend to stress on actual ritual or inner attitude (P. 1334, paragraph 2 line 8-16). In addition, the Chinese government regards Confucius as evil and blames it for the loss of humanistic values and goals (P.1334, paragraph 3).
2) Are the qualities attributed to Confucius in the Analects essential trait for the junzi? Why would this be important in a philosophy centered honoring parents, ancestors, traditional and rituals.
The qualities attributed to Confucius in the Analects illustrate the essential traits of Junzi even though in a narrow way. For example, Confucius has an extraordinarily influential vision who put emphasis human life to be constituted mainly by rituals. Junzi and conficious share qualities that build self-cultivation and continuous practice in applying for the social norms such as being a gentleman or superior individual even through Junzi qualities are above the Confucius qualities (P.1332, paragraph 1-2).
The would be importance in philosophy centered honoring the parents, ancestors and traditions and rituals in understanding the social hierarchy as the philosophy advocates for discipleship while integrating the humanity and social roles that results to social harmony, goodness and happiness (P. !332, paragraph 2).
3) Mythical and less practical elements of Daodejing contribution to work and the role played
Mythical and the less practical element contribute in unfolding the gateway of the manifolded secrets (P. 1346, Line, 16). However, the roles played are ingratitude completing task, giving life and assists in claim recovery. The origin of the book as a philosophical work employs poetic style to build the teams and response (P.1346, paragraph 2, line 2).
4) Laozi belief confirmation in Daodejing, how he uncover the truth and the problem of the strategy used
Laozi confirms his beliefs when he find a clear rejection of corruption, productive passiveness and promises of an expected success (P. 1344 paragraph one). Laozi uncovers the truth by exploring on different sea virtues and ways of growth and development that sees individual reach a full potential. However, to be as persuasive as possible, Laozi employed praise of weakness and nonaction to provide counterintuitive concepts that allows functionalism and confirming the existence of the text before the finished form (P. 1345 paragraph 2-3). The problem with the strategy is that, the strategy cannot be named or explained as it relies on the universal natural image and power (P.1345, paragraph 2).
5) Confucius and Daodejing philosophy expression comparison
Confucius philosophical expression claims that political and social problems can be resolved by the initiation of social reforms and moral values (P. 1331, last paragraph) while the Daodejing philosophy applies persuasive and functionalism to solve its related problems. There is a central point in which the two philosophies differ. Daodejing philosophy applies ways and virtues while the Confucius philosophical base its argument on social role and ritual consider in solving out related issues. However, the most disagreements are the implication of social hierarchy in expressing a successful activity though most of the expressions are similar (P.133, paragraph 2).

Humanities is enjoyable

Humanities Is Enjoyable Q1 I came to appreciate my decision on taking humanities. The discipline entails learning about human culture. My interest on exploring on the relationship of human beings and their environment remained a success. The field of humanities is distinct from other disciplines. It requires application of various learning techniques of analyzing human behavior. Furthermore, the discipline contains entertaining subjects that are imperative in breaking boredom of learning.
The course was worthwhile because it made us gain knowledge on human culture. Learning the disciplines is necessary because it assists people in understanding other disciplines that relate to it. It is a prerequisite for many courses. It builds foundation for further learning in many areas of study. It introduces students to fields that deal with studies of human beings and their culture (Blessinger and Carfora, 2014).
Learning humanities was helpful in acquiring knowledge on how human beings process and document human experience. The discipline included studying religion, music, philosophy, history, literature, and language of understanding the world. I realized that humanities have objectives that are speculative and critical. We also covered classical studies, law, anthropology, archaeology, semiotics, and communication studies (Zepeda and Mayock, 2014. We were able to discover historical backgrounds behind certain cultural events.
After learning humanities as a discipline, I developed a comprehensive understanding of the human culture and social relations. During the sessions, we learnt that there are modes of expressions concerning some subjects that fall under the classification of humanities. After gaining knowledge on the discipline, we felt a sense of connection and appreciation towards our various cultures.
Blessinger, Patrick, and Carfora, J, M.. 2014. Inquiry-Based Learning for the Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences A Conceptual and Practical Resource for Educators. Bradford: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Zepeda, Karla, and Mayock, Ellen C.. 2014. Forging a rewarding career in the humanities: advice for academics. Rotterdam : Sense Publishers

Comparison of the Concept of Self in Christianity and Buddhism

Christianity and Buddhism, both of the religions, occupy a great number of followers worldwide. As religions, both are ancient and incarnation of orient and occident faith and culture. The noteworthy or more interesting feature or even a parameter to draw the similarity between both the ancient religions of the world can be on the fact that both the religions have evolved from individual teachings of two great men- Lord Buddha and Jesus Christ.

The concept of self in Christianity is quite different from the doctrine of self prevailing in Buddhism. Christianity believes in more of a self-effacing concept. In Christianity, God is the omnipotent and He is the creator of the world, humans, and life. He is entitled to shower his love and blessings on his folks and devotees. Buddhism, on the other hand, follows a different perception as regards the concept of self. Here, man is more prominent than the presence of God. God is evidently the creator of the universe but never does it mentions about the presence of that omnipotent power to take care or shower its blessing on its folk. Man in Buddhist philosophy is the creator of his own destiny and it is the self, responsible for suffering too. It is the “karma” of a man that makes him responsible for his suffering.

Gustav Mahler Biography and Professional Activity

Mahler entered the Vienne’s Conservatory. Mahler also entered Vienne’s University, studying philosophy and literature. At the Conservatory, he became friends with the future composer Hugo Wolf. Mahler graduated from the Conservatory but failed to achieve the prestigious silver medal The family of the Composer was very poor. His father Gustav Bernhard Mahler was a traveling salesman, who sold alcoholic beverages, sugar, and household products. His mother came from a family of a small manufacturer, producing soap. Gustav was the second of 14 children. Shortly after the birth of Gustav, his family moved to the small industrial town of Jihlava – an island of German culture in South Moravia, where Bernhard Mahler started a tavern. Here, the future composer felt passionately in love with folk dances and songs of the peoples of Austrian Empire: Austrian, German, Hebrew, Czech, Hungarian, Gypsy, Slovak, and so on. All those sounds later became the part of his musical palette. In 6 years, Gustav began his studies on the piano, and in 10, he gave his first public concert in Jihlava.
Despite the regular instruments, such as piano and violin, Mahler used to apply unusual instruments to create his symphonies. For instance, some of his compositions include tenor horn, guitar, mandolin and even cowbell. One can notice a lot of percussions is Mahler’s symphonies, which is quite a distinguishing feature comparing to other musicians of that time.
Gustav Mahler was one of the greatest symphonic composers.


Question One The Shewhart charts are tools used to determine if a business or manufacturing process is, in a statistical control. This was discovered by Walter A. Shewhart in the 1920s. Control charts are graphs used to study changes in processes over a period of time.
Question Two
Indiana State University (ISU) is one of the best universities accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. From my experience in the university I discovered that it applies the Deming’s 9th point. This is because the university has made sure that all departments are interrelated and share the same vision of providing the best quality of education. This has benefited the university by making it one of the top university in Indiana (4International Colleges &amp. Universities).
Question Three
An interview by two lecturers in the university under anonymity one of the Demings point that came out from both people as being applied in the university is adopting the new philosophy of continuous training of workers. The university appreciates that, in the educational market, there is the need to keep track with knowledge. This is beneficial in making sure that lecturers give quality and up to date knowledge to students.
Question Four
From Deming’s point of view, the use of merit pay for teachers helps in increasing the quality of teachers and school based. However, to my opinion, this may be destructive because it induces cheating, teaching to the test, and using other ways that would increase teachers’ bonus without improving the students’ learning.
Question Five
The most meaningful quote from Philip Crosby is that (Crosby),
“If anything is certain, it is that change is certain. The world we are planning for today will not exist in this form tomorrow.”
This quote means that there is always change especially with change or advancement in technology. It is crucial for people to embrace change and adjust to it in order to succeed.
4International Colleges &amp. Universities. Universities in Indiana by 2014 University Web Ranking. 2005. Web. 26 01 2014.
Philip Crosby Quotes. Perf. Philip Crosby. 2012. U- Tube.

The imitation Game

The imitation Game
Turing test refers to the proposal made by Alan Turing in response to the question whether machines have the capability to think. The tests suggests that instead of focusing on the question whether machines can think, we can instead seek to find out if a digital computer can actually imitate a human being. This was referred by Turing as “The imitation Game”. Turing himself thought that very soon we shall have computers who would pass this Imitation Game.
Turing described the test as follows. There are three components to it: a person, a machine and an interrogator. The interrogator is in a separate room from the machine and the computer. The interrogator is allowed to communicate with both the machine and computer and puts up questions to them. He has no knowledge about which of them is a machine and which is the person. The aim of the interrogator is to correctly identify the machine and the person. Meanwhile, the machine will try to cause the interrogator into wrongly identifying it as the person. and the person will try to help the interrogator identify correctly.
According to Turing, in fifty years’ time, it will be possible to program computers so that the average interrogator will not have more than 70 percent chances of correctly identifying after five minutes of questioning. However, despite the long time that has passed, the Turing test has not yet been completed by anyone.
There are two main objections raised against Turing test. Firstly, whether we will actually have computers with so much intelligence, that they have a less than 70 percent chance of correct identification. Secondly, even if the average interrogator had a less than 70 percent chance of correct identification, can we conclude that the machine has demonstrated certain level of thought, intelligence or mentality?
Although the Turing test seems highly impractical to achieve, it serves to remain as a benchmark for Artificial Intelligence researchers and developers. However, there are other competitions which are considered to be more challenging and practical to achieve.
Oppy, Graham., Dowe, David. “The Turing Test”. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2003. Stanford University. 21 April 2009.

The Imperfections of Human Life

This paper would, however, move forward with narrowing its focus on epistemology, which is concerned about the sources, nature, and limitations of knowledge. Moreover, epistemology also attempts to look at the process of acquiring knowledge, differentiating between reliable and unreliable knowledge, nature of the knowledge and all other factors involved in the process. Epistemologists differ greatly, as they do in all other aspects of philosophy and there are different schools of thought in epistemology as well. Rationalism believes that knowledge comes with a reason, thinking, and discovering ideas, knowledge or reality resides in the ideas, and ideas are “a priori” which come before experience. Empiricism believes that the source of knowledge remains experience and humans only have access to the ideas of the things and not things. For having knowledge, we need to use experience. Transcendental idealism is another school of thought, which tries to accommodate both empiricism and rationalism by saying that knowledge is something, which begins with experience and ends at the structural arrangement of knowledge in mind with the use of logic and reasoning. However, there are other schools of thought like intuitionism, authoritarianism, postmodern view and others but we once again narrow down or focus on empiricism since that concerns our rest of the decision.
Positivism is one of the most important concepts and developments in the empiricist school of thought, which holds the view that reliable knowledge is only attainable with proper experience and demands verification, very much similar to the scientific way of acquiring knowledge. Famous sociologist and philosopher Auguste Comte deserves all the credit for coming up with a comprehensive framework and layout for this term (Kaines, pp. 16-24, 1880). However, contributions from Hebert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, and Charles Darwin have also been&nbsp.very important for maturing the concept of positivism.

Consider bauman’s idea that central features of modernity underpinned the possibility and actuality of the holocaust

Out of job, Bauman had enough spare time in his hands and completed his masters in philosophy from Warsaw University where he remained as a lecturer till 1968. With the outbreak of public protests in Poland against the ruling communist government and subsequent fanning of anti-Semitic sentiments by the government to deflect public criticism, Bauman shifted to Leeds University after briefly teaching in Tel Aviv University.
Bauman faced anti-Semitic sentiments twice in his life and both were from non-Nazi state machinery. This experience led him to form an opinion that modernity, bureaucracy and social exclusion creates a situation where an extreme phobia against those social groups that cannot be neatly categorised and slotted into predetermined and well established hierarchical superstructure prevalent in the society. This in essence is the beginning of a potential holocaust that will inevitably result if this xenophobic attitude towards those social sub-groups that cannot be effectively analysed according to existing social norms is not brought under control. Such social mores can be brought under control only if the authority is aware of the potential dangers and initiates strong measures to counter such a mass phobia against so-called outsiders. History, however, has witnessed several instances of cynical exploitation of the deep seated distrust among Europeans against so-called killers of Christ by governments of several European nations, Poland and Soviet Russia being the main culprits, to further their narrow and selfish class interests. Bauman has worked extensively on these issues where he has clearly laid bare the intrinsic interconnection between modern society where people wilfully forego several facets of personal freedom (both in the realm of actions and in thoughts) and the inherent distrust of the ‘outsider’ who does not conform to the established mores of the society. His contention is

Critiqing a research article / using MCMASTER framework

sment of literature concerning quality care demonstrates that nurses do not often get involved in the development or definition of improvement initiatives intended for quality of care.
The main aim of the study was to report the meaning of quality nursing care for practicing nurses since quality of healthcare increasingly remains to be at the centre of criticism and argument. Regardless of the fact that quality healthcare is important to the outcome of patients as well as their safety, significant improvements have not been seen. According to the abstract for this study, an assessment of literature concerned with quality of care reveals that practicing nurses get involved in the development or definition of improvement initiatives meant for quality of healthcare. Based on this the study was developed with the main grounds being that quality of nursing must be significant to nurses and that revealing the nurses’ meaning of quality nursing care may lead to more efficient improvement approaches. These justifications for caring out the study at hand were made clear and were compelling enough to go on with the study.
The study was based on the hermeneutic phenomenological approach to research involving human sciences by van Manen (1990), and was designed to reveal the actual meaning of pragmatic experiences. Hermeneutic phenomenology is a qualitative approach to research that was developed from phenomenological philosophy, which is a branch of continental philosophy (Friesen, Henriksson and Saevi, 2012, p. 169). The fundamental principle of hermeneutic phenomenology is that the most simple and basic experiences of man concerning the world are already laden with meaning (Frost, 2011, p. 46). This means that man in involved in his world and immediately experiences the world as being meaningful since the world, along with other people, culture and events, precedes any intentions on the part of an individual to appreciate and develop an explanation. The main purpose of

Intro to Political Science Quiz #1 Review

Characteristics of the scientific method (4 Empirical-Facts or information based on direct observation by an individual. 2. Systematic-Carefully planning of research.
3. Replication-Repeating of experiments or studies in order to compare results.
4. Search for Causes-The belief that everything in the world has a cause, and to search for causes in studies and research.
5. Provisional­­-Scientific conclusions are tenuous with subject to questions and rebuttal.
6. Objective-Objectivity to interpret the facts as they are and not how you want them to be.
7. Intersubjective Testability-The ability to test a hypotheses.
Sources of political knowledge (2) News, television, radio, print, word of mouth, and direct communication with politicians, speeches, and so forth.
Authority sources of political knowledge (2) Unbiased reporting in the media, newspapers, news programs
Definitions of politics (2)
1. a : the art or science of government b : the art or science concerned with guiding or influencing governmental policy c : the art or science concerned with winning and holding control over a government
: political actions, practices, or policies
a : political affairs or business. especially : competition between competing interest groups or individuals for power and leadership (as in a government) b : political life especially as a principal activity or profession c : political activities characterized by artful and often dishonest practices
: the political opinions or sympathies of a person
a : the total complex of relations between people living in society b : relations or conduct in a particular area of experience especially as seen or dealt with from a political point of view (Webster Dictionary 2011)
Subfields of Political Science (3) Political Philosophy, Comparative Politics and International Relations.
State sovereignty and its limits (2) States have the ability to have their own Constitution, laws, and statues. The limits of state sovereignty are limited to the Federal government. If a state law clashes with a Federal law, the Federal law will prevail. States can sue the Federal government, like in the case of National Healthcare, and then the Supreme Court will decide the issue.
Does humanitarian intervention violate sovereignty? (1 argument for and 1
against) Yes, humanitarian intervention violates sovereignty of states and countries. It depends on what the humanitarian cause consists of. Many organizations across the world believe that the death penalty is wrong. Intervention in this case would violate the United States and the individual states’ sovereignty. The same could be said for Saudi Arabia and their death penalty. America cannot intervene or violate that state’s sovereignty.
No, humanitarian intervention does not violate of states and countries. This would be the case in delivering food, supplies, and other direct need to a people in need despite their state’s wishes. It does not interfere with policy or law, but helps the country with a specific or broad need.
State functions (3)
State autonomy / Institutionalism
Key issues that help us distinguish between ideologies (3)
Key issues are ethical set of ideals, principles, doctrines, myths, or symbols of a social movement, institution, class, or large group that explains how society should work and offers solutions for these problems.
Types of ideologies (2)
1 Anarchism
2 Conservatism
3 Environmentalism
4 Feminism
5 Liberalism
6 Nationalism
7 Religion
8 Socialism
Names of philosophers that support specific ideologies (3)
1 Anarchism-Daniel Guerin
2 Conservatism-Edmond Burke
3 Environmentalism-Preston Manning
4 Feminism-Susan B. Anthony
5 Liberalism-Jean-Baptiste Say, Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo
6 Nationalism-Johann Gottfried Herder
7 Religion-Muhammad
8 Socialism-Karl Marx
Types of democracy (2)
Direct and Indirect
Types of non-democracies (3)
Absolute rule
Authoritarian rule
Questions will be of the following character:
• List two types of ideologies. Capitalism Socialism
• List one argument justifying violating state sovereignty in the protection of
human rights and one argument against it.
If genocide is occurring in the Balkans, Germany, or Africa it would be justified in violating the state sovereignty because genocide is a crime against humanity.
It is not justified in intervening in Saudi Arabia due to women’s rights. That is a cultural issue and not up for outsiders to decide. If the women of Saudi Arabia have not revolted then it is not up to outsiders to impose their values on them.
• Name three philosophers and the ideologies for which they are known.
Karl Marx-Marxism/Communism
Fascism-Fidel Castro

Biography Assignment

d as a Prime Minister for two different periods including the 11 year period starting from 1966 and ending in 1977 and then she held the office of Prime Minister for a 4 year period ranging from 1980 to 1984. She was still holding the office when she was removed from the face of the earth through murder and she successfully became the only female Prime Minister in the history of India. This writing will focus on the leadership autobiography of Indira Gandhi and will reflect upon why she is one of the major examples of a successful leader.
The way a leader leads is referred to his/her personal philosophy of leadership. Different leaders follow a different philosophy of leadership. Leaders follow the dictatorial, participative, delegative philosophies of leadership. Indira Gandhi and her actions reveal that she followed an autocratic form of leadership philosophy. A leader who follows this philosophy tends to communicate clear expectations that he/she may have from her followers. They do not only inform the followers about what needs to be done, they even tell them how operations are to be carried out. These leaders try to alienate themselves from the followers and create clear distinction between the two in the eyes of others. They themselves make the decisions and do not allow the followers to participate and expect the followers to follow those decisions obediently. One of the reasons due to which it is believed that Indira Gandhi was an autocratic leader is that she was held responsible for conducting acts of corruption and even after she was found to be guilty, she did not give up her position and instead instated emergency after 19752. This shows that Indira Gandhi thought of herself as someone who is above all and has a higher status as compared to others. She did not only declare emergency. She even disallowed the press to report freely and she even went a step further by detaining members of opposition’s political parties. This shows that Indira Gandhi

Answer the questions (N)

Questions Humans should be able to control their nature. Although it is the hardest thing on earth being in conflict with nature, but for those who have fallen in their lives multiple times due to their nature, must think about changing it or dealing with it. This world is for those who believe in survival of the fittest. and, to be the fittest, one has to be able to suppress the negativities and passiveness of one’s nature, and show the stronger side of it to the world. Only showing is not enough, but changing it according to the circumstances is vital for survival.
2. Environmental ethics include extending the boundaries of ethics beyond humans to the natural environment (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2014). How we deal with our surroundings, how we utilize the natural resources, how ‘green’ we are, how much we care about the environment’s sustainability, all of it comes under the concept of environmental ethics. Cutting down trees, releasing toxins in the air, wasting water, dumping plastic bags into the rivers, leaving electricity on when no one is using it, are some examples of violations of environmental ethics.
3. Social poverty is the result of improper division of financial resources, as a result of which social classes are generated. The main elements of social poverty include homelessness, malnutrition, illiteracy, and lack of health resources. Political poverty means a government’s inability to distribute resources among its people fairly. It refers to a government’s failure in managing manifold economic, social and financial issues of the country. Social poverty can be eradicated through proper management of resources among the population, and political poverty can be eradicated through appointment of people-centered people on posts.
4. The causes of environmental health hazards are more important to target. No issue can be resolved without addressing its root cause. Government should take measures at the governmental level, and people should take steps at personal level, to eradicate the causes that cause pollution in the environment, so that related health hazards can be removed. For example, there should be proper sanitary systems and factory related toxin removal systems, so that no dangerous chemicals are released into the environment. This is the only way the effects can be reduced.
5. HDI is “a new way of measuring development by combining indicators of life expectancy, educational attainment and income” (Human Development Reports, 2013, par.1). I think that it is a good way of measuring human development as it combines some very basic components that are crucial for human development, like education attainment and financial status. HDI involves age limits, years of schooling and income limits, and then measures human development, which seems very logical.
6. The main cause of all environmental health problems that poorer countries face is pollution. There is water pollution, air pollution, land pollution, and sound pollution, because there is no system for the eradication of toxins and waste from the environment. Hence, people suffer from dengue fever, malaria, cholera, hepatitis, asthma, lung diseases, immune diseases, allergies and chronic heart diseases (ScienceDaily, 2014). To help these countries, they should be provided with enough funding and resources that they may be able to rectify the problems in their sanitation system to purify the environment.
Human Development Reports. (2013). Human Development Index (HDI). Retrieved March 17, 2014, from
ScienceDaily. (2014). Pollution. Retrieved March 16, 2014, from
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2014). Environmental Ethics. Retrieved March 17, 2014, from

Ethics Case Studies

Ethical Case Studies: Questions and Answers in Research Ethics In this paper, the answers some questions regarding the ethicality of three experiments: the Tearoom Sex Study, the Milgram Experiment, and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study.
In all three experiments, the principles of voluntary participation and risk minimization were violated in various degrees. On a broader level, it is the principle of informed consent that was violated, because the participants were left ignorant of some relevant information regarding their participation in the studies, and such information could have affected their willingness to participate. What is alarming is the fact that there were even instances of deception on the part of those who conducted the experiments, in order to ensure the willful participation of individuals. These violations pave the way for other unethical components in the conduct of research, such as the potential for breaches in confidentiality and disclosure.
It can be noted that with the Tearoom Sex Study, a number of the participants were actually not willing participants because they were never informed that they were participating in this particular study. They were never informed of the purpose of the actual study being conducted, and who the beneficiaries will be. There was even deception because Laud Humphreys surreptitiously followed some unwilling participants to their houses in order to get them to answer questions on the pretext that they were answering them for a different study. In the Milgram experiment, the participants were deceived into thinking that they were directly responsible for inflicting extreme pain on another individual, when that “other individual” was actually a member of the experiment team. As a result, the experiment proved extremely stressful and traumatic to some participants. A more sinister and tragic result from deceptive research is seen in the Tuskegee Syphilis study. Thinking that they were receiving treatment when treatment was in fact withheld, a number of participants died, while some family members contracted the disease. In these cases, a significant amount of information about the study being conducted was withheld from the participants, effectively taking away their capacity to render informed consent.
It is undeniable that the three studies contributed much in their respective fields. Humphreys’ and Milgram’s findings deconstructed various stereotypes about sexual behavior and psychological depravity respectively, while much about the effects of untreated syphilis was known as a result of the Tuskegee study. However, the intrinsic value of the human person is still more important than generating knowledge for its own sake. In neglecting informed consent, the volitional capacity of a person is essentially overlooked, making the study unethical. In this sense, the perceived value of the research is not seen as sufficient justification for breaches in ethical research. More importantly, it is still possible to arrive at essentially the same results without having to resort to unethical means. The main challenge is to ensure that the value and dignity of the human person is upheld, and that the participant should be informed of the purpose of the research, the perceived benefits of the research, and those who will benefit from it.
Holmes, Robert. Basic moral philosophy. United States of America: Wadsworth
Publishing Company, 1998.

Asian philosphy

Other (s) Asian Philosophy Yoga Sutra is regarded as one of the major ical works ofIndian philosophy that is dated between 2nd and 3rd century CE. Although little is known about Patanjali, its author, it is certain that Yoga is not the first texts in the Indian philosophy (Ranganathan 1). In my opinion, Yoga Sutra particularly stands out among other Indian philosophy texts by virtue of being the, most widely translated and read Indian text in the English world. However, there have been recent calls for a new translation because of two major drawbacks of the current translation.
The first major problem that generally applies to most Indian translations such as Yoga Sutra is the absence of moral significance particularly due to the western domination. On the other hand, the second major problem with the current translation is specific to Yoga Sutra and is largely attributed to the failure to make clear distinctions between Yoga and other Indian school of philosophies such as Advaita Vedanta and Sankhya.
Ranganathan The new translation of Yoga Sutra not only elaborates the moral and philosophical insights of Patanjali’s philosophy but also lays bare its originality within the context of tradition (Ranganathan 26). In my view this is has been particularly achieved through increased sensitivity to translation theory as well as paying more attention to the theoretical nature of the moral of “Tharma” In my view, although Yoga primarily stands for meditation of the mind, the contemporary parlance has shifted its reference to include the philosophical aspects of the tradition. Some of the Patanjali’s non Yoga historical sources include Buddhism, Judaism, Sankhya and Jainism. However, Patanjali is closely associated with Sankhya tradition more than any other philosophy schools. Lastly, the originality of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra philosophy is particularly evidenced by the way he has effectively blended and synthesized the various traditions he has drawn from.
Works Cited
Ranganathan, Shyam.&nbsp.Patañjalis Yoga Sūtra: Translation, Commentary and Introduction. Delhi: Penguin Black Classics. 2008. Print.

ANALYTICALLY Compare The Great Gatsby by Fitzgerald and Ceremony by Leslie Silko and how they pertain to the so called American Dream

(Taylor, 1998) It is pertinent here to understand the genesis of the American dream. Warshauer (2003) defines American dream, “Traditionally, Americans have sought to realize the American dream of success, fame and wealth through thrift and hard work. However, the industrialization of the 19th and 20th centuries began to erode the dream, replacing it with a philosophy of ‘get rich quick’.” Gatsby owed his idea to achieve American idea to Benjamin Franklins autobiography.
Whereas , Ceremony, by Leslie Silko is a narrative of resilience and the protagonist overcomes the hardships and a series of challenges to reach the stipulated goal. Ceremony reminds us of the Grail stories where protagonist must prove his/her worth to be the worthy to be its presence. Allen , while discussing in her article, Special Problem in Teaching Leslie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony, has the point to make that reading the works of Native American writer without understanding ethnographic and historical sheen is an exercise in futility, “because texts either derived from or directly connected to tradition, are firmly embedded within the matrix of their cultural base.” (Allen,1990) The protectiveness of the native people towards their tradition is legendry . The Pueblos are expected to know no more than is necessary, ‘sufficient and congruent with their spiritual and social place.” (Allen,1990)
F. Scott Fitzgerald is the author of The Great Gatsby. He writes as if he is Nick Carraway. Gatsby’s fascination for Daisy is a reflection of a woman Fitzgerald loved in his own life. He combines the personality of Nick Carraway and Gatsby. He speaks as if he is Nick and he writes about Gatsby on the basis of his own experience.
The Great Gatsby is an example for dreams and their interpretations. Every character in this novel has a certain dream. The


New Documentary This documentary introduces the reader to look at new ways in which theorization of documentary films has been used currently from the 1980’s through 1990’s. Although the nonfictional material is examined, the main goal is to look at the background of modern work. There are many reasons for the biases of modern work (Bruzzi, 2000). This is because people who are interested in the documentary are more engaged in films than older text. The other biases are that documentary writings are unable to keep pace with cultural theory. There are no documentary writings that have looked critically on contemporary examples or have developed the strategies by which nonfictional movies are discussed. This book introduces different ways by which documentary can be discussed. It has achieved this by introducing the limitations that are accompanied by documentary theorization.
The knowledge of bias uses a confusing stress on documentary theory and training in 3 relatively different methods. First of all, it is presented as a problem to attaining the objectivity of explanation that has frequently been understood as a vital or difficult component of the documentary development. Nevertheless, acknowledgment of the biased as an unavoidable and inspiring element of documentary work reasonably than a problem to be controlled by harsh techniques and knowledge is now the leading attitude here (Renov, 2004). Secondly, bias is perceived as a thematic area in its own right, with the bias of the movie and program creators themselves in self illustration by means of pictures and voices. There is an innovative extensiveness to be distinguished here too, even though there is a remaining intelligence that lasting for too long on biased matters jeopardies a likely deviation from main documentary goals.
Representing Reality
A lesson in Documentary Movies is a new arbitrated scholarly journal dedicated to the past, philosophy, criticism and training of documentary film. This journal will allow a careful method to global documentary movie past, philosophy, criticism and training helping a vibrant and developing global community of documentary movie researchers (Nichols, 1992). The journal printed articles and evaluations, in English, from scholars all over the world in search of broadening the area of documentary movie grant. Some of the subjects recommended comprise. new methods to documentary past. new progresses in documentary concept and new knowledge in documentary movie. Global styles in documentary movie practice. Official invention in documentary movie modes. Connections of documentary rehearsal and philosophy as well Serious versions of national documentary activities mainly principally unnoticed movies are included.
Documentary Film Revisited
This module is dedicated to the past and training of documentary movie creation. It allows a person to participate with the subjects of creating and evaluating documentary movies, as well as those established around: bias. independence. agreement and ethics (Winston, 1995). This module intends to find, deliberate and assess a variety of documentary methods and the effect of progresses in movie making knowledge. It helps to track the past and civil progress of the documentary procedure, as well as uniting recent discussions in documentary movie criticism. It also examines the methods of documentary cinematography with respects to the three theoretical methods of fairness, bias and point of view. It enables the achievement of a small group scheme established around the creation of a short documentary movie.
Bruzzi, S, (2000), New Documentary: A Critical Introduction, London, Routledge.
Nichols, B, (1992), Representing Reality: Issues and Concepts in Documentary, USA, Indiana University Press.
Renov, M, (2004), the Subject of Documentary, USA, University of Minnesota Press.
Winston, B, (1995),Claiming the Real: Documentary Film Revisited, London, BFI.
Winston, B, (2002), Lies, Damn Lies and Documentaries, London, BFI.

The New Paradigm for Human Resource Management

Rather than dictating instructions, quotas, and goals from above, human resource managers follow the philosophy that includes employees in strategic decision-making. Human resource management forms the backbone of any establishment as it channels its human resources to fulfill customer and employer expectations while respecting the legal rights and privileges of employees. With human resource management, ineffective decision making will cause a company to lose its most valuable property and resourceful for progressive growth.
I believe that my communication skills cemented in me will aid in laying the foundation for a healthy professional relationship with faculty and fellow students now, and later on with peers, superiors, and subordinates in the world of work. Communication skills empower both the student and the professional to clearly and articulately present ideas and information both verbally and in writing. Communication involves the sharing of information with others on a timely basis using appropriate and easily understood language. The belief that courses with a solid focus on language drove me to improve my communication skills for I realized that a good command of language also makes keener analytical skills and also sharpens sensitivity to human needs and qualities. I have developed strong and professional communication skills as reflected in my exposure to regular oral presentations, written correspondences, and research papers. Aware that I would be required to carry out oral presentations, submit reports, and draft correspondences attribute that have supported him.&nbsp.As a Human Resources Management major, it is my privilege to build discipline-specific skills that prepare me for the world of work.&nbsp.

3 Theories of Morality

Theories of Morality Theories of Morality The three main theories of morality include Aristotle’s, Kant’s, and Mill’s. According to Aristotle, morality and ethics should be concerned with the possession of one’s capability to be virtuous or to be in possession of virtues. Being virtuous is associated with character, which involves ones possession of excellent behavior. Aristotle was concerned with the ultimate goal of being happy and being able to live well within a community. One would also mention that one has to employ the power of reason in an effort to be morally right and to co-exist happily within the community. The perspective of Immanuel Kant seems quite different. It is focused on duty and an appreciable extent of obligation (Dark, 2010). He appears to believe that every human being is faced with a responsibility to the right thing in situations where he or she needs to make an ethical decision. This is based on the premise of moral law, which means that Kant adopts a legalistic point of view in theorizing morality. In this regard, Kant draws heavily on the power of reason, as opposed to that of character. Mill adopts a slightly similar perspective.
He believes that morality boils down to what is good for all – an approach to classical utilitarianism. The perspective is focused on propagating the idea that what is moral and ethical is what benefits the most people in society. Having understood the different perspective as presented by the three philosophers, it is important to discuss them in the context of the extent to which they resonate with me. First, I would mention that, as a person, I believe that the ultimate power that can help in the accomplishment the wellbeing of the entire society is character. An important understanding that I have come to deduce from the things I have learned through the diverse experiences I have had is that, while it is important to facilitate the overall success and wellbeing of the community, this goal is not possible to accomplish unless the right values are propagated. People, as individuals within the society, have to share common beliefs, attitudes, and values in an effort for them to behave in the same way for the benefit of all (Kurzynski, 2012). With this in mind, I believe that we make ethical decisions based on what they believe is right, which results in the overall wellbeing of the rest of the society.
As such, I believe that the perspectives of Kant and Mill are fundamentally informed by the premise of virtue, which amounts to character. In addition, it is possible, though not very common, for character to be shared and practiced within a community. The perspective developed by Aristotle takes priority as far as I am concerned. Quite unfortunately, the modern world has propagated extensive individualism, which has been driven by the politics and philosophy of capitalism. This means that individual happiness, which Aristotle would say is quite inconsequential, takes priority in the modern-day society, as I have come to observe within my own culture. It is appreciable that utilitarianism can be said to be quite applicable in our society today. However, it has not been adopted as it has been defined by Mill. The legalistic sense of duty can also not be said to be applied in the modern culture, where duty and obligation are only applicable as long as they benefit the person, as opposed to society (Younkins, 2001).
Dark, M. J. (2010). Information Assurance and Security Ethics in Complex Systems: Interdisciplinary Perspectives: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. New York: IGI Global. Print
Kurzynski, M. (2012). Peter Drucker: modern day Aristotle for the business community. Journal of Management History 18 (1), 6-23.
Younkins, E. (2001). Morality and Character Development: The Roles of Capitalism, Commerce, and the Corporation. Journal of Markets and Morality 4 (1), 1.

Answering questions based on the case study

n business model, franchisees are provided with ample start-up support and training by the franchisor and the company maintains an established brand (Ramirez-Hurtado and Quattrociocchi 2009).
From the Snap Fitness’ perspective, there is significant cost savings by having an independent investor take on the franchise. It spares the franchisor of the expenses of rentals or new facilities construction as well as the necessary labour needed to manage the business and provide services.
Yet another advantage is that this gives the franchisor rather simplistic revenue production and royalties. The franchise contract indicates a level of profit sharing, usually between three and seven percent, without much commitment and service delivery by Snap Fitness. Therefore, costs are reduced in managerial labour whilst also giving the franchisor earnings simply as a basis of contract.
A final advantage to this strategy is having access to more ideas. The contracted relationship with the franchisor and franchisee can create better strategic decision-making by combining talents and knowledge held by the franchisee. Usually these investors have business experience or management talents that are vital for improving problem-solving and responding more effectively to market conditions.
Challenges of franchising include a loss of control over the franchisee. Monitoring management is a significant strategic challenge in business and franchisors cannot always be present to ensure managers are being productive. This is an agency problem of executive control (Brickley and Dark 1987). Additionally, not all franchisees maintain the same level of business talents and experiences which could conflict ensuring that the franchisee is adhering to the established model of management and leadership necessary to be consistent with the company’s brand ideology and service philosophy.
Yet another challenge is that Snap Fitness could experience tensions and conflict with the franchisee. The

Leadership Style of Googles CEO Larry Page

&nbsp.Larry Page has worked for the Google Company since its inception, a factor that gives him the advantage of understanding the company’s operations very well. He has a unique leadership style that explains why the company has proven to be highly successful. This paper will highlight the critical aspects of Page’s leadership style.
Over the years, Larry Page has demonstrated that he believes in democratic leadership. He indulges his employees in the decision-making process and gives attention to innovation. Mr Page also believes in empowering more employees to exhibit more creativity and innovation. During the first three years when he served as the chief executive officer, he led the company to the immense growth of over 200 employees. Page believes in an active management approach, which explains why he ensures that he is involved in all the company’s projects. He does not support traditional management and does not believe in autocratic leadership. He seeks to ensure that his leadership style is highly transformative so that he can attract more talent and retain the company’s employees. Mr Page is a team builder who avoids bureaucracy in order to minimize employee turnover. The company prides itself with talent from employees who have worked for the company since its inception (Helft, 2014). Without doubt, Page has a unique leadership style, which has become evident over the years.
Page believes in the philosophy that “We should be building great things that don’t exist”. He has often believed that the company can achieve anything as long as they have the resources and the right people on board. According to Page’s philosophy, innovation has remained to be an outstanding feature of his leadership at Google. He ensures that the company is working on products that have not existed in the globe before. The company gives little attention to competitors working on imitating its existing products. Instead, Mr Page ensures that the company stays ahead of its competitors by being highly innovative.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Relationship between the Individual and the State in Hegels Historical Jurisprudence

In the Philosophy of Rights Hegel stated that law is an offshoot or branch of freedom. The ever-increasing justification for a structured law proved the historical progress or metamorphosis of law. The process of systematized and rationalization of legal structure is a benchmark for historical development. Through codification, there is a conscious attempt to make laws systematic and rational and the rulers following this procedure are the most beneficiaries the people, Avineri (2003).

According to Hegel, the most important differentiation between despotism and an orderly state is the existence of structured unambiguous and fixed rules, which binds the government by its enactments. Hegel’s known reason for objection in both extreme situations of absolute monarchy and also majoritarian democracy there is a common aspect of law becoming inactive in dealing as absolute regulatory machinery and can transform into tyrannical and an individual autocrat dictator. Courts of law are the repository of individual rights. The individual as a member of the civil society possesses these rights and the duty of protecting and administration of justice are entrusted on them. Every individual has the right to get justice and it has to be demonstrated clearly. Laws are supposed to be made public and promulgated. In case of laws having a binding force, it is mandatory that they must possess universal self-consciousness and universally recognized. Laws should not be so complicated that it becomes ambiguous for them to have a clear understanding. Another corollary of a universal legal right is to make legal proceeding public, this is because the trial is a subject matter of universal validity and it is the concern of the parties alone but still the applicability of the rights in the issue and the judgment affects the public universally. So publicity of justice is right and it enhances the confidence level of the public.

African Philosophy

It was the subsequent disorder after the first breach. This production breached the principle of duality too.

Amma united with the earth again after a single jackal was produced. This time, twins were born, which settled the principle of duality that is necessary for the existence of things on earth. These twins were called the Nommo, which were half men and half snakes.

A) As a result of the incestuous act, the jackal obtained the gift of speech by laying his hands on fibers of language. B) The incestuous act became the reason of the flow of menstrual blood.

A) Since in the clitoris the male soul resides, so, man will hesitate in having sex with an uncircumcised woman. B) Woman should not have the identity of both man and woman. C) The female child gets rid of evil by paying blood-debt.

A) In prepuce resides the soul that must depart for a man to be a man. B) Fetus originates from the male sex organ. C) Circumcision pays one-time blood-debt for lifetime sex.

American Education

Western, Eastern and Native North America have different cultural perspectives, thus, views on education are expected to be diverse. Western education is focused on democracy, individualism, and reason. Its perspectives are rooted deep from the classical schools of thought in philosophy, which progressed from the naturalism to rationalism to individualism. This indicates that Western culture is more focused on the individual rather than the society. Western education and knowledge looks at the world in a more detached manner compared with the Eastern though that man and the universe are part of one big system. Eastern education is influenced more by spirituality and religion. On the other hand, Native American’s education is more focused on re-educating the students in the Western school of thought. The dominating culture of the West has been a primary focus on American’s education, thus, the culture of the natives are discouraged since the dominant culture believes that their education and knowledge is better or more inclined to the truth than the traditional ways of the natives. Though, there have been programs to re-establish the traditional concepts and schools of thought of the native, more inclined to a balance of nature and self (Demmert, 1994).
Another striking difference in the education system of the West and the East is the structure. Eastern education is more teacher-centered, wherein the teacher has the ultimate authority in a classroom setting. Western education, on the other hand, is more student-centered and focus on class participation and interaction. Teacher-centered education gives high expectations and student-centered is more focused on the values that are imparted to its students (LePage and Sockett, 2002). This basically shows that a student-centered setting is more effective in the Western education since it is more focused on individualism and reason. However, the Eastern educational system has learned to strike a balance of these two in order to produce better and more productive students.
Works Cited
Demmert, W. (1994). Blueprints for Indian education: Languages and cultures. ERIC Digest. No: ED372899.
LePage, P. and Sockett, H. (2002). Educational controversies: toward a discourse of reconciliation. NY: Routledge Falmer.

Richard Branson Leadership Style and Business Philosophy



The present research has identified that over the years the Virgin Group has always been famous for their focus on customer service. However, Branson’s theory asserts that their highest priority is in making their employees as comfortable as possible. The reasoning behind this theory is that when a company has happy and satisfied employees, the employees will be able to give their best in the production process. As a result, the products and services that are produced by such companies will be in accordance with the expectation of the customers. As a result, customers will be satisfied and will remain loyal to the brand. This implies that there will be higher profits, which simply mean that investors will also be highly rewarded for their investment. Despite the fact that the Virgin Group has businesses in various parts of the world, it is improper to refer to the Virgin Group as a multinational. This is because all their businesses operate separately with Branson serving as a major shareholder in all cases. He also acts as the chairman and public relations supremo in all cases. Branson believes in product departmentalization, which refers to dividing an organization into various departments depending on the kind of product or service that they produce. For the sake of flexibility and the highly changing business environment, Branson believes that business organizations can highly benefit from using organic structures. Their companies use various types of departmentalization such as geographic and customer departmentalization because of the independent nature of their companies. Richard Branson should consider more postmodern organizations. This is because globalization has led to a business environment where factors that affect the functioning of a business are more than just those that are dominant in the geographical area in which they operate. It gets to a moment that even the individual organizations will have to expand past their comfort zone for the sake of growth and competitiveness. However, it should also be noted that globalization leads to a situation where cultures are crossing borders. This is an implication that business organization needs to be more flexible so that they can be able to adapt to the changes that are brought about by the growth of globalization.