Wk3SG

Nurse Educator Philosophy Statement Scoring Guide CRITERIA NON-PERFORMANCE BASIC PROFICIENT DISTINGUISHED Formulate an informed nurse educator philosophy statement. Does not formulate an informed nurse educator philosophy statement. Creates an incomplete nurse educator philosophy statement. Formulates an informed nurse educator philosophy statement. Formulates an informed nurse educator philosophy statement, and ensures the statement is grounded in practice and literature of the field. Applies a nurse educator philosophy to the tripartite roles of teaching, scholarship, and service. Does not apply a nurse educator philosophy to the tripartite roles of teaching, scholarship, and service. Applies a nurse educator philosophy incompletely to the tripartite roles of teaching, scholarship, and service. Applies a nurse educator philosophy to the tripartite roles of teaching, scholarship, and service. Applies a nurse educator philosophy to the tripartite roles of teaching, scholarship, and service, acknowledging areas where additional information is needed. Analyze the influence of historical events on a nurse educator role. Does not analyze the influence of historical events on a nurse educator role. Identifies historical events that have influenced a nurse educator role but does not analyze how they have done so. Analyzes the influence of historical events on a nurse educator role. Analyzes the influence of historical events on a nurse educator role, identifying areas where impact is uncertain or still to be determined. Analyze the competencies necessary for a specific nurse educator role. Does not analyze the competencies necessary for a specific nurse educator role. Identifies competencies necessary for a specific nurse educator role, but does not adequately analyze them. Analyzes the competencies necessary for a specific nurse educator role. Analyzes the competencies necessary for a specific nurse educator role, clearly explaining how these need to be used in practice. Write coherently to support a central idea with correct grammar, usage, mechanics, and APA format and style as expected of a nursing education professional. Does not write coherently to support a central idea with correct grammar, usage, mechanics, and APA format and style as expected of a nursing education professional. Writes to support an idea but commits major errors of grammar, usage, and mechanics. Writes coherently to support a central idea with correct grammar, usage, mechanics, and APA format and style as expected of a nursing education professional. Writes coherently, using evidence to support a central idea with correct grammar, usage, mechanics, and APA format and style as expected of a nursing education professional.

Week1AssignmentPersonalPhilosophyofTeachingPartI

                                               Personal philosophy in TeachingYanet GalanDate: 3/13/2020Teaching is ideally a noble profession, and it can/ be best utilized with a friendly environment and good personal interaction since, for efficiency, a teacher needs to be in good terms with the students which can be achieved by creating a rapport.it is a requirement by the teachers to have their philosophies to allow them adequately dispatch their services. As a teacher am guided by my philosophy, which assists me in my teaching activities effectively and has led to a good relationship with my students; hence by being guided by their facial expression, they are happy and enjoy classes.As a teacher am tasked with educating my students for a brighter future, and I usually spend my time either in-class teaching or in the staff room preparing for some class activities hence making it tougher to get time for non-school or non-teaching activities. As a teacher, I find it challenging to have time for socialization since the available time is during the weekends and school holidays. Based on this fact, it shows that a teacher is usually busy (Sachs,2003) .i I find it interesting to take part in extra curriculum activities, which makes the students more friendly. We can exercise with them for healthy, physical and well being of the mind especially guided by the famous quote which later became a proverb ” All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy,All playandno work makes Jacka mere toy “.hence in my teaching philosophy I allow a lot of play and gaming to make the students active and avoid monotony and boredom. I Am dedicated to Teaching, and I admit that it is a noble calling, which makes it a unique profession that requires daily interaction with the students and a close tie, which makes the teacher-student bond stringer. In my teaching job, I came to realize that students tend to believe what the teacher says hence making it necessary for teachers to be cautious about what they say since they can shape their future. As a teacher am required o be humble when in class or when in extra curriculum activities (Cooper & Travers,2012) .i believe that when am arrogant  I would not achieve the intended purpose of Teaching and am likely to get negative result .when mentioning the names of the students usually avoid shouting to avoid causing fear and low voices shows a lot of respect to both parties.in class when teaching tonal variation so very important and avoidance of shouting names should be avoided as I do. When I practice humility can attract many friends, and the students would be able to air the challenges they face, and we can solve them without having lousy blood in between.Learning and teaching activities are usually done chronologically in any leaning setting.it is a process that affects all the people involved .it is important to note that a student learns from the teacher. The teacher also learns from the student. Learning includes the integration and application of various concepts, including motivational aspects to the students. As a teacher, my motive is to complete many different aims, including motivating the learners to make use of their potentials and work at their level best.am tasked with the ability to master the field of Teaching. I make sure that students understand all the concepts I teach (Carr,2005) .i I make sure that I am a reliable mentor to them, and I ensure that they can comfortably air their voices in the school setting and outside. I have been practicing what I gained in college during my teaching practice, and I aspire to implement more and more. I have learned the importance if encouraging teamwork. Use of inquiry-based instructions, which boosts concepts understanding deeply. Posing random questions  and adoption of technology  in the classroom  helps the students connect for the futureIt is true to say that I have gone and passed through many ups and downs in my life, especially in academics. Challenges were there, which acted as obstacles towards my development academically. I have to disseminate my services via the use of group work, inquiry, and technology and avoid dependence on theories as to the only means. I have to take a lot of consideration for the outside world and not the classroom activities alone (Sachs,2003). My Teaching assists the students in having a better improvement in knowledge hence making them better off and improve on their understanding levels. For the current state of the world, I  ensure it by technology integration of technology and learning and theory can develop their gaming skills, academic, and life skills.Conclusion  In conclusion, I have come to realize that teaching is a noble profession and can shape the students for what they are to be in the future. Every teacher has what he believes in as philosophy and some philosophies as common to all. Shouting of names of the students should be avoided since it would translate to rudeness .a teacher should be humble and have a good understanding of his students .learning should prepare and equip the students for the future of the world as it keeps on changing learning in a classroom is a two-way traffic since students learn from their teacher and teachers can learn from their students.ReferencesCarr,D. (2005).Professionalism and Ethics in Teaching. London, NY: Routledge.Cooper,C., & Travers,C. (2012).Teachers Under Pressure: Stress in the Teaching Profession. London, NY: Routledge.Sachs,J. (2003).The Activist Teaching Profession. New York, NY: Open University Press.

SomeQuizTakingTips

Quiz Tip Sheet.  A few people have emailed about the last quiz.  Here are a few tips.  First, some good news.  I will start including a bonus question on future exams.  Tips: 1. Quiz questions are reading comprehension questions:  The discussion boards are designed to give you a chance to try out your own arguments and to evaluation the arguments in the readings. The quizzes are designed to test reading comprehension.  This does not mean the quiz questions will be rote (i.e., what does Herrick say on page 24, paragraph 1). They will require active reading and comprehension of what is written.  Key Point:  The answers will come from the text.  2. Reading Philosophy may require skills that you haven’t yet mastered.
I have two points, here.  First, reading comprehension, in any discipline, improves with knowledge of the subject matter.  If you have never taken a philosophy course before (or read philosophical essays) then you can expect to find the material more challenging at first than at the end, after you have developed a feel for philosophical writing & reading.  Second, reading philosophy may be more challenging that reading other kinds of writing.  Philosophy majors consistently outperform other majors on graduate level entrance exams (for law, business, general grad school, and even the MCAT, for medicine).  Most likely, this is because of the kinds of skills required to read, write, and understand philosophical writing.
Key Point:  Give yourself room to grow in your skills.  Just because you’ve gotten a 4.0 in your other classes, doesn’t mean that you will get a 4.0 on every quiz in this class.  The types of things that are important to notice in a philosophical essay may be different from the types of things you are used to looking for.  And the types of logical inferences required in philosophical reading may be different from your typical patterns of inference.  3. What to notice — Understand Logic: Mastering the material at the end of the first reading will help your reading comprehension (of philosophy) immensely.  Here is a brief outline of the different types of arguments/reasoning.  Make sure you can define and identify each type.  As you encounter new arguments, or argument types, put them on your map.  Key Point: As you read, pay close attention to how arguments are characterized.  Different types of arguments require different standards of evaluation. 1. Deductive arguments (reasoning): At best, if the premises are true, the conclusion MUST be true. a. Category Based Arguments:  All whales are mammals; all mammals are animals; thus all whales are animals. 2. Inductive Arguments (reasoning):  At best if the premises are true, the conclusion is likely to be true. a. Analogy Arguments: (Like Paley)b. Best Explanation Arguments (like fine-tuning)c. Generalizations:  most universes are not fine-tuned, thus, probably, none are.
4. What to notice – Your Assumptions:*  We read with selective perception.  Our brains fill in sentences in ways that reflect our beliefs. Key Point: Active reading requires that we constantly monitor our assumptions.  Arguments do not always go in the direction you think they will.  For example, you may think that all theists oppose Darwin’s theory of natural selection.  Thus, you may have been surprised to find that a religious leader complimented Darwin on his theory of natural selection and noted that it seemed to be a more noble theory than creationism.  More than just being surprised, you may have overlooked that fact altogether.  Put differently, some of the strongest critiques of (some) design arguments come from theists, not atheists.  So, if you were reading the text with the background assumption that all theists endorse all design arguments, you might make errors in your reading.  We ALL have to fight these natural tendencies.  5. Know Your Test Creator:  I have taught test prep (LSAT – Law school entrance test) for over a dozen years.  We stress two things in our classes: (a) knowing how to think logically; (b) knowing the types of questions that are asked on the test.  Here are some types of questions I select or create: (I don’t create them all; some are Paul Herrick’s suggestions) a. Questions that highlight your knowledge of and attention to the basic logic patterns introduced in Chapter 1 and stressed in the reading being tested (i.e., what type of argument is X?). b.  Questions that reflect key themes or concepts in the reading: i.e., the distinction between single-step selection and cumulative selection, or the aspect of Darwin’s theory that was most contentious, or – relatedly – the distinction between a philosophical question/thesis and a scientific question/thesis. (I usually review the “Questions for Reflection” at the end of each section. c. Questions that might challenge common but mistaken assumptions: i.e., the theory of natural selection is logically inconsistent with the existence of an intelligent designer; does the design theory show that the Christian God exists? d. Attentiveness and Thoroughness:  The most straightforward questions are designed to reward those who have spent time reviewing the reading before the quiz. Did Dawkins support the single-step hypothesis or the cumulative selection hypothesis?  Summary of Key Points: 1. The quizzes stress reading comprehension: answers will come from the text. 2. Give yourself room to Grow: Reading philosophy may require a different skill set. 3. Pay Attention to Logical Distinctions: (Section 3, Chapter 1) – do the practice questions once a week until you have mastered them. 4. Pay Attention to your Assumptions: Arguments may not go where you think! 5. Know your Test: how are questions selected?  What will they typically test for?  *On Assumptions:  I came across a quote yesterday that tickled me, and also served as a good reminder to always check my assumptions.  “Robert Owen is not a man to think differently of a book for having read it.”  [RO was a 19th century British social reformer.  A remarkable man with, apparently, unshakeable assumptions, no matter what the evidence said.] 

ShortEssay2

Short Essay 2Summer 2020 – BADM 632-01 Advanced Human Resource Management Professor: Dr. Carol A. DeckerDate:05/16/2020.Benefits of a Diverse WorkforceDiversity in the workplace is helpful to both employees and employers. Granted, employees are dependent in their workplace, and cumulative productivity through respecting man or woman variations can be extra beneficial (Beck, 2010).Particularly in the current time and age where creativity and flexibility are results for competitiveness, diversity is essential for an organization’s success. On the other side, loss of time, money, or any other consequences should not be ignored (Esty et al. 1995). Organizations have some advantages if they actively practice and support diversity as an economically sound business. Four benefits include generating new principles like a marketing strategy, improving organizational growth, enhancing the businesses’ image and appearance, and hiring reputable human resources employees.A diverse workforce repeats a changing world and marketplace. A diverse workforce brings high value to corporations. Respecting character differences will advantage the team of workers by growing an aggressive aspect and growing work productivity (Martocchio, 2019). Diversity management rewards associate through creating a fair and safe environment where everyone has to get entry to possibilities and challenges. Many Workforces are made up of diverse cultures, so corporations need to learn how to adapt to be successful (Howard & Ulferts, 2007). I have been engaged with diversity in professional ways. I had the honor to work with vendors and customers when working as a sales manager. In my role, I developed an awareness of the cultural differences and traditions of those I worked with and served. While working with those multi-national companies, I understand the importance of sensitivity to the values and traditions of the co-workers and migrants I served. I educated the philosophy of incorporating business strategies sensitive to a diverse workforce in my day-to-day practice. All these practices with diversity have helped to form my leadership skills and management ethics.In professional life, I have also been exposed to diversity and worked in several organizations such as Pfizer, Glenmark, and Zydus Cadila. I have been working in a diverse workforce as a manager. I have worked with people of diverse populations, cultural backgrounds, ages, and sexual orientations. We were able to work together as a diverse group of people who familiar and valued individual differences.Job Enrichment Vs. Job Enlargement.Job enlargement is the horizontal extension of job roles, whereas enrichment is the vertical expansion of work. Job enlargement means increasing the scope of current work at a similar level through extending the range of responsibilities – For example, increasing the area under the control of an area manager. Here the skill requirement and level of responsibility remain the same.Job enrichment means improving the quality of work by giving additional responsibilities, typically performed by their manager. For example, a state sales head is made the country sales head. Here additional skills are required since no other state heads will report to them.The difference between job enrichment and job enlargement is quantity and quality. Job enrichment means development, or progress with the help of progression and development, whereas job enlargement means to add more responsibilities and an increased workload (Martocchio, 2019). By job enrichment, an employee finds satisfaction for their position and personal growth potential, whereas job enlargement mentions having extra duties and responsibilities in a current job explanation (Marrenbach & Geiger, 2019). Job enlargement is like a vehicle employer use to put the additional workload on employees, perhaps an economic downtime. Another method that by adding more variety and enlarging the responsibilities will provide the chance of enhancement and more productivity (Chung & Ross, 1977). Job enrichment involves organizing and planning to increase more control over their responsibilities and work as a manager. Personally speaking, both job enlargement and job enrichment are viewed as motivational tools for the workforce, used by the management. However, the workforce finds that job enrichment is a far great tool than job enlargement. Job Enrichment gives development, controlling, and decision-making powers to the job holder. It helps them to grow and develop. The job holders feel fulfilled that his tasks have been extended, without knowing that his role and responsibilities are increased (Patten, 1977).ReferencesMartocchio, J. (2019). Human resource management (15th ed.). Pearson.Beck, T. (2010). Offering financial education in the workplace benefits both employees and employers. Employment Relations Today, 37(2), 9–14. https://doi.org/10.1002/ert.20292Howard, T. L., & Ulferts, G. W. (2007). The Changing Workforce And Marketplace. Journal of Diversity Management (JDM), 2(4), 7–10. https://doi.org/10.19030/jdm.v2i4.5018Marrenbach, D., & Geiger, L. (2019). Job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment. Handbuch Psycho-Soziale Gestaltung Digitaler Produktionsarbeit, 359–363. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-26154-2_27Chung, K. H., & Ross, M. F. (1977). Differences in Motivational Properties between Job Enlargement and Job Enrichment. The Academy of Management Review, 2(1), 113. https://doi.org/10.2307/257612Patten, T. H. (1977). Job evaluation and job enlargement: A collision course? Human Resource Management, 16(4), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1002/hrm.3930160402

PORTFOLIOTEMPLATEEXAMPLE

Assessment Summary Alternatives Analysis Application Action Notes Ethical Assessment #1 This exercise was about right and wrong answers.  You either knew the material or you did not I didn’t do as well as I hoped but that is to be expect given this is week one of the course Form the reading it was clear that ethics and business is not as simple as making right, wrong, good, or bad choices based on one’s personal belief.  The reason this is so is because in personal life, profit of a company is not a consideration.  There are no shareholders but, in some cases, there are stakeholders dependent on the decision. being made.  But it was clear that you can’t just be a good person and be an ethical business leader. I will need to consider the appropriateness and how to apply my personal morals and values when making business related decisions.  I hope that we will see a good example of a company that does this during this course. Ethical Assessment #2 In the Values Inventory I rated assistance, character, honesty, integrity, sacrifice, and truthfulness very high as these are principles that I value in making ethical decisions.  My response was based on not knowing the situation or scenario.  An alternative would have been to rate some of the other areas high, but I found this difficult because those I selected are always non-negotiables for me.  On the The pros for the Values Inventory are limited to the fact that I was comfortable with them because they are what I consider non-negotiables.  The con is that I didn’t give the others appropriate consideration because I didn’t feel like I had the information to do so. Form the reading it was clear that ethics and business is not as simple as making right, wrong, good, or bad choices based on one’s personal belief.  The reason this is so is because in personal life, profit of a company is not a consideration.  There are no shareholders but, in some cases, there are stakeholders dependent on the decision being made.  But it was clear that you can’t just be a good person and be an ethical business leader. I will need to consider the appropriateness and how to apply my personal morals and values when making business related decisions.  I hope that we will see a good example of a company that does this during this course. Ethical Assessment #3 Moral Philosophy Assessment, I scored 25 overall which was 10 points higher than my classmates.  An alternative would have been to put aside my personal morals and values to elect to assist a loved one end their life. The pros for my choices on the Moral Philosophy exercise were limited to the fact that it aligned with my personal morals and values.  The Con is that I was not willing to consider an alternative because to do so would have been a significant departure from my personal beliefs Form the reading it was clear that ethics and business is not as simple as making right, wrong, good, or bad choices based on one’s personal belief.  The reason this is so is because in personal life, profit of a company is not a consideration.  There are no shareholders but, in some cases, there are stakeholders dependent on the decision being made.  But it was clear that you can’t just be a good person and be an ethical business leader. I will need to consider the appropriateness and how to apply my personal morals and values when making business related decisions.  I hope that we will see a good example of a company that does this during this course. Week One Summary See Above See Above See above See above Week Two Summary The case study on Mark showcased a good approach to corporate citizenship while the microchip case study left me with a sense of uncertainty on how that citizenship should be applied to the fielding of new technologies.  The only alternative would have been for Mark to not shift his mindset and engagement to one of sustainment and for the fielding of the microchip to be mandatory without the proper oversight and regulatory environment. The pros of Mark’s decision clearly enabled relationships with companies like Dow Chemical and create opportunities to look at their business practices to identify areas of improvement that would facilitate sustainment.  Conversely, if he would not have made the shift, I am not sure these things wouldn’t have happened anyways as Mark was doing it for Goldman Sachs prior to his departure.  The pros of fielding new technology and allowing the oversight and regulatory environment to catch up after the fact really revolve around convenience and the change of organizational practices to benefit from their use.  Conversely, this would allow it to be exploited in a way that could cause irreparable damage From the reading corporate citizenship is very important and often will determine a company’s success or failure depending on their willingness to change as a result of the changing needs landscape.  An article by Donovan McFarlane was important because it said “By having a social vision, a company becomes clear about what it needs to do to become an important corporate citizen and how it will carry out its plan to build an image and reputation as part of community progress and growth.” It was apparent that a solid approach to corporate governance is required to “keep the wheels turning” but also holds leaders and workers accountable for unethical conduct.  This is interesting because I did some follow-up research on Mark Tercerk and found that he stepped down in June 2019 amid complaints about the culture at the environmental group and his handling of complaints about gender inequality and discrimination (Colman 2019).  In the business world, perceived bad behavior or inability to resolve ethics-based issues in the organization can have disastrous consequences. Week Three Summary The first alternative had to do with our discussion post and how to handle a situation that teetered on the edge of ethical decision making.  The situation had to do with relationships that led to the perception of an advantage.  I decided that the issue wasn’t the relationship and thus would not ban relationships in the work area.  An alternative would be to ban the relationship in the work area. The other thing we looked at was peer-reviewed articles covering a topic related to our reading on the essential Elements of Ethical Decision-making.  I chose an article based on cause-related marketing and Rawl’s Difference principle.  The alternative to cause-related marketing is to make and sell a product that only benefits the consumer and turns a profit for the business.  The alternative to Rawls Principle is to not consider the disadvantages associated with social mobility and therefore not provide any incentives or programs that help those in society who are least advantage overcome their status to become successful The pros to prohibiting romantic relationships in an organization are that it creates a necessary separation between business and personal.  The con is that it doesn’t address the problem.  As the problem is why the perception exists on the advantage in question.  That advantage can exist whether there is a romantic relationship or not. The pros to not employing cause-related marketing are that it streamlines the considerations required by the business.  In a lot of ways, they could ignore things like supply chain ethics and management.  The con is that you lose a market sector of stakeholders who are willing to pay a higher price for a cause-based product and miss out on the social responsibility outcomes as well. The reading made it clear that businesses must institutionalize ethics in their business practices and make ethical decisions based on a variety of factors that may not always apply to the service they hope to provide.  For cause-related marketing, the articles by Hamby & Brinberg as well as Eikenberry illuminated the benefits of cause-related marketing practices but left me with the notion that as a consumer I don’t really care about the social benefits of a product and care more about fit, form, and function.  For Rawl’s principle, I read an article by Machin that talked about the complexities associate with the issue of social mobility.  There is no easy solution to this problem and penalizing those who are successful to benefit those who would perhaps never be successful seems unfair.  In my opinion this is a combination government and business problem to solve. I need to be more open minded to the benefits of cause-related marketing strategies and be less fit, form, and function focused.  While I want a product that meets my needs, I guess I am willing to pay more if it benefits a cause that I can relate too.  In short it makes me feel like a good human being to do so.  Week Four Summary There were two case studies this week that focused on Theo Chocolate and CVS.  My thoughts on Theo Chocolate is that it is admirable that they sell a chocolate bare that doubly benefits the farmers in the DRC.  The alternative would be to sell a normal chocolate bar or continue to buy the beans from DRC farmers without the investment to protect the supply chain or partner with NPOs to benefit the community after the sale.  CVS placed more emphasis on profit, and it cost them.  Their many ethical challenges really resulted from poor oversight and programs.  They eventually turned it around and even decided to eliminate the sale of tobacco products in their store because its sale did not align with their core values.
The alternative would be to do like many others and continue to sale it. The pros of Theo changing would be simplicity of operations and maximize the profit returned to the company provided they made a good product if all they did was make a regular priced chocolate bar.  The con would be they would be just like everyone else and the benefits of their existing CSR practices would be lost.  The pros of simply buying the beans at a higher cost would be limited additional overhead driven by supply chain oversight, etc. For CVS the pros to continue selling tobacco would be the profits associated with those products.  The con would be it would slow their reputation gains as refusing to sell that product clearly shows their commitment to their core values and the changes necessary after so many ethical issues. This week reading covered a lot of topics related to moral philosophies and values, the role of culture and relationships, and developing an effective ethics program.  There were several articles I read to help me understand the impacts of business practices and their effectiveness on eliciting change based on their investments.  One of those articles was The Effectiveness of Rural Versus Urban Nonprofit Organizations in the Democratic Republic of Congo which showcased that there is limited data to prove that these company’s efforts truly benefit the cultures they are interacting with.  After this week, I am committed to take a closer look at things versus jumping to conclusions that a company’s unethical behavior automatically equals nefarious conduct. While I am sure there are plenty of examples of where this has occurred, what is also clear is that complacency can be just as dangerous, if not more dangerous, than bad behavior. Week Five Summary This week was all about managing and controlling ethic programs.  The case study on BP showed how failing to maintain a functioning ethics program can result in disastrous consequences that can last for years.  I chose to criticism BP for there action following the 2010 Gulf Coast oil spill because of how they responded to the crisis and how it continues to affect other industries today.  I could have chosen to applaud their cleanup efforts and consider the bulk of their actions from a different perspective but fell short in coming up with a good reason to do so. I also looked at the implications of shareholder activism on influencing corporate decisions and governance. The only pro to how BP responded is in the fact that the spill was contained, and practices were implemented to mitigate the impacts on other industries. The con list is lengthy beginning with how the CEO of BP responded say “I wish I had my life back.”  Also, of note is even today fishing and tourism industries are impacted by the lasting impacts of an event that should have been avoidable. 
For shareholder activism the pros were clear.  Allowing shareholders to truly influence the decisions made by corporations would lead to undeniable accountability for the practices of those businesses as well as the results of those practices on stakeholders. The con to this approach would be the persistence regulatory that would be required to manage it and the cost associated with conducting it. These week’s reading focused on maintaining functioning ethics programs with heavy emphasis on the various ways a program can be audited to ensure in stays healthy.  During the case study we were asked a what if question regarding shareholder ability to influence BP to change its business practices in the future which would, in leaderships opinion, have significant negative implications.  I read several articles on shareholder activism and arrived at the conclusion that shareholder activism is an almost impossible task to accomplish I think going forward I would want to ensure the businesses I choose to use employ practices that not only maintain an ethical climate but also give equal footing to both shareholders as well as stakeholders affected by a company’s practices. Week Six Summary Week Seven Summary Week Eight Summary

Rl345SPRING2020

Marxist Political Economy  We have two primary goals to achieve with this course. If not before, at least by Week 10 and certainly by Week 11 of this course, enrolled students would have raised their levels of knowledge of Karl Marx and appreciate him as a man living out his life during the 19thcentury. In addition to understanding Marx as a person, enrolled students would gain deep-seated knowledge of his diverse and rich contributions to Classical Political Economy. We shall also consider writings of some of those who built on his contributions, people often labeled as ‘Marxists’ who advance ‘Marxian Theory’. The second goal that registers as equally important: if not before Week 11 of this course, enrolled students would have raised their proficiencies for relying upon historical texts, absorbing and thinking through high-level ideas, and then writing up their own ideas artfully and in a manner that makes use of a system of citation emphasized in this course.Please be aware our course’s two main goals. If you are not in agreement with these goals, you might consider taking a different course.If you are still in, then please consider that our course is structured to assist you as the enrolled student, in achieving these two stated goals.  If you would like to achieve other goals you should consider achieving them too.  If you need assistance from me, please show up to speak with me during office my hours.This course is designed to familiarize students with the indomitable and unconquerable Karl Marx, with an exposure to a portion of the body of social and economic thought he advanced, and that was later carried further by some of his best disciples. 
If you would like to see further by standing on the shoulders of a giant, and from this vantage point to view the world as a social scientist, I do not think you could ever find a giant with higher shoulders than Karl Marx. By all measures Karl Marx was a man of the 19th century.  He was born in 1818 and towards the end of a bucolic era in what was still a traditional and quaint European world. Over his lifetime his society would be torn asunder by industrialization and urbanization of rural populations on a grandiose scale never before seen and experienced. Marx and a few others of his generation thought up alternatives. Marx arrived in the world in the old Roman colonial city of Trier, located near today’s western border of Germany proximate Belgium.
Marx died just more than sixty years later – while in exile in London. When Marx died the western world had fully mastered industrial production – and with its mastery – clearly dominated those not successfully industrializing with various forms of prowess, including military.  At the time of Marx’s death in 1883 the capitalist system – whose laws of motion and inner workings he sought to explain – was noted for achieving hitherto unknown levels of material abundance.  In addition, his epoch of laissez-faire meant a free running capitalist system riding roughshod over what had been long standing traditions of a bucolic, feudal past that had offered social stability. Marx offered ideas on how to deal with this difficult transition into modernity.Marx’s contribution is based on his painstaking inquiry into the “laws of motion” of the capitalistic system.  Clearly, his works were read and appreciated during his lifetime. However after his death in London in 1883, his ideas proved too powerful to be contained. By the second decade of the 20th century Marx’s key ideas were already generating determining effects on the course of world history and emerged as full-blown movements at the end of World War One. By 1950, about one third of the world’s population lived under economies that relied upon economic planning for resource allocation.  These were economic systems – that in several respects – were inspired by Karl Marx.  At the start of the 21stcentury – and if we include the 1.3 billion in today’s China – then transitions away from planned economies are currently affecting about one third of the world’s population. With all of the turbulence his ideas have generated, and with these ideas affecting the fates of so many millions of people as well as the course of history, I think it behooves us to take some time to gain a substantial background in Marx’s contributions to social science thinking, in general, and to economic science, in particular.  Mark Blaug (1988, 156) emphasizes that Marx generated about 10,000 pages dealing with Political Economy. Clearly, economists can claim Marx as one of our own. But so can philosophers, sociologists, political scientists, and post-modern thinkers advancing ideas in selected disciplines. Karl Marx could claim widespread name recognition, for his name is lionized by many and vilified by many more. Few educated people in the world today could claim ignorance of his name. However, with so much name recognition, but a few people have actually devoted time towards reading and assessing Marx’s contributions to social and economic thought.  The purpose of this course, then, is to have students devote earnest attention towards reading and considering Marx’s ideas in their translations to English.  Please take account of the system for calculating your EC345 final grade.All students start at zero but can take advantage of what we using academic “new speak” pass off as Learning Opportunities. Lectures will be presented over ten weeks. Learning Opportunity #1 (like a midterm) could count for as many as 50 points Learning Opportunities #2 involves writing the first draft of an inquiry (term paper) that runs about 2,850 words of text.  This could count for as much as 25 points.  Fulfilling Learning Opportunity #3 involves refining and handing in a polished second and final draft of your inquiry, and that could count for as much as 25 additional points, with the three assignments potentially yielding a whopping 100 points and a super strong “A”.Please keep in mind that failure to turn in or perform any of the assignments on time would result in Zero (0) points for that assignment.  Papers turned in late can be docked five points for every twenty-four hour period after the assignment is due. When the course ends in June, grades will be calculated and turned in on time.  One’s final grade would be based upon the accumulated points set against the standard PSU grading scale.  I do not plan to offer incomplete or “I” grades, so best to stay on task.Dates to consider remembering:        Tuesday, 28 April 2016,  Learning Opportunity #1 due by 5pm                  Tuesday, 19 May 2016,  Learning Opportunity #2 due by 5pm Thursday, 11 June 2016, Learning Opportunity #3 due by 5pm. Topic:  Marx, the Man: Some Biographical NotesWeek 1
Tuesday, Readings:
Berlin, Isaiah.  Karl Marx, His Life and Environment  (or, any edition)  Oxford University Press,  First published in 1939.  Read “Intro.” plus Chapters 1-5. “Childhood and Adolescence” to “Paris” Plus  Chapter  8
“Exile in London: The First Phase”And Ch. 11  “Last Years”Also take in the research paper by Thomas Howell, found at our google reading site.   sites.google.com/site/econreadings45/  and the book by Paul Schafer, The First Writings of Karl Marx. New York: Ig Press, 2006.  Marx’s doctoral dissertation compares the Epicurean and Democritus views of nature, in general, and the atom, in particular.  In order to understand Marx’s touchy relationships with the faith of his family, you might read Marx’s “Zur Judenfrage” (“On The Jewish Question”) published in Paris in 1844.
For the other side, you could consider an optional reading from Paul Johnson’s  A History of the Jews, 1987.  In this book Johnson asserts Marx’s connections to the Judaic realm. Pp. 346-355. Thursday“Marx, the Philosopher:” Meet Georg Friedrich Hegel:  Marx’s Philosophical InspirationTopic:  The Dialectic
G.F. Hegel  Philosophy of Right (see google readings) Marx’s  “turning of Hegel on his head”  “Dialectical Materialism as a Philosophical View”        “Dialectial Materialism”  “Please read  The German Ideology, co-authored by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels  Ch. 1  “Opposition of the Materialist and Idealist Outlook”  parts A “Idealism and Materialism” and B  “The Illusion of the Epoch”Other views on the Dialectic  (optional readings)  Frederick Engels, The Dialectics of Nature.Week 2Topic                          “Marx, the Economist”Now we starting reading through the translation of Das Kapital, Bande I,   Noted in English as: Capital: A Critical Analysis of Capitalist Production, Vol. I  Part I, “Commodities and Money”  Chapters  I, II, IIIWeek 3
Part II,  The Transformation of Money into Capital,  Chapters IV, V, VIPart III  The Production of Absolute Surplus Value,  Chapters  VII to XIWeek 4
Marx, the TheoristPart IV  Production of Relative Surplus Value,          Chapters  XII to XVPart V“The Production of Absolute and of Relative Surplus-Value”Chapters XVI to  XVIIIWeek 5Part VI
“Wages”  Chapters  XIX to XXIILearning Opportunity #1  Due Tuesday, 28 April before class at 12 noon. Please slide your exam under my office door at  CH241P. ———————————————————————————————–Week 6 Marx’s Foundational Thinking in Economic DevelopmentFor this week we shall consider Marx’s neglected classic: Pre-Capitalist Economic Formations. I shall discourage reading the long intro from E. Hobsbawm and instead to concentrate on Marx’s ideas in the original.  Pp. 67-120Then we shall consider how these ideas on the unevencharacter of capitalist accumulation and capitalist development provide foundation for what can be thought of as the school dealing with “World Systems.”  Clearly, we could consider writings of Immanuel Wallerstein, or Samir Amin. But I believe the best representative and carrier of this tradition is Andre Gunder Frank.  Frank’s 1972 book: The Development of Underdevelopment is available through a google search as a pdf.  Also, read about Frank in the article entitled “Legacies” authored by Cristóbal Kay (found at a google site.). I’ll bring in my recent research on Brazilian economist Celso Furtado and consider his work on the impoverished Sertão of Brazil’s Northeast.As we consider Marx’s understanding of “uneven development” we will read from Marx’s Ecology: materialism and nature (2000), authored by John Bellamy Foster. Foster introduces ‘metabolic rift’, an idea drawn directly Marx that lays a foundation for Marx’s understanding of ecology.  Week 7Part VII “The Accumulation of Capital”                  Chapters  XXIII to XXV Part VIII
“The So-Called Primitive Accumulation”            Chapters  XXVI  to  XXXIIIFirst Draft of Research Paper Due:  on Tuesday, 19 May, by 5:00 p.m. Please slide under my office door (Cramer 241-P) prior to lecture.Weeks  8, 9 
Topic,  “Capitalist Reproduction”Capital  Vol. II,  Part III, Chapter XX  “Simple Reproduction”Capital Vol. II, Chapter XXI
“Accumulation and Reproduction on an Extended Scale”        Topics:  “Marx and Crisis Theory”Capital, Vol. III,  see  Chapter on Crisis Theory  “The Law of the Tendency of the Rate of Profit to Fall.”  Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism  by V.I. Lenin 
                    Topics 
“Some Who Carry on Marx’s Tradition”V. I.  Lenin  The Development of Capitalism in Russia, Chapters 1 and 2Important to consider is Rosa Luxemburg’s great classic,  The Accumulation of Capital, especially, Section III, and within this section, especially Chapters,27- “The Struggle Against Natural Economy,” Chapter 28 “The Introduction of Commodity Economy”Chapter 29 “The Struggle Against Peasant Economy”John Bellamy Foster. Marx’s Ecology: Materialism and Nature. Monthly Review Press, 2000.  Also, consider Foster’s inquiry into  “metabolic rift.” Week 10 
Topics”  Imperialism. by J.A. Hobson (any edition) “Revisionism and the Rise of Social Democracy”
“Marx’s Critics”  Eduard Bernstein.  The Pre-Conditions for Socialism               Karl Kautsky  Die Agrarfrage.
Marx’s Critics
Mikhail Bakunin,  Marxism, Freedom, and the State, see Chapter 3, “The State and Marxism” (found with google search)F. Hayek
The Road to Serfdom,  as well as,  Collectivist Economic Planning edited by: Ludwig von Mises

Nationalism edited

NationalismSule umit06/20/2019Nationalism1.The self-made man idea has a deep foundation on the American Dream. Self-made man concept believed that it was created by Benjamin Franklin, a respected man due to its contribution to the Growth of the United States. Benjamin is one of the Founding fathers of the United States. Franklin described in his autobiography, the emergence of him from a poor unknown young man of a candle maker to being a well established and successful businessman winning him an acknowledgement from members of American Society (Hemenway, 2015). The success that he achieved made him create an archetype of an individual from a humble origin and breaking all odds to achieving a respected social class. Franklin believed education is vital in creating self-improvement. 2.Transcendentalism is a philosophy contributed movement believed to be initiated by Emerson and Fuller. The movement is characterized by the focus of going beyond human knowledge, moving a step higher from our average intellectual level. The important transcendentalists’ beliefs in our society described as the goodness of both men and nature. Religion and political parties categorized as institutional transcendentalists.3.Enlightenment is described as having wisdom, the clear understanding to think and rational reasoning. The first feature associated with the enlightenment period was that people in society are incapable of rational or independent thinking. Lack of rational thoughts in the community contributed by fear, lack of education and element of unwillingness (Hillis, 2015). The second characteristic is that specific events, dates or time did not initiate the enlightenment period but developed through societal assimilation. Education within the period created rational thinking of individuals. The final characteristic is literature, arts and philosophy, which described the prominent writing done on complicated languages like Latin. English, French and German languages used within the period. Literature broadened to scientific, mathematics and economic works. 4.Franklin focused on creating change in the United States, and this was evident based through his experiments and inventions. Franklin was democratically sensible, and he always does what he feels that it is necessary. He championed for various principles including responsibility, curiosity, honesty and persistence and also nurtured entrepreneurial culture (Mosley & Jarpe, 2019). Franklin believed that following all the principles without keeping a strict schedule leads to failure but keeping a tight schedule leads to success.

Mmm

Q. In his account of the power relationships in the Greek household in the Politics, Aristotle argues that it is natural for wives to be subordinate to husbands, children to their father and enslaved people to those who claim to be their ‘masters’. What arguments does Aristotle use to justify the subordinate position of enslaved people to masters? Be ready to identify three arguments and say what you think of them.1.2.2 Let us begin by discussing the relation of master and slave, in order to observe the facts that have a bearing on practical utility, and also in the hope that we may be able to obtain something better than the notions at present entertained, with a view to a theoretic knowledge of the subject.3. For some thinkershold the function of the master to be a definite science, and moreover think that household management, mastership, statesmanship and monarchy are the same thing, as we said at the beginning of the treatise; others however maintain that for one man to be another man’s master is contrary to nature, because it is only convention that makes the one a slave and the other a freeman and there is no difference between them by nature, and that therefore it is unjust, for it is based on force.4. Since therefore property is a part of a household, and the art of acquiring property a part of household management (for without the necessaries even life, as well as the good life,is impossible), and since, just as for the definite arts it would be necessary for the proper tools to be forthcoming if their work is to be accomplished, so also the manager of a household must have his tools, and of tools some are lifeless andothers living (for example, for a helmsman the rudder is a lifeless tool and the look-out man a live tool—for an assistant in the arts belongs to the class of tools), so also an article of property is a tool for the purpose of life, and property generally is a collection of tools,and a slave is a live article of property.5. And every assistant is as it were a tool that serves for several tools; for if every tool could perform its own work when ordered, or by seeing what to do in advance, like the statues of Daedalus in the story,a(Links to an external site.)or the tripods of Hephaestus which the poet says ‘autonomously enter the company of the gods,’b(Links to an external site.)—if thus shuttles wove and quills played harps of themselves, master-craftsmen would have no need of assistants and masters no need of slaves. Now the tools mentioned are instruments of production, whereas an article of property is an instrument of actionc(Links to an external site.); for from a shuttle we get something else beside the mere use of the shuttle, but from a garment or a bed we getonly their use.6. And also inasmuch as there is a difference in kind between production and action, and both need tools, it follows that those tools also must possess the same difference. But life is doing things, not making things; hence the slave is an assistant in the class of instruments of action. …7. These considerations therefore make clear the nature of the slave and his essential quality: one who is a human being belonging by nature not to himself but to another is by nature a slave, and a person is a human being belonging to another if being a man he is an article of property, and an article of property is an instrument for action separable from its owner.But we must next consider whether or not anyone exists who is by nature of this character, and whether it is advantageous and just for anyone to be a slave, or whether on thecontrary all slavery is against nature.8. And it is not difficult either to discern the answer by theory or to learn it empirically. Authority and subordination are conditions not only inevitable but also expedient; in some cases things are marked out from the moment of birth to rule or to be ruled. And there are many varieties both of rulers and of subjects (and the higher the type of the subjects, the loftier is the nature of the authority exercised over them, for example to control a human being is a higher thing than to tame a wild beast; for the higher the type of the parties to the performance of a function, the higher is the function, and when one party rules and another is ruled, there is a function performed between them)9—because in every composite thing, where a plurality of parts, whether continuous or discrete, is combined to make a single common whole, there is always found a ruling and a subject factor, and this characteristic of living things is present in them as an outcome of the whole of nature, since even in things that do not partake of life there is a ruling principle, as in the case of a musical scale.a(Links to an external site.)However, this matter perhaps belongs to an investigation lying somewhat outside our subject.10. But in the first place an animal consists of soul and body, of which the former is by nature the ruling and the latter the subject factor. And to discover what is natural we must study it preferably in things that are in a natural state, and not in specimens that are degenerate. Hence in studying man we must consider a man that is in the best possible condition in regard to both body and soul, and in him the principle stated will clearly appear,—since in those that are bad or in a bad condition it might be thought that the body often rules the soul because of its vicious and unnatural condition.11. But to resume—it is in a living creature, as we say, that it is first possible to discern the rule both of master and of statesman: the soul rules the body with the sway of a master, the intelligence the appetites with constitutional or royal rule; and in these examples it is manifest that it is natural and expedient for the body to be governed by the soul and for the emotional part to be governed by the intellect, the part possessing reason, whereas for the two parties to be on an equal footing or in the contrary positions is harmful in all cases.12. Again, the same holds good between man and the other animals: tame animals are superior in their nature to wild animals, yet for all the former it is advantageous to be ruled by man, since this gives them security. Also, as between the sexes, the male is by nature superior and the female inferior, the male ruler and the female subject. And the same must also necessarily apply in the case of mankind generally;13. therefore all men that differ as widely as the soulfrom the body and the human being from the lower animal (and this is the condition of those whose function is the use of the body and from whom this is the best that is forthcoming)—these are by nature slaves, for whom to be governed by this kind of authority is advantageous, inasmuch as it is advantageous to the subject things already mentioned. For he is by nature a slave who is capable of belonging to another (and that is why he does so belong), and who participates in reason so far as to apprehend it but not to possess it; for the animals other than man are subservient not to reason, by apprehending it, but to feelings.14. And also the usefulness of slaves diverges little from that of animals; bodily service for the necessities of life is forthcoming from both, from slaves and from domestic animals alike. The intention of nature therefore is to make the bodies also of freemen and of slaves different—the latter strong for necessary service, the former erect and unserviceable for such occupations, but serviceable for a life of citizenship (and that again divides into the employments of war and those of peace); though as aalthough because misfits do occur its justice is criticized.matter of fact often the very opposite comes about —slaves have the bodies of freemen and freemen the souls only;15. since this is certainly clear, that if freemen were born as distinguished in body as are the statues of the gods, everyone would say that those who were inferior deserved to be these men’s slaves; and if this is true in the case of the body, there is far juster reason for this rule being laid down in the case of the soul, but beauty of soul is not so easy to see as beauty of body. It is manifest therefore that there are cases of people of whom some arefreemen and the others slaves by nature, and for these slavery is an institution both expedient and just.16.But at the same time it is not difficult to see that those who assert the opposite are also right in a manner. The fact is that the terms ‘slavery’ and ‘slave’ are ambiguous; for there is also such a thing as a slave or a man that is in slavery by law, for the law is a sort of agreement under which the things conquered in war are said to belong to their conquerors. Now this conventional right is arraigned by many jurists just as a statesman is impeached for proposing an unconstitutional measure; they say that it is monstrous if the person powerful enough to use force, and superior in power, is to have the victim of his force as his slave and subject; and even among the learned some hold this view, though othershold the other.17. But the reason of this dispute and what makes the theories overlap is the fact that in a certain manner virtue when it obtains resources has in fact very great power to use force, and the stronger party always possesses superiority in something that is good,a(Links to an external site.)so that it is thought that force cannot be devoid of goodness, but that the dispute is merely about the justice of the matter (for it is due to the one party holding that the justification of authority is good-will, while the other identifies justice with the mere rule of the stronger); because obviously if these theories be separated apart, the other theories have no force or plausibility at all, implying that the superior in goodness has no claimto rule and be master.18. But some persons, doing their best to cling to some principle of justice (for the law is a principle of justice), assert that the enslavement of prisoners of war is just; yet at the same time they deny the assertion, for there is the possibility that wars may be unjust in their origin and one would by no means admit that a man that does not deserve slavery can be really a slave—otherwise we shall have the result that persons reputed of the highest nobility are slaves and the descendants of slaves if they happen to be taken prisoners of war and sold. Therefore they do not mean to assert that Greeks themselves if taken prisoners are slaves, but that barbarians are. Yet when they say this, they are merely seeking for the principles of natural slavery of which we spoke at the outset; for they are compelled to say that there exist certain persons who are essentially slaves everywhereand certain others who are so nowhere.19. And the same applies also about nobility: our nobles consider themselves noble not only in their own country but everywhere, but they think that barbarian noblemen are only noble in their own country—which implies that there are two kinds of nobility and of freedom, one absolute and the other relative, as Helen says in Theodectesa(Links to an external site.):But who would dare to call me menial,The offspring of gods on both sides?Yet in so speaking they make nothing but virtue and vice the distinction between slave and free, the noble and the base-born; for they assume that just as from a man springs a man and from brutes a brute, so also from good parents comes a good son; but as a matter of fact nature frequently while intending to do this is unable to bring it about. It is clear therefore that there is some reason for this dispute, and that in some instances it is not the case that one set are slaves and the other freemenby nature;20 and also that in some instances such a distinction does exist, when slavery for the one and mastership for the other are advantageous, and it is just and proper for the one party to be governed and for the other to govern by the form of government for which they are by nature fitted, and therefore by the exercise of mastership, while to govern badly is to govern disadvantageously for both parties (for the same thing is advantageous for a part and for the whole body or the whole soul, and the slave is a part of the master—he is, as it were, a part of thebody, alive but yet separated from it;21 hence there is a certain community of interest and friendship between slave and master in cases when they have been qualified by nature for those positions, although when they do not hold them in that way but by law and by constraint of force the opposite is the case). And even from these considerations it is clear thatsupervision of slaves’ tasks, and acquisition of slaves.the authority of a master over slaves is not the same as the authority of a magistrate in a republic, nor are all forms of government the same, as some assert. Republican government controls men who are by nature free, the master’s authority men who are by nature slaves; and the government of a household is monarchy (since every house is governed by a single ruler), whereas statesmanship is the governmentof men free and equal.22 The term ‘master ’ therefore denotes the possession not of a certain branch of knowledge but of a certain character, and similarly also the terms ‘slave ’ and ‘freeman.’ Yet there might be a science of mastership and a slave’s science—the latter being the sort of knowledge that used to be imparted by the professor at Syracuse (for there used to be a man there who for a fee gave lessons to servants in their ordinary duties); and indeed there might be more advanced scientific study of such matters, for instance a science of cookery and the other such kinds of domestic service—for different servants have different functions, some more honorable and some more menial, and as the proverb says,Slave before slave and master before master.a(Links to an external site.)23The slave’s sciences then are all the various branches of domestic work; the master’s science is the science of employing slaves—for the master’s function consists not in acquiring slaves but in employing them. This science however is one of no particular importance or dignity: the master must know how to direct the tasks which the slave must know how to execute. Therefore all people rich enough to be able to avoid personal trouble have a steward who takes this office, while they themselves engage in politics or philosophy. The science of acquiring slaves is different both from their ownership and their direction—that is, the just acquiring of slaves, being like a sort of warfare or hunting. Let this then stand as our definition of slave and master.Book Seven of the Politics treats the social regulation of marriage and education. Here are a few key points.Aristotle asserts that he correct and best ages for marriage are: men: 37; women 18 so that their periods of peak fertility and reproductive power coincide. “There should be no divergence of physical power, with the husband still able to beget but the wife unable to conceive. … ” This assertion about the naturally appropriate age for reproduction justifies Greek marriage practices, in which young women in their (late) teens were married to men in their thirties who had likely recently inherited the estates of their fathers.• men should be neither as strong as athletes nor weakened from old age• women need a similar mid-range level of fitness. The legislator can encourage fitness in pregnancy by establishing rituals that require a daily walk to a shrine of goddesses who preside over childbirth.• 1335 b 19 there is a place for family planning to limit the size of the family in order to ensure good outcomes. If miscarriage must be induced it should be done “before sense and life have begun in the embryo”• adultery during peak child-bearing years is highly problematic (because it interferes with the entitlement of free citizen men to hand their property down to their genetic children)• Chapter 17 discusses the education of the young, the goals of which are to move the freeborn infant male through the period of youth until the ruling element of his soul is suitable for ruling others in the household. diet, exercise, limited exposure to indecent pictures and formal education all have a role in this.Aristotle’s account of the beehiveThe social behavior of insects was extremely fascinating to ancient thinkers. Bees are so small, and yet it is relatively easy to observe that they behave in a highly organized way.In ways that parallel his approach to the natural qualities of human social organization, Aristotle describes the social organization of bees in ways that project Greek cultural assumptions about gender and status onto the world of the bees.Q. What ideas about Greek households and society does Aristotle project on to his account of the bees and the beehive? What assumptions, stereotypes, or ideas about social status in human society are reinforced by Aristotle’s account of the natural bee society? Be ready to describe and discuss three examples of this in this passage.History of Animals8 (9).40.623b-626b[Aristotle is discussing bees] Their working methods and way of life show great complexity. After the hive has been handed over to them clean, they build the wax combs, bringing the drops from the flowers and especially from the trees, from willow and elm and others that are very gummy. With this they also smear the floor against the other creatures; thebeekeepers call this dusting. They also build upthe entrances if they are wide. They fashion first combs in which these bees themselves are produced, then those in which the so-called kings and the drones are produced. Now their own they are always fashioning, those of the kings when there is much production of young, and those of the drones if there are signs that honey is plentiful. They fashion those of the kings next to their own (and theseare small) and the drones’ combs on to them; these are less in size than those of the bees. They begin the webs from above, starting from the top of the hive and woven continuously below, and they make many webs down to the floor. The apertures both for the honey and for the grubs have mouths at both ends: for there are two apertures about one base like that of the double cups,one aperture inside and one outside. The weavingsattached to the hives around the beginnings of the combs, as far as two or three rows in a circle, are shallow and empty of honey; the fuller combs are those that have been most thoroughly plastered with wax. …Some say that the drones fashion combs by themselves both in the same hive and in the one comb (by dividing it with the bees), but that they make no honey but both they and the young feed on that of the bees. The drones spend most of the time inside, but if they fly out they are borne up in a mass to the sky, whirling around and apparently exercising themselves; after doing this they come back inside and feast. But the kings do not fly out except with the whole swarm, neither for foraging nor for anything else. They say too that if the swarmhas strayed they turn back, tracking the leader by scent until they find him. It is said that he is even carried by the swarm when he is unable to fly, and that if he perishes the swarm perishes; and that if they do survive for some time and make no combs, no honey is produced and the bees soon perish.The bees pick up the wax by scrabbling at the blossoms busily with their front feet; these they wipe off onto the middle feet, and the middle ones on to the bent parts of the hind ones; having done this they fly away carrying the load, and are clearly weighed down. On each flight the beedoes not go on to flowers different in form; it goes for example from violet to violet, and does not touch any other before it has flown back to the hive. And having arrived at the hive they shake themselves,and three or four bees attend to each. What they pick up is not easy to see, nor has their method of working it been seen; but the collecting of the wax has been observed on olive trees, since owing to the leaves’ density the bees remain in the same place for longer.After this they nest. Nothing prevents there being grubs [=infant bees] and honey and drones in the same wax.Now if the leader is alive, they say that the drones are produced apart, but that otherwise they are generated in the bees’ cells by the bees, and that these drones become more spirited; and for this reason they are even called drones with stings, not because they have them but because they wish to strike but cannot. The drones’ cells are larger. Sometimes they fashion the drones’ combs separately by themselves, but as a rule among those of the bees; that is why one cuts them out.There are several kinds of bees, as we have said before: two of leaders, the better one red, the other black and more variegated and twice the size of the good working bee. The best beeis small, round and variegated; another is long…. A different one is the so-called robber, black and broad-bellied. Another is the drone; this is the biggest of all, but stingless and sluggish. There is a difference between the bees produced from those that forage in domesticated plants and the bees produced from those foraging in the mountain plants; for those from the forest-foragers are hairier and smaller and more industrious and fiercer. Now the good working bees work to make the combs even, with the outer covering all smooth; and there is one form of the comb, for example all honey or grubs or drones; but if it happens that they make all of them in the same comb, there will be continuously one form constructed through a mixed heap. But the long bees make the combs uneven and the cover bulging …, and moreover the embryos and everything else placed at random. From them come the bad leaders and many drones and the so-called robbers, but very little or no honey.The bees sit over the combs and use their body heat to ‘cook’ them and make them productive; if they do not do this the combs are said to perish and become cobwebby. And if they can save the rest of the comb by sitting over it, this bad part becomes like a piece eaten away; otherwise whole combs are destroyed. In the corrupted parts small grubs are produced which grow wings and fly away. Further, the bees set upright the combs that are falling, and put props under them so that they can pass underneath; for when they have no way of approach they do not sit on them and then they become cobwebby.The robber and drone, once produced, do not work but damage the work of the others; and when caught they are killed by the good working bees. The latter also readily kill the majority of the leaders, especially the bad ones, so that there should not be a multiplicity of them to disperse the swarm. They kill them mostly when the hive is not producing many young and when no swarming is about to happen; at these times they destroy even the combs of the kings, if they have been prepared, because kings lead the swarms out. They destroy the drones’ combs too if there are signs of a shortage of honey and the hives are not well stocked with honey; and it is then that they fight most over the honey against those who take it, and expel the drones that are present, and are often seen sitting out on the hive-stand. The small bees are very hostile to the long kind and try to expel them from the hives; and if they defeat them, this is believed to become an extremely good hive. But if the others are left in charge of themselves, they are idle and achieve nothing good but actually die themselves before the autumn. Whenever the working bees kill, they try to do it outside the hive; and if one dies inside they take it out likewise. The so-called robbers not only damage the combs in their own hives but also enter those of others if they are not detected; if caught, they are killed. It is difficult for them to escape detection, for not only are there guards at every entrance but the robber himself, if he has got in undetected, through over-filling himself is unable to fly but rolls about in front of the hive so that it is difficult for him to escape.The kings are not themselves seen outside except in the company of a swarm, and in the swarms the other bees are seen to be in close order around the king. When a swarm is about to take flight, a monotonous and peculiar hum is made for some days, and two or three days beforehand a few bees fly round the hive; whether the king is also among these has not yet been observed because it is not easy. When they have all collected, they fly off and the ordinary bees divide up around each of the kings; but if a small group happens to settle near a large group, the small group changes its place to join the large one, and if the king whom they have abandoned accompanies them they destroy him. Such then are the events surrounding the departure and swarming.They have bees appointed to each of the tasks, for example some are flower-gatherers, others are water-gatherers, and others smooth and level the combs. They bring water when they are rearing young. They do not settle on any animal flesh nor eat cooked food. There is no customary time for them to begin work, but if they have their needs provided and are in good condition, it tends to be in the height of spring that they set to work, and when the weather is fine they work continuously. Moreover a bee newly produced works straightaway on the third day after shedding its case, if it has food. And when a swarm has taken up its position, some detach themselves to go for food, and then come back to them again.In hives that are thriving the production of embryo bees lapses for only about the forty days after the winter solstice. When the young have grown, they put food by them and smear a coating over; the grub itself, when it is able, splits the covering and comes out. The creatures that develop in the hives and damage the combs are cleaned out by the good working bees, but the other bees because of their bad character look on unconcerned at the destruction of the work. When the bee-keepers are lifting the combs they leave food for the bees through the winter, and if it lasts out the winter the hive is preserved, but otherwise if there is wintry weather they die there and if there are fine spells they desert the hive. For food they use honey both in summer and in winter; but they also store another food resembling wax in its hardness, which some namesandarake.Bees are attacked most by wasps and by the birds called titmice, also by swallow andbee-eater. They are hunted also by the marsh frogs which they encounter when they go to the water; for this reason the frogs too are hunted by thebee-keepers out of the marshes from which the bees get water; the keepers also remove the wasps’ nests and the swallows that are near the hives and thebee-eaters’ nests. Bees flee from no animals except each other. Their fighting is both against themselves and against the wasps. Outside they attack neither each other nor any other animal, but beside the hive they kill any that they overcome. Those that sting perish because the sting cannot be removed without the intestine; for often thebee is saved if the person stung takes care and squeezes out the sting; but in losing the sting thebee dies. By stinging they kill large animals, for example a horse before now was killed by bees. But the leaders are the least ill-tempered and sting least.Bees that die are carried out [note: this is the same Greek word as is used for human funeral rites]. And in all other respects the animal is very clean; hence they often even fly off to discharge their excrement because it is ill-smelling. They are annoyed, as we have said,by unpleasant smells and by perfumes; hence they sting even those who use them. They die because of various circumstances, especially when a number of leaders is produced and each leads away a section of them. …In regard to the kind of bees which we have saidis bad and makes the combs roughly, there are somebee-keepers who say that it is chiefly the young ones that do this out of ignorance; the current year’s bees are young. Nor do the young ones sting in the same way; hence the swarms can be carried, for they consist of young bees. When the honey has run short they expel the drones, and the bees are supplied with figs and sweet things. The older bees work inside and are hairy because they stay in, while the young ones fetch from outside and are smoother. They also kill the drones when there is no longer room for themselves to work; for they are in the innermost part of the hive. Before now, when a hive had been unhealthy, some of the bees attacked a hive belonging to others, and as they were winning the battle they began carrying out the honey; but when thebee-keeper started to kill them, the others then came out to attack them and began repelling them, and refrained from stinging the man.The diseases mostly attack hives that are thriving, including the so-calledkleros: this is a formation of little grubs on the floor, and from them as they grow a sort of cobwebs invades the whole hive, and the combs decay. Another disease develops as a sort of laziness in the bees and a bad smell in the hives.Thyme is a source of food for bees, and the white is better than the red. Their place should be not warm in the heat of summer, but warm in the winter. They sicken especially when the plant they are working on is mildewed. When there is a strong breeze, they carry a stone upon themselves as ballast against the wind. If there is a river near, they drink from nowhere else but there, having first stored their load; but if there is not, in drinking elsewhere they vomit up the honey and proceed at once to work.They have a double season for making their honey, spring and autumn; the spring honey is sweeter and paler and in general better than the autumn honey. And the best honey comes from new wax and young plant-growth….All the bees discharge their excrement either while flying away, as we have said,or into one comb. The small bees tend to be workers more than the large ones, as we have said; their wings get worn away at the edges, their colour is dark, and they are sunburnt. The bright and showy ones, as with women, are lazy. Bees seem to like the sound of a rattle, and so people say they collect them into the hive by rattling pots and counters. It is not clear, however, if they hear itat all, and whether they act thus through pleasure or through fear. The bees drive out both the lazy ones and those that do not save. The tasks have been divided, as we have said before, and some are working at combs, some at the honey, some at erithake; and some are shaping combs, others are carrying water to the cells and mixing it with the honey, others are on their way to work. At daybreak they are silent until onebee arouses them by buzzing two or three times. Then they all fly out together to work, and on returning they are noisy at first but gradually become less so until a singlebee flies round buzzing as though signaling for sleep; then suddenly they are silent. The hive is diagnosed to be strong by the amount of noise and by the movement of bees going out and coming in; for then they are working at grubs. They are most hungry when they begin after the winter. But they become lazier if one leaves behind too much honey when harvesting the combs; on the contrary one should leave the combs in proportion to the population; they work with less spirit also if too few are left. They become lazier also if the hive-box is large; for they labor with less spirit. The harvest from a hive is a pitcheror three half-pitchers, and the thriving ones yield two pitchers or five half-pitchers, and a few three pitchers.

MilestoneOne

Security Awareness Program ProposalChaston CarterHuman Factors in Security02/25/17Security Awareness Program ProposalIn light of my recent move to an organization without a security awareness program, as a chief information security information officer. I have been tasked with drawing a proposal for this organization. The need for this proposal is to implement organizational threats, and a protection awareness program with the potential to help this organization with the appropriate network and IT-enabled devices  and security practices. As well, as the need for this proposal is for the identification of likely vulnerabilities of the organization’s system. The overall purpose of this proposal is to address the company’s CEO’s concerns about risks that may be brought about by a breach of the company’s system security.Based on the above introductory statements, this proposal seeks to highlight on security postures to be addressed by the security awareness program proposal. Likewise, the paper will assess human factors contribution and associated factors within an organization that contributes to the status of security posture. To begin with, security posture refers to an overall plan for system security of an organizational. This is usually from the planning to the implementation stages which comprise of non-technical and technical controls, policies and procedures. Usually, security postures are meant to address policies, communication, user awareness, training, risk assessment, and controls within management practices in an organization’s system security.  With this in mind, the proposal seeks to ratify a security model that conforms to next generation technology. This is a view of addressing threats that may come by in the future at elevated levels. Additionally, based on security posture the proposal seeks to align initiatives towards security on the requirements of the organization. Likewise, the need to develop a culture of security accountability and inclusion will be drafted. Moreover, this model will include other factors that are often overlooked such as time, resources and the human element. Nevertheless, the major concentration will be on the human element. The human element is a phenomenal threat to an organization’s system security. This may be through mistakes or lack of an understanding by the employees of their role in supporting security procedures and processes. In this light, this proposal seeks to recommend a model for analyzing the role of human factors in an organization’s security. This is for the use of the goal-driven risk management and force field analysis methods of human factor analysis. Likewise, the proposal will offer more insight on how changing behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs of employees may improve the security posture of an organization’s information system. As well, the proposal will highlight the importance of information sharing and effective training programs whose aim is in reducing the risk of lack of understanding and human error in an organization’s information security.However, despite looking at the human factor, this proposal seeks to reflect at other aspects within the organization that has a contribution to security posture. This is beyond the scope of social and human elements. These factors are organizational policies, organizational culture, and management philosophy which expediently play a huge role in shaping the security posture of an organization’s security posture.

Argumentative research paper

Argumentative Research Paper: All drafts are due at the beginning of classfor peer evaluation purposes. No electronic submissions will be accepted except for the final draft. A one grade point deduction per week will be assigned except for documented medical reasons.Instructions for completing the paper are as follows:Title— (Yes/No question of philosophy voted on by class and approved by instructor.)For example, ‘Is it wrong to spend $10K on a handbag?’Section #1—one word… “yes” or “no” suffices. Simply say how you will answer the question. (For example, “YES”.)Section #2— What have scholars(JSTOR!) said who disagreewith your position? Quote exactly threesources and be sure to state the reasons for their disagreement. (Exact format of footnotes is up to you, though it is imperative that you carefully cite all your sources. It is recommended that you select the style used in your major field’s professional publications.) Begin each paragraph with the phrase, “It seems that buying a $10K handbag is NOT wrong, for as John Q. Capitalist says, “…””Section #3— What have other scholarssaid on behalf of your position? Again, document exactly threescholars who agreewith you and state the reasonsthey do so. Begin with the phrase, “On the contrary, it seems that buying a $10K handbag IS wrong, for as Frugal Francis says, “…””Section #4—This is where you explain why you take your position. Argue for your views with evidence and avoid fallacies. It is recommended that you divide this section into three tightly focused and short paragraphs that provide three different arguments for the truth of your position. Remember, your position is not established by the bad reasoning of your opponents. Reserve all attacks for section #5. Begin this section saying, “I answer that buying a $10K handbag is immoral because…”Section #5—Rebuteachof the reasons given by your opponentsin section #2.Please follow this outline exactly. Do not add introductions or conclusions. The assignment will be easier if you get straight to the point. Clarity and precision are of the utmost importance. Do not try to be fancy. The primary goal of the scholastic article is to (a) demonstrate comprehension of a philosophical position, and (b) express reasons for and against a viewpoint. These brief essays are to be typed at 12-pitch in an academic font (e.g. Times New Roman, Helvetica, etc.) and double-spaced, and should be between 5 and 6 pagesin length.i have attached my bibliography , please follow all the instructions above , 5 pages wanted11/05/20205socialscience

“Philosophy discussion 400500 words &quot

finish in 12 hours”On pp. 23-24, Sartre explains that the individual is not only responsible for their own existence, that is, they not only must choose for themselves, but they are also responsible for all humanity, and that they must choose for all of humanity.

Week 6 final

Organizational Budget PlanFor this assignment, you will develop an organizational budget plan utilizing your choice of budget reports. Although your Organizational Budget Plan will be professionally relevant, it will be structured according to established academic guidelines and will contain an introduction, literature review, budgetary line items, discussion, and conclusion.You will take on the role of the chief operating officer for either the San Diego, California Police Department or the California Department of Corrections. In this role, you have been called upon to cut your agency’s operating costs by 25%. Your tasks are to decide where costs should be cut, rationalize your decisions based on available literature, and draft an appropriate budget plan outlining your decisions. Your budget plan should allow the organization to function adequately and provide the necessary public service required of its mission statement.You will be using the budget report you chose for your Week Three Annotated Literature Review assignment. Based on your previous selection, you will create your budget plan. (The literature you researched in Week Three should be used to support this assignment as well.) When considering your chosen report, keep in mind that the total operating budget for your respective agency must be cut by the requisite 25%. The resulting amount will be the total available funding for your agency for the upcoming fiscal year.Do not create an entirely new budget. Your task is to take the funds available for your agency for the upcoming fiscal year and provide a rationale for the cuts you decide upon and how the money will be reallocated among the budgetary line items.The following headings and content must be included in the budget plan.Literature ReviewFor this section of your plan, you must research and include a minimum of nine scholarly and/or professional resources(Links to an external site.)published within the last 10 years in addition to your course text. You are encouraged to review your instructor feedback and include the work you completed in the Week Three Annotated Literature Review assignment. Explain the basic elements of decision-making and public finance in law enforcement or correctional organizations in general. Define and describe what is meant by the terms: strategic management, quality management, operations management, and project management. Explain the distinctions between qualitative versus quantitative decision-making and describe various ways both styles of decision-making are important for a criminal justice organization. Examine the management philosophy of Henri Fayol (1917) and briefly describe the ways planning, organizing, leading, controlling, and coordinating impact an agency’s budgetary considerations. Apply these theoretical concepts of management and leadership to your chosen agency’s budgetary reduction and explain how these considerations reflect strategic management practices. Explain the basic premises of budget management and preparation as they pertain to the type of agency you chose (either law enforcement or corrections). Provide a detailed explanation of the nuances of budget management and preparation that are unique to your chosen agency.Budgetary Line Items Review your researched literature and analyze the technical aspects of program budgeting and finance as they pertain to the type of agency you chose (either law enforcement or corrections). Explain how strategic, quality, and operations management impact these institutions. Defend any budget cuts you include in your budgetary plan based on your research. Evaluate financial constraints facing your selected organization, taking into consideration the concepts of demand and supply as they pertain to the type of agency you chose. Identify relevant stakeholders, potential sources of competition, economies of scale, and financial constraints facing your agency. Create a budget for your agency that reduces the overall spending by 25% and reallocates funds as necessary. The format of the budget should mirror that of the chosen budget report and include both table and narrative sections. Charts and graphs are encouraged; however, images of people and items should not be included in your budget. The various budgeted requirements for your organization are provided in your chosen budget report. You must take into consideration the unique requirements of your chosen organization and provide a logical reallocation of funds where necessary. You must provide a thorough rationale for each reallocation.Discussion and Conclusion Assess the impact of your proposed budget changes on the fiscal health and human resources management of the agency. Provide a summary rationale for the changes you made to your organization’s operating budget.The Organizational Budget Plan Must be 10 to 15 double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center(Links to an external site.). Must include a separate title page with the following: Title of project Student’s name Course name and number Instructor’s name Date submitted Must use at least nine scholarly and/or professional sources in addition to the course text. Must document all sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.10/05/202015law

“Jean Watson&#x27

s theory of human caring/caring science core principles to APN Practice “Discussion Question 2 – Applying Jean Watson’s Theory on Human Caring/Caring Science Core Principles to APN PracticeDiscussion PromptJean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring/Caring Science is one theoretical framework used throughout the USU College of Nursing courses. The practice implication of Watson’s Human Caring Theory evolves our thinking and approaches to patient care from a mindset of carative (cure) to one of caritas (care). The core principles/practice are founded on a: Practice of loving-kindness and equanimity Authentic presence: enabling deep belief of other (patient, colleague, family, etc.) Cultivation of one’s own spiritual practice toward wholeness of mind/body/spirit—beyond ego “Being” the caring-healing environment Allowing miracles (openness to the unexpected and inexplicable life events)Some individuals are comfortable framing their practice with Watson while other prefer different theories or collection of theories. However, Watson is based on caring which a foundation of nursing. Anyone could use the core principles to guide decision making. Select one of the core principles and discuss ways you might be able to use in guiding your advanced practice nursing practices.Resource:Watson’s Caring Science Institute. (2018). Core concepts of Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring/Caring Science. Retrieved August 20, 2018 fromhttps://www.watsoncaringscience.org/files/PDF/watsons-theory-of-human-caring-core-concepts-and-evolution-to-caritas-processes-handout.pdf Jean Watson’s Philosphy of Nursing -http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Watson.htmlWatson, J. (2008). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring (rev. ed.), Boulder: University Press of Colorado.ExpectationsInitial Post: Length: A minimum of 250 words, not including references Citations: At least one high-level scholarly reference in APA from within the last 5 years09/05/20205nursing

Integrating the Curriculum through Thematic Teaching

Using Word your thematic unit resource must include the following: Unit Introduction: For your introduction please include the following: Explain the benefits of a thematic curriculum to teachers, children, and to the program. Describe the explicit connection between the principles of effective thematic teaching and developmentally appropriate practice. Describe how thematic curriculum and instruction aligns with your philosophy of education. Lesson Plans: Use the Lesson Plan Template to develop four lessons that are all connected to your central theme for your unit. Each of your lessons will focus on a different developmental domain and must be developmentally appropriate. In addition, use the Lesson Plan Template to create each of your lessons. The guidelines for creating your lesson plans around each domain are as follows: Self-Regulation: Develop a lesson using one of the self-regulation objectives you created for your Week Three Self-Regulation in Curriculum assignment; your lesson must be connected to your unit theme (Fruits and Vegetables) to teach this objective. Social/Emotional: Create an Aesthetic and Affective Lesson Plan Cognitive and Physical Development: Develop a complete lesson plan using the physical activity you proposed in the Neuroscience, Cognition, and Physical Activity: Make sure that your lesson is connected to the overall theme (Fruits and Vegetables) of your unit. Language Development: Develop a literacy based lesson plan. Make sure that your lesson is connected to the overall theme (Fruits and Vegetables) of the unit. Unit Evaluation: Evaluate your thematic unit using the Activity Plan Self-Check that is found in attachement. Discuss, using specific examples from your Activity Plan Self-Check, how you know your unit is aligned. Rationale and Conclusion: Summarize how a thematic unit, such as the one you developed, coincides with Wilson’s (2014) The Profile of a Modern Teacher image below by including the following: Describe how the unit you developed was based on intentional planning. Explain how you will engage families in the thematic unit you have planned. Wilson, R. (2014). The profile of a modern teacher [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.coetail.com/wayfaringpath/files/2014/10/The-Profile-of-a-Modern-Teacher1.pdf (Links to an external site.)11/05/202050education

Philosophy Etichs Essay

So you have to watch 1,2 episode of Serial podcast( www.serialpodcast.org ), And go through 3 authors Ideas(2-3 pages each). You have to go through this because this essay is not about personal ethical ideas, its about course text. Read the entire question briefly in PDF. Please only accept my request if you are an Philosophy major.09/05/202030socialscience

I need it done before 12 pm

Please write your own separate post for this answering the following questions in a robust paragraph.1.How would you define (the philosophy of) the Black Muslims (or the Nation of Islam) after reading X? What influences do you see?2.What are the main problems with the mainstream Civil Rights Movement according to both X ? Why?3. What did he mean by “Ballot or Bullet?”1. What are the main reasons that Schafley rejects the Equal Rights Amendment?2. What is particular about this strand of “conservatism” compared to that ofBarry Goldwater’s from last week?3. Do you believe these two strands are reconcilable? Why or why not? (Note this is an opinion question which I don’t normally ask but I am in this case).Why is women education vitally important to Friedan’s argument?18/05/202010history

Research paper

InstructionsPlease write a research paper addressing the following:How important is corporate philosophy to a company’s pollution prevention efforts? Please use an example of one or more companies to support your position.The completed assignment must be a minimum of 4-5 pages in length, not including the title page and reference page. The paper should have a minimum of three sections: an introduction, a body, and a conclusion. A minimum of three references should be used, and at least one of these must be from a scholarly, peer-reviewed journal. All sources used, including the textbook, must be referenced; paraphrased and quoted material must have accompanying citations. You may use articles cited in previous portions of the course but you must write new, unique content that was not in any of your previous submissions in this (or any other) course.22/05/202015informationsystems

Religious Influences on Social Structure

Assignment:This week, we explored the influence of different religious beliefs and religious structures on the development of civilizations in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. Consider how these religious differences shaped the cultures around them. How did mythology affect the decisions of the working and ruling classes? What role did ritual (i.e., prayer, sacrifice, public celebrations, or morality) play in developing the markers of civilization such as the economy or the government?Example:Across the world and throughout history, religious views have always and will continue to influence cultures which thusly influences government. In China, where Buddhism once flourished during the Tang dynasty, the Sung dynasty viewed Buddhism as “foreign”. Through creative reinterpretation of the original Confucian core to meet new spiritual and intellectual expectations, they were able blend aspects of Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism together to form Neo-Confucianism[1]. This new blended religion represented a synthesis in which ethics and epistemology-Confucian, humanist-based morality coupled with the speculative ventures of Doaists and Buddhists – created a complete, self-sustaining system.[2]While there are some commonalities between Japan, Korea and Vietnam and their decisions to follow Neo-Confucianism, each made concessions or adaptations based on their beliefs. Unlike Korea and Vietnam, Japan voluntarily adopted the Chinese cultural influences (including government, ethics, philosophy, literature and Buddhism) based on their own needs rather than have them imposed by conquest.[3]Religion is what connected each class, offered guidance and promoted a singular set of beliefs to follow. And while each of these countries has similar religions and governments, there were also differing core beliefs. These differing viewpoints would inevitably bring upon war or reform.[1] Kalton, Michael. “Neo-Confucianism.” Neo-Confucianism. Accessed May 15, 2020. https://faculty.washington.edu/mkalton/NeoConfucianism.htm.[2] Von Sivers, Peter, Charles A. Desnoyers, George B. Stow,Patterns of World History Volume One to 1600, (Oxford University Press, 2018) 368[3] Von Sivers, Peter, Charles A. Desnoyers, George B. Stow,Patterns of World History Volume One to 1600, (Oxford University Press, 2018) 398Reply to Thread17/05/20205history

Child Development Need This Done Tomorrow Saturday May 16 2020 By 12pm PACIFIC TIME ZONE

Respond to the comments of 3 students below. Each Response must be exactly 100 words.Each response is to be specific to the original post of the individual to whom you are responding (in other words, you cannot post the same thing for each response). Each response should be a thoughtful reflection of the original post. In other words, simply saying “good idea” is not sufficient. Your replies should incorporate terminology and details from the readings and presentation.Tips: Be sure to… be supportive and affirming in your responses individualize each response make sure your replies are consistent with the course material (readings and presentation)Student #1 Comment: Response must be exactly 100 words.The second approach I found interested is Montessori approach. Montessori is a method of education that is based on self directed activity, hands on learning and is collaborative play. This particular method is developed by Maria Montessori she believes they key for children to learned is independence, observation, following the child around. The environment in a montessori classroom is a meticulously prepared environment, developed to maximize learning and growth in children. The classroom is specifically designed to facilitate independent learning in young children. Educators arrange classroom to be independent movement and work freedom of choice in work activities as well as comfortable.The materials use in a montessori classroom are invited activities for children to learn and explore as they go. They have many different materials such as : dressing frames, puzzle maps, classification cards, beads, hands on rask and many more for children learn at their own paste. In the video i notice a children playing what it looks like a sensory table and other children playing with cards in the table.Montessori teachers are closely obeserving children in a daily basis to ensure children have adequate materials to enhance their learning. The teacher goal is to give children just enough to capture their attention and spark interested, intriguing them enough that they will come back on their own to work with the materials. Montessori teachers are guides and are watching over the classroom to remove obstacles from learning but not participating as a direct instructor. Teachers lessions are often involve in how to use or play with the various instructional toys in the classroom .Student #2 Comment: Response must be exactly 100 words.Hi Everyone,I’m selecting the Waldorf approach. I never heard about this approach before, but It’s a great philosophy. I love that its main focus is to develop the children’s spirit, mind, soul, and body. Let children be themselves and free and focus more on their social-emotional development. I also believe when children learn gratitude, reverence, and respect, they can be more successful in life. Their environment is very peaceful, and everything in their environment has an intended purpose. Their main goal is that children find meaning and direction in life. I believe this philosophy should integrate it into every curriculum even though their main focus is not academically. This approach provides a warm and loving environment. Children are allowed to explore their imagination, have free play, express their creativity, enjoy, and play. The role of a teacher in this curriculum is not intrusive. The teacher teaches about purpose and devotion to develop their inner peace. Most of the materials are from nature, like rocks, seashells, wood, etc. all materials are well organized on shelves and accessible to children. The playground also is all nature, sand, trees, etc. Their activities in the playground could be raking the leaves, playing with sand and climbing a tree, etc. This curriculum doesn’t provide any media, which I think is great because children are allowed to be real children. I was impressed with their theory because I remember when I grew up, I never was in front of a TV or playing games, old times were better, and I believe it should continue the same way in the present.Student #3 Comment: Response must be exactly 100 words.The Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education is a developmentally appropriate practice program. It was developed by Loris Malaguzzi in Reggio, Emilia, Italy after World War II. The purpose of this program is to allow children to show the teachers what they know, and the teachers will help them emerge beyond that. The curriculum is based upon the interests of the children and there is no timeline in which the subject changes. The classes are multi-age groups similar to siblings in a family.The environment is a safe place for children to express their interests and ask questions about what they are curious about. Children are free to express their opinions about other children’s projects in order to understand each other’s rationale. Natural lighting from windows light up the room that is filled with mirrors, plants, documented work on the walls. Materials are very organized within the children’s reach for independent work. The materials are convergent, which means they are used only one way with only one solution. Teachers work alongside the children and document the progress of the children. They provoke the children to think by asking questions.In my opinion, having a classroom with mixed ages seems like an advantage for the younger children in the class. I know in my family the younger children learned a whole lot by watching the older siblings and talking to and imitating them. The older children in turn develop a sense of responsibility for the younger children and learn to be leaders. This is a great system however my thoughts of concern would be that the older children are not challenged themselves. Since I am not familiar with this approach, I would like to find out.16/05/20202english

Week 1 wiki

Visit Stanford’s Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http://plato.stanford.edu/) and search for one of the Big 8 ethics theorists (St. Thomas Aquinas, Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, John Rawls, Martin Buber, Lawrence Kohlberg, Victor Frankl). You may also use the web resources for each individual theorist provided in the text on page 25.Read about the different theorists and then summarize your thoughts about the relevancy of the philosopher’s writings to today’s healthcare issues17/05/20207humanresource-management

Philosophy query

you will write one or two questions which you will respond to in about a page (approx. 200 words). You do not need to actually answer the question, instead think of your question as a starting point for discovering other questions, possible answers, what the prior necessities are to answer it etc. There is no need to do internet “research” to complete this assignment, but if you find some interesting information feel free to include it. However, this is not a research project.The purpose of this assignment is to practice using the concepts introduced in class, and will be graded accordingly. Good uses of your time would be to explore ethical questions you have experienced, to answer questions raised in class, and/or to test out a theory on a hypothetical in a low stakes assignment.18/05/20204socialscience

Philosophy

1. Watch this video, summarize the MAIN POINTS raised in it.Political Philosophy Part 1: The State2. Read the chapter in your textbook Political Philosophy (Modules – Introduction to Philosophy by Pecorino)https://www.qcc.cuny.edu/SocialSciences/pPecorino/INTRO_TEXT/Chapter 10 Political Philosophy/Political_Philosophy.htmDiscuss the following:What is social contract?What is the difference between J.J. Rousseau and Thomas Hobbes on social contract?15/05/20205socialscience

Leadership and development

This is for my leadership and development class. It’s a written self-reflection that details what we have learned in the course.Must be at least 2-3 pages, very detailed. Grammar, punctuation, APA formatting. Below is what we are being graded on.RubricPersonal Leadership Portfolio (1)Personal Leadership Portfolio (1)CriteriaRatingsPtsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePersonal Philosophy of Leadership Essay Length10.0ptsExcellentPersonal Philosophy of Leadership Essay is at least 1 page.0.0ptsNot IncludedPersonal Leadership Essay is not submitted with the assignment or separately emailed to instructor.10.0ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePersonal Philosophy of Leadership Essay Format10.0ptsExcellentEssay is0.0ptsNot Included in Assignment10.0ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomePortfolio Content70.0ptsExcellent18.2ptsGood9.8ptsNeed Improvement0.0ptsNot included in Assignment70.0ptsThis criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeGrammar and Mechanics10.0ptsExcellent2.8ptsNeed Improvement0.0ptsNot included in Assignment10.0pts19/05/202015humanresource-management

Week 8 Assignment Personal Philosophy of Teaching Part II

As discussed earlier in this course, your personal teaching philosophy is a work in progress. During week 8, you will revisit and revise your teaching philosophy that you submitted during week 1. As part of this assignment, you should evaluate your original philosophy and include a one-page discussion of how your thoughts and ideas about teaching have changed and developed during this course. Guidelines for revising your teaching philosophy and the one-page discussion are below.Assignment GuidelinesRevised Personal Teaching Philosophy (3–5 pages) Reflect on the teaching principles and practices discussed during the course. What did you learn about teaching that you did not know prior to this course? What stood out as important to you over the past 8 weeks? Consider how you might expand, adapt, or change your original philosophy to your current perspective on teaching (or you may feel compelled to take it in a completely new direction). Your revised teaching philosophy should: Have a clear focus or theme. Be authentic and personal. Relay who you are (or aspire to be) as a teacher. Exhibit genuine enthusiasm for teaching. Clearly express your current teaching values and beliefs, and discuss why you hold those values and beliefs (whether or not they have changed). Describe your current teaching goals (whether or not they have changed). Explain the teaching methods or strategies that you believe are best (whether or not they are different from your original philosophy). Note: make sure the teaching methods you find best are consistent with your goals. Incorporate any new ideas and/or practices that encourage a rich teaching and learning experience. Be 3–5 pages, including the evaluation discussion but excluding title and reference pages; length should suit the context. It should be typed in Times New Roman using 12-point font and double-spaced with 1″ margins. Be well written, using a first person narrative and present tense. Follow APA (6th edition) format. Have no any grammatical, typographical, or spelling errors. Evaluation Discussion of Teaching Philosophy (1 page)As part of this revised teaching philosophy assignment, you should include a discussion evaluating how your personal thoughts and ideas about teaching have changed during this course. After you have revised your personal teaching philosophy, carefully review your original teaching philosophy that you submitted during week 1 of this course. Compare your original philosophy to your revised teaching philosophy and evaluate the following in a one-page written discussion: Have your teaching goals, methods, or strategies changed, and if so, how and why? Have your teaching priorities and/or perspectives changed or shifted, and if so, how and why? Do you value different learning experiences, and if so, what are they and why? Include any additional information that may highlight how your thoughts and ideas have changed or developed during this course. Include references that you found helpful, insightful, or meaningful in the development of your philosophy of teaching. In addition to the course texts, include at least two outside sources from peer-reviewed journals to support your ideas. Your evaluation discussion should: Be one page excluding title and reference pages, typed in Times New Roman using 12-point font, and double-spaced with 1″ margins. Be well written, using a first person narrative and present tense. Follow APA (6th edition) format. 02/05/202020nursing

Principle of Ethics

Required ResourcesRead/review the following resources for this activity: Textbook: Chapters 3, 4 (Rachels, S., & Rachels, J. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy (9th ed.). Mcgraw-Hill Education. ) Minimum of 2 scholarly sources (in addition to the textbook)InstructionsReview the following ethical dilemmas: John Doe has decided to clone himself. He is sterile. He cannot find anyone to marry him. He wishes to have children. He knows that he will not be able to love a child that is adopted or not connected directly to him biologically. He will be making use of a new procedure that involves taking his skin cells to produce a twin. The twin starts out as an embryo and grows into a child. The child in this case will have the same genetic information as John Doe. John Doe and his child will be twins. Jane Doe is eighteen. For as long as she can remember she has been sexually attracted to other females. Her parents belong to a religion that has a religious text stating that God forbids one to be a lesbian. This religion goes on further to say that lesbians will be punished in the afterlife. Jane Doe is debating whether she should tell her parents about her sexual attraction. She has not yet decided if she should come out to her parents and live as a lesbian now that she is a legal adult. Joe and Mary are a couple. Before becoming sterile, they had a child. This child died of a rare disease. Joe and Mary miss their child terribly. They have heard that there is a new IVF procedure that can ensure that they can have another child. However, their religion forbids using IVF.Use the resources assigned for this week and additional research,InstructionsSelect two of the situations above and then address 2 of the following: What is the relation between ethics and religion? Formulate and investigate the relation. For each case, determine the ethical path of conduct. Then, determine what paths of conduct would be unethical For each case, what would an emotivism say to appraise what you determine is the ethical form of conduct? For each case, would a natural law ethicist agree with what you say is the ethical form of conduct? Why or why not? Articulate, explain, and evaluate in each case an approach that makes use of divine command ethics.Writing Requirements (APA format) Length: 2-3 pages (not including title page or references page) 1-inch margins Double spaced 12-point Times New Roman font Title page References page (minimum of 2 scholarly sources)14/05/202015socialscience

Review the week’s Learning Resources Review the Leadership Skills and Emotional

Review the week’s Learning Resources. Review the Leadership Skills and Emotional Intelligence assessment templates you completed in Weeks 1 and 2. Reflect on what you have learned throughout this course and how it has improved your leadership and emotional intelligence skills. Develop a brief personal leadership philosophy based on the results of these assessments. Consider the field you would like to work in and challenges you may encounter based on your leadership style or EI quotient. Choose from the following fields: Healthcare economics and finance Quality and safety Healthcare management Direct care professional Post a comprehensive response to the following: Describe your personal leadership philosophy based on your leadership skills and emotional intelligence assessment results. Based on your leadership philosophy, explain how you would address healthcare management workforce challenges in the field you selected above.14/05/20207appliedsciences

Where did theory come from

Where Did Theory Come FromThe purpose of this Assignment is to explore how a theorist explicates his or her philosophy and thoughts behind a theoretical field. As in other fields of study, nursing has a plethora of theorists and theories. These theorists have developed their paradigm over time enriching it with research and dialogue with other theorists.DirectionsIn this assignment, you are going to explore how a nurse theorist of your choice created his or her theory.You will become the theorist immersing yourself in the writings from the earliest mentioned to the most current literature.Writing in the voice of the theorist (taking on the persona of the theorist) create the theory through the following four stages.In the first stage, theorizing occurs. This is where you, as the theorist, identify the concepts of what nursing is and is not. Perhaps you questioned what concepts were guiding those in nursing practice and then started to question your role. You started asking yourself, “Where am I in nursing, and where the profession is going? Is there some overarching concept that guides the professional in his or her practice?” This is where you recognize that a theory is needed.In the second stage, syntax is developed. This is where you will define the terms. Look for changing definitions of terms. Consider, for example, Jean Watson. She starts by defining the word “caring.” Within the last ten years she has refined her terminology changing the term caring to caritas. This demonstrates a growth and maturation from decades of research she and other scholars did to produce the theory of caring.The third stage is theory testing. Defined as the phenomena behind the theory that are exposed through research. The definitions of terms are refined. The theorists and other researchers consider whether this theory helps answer questions that arise in practice. This is where your theory is used in by a widening group of researchers. For example, graduate nursing students request the tool you developed while testing your theory.The fourth and last stage is evaluation. This is where philosophical debate occurs as the concepts are applied through evidenced based practice in the act of providing nursing care.Assignment DetailsFor this Assignment, you will write on how you developed your theory through the four stages (theorizing, syntax, theory testing, and evaluation). Your paper must be 3 to 5 pages, not including the title and reference pages.To view the Grading Rubric for this Assignment, please visit the Grading Rubrics section of the Course Resources.Assignment RequirementsBefore finalizing your work, you should: Minimum requirement of at least five sources of support be sure to read the Assignment description carefully (as displayed above); consult the Grading Rubric (under the Course Resources) to make sure you have included everything necessary; and utilize spelling and grammar check to minimize errors.Your writing Assignment should: follow the conventions of Standard English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.); be well ordered, logical, and unified, as well as original and insightful; display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics; and use APA 6th EditionHow to SubmitSubmit your Assignment to the unit Dropbox before midnight on the last day of the unit.When you are ready to submit your Assignment, submit to unit Dropbox. Make sure to save a copy of your work and be sure to confirm that your file uploaded correctly.17/05/202012nursing

Weekly Assignment Week 6

1. Watch this video, summarize the MAIN POINTS raised in it.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XmqRwjkfp-82. Now that you have studied political philosophy, explain what is the best type of government for your country._____________________________________________You are required to respond to the assignment question posted above with no less than 100 words and make at least two comments on the responses posted by you classmates with a minimum of 50 words. Make sure you design your response with your own words. Your responses to your classmates must be of substance; not just “I agree” or “Good Post.” The purpose of the responses is to convert the discussion forum into a quality academic environment through which you improve your knowledge and understanding. Read and review all assigned course materials and chapters before you start working on your assignments.Text Book:Introduction to Philosophy-Pecorino15/05/20208socialscience

N/A

1. Do the exercise “Be the Manager” on page 33 (6ed), or page 29 (9e in PDF).2. As you know, there are relevant “2019 top Trends in Management”. There is a trend related to “Analytics”, and it is a good time to check whether your company is a “potential candidate” for developing an “Analytics Culture.” Follow the instructions below: 1. Review the material posted in Course Document Link under the “Analytics” item.2. Open the Analytics Survey posted in the Analytics item (Course document link), assess your company through the analytics components, and then analyze the results.3. List the weaknesses and strengths found in your company given by the analytics components covered by the survey.4. Select one weakness that impedes to embrace the “Analytics” by your company and prepare an implementation plan to eliminate that weakness and then move on analytic philosophy. In order to be consistent with the implementation plan content, there are some examples of this kind of plan in the Course Document Link under the Implementation plan item. Read them and pick the one that satisfies you the most, and then prepare the exercise based on that one.3. After studying chapter 9, do the exercise “Building Management Skills” on page 309 (page 273 of 9ed. PDF). Look at Figure 9.2. Based on the outcomes of this exercise, identify one weakness (or problem) after applying the Value Chain Analysis, and prepare an implementation plan to solve the problem.This exercise is an oral assignment. The oral component is a professional presentation by using PowerPoint based on the material recommended by the instructor (see Course document link). It is recommended one slide per question/answer, and 10 minutes length. Be creative and use the resources you consider to enhance your presentation. (Attached to find the rubrics to be used to assess your professional skills in oral presentations).4. Find a current and relevant article to you from any business magazine (use ceoexpress.com for this exercise) and write a 300-words comment about its content. Post the comment in Week 1 discussion board link. Read discussion question instructions and classmates’ contributions. Before posting, please, read “Weekly discussion instructions” and “Discussion board grading policy” in the Syllabus Tap.13/05/202060history

Intro to Business 700 word paper

Bus100-Introduction to Business Final Reflection AssignmentThe Introductory business course, Bus100, provides a survey of the various areas in the business environment. Whether we recognize, or not, we all must operate in this environment. This class affords a foundation and introduces concepts, attitudes, and philosophies about business operations. The following topics have been introduced this semester: business ownership, management, marketing, accounting, finance and the securities markets, economics, ethics and social responsibility, human resources, advertising and promotion, distribution, and international business.This final reflection provides students an opportunity to stop and reflect on the knowledge and skills they have gained and are able to apply to their own experiences or cite examples from various sources. True learning is demonstrated when connections occur between theory and practice and experience. We want to revisit the intended course outcomes. Think back on this course and related chapters and communicate what you have learned and what you are taking away with you. Please respond to the following: Identify and analyze an ethical issue pertaining to business either form the past or the present. Describe how management either handled the issue appropriately or inappropriately. Explain what the ethical and social responsibilities are for a business owner and for employees. What leadership/management theories and/or styles did you see applied or utilized? Describe your personal business philosophy regarding how a business should be operated. Conclusion: Any course feedback? What did you like best about this online course? What did you like least? What do you think needs to be changed (Except discussions, I am not changing this requirement)?Mechanics:Your reflection journal should be around 700 words (around 4-pages), double-spaced with a size 12 font, 1-inch margins and should be submitted to me through the Assignment Tool. Remember, to estimate the appropriate length of your assignment, use the word count featureunder the tool bar menu in MS Word. Don’t forget to spell and grammar-check your work.13/05/202020businessfinance

Include theories and concepts from liberal education

1. Include theories and concepts from liberal education in providing safe and effective careExplain in two paragraphs.After reading this week’s assigned chapters, think about your nursing philosophy. In your own words, discuss your philosophy of nursing. Reflect on the definition of the four concepts of the nursing meta-paradigm. Write your own definition for each concept of the meta-paradigm of nursing. Which concept would you add to the meta-paradigm of nursing and why? Which concept would you eliminate and why?Your paper should be 1–2 pages in length, in APA format, typed in Times New Roman with 12-point font, and double-spaced with 1″ margins. Cite at least one outside source using APA format.13/05/20203nursing

Philosophy

Trolley CaseLackey’s Trolley Problem #2Draw or diagram the configuration of train tracks,sidings,and forks that fits the description of Lackey’s second version of the Trolley Case, so that it accurately illustrates the point he is making about preventive force and creating evil VS.diverting it. Include an explanation of his point on this matter.12/05/202015socialscience

Philosophy Discussion (BUDGET IS NOT NEGOTIABLE)

What is a True Belief?Explain the four truth tests and illustrate each with an example of a belief that would be true by its standards. Remember to explain specific theories with supporting citations from the textbook and online lectures.Do not plagiarize, work must be original. Also, you must use citations when needed, credible references and APA format. When done with assignment please go back over work and check for grammar, pronunciation and spelling errors and please attach a Turnitin report.This assignment is due Thursday May 14, 2020 at 11:59pm.14/05/20202socialscience

POST AND REPLY (PHIL)W6

Open discussion.***Discuss Moral Relativism *** 250 words MINReply to each post 100 words MIN1. My forum post today will focus on evaluating ethical naturalism. Ethical naturalismis a doctrine that there areobjective moral propertiesof which we have knowledge. These properties are basicallyneeds, wants, or pleasures. This isopposed to relating the ethical terms in some way to thewill of God. The context of religion is not needed to dictate moral behavior in ethical naturalism. Ethical naturalism states “that there are objective, natural facts, about what is conducive to human flourishing.” From my understanding it bases moral principles on what makes people happy or unhappy and what causes pleasure or pain.It suggests that inquiry into thenatural worldcan increase ourmoral knowledgein just the same way it increases ourscientific knowledge and that any “ethical value” isconfirmablethrough the methods ofscience. Moral facts are therefore effectivefacts of nature just as what is good for any kind of organism comes from nature. An example of this is sleep, nutrition, and sunlight all come from nature. These are all good for organisms so, therefore, morality is a natural fact and is discoverable among natural properties. There has been criticism of Ethical naturalism.The British philosopher G.E. Mooreposed theOpen Question Argumentin opposition to Ethical Naturalism. He statedthat the question “What is good?” This is a very open-ended question and cannot be answered by natural terms. He termed this “naturalistic fallacy”, because the term “good”, in the sense of intrinsic value, is simplyindefinable. In my evaluation I choose to side with G.E. Moore, as we really do not have a definable way of putting the statement “what is good?” into natural terms. G.E Moore went further and propoundedEthical Non-Naturalism. Below is an article that helped me to understand the difference between ethical naturalism and ethical non-naturalism.2. The Euthyphro Dilemma is one of the most popular questions in philosophy when it comes to speaking of ethics and religion (God). Socrates asked Euthyphro the question “Is the pious loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods?”, translated to, “Are morally good acts willed by God because they are morally good, or are they morally good because they are willed by God?” This topic creates a lot of debate between Divine Command Theorists and philosophers.Philosophers argue that if acts are morally good because they are willed by God, this means that anything God wills could be considered morally good, including torture and murder. If God wills you to murder someone for enjoyment, under this argument it becomes morally good because it was willed by God. Divine Command Theorists do not like to admit that this could ever be considered morally right, so most will claim God wills acts because they are morally good.If God wills acts because they are morally good, this would mean that there is a set of moral foundations that God follows. If there is in fact a set of moral foundations that God follows, where did these foundations come from? Is there something even more powerful and supreme than God? Philosophers and Divine Command Theorists have argued this topic for centuries, never concluding or agreeing. Each side just comes up with more arguments to strengthen their case, which in turn are refuted from the other side.13/05/20206socialscience

Principle of Ethics

Read/review the following resources for this activity: Textbook: Chapters 3, 4 ( Rachels, S., & Rachels, J. (2019). The elements of moral philosophy (9th ed.). Mcgraw-Hill Education. ) Lesson Minimum of 1 scholarly source (in addition to the textbook)Initial Post InstructionsSt. Augustine in the 5th Century held that we are free to make choices in life. This is the idea of free will. It may seem at first glance odd for a religious thinker to say that we have free will. After all, if God exists, then God created all things. God knows already what we will do. God can cause anything to occur. If we cause things to occur, that seems to be a limitation on the power of God and not make God all-powerful.There are also religion traditions that say that we have no free will. There are some theologians in Islam who seem to suggest that is true. In order for this line of reasoning to hold true, one would need to believe free will is an illusion and that we have no control over how we live our lives, but rather that we are puppets moving and acting due to God’s will and the powers of destiny and fate. And if this then in the case, how can we possibly be responsible for our actions?The considerations above show us to what degree our religious beliefs can shape us. For instance, someone who believes in free will may experience way more guilt than someone who believes we don’t have free will and thus aren’t responsible for the choices (and consequences) of the actions we take.Personal struggles with religion and ethics occur in many places, including in the healthcare arena. Consider the following: You are a nurse in a hospital. A 12 year-old was brought to the hospital by an ambulance. The parents have just arrived at the hospital. This 12 year-old has lost a large amount of blood and requires a transfusion. The parents happen to be members of a religion that believes that blood transfusions are immoral. They want to remove the child from the hospital and prevent the transfusion even if it means the death of the child. You have to decide whether or not you will participate in an action that violates the will of the parents and aid in providing blood for the child. If you choose to participate, and even if you are able to legally justify it, you have to think about the distress you are creating for the parents. If you refuse to aid here, you may be subject to retaliation from the hospital. What is the moral thing for the nurse to do here?Initial Post InstructionsFor the initial post, address the following questions: What would a divine command ethicist say is the moral thing to do here? Why would they say that? Do you agree with the divine command ethics? Why or why not? Evaluate what a natural law ethicist would say is right to do. Do you agree with them? Why or why not? Given what you said are the right things to do, what would an emotivist say about your positions and judgments? What role does subjectivity play here in determining what is ethical?12/05/20206socialscience

Paper

Using each of the three articles and one video, discuss how they inform your leadership philosophy as it relates to ethical behavior, and perhaps, your personal well-being and that of others. (3-4 pages, 12-font, double-spaced, APA formatted).https://www.ted.com/talks/dolly_chugh_how_to_let_go_of_being_a_good_person_and_become_a_better_person?language=en26/04/202020education

Relapse Prevention Plan

Read the “Jed Assessment Case Study” and imagine that Jed is your client.Complete the relapse prevention plan worksheet by developing a relapse prevention plan for Jed.Use third person (i.e., Jed will or the client will) and assume that the two of you have formulated the plan together.APAstyle is not required but solid academic writing is expected. Review the rubric! If you want to get points for a certain area of your paper, look at the rubric. It tells you how to make this happen Address all the content areas identified in the guidelines for the assignment. Use an appropriate structure for your paper. FIND 2 PEER-REVIEWED SOURCES (though often many more are needed) Not web pages. Scholarly = Peer-Reviewed / Published Aim to use current resources as well. Sometimes dated information leads people to state things as fact when they really are not viewed this way in the present. APA is King in the counseling field All written submissions you will do in this field assume you understand APA format. If you are not sure how to do this, consult the APA Manual and do a full read through for a few hours. This will earn you so many points in the future. Find reputable web resources for specific formatting questions if you feel stuck. CNL-501-RS-JedCaseStudyfinal.docxCNL-501-R-T8RelapsePreventionPlanScoringfinal.docxCNL-501T8RelapsePreventionPlanTemplatefinal.docxPosted: 20 hours agoDue: 15/04/2020Budget: $30Tags: CounselingAnswers 0Bids 106Emma BuntonDr. Michelle_KMRewrick PatandnicohwilliamThe QuA lityGreat-WritersMusyokionesAllRoundBest TutorQuickly answer Amanda SmithProf.StewartEARNESTWRITERBrainy BrianProCastrol01bennetsandovaJane the tutorEssays GuruHomework ProDr WillymartinsPROF_TOMMYquality work for allabdul_rehman_wizard kimPaula HogPROF. ANNEmily MichaelPROF washington watsonJah ProvidesJessica Luisjuliusmu33Ashley ClaireWIZARD_KIMBrooklyn Milan DexterMastersCatherine Owensbrilliant answersWendy Lewisprofessor mitchansRohanEmily Clareprof avrilmichael smithEssay-tutorrunge-kutta acerStano 001Dr. Claver-NNRey writerUltimate GEEKperfectoRELIABLE PAPERSkim woodsEva GreenSaburBKelly JacobsDr Candice_2547Proff work phd Lisa-RandallUrgent TutorNursing_MissRihAN_MendozaAngelina MayRosie Septembersarapaul2013Miss ProfessorCasey CeliaChrisProfMathStat GeniusTutor Cyrus Kenwork solutionsDrNicNgaogrA de plusRESPECT WRITERmbithehsmart-tutorphyllis youngSophia Milesmagz64seniorwriterPhd christineSaad FahimAcademic MentorCotton CandyAbdullah Anwarmadam-professorMiss Emily BluntJudithTutorJen Tech1firstclass tutorTiny ChrisPROFJUMAAAJenny BoomDr. ElahiMiss Lily J.A-Grade WritersuniyaziaprofwachgraceElaine CarterDr R Judy MarkTutor-paulaMiss_AqsaTop Notch AnswerTerry RobertsjohnmutuajmCarol BSN NurseCalvince OukoQuick AnswersOther questions 102pages milestone 4 assignmentMonism and Vedanta . Philosophy assignment .week 3 case studywee6 assignmenrti need a works cited page on 2 articlesIT Strategic Plan Checklistbiology homework ASAP 6 HOURS For Creative InstructorBUS 670 Legal Environments – Legal Underpinnings of Business Law*****A Rated Tutorial Already***** Use as a Guide Paper*****Leadership of Richard BransonRated 1 timesWendy Lewis 3Read the “Jed Assessment Case Study” and imagine that Jed is your client. Complete the relapse prevention plan worksheet by developing a relapse prevention plan for Jed. Use third person (i.e., Jed …Not ratedRelapse Prevention PlanRead the “Jed Assessment Case Study” and imagine that Jed is your client. Complete the relapse prevention plan worksheet by developing a relapse prevention plan for Jed. Use third person (i.e., Jed …Not ratedAssignmentRead the “Jed Assessment Case Study” and imagine that Jed is your client. Complete the relapse prevention plan worksheet by developing a relapse prevention plan for Jed. Use third person …Not ratedRelapse Prevention PlanAssume you are working at an agency with both inpatient and outpatient services. Mary is a client of yours in inpatient so you will be working with her one-on-one at least once a week in …Not ratedRelapse Prevention PlanRead the “Jed Assessment Case Study” and imagine that Jed is your client. Complete the relapse prevention plan worksheet by developing a relapse prevention plan for Jed. Use third person (i.e., Jed …15/04/202030psychology

HR Law Assignment

Labor Law FMLA OSHA AssignmentFMLA_labor_laws_OSHA.docxPosted: an hour agoDue: 09/04/2020Budget: $50Tags: urgent HelpAnswers 0Bids 110Guru OliviaDr. Michelle_KMRewrick PatandYoung NyanyaMoen ZafarBethuel BestPapersGuruPROF. ANNnicohwilliamQuality AssignmentsMusyokionesEssays GuruAsad Ullahuniversity workGuruu Mathquality work for allDr_inaayaAshley ClaireEmily ClareESSAYS EXPERT PROFESSORAmanda SmithLouisa95ANN HARRISDexterMastersPaula Hogabdul_rehman_hassan0906Jah Providesprof avriljuliusmu33Brainy Brianmichael smithElprofessoriDr. Elahibrilliant answersrunge-kutta acerProf.MacQueenBrilliant GeekJane the tutorHomework Prowizard kimCatherine OwensQuickly answer Stano 001KATHERINE BECKSEmily MichaelRESPECT WRITERProf. MassarraAngelina MayDrNicNgaoEssay-tutorJessica LuisProff work phd kim woodsRey writerChrisProfkatetutoransRohanperfectowork solutionsAcademic MentorUrgent TutorProf. ClariseCasey CeliaNursing_MissMiss ProfessorWendy LewisJenny BoomPhd christineSaburBmbithehGreat-WritersNAFTALY KRihAN_Mendozaimhmd.fphyllis youngTerry RobertsDr.Sanam sheikhseniorwriterSaad FahimTutor Cyrus KenJudithTutormagz64WIZARD_KIMA-Grade Writerfirstclass tutorAbdullah AnwarMiss Emily BluntCotton CandyDr Candice_2547Harris KhanEva GreensuniyaziaDr R Judy Marksarapaul2013Allan-kingsMiss Lily J.geraldwaitaDr WillymartinsTutor-paulaExpert_ChristineAmelia IrisHomeworkNerd2BentaylorexpertjobTop Notch AnswerjohnmutuajmThe KnightHyundaiMary BSN NurseOther questions 10Customer RelationsTwo investors are evaluating the stock of Beverly Enterprises for possible purchase. They agree on the stock’s risk and on…power point***Professor Anthony Only***English 2 Assignment Instructions This assignment is a take-home essay consisting of 3 questions, 2 pages total, to test knowledge and assimilation of the course objectives. Please exclusively use the course materials to support each answer. Please answer all threreview both post minimum of 100 words eachhazardous materials transportation classFOR MARKMANU ONLY!Philosophy 103Rated 1 times LawsRated 1 timesFMLA, Labor Laws, and OSHA15- to 20-slide Microsoft PowerPoint presentation with speaker notes You are a first-year Human Resource Specialist at “State of Estates” estate planning firm. Norman is the mid-level manager responsible for the southern regional office. The following …Not ratedProf Eliud – HR LawAssignment Content You are a first-year Human Resource Specialist at “State of Estates” estate planning firm.Norman is the mid-level manager responsible for the southern regional …Not ratedHR Law AssignmentOsha FMLANot ratedWeek 5 _ AssignmentResource: You are a first-year Human Resource Specialist at “State of Estates” estate planning firm.Norman is the mid-level manager responsible for the southern regional …09/04/202050humanresource-management

Critical Essay Paper

Philosophy 102, EthicsCritical essay paper Instructions and topics.Select one of the following “issues” and write a 5- 7 page paper using the following format:Your paper will have three parts, a Thesis, an Anti-thesis, and a Synthesis.[Please, at the beginning of each section, mark it appropriately, that is, as Part I., Part II., or Part III.]Part I: (Your Thesis) Write a short essay taking one side or the other on the issue you select.Part II: (Your Anti-thesis) Write a critical analysis in reply to your essay in Part I (as though you were a fair opponent who is attacking your argument).Part III: (Your Synthesis) Rewrite your original essay, (Part I), taking into account the criticisms made in Part II.The three part paper should contain at least 5 pages and no more than 7 pages, double spaced with normal 12 point font and normal margins.Each part MUST be separate and marked clearly as Part I, Part II, and Part III.Following this format is required.Part I—Yes we should or no we shouldn’t do X and why we should or shouldn’t, or why X is true and Y is false, and so forth. [Think of this as though you were a prosecuting attorney in court.].Part II—Take the opposite position to your first position (of Part I.) and oppose it. [Think of this as though you are the defense attorney in a law court.]Part III—Rewrite your first part (Part I, your initial position) taking into account the arguments of the second part (Part II) [Think of this as a disinterested party attempting to weigh the two sides and deciding what is the most reasonable position, one that is most likely a compromise between the first two parts.]Write a paper on one of the following issues:Environmental Issues follow:-Whether or not we should use animals in medical research.-Whether or not we should decrease our reliance on the automobile in order to reduce our dependence on crude oil.-Whether or not we should regard our planet’s remaining wilderness areas as having intrinsic value.-Whether or not genetically manipulated foods and other products are safe for humans and the environment.-Whether or not global warming is a genuine threat to planet earth.Bioethical Issues follow:-Whether or not human cloning should be permitted.-Whether or not genetic research should ultimately be used for human “enhancement”-Whether or not we should require that every adult be tested for AIDS.Consumer Issues follow:-Whether or not major international footwear and clothing companies are violating the rights of third world workers-Whether or not we are morally obligated to purchase environmentally sound and safe products.-Whether or not advertisers should be allowed to target young children in their commercials. (For example, consider the “Cereal commercials with early morning cartoon shows.)28/02/20205socialscience

Planning a Needs Assessment

Write a brief synopsis of how you would conduct a needs assessment for the program you selected for your Program Evaluation Plan project, integrating considerations from our textbook and the Calley article from this unit’s assigned readings.Be sure to cover relevant areas of a needs assessment: Describe which types of needs are applicable to your selected program. Describe the specific information about these needs that should be acquired. Identify potential sources of information for the needs assessment. Identify and provide a brief rationale for which needs assessment approaches are appropriate. Describe how the needs assessment would be conducted with awareness of and sensitivity to the cultural practices of the people who are thought to have unmet needs.Posted: a day agoDue: 29/01/2020Budget: $10Tags: urgent Answers 0Bids 67Prof. EsmeraldaDr_BiyaProf. MintellaGreat-WritersRewrick PatandDr. RocalGuruu MathProCastrol01Doctor OkumuMadem_JenniferbennetsandovaCamile FaithHomework Pronadia tutormichael smithwizard kimPaula HogElprofessoriquality work for allPROF washington watsonJessica LuiskatetutorWendy LewisProf.MacQueenabdul_rehman_prof avrilimhmd.fkim woodsCatherine Owensbrilliant answersRey writeransRohanperfectoRELIABLE PAPERSTerry RobertsDr Candice_2547Angelina MayChrisProfMiss ProfessorRosie SeptemberEmily Michaelwork solutionsDrNicNgaoRESPECT WRITERuniversity workmbithehEmily ClareEva Greenphyllis youngDr. ElahiCasey Celiaprofwachgracesmart-tutorFastExpertSaburBSaad FahimLiza_JulietJenny BoomTiny ChrisCourseCrackerkevin kamauA SolutionsQueenNursing_MissProf SolutttionsOneStopTutorsSupremeWorkssuniyaziaOther questions 10Human resources CommunicationTURN IT IN REQUIREDNeed an essay on the proofs of the resurrection of Christ.another quick assingment helpNeed help ASAP plz!!!Philosophy Final AssignmentPAYMENTCOST VOLUME PROFIT ANALYSIS 700 WORD APA PAPER DUE @ 4PM EASTERN STANDARD ON 4/17 WITH GRADING GUIDE ATTACHEDDiscrete Math Week 4Not ratedPlanning a needs Assessment Counseling Planning a Needs AssessmentWrite a brief synopsis of how you would conduct a needs assessment for the program you selected for your Program Evaluation Plan project, integrating considerations from …Not ratedFor Ann HarrisPlanning a Needs AssessmentWrite a brief synopsis of how you would conduct a needs assessment for the program you selected for your Program Evaluation Plan project, integrating considerations from …Not ratedPlanning a Needs AssessmentPlanning a Needs AssessmentWrite a brief synopsis of how you would conduct a needs assessment for the program you selected for your Program Evaluation Plan project, integrating considerations …Blog ArchiveCopyright © 2019 HomeworkMarket.com Read MoreApplied SciencesArchitecture and DesignBiologyBusiness & FinanceChemistryComputer ScienceGeographyGeologyEducationEngineeringEnglishEnvironmental scienceSpanishGovernmentHistoryHuman Resource ManagementInformation SystemsLawLiteratureMathematicsNursingPhysicsPolitical SciencePsychologyReadingScienceSocial Science window.__REDUX__STATE__ = ‘{“appMeta”:{“serverRendered”:true},”apiRequests”:{“pendingRequestCount”:0,”succeededRequestCount”:4,”failedRequestCount”:0,”requestCounters”:{“GET_FIELDS_PENDING”:0,”GET_ENTITY_PENDING”:0,”GET_FIELDS_SUCCESS”:1,”GET_ENTITY_SUCCESS”:1,”GET_SIMILAR_QUESTIONS_PENDING”:0,”GET_OTHER_QUESTIONS_PENDING”:0,”GET_OTHER_QUESTIONS_SUCCESS”:1,”GET_SIMILAR_QUESTIONS_SUCCESS”:1}},”currentUserMeta”:{“id”:0,”isGuest”:true,”isReceivingEmails”:null,”authMethod”:null,”approvalTicket”:null,”fees”:null,”disputesAmount”:null,”earningsStats”:{“questions”:{“totalPurchases”:0,”totalIncome”:0},”tutorials”:{“totalPurchases”:0,”totalIncome”:0}}},”modal”:{},”joyride”:{“steps”:[]},”users”:{“guest-0”:{“role”:”student”,”isGuest”:true}},”usersStatuses”:{},”usersThreads”:{},”usersReviews”:{},”usersQuestions”:{},”reviewsPage”:{“results”:[]},”reviews”:{},”answersReviews”:{},”threads”:{},”questions”:{“16002483”:{“body”:”Task Background: This assignment involves solving problems by using various discrete techniques to model the problems at hand. 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Must include the proofs for the resurrection and why it is important to understand in order to defend ones faith.”,”id”:16018629,”title”:”Need an essay on the proofs of the resurrection of Christ.”,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:true,”due”:”2017-04-17T05:00:00.000Z”,”budget”:20,”fieldOfStudyId”:7100,”userId”:748845,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2017-04-17T10:44:08.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:7100,”name”:”Education”,”anchor”:”Education”,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886231,”path”:”/fields/education”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:1527542,”path”:”/content/need-essay-proofs-resurrection-christ”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”}},”16019287″:{“body”:”Purpose:In the second assignment, within a report, you will create a SWOT analysis, discuss a SWOT analysis and provide a detailed explanation of what considerations led to the determination of …”,”id”:16019287,”title”:”TURN IT IN REQUIRED”,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:false,”due”:”2017-04-18T00:00:00.000Z”,”budget”:50,”fieldOfStudyId”:300,”userId”:683355,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2017-04-17T11:09:32.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:300,”name”:”Literature”,”anchor”:”Literature”,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886121,”path”:”/fields/literature”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:1527596,”path”:”/content/turn-it-required”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”},”rating”:{“id”:1155301,”grade”:100,”num”:2,”createdAt”:”2018-03-18T08:20:56.000Z”}},”16021855″:{“body”:”COM 203: Introduction to Communication Final Analysis Paper150 pointsYour final paper will be related to the movie The Devil Wears Prada. We will watch this movie during class time, but if you are …29/01/202010psychology

What is a Just State?

In a 2–3-page paper, address the following: Explain intersectionality Explain at least one social philosophy from the textbook. For instance, you might discuss utilitarianism, Rawls, Marx, Nozick, Du Bois, King, or Beauvoir. If the theory has a clear correlate, please discuss it as well. Illustrate your understanding of both the intersectional and traditional social justice approaches with examples. Support your account of the theories with citations to the textbook and online lectures in correct APA format. Use thisAPA Citation Helperas a convenient reference for properly citing resources.Posted: 42 minutes agoDue: 08/02/2020Budget: $10Tags: asapAnswers 0Bids 85Bethuel BestWriters FacultyMEERAB NAEEMDiscount AnsDiscount AssignQuality Assignmentsmichael smithDr_BiyaThe quA lityRewrick PatandTeacher Trumahnwriter respect runge-kutta acerWIZARD_KIMDr. RocalPROF_TOMMYQuickly answer Guruu MathHomework ProYhtomitquality work for allRasWriterRESPECT WRITERElprofessoriAtta ur RehmanMusyokionesJessica LuisAmerican TutorDr R Judy MarkDr shamille ClaraMiss Lynnabdul_rehman_DexterMastersProf.MacQueenPaula Hogkim woodsCatherine Owensbrilliant answersRey writerPhd christineBrilliant GeekDrNicNgaoANN HARRISseniorwriterkatetutorimhmd.fprofessor mitchsuraya_PhDDr. ElahiEmily Michaelsarapaul2013ChrisProfTerry RobertsDr Candice_2547Wendy LewisColossal GeniusMathStat GeniusTiny ChrisAngelina MayAll Works solverwizard kimQuickstack001Casey CeliaEva GreenEmily Clareprof avrilfastestwriter1perfectoLastMinuteTutorJack achieveransRohanSaburBLiza_JulietSaad FahimMiss juliaRELIABLE PAPERSMary Warnock PhDBRENDAH LEEJudithTutorNursing_MissGuarantee PassQuickMentorJenny BoomSolutionMartPro_writer907Other questions 10HCA 230 Week 3 Assignment Nonverbal and Verbal CommunicationA AnswersHelp! ProjectEthical Accounting QuestionXCOM 285 Week 7 Assignment Tuition Reimbursement Implementation ReportCOM 400 Week 5 Individual Assignment New Social IssuesECO 550 FINAL EXAM PART 1 WITH FOUR OTHER VERSIONSAssignmentsBlogCUSTOMER CHOICE WHOLESALE COMPANY – Adjustments – adj. T/B, Financial staementsRated 1 timesweek philosophy What is a Just State?In a 2–3-page paper, address the following: Explain intersectionality Explain at least one social philosophy from the textbook. For instance, you might discuss …Rated 1 timesWeek 4What is a Just State? Explain the idea that society should be based on virtue by discussing Confucius, Plato, and /or Aristotle Explain at least one version of social contract theory …Not ratedHas to referenced from this book: Mitchell, H. B. (2015). Roots of Wisdom: A Tapestry of Philosophical Traditions, 7th. Cengage LearningWhat is a Just State? In a 2–3-page paper, address the following: Explain intersectionality Explain at least one social philosophy from the textbook. For instance, you might discuss …Not ratedWhat is Just a state?PLEASE ONLY USE CITATIONS ONLY FROM THE TEXTBOOK!CHAPTER 8 IS THE BIG BROTHER WATCHING? AND C HAPTER 9 AM I MY BROTHER OR SISTER’S KEEPERWhat is a Just State?In a 2–3-page paper, address the …Not ratedIntroduction to philosophyIn a 2–3-page paper, address the following: Explain intersectionality Explain at least one social philosophy from the textbook. For instance, you might discuss utilitarianism, Rawls, …Not ratedWhat is a Just State? ProjectIn a 2–3-page paper, address the following: Explain intersectionality Explain at least one social philosophy from the textbook. For instance, you might discuss utilitarianism, Rawls, Marx, …Not ratedWeek 4 Explain intersectionality Explain at least one social philosophy from the textbook. For instance, you might discuss utilitarianism, Rawls, Marx, Nozick, Du Bois, King, or Beauvoir. If the theory …08/02/202010appliedsciences

Introduction to Information of Business (2 Easy assignments needs to be done in 2 hours)

Each assignment will be posted as 2 different pages.IntroductiontoInformationSystems2ndEdition2014.pdfunnamed1.jpgunnamed2.jpgunnamed.jpgPosted: 2 years agoDue: 23/01/2018Budget: $30Answers 1Mary Tutor3.9 (24)4.3 (349)ChatInformation Of Business Answer rating:5Stars out of1ratings2 years agoPurchase the answer to view itjay.xlsxNASDAQS.docTry it first(plagiarism check)Buy answer $30Bids 29Prof. Allwood Sonnerbergwork solutionsBeaverlyseth PhD5-STAR PROFCharandryUltimate_WriterUltimate GEEKSophia EmersonDr. Claver-NNMiss Professorprof.kanemosesGoodwriterGeek Successsuraya_PhDarchent writerYhtomitMichelle OwensCamila Cherokeephyllis youngTutorgrantonMary TutorHillary Youngkristine tutorA-plus Writerrodneygkim woodsGlass HousefarhatullahOther questions 10Soc 100, Topic 3Please finish it in 12 hour. WP1——–at least 750 wordsPROFESSOR ANTHONYscanning function resource and capabilityS.A and process Managerial Accounting Project : BudgetingPhilosophy (101) – 4 pages assignment MAXquestion 12Menu SelectionSelect a Specific Criminal BehaviorBlog ArchiveCopyright © 2019 HomeworkMarket.com Read MoreApplied SciencesArchitecture and DesignBiologyBusiness & FinanceChemistryComputer ScienceGeographyGeologyEducationEngineeringEnglishEnvironmental scienceSpanishGovernmentHistoryHuman Resource ManagementInformation SystemsLawLiteratureMathematicsNursingPhysicsPolitical SciencePsychologyReadingScienceSocial Science window.__REDUX__STATE__ = ‘{“appMeta”:{“serverRendered”:true},”apiRequests”:{“pendingRequestCount”:0,”succeededRequestCount”:4,”failedRequestCount”:0,”requestCounters”:{“GET_FIELDS_PENDING”:0,”GET_ENTITY_PENDING”:0,”GET_FIELDS_SUCCESS”:1,”GET_ENTITY_SUCCESS”:1,”GET_SIMILAR_QUESTIONS_PENDING”:0,”GET_OTHER_QUESTIONS_PENDING”:0,”GET_OTHER_QUESTIONS_SUCCESS”:1,”GET_SIMILAR_QUESTIONS_SUCCESS”:1}},”currentUserMeta”:{“id”:0,”isGuest”:true,”isReceivingEmails”:null,”authMethod”:null,”approvalTicket”:null,”fees”:null,”disputesAmount”:null,”earningsStats”:{“questions”:{“totalPurchases”:0,”totalIncome”:0},”tutorials”:{“totalPurchases”:0,”totalIncome”:0}}},”modal”:{},”joyride”:{“steps”:[]},”users”:{“guest-0”:{“role”:”student”,”isGuest”:true}},”usersStatuses”:{},”usersThreads”:{},”usersReviews”:{},”usersQuestions”:{},”reviewsPage”:{“results”:[]},”reviews”:{},”answersReviews”:{},”threads”:{},”questions”:{“8743083”:{“body”:””,”id”:8743083,”title”:”Select a Specific Criminal Behavior”,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:true,”due”:”2016-03-20T10:00:00.000Z”,”budget”:10,”fieldOfStudyId”:1000,”userId”:54454,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2016-03-17T15:02:10.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:1000,”name”:”Psychology”,”anchor”:”Psychology”,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886165,”path”:”/fields/psychology”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:1028680,”path”:”/content/select-specific-criminal-behavior-0″,”sitemap”:false,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”},”rating”:{“id”:1069801,”grade”:100,”num”:2,”createdAt”:”2018-03-18T08:20:56.000Z”}},”8744793″:{“body”:”See attached”,”id”:8744793,”title”:”Menu Selection”,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:false,”budget”:25,”fieldOfStudyId”:2000,”userId”:254128,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2016-03-17T16:42:23.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:2000,”name”:”Information Systems”,”anchor”:”Information Systems”,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886185,”path”:”/fields/information-systems”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:1028780,”path”:”/content/menu-selection-8744793-2″,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”}},”8746861″:{“body”:”must be original answers”,”id”:8746861,”title”:”question 12″,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:false,”due”:”2016-03-07T00:00:00.000Z”,”budget”:15,”fieldOfStudyId”:100,”userId”:608673,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2016-03-17T19:25:38.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:100,”name”:”Mathematics”,”anchor”:”Mathematics”,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886107,”path”:”/fields/mathematics”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:1028928,”path”:”/content/question-12-8746861-2″,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”},”rating”:{“id”:1069849,”grade”:100,”num”:4,”createdAt”:”2018-03-18T08:20:56.000Z”}},”8747181″:{“body”:”Phil 101 Writing Assignment 1.Provide a reconstruction of Frege’s argument in the paper “Thought”.To do this, you must successfully break his argument down into premises and conclusions.The …”,”id”:8747181,”title”:”Philosophy (101) – 4 pages assignment MAX”,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:true,”due”:”2016-03-20T09:40:00.000Z”,”budget”:20,”fieldOfStudyId”:1500,”userId”:616471,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2016-03-17T19:49:52.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:1500,”name”:”Reading”,”anchor”:”Reading”,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886175,”path”:”/fields/reading”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:1028954,”path”:”/content/philosophy-101-4-pages-assignment-max”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”},”rating”:{“id”:1069855,”grade”:100,”num”:2,”createdAt”:”2018-03-18T08:20:56.000Z”}},”8753035″:{“body”:””,”id”:8753035,”title”:”Managerial Accounting Project : Budgeting”,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:false,”due”:”2016-03-24T03:00:00.000Z”,”budget”:50,”fieldOfStudyId”:1900,”userId”:342365,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2016-03-18T03:22:59.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:1900,”name”:”Business Finance – Accounting”,”anchor”:”Accounting”,”fieldOfStudyId”:900,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886183,”path”:”/fields/business-finance-accounting”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:1029384,”path”:”/content/managerial-accounting-project-budgeting”,”sitemap”:false,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”}},”8758875″:{“body”:”Write a 1-2 page APA formatted paper with citations and references analyzing sentiment analysis. Within your paper, discuss what sentiment analysis is used for and provide examples of popular …”,”id”:8758875,”title”:”S.A and process “,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:false,”due”:”2016-03-06T12:00:00.000Z”,”budget”:7,”fieldOfStudyId”:6700,”userId”:587991,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2016-03-18T16:07:36.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:6700,”name”:”Business Finance – Management”,”anchor”:”Management”,”fieldOfStudyId”:900,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886227,”path”:”/fields/business-finance-management”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:1029834,”path”:”/content/sa-and-process”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”}},”8760031″:{“body”:”internal environment analysis in strategic management ,, based on the attached senario”,”id”:8760031,”title”:”scanning function resource and capability”,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:false,”due”:”2016-03-19T00:00:00.000Z”,”budget”:15,”fieldOfStudyId”:6700,”userId”:498082,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2016-03-18T17:54:26.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:6700,”name”:”Business Finance – Management”,”anchor”:”Management”,”fieldOfStudyId”:900,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886227,”path”:”/fields/business-finance-management”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:1029924,”path”:”/content/scanning-function-resource-and-capability”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”}},”8770509″:{“body”:””,”id”:8770509,”title”:”PROFESSOR ANTHONY”,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:true,”due”:”2016-03-20T23:00:00.000Z”,”budget”:30,”fieldOfStudyId”:200,”userId”:597287,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2016-03-19T17:28:58.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:200,”name”:”English”,”anchor”:”English”,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886117,”path”:”/fields/english”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:1030822,”path”:”/content/professor-anthony-8770509-2″,”sitemap”:false,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”},”rating”:{“id”:1070195,”grade”:100,”num”:2,”createdAt”:”2018-03-18T08:20:56.000Z”}},”8774185″:{“body”:”Core reading isSHERMAN ALEXIEINDIAN EDUCATION23/01/201830businessfinance

Synthesis Worksheet Doctoral Identity Rubric articles and worksheet is attached

Synthesis is the act of creating something new from multiple existing entities. Synthesis of research, then, is creating a new idea from existing ideas. This assignment is designed to help you identify how themes can emerge from reading literature and how you can synthesize this information in a way that creates new knowledge. You will use your understandings of the Topic 2 readings to complete a synthesis worksheet.General Requirements: This assignment will be used as a pre-writing activity for the synthesis paper in Topic 5. Locate and download “Synthesis Worksheet” from the Course Materials for this topic. Review the articles by Baker & Pifer (2011), Gardner (2009), and Smith & Hatmaker (2014) located in the Course Materials for this topic. This assignment uses a rubric. Review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion. Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. Review the GCU APA Style Guide for Writing located in the Student Success Center. You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.Directions:Complete the Synthesis Worksheet for the articles by Baker & Pifer (2011), Gardner (2009), and Smith & Hatmaker (2014). The completed worksheet will include the following sections: An Introduction that introduces and provides context for the topic, presents three common themes that emerged from the readings, and provides organization for the paper with a thesis statement. A description of the evidence to support three common themes that emerged from the articles. Since this is likely your first experience with this depth of synthesis, we have provided two of the themes found in the articles. Your task is to identify a third theme and to provide evidence from each article for all three common themes. A conclusion where you will return to your thesis and provide evidence showing you successfully addressed your thesis statement. Discuss the connections that you made from the evidence and how each theme emerged from the central topic of doctoral identity.CopyofRubric_Print_Format.xlsxBakerandPifer.pdfGardner.pdfSmithandHatmaker.pdfres-811-synthesisworksheet.docxPosted: a year agoDue: 03/12/2018Budget: $15Answers 1katetutor4.8 (656)4.7 (5k )ChatansAnswer rating:4.5Stars out of1ratingsa year agoPurchase the answer to view itknndr_2811_Review_04-12-20182.docxTry it first(plagiarism check)Buy answer $15Bids 48Bethuel BestAleina KimPaula HogMich MichieGabriella OwensProf. NicholasEpic Writer PhdPROF washington watsonDrNicNgaowork solutionsProf.MacQueensuraya_PhDElprofessoriChrisProfprof avrilFLOVODOHguru answersHilary MantelRey writerbrilliant answerskatetutorperfectobig tankkim woodswizard kimWiseOneMaham MalikMichelle OwensThe_Ideas_TeamThe quA lityAlastairDr. Claver-NNEssay-tutorMiss Professorphyllis youngAll Works solverDr.Qura-tul-ainWendy LewisYoung Kim hoodsProf Tim WilsonBeaverlyMalik TutorAs soon as PossibleDr shamille ClaraDr.WakimokaAliya MalikBishopKathy HayleOther questions 10write 2 page paper not including reference pageFor Top Performer Only051017-0575-6Adult Advanced Life SupportNeed help ASAP plz!!!Discuss questions need answering ASAP!!! Need quick responses.Week 6 and 7 discussioni have 2 philosophy papers to write 900-1200 words each and submit within an hour. any help?Week 6Example PaperRated 1 timesRose SeptemberRated 1 timesAnnotated Bibliography: Doctoral Identity Annotations are descriptive and critical assessments of literature that help researchers to evaluate texts and determine relevancy in relation to a particular research project. …Rated 2 timesDoctorate Level Assignment- Due Tomorrow- Need TutorDetails:Synthesis is the act of creating something new from multiple existing entities. Synthesis of research, then, is creating a new idea from existing ideas. Synthesis of research is not a …Rated 1 timesSynthesis Paper: Doctoral Identity- Rubrics, Template, Articles, and Prior Assignment w/feedback includedIn Topic 2, you were asked to read three articles on the topic of doctoral identity and to complete an annotated bibliography to demonstrate their understanding of the …Not ratedDoctorate Program AssignmentAnnotated Bibliography: Doctoral IdentityAnnotations are descriptive and critical assessments of literature that help researchers to evaluate texts and determine relevancy in relation to a particular …Not ratedDoctoral Level Writing AssignmentDetails:In Topic 2, you were asked to read three articles on the topic of doctoral identity and to complete an annotated bibliography to demonstrate their understanding of the material. In Topic 3, …Not ratedDoctoral AssignmentDetails:Synthesis is the act of creating something new from multiple existing entities. Synthesis of research, then, is creating a new idea from existing ideas. This assignment is designed to …Not ratedEnhanced Synthesis Paper: Doctoral Identity Please read everything about this assignment. Majority of it has been done now you are just adding on to it and also correcting what the instructor advise.Synthesis is the act of …03/12/201815humanresource-management

Personal Philosophy of Nursing Paper

Use the questions in the table in chapter 3 on page 101 of your textbook as a guide as you write your personal philosophy of nursing. The paper should be three typewritten double spaced pages following APA style guidelines. The paper should address the following: Introduction that includes who you are and where you practice nursing Definition of Nursing Assumptions or underlying beliefs Definitions and examples of the major domains (person, health, and environment) of nursing Summary that includes: How are the domains connected? What is your vision of nursing for the future? What are the challenges that you will face as a nurse? What are your goals for professional development? Grading criteria for the Personal Philosophy of Nursing Paper:Introduction 10%Definition of Nursing 20%Assumptions and beliefs 20%Definitions and examples of domains of nursing 30%Summary 20%Total 100%Your paper must be written in APA style16/03/201820nursing

“Which one is the better approach to the issues discussed in Manne&#x27

s Down Girl (the relations of unequal owing, as exemplified, for instance by the prevalence of sexual assault and testimonial injustice)?”which one is the better approach to the issues discussed in Manne’s Down Girl (the relations of unequal owing, as exemplified, for instance by the prevalence of sexual assault and testimonial injustice)?*there are two books that you need to understand in order to write this essay!_Sexism by Cudd and Jones_ Down Girl by Kate Manne Thank you :)ShortPaperAssignmentInstructions2.pdfCuddJonesSexism2.pdfKate-Manne-Down-Girl–The-Logic-of-Misogynyz-lib.org.pdfIMG_4729.jpgPosted: 10 months agoDue: 19/03/2019Budget: $25Answers 1Miss Professor4.7 (314)4.5 (17k )Chat10 months agoPurchase the answer to view itLogicofMisogyny.edited.docxTry it first(plagiarism check)Buy answer $30Bids 44Dr_Aalishba786sochienRanchoddas Chanchad PhDThe_Ideas_TeamRanju LewisKATHERINE BECKSMichelle MalkMath GuruuPhd isaac newtonDrNicNgaoSasha SpencerTaylor RodmanReem Hasansuraya_PhDCatherine Owensmadam-professorDexterMastersProCastrol01brilliant answersDr.Qura-tul-ainprof avrilAngelina MayJenny BoomMiss Professorkite_solANN HARRISwork solutionsChrisProfProf.MacQueenphyllis youngMadam SarahperfectoSMA ProRey writerComputer_Science_Expertwriter respect professor George BrianWendy LewisDr shamille ClaraSophia Milesdoctor alidanchamgei2symoh kymmPROFJUMAAAOther questions 10ACCT 601 Fall Semester Final ExamMicroprocessors / MASM assembler and linkerHSA 525 Healtth Financial ManagementBusiness SWOT analysis Assignment 1: Database Consultant ServicesACCT504 Case Study 1 — THE COMPLETE ACCOUNTING CYCLEWork doneLaw Essay 2psych 635 week 6 assignmentAssignment 3 – Risk ManagementNot ratedpaper (1100 words)Philosophy homework19/03/201925socialscience

Webbitcoinsclub | Make money Not Excuses

The cryptocurrency that continues to mesmerize the world, the first of its kind, Bitcoin was once entirely a classy realm of tech-geniuses who were keen to uphold the philosophy of maximizing autonomy, but Bitcoin has a shot to fame with the promise of a wide consumer base. Yet, to the uninitiated consumers, a query remains. So, exactly what is Bitcoin? Some are really yet to unravel this overly fluctuating cryptocurrency. Generated and stored electronically, Bitcoin is actually a form of digital currency. The network can’t actually be controlled by anyone, the currency is decentralized. It came into being in 2009, as a brainchild of an individual with the assumed name of Satoshi Nakamoto. Utilizing the P2P technology to function, Bitcoin has the distinctive and flexible feature to engulf anyone who’s interested. Its worldwide acceptance is a feature that adds to its popularity.Visit Us: http://webbitcoinclub.com/23/01/2020100businessfinance

Final paper of 2 pages with two references

In your philosophy final, you will write a short essay addressing the problem of how this introduction to philosophy relates to your life.The title of the paper will be “Your Name: A Philosophical Summation,” “Your Name’s Apology,” “Arundel college Symposium.” Or something like that.In this paper, you will take three of our main ideas and show how they help to explain your life from the following1-The Plato’s cave2-Socrates Philosophy about Apology3-The Sermon on the mountYour paper will have a 1-2 sentence introduction, setting the scene—telling a bit about the class, naming the three ideas that interested you the most, and then explaining in 1-4 sentences how these ideas relate to you.The body of the paper will contain the following:I. Main Idea 1A. State the ideaB. Explain itC. Explain what it has to do with you. Be totally specific and precise—names, places etc. You may fictionalize. Add images and videos if you wishII. Main Idea 2–same outline as aboveIII. Main Idea 3–same outline as aboveThe paper should have a cover sheet that is a work of art. The cover sheet should have an image and title that reflect the thesis. You may use “I” in this paper. Please do your best to refer to the philosophers.02/01/20205appliedsciences

PSY 104 Child and Adolescent Development WK5A

Community Center Proposal[WLOs: 3] [CLOs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]Prior to beginning work on this assignment, review Chapters 5, 7, 8, 11, and 12, which are the primary chapters in the textbook and provide you with the theoretical foundations for this project. Also review the Exploring Borderlands–American Passages: A Literary Surveyvideo. Many of the other resources in the previous weeks may also be helpful.Remember that you have already created nine of the required 15 activities for this assignment in Weeks 2, 3, and 4. You received feedback from your instructor and from the Writing Center on those activity papers. You are expected to incorporate that feedback into the nine activities already created. During this last week, you will place those activities in the appropriate room in your proposal and create the remaining six activities.Focus of the Final Project:Your community is planning to open a brand-new child development community center. Now that you are an expert in the field, you have been chosen to create a proposal for interactive, fun, and educational programming activities that will be provided for children and adolescents in this center. The chosen activities must be developmentally appropriate and based in theory. You will present your ideas to the city council with a written proposal describing the programming in detail. You have been asked to propose programming for the following five different age groups in the child development community center: Infant (0-1 year) Toddler (1-3 years) Early Childhood (3-6 years) Middle to Late Childhood (7-12 years) Adolescence (13-18 years)Use this Community Child Development Center Proposal Template to organize your proposal. Enter the requested information on the title page where indicated. Where you find the text, “In this section you will describe the activity …” within the proposal template, please remove that and enter your own content. The headings in bold should not be altered. The final content for each “room” will consist of three paragraphs that will address three distinct activities that address physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development for that age group. Table 5.1 in your textbook will be very useful in identifying the major milestones in physical development.In your Community Child Proposal, Describe the activity in some detail (provide more than just the name of the activity). Identify the specific domain related theory concept that supports the use of this activity. Identify how the activity enhances physical, cognitive, or psychosocial development.Special Notes:A good way to brainstorm different age appropriate activities is using Google’s search tool before researching. Please review What Is CRAAP? A Guide to Evaluating Web Sources(Links to an external site.). For example, enter “activities to support cognitive development in toddlers” and numerous sites with suggested activities will be displayed. Remember that your activities may be simple (especially with newborns), but they must also be specific and age appropriate, and you are to connect them to developmental theory within the proposal. You must also cite the sources in your proposal.While much of the theoretical support for your proposal will come from the textbook, you must include information somewhere in the proposal from three credible or scholarly sources. If you included a source in your Weeks 2, 3, and 4 papers, then you have already met this requirement. Just transfer the source to the final proposal. Remember to cite all your sources (including the textbook) according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.PSY104ChildandAdolescentDevelopmentWK5-Ainstructions.docxPSY104ChildandAdolescentDevelopmentWK2-A.docxPSY104ChildandAdolescentDevelopmentWeek3-A.docxPSY104ChildandAdolescentDevelopmentWk4-A.docx11CH_Mossler_Child.pdf07CH_Mossler_Child.pdf05CH_Mossler_Child.pdf08CH_Mossler_Child.pdfPosted: 3 days agoDue: 28/12/2019Budget: $30Answers 0Bids 62Prof Double RAmanda Smithwriter respect ElprofessoriWIZARD_KIMDr. RocalPROF. ANNDr R Judy MarkRasWriterDr Ava_MiaRELIABLE PAPERSquality work for allColossal GeniusProfessor LizzPhd isaac newtonDr_inaayaMadem_JenniferPaula HogTerry RobertsWendy Lewisrunge-kutta acerGreat-Writersjim claireProf.MacQueenprofessor mitchDrNicNgaowizard kimLilliana_SmithCatherine Owensbrilliant answersJessica Luisimhmd.fDexterMastersChrisProfRey writerJenny BoomMegan Tillmanhassan0906Emily MichaelAcademic MentorDoctor Okumusarapaul2013Ultimate GEEKkim woodsSamann060perfectoDr shamille Clarasmart-tutorMiss Professorphyllis youngCasey CeliaDr.Sanam sheikhMiss_iqra_A Umair_ArifAngelina MaySaad FahimKaya Scodelarioprof avrilLiza_JulietVanDr.Smart Dr Rahma AbiUnique_ProfOther questions 10Discussion Response 1Awk5d-16-3 finance due at 14:00 EST 4/16/17Discussion see the pictures that i uploadedAssignment 1: Technology: Will It Meet Global Socio-Cultural Approval?TEACHER HOMEWORK2dqE-commerce is emerging markets is often hampered, or hindered, by ________.Philosophy intro to ethics HWNot ratedweek 5 Week 5 – Final ProjectCommunity Center Proposal[WLOs: 3] [CLOs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]Prior to beginning work on this assignment, review Chapters 5, 7, 8, 11, and 12, which are the primary …28/12/201930socialscience

Statistics Math (Need in 3 hrs)

See attached for problemsMathHomework.docxPosted: 2 years agoDue: 20/11/2017Budget: $2Answers 1Analyst Nyamu5.0 (1)5.0 (1)Chat2 years agoPurchase the answer to view itMathHomework1.docxTry it first(plagiarism check)Buy answer $2Bids 5Miss ProfessorProf Double RStatistics-computer scienceAnalyst Nyamumathexpert121Other questions 10the cost to a store for a box of cereal is $2.50. the store is selling the box of cereal…PHILOSOPHY, (CASE STUDY ASSIGNMENT) Assignment 3: Case StudyAir Pollution in China Documentary.homework economicsessay with a work cited pageQNT 561 WEEK 5 Business Research Project Part 4 Data Analysissolid work essay An entry in the Apple Festival Poster Contest must be rectangular and have an area of 1200 square inches.  Also,…HSM 541 Final ExamBlog ArchiveCopyright © 2019 HomeworkMarket.com Read MoreApplied SciencesArchitecture and DesignBiologyBusiness & FinanceChemistryComputer ScienceGeographyGeologyEducationEngineeringEnglishEnvironmental scienceSpanishGovernmentHistoryHuman Resource ManagementInformation SystemsLawLiteratureMathematicsNursingPhysicsPolitical SciencePsychologyReadingScienceSocial Science window.__REDUX__STATE__ = ‘{“appMeta”:{“serverRendered”:true},”apiRequests”:{“pendingRequestCount”:0,”succeededRequestCount”:4,”failedRequestCount”:0,”requestCounters”:{“GET_FIELDS_PENDING”:0,”GET_ENTITY_PENDING”:0,”GET_FIELDS_SUCCESS”:1,”GET_ENTITY_SUCCESS”:1,”GET_SIMILAR_QUESTIONS_PENDING”:0,”GET_OTHER_QUESTIONS_PENDING”:0,”GET_SIMILAR_QUESTIONS_SUCCESS”:1,”GET_OTHER_QUESTIONS_SUCCESS”:1}},”currentUserMeta”:{“id”:0,”isGuest”:true,”isReceivingEmails”:null,”authMethod”:null,”approvalTicket”:null,”fees”:null,”disputesAmount”:null,”earningsStats”:{“questions”:{“totalPurchases”:0,”totalIncome”:0},”tutorials”:{“totalPurchases”:0,”totalIncome”:0}}},”modal”:{},”joyride”:{“steps”:[]},”users”:{“guest-0”:{“role”:”student”,”isGuest”:true}},”usersStatuses”:{},”usersThreads”:{},”usersReviews”:{},”usersQuestions”:{},”reviewsPage”:{“results”:[]},”reviews”:{},”answersReviews”:{},”threads”:{},”questions”:{“3908462”:{“body”:”HSM 541 Final Exam”,”id”:3908462,”title”:”HSM 541 Final Exam”,”isTutorial”:true,”isEssay”:false,”budget”:5,”fieldOfStudyId”:1900,”userId”:233558,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2015-03-25T08:07:47.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:1900,”name”:”Business Finance – Accounting”,”anchor”:”Accounting”,”fieldOfStudyId”:900,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886183,”path”:”/fields/business-finance-accounting”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:558834,”path”:”/content/hsm-541-final-exam”,”sitemap”:false,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”}},”3919677″:{“body”:”An entry in the Apple Festival Poster Contest must be rectangular and have an area of 1200 square inches. Also, its length must be 20 inches longer than its width. Find the dimensions …”,”id”:3919677,”title”:”An entry in the Apple Festival Poster Contest must be rectangular and have an area of 1200 square inches.� Also,…”,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:false,”budget”:999999.99,”fieldOfStudyId”:100,”userId”:464392,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2015-03-25T17:52:18.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:100,”name”:”Mathematics”,”anchor”:”Mathematics”,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886107,”path”:”/fields/mathematics”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:559368,”path”:”/content/entry-apple-festival-poster-contest-must-be-rectangular-and-have-area-1200-square-inches�-al”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”}},”3919852″:{“body”:”we have to write an essay 2 pages about Gustave Whitehead and the Wright brothers and we have to write an opinion on who do we think flew the first plane.Did he fly before the wright brothers? You …”,”id”:3919852,”title”:”essay “,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:true,”due”:”2015-03-30T00:00:00.000Z”,”budget”:10,”fieldOfStudyId”:800,”userId”:448157,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2015-03-25T18:02:14.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:800,”name”:”History”,”anchor”:”History”,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886155,”path”:”/fields/history”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:559374,”path”:”/content/essay-3919852-2″,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”}},”3924072″:{“body”:”HelloI do have a solidwork homework. you can find the homework in the attachments.”,”id”:3924072,”title”:”solid work “,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:false,”due”:”2015-03-26T00:00:00.000Z”,”budget”:15,”fieldOfStudyId”:1700,”userId”:391562,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2015-03-25T21:08:49.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:1700,”name”:”Computer Science”,”anchor”:”Computer Science”,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886179,”path”:”/fields/computer-science”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:559602,”path”:”/content/solid-work”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”}},”3933972″:{“body”:”Business Research Project Part 4: Data AnalysisAppend the Week 4 Business Research Project Part 3 paper with the following:Collect the team members’ Week 4 individual Descriptive Statistics and …”,”id”:3933972,”title”:”QNT 561 WEEK 5 Business Research Project Part 4 Data Analysis”,”isTutorial”:true,”isEssay”:false,”budget”:15,”fieldOfStudyId”:100,”userId”:62752,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2015-03-26T07:33:29.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:100,”name”:”Mathematics”,”anchor”:”Mathematics”,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886107,”path”:”/fields/mathematics”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:559912,”path”:”/content/qnt-561-week-5-business-research-project-part-4-data-analysis”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”}},”3939162″:{“body”:”I have to use two sources but one will be my book and use MLA formatting for the first page and the body of the paper (12 point, 1-inch margins, double-spaced, etc.) and must be 800 words”,”id”:3939162,”title”:”essay with a work cited page”,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:true,”due”:”2015-04-02T13:00:00.000Z”,”budget”:20,”fieldOfStudyId”:800,”userId”:351632,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2015-03-26T12:37:44.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:800,”name”:”History”,”anchor”:”History”,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886155,”path”:”/fields/history”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:560112,”path”:”/content/essay-work-cited-page”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”}},”3945742″:{“body”:”Consider the table below for the aggregate supply (AS), and aggregate demand (AD), for goods and services in the United States.Price Level – P(Y Axis)Real GDP Demanded in …”,”id”:3945742,”title”:”homework economics”,”isTutorial”:true,”isEssay”:false,”due”:”2015-03-26T00:00:00.000Z”,”budget”:40,”fieldOfStudyId”:2300,”userId”:219298,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2015-03-26T17:14:43.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:2300,”name”:”Business Finance – Economics”,”anchor”:”Economics”,”fieldOfStudyId”:900,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886187,”path”:”/fields/business-finance-economics”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:560330,”path”:”/content/homework-economics-0″,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”}},”3950792″:{“body”:”http://www.npr.org/blogs/parallels/2015/03/04/390689033/the-anti-pollution-documentary-thats-taken-china-by-stormread this article and write one page and two queshions about it.”,”id”:3950792,”title”:”Air Pollution in China Documentary.”,”isTutorial”:false,”isEssay”:false,”due”:”2015-03-27T00:00:00.000Z”,”budget”:3,”fieldOfStudyId”:2900,”userId”:435977,”published”:true,”newBids”:0,”createdAt”:”2015-03-26T21:09:15.000Z”,”fieldOfStudy”:{“id”:2900,”name”:”Environmental science”,”anchor”:”Environmental science”,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:15:16.000Z”,”path”:{“id”:5886199,”path”:”/fields/environmental-science”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:false,”createdAt”:”2017-12-24T22:55:21.000Z”}},”path”:{“id”:560518,”path”:”/content/air-pollution-china-documentary”,”sitemap”:true,”amp”:true,”createdAt”:”2017-09-06T03:23:07.000Z”}},”3956152″:{“body”:”Length: 1800 �200 words1. Choose a case depicting a morally problematic situation in professional practice:1. You may choose a ready-made case from our course materials or from somewhere …20/11/20172mathematics

Week 5 A

Compensation PhilosophyEvaluate the current compensation philosophy for your organization or an organization of your choosing (from a third-person perspective). Write a three-to-five page paper (not including the title and reference pages). Your paper should be written in a scholarly third-person tone; it should be in APA format. In addition to the introduction and conclusion, your paper should address the following: Evaluate the organization’s current compensation philosophy and propose ways to enhance or revamp the current compensation philosophy to meet the changing needs of the organization and its employees. Examine key factors within the internal and external environment including the mission and strategic focus of the organization, as well as the financial and cultural aspects of your organization (i.e., they cannot have a compensation philosophy where they “lead” the market if the organization does not have the financial resources) that should influence this philosophy. The proposed philosophy itself should be no more than a short paragraph. Identify the key factors that should contribute to the organization’s development based on your proposed organizational philosophy.Remember to write from a third-person perspective. Do not include wording like “my company’s philosophy is …” Instead include wording like “XYZ Company Name’s philosophy is …” Remember to write about the company and the company’s philosophy; do not refer to you or your connection to the company.In addition to the text, cite at least two scholarly references to support your discussion.11/05/202020businessfinance

Essay help

I need a 6-7 page essay written in Chicago Manuel of Style. The essay instructions are posted below. Are you able to help?Directions: Please select one of the prompts below and use it to compose an original essay on one of the books or short stories that we have read during the second have of the semester. Please note: these essay prompts are designed to stimulate the development of your own views on the work in question, and so simply answering the questions posed in each prompt is insufficient for the purposes of this assignment. It is vitally important that in developing your reading of the novel, that you substantiate it by means of textual evidence, which you must cite and explain. Your essay should between 6-8 double-spaced pages in length, using 12-point font and normal (i.e., 1-inch margins). Where it is appropriate, your essay should incorporate the terms and themes we have been discussing in class. For the purposes of this assignment, no additional sources besides our text are required; however, if you consult secondary literature, then these sources must be cited. The Philosophy Department requires all students to cite sources in accordance with the Chicago Manuel of Style. Please be sure to give your essay a title.1.) Toni Morrison’s novel The Bluest Eye opens in a rather curious and enigmatic fashion, namely with the quotation from a traditional reading primer that was for many years used to teach American children how to read. As the novel progresses, quotations from this primer recur and continually punctuate Morrison’s text. For the purposes of this explain, please examine this gesture in detail. How does it function? What does it express? What is it intended to signify? Be sure to incorporate into your essay an evaluative perspective. That is, take a stand as to whether or not this formal device is successful or not, and be sure to substantiate your view with a broader reading of the novel. To be clear, your essay should not simply tack on a few paragraphs towards the end arguing for or against this device; it should develop a thesis about Morrison’s use of the reading primer and attempt to persuade your reader as to its effectiveness and appropriateness throughout your essay.2.) For the purposes of this essay, please comment on the role of the narrator in Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye. What is achieved by have the events in the novel recounted by a small child? What kinds of observations does this allow for? And what kind of emotions does this formal device create? In composing your essay, please be sure to consider and comment upon the fact that as readers we know from the very first pages that the novel revolves around the rape and impregnation of Pecola Breedlove. What is the effect of readers having this knowledge? Why is it important that it is witnessed by a child?3.) Write an essay evaluating Toni Morrison’s attempt to humanize the seemingly monstrous actions of Cholly Breedlove. Is her attempt to have all of her characters in The Bluest Eye appear to us as intelligible and worthy of sympathy successful? Why or why not? What does she do to render Cholly’s actions intelligible to the reader? 12/05/202060socialscience

PERSONAL NARRATIVE

Topic and Structure:Multimodal Personal Narrative – Develop a multimodal document to both visually illustrate and verbally express a personal transformation.Use a one-page newspaper or single-panel brochure format to present a personal narration of a transformation of your choice from a point in your childhood to today. You might discuss a career aspiration you had as a child, transition to the job you held as a teenager, and lastly, explain the profession you maintain today. Use connecting ideas to ensure you have a cohesive essay, which will ultimately (in the conclusion) explain what you learned from this transformation. For example, how and why did you go from point A (job 1) to point B (job 2) and then on to point C (job 3)? Or, you might consider illustrating a transformation based on a way of life or philosophy.Implement three photos to represent your ideas, feelings, etc., at the three focal points in your life. You may use personal photos, clip art, or other images, but be sure you use and/or attribute the them appropriately. For example, you are free to use your personal photos as you’d like, but make sure to choose clip art or other images that you either have permission to use freely or that you cite adequately. Equally consider your document’s layout, such as text sizes, photo placement (near the related essay text), and colors, in addition to how you present your content, to include thesis, support, and organization.Sample thesis statement: Growing up in Sedona, Arizona, I was constantly looking up into the clear night sky, viewing multiple constellations and shimmering stars, which had me yearning to reach them—literally—so when I turned 16, I began working as a camp counselor at a space camp, which ultimately led to a career at NASA; my journey taught me that if I reached for the stars, nothing could stop me.Format Requirements:While you do not need to follow standard MLA format for this assignment, be sure to still include your name, the course title, assignment name, and date within your submission as part of the newspaper or brochure.Length:This assignment should be at least 500 words.Underline your thesis statement.Example format:11/05/20202english

GradingRubric

Grading Rubric Compare/contrast the avocado and artichoke ideas of the self. Discuss at least one specific version of each.Illustrate the avocado idea of the self by analyzing a work of art.Discuss at least one philosophy that understands art to be representational.Illustrate the artichoke idea of the self by analyzing a work of art. Discuss at least one philosophy that understands art to be transformative.Discuss the relationship between art, philosophy, and truth, comparing the philosophies from the reading with your own views.Write in a clear, concise, and organized manner; demonstrate ethical scholarship in accurate representation and attribution of sources; and display accurate spelling, grammar, and punctuation.Use APA format, citations and references and used correct structural formatting.

EXAM2Guidlines

EXAM 2 Below are the essay questions for your second exam. The exam is intended for you to work independently. You may, however, use your team’s data from the work you have done to date. Each question is worth a total of 25 points. Please answer each question as thoroughly as possible, providing rich detail from our lectures, readings, and discussions. The organization of your answers, the complexity of your analysis, and the clarity of your critical thinking are the key elements of your evaluation . 1. On Strategy Implementation – Performance Excellence We discussed at length the idea of Six Sigma as a way to create synergy across the organization, to increase the probability of mission buy-in as well as the effective alignment of resources, and, most fundamentally, the production of near perfect output of product and service. Discuss the following in detail: 1. What does Six Sigma mean to someone like Jack Welch? Be detailed in your response. i. Provide an example how GE uses the concept to improve performance. Pull from Winning to support your answer (Welch dedicates an entire chapter on six sigma). ii. What is one strength and weakness of this widely subscribed philosophy? 2. Lastly, pertaining to your CEO company, identify the ONE burning issue that is a prime candidate for continuous improvement – that one thing holding the firm back from implementing good strategy (remember good strategy clearly defines the obstacles from which we must overcome – bad strategy does not) 2. On Strategic Intent and Strategy Implementation 1. First, identify your CEO company’s strategic intent, that is, the ambitious stretch targets that go beyond corporate vision propelling the firm to win. Pull from the readings to support your response 2. Second, identify and discuss the important components of your strategy’s implementation – mainly the who, what, how: i. Who are the central players/managers who will carry out your strategic recommendations? ii. What must be done – describe the program that is (or needs to be) in place to carry out your strategic recommendations? iii. How will everyone work together – what organizational structure will work best and why? 3. On Evaluation and Control Referring to the Balanced Scorecard’s key measurement concepts, illustrate and discuss the following: 1. Using the traditional model from Kaplan and Norton customize your team company’s BSC model by identifying and completing ONE objective you will ‘measure’ for each scorecard component. Discuss in detail. 2. Additionally, provide a basic, yet customized, illustrative model of your BSC to complement your response. 4. On the Journey – 1. And, lastly, why does strategy matter? Be specific and brilliant. i. Consider including the key ‘take-aways’ from the course from the readings, lectures, discussions, team work, etc. i Recommendations on excellence – ten pages is your minimum target; dig deep into the readings and language of our text and lectures; provide unique insight, reach for high-level presentation and formatting; use 12-point, Times New Roman font; pay attention to details; use end-notes to cite your sources from your readings. For example, at the end of a sentence that you either cite directly or summarize, you will insert an end-note such as this one. The end-note simply needs to indicate the author and page number such as, Wheelen and Hunger, p. 82; put some time into this assignment; teach me something new.

GCUTOPIC3CLC

CLC – Nursing Theory and Conceptual Model Presentation This is a Collaborative Learning Community (CLC) assignment.Nursing theories are tested and systematic ways to implement nursing practice. Select a nursing theory and its conceptual model. Prepare a 10-15 slide PowerPoint in which you describe the nursing theory and its conceptual model and demonstrate its application in nursing practice. Include the following: Present an overview of the nursing theory. Provide evidence that demonstrates support for the model’s efficacy in nursing practice. Explain how the theory proves the conceptual model. Explain how the nursing theory incorporates the four metaparadigm concepts. Provide three evidence-based examples that demonstrate how the nursing theory supports nursing practice. Provide support and rationale for each.Refer to the resource, “Creating Effective PowerPoint Presentations,” located in the Student Success Center, for additional guidance on completing this assignment in the appropriate style.While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.Since you will not actually be presenting to the class, well written, detailed speakers notes that include in-text citations are expected.This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Please refer to the directions in the Student Success Center. Dynamics in Nursing: Art and Science of Professional Practice Read Chapter 2 in Dynamics in Nursing: Art and Science of Professional Practice.URL: https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/grand-canyon-university/2018/dynamics-in-nursing_art-and-science-of-professional-practice_1e.php Beginner’s Guide to PowerPoint – 2017 Tutorial View “Beginner’s Guide to PowerPoint – 2017 Tutorial,” by Technology for Techers and Students (2017), located on the YouTube website.URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XF34-Wu6qWU Nursing Timeline View “Nursing Timeline,” located on the Grand Canyon University website.URL: https://www.gcumedia.com/lms-resources/student-success-center/?mediaElement=9A618C63-0C53-E811-BF97-005056BD7343 What Is Nursing? Review “What Is Nursing,” located on the American Nurses Association (ANA) website.URL: https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/workforce/what-is-nursing/ Grand Canyon University College of Nursing and Health Care Professions Philosophy Read “Grand Canyon University College of Nursing and Health Care Professions Philosophy.”

CNL501RSJedCaseStudyfinal

CNL-501 Case StudyJed: Relapse Prevention PlanJed Smith is a 38-year-old welder who came into the treatment center after being arrested for drinking and driving (DUI/DWI). His attorney has suggested that he quit drinking and enter treatment, at least until his trial, which is scheduled to occur in 2 months. Jed does not anticipate serving jail time, but he believes that treatment could strengthen his legal case. After his first arrest for DUI 2 years ago, he simply paid a fine and attended a special driver’s education program for 6 weeks. Jed found the program to be a “waste of time.”Jed has been married for 8 years and has two daughters, aged 8 and 6. He has had numerous arguments with his wife, Emily, concerning his drinking. He gets very angry and defensive when she confronts him about his heavy drinking and he asserts that he is not an alcoholic. He knows this is true because his father was an alcoholic and Jed says that he is not like his father. His father died as the result of a fight that occurred in traffic when he was drunk. Jed says that his father used to “beat the tar” out of him and his brother when he was drunk and that his father always belittled, taunted, and threatened their mother, whether he was drunk or sober. Jed references that his family is Irish and that it was cultural normal to drink and enjoy alcohol and that all of his family and relatives drink in excess. Jed’s work history is very good; he misses less than one day per year. He works the day shift on weekdays, putting in time-and-a-half on most Saturdays. He is well regarded by his supervisors and peers at work. He is fearful that his employer will find out about his treatment (it is being covered by his HMO), and that people at work will learn about the second DUI arrest.Jed drinks with his buddies from the plant, and does not think that his drinking is any more than what they do. He was just “unlucky” and was caught doing what everyone else seems to get away with. Jed’s drinking is very predictable: he drinks 8-9 beers on a weeknight. Several of these are consumed at the bar with friends, the remainder at home over the course of the evening. He usually falls asleep in front of the television. When he is not working on Saturdays, he often drinks several 12-packs between Friday and Sunday. A typical Saturday involves getting up at 10:00 a.m., playing soccer with friends, and going to the bar for the rest of the day and night. This pattern leads to arguments with Emily, who calls him a “lousy father.” At times, Jed has had unsettling episodes of being unable to recall what happened while drinking. He has commented to friends that “maybe I overdo it a bit.” Several times, he has attempted to cut down on his drinking, especially after the last DUI. He once attended a few AA meetings, but did not feel that AA was helpful: “It was listening to a lot of guys whining…” and he especially did not care for the prayers. Despite these attempts, Jed has experienced increased consumption levels over the past 2 years. He admits that, as a result of the drinking, he has become increasingly estranged from his wife and daughters. Jed feels that his marriage has been basically good, but that he would not blame Emily for leaving him, the way things have been going lately. She will no longer sleep with him while he is intoxicated, which occurs regularly. She complains that the house is falling apart because Jed does not keep up with his chores. He believes that his marriage would become solid again, if he stopped overdoing the drinking, but he complains about her hassling him about the alcohol.Jed is not close to his remaining family members. His mother is very religious and wishes Jed would see religion as a way out of his problems. His siblings live in other communities and they rarely get together. His wife and daughters regularly attend his mother’s church, but Jed only attends on Christmas Eve and Easter Sunday. Jed is distraught about having to remain abstinent in preparation for the trial. He has trouble getting to sleep without alcohol. He also “gets jumpy” when he tries to stay away from drinking, feeling “closed in or like he is suffocating.” Jed reports that he is not used to socializing without alcohol and alcohol helps him relax and be more social with people. Jed is willing to go to AA meetings only because he knows they may be court ordered and it may be better for his legal case. He does struggle with the philosophy of AA. He does not like the spirituality part of the program and does not like when people talk about God. He does believe that he can go to the bars with his friends and not drink. He does think that he can increase his sports activities to help him not drink although many of his friends who play also drink. ReferencesNational Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (2005) Case examples-http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Social/Teaching%20Case%20Examples/Case%20Examples.html

Ch5

CHAPTER 5PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS IN MODERN POLICINGLearning ObjectivesAfter reading this chapter, students should: List the three primary purposes of police patrol. Indicate some investigation strategies that are considered aggressive. Describe how forensic experts use DNA fingerprinting to solve crimes. Explain why differential response strategies enable police departments to respond more efficiently to 911 calls. Explain why reactive arrest strategies might be incompatible with problem-oriented policing. Determine when police officers are justified in using deadly force. Explain why police officers are allowed discretionary powers. Explain what an ethical dilemma is, and name four categories of ethical dilemmas that a police officer typically may face.Lesson Plan Correlated to PowerPointsI. Police Organization and Field OperationsLearning Objective 1: List the three primary purposes of police patrol.Learning Objective 2: Indicate some investigation strategies that are considered aggressive.Learning Objective 3: Describe how forensic experts use DNA fingerprinting to solve crimes.A. The model of the modern police department is bureaucratic, with formal rules governing the actions of each member of the agencyB. The ultimate goal of the bureaucratic model is to reach maximum efficiencyC. The Structure of the Police Department i. Each police department is organized according to its environment: the size of its jurisdiction, the type of crimes it must deal with, and the demographics of the population it must police ii. Chain of Commanda. Regardless of size and structure, every department needs a clear rank structure and strict accountability to ensure proper functioningb. Begins with the rank of chief down through the various levels c. Delegation of authority 1. A critical component of the chain of command2. Nearly every member is directly accountable to a superior officer3. Connection encourages discipline and control while lessening unsupervised abuses of freedom iii. Organizing by Area and Timea. In metropolitan areas, police responsibilities are divided according to zones called beats and collection of beats called precincts, districts or a stationb. Most departments separate twenty-four hour day into three eight-hour shifts, also called tours or platoons iv. Law Enforcement in the Fielda. The main goal of the department is the management of its field services, or operationsor line services which include patrol, investigations, and special operationsb. Most police departments are generalists; police officers are assigned to general areas and perform all field services within boundaries of their beats. Large departments may be more specializedD. Police on Patrol: The Backbone of the Department  Patrol officers are considered to be on the lowest rung of hierarchy, yet compose as many as two-thirds of a department’s sworn officers, and are considered the most valuable members of the agency. i. The Purpose of Patrola. Deterrence of crime through maintenance of visible police presenceb. Maintenance of public order and a sense of security in the communityc. Twenty-four hour provision of services that are not crime related ii. Patrol Activitiesa. Preventative patrol through maintenance of police presence within the community, which takes 40% of patrol timeb. Responding to calls for service during 25% of patrol timec. Administrative service, including paperwork, which comprises almost 20% of patrol timed. Officer-initiated activities, such as contacts with citizens and speaking with pedestrians takes the remaining 15% of patrol timeE. Police Investigations i. Considered to be the second main function of policing, through reactive means ii. Delegated to the investigator, or detective a. Most commonly promoted from patrolb. Must prepare cases for trialF. Aggressive Investigation Strategies i. Undercover Operationsa. Detective bureaus can implement more aggressive strategiesb. Going undercover is considered a dangerous and controversial activity c. Confidential informants may provide access to information about criminal activities ii. Preventive Policing and Domestic Terrorisma. Confidential informants can help prevent terrorist actsb. Issue of entrapment G. Clearance Rates and Cold Cases a. The ultimate goal of all law enforcement is to clear a crimeb. Clearance rates vary based on the type of offensec. Clearance rates also reflect the resources the agency expends on the particular type of crimed. The clearance rate for violent crimes has been dropping for decadese. As a result of low clearance rates, police departments are saddled with a growing number of cold cases, or criminal cases that have not been cleared after a certain amount of timeH. Forensic Investigations and DNA i. Forensics is the practice of using science and technology to investigate crimes ii. Forensics can be used to determine key elements of a crime, such as a. The cause of death or injuryb. The time of death or injuryc. Type of weapon or weapons usedd. The identity of the crime victim e. The identity of the offender iii. Many police departments operate or are affiliated with crime laboratories iv. Crime Scene Forensicsa. The first officer on the scene has the important task of protecting trace evidence, or very small pieces of evidence, from contamination1. Trace evidence includes blood, fibers, fingerprints, hairs, etc.b. Police will search a crime scene for bullets and spent cartridge casings. 1. The study of firearms, including the firing of the weapon and the flight of the bullet, is known as ballistics c. Has been the most important piece of trace evidence for centuriesd. This method of identification is not infallible1. It is often difficult to lift a suitable fingerprint from a crime scene. v. The DNA Revolutiona. DNA is the genetic code for every living organismb. DNA has supplanted fingerprinting as the most important piece of forensic evidencec. No two people, except for identical twins, have the same DNAd. A match can exclude a suspect, or identify one conclusively at the odds of 30 billion to 1. vi. DNA in Action      a. The ability to gather DNA from a wide variety of evidence greatly increases the odds a crime will be solvedb. Databases and Cold Hits 1. National Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) stores the DNA profiles of offenders who have been convicted of murder and sexual assault2. Cold hits occur when DNA samples from the crime scene match a profile included in the CODIS databasec. New Developments 1. The investigative uses of DNA fingerprinting are expanding rapidly2. Taking advantage of a new technique known as “touch DNA,” investigators can collect evidence from surfaces that are not marked by obvious clues such as bloodstains or well-preserved fingerprints. 3. DNA sample taken from a crime scene soon may be able to provide law enforcement with a physical description of a suspect, including her or his eye, skin, and hair color and age. Media Tool “Latest Victory for the California Innocence Project” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LX-LYg47O-4 A short clip about the exoneration of Brian Banks. II. Police Strategies: What WorksLearning Objective 4: Explain why differential response strategies enable police departments to respond more efficiently to 911 calls.Learning Objective 5: Explain why reactive arrest strategies might be incompatible with problem-oriented policing.A. Calls for Service i. All agencies practice incident-driven policing, in which calls for service are the primary instigators of action ii. Response Time and Efficiencya. The speed with which the police respond to calls for service has traditionally been seen as a crucial aspect of crime fighting and crime preventionb. Response time is the time elapsed between the instant the call is received and the instant police arrive at the scenec. Response time has become the benchmark for efficiency iii. Improving Response Time Efficiency a. Call systems to reduce the strain on 911 operationsb. Another popular method of improving performance in this area is a differential response strategy, in which the police distinguish among different calls for service so that they can respond more quickly to the most serious incidents iv. Next Generation 911a. Most pressing challenges are technological in natureb. Today, most emergency calls for service come from mobile phones, and increasing numbers of consumers are taking advantage of VoIP (voice-over-Internet protocol) technology.1. Standard 911 systems cannot pinpoint the exact location of a mobile phone or a computer2. If a caller is unable to provide that information, then, it can prove very difficult for police officers to determine the site of the emergency3. The Next Generation 911 system relies on the internet and allows police to receive text messages, videos, photos, and location i. But it is operated by local and state agencies and will likely not be available nationwide until the end of the century Media Tool “State of Tennessee Leads the Way in Next-Gen-9-1-1” http://youtu.be/TLS6_WMQsLY A short clip about the Next Gen calls for service system. B. Patrol Strategies i. Most officers work general patrol, making the rounds of a specific area with the purpose of carrying out general patrol functions ii. General patrols are random iii. Testing Random Patrol a. Tested strategies of preventive patrol from 1972 through 1973b. Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment1. Control beats – normal preventive measures were taken2. Proactive beats – level of preventive measures was increased3. Reactive beats – preventive patrol was eliminatedResults showed that increasing or decreasing preventive patrol had little or no impact on crimes, public opinion, police response time, traffic accidents, and reports of crime to police iv. Directed Patrolsa. Directed patrols target specific areas of a city and often attempt to prevent a specific type of crimeb. Philadelphia Foot Patrol ExperimentC. Predictive Policing and Crime Mapping i. While the evidence for general patrol is inconclusive, the evidence for the effectiveness of directed patrol is quite strong ii. Finding “Hot Spots”a. The target areas of directed patrol are often called “hot spots” because of their high levels of criminal activityb. Focusing on hot spots can yield positive resultsc.  Police departments are using GIS crime mapping technology to locate and identify hot spots and “cool them down” iii. The Rise of CompStat a. About two-thirds of large departments now employ some form of computerized crime mapping1. CompStat starts with police officers reporting the exact location of crime and other crime-related information to department officials. These reports are then fed into a computer, which prepares grids of a particular city or neighborhood and highlights areas with a high incidence of serious offenses.D. Arrest Strategies i. Types of arresta. Reactive arrests are made by those officers on general patrol who observe a criminal act or respond to a call for serviceb. Proactive arrests occur when the officer takes the initiative to target a particular type of criminal or behavior ii. Quality-of-Life Crimesa. Wilson and Kelling suggest that crime is related to the quality of life in neighborhoods. They created the broken windows theory: 1. Dilapidated neighborhoods send out signals that criminal activity is tolerated2. This disorder spreads fear among citizens, dissuading them from leaving their homes3. The broken windows theory is based on “order maintenance” of neighborhoods by cracking down on quality of life crimes iii. The Broken Windows Effecta. Wilson and Kelling argued that proactive police strategies could prevent rising crime rates.E. Community Policing i. In the broken windows theory, Wilson and Kelling argue that police must rely on community cooperation to reduce fear and crime in high-risk neighborhoods ii. Community policing advocates a return to service as an element of the police function iii. Return to the Communitya. Community policing is an approach that advocates police–community partnerships, proactive problem solving, and community engagementb. Under community policing, patrol officers have much more freedom to improvise and are encouraged to build relationships with members of the community iv. The Quiet Revolutiona. The strategy of increasing police presence in the communityb. Increases positive relations between police and citizensF. Problem-Oriented Policing i. Problem-oriented policing moves beyond simply responding to incidents and attempts to control or even solve the root causes of criminal behavior ii. Police should look at the long term implications of a situation, and attempt to analyze the patterns of offending Media Tool “Problem Solving Team in South Irving” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1YQNuzuNiRI A short clip about Irving’s problem solving team. What If Scenario What if . . . your local police department asked for your input with regard to changes it was going to make in organization and structure, specifically in the area of police patrol.  What advice would you give about how the patrol activities could better serve your community?  Are the demographics of your city such that a “beat” patrol might be successful?  What role do factors such as culture or topography play in the decision? What other changes would you suggest to the police department to better utilize their resources? III. “Us Versus Them”: Issues in Modern PolicingLearning Objective 6: Determine when police officers are justified in using deadly force.A. Police SubcultureValues and perceptions shared by members of a police department, which are shaped by unique existence of the police officer and taught to new members i. Socialization of a rookie police officer begins on the first day of the job through learning of values and rules of police worka. Attending a police academyb. Working with a senior officerc. Making an initial felony arrestd. Using force to make an arrest for the first timee. Using or witnessing deadly force for the first timef. Witnessing major traumatic events for the first time ii. “Blue curtain” or “Blue wall of silence” will separate police from the civilians they protectB. The Physical Dangers of Police Work i. Police officers face threats of physical harm daily ii. In 2012, there were 53,000 assaults against police officers, 28% of which resulted in injury Media Tool “Traffic Stops: Control your Risk Factors” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hZLmCM5LlbI A short clip about the risk factors involved in traffic stops. C. Stress and the Mental Dangers of Police WorkPolice work entails considerable mental pressures and stress i. Police Stressors a. The constant fear of being a victim of violent crimeb. Exposure to violent crime and its victimsc. The need to comply with the law in nearly every job actiond. Lack of community supporte. Negative media coverage ii. The Consequences of Police Stressa. High blood pressureb. Heart failurec. Burnoutd. Post-traumatic stress disordere. Re-experience the traumatic event through nightmares and flashbacks.f. Become less and less involved in the outside world by withdrawing from others and refusing to participate in normal social interactions.g. Experience “survival guilt,” which may lead to loss of sleep and memory impairmenth. Officers experience unusually high levels of cortisol, known as the stress hormone, which can lead to such issues as heart problems and diabetesD. Authority and the Use of Force i. Symbols of authority, including the uniform, badge, firearm, and nightstick, establish that a police officer has authority over civilians ii. It is accepted that police use of force is inevitable, and that police must use force under certain circumstances to do their jobs effectively iii. Use of Force in Law Enforcementa. In general, use of force by law enforcement personnel is very rareb. Police officers are often justified in using force to protect themselves or other citizensc. The Christopher Commission advised that an officer only use force when faced with a credible threat, and only use the minimum amount of force necessary to control that threatd. Nearly every agency has designed a “use of force” matrix to provide officers with proper use of force options Media Tool “Albuquerque police routinely use excessive force – DOJ” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oWAisW6tGJ0 A short clip about excessive use of force among police officers. iv. Types of Forcea. Nondeadly force 1. Regulated by the concept of reasonable force2. When a reasonable person deems that force was necessaryb. Deadly force1. Force that an objective police officer realizes will place the subject in direct threat of serious injury2. May result in death v. The United States Supreme Court and Use of Forcea. Tennessee v. Garner (1985) mandated a change in the fleeing felon rulesb. Graham v. Connor (1989) increased the argument for reasonable amounts of force needed Class Discussion/Activity Ask students to talk about the Supreme Court ruling in Tennessee v. Garner. Why did the Court rule that way? IV. Police Misconduct and Ethics Learning Objective 7: Explain why police officers are allowed discretionary powers.Learning Objective 8: Explain what an ethical dilemma is, and name four categories of ethical dilemmas that a police officer typically may face. i. Police officers have freedom to decide “what law to enforce, how much to enforce it, against whom, and on what occasions.” This judicial support of police discretion is based on the following factors: i. Police officers are generally considered trustworthy and are therefore assumed to make honest decisions, regardless of contradictory testimony by a suspect. ii. Experience and training give officers the ability to determine whether certain activity poses a threat to society, and to take any reasonable action necessary to investigate or prevent such activity. ii. Due to the nature of their jobs, police officers are extremely knowledgeable in human, and by extension criminal, behavior. iii. Police officers may find themselves in danger of personal, physical harm and must be allowed to take reasonable and necessary steps to protect themselves. What If Scenario What if . . . you were the police chief of your town, and you discovered that police officers were frequenting a small grocery market because they heard that the owner gave free coffee and discounted groceries to police officers who came into the store wearing their uniforms.  Police officers did not ask for freebies, but neither did the owner have a “policy” of providing freebies.  When you interviewed the grocery store owner, he stated that he did it because he worried that if he didn’t, police would not come to his store if he called 911.  How would you handle this problem?
What level of accepting of gratuities by police officers is ok with you as a supervisor, if at all?  What are the potential problems that may come as a result of allowing such activities? A. Police Corruption i. Types of Corruptiona. Bribery takes place when a police officer accepts money or other payments in exchange for “favors”b. Shakedownsoccur when an officer attempts to coerce money or other goods form a citizen or criminalc. Moochingtakes place when a police officer accepts “gifts” such as cigarettes, liquor, or services in return for favorable treatmentB. Police Accountability i. Due to the inevitability of excessive force, corruption, and other misconduct, someone must determine who is responsible for policing the police ii. Internal Investigationsa. Investigations that are conducted by the Internal Affairs Unit within the police department itselfb. Internal Affairs Units are often resented, but police officers do prefer to settle disciplinary measures internally iii. Citizen Oversighta. Frustration over accountability led to the development of citizen oversight committeesb. People, not sworn officers, review allegations of police misconduct or brutality iv. Surveillance and Police Misconducta. Digital video has placed police misconduct under a spotlightb. Police agencies now monitor police behavior with cameras and audioc. Police officers now also monitor their own behavior Media Tool “Internal Affairs: Protecting the Integrity of the Badge” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_RLjPZQ7jkk A short clip discussing best practices regarding internal affairs complaints. C. Ethics in Law Enforcement i. Ethical Dilemmasa. Majority of ethical dilemmas a police officer will face are not “clear-cut”b. Incidents of an ethical dilemma1. When an officer does not know the right course of action2. If an officer has difficulty in doing what he or she considers to be right3. If an officer finds a wrong choice to be very temptingc. Because of the many rules that govern policing—the subject of the next chapter—police officers often find themselves tempted by a phenomenon called noble cause corruption. ii. Elements of Ethicsa. Discretion – how a police officer must act and how he or she  cannot actb. Duty – obligation to act in a certain mannerc. Honesty – critical attribute in making daily decisionsd. Loyalty – decisions about being loyal to other officers within the department e. Law enforcement administrators can encourage ethical policing by doing the following:1. Incorporating ethics into the department’s mission statement.2. Conducting internal training sessions in ethics.3. Accepting “honest mistakes” and helping the officer learn from those mistakes.4. Adopting a zero-tolerance policy toward unethical decisions when the mistakes are not so honest. Media Tool “Rampart Police Corruption Scandal” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RhhpxpQHSoU A short clip about ethical misconduct by some LAPD officers. Lecture NotesChapter 5 begins with a discussion about the structure of police departments and a discussion concerning the chain of command.  Delegation of authority is an integral component of every chain of command.  It means that almost every member is directly accountable to a supervisor.  This structure encourages structure and control, while lessening unsupervised abuses of freedom.Chapter 5 also examines how responsibilities are divided by area and time.  Beats, precincts, and shifts are defined.  Next patrol services are discussed.  Police patrol serves three primary purposes: it deters crime, it maintains public order, and it provides services to the community. While police spend the majority of their time on preventive patrol, the also spend a significant amount of time responding to calls for service. Furthermore, differential response strategies enable officers to respond more efficiently to calls by distinguishing between “hot” and “cold” calls for service. The concept of providing service to the community is somewhat related to the concept of community policing. Community policing involves not only developing a partnership with citizens, but implementing proactive problem solving techniques to address the root causes of crime in a particular community. In this sense community policing is quite different from the traditional crime-fighting methods employed by law enforcement. Spend some time with students contrasting these two policing styles. What do students think of the increased focus on providing service to the community?  From the first day on the job, police officers begin a process of socialization into the police subculture. This subculture is often marked by police cynicism and an intense sense of loyalty to fellow officers. If unchecked, this subculture can result in an “us versus them” mentality among officers. Police officers also face unique dangers on the job, including physical and mental stress. Police officers suffer from abnormally high rates of suicide, substance abuse, and stress-related illness. Some of this stress is the result of the obligation to use force, even deadly force, against citizens who present a danger to the community. The misuse of force is just one of the ethical issues faced by officers. Officers likely face ethical dilemmas each time they report for duty, a challenge that is exacerbated by burnout and cynicism among officers. To help put these issues into perspective for students, invite a patrol officer to the classroom to speak candidly to students about the best and worst parts of policing. Allow students to ask questions and formulate their own opinions about policing as a profession.Key TermsBallistics – the study of firearms, including the firing of the weapon and the flight of the bullet.(p. 143)  Blue curtain – a metaphorical term used to refer to the value placed on secrecy and the generalmistrust of the outside world shared by many police officers. (p. 154)Broken windows theory – Wilson and Kelling’s theory that a neighborhood in disrepair signalsthat criminal activity is tolerated in the area. Thus, by cracking down on quality-of-life crimes,police can reclaim the neighborhood and encourage law-abiding citizens to live and work there.(p. 151)Bureaucracy – a hierarchically structured administrative organization that carries out specificfunctions. (p. 137)Burnout – a mental state that occurs when a person suffers from exhaustion and has difficultyfunctioning normally as a result of overwork and stress. (p. 155)Citizen oversight  – the process by which citizens review complaints brought against individualpolice officers or police departments.  (p. 160)Clearance rate – a comparison of the number of crimes cleared by arrest and prosecutionwith the number of crimes reported during any given time period. (p. 142)Cold case – a criminal investigation that has not been solved after a certain amount oftime. (p. 142)  Cold hit – the establishment of a connection between a suspect and a crime, oftenthrough the use of DNA evidence, in the absence of an ongoing criminal investigation. (p. 145)Community policing – a policing philosophy that emphasizes community support forand cooperation with the police in preventing crime. (p. 151)Confidential informant (CI) – a human source for police who provides informationconcerning illegal activity in which he or she is involved. (p. 141)Crime mapping – technology that allows crime analysts to identify trends and patterns ofcriminal behavior within a given area. (p. 149)Deadly force – force applied by a police officer that is likely or intended to cause death. (p. 156)Delegation of authority – the principles of command on which most police departments arebased, in which personnel take orders from and are responsible to those in positions of powerdirectly above them. (p. 137)Detective – the primary police investigator of crimes. (p. 140)Differential response – a strategy for answering calls for service in which response timeis adapted to the seriousness of the call. (p. 147)Directed patrol – a patrol strategy that is designed to focus on a specific type of criminal activityat a specific time. (p. 149)DNA fingerprinting – the identification of a person based on a sample of her or hisDNA, the genetic material found in the cells of all living things. (p. 143)Duty – the moral sense of a police officer that she or he should behave in a certain manner. (p. 162)Forensics – the application of science and technology to establish facts and evidenceduring the investigation of crimes. (p. 142)Hot spots – a concentrated area of high criminal activity that draws a directed police response.(p. 149)Incident-driven policing- a reactive approach to policing that emphasizes a speedyresponse to calls for service. (p. 146)Internal affairs unit (IAU) – a division within a police department that receives and investigatescomplaints of wrongdoing by police officers. (p. 160)Noble cause corruption – knowing misconduct by a police officer with the goal of attainingwhat the officer believes is a “just” result. (p. 162)Police corruption – the abuse of authority by a law enforcement officer for personal gain. (p. 159)Police subculture The values and perceptions that are shared by members of a police departmentand, to a certain extent, by all law enforcement agents. (p. 153)Proactive arrest – an arrest that occurs because of concerted efforts by law enforcementagencies to respond to a particular type of criminal or criminal behavior. (p. 151)Problem-oriented policing – a policing philosophy that requires police to identify potentialcriminal activity and develop strategies to prevent or respond to that activity. (p. 152)Random patrol – (p. 148)Reactive arrest – an arrest that comes about as part of the ordinary routine of police patrols andresponses to calls for service. (p. 150)Reasonable force – the degree of force that is appropriate to protect the police officer or othercitizens and is not excessive. (p. 156)Response time – the rapidity with which calls for service are answered. (p. 147)Socialization – the process through which a police officer is taught the values andexpected behavior of the police subculture. (p. 153)Stressors – the aspects of police work and life that lead to feelings of stress. (p. 154)Trace evidence – evidence such as fingerprints, blood, or hair found in small amounts ata crime scene. (p. 142)  Assignments1. Research how DNA is used by law enforcement to solve crimes. Why is DNA said to be more useful than the traditional fingerprint? (LO 1)2. Have students review the section detailing the “broken window” reform strategy theory of policing.  Do you agree that cracking down on “quality of life” crimes will necessarily allow for people to reclaim their neighborhoods and encourage law-abiding citizens to live and work there?  What are some of the barriers to police being able to utilize this reform strategy?  (LO 4-5)3. Ask students to consider the specific strategies utilized in community policing efforts.  How can police officers becoming partners with the community help law enforcement fight crime?  Do you agree with critics who say that community policing is more of a public relations gimmick than an actual crime fighting strategy?  Why do critics of community policing hold this view?  Is there some truth to it?  How is the new emphasis on homeland security incompatible with the tenets of community policing?  (LO 4-5)4. Research the Rampart Scandal of the LAPD. Prepare a class presentation about the misconduct of the officers involved and why they were able to continue this misconduct for so many years. In this context, discuss how the Code of Silences contributes to misconduct. What can police departments do to reduce ethical misconduct? (LO 6, 8)5. Watch the video about “Public Trust and Ethical Issues in Law Enforcement” at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gj2t4gOPcGg. Prepare a summary paper in which you discuss what you have learned from the video. Following, develop two strategies to increase public trust in law enforcement. (LO 8)Answers To Critical Thinking Questions In The Text In speaking with a domestic terrorism suspect, a paid FBI informant said, “Allah has more work for you to do,” adding, “Revelation is going to come in your dreams that you have to do this thing.” The “thing” was to shoot down American military airplanes with handheld missiles. If you were defending the terrorism suspect in court, how would you use this evidence? Why would your efforts be likely to fail?ANS: I would try to use the defense of entrapment because the FBI agent planted the idea of committing the crime. This would likely fail because the suspects could have backed out at any time, which counteracts the entrapment claim. What might be some of the drawbacks of relying on text messaging as part of Next Generation  911?ANS: Officers must rely on the “texter” to provide an address or contact information. Police could receive “fake” messages and be distracted from the actual crime location. Police may lose response time by trying to verify the information and authenticity of the “texter.” Text messages also compromise the crucial exchange between dispatchers and callers as an emergency unfolds. Criminologists John and Emily Beck suggest that crime reduction strategies should treat crime as if it were a form of pollution. How does this comparison make sense in the context of predictive policing and crime mapping?ANS: John and Emily Beck talk about the risk society and how crime, just like pollution, can be prevented by predictive policing. Crime mapping can aid predictive policing by making crime hot spots visible and by allowing for predictive models of crime shifts (displacement of crime). One possibility is to increase guardianship and monitoring in risk areas to increase the risk for criminals to get caught and to deter criminals. Suppose that a high-crime neighborhood is plagued by numerous abandoned homes and malfunctioning streetlights. Applying the “broken windows” theory, what steps should local politicians take to reduce crime in the area?ANS: Politicians would fix the streetlights and attempt to make the neighborhood look nicer (remove graffiti, abandoned cars, etc.). The people who live there would then understand that crime is not tolerated and crime would decrease – at least in that neighborhood. Criminals may simply go somewhere else. Nearly every police department in the country has a policy that limits its officers’ discretion to engage in high speed automobile pursuits of fleeing suspects. Why do you think such policies are so popular among police administrators?ANS: If police departments do not engage in high speed pursuits then their credibility with citizens and criminals suffers because criminals don’t fear that the police will come after them and the citizens feel that the police aren’t doing their job. Also high speed pursuits often get media coverage and the department looks good if they catch the criminal – especially live on TV.

Biblical_Worldview_on_Nehemiah_Instructions

Biblical Worldview on Nehemiah InstructionsYou will write 6 leadership journal entries discussing the various prompts below. While reflecting on the writing prompt, focus on the following main areas. First, write clearly your thoughts as related to the topic. Second, write clearly your reflections on the topic as related to your individual growth as leaders. Use the headings Summary and Reflectionto indicate the two areas.Each journal entry must be 300-450 words. You can write your entries any time throughout the course, but they must all be submitted in one document at the end of the course with a title page and a reference page.Leadership Journal 1 (Module 2): Discuss how Nehemiah, as a leader, clarified values for the people and set an example. Based upon this reading as well as literature on the topic of Christian philosophy of education, convey a basic understanding of the elements of an educational philosophy that is based distinctively on a perspective drawn from Judeo-Christian scriptures. Address axiological issues.Leadership Journal 2 (Module 3):Analyze the specific leadership actions Nehemiah took to protect his enlisted workers who had bought in to the vision. Draw from this text practical applications to leadership within the field of education.Leadership Journal 3 (Module 4): Identify the leadership strategies that Nehemiah used to remove barriers and make things happen. Discuss the implications of a biblical worldview of leadership; include practical applications to the overall field of educationLeadership Journal 4 (Module 6): Discuss how the teaching of the law by Ezra fostered shared knowledge, built community, and strengthened others. Draw from this text practical applications to leadership within the field of education.Leadership Journal 5 (Module 7):Discuss the importance of personal contribution and celebration in the life of organizations.Leadership Journal 6 (Module 8): Discuss specific leadership dangers that you face. Identify specific action steps to deal with these dangers/pitfalls. Clearly state how these actions support you as an educational leader. Submit your completed Leadership Journal by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Friday of Module/Week 8.

Assessment1FinalRevision

Full Title of Your PaperNameCapella UniversityAbstractLeave this blank until Chapter 4.It is necessary to complete the abstract after the entire project has been developed.  The abstract contains an abbreviated overview of the entire project. This overview will reference the following elements of the project:The Research Question_________________________________ The Research Problem: _____________________________________The Significance of the Study: _______________________________Theory or theories that apply to the concepts associated with the RQ: ________________A Narrative describing the qualitative approach planned, implications for stakeholders, significance to the scientific community, and a description of expected results. The abstract is one concise paragraph.Keywords: [Add keywords here.]Table of ContentsCHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………………. 1Background of the Study…………………………………………………………………………….. 1Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………………………. 1Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………………………………………… 1Significance of the Study……………………………………………………………………………. 1Research Question……………………………………………………………………………………… 1Definition of Terms……………………………………………………………………………………. 1Research Design………………………………………………………………………………………… 1Summary…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW………………………………………………………………….. 1Theoretical Orientation for the Study……………………………………………………………. 1Review of the Literature……………………………………………………………………………… 1Synthesis of the Research Findings………………………………………………………………. 1Critique of Previous Research Methods………………………………………………………… 1Summary…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 1CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………………………… 1Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………………………………………… 1Research Question……………………………………………………………………………………… 1Target Population………………………………………………………………………………………. 1Recruitment Strategy………………………………………………………………………………….. 1Sampling Design (purposive for qualitative) ………………………………………………… 1Procedure………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1Analysis……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1Ethical Considerations………………………………………………………………………………… 1CHAPTER 4. EXPECTED FINDINGS/RESULTS………………………………………………….. 1CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION…………………………………………………………………………………. 1Implications………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1Methodological Strengths and Weaknesses…………………………………………………… 1Suggestions for Future Research………………………………………………………………….. 1CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
The debate on whether reading moral stories build characters has been an incessant one. This is the question that will be answered in this paper. The purpose of this paper is the study the above-mentioned claims. This paper involves the use of qualitative research methods. Multiple forms of data will be gathered (Narvaez, 2001). There exists a long-standing assumption that children raise their moral literacy level through the consuming content that are moral in nature is highly questionable in light of what is currently known concerning all the relevant fields, moral comprehension plus text comprehension. The assumption pushed concerning traditional character educators that children curate their moral literacy from hearing and reading moral stories is challenged by several research findings. Firstly, research regarding text comprehension shows that readers do not necessarily process texts the same way because of differences in reading skill as well as background knowledge. Moreover, moral comprehension research shows that moral arguments are processed in a different manner due to differences in moral schema development. Additionally, moral texts that are provided with moral reasoning are understood and modified in a different manner by readers who possess varying moral schemas. Lastly, children do not derive the same moral story themes that were intended by the writer. However, before delving into the relevant research one must first examining what the traditional character educators said about this topic. This is covered below (Nash, 1997).        Background of the StudyWhat do we know so far about the area of the literature that you reviewed?Character education as an independent area of research emanated from early studies carried out in the 1960s. It was spurred by repeated incidences of bullying and violence in schools (Bellous, 2009). The proposal into the study of character education led to the in-depth analysis of how character can be developed through different means. The late 1980s showed a development of the programs that were initiated to ensure character development. In the 21st century, states as well as district schools have implemented character building curriculums in their studies. The world has experienced a degradation of character over the past years (Bohlin, 2005). The extents of the degradation in youths have led to demands of three fundamental aspects in relation to character development. Firstly, human beings need good character, secondly, schools are the appropriate surroundings where character education can take place and lastly, construction of ethics in the society is dependent on the actualization of character education. For some morality ministers, interest in character education is pushed by a general perception that cultural values are decreasing in society and youth disorders are on the rise. Robert Nash even branded traditional character education advocates as declinists. According to his view, America is on its way to a catastrophe of grand proportions if nothing is done to modify the erosion of the country’s fundamental values. According to supporters of traditional character education, the consumption of virtue stories is one of the crucial pillars of moral education. These advocates contend that visibility and exposure to virtue stories possesses a formative impact on one’s moral character. Nash (1997) elaborates how declinists point out the importance of inspiring books and virtuous stories due t the fact that these texts contain the aspirations and motivations of moral heroes who are plagued with a wide array of moral conflicts. When children read these texts, they begin to learn and understand traditional moral values. This in turn leads them to latch onto these heroes and start to emulate them (Narvaez, 2001). What do you think we need to know to advance the knowledge base?Modern research has basically disconfirmed the theory of the passive reader. Readers have actually been discovered to be active learners. They tend to use their prior knowledge to allow for the strategic construction of meaning from a text. Simply put, whenever a child reads and recalls text, he/she will try to devise a coherent understanding of the text through the integration of text information with prior knowledge about the environment/world (Gill, 2009). Reading theorists have contended that schemas which are basically generalized knowledge structures that are relevant to the discourse lead the construction of the mental form of the text when one is reading. A good example of this is when someone reads the following text, “Owen looked both ways before he crossed the road”. In order for one to understand this text, the reader has to first infer several things from the common knowledge about the real world. These inferences begin with the fact that cars are driven on roads; Owen is crossing a road that has traffic on both sides; there is a high likelihood that Owen is walking; cars can be hazardous to pedestrians; Owen is crossing the road in order to get to the other side, among other types of inferences. If one did not possess such knowledge of the world then it would be hard to understand them passage and it would be even more difficult to imagine what was taking place. The set of inferences that are taken from world knowledge can be linked in the reader’s mind through a schema or an overall knowledge structure that represents “crossing a road.” The schema is activated by a stimulus configuration that is similar to previous stimuli or one’s own personal experiences (Bebeau, Rest, & Narvaez, 1999). How will this new knowledge serve the stakeholders (scientists, care providers, families, patients, institutions) that may in turn be served by implementation of new developments?Stakeholders should take into account all the points that have been made with the new research and relinquish their simplistic understanding concerning the reading of moral stories to build character. In addition to this, they should also reconsider their view concerning character itself as a collection of traits to be nurtured and developed. Such a way of viewing things does not match with the current conceptualizations that personality has or the new approaches to character education. The stakeholders have to attend to the following points:Themes can be made up by the reader but not in an easy or automatic manner. Active reading is a given.Reader acquire different types of information from a text based on their specific background e.g. expertise. Readers do not technically understand the information or message in the way the author intended it to be perceived. Moral messages are a specific kind of theme that the reader put together. They are influenced by one’s reading skills as well as their moral development. Statement of the ProblemIdentify the gap in research or the need for additional research in your area.The research done on the character development as a result of reading has been an extensive one. The relationships of handling the problems related to issues of character have been fundamentally expounded in the research. Current existing research has affirmed the premise that reading moral stories does develop characters. However, there still remains a gap in the explanation of how specific character traits can be developed from reading (Almerico, 2014). Much is unknown concerning how students derive specific themes, such as honesty and integrity from reading moral stories. Additionally, how the implement them in their daily live and whether they succeed or fail is significantly a major hiatus in the research. Researchers have to examine the specific elements that are required for the extraction of the moral theme and the manner in which student use can be facilitated. If armed with such knowledge then they will be able to study whether or not moral theme extraction is a matter that can be taught (Lickona, 2004). Purpose of the StudyThe late 1980s saw two researchers Kohlberg and Erikson delving into the study of the adolescent mind as well as the need of such a mind to function in the society (Bohlin, 2005). The character development programs that were later developed were inspired by the results of these studies which did not focus on specificity (Bellous, 2009). The result of this was that the programs were intended to address general character development and therefore, could not be used in aligning with the specific character development. Reading is one of the ways through which individuals gain knowledge. While it has been established that reading of moral stories can help in the development of character, the detachment of the specific character trait as a theme from the moral stories is a problem (Almerico, 2014). This problem deserves new research since researchers and traditional characters educators do not know how to make sure that children end up with the proper moral message of the stories they read. An inconsistency pushed by traditional educators on this matter needs to be resolved (Seefeldt, 2013). These individuals are able to advocate for teaching character and even emphasize its crucial characteristics but they are quiet on how it can be properly taught (Froh & Bono, 2014). There is an assumption that if readers are exposed to morality by way of an inspiring book then they will latch onto the concept off contact alone. While further research has evidenced the fact that reading moral stories develops moral character, there is little research which addresses the issue of moral comprehension, text comprehension and knowledge of relevant fields. The research existing with regard to the comprehension of texts proves that not everyone will understand a text in a similar manner. The differences arise because of the skill of interpretation as well as the background knowledge. For example, not every child will retain knowledge and make connecting inferences from the story they have read. Additionally, moral comprehension argues that the development of morals is understood with much reference to the development of moral representations. Therefore, what one person may construe to be morally upright, another person will construe it to be wrong. The research to answer the question of effect of reading on the established moral schemas is not sufficient. Declinists of the theory have also pushed forward the assumptions which are used by the proponents of the theory and which are not substantially proven by the research. Some of these assumptions include the fact that reading tends to be passive, that every reader will get similar information from the text, that every information intended to be received by the author will be gotten by each individual, as well as themes present in the text are easily accessible to the reader. Research asserting these assumptions are still inexistent or insufficient in augmenting the premise of the proponents of the theory that reading moral character builds morals. Significance of the Study This study will be instrumental in the development of different types of moral development stages. It is prudent to note that research has proven that while reading is one way of teaching character development, it is not efficient as it limited by the retention capabilities of the students (Almerico, 2014). Understanding theme extraction does not encompass only how themes are lifted from moral stories but also entails how they aligned with the life of the individual. This will significantly influence the relevant stakeholders to come up with stages that aim to ensure that the students achieve character development gradually. The results of this study promise to advance the scientific knowledge base demystifying theme extraction. This is matter of particular difficulty for children and strategies that will help children learn to generalize from a story need to be examined. Researchers are still unaware of what happens at the most fundamental levels. The elements that are used by a reader to generalize a lesson are still not fully known (Bebeau, Rest, & Narvaez, 1999). This study will also be instrumental in establishing the role of moral sensitivity and reasoning. Addressing these major themes will be answering the question of what can be done as well as the question of what if with regard to the question. Another area where this study will be significant will be moral motivation since this study shall focus on the personal identity of subjects and how such identities affect moral extraction. The main question with regard to this theme will be the personal conviction that led to the choice of the specific choice or action. Deductively, this study will be significant in establishing in-depth research in moral extraction, moral sensitivity and reasoning as well as moral motivation and their relationship to the research question.Research QuestionThe research question, “Does the reading of moral stories build character?” is a qualitative question. Research has shown that children do not necessarily comprehend the theme of a story as it was intended by the author. Although a large number of children can generate and even select a theme after being prompted; the choice is often wrong according to the author perspective or an adult’s. This begs the questions, “What sort of themes do children come up with/generate?”. Definition of TermsReaders are not passive adaptors or assimilators of textual data. Rather, they are actively constructing meaning through the application of their prior knowledge to the context of the text. As a result of constructive and active, reader do not leave with the same mental representation when they have read a text. There exists no good reason to suppose that children will take away the intended meaning from reading a story. Instead, it is highly likely that children will devise the meaning of story based on prior knowledge. This leads one to question whether or not moral development research has any contributions to this matter (Narvaez, 2001). Reader- A person who reads or who is fond of reading (Lewis, 2005);Passive Adaptors- A person who while reading, does not take keen notice of the writings and the deep meaning associated with the same ( Helterbran, 2009).Assimilators- A person, and especially a child, who takes up knowledge ( Helterbran, 2009).Constructive Reading- This is reading while being cognizant of the intended meaning of the author (Lewis, 2005).Morals- the intentions and decisions of a person that influences the actions of the person and which is derived from a sense that may be either good or bad ( Helterbran, 2009).Moral Development- This is the growth in the moral principles as held by an individual ( Helterbran, 2009).Research Design The research will be a qualitative research. Findings will be collected through a variety of ways or methods. Subjects of the study shall be selected from a select group of individuals with the ability to read. Content analysis will be used for analysis purposes to look at how the words and images are used. Additionally, the context in which these things are used to draw inferences concerning the underlying culture. In-depth interviews and focus groups will also be used too. All these methods will be used in accordance with the APA code of ethics. Notably, confidentiality is paramount and so is informed consent. The researcher will choose the qualitative research because it will be more elaborative of the probability of character building as a result of reading moral stories. Additionally, data from the research will be instrumental when referring to previous data on the same.The researcher while using the qualitative research will utilize the grounded theory research design. This design is chosen so as to divert away from the conventional research existing on the development of character from reading and ensure a clear understanding of the process to be able to come up with a better explanation to the same. As it has already been established, many researchers have affirmed the fact that readers do develop character from reading stories. This theory shall, therefore, use the existing knowledge on moral development to understand the concept behind moral development while trying to find logical explanations of the assumptions used by the proponents of the theory. SummaryThe purpose of this paper is to study the claims made by traditional educators concerning this matter. The assumption that children grow their moral literacy through the reading of moral stories is highly questionable in light of what is already known concerning all of the relevant fields plus text and moral comprehension. CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEWNote, this is typically the entry point for beginning the project. It is important to understand that the project is iterative. You will work on, change and refine all elements of the project. You will begin by understanding and synthesizing what is known so far in the Literature Review, (Chapter 2). Theoretical Orientation for the StudyThe Literature Review provides detailed information about theory that applies to the research topic, theory that applies to the research method, population(s) studied and key concepts under review. Seminal and current sources are analyzed and evaluated thematically. The research problem is identified. Review of the LiteratureIt is essential that the literature review be organized with reference to themes identified in articles that you have read. It is not acceptable to organize the literature review article by article or one article at a time. You need to include 5 or more current research articles for your literature review and review the research design, the research question, the research hypothesis, the sample demographics, the methodology and what instruments were given and how, the data collection and process, the data analysis procedures and the findings, the best practices and guidelines related to diversity and ethical issues. This is not an annotated bibliography. Synthesis of the Research FindingsSynthesize the research reviewed in the review of the literature section. Critique of Previous Research MethodsCritique the research reviewed in the review of the literature section. SummaryAdd a brief summaryCHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGYPurpose of the StudyThe introductory paragraph addresses the research problem or proposes to fill the gap in the literature. It includes the purpose of the proposed research and presents formally the Research Question.  The purpose is to answer the research question.  State your Research Question in the form of a question in the introductory paragraph for Chapter 3.  As you prepare this section of this chapter review the characteristics of Qualitative Research Questions: Qualitative Research questions ask for description and interpretation of phenomena through the identification of socially constructed themes and categories. Qualitative questions address concepts associated with thoughts, feelings, and actions that are not necessarily accessible with empirical methods of measurement. Qualitative data take the form of stories, narratives and observations. Qualitative questions identify the target population and phenomena under consideration. Qualitative questions do not test empirically measured data.Research Question Conclude the introductory paragraph to Chapter 3, by writing out the Research Question. Add your constructs. Target PopulationAs you describe the target population you will include:Information about the number of participants.Information about inclusion and exclusion criteria; describe how you decide who can participate in the study and who cannot.Recruitment strategySampling design (purposive for qualitative)ProcedureAs you describe the procedures you will include:Information about materials used for data collection.Information about the location where data collection takes placeInformation about the time required for data collectionInformation about the instruments used to collect data. Instruments used vary widely and can include audio and video recording equipment, pen and paper, interventions, observation journals, member-checking documents and so on, depending on the requirements indicated in the research question.Information about the order of steps taken to obtain data.Information about how data will be recorded and transferred into a transcript or documents, audio or video, ready for analysis.When using an interview guide or observation check sheet that is also included.AnalysisAnalysis describes strategies for analyzing the narratives offered by participants. Once the data has been transcribed into a format for interpretation, typically “words on the page”, and then it can be interpreted. Analysis uses strategies that interpret meaning components from words, phrases and narratives into interpreted conceptual descriptions across transcripts.Ethical ConsiderationsThe APA Code of Ethics that apply to your study and research design should be addressed, including both APA standard and principles. CHAPTER 4. EXPECTED FINDINGS/RESULTSFor the expected findings/results, use the literature reviewed in Chapter 2 To anticipate findings that are likely to result from the collection and interpretation of data. Note: that some results that are not expected are possible and should be addressed in this chapter.CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSIONImplicationsImplications of the potential results are discussed, implications for wide range of potential stakeholders is addressed, significance to the scientific community and the potential to address the research problem is discussed, limitations of the study are addressed, and suggestions for future research are offered.Methodological Strengths and WeaknessesSuggestions for Future ResearchThe suggestions for future research should close the gap on the methodological limitations. ReferencesAlmerico, G. M. (2014). Building Character through Literacy with Children’s Literature. Research in Higher Education Journal, 26.Bebeau, M. J., Rest, J. R., & Narvaez, D. (1999). Beyond the Promise: A Perspective on Research in Moral Education. Educational Researcher.Bellous, J. E. (2009). J. Russell, how children become moral selves: Building character and promoting citizenship in education. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 28(2), 189-192.Bohlin, K. (2005). Teaching character education through literature: Awakening the moral imagination in secondary classrooms. Routledge.Froh, J., & Bono, G. (2014). Making grateful kids: The science of building character. Templeton Foundation Press.Gill, D. W. (2009). Becoming Good: Building Moral Character. Intervarsity Press.Helterbran, V. R. (2009). Linking character education and global understanding through children’s picture books. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 45(2), 69-73.Lewis, B. A. (2005). What do you stand for? For teens: A guide to building character. Free Spirit Publishing.Lickona, T. (2004). Character Matters: How to Help Our Children Develop Good Judgement, Integrity and Other Essential Virtues. Simon and Schuster.Narvaez, D. (2001). Individual Differences That Influence Reading Comprehension. Reading Comprehension Instruction, 158-175.Nash, R. (1997). Answering the Virtuecrats: A Moral Conversation on Character Education. Teachers College Press.Seefeldt, A. (2013). Books Building Character.

APA6thEditionStyleGuide

IntroductionStudents of Grand Canyon University (GCU) are required to use the guidelines provided by the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.) for preparing written assignments, except where otherwise noted. GCU has made APA templates and other resources available within the Student Success Center; therefore, students are not required to purchase the APA manual.PLEASE NOTE:The curriculum materials (Syllabus, Lectures/Readings, Resources, etc.) created and provided by GCU in the online or Web-enhanced modalities are prepared using an editorial format that relies on APA as a framework but that modifies some formatting criteria to better suit the nature and purpose of instructional materials. Students and faculty are advised that GCU course materials do not adhere strictly to APA format and should not be used as examples of correct APA format when preparing written work for class.APA Format and StyleGeneralAcademic writing, which is independent thought supported by reliable and relevant research, depends on the ability to integrate and cite the sources that have been consulted. Use APA style for all references, in-text citations, formatting, etc. Write in first- and second-person sparingly, if ever. This means, avoid using I, we, and you; instead, use he, she, and they. Do not use contractions.Paper Format1) Use standard-sized paper of 8.5″ x 11″.2) Margins should be 1″ all around (top, bottom, left, right).3) Use Times New Roman 12-point font.4) For emphasis, use italics (not quotation marks, bold, etc.).5) Double-space.6) Align the text flush left. OrganizationThe basic organization of an APA-style paper includes the title page, abstract, body, and reference section, though students are encouraged to follow any specific directions given in their Overview assignment.Title PageThe title page includes four elements that should be centered in the middle of the page: title, author byline, institutional affiliation followed by the course prefix and number (e.g., Grand Canyon University: PSY 351), and date of submission. Please note that even though APA does not require the date on a title page, it is a requirement for GCU papers.Being the first page, the title page is where to set up your page header, which includes the running head and the page number. The running head—an abbreviated title that is a maximum of 50 characters—should appear flush left in all uppercase letters in the header on all pages. Page numbers should be in the header, flush right. To format your running head and page numbers in Microsoft Word 2010, click InsertàHeader àBlank. In the header box that shows up, type Running head: ABBREVIATED TITLE HERE. After the title, tab over till the cursor is at the right margin, highlight the space, and click InsertàPage Number and select Current PositionàPlain Number.  Abstract The abstract covers the main points of the paper and is not always required in a GCU writing assignment. Read the assignment instructions carefully to determine whether the assignment requires an abstract or not.1) Abstract is page 2 of the assignment.2) The word Abstract should be centered at the top of the page.3) As per GCU policy, the abstract should not exceed 120 words.4) Do not indent the abstract paragraph.BodyThe body will contain all of the author’s main points as well as detailed and documented support for those ideas.1) The body begins on its own page.2) The title of the paper should be centered at the top of the first page of the body, in initial caps.3) The introduction follows the title, but is not labeled.4) Use headings to separate sections of the paper, but none of the sections should start their own page. The first level of heading is centered and bolded with each word of four letters or more capitalized (see template for an example). The second level of heading (subheading) is flush left and bolded, with each word of four letters or more capitalized. Note that not all papers will have headings or subheadings in them. APA dictates that you should avoid having only one subsection heading and subsection within a section. In other words, use at least two subheadings under a main heading, or do not use any at all.ReferencesThe references page will contain a list of all sources actually cited in the paper.1) This should start its own page.2) The word References, though not in italics, is centered at the top of the page.3) Include all, any, and only sources that were actually cited in the paper.4) Arrange the sources in alphabetical order using the authors’ last names.Style, Punctuation, and MechanicsNumbers1) Use numerals for numbers 10 and above (12 of the subjects); for numbers above and below 10 grouped for comparison (2 of 16 responses); for numbers representing times, dates, measurements, and ages (2-year-olds, 2 hr 15 min); for statistics and percentages (multiplied by 5, 5% of the sample); and for numbers denoting a specific place in a series, book, or table (Table 3, Group 3, page 32).2) Spell out numbers below 10 that do not represent precise measurements (eight items, nine pages); for numbers beginning a sentence, title, or heading (Forty-eight people responded. Ten subjects improved.); for common fractions (one fifth of the class); and for approximations of numbers of days, months, and years (about three months ago).AcronymsAn acronym uses the first letter of each word in a name or title.1) Acronyms must be spelled out completely on initial appearance in text. The abbreviation or acronym should appear in parentheses after that initial spelling out.Example:The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) had a profound impact on public education in the United States. The NCLB was an initiative of President George W. Bush in 2002.Spelling and Word UsageUse Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary as a default for spelling words. The dictionary can also be used as a resource for hyphenation, capitalization, etc.In-Text Punctuation1) According to the American Psychological Association (APA), one space after terminal punctuation is considered correct for papers submitted for a grade.2) Use ellipses when omitting material within a quote.3) Place a comma after the penultimate word in a series. For example: Your books, ball, and bat are under the bed.4) If a compound word is not in Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary, use hyphens for clarity rather than omit them.5) Hyphenate compound adjectives that precede the noun they modify, except when the first word of the compound is an adverb ending in -ly. For example: role-playing technique, two-way analysis, middle-class families, widely used method6) Do not hyphenate a compound adjective if its meaning is established or it cannot be misread. For example: grade point average, health care management7) See page 98 of the APA Manual for further rules on hyphenation.Initial Capitalization1) Capitalize all words of four or more letters in titles (books, articles, etc.) used in text. This rule does not apply within the References section, except for the titles of periodicals. 2) Capitalize proper nouns and names.In-Text CitationsIn-text citations are used in the body of a paper to show which sources a student used for particular material. When you use material from a source, you need to document that source by using a citation and reference note. All quotations, paraphrases, and summaries must be referenced. Using material from a source without citing that source is considered plagiarism; please reference GCU’s policy on Plagiarism in the University Policy Handbook.Citation Rules1) In-text citations should note the author information, plus the publication year. 2) For a work by one author, cite last name followed by year on every reference. This citation can be placed at the end of the sentence, or it can be incorporated into the grammatical structure of the sentence.Examples:Researchers have concluded that food and comfortable setting were more important than games available to most students (Liu, 1999).According to Liu (1999), researchers have concluded that food and comfortable setting were more important than games available to most students.3) For a work by two authors, cite both last names followed by year on every reference.Examples:(Walker & Allen, 2004) According to Walker and Allen (2004)…4) For a work by three to five authors, cite all last names followed by year on first reference, and the first author’s last name followed by et al. and year upon subsequent references.Examples:(Bradley, Ramirez, Soo, & Walsh, 2006) (Bradley et al., 2006)5) For a work by six or more authors, cite last name of the first author followed by et al. and the year on all references.Examples:(Wasserstein et al., 2005) According to Wasserstein et al. (2005)…6) If no author exists for the source, use the first few words of the title.Example:Students were more concerned about having a place to socialize with other students than about all-out competition (“Philosophy and the Science,” 2001).7) When referencing the Bible, cite the book, chapter number, and verse number(s) (starting and ending). The first time the Bible is cited in the paper, also include the version used. This system of citation for the Bible is sufficient and requires no reference note for the Bible on the References page. Examples: Citing the Bible, first reference:  Use book, chapter, verse, and version (Luke 2:16-20 King James Version). Citing the Bible, subsequent references: Use only book, chapter, and verse (Luke 2:16-20).8) If the material is a direct quote, the page or paragraph number of the source should immediately follow.Examples:”Ethics examines moral values and the standards of ethical behavior”(Ornstein et al., 2008, p. 162).Basu and Jones (2007) went so far as to suggest the need for a new “intellectual framework in which to consider the nature and form of regulation in cyberspace”(para. 4).9) Quotations with 40 or more words should be in block format. a. Omit the encompassing quotation marks.b. Start a block quote on a new line.c. Indent the entire block 0.5 inches from the left margin (in the same position as a new paragraph)d. Additional paragraphs within a block quote should have the first line indented an additional 0.5 inches.e. The in-text citation for a block quote is placed outside the final punctuation for the quote. f. Double space.Sample Paragraph With In-Text CitationsLiu and Berry (1999) conducted a survey of college campuses to determine the best design for a student lounge. They concluded that food and comfortable seating were more important than games available to most students. Students were more concerned about having a place to socialize with other students than about all-out competition. In fact, they continue,arcade games could be a turn-off for some students because they did not want to compete with the noise to talk. These same students said that they would prefer to have a place where they could study and casually socialize at the same time, so seating, lighting, and noise level were all crucial. (Liu & Berry, 1999, p. 14)This study and others (Wendell, 1978; Hartford, Herriford, & Hampshire, 2001; Johnson et al., 2004) confirm that while having activities is important, students are more drawn to comfortable multi-purpose environments.In-Text Citation ExamplesBook Reference:Ellis, D. (2006). Becoming a master student. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.With a direct quote:Ellis (2006) notes that “creative thinking is more appropriate in the early stages of planning and problem solving” (p. 223). Without a direct quote:It may be more appropriate to think creatively during earlier planning and problem-solving stages (Ellis, 2006).APA ReferencesThe reference list should appear at the end of a paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page References (with no quotation marks, underlining, etc.), centered at the top of the page. The References page should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay. 1) All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation. 2) Invert all authors’ names; give surnames and initials for up to and including seven authors (e.g., Author, A. A., Author B. B., Author, C. C.). When authors number eight or more, include the first six authors’ names, then insert three ellipses, and add the last author’s name. Example:Gilber, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C., Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., … Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6, 249-267. doi:10.1080/146222004100016763053) In reference notes for journal articles, include both the volume and issue numbers if each issue of the journal is paginated separately (i.e., beings with page 1). If the journal paginates continuously throughout the volume, then use only the volume number in the reference note.4) Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work. 5) If you have more than one article by the same author, single-author references or multiple-author references with the exact same authors in the exact same order are listed in order by the year of publication, starting with the earliest. 6) When referring to any work that is NOT a journal—such as a book, article, or Web page title—capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word. Reference Examples: Books, Reference Books, and Book ChaptersEntire Book — Print VersionFormat:Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.Example:Daresh, J. C. (2004). Beginning the assistant principalship: A practical guide for new school administrators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.Electronic Version of a Print BookFormat:Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxExample:Shotton, M.A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/html/index.aspFormat:Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. doi:xxxxExample:Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0071393722Electronic-Only BookFormat:Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxExample:O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism and the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=135Edited BookFormat:Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.Example:Feldman, P. R. (Ed.). (1997). British women poets of the romantic era. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University.Chapter in a BookFormat (Print):Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.Example (Print):Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Format (Online):Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxExample (Online):Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). Retrieved from http://www.science.com/ Philosophy and the science.pdf Format (Online with DOI):Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of chapter or entry. In A. A. Editor & B.  B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). doi:xxxxxxxExample (Online with DOI):Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). doi:10.1037/10762-000Multiple Editions of a BookFormat:Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work (xx ed.). Location: Publisher.Example:Parker, F., & Riley, K. (2004). Linguistics for non-linguists: A primer with exercises (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Entry in an Online Reference Work — Byline AvailableFormat:Author, A. A. (Year). Entry title. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (xx ed.). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxExample:Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.). Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ behaviorismEntry in an Online Reference Work — No Byline AvailableFormat:Entry title. (Year). In Title of reference work (xx ed.). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxExample:Heuristic. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/heuristicEntry in Reference Work — No BylineFormat:Entry title. (Year). In A. Editor (Ed.), Title of reference work (xx ed., Vol. xx, pp.  xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.Example:Heuristic. (2007). In J. Smith (Ed.), The book of words (7th ed., Vol 3, pp. 65-66). New York, NY: Jones and Lawrence.Book Written and Published by OrganizationFormat:Organization Name. (Year). Title of work. Location: Publisher.Example:American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. Note that the organization is both the publisher and the author, so the word “Author” is noted in place of the publisher’s name.The Holy BibleThe Bible does not need to be listed on the reference page, but it does need to be cited in-text. (Refer to in-text citation rule.)Reference Examples: PeriodicalsJournal Article With DOIFormat:Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), xxx-xxx. doi:xxxxxxExample:Kalpič, B., & Bernus, P. (2006). Business process modeling through the knowledge management perspective. Journal of Knowledge Management, 10(3), 40-56. doi:10.1108/13673270610670849Journal Article Without DOI and Retrieved From InternetFormat:Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), xxx-xxx. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx Example:Sillick, T. J., & Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38-48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/ejapJournal Article Without DOI and Retrieved From Print VersionFormat:Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), xxx-xxx. Example:Light, M. A., & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.Article in a Magazine — PrintFormat:Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue), xxx-xxx.Example:Mehta, P. B. (1998, June). Exploding myths. New Republic, 290(25), 17-19.Article in a Magazine — OnlineFormat:Author, A. A. (Year, Month). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue). Retrieved from http://www.homepageExample:Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology, 39(6). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/monitorArticle in a Newspaper — PrintFormat:Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title, pp. xx, xx.Example:Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.Article in Newspaper — OnlineFormat:Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from http://www.homepage.comExample:Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.comReport from University or Government Organization, Corporate AuthorFormat:Organization name. (Year). Title of report (Publication No. xx). Retrieved from http://www.xxxxExample:U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools(NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/asthma/asth_sch.pdfAuthored Report from Nongovernmental OrganizationFormat:Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year). Title of report (Research Report No. xxx). Retrieved from Agency name website: http://www.xxxxxxxxxExample:Kessy, S. S. A., & Urio, F. M. (2006). The contribution of microfinance institutions to poverty reduction in Tanzania (Research Report No. 06.3). Retrieved from Research on Poverty Alleviation website: http://www.repoa.or.tz/documents_storage/Publications/Reports/06.3_Kessy_and_Urio.pdfWeb PagesThe basic format for referencing Web pages is as follows:Format:Author, A. A. (year). Title of work [format description]. Retrieved from http://URL. Note: The format description in brackets is used when the format is something out of the ordinary, such as a blog post or lecture notes. For other examples of format descriptions, refer to page 186 of the Publication Manual. If no date is given for the work, use (n.d.).Examples:Author KnownLandis, B. (1996). Carlisle Indian Industrial School history. Retrieved from http://home.epix.net/~landis/histry.htmlAuthor Unknown TCA Abu Dhabi launches new Global Destination campaign. (2016, November 1). Retrieved from http://www.uaeinteract.com/news/default3.asp?ID=20Note: Use the article title or Web page title as the first element of the citation if the author is unavailable.When discussing an entire website (as opposed to a specific page on the website), an entry does not appear in the reference list, but is cited within text as shown in the following sample sentence:The International Council of Museums website provides many links to museums, codes of ethics, and the museum profession (http://www.icom.org/).

Dell as the World’s Business Leaders

Early on in its history, it managed to give the image of being a giant while it was running as a small firm (Chozich, 2005). As a company, it has managed to give IBM, HP, Compaq, and many other stiff competition by selling individual computers that are assembled from custom-ordered components. Its business philosophy was to sell directly to the customers, which enabled the company to directly interact with the clients and helped in understanding their requirements.The strategy enabled the organization to serve the needs of their customers with some very effective solutions. Dell custom assembled each computer according to the selection of options by the clients, which lead to lower prices than competitors but enhanced convenience to customers and to the company (Wikipedia, 2007). Over the past twenty-three years, Dell worked hard and overtook industry giants following their own business model of direct selling instead of going through retailers and resellers (Lee, 2006).Since the development of the industry, as well as the business of selling computers, comes with the need of having computers as an essential element of life today, the growth of industry happened more or less simultaneously with the growth of the internet. As the internet developed, people started buying and selling goods on the internet and even computers came to be sold on the internet as well as over the phone as in the case of Dell. However, in the last ten years, the industry has gone through several revolutions that have made it highly competitive and drastically shrunk the margins available to sellers.While the computer industry has gone through many changes in terms of how it uses technology and how it governs the assembly of computer components into functioning systems. The basic elements which form a computer such as memory, hard disks, CPUs, and other peripherals have not changed much in their form or function.

Historians’ Interpretation of the German Role in Starting World War I

There are also historians who support that Germany did not have actually any particular benefit from World War I. Towards this direction, it is supported by Hubatch et al. (1963, 15) that ‘the historic phenomenon of World War I has not yet become part of the past to such an extent that no new problems remain to be solved. conversely, the time has diminished the importance of some points of disagreement. yet those years were a decisive turning point in the world history of our era’. In fact, World War I has been often underestimated while the Second World War is considered to have the most severe effects on millions of people around the world. However, it could be supported that both these wars had equal effects on the lives of people internationally as many countries involved in both these wars while their effects can still be observed in specific regions within the international community (see the case of Japan).Before World War I Germany and Britain had a relatively good relationship and there was no evidence that these two countries could become the basic participants of this War. Regarding this issue, it has been found by Wilkinson (2002, 21) that ‘in Britain German ideas and culture was viewed as significant. R.B. Haldane, the War Minister, was not alone in recognizing Germany as `his spiritual home, for many shared his enthusiasm for German culture and philosophy. German secondary and tertiary education was correctly perceived to be decades ahead of Britain, especially in the realm of science and technology’. Because of the above reasons, the beginning of World War I was a totally unexpected event with no specific reasons and justifications. Apart from its beginning, the reasons for the development and the duration of this War cannot also be identified. The above assumption was also supported by Higham et al. (2003, 27) who stated that ‘why the First World War lasted as long as it did.

What Determines a Good Medicine

getting all these aside, it is important to find out how thinkers, sociologists, and philosophers have reacted to the modern health policy, or indeed, to the modern medicine itself. There are arguments that modern medicine has an entity of its own, totally severed off from tradition and today’s medicine gets ridiculed tomorrow and making it groundless and rootless. It is of paramount importance to know how modern medicine appeals to learned minds of thinkers, sociologists, and intellectuals.Rene Dubos (Davey, 1995) argues on the Laws of Nature and Taoist philosophy that had influenced Chinese life and had led to a sustained reverence of nature. China was Buddhist in those days and this philosophy blended very closely with their religion based on non-violence and worship of all forms of nature and life. Chuang Tzu wrote of times when people and nature lived in harmony and did not die young and yin and yang worked harmoniously. The concept of unadulterated nature provided health, cure, and sustenance.Western philosophers argued that nature is too abstract to be revered or considered, beyond a certain limit, as it is not a definite entity. It simply represents platonic beauty and lacks the flesh and blood of life. This argument did not allow the Chinese philosophy to enter into the Western sphere. Whatever is the argument, it is a proven fact that people lived a longer and healthier life in the absence of present immunizations and medical help. The writer argues that specific etiology came into being only in 19th century, when Pasteur, Koch, and other scientists discovered specific and researched answers to problems of various diseases followed by discoveries about biochemical and physiological aspects, microbial agents, metabolic process, deficiencies, hormones and physiological stresses that keep contributing to the ill-health. Many theories and diverse ways of treatments with specialties, effective therapies came into being even though they do not constitute evidence for the doctrine of specific etiology. Hippocratic medicine and discoveries of Darwin and Claude Bernard like scientific philosophers definitely rendered a great service in this field.

Major Theologian Matthew Fox

There emerge new trends in religious study, to which we can refer the ideas of the major theologian of our time Matthew Fox.Fox presents his study as a new theological trend within the field of the Christian tradition, identifying it as Creation-centered spirituality. Some other connoisseurs of religious theories believe that Fox’s study is a somewhat modified system of views presented and supported earlier by St. Francis, St. Irenaeus, St. Phillip Neri, St. John of the Cross, as well as Hildegard of Bingen and Meister Eckhart / Nichols, 1988/.This postmodern theologian is the author of 28 popular theological and religious books including Original Blessing, The Reinvention of Work, Creativity: Where the Divine and the Human Meet, One River, Many Wells: Wisdom Springing from Global Faiths, A Spirituality Named Compassion and the recently published A New Reformation!.Matthew Fox was born in 1940 in Madison, Wisconsin. He has been a member of the Dominican Order for 34 years since 1967. He took a Masters Degree in Philosophy and Theology from Aquinas Institute and a Ph.D. in Spirituality from the Institute Catholique de Paris. Though, because of his work as a progressive theologian, he was silenced by the Vatican in 1988 and in 1993 dismissed from the Dominican order. In 1994 Fox was ordained as an Episcopalian Priest in San Francisco /Matthew Fox, 2005/.Matthew Fox was rewarded for his theological studies and spiritual work by the New York Open Center Tenth Anniversary Award for Achievement in Creative Spirituality (1994). In 1995 he received the Courage of Conscience Award by the Peace Abbey of Sherborn. That meant that his work was highly prayed along with the work of Dalai Lama, Mother Theresa, Ernesto Cardinal, and Rosa Parks, who also awardees in their times.In the following year, he was presented with the Tikkun National Ethics Award.

Modern Spaces

Unlike past centuries in which the material element of the building was the main focus of the design, the backbone philosophy of modern architecture is seen as an exploration of the intimate relationships that are shared between the constructed space and its occupants. In other words, modern architecture is all about finding and legitimizing the connections between human emotions and physical space as the places reserved for community interaction are identified (Massey 2000, p.49). Scholars define modernity as the relationship between a space in which to live and material architecture or as a condition of living imposed upon individuals by the socioeconomic process of modernisation (Heynen 1999, p.4). Thus, modernity should be understood as a conceptual framework of individual expression as well as a reflection of society as a whole. This implies that it is comprised of intellectual ideas and movements as well as by the development of new processes and materials of modernisation. In the architectural context, modernity is the dialectical relationship … which modernism consciously or unconsciously, directly or indirectly, positively or negatively reflects the effects of capitalist development (Heynen 1999: 4). The modernist ideology is thus revealed to have a number of different contexts bound together and interacting with our social understandings contributing to our intuitive and overt sense and understanding of space. To improve our understanding of modern spaces, it is helpful to begin applying the theories to actual practice as they were explored by such architects as Le Corbusier.The primary influence Modernism had was brought forward during the early to mid-1900s. This occurred as a result of the excitement of industrialization and the introduction of new materials which inspired a new direction in design and philosophy. The rationale behind modernism is complex. It is fundamental as well as aesthetic, involving ethics, progress, knowledge and techniques, all defined by mankind’s requirement for shelter, space for social interaction, and a desire to incorporate the wonders of the machine age.

Political Agreements and Disagreements between Plato and Aristotle

Aristotle, on the other hand, does not buy the idea of a perfect society, instead, he focuses on accomplishing betterment and completeness in the existing society. According to Aristotle, politics should be based on generally accepted laws, norms, and customs. Plato in his political philosophy divides the community into three distinct classes. the producing class. then the supplementary class. finally the elite category of Rulers or Guardians. Rulers are assumed to be the wisest ones, who are capable of understanding and performing in absolute good of the society. Along with this Plato advocates the abolishment of private property rights for the producers and supplementary class, and simultaneously conserves the idea of having a family of the Rulers and Guardians only. (Hacker, Andrew. Political Theory: Philosophy, Ideology, Science. New York: Macmillan) Aristotle, on the other hand, has also segmented society into three subsections, based on existing trends in society. firstly oligarchy. secondly, polity. and finally democracy. When placed on a continuum Polity is a moderate ion of oligarchy and democracy, with added features of both types and claimed it to be the best way to govern a society. In polity people who hold some private property are a part of the governing body, as was in an oligarchy, but simultaneously, property qualifications were kept low enough for a majority of a population to have a share of it and be part of the government as is the gist of democracy. According to Aristotle polity was the most preferable type of government because it consisted of a majority of the middle class where people shared a similar frequency and frame of mind, which in return shall give birth to a more stable and well-administered state. (Political Agreements and Disagreements between Plato and Aristotle) Aristotle believed that a good society was one where there was rule of law and constitution was the supreme authority, set by the general public, and the relation between government and state must be of liberty and freedom and not that of a ruler and servants.

Glimpse of Scriptures of Religions of Indian Origin

Sikhism, Buddhism and DaoismSikhism:Sikh is a word taken from Punjabi language meaning ‘disciple’. In followers of Sikhism follow the teachings of ten Sikh gurus. These followers are termed as disciple of God. The holy book for Sikhism followers is Sri Guru Granth Sahib.Sikhism was founded by Guru Nanak (born in 1469). (Sinha, 2013, p. 241-242) He used to preach the message of love and kindness and criticized the sightless rituals of the Muslims and Hindus. His teachings were passed on to nine successive Gurus. The last Guru (Tenth one), Guru Gobind Singh died in 1708.Philosophy and BeliefsNo other God but one. Same God is for every person and every religion.The soul passes through the phases of birth and death before reaching to human form. The aim of life is to live and exemplary life so that our soul may merge with God. Every follower of Sikh religion should always remember God and practice living a moral and honest life and should maintain a balance between the obligations of temporal and spiritual.The right path to attain salvation and merging with God does not require rejection of the world or abstaining yourselves from any sexual relations, but by leading a life as a householder, living an honest life and stay away from sins and worldly temptations.There are no blind rituals in Sikhism like as superstitions, visiting places of pilgrimage, fasting, worship of the dead and idols etc.It was formed to create a religious equality among men and women, and to live pure and natural way of life while attaching with God all the time. Budism and DaoismBoth these most influential beliefs have shaped Asian history. Both of these religions have dominated majority of Asian regions, especially India and China. They have been around thousands of years. Both Buddhism and Daoism are different in many things, yet share the same original confidence in renascence. Both have its own approach to such belief in the same way both emphasize a different way of life.Buddhism was founded by Siddharta Gautama, he belong to a royal family and was born as a prince in 624 BC in a place called Lumbini. He was known as Buddha meaning ‘enlightened one’. From the beginning Buddhism has been embraced to be a philosophy and a religion at the same time. The core values of Buddhism are encapsulated in three things.To be mindful of actions and thoughts.To develop understanding and wisdomTo lead a honorable life.Goal of a Buddhism follower is to achieve Nirvana, the eventual happiness and enlightenment. Nirvana can only be attained once all misery has been surpassed. Daoism (Taoism) was first introduced in China. The main focus of Daoism is on subjects that moves around religious and philosophical backgrounds for example, peace, strength, openness, naturalness, hollowness, connection between universe and humanity, and inaction or wu wei. Daoism came from the word Tao which means the ‘way’, the power that exists in all life in the world. Therefore the aim of the Daoist’s is to straighten up him with that way. According to Daoism the soul never dies, it is everlasting and changes to another life till completion of Taoist goals. Therefore, it believes in reawakening and with this endless existence of soul, this is the first reason of Tao that to look forward but the cause is the not finite. This can be accomplished through separating oneself from possible desires, and diversion and following natural flow of the cosmos.ReferencesSinha,A.K. (2013). Glimpse of scriptures of religions of indian origin: Hinduism, buddhism, jainism, sikhism. S.l.: Xlibris Corporation.

Is there international law

The vast organization that constitutes international law includes an assortment of international traditions, formal contacts, pacts, consensus, and charters such as the United Nations Charter. The United Nations Charter has various codes of conduct or protocols, law courts and summaries of legal agreements which include legal examples of previous decisions handed down by the International Court of Justice. In the absence of a potent governing apparatus to enforce implementation of international law, international law is confined to the parameters where enforcement of international law is only possible when those in power agree to abide by the law (MacCormick 259). The underlying argument of this paper is whether there is international law which every country confides and abides to fully. Countries have different governing systems, and they usually adhere to their own version of international law which might include both case laws and legislation in their country. The adherence to international laws includes practical implications, measures and legal redress. These principles are recognized as part of international procedure which are implemented as a courtesy and respect for the Charter of the United Nations. This Charter includes but is not limited to national and international laws for respecting human rights and the sovereignty of other countries. They also include international laws regarding investments, offshore banking, tariffs, imports and exports, contracts, dumping and much more. However, to be recognized as a sovereign state, it is mandatory for a state to have its own government and defined territory (Wood 169). The sources such as international organization like the United Nations which are involved in the international law making processes face difficulties in formulating and implementing international laws since this is a complicated process that has to take into consideration any issues which that specific international law may produce. Determining the basis of international law will also include its claim to legal authority, its legality and rationalization and why should people be in compliance with such laws. The issue of origins is commonly addressed by international scholars by referring to the prescribed sources of international law, most specifically sources that are found in Article 38 of the 1945 International Court of Justice Statute treaty law and universal philosophy and ethics, supported by other reliable sources such as case laws written by renowned scholars. The legal philosophy advocated by Grotius is not written in the constitution, but refers to respect accorded to other sovereign states. This had become absolutely necessary during the early seventeenth century because there was no way of enforcing international law and the monarchies that had power or had seized power refused to adhere to or obey any law except their laws. All disagreements between states were settled by the use of military force (Kammerhofe 88). Conventionally, the states have used established international law makers and have formulated laws that apply to specific issues within their own states and the same laws are applicable to other states and individuals equally. Consequently, there

International Business To Business Marketing

attainment of its strategic objectives. Although these descriptions are useful, it is important to realize that the practice of purchasing and supply management is changing rapidly (Chopra, 2003).Supply chain management appears in current dialogue as relatively new terminology, but definitions of what it encompasses are, at best, vague. Barkema (1997) suggested that the development of an idea of the supply chain owes much to the emergence from the 1950s onwards of systems theory and the associated notion of holism. This may be summarised by the observation that the behavior of a complex system cannot be understood completely by the segregated analysis of its constituent parts. However, Beverland (2002) suggested the use of this idea in regard to supply chains is neither consistent nor straightforward. New also argued that the supply chain metaphor is used in many ways, but three meanings dominate the discussion: supply chain from the perspective of an individual firm. supply chain related to a particular product or item (such as the supply chain for beef, or cocaine, or oil). and supply chain used as a handy synonym for purchasing, distribution, and materials management (Larson, 1998). Supply chain management can mean any one of these things, but one aspect is certain: Purchasing and/or outsourcing activity is being undertaken (Barkema, 1997). Beverland (2002) suggested that supply chain management is an integrative philosophy used to manage the total flow through a distribution channel from the supplier to the ultimate user. Another definition is the management of a chain or of operations and centers through which supplies move from the source of supply to the final customer or point of use (Chng, 2000). In essence, the supply chain starts with the extraction of raw material (or origination of raw concepts for services), and each link in the chain processes the material or the concept in some way or supports this processing. The supply chain thus extends from the raw material extraction or raw concept origination through many processes to the ultimate sale of the final product, whether goods or services, to the consumer.

The Major Factors of the Credit Agricole

Credit Agricole is one of the largest retail banking groups in the world and is the largest banking group in France. The overall structure of the firm is such that it is owned by many smaller retail banks in France and is offering retail banking services not only in France but at international level also. Primarily focusing on the rural areas as its target market, the bank has also the presence in the cities and is now operating in more than 60 countries of the world.Such huge international presence, therefore, outlines a very significant expansion of the firm in the international market. The overall strategy of the firm in terms of international expansion has largely been focused on the acquisition of smaller banks in different European countries as well as countries from other parts of the world. Such expansion strategy outlines that the firm has taken an aggressive approach to extend its presence in the international market.Credit Agricole is considered as the green bank of France because of its support and stronger roots in the agriculture sector of the country. It is also because of its overall business philosophy that the firm mostly operated in the rural areas of the country with little presence in the urban areas. Credit Agricole is unique in the sense that its ownership structure is really different and its owned by many smaller banks.Bank’s historical roots are relatively richer given the fact that it was established in order to allow the extension of credit to the farmers so that they can boost their productivity. One of the reasons as to why the agriculture was lacking in productivity in France was the lack of credit to the farmers and as such, they were unable to purchase better seeds and other tools in order to better cultivate and increase their productivity.

Critical Thinking Week 2

Nothing is accepted on face value and every aspect of a communication, whether oral or written, is questioned to clearly identify the issues, stated conclusions, arguments, evidence in support and assumptions/omissions/fallacies. This should lead to the right conclusions and right decisions. Clear thinking is all about ‘the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking’ (Anon., n.d., philosophy.hku.hk). According to Study Guides, clear thinking involves ‘placing the facts and information in a pattern … and … accepting or rejecting the source values and conclusions…’ (Anon., n.d., studygs.net). In the following paragraphs, a memo from the Director of Human Resources, Federated State Employees Union (FSEU), Local 343 to its President, in response to the proposal of the Governor of the state of Illinois for economizing the budgeted personnel cost of the department of transportation (DoT) through outsourcing its information systems management, is analyzed applying the critical thinking process through its various steps (Browne and Keeley, 2007). Analysis Step 1: Issue and conclusion The memo lays down the union’s opposition to privatization of jobs as a means to curtail costs, dilates on the perils of the proposed action on union and its members, and attempts to justify the opposition on multiple grounds. The prescriptive issue conveyed is: Should the Governor’s proposal to cut costs by eliminating certain jobs by resorting to privatization be allowed to be implemented? The conclusion is: It is not only a bad idea but also bad in law, and is in effect an attempt to control the union. Step 2: Reasons offered FSEU is questioning the rationale of eliminating jobs through outsourcing, which opens up the possibility of permanent unemployment of the concerned union members. Since outsourcing would potentially invite foreign agents with their unfair advantage of low-wage workers, the proposal is seen as anti-American and as a forerunner for similar attempts in other departments too. Further, it would lead to reduced wages as a result of competition from foreign workers. Dispersal to other departments and potential wage reduction are attempts by the management to gain control over the union. Displaced workers, if at all they get new postings, would need to learn new skills and to cope with new environs, in spite of their age, experience and merit. It is contended that employee reduction/displacement through privatization runs contrary to the Pendleton Act of 1883. Step 3: Ambiguity in reasoning The Wikipedia reference to the relevance of Pendleton Act of 1883 is tenuous and not specific. Words and phrases like ‘instability, most likely, similar, attempt to drive out old experienced workers’ are ambiguous in context and not supported by reason or evidence. Step 4: Value assumptions/conflicts The major value assumed in the memo is the union’s right to protect the interests of its members and for citizens at large, both on the present issue and for future. Further, it is argued that yielding by the union on the issue would weaken its position for future negotiations with the management. At the same time, the assumed threat for the union members is sought to be used to garner votes

PHILOSOPHY FINAL EXAM PAPER

One hand writes red. The other writes blue. The left brain is able to enunciate I see red. The verbal component is important, because Parfit’s definition of identity is that identity exists because we talk about it, we name it. So the split-brain, Parfit says, represents two streams of consciousness. Both hemispheres are conscious as long as they are intact. Parfit then says this dual consciousness equals two people in the same body. Then he says that in the sense that identity is a named collection of objects (memories, thoughts, emotions) there are no identities here, because the original person has been split in two. I believe that consciousness equals identity, but more on that later. Stairs posits the Ego Theory, where the existence of the ego explains the existence of the person. Parfit’s shallow definition of personal identity as a named collection of parts is put to the test. Stairs wants Parfit to look at the complexity of the collection: we do make a distinction…between mere assemblages and things that have a coherence or unity…From the mere fact that a thing is compound, it simply does not follow that its existence as a thing is merely nominal (Stairs). … Parfit says that a person is a long series of experiences, thoughts and feelings. Memory is a causal relation that ties together the items in the series (Stairs). In Bundle Theory, this group or series of feelings has certain facts that can describe them, as well as describe the causal relationships between them (Stairs). Parfit does an either or or false dilemma argument between Ego Theory and Bundle Theory, stating: Either P or Q Not–P Therefore, Q Either the Ego Theory or the Bundle Theory is correct The Ego Theory is not correct Therefore, the Bundle Theory is correct. (Stairs). Is the premise true? No. It is a false dilemma: Either A or B. No alternate explanations are provided, even though they may exist. The form of the argument is correct, but the initial premise is false. The argument is invalid. Stairs disagrees with Parfit in the example of identity as memory: The process that led from your experience to my memory [of you telling me about your experience] is not the right sort to bring two events into the series that composes a life (Stairs). My memory of your story of your experience is not the same as your experience, or your memory of your experience. I can’t get past the idea that the identity does not survive, yet something survives. Here are some arguments. On page 5: In hoping for both to survive, I would be preferring death (for one half–my addition) to survival. Definition of terms: survival=one half survives. I=ego presupposing my existence=me. If survival is possible for me if one half survives and If survival is impossible for me if both halves survive Then I would hope for one half to survive. Wishing for both to survive implies a death wish until survival

Freidrich Hayek’s Impact on our Understanding of the Information Society

Differences there are between Hayek and, say, John Stuart Mill in substantive political philosophy (and there are many) the structures of their ideas display similar architectonic qualities. In fact, Hayek has suggested that an economist who knows only economics is more likely to be a hindrance than a help in the understanding of social phenomena (Kenneth Minogue 2000).Yet Hayek’s career has not been entirely that of the dry, detached scholar. he was involved in some of the most important intellectual and policy debates of the twentieth century. In the 1930s he was engaged in an important controversy with Keynes over monetary theory and the limitations of governments anti-depression policy in 1944 Hayek achieved some notoriety with his The Road to Serfdom, and its grim prognosis that totalitarianism and the destruction of freedom were the likely consequences of even mild interferences with liberty under the rule of law. during the period of the social-democratic consensus which ruled post-war Western democracies, he elaborated and modified his philosophy of classical liberalism with a stream of learned treatises and articles which eventually found favor with Western political leaders, including Mrs Thatcher: if the world is ruled by ideas, which Hayek believed was the case (as did Keynes) then Western society may be about to be engulfed by a tide of Hayekian ideas just as it was once swamped by Keynesianism. Though one suspects that they are likely to find a more favorable reception in former communist regimes than in the West.This change of environment marks a redirection of Hayek’s research activities. He increasingly started devoting himself to the philosophy of science and to problems of social and political philosophy. The first major result of this is The Road to Serfdom, which was published in 1944. Hayek’s own account as to whether his reorientation was the result of a conscious decision, or that he more or less drifted into these fields spontaneously are somewhat contradictory (Hayek 1944).

Analysis of Flannery OConnors Good Country People

Joy/Hulga’s false attitude of superiority is actually a self-built cocoon of isolation, which camouflages her fear of life: Pointer’s violation is her salvation as it breaks open her cocoon and forces her to live. Joy/Hulga’s intellectual superiority is only a convenient device that she uses to isolate herself from the real world. She uses her doctorate in Philosophy as a justification for considering herself to be intellectually superior. She makes it clear that she despises the circumstances of her life and would be far from these red hills and good county people (O’Connor, 18) if it wasn’t for her weak heart. In her opinion, the intellectual environment of a university would suit her abilities. However, her attitude is so exaggerated that it is evident that she is merely using her disabilities as an excuse to avoid any risk of failure in the real world. She does not make the least attempt to live the life she feels she is suited to and is content to remain a passive spectator, scorning her everyday world. She utilizes her doctorate, her artificial leg and her heart condition as reasons for her self-chosen misery (Garbett, Para 1)Every aspect of Joy/Hulga’s personality is deliberately contrived to strengthen her defensive walls and discourage anyone from attempting to get close to her. Hulga is the master of the Wall, which she uses to protect herself from the world (Chris. Rubas Web site. Para 12). Her physical posture of standing square and rigid-shouldered with her neck thrust slightly forward (O’Connor, 12), is aggressive and discourages anyone from approaching her. She deliberately dresses in sloppy clothes, going about all day in an old skirt and a faded sweatshirt, as an apparent symbol of her defiance, which is actually another device to repulse people. She is bloated, rude and squint-eyed (O’Connor, 18), again an attempt to discourage all interpersonal relationships. She looks at nice young men as if she could smell their stupidity.

Do Angela Carter and Jeanette Winterson Belong to Postmodernism

This is able to exemplify and show the concepts of postmodernism while developing a plot line that develops alternative perspectives and expressions. Both stories are able to convey and exemplify postmodernist attributes through the plot, actions, characters and ideologies which both author’s convey. The concepts of postmodernist theory are what define the main attributes of both stories that show the philosophy. The main concept that postmodernists were interested in was the ability to change perspectives of reality. This was in opposition to the realistic writing which was conveyed in the era before. Postmodernism rebelled against this by pushing the limits of realism and the need to express everything according to the issues and developments in society and culture. This expanded into creating radical descriptions and expressions that would cause a belief of being unsettled and disrupted with one’s thoughts. The main ideology was to confront ideas of realism and what individuals believed in society to be the most important. This was followed by the belief that the voice should change the differences and transitions which one was going through from a perspective which a different individual would not consider realistic. The concepts of magic and reflections of the unknown then became a part of the postmodernist theory and the defining points which were able to create the different interpretations and reactions in society (Flax, 1990: 5). Both stories reflect the main ideologies of postmodernism in the main approach and plot line which is taken. The first is noted through The Bloody Chamber by Carter. The plot line is based on the grotesque and an unrealistic viewpoint of one’s own plot in life. … This begins by having a plot line which seems normal, specifically with the narrator wanting to get married and move out of the home that she lives in. However, this quickly changes when she finds out the truth of the man that she marries and the sadism and pornography that he is interested in. This twist into the plot into one which is not romantic or has a happy ending as the beginning points out. The end of the book shows that this turns into a man who is willing to murder the wives that don’t have a specific liking of his interest. The grotesque plot line and the unrealistic expectations continue with the narrator’s mother killing her husband at the last moment, also which moves outside of the realistic expectations which one would have. This particular plot line leads to twists and unrealistic expectations from the husband, actions he willingly takes and the response from the mother. Each of these adds into the postmodernist trend of changing the plot into the unexpected. A similar plot line conveys the postmodernist ideologies in Sexing the Cherry. The concepts which are associated with this show a distorted relationship between a mother and a son, specifically which is referred to as grotesque. The description which is given to her is followed by the references to her being as an elephant and being able to eat large proportions, especially of fruit. The twist becomes even more important with the son as he responds to his mother by loving her attributes and with his willingness to embrace the giant and grotesque features. The twists and changes which occur after this follow the plot line of going on a journey with the mother to find the self and to embrace the unknown which is a part of the main conflict that others see.

The Need for Training for Employees

We can ask what they want. how we can help them reach their individual and professional goals. what we can help them achieve beyond promotions and salary increases. and how we can work as a unit toward common goals. This may involve looking beyond the office and into the community.The complete human resources plan should address such issues as employee growth and development, hiring and promotion practices, legal considerations, as well as specific employee placement plans (Moore, M L. 2001, 532-545).The training component should address immediate and long-range goals, behaviors and skills. However, just as a doctor cant treat a patient until she has determined what is wrong and what is needed, the cooperative management cannot begin to fix our training problems until it has conducted a needs assessment.There are many ways to approach such a process. The following is a simplified set of suggested steps to take when conducting a training needs analysis. Of course, the cooperative management may want to use these suggestions as a foundation, building on these ideas by applying its own system philosophy and culture to the process (Bee, F. and Bee, R 1994).It is a good idea to have representatives from within various strata in the organization meet with those who are responsible for the analysis to discuss the goals and procedures, and to get input about various types of existing jobs. It is important at this step to be open about the outcome, avoiding preconceived notions about the expected results. These representatives may also be needed to take part in the observation and assessment phases of the analysis. This group may serve as an advisory committee throughout the process (Rossett, 2002).Assuming this is a broad analysis, covering all positions, each job should be identified, and information should be gathered for each, such as the position description and any job postings or advertisements for that position.

The Curriculum Approach of Direct Instruction

The National Institute for Direct Instructions defines DI as a model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks. It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminating misinterpretations can greatly improve and accelerate learning (NIFDI 2007). Primarily the series cover an elementary school (pre-K-6) program, but it is also used successfully with secondary and adult special education and remedial students (J/P Associates 2006).Unlike the majority of modern mainstream curriculum programs, demanding more funding, more welfare, more licensing of parents, more computers, more self-esteem therapy, etc. and blaming the government, family and the society as a whole, the philosophy behind Direct Instruction is If the child hasn’t learned, the teacher hasn’t taught. Direct Instruction has proved that even disadvantaged children may excel if simply properly taught at school. The vast research accomplished during thirty years has demonstrated that DI not only helps at-risk groups of students to catch up with their peers but even to overcome them and continue being successful further in upper grades. Another important feature of DI is that the program is not expensive, while it was designed for the schools in poor districts, where the children have always shown low academic performance. The schools that have acquired the program have become the ones with the best results in their districts or even cities, notwithstanding the fact that those were less funded schools, with students viewed as problematic and disadvantaged.According to the American Federation of Teachers, the program was created by Siegfried Engelmann and Dr. Wesley Becker in the 1960s as part of Project Follow Through, a massive educational initiative of President Johnsons War on Poverty.

Inner Confines of Soren Kierkegaard Fear and Trembling

In terms of philosophy, he pressured the emphasis on concrete thinking rather than placing one’s thoughts in an abstract manner. In one of his greatest works, Fear, and Trembling he wrote about how an individual should focus on his or her own choices and make their own decisions rather than being influenced by societal ideas and ideologies. In theology, he questioned the belief and faith of Christianity and the relationship between human beings and Jesus. He wrote about how he believed that the sole motive and purpose of one’s life was to try and understand as well as develop and nurture his own self in order to attain a certain degree of self-actualization and realization. He actively preached and supported how a person had to make choices based on the kind of life he was going to live, and how one’s faith was rational as per his own standards. Whatever a person commits to or undergoes is because he has inflicted it upon himself. Therefore, he came to the conclusion that being truly oneself was an unswerving action of determination or will. Kierkegaard also did not want the public to know about his writing on a direct basis because he believed in a spiritual understanding and brought about his communication with a higher power for the purpose of understanding for the common people. This was again his method of communicating indirectly with everyone else, and at the same time, reaching to God on a higher level as well. In a number of his works, he wrote fierce dialogues ranging between two or more people that were nothing but figments of his own self. Even though a number of different names were used for each work, journal or book, all the voices, in the end, were coming from Kierkegaard himself and the kind of relationship he shared with a higher power. He used this method in every piece of writing that he did and this was thus, his way of communicating his thoughts to the rest of the world. In Fear and Trembling, Kierkegaard has made an attempt in order to try and explain the relationship between Abraham and his son Isaac. Within this work, he has tried to emphasize how a person has to make choices based on his own life in order to be one with God and try and attain a level of actualization. This was the dilemma that Abraham faced in his life. he could both listen to God’s wishes and sacrifice his son for the greater good, or not. One way Abraham would become a savior for his child, and the other way, prove his loyalty towards his religious faith. He writes, Who gave strength to Abraham’s arm? Who held his right hand up so that it did not fall limp at his side? He who gazes at this becomes paralyzed. Who gave strength to Abraham’s soul, so that his eyes did not grow dim, so that he saw neither Isaac nor the ram? He who gazes at this becomes blind.–And yet rare enough perhaps is the man who becomes paralyzed and blind, still rarer one who worthily recounts what happened. We all know it–it was only a trial. Through this paragraph he talks about the difference it can make to one’s life to follow a faith and how at the same time, it was only rational that Abraham devoted his life to God. by ‘it was only a trial’, he means to say that it was God’s own test that Abraham had to pass if he gave Him the utmost importance.

Ethics and moral character

Ethics and Moral character about Henry Ford Henry Ford, the automobile pioneer in the American industry, is renowned for his unique vision, social responsibility, entrepreneurship, industrial philosophy, business ethics and moral character. Ford believed in industrial mass production and he never deviated from business ethics and morality while climbing the ladders of success. His social philosophy was one of strong progressivism. He believed that the primary responsibility of any industry is towards the society and he rated the success of a business enterprise based on its ability to provide service to the society. He stressed on cost-and means-efficient production of goods whereby the public could afford to acquire these goods as cheaply as possible. As a business man his primary motive was never to amass maximum profit. On the other hand, he held that it is the function of business to produce for consumption and not for money and speculation (Johannes 7). Thus, he was never moved by the money motive and he brought about revolutionary changes in the twentieth century American industrial culture through such radical measures as the introduction of high wages, lower prices and increased buying power. One of the distinguishing characteristics of Ford’s business ethics was his strong belief that business should not be solely aimed at making profit. On the other hand, he held that one should maintain business ethics in all his/her enterprises keeping in mind the demands and needs of individuals and society. Once Henry Ford himself stated that for a long time people believed that the only purpose of industry is to make a profit. They are wrong. Its purpose is to serve the general welfare (Ciulla 31). Similarly, good business leaders should not be egocentric. they should not be moved by ego but by reason. Henry Ford was a genuine and brilliant leader who was never overtly flattered by success but who always welcomed legitimate contributions from others. Similarly, by offering higher wages to the hard-working employees Ford could very easily instill in their minds that they were also integral parts of his business. These high wages in turn resulted in greater productivity which helped Ford to become an iconic figure in the global automobile history. Henry Ford displayed considerable amount of moral character and ethical concerns in his business strategies. It can be seen that Ford’s visions and business philosophies have passed from generation to generation within the organization and his tradition has in fact paved the way for a new organization work culture. Ferrell, Fraedrich and Ferrell, in this respect, observe that Henry Ford, the founder of Ford Motor Company, left a legacy that emphasized the importance of the individual employee and the natural environment (Ferrell, Fraedrich Ferrell 175). This legacy is still followed by the current chairman William Clay Ford, Jr as the company believes in the potential power of its employees. It can be stated that Henry Ford was an ardent advocate of mass production and he ensured that quality products are delivered to the customers at affordable price rates. One can notice elements of scientific management devised by Frederick Taylor in his ideas about production and greater productivity. This is very well suggested by Wells when the researcher observe that by favoring higher wages, shorter hours, and planned activities for workers on the job, Taylor’s ideas undermined Spencer’s survival of the fittest, and led to a new phase in the history of American business ethics ( Wells 72). Thus, it can be concluded that Henry Ford introduced a new approach to production and organizational culture that displayed his business ethics and moral character as well. Works Cited Ciulla, Joanne B. Ethics, the heart of leadership. 2nd revised ed: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004. Print. Ferrell, O. C., Fraedrich, John Ferrell, Linda. Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases. 7th revised ed: Cengage Learning, 2009. Print. Johannes, Stefan. Henry Ford, National Socialism, and Illiberal Visions of a Just Economy, 1920-39. Presented to the Conference on the History of American Capitalism, Harvard, 2008. Web. 31 May 2011. lt. http://harvard.academia.edu/StefanLink/Papers/133476/Henry_Ford_National_Socialism_and_Illiberal_Visions_of_a_Just_Economy_1920-39gt.. Wells, Samuel. Christian Ethics: An Introductory Reader. John Wiley and Sons, 2010. Print.

NeoLiberal World Order and Economy of the Developed World

Moreover, political transformations as a result of globalization have caused the reorganization of power from national to international bodies as well as the development of global civil society. Social and cultural transformations are also evident as a result of the integration of different cultures facilitated by technological advances especially in communication as well as improved transport linkages globally (Gaddis Hurrell2003).With increased globalization, the global political economy developed as a multifaceted field focused on international trade, finance, and economic policies of various nation-states affecting international trade and production. Neo-liberalism fails to take into consideration the distributive facets of economic development, environmental integrity, employment creation, and social well-being (equity and justice) among other aspects ‘collective social good’, which was the concern of the welfare state. Consequently, it has encouraged denationalization, deregulation, and haphazard opening of markets as a solution for many of the troubled Third World economies.According to Yovanovich (2003), neo-liberalism can be considered as a flawed social and moral philosophy aimed at promoting the accumulation of wealth among developed economies at the expense of developing nations. The neo-liberal perspective generates the notion that poor Third World countries can only accomplish their economic development goals through integrating economic policies, for instance, liberalization in their systems. This would consequently uplift them from perpetual poverty and enhance the standards of living for their populace. However, Foot et al. (2003) observe that liberalization would essentially damage the Third World countries with slumps in economic growth, escalation of interest rates as well as the intensification of income inequality. The difference between the average incomes of the ten richest and ten poorest countries doubled between 1980 and 1999.

In The Iron Heel Jack London explores one possible outcome of the strong Socialist presence in the early 20th century in Ameri

Although not all of his predictions emerged later in the century, London made some critical true predictions of the events in the 20th century. This paper will highlight the fulfillment of his predictions concerning socialism in the 20th century. London wrote his book adding on to the predictions of other authors who wrote to express their views on the future prospects concerning capitalism. Capitalism got its roots in America in the last half of the 19th century. It had persisted for so long with an increasing gap between the upper class of the system and the slave class that provided labor for the capitalists. It is the time that London wrote the novel about to express the projections of events in his view. A very intriguing foreword opens the reader to the novel. The foreword contains the description of the revolution against capitalism, the system that the people described as an oligarchy. The attributes of the system resulted to unfairness in society with the upper class of the system amassing wealth while exploiting the servitude of the lower class. The people participating in the novel denoted the system with the expression of ‘iron heel’. Avis, the woman who describes the revolution, also highlights the difference that they wanted to institute in the society (London 1-3). This system is socialism. Socialism is a philosophy that suggests the cooperative commitment for people to work for the benefit of the entire society. However, one thing is evident from the manuscript: the predictions have their basis on 27th century prospects. The author predicts that any rise against capitalism would result in the war in the entire globe. Concerning this, London seemed to have earlier insights of what would result in the later years of that century. London employs the voice of Ernest to describe the revolution in detail. It is worth noting that the novel describes the event as they were until 1917. In real life, historians describe this year as the period when the Soviet Union emerged. The rise of socialism in the soviet region proved to be a challenge to the capitalism in the United States (Lye 38). The debate between socialism and capitalism ensued throughout the 20th century. However, before a full description of the fight between capitalism and socialism, London mentioned the rise of the great Germany (London 8). This brings into mind the rise of the Nazi Germany. This regime headed by Hitler rose to exercise its power in eliminating Poland and the Jewish culture. The regime bears a record of the worst form of dictatorship that existed in the 20th century. London intuitively saw the rise of this more than a decade before it happened. Fascism rise in Germany is one of the fulfillments of the predictions. The second war challenged the standing of fascism and led to the collapse of the Nazi Germany. However, it is possible that London’s predictions were applicable to a different situation. The Soviet Union rose to challenge capitalism after the Second World War and sought to exert a socialist control over the entire globe. The debate progressed to define the Cold war that persisted until the end of the 20th century. Although London was wrong about the verdict of the revolution and the war that could result from the fight between capitalism and socialism, he accurately predicted that a time would come when socialists would rise against the oppressive capitalism. However, according to the revelations from Avis, it is

Outlined and it varies

However, in the case of emotion, it is usually much difficult to really create the link. For instance in making decisions through emotions, one can be driven by such factors like nostalgia while they might be well aware (through cognition) that such a decision is not really the best (Norman, 2005). The traditional hard science approach in decision making faces much antipathy in the conventional practical situation. It relies much on positivism and logical sense. However, in today’s science, decision making and decision calls for more than mere objectivism. The world is indeed inundated with many situations and options which have made human beings to be accustomed to different experiences. In this regard, in making decisions and designs, it is important to demonstrate a subjective mind that highly promotes experientialism. It is further realized that the reaction of human beings to design normally occurs in three different levels: visceral, behavioral and reflective. The visceral level is very important as it creates the first impression in terms of appearance. In this case, one is attracted by what their see before they can consider such aspects like functionality. Secondly, people are also driven by behavioral factors which include the ability of the item to perform the required needs. Lastly, the reflective level regards the effects of the item on the self-image and satisfaction of the individual. The subjective and post-positivist approach is realized in the design of such products like watches and autos in which case the mere functionality of the item does not really drive people to be interested. In the technological field, image and sound are some of the most fundamental factors that drive people to purchase specific items like computers and phones. The designers of these products should therefore move away from the traditional focus on objectivism and realize the very importance of creating an item which lures people through sight, sound and performance. The products used in everyday life should therefore be designed in a way that evokes certain emotions on the users. Most designers still hold on to the traditional objective ideas regarding science where emotional concerns of the users are not given much consideration in the design process. However, companies like Apple have realized this crucial value and are not only enhancing functionality but also image and visual characteristics of their products. The results are basically the increase in sales as people tend to be attracted visual efficiencies of such products. The subjective orientation places much focus on creating experience on the part of the users. For instance, in information technology, the designers should make products which are identified with specific features such as efficiency. Therefore the present usability design places greater emphasis on such critical factors that create a mental attitude on the part of the consumers who are then driven to purchase such items. PHILOSOPHY–A CRASH COURSE Philosophy is normally a subject of many debates and questions regarding its very nature and its importance in conventional human practice. While some people normally feel that it is almost unnecessary owing to its excessive indulgence in rational argument, the core of the matter is basically with respect to the importance of philosophy in

Analysis of Compensation Philosophy

The policies and underlying philosophy governing the company’s compensation program are designed to accomplish the following objectives: Maintain a compensation program that is equitable in a competitive marketplace. Provide opportunities that integrate pay with the company’s annual and long?term performance goals. Maintain an appropriate balance between base salary and short and long-term incentive opportunities. Recognize and reward individual initiative and achievements. Provide a clear focus and measurement on key objectives with a meaningful link to rewards. Achieve a performance-driven work culture that generates the company’s growth Provide compensation and benefits levels within our company’s financial ability to pay. Encourage competency building by better linking career development, performance management, and rewards. Provide a non-discriminatory merit-based compensation program. At the same time, the compensation program of Excel Consulting Company is designed to attract, motivate and retain talented employees. This is evident through working towards the company’s success, attracting and retaining the highest performers. According to Martocchio (2011), base pay is set by a formal job hierarchy. The author states that pay rewards should be obtained by merit or seniority, meeting specific goals or completing a specific project or as a result of acquiring new job skills or knowledge. That is why the author states that Excel Consulting strives to provide a competitive base salary that meets the market at the 50th percentile for fully proficient employees who meet expectations. Also, it is evident between the 60th and 75th percentile for employees who consistently perform above expectations and are highly proficient in their roles. New employees that do not meet expectations will be paid below the 50th percentile target (Martocchio,2011). The competitiveness of employees’ base salaries will be reviewed on an annual basis and adjustments made when market conditions and financial performance allows. The size of the adjustment will be based on the employee’s experience, performance, and contribution to Excel Consulting Company’s performance as well as the employee’s salary within the marketplace. Also, Excel Consulting will use both annual incentives and long-term incentives to enhance its ability to achieve its mission and its employee compensation objectives. In this case, long-term incentives will be performance-based and will provide equity compensation at the 50th percentile when target goals are met with the potential for awards. However, it will be between the 60th and 75th percentile when long-term goals are exceeded. The payment of an incentive award to an employee will be subject to the employee’s achievement of pre-established targets. Excel consulting compensation programs will also ensure internal equity by considering differences among employees in skills, efforts, responsibilities and working conditions. This implies that visible effective commitment to the Excel consulting Company will also be rewarded. The company will also ensure that its compensation structure is linked to an effective performance management system (Daft et al, 2010).

Conservation/Conservation Movement

Throughout the early and the mid-19th century, the conservation mindset and movement was intensified though many pieces of literary works, in form of both painting and written narrations that emerged, portraying nature as a significant element that makes the life of humans worthwhile. Through various magnificent paintings, such as the wonders of America, the artistic pieces of literature served to show the curial role that nature plays in the life humans (Pinchot, n.p.). However, the most fundamental relationship between man and nature was established through written pieces of literature, which portrayed nature as a source of consolation for the disturbed and unsettled minds and soul of man. Thus, many stories told of how people found the natural environmental components such as the rivers, mountains, ponds, trees and birds as a source of consolation, whenever they were faced by great challenges of life, which unsettled their minds (Borrini and Dianne, 77). It is through the influence of such works of art and written literature, that both the public and the private sector took interest in the development of sustainable relationship between man and nature, giving rise to the origin of the conservation movement. The conservation movement The conservation movement had started as early as 1870s in America, though by that time it was through the initiatives of individuals, who found it appropriate to advance the philosophy of environmental protection and management, through writing and painting. However, these advocacy policies were soon to gain momentum, and by 1898, the first environmental school was established in America, though through the initiative of a German national, Dr. Schenck, and the same was replicated in different regions of the country (Koninga, et al, n.p.). These kinds of schools were used to develop and advance conservation skills, while also generating the framework for a legal basis of advancing environmental and natural resources conservation. It is through the initiative of such schools that the first environmental conservation laws were developed, which has served as the backbone of the prevailing environmental conservation laws (Hoon and De Leon, 42). Through the initiatives of the environmental schools, the major principles that form the basis of environmental conservation were developed, which emphasized on environmental development, conservation and catering for public interest. These principles provides that. natural resources should not only be exploited, but also developed, through harnessing more resources into the natural environment, to ensure that the resources are not getting wasted or depleted, but also ensuring that man benefits out of them (Ninan, 33). The early conservation movement focused its energy on the conservation of forests, water towers, fisheries and wildlife (Hoon and De Leon, 61). However, with time the list of the entities requiring preservation and conservation has expanded, to include other natural resources such as mineral, wind, nuclear and other components of the biodiversity. The difference that exists between environmental movement and the conservation

Primary Document Analysis Why Did the Renaissance Occur in Italy Petrarch and His Principles and Niccolo Machiavelli and His Principles

With the trade initiated by Roman rulers among Asians, spices and silk started flowing into the country which led to the development of the Roman Empire demographically and politically. According to (Ch.10, part 1,pg.281)By the late fifteenth century, Europe was recovering well from two of the three crises of the late middle ages: the demographic and political. Due to the change in the rule and power of Italian patrons, there was an establishment of ambassadors for the very purpose of authorizing the political and ceremonial functions of Rome. Moreover, the connection of the Italian rulers with the Asian culture led to the flourishment of Roman province in the area of living style and knowledge. Along with this, humanism was one concept which initiated a debate among the scholars of the renaissance era. The first humanist of Italy was poets and orators and they believed in classical literature and biblical thoughts rather than untraditional modern concepts. As per (Ch.10, part 2,pg.285)Humanism was not a philosophy or a value system, but an educational program built on rhetoric and scholarship for their own sake. One such critic of humanism was Petrarch, Dante, and Boccaccio, who supported ethical principles and value for the upgrading of social values. The main accusation by the scholars of those times was that the Roman government’s attachment to an un-Christian philosophy in order to accept and follow a modern and sophisticated culture. The medieval theologians and philosophers asserted that the middle age of the Roman Empire was a period of dark ages, due to its compliance with nonreligious concepts and unbiblical principles. On the contrary, the artists of roman renaissance period were assisted with new technological skills which enhanced their ability to be more creative. As per (Ch.10prt.3 pg,292) These techniques enabled the artist to portray space realistically and to paint a more natural world. These artists were the well renowned Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Michelangelo who enabled the Italian empire to outstand in the world with the splendor of creativity and potentiality.

How to decrease the possibility of having financial crisis

The financial crisis in a company is an unplanned burden which may affect its resources, capabilities, the values and the goodwill of the company. Lack of corporate governance and business ethics is one of the reasons responsible for the financial crisis in an organization. Acemoglu and Johnson (2003) have said that managers should change their way of thinking by disregarding that mismanagement of the macroeconomic policies is responsible for the lack of corporate governance. They should plan for strategies to overcome crisis in an organisation. The business leaders should focus on the policies like the legal framework of the organisation and protection of the interest of the stakeholders and investors. A good relationship between the shareholders and the managers help to achieve corporate governance within an organisation. Lack of business ethics in an organisation is responsible for weak corporate governance. Business ethics help an organization to frame a corporate governance strategy consisting of values, principles, a good work culture and proper decision making ability of the organizations. Wood (2002) and Lagan (2006) have said that organizations need to set the business ethics with strategic objective which can provide scope for achievement of corporate governance. … The purpose of this research is to provide a methodology by which an organization can achieve proper corporate governance required in order to reduce its financial crisis. The main objectives of this research are: To achieve transparency and fair operations within an organization. To provide proper decision making ability in order to achieve the goals of an organization. To protect the interest of the customers, the shareholders and the investors. To understand the needs and demands of the stakeholders. To prevent the occurrence of unethical behaviour within an organization. To understand the liability of the directors to the managers and the liability of the managers to the shareholders, also known as accountability. Methodology According to Joseph and Tobin (2006) research philosophy is a procedure of collecting data, analysing it and then interpreting the result in order to work on a particular research. Research philosophy mainly consists of two approaches. One is the positivist style and the other one is the phenomenological style. Positivist research model focuses on analyzing the interdependency of the external variables and internal variables. Positivist style is selected for this research, as this style deals with understanding of the internal affairs related to a business. Positivist style of research will also help to understand the reasons behind the lack of corporate governance in an organization. There are two types of research strategies, namely quantitative research methodology and qualitative research methodology. The research strategy chosen for this research is qualitative methodology. Qualitative research model is used for descriptive research. Qualitative research can be analysed in terms of culture, ethics and behaviour. Qualitative

The Nature of Communication

The Nature of Communication The secondary group which I will be writing about for the purpose of this assignment is the school soccer team, which I myself am a member of. I have been a part of the team for a few months now. We meet regularly for practices as well as tournaments and fixtures. I strongly feel that the ultimate aim of winning a match makes all the members of the team work hard towards achieving the goal and thus in the process a bonding develops. I would slot our soccer team as an activity group because the primary purpose is to play the game together and to improve our short comings and develop strategies so that we are able to outclass the other teams we play with. However, that is not it, the interest factor plays a major role in the players’ desire to play and show up for practices. Moreover, I strongly believe that by playing and meeting up regularly, the team members become better friends. Sometimes when I have had a bad day I can vent out all my frustration during the game on the soccer field and after months of practice sessions together my fellow players understand that I need some space. I also feel that the sheer love for the game and having people around who share the interest and understand the game adds a lot more value to the activity group. If I think of our soccer team in the light of a system, I can safely say that it definitely exhibits the qualities of a system. The striker cannot strike a goal till the midfielder or wingers pass the ball to him, similarly the midfielders cannot do much if they are not adequately supported by the fullbacks and the forwards. The crux of the matter is that the members in a soccer team are highly interdependent on each other. Next are the non-summativity, equifinality and multifinality features (Adams and Galanes, 14-17), since the team comprises of various members who cannot all perform the same on all days, therefore the unpredictability about the overall performance of the team is there (Oxford Journals , 134-165). If a team is unable to score a goal our block the goal of the opponents it is not solely the fault of the striker of the goal keep, rather the actions of all team members culminate into the successes and failures of the team, thus multi-causation exists in a soccer team. The input variables of our soccer team include the expertise of our coach who spends hours making us practice on the strategies we make for our matches, the various tricks we learn from professional matches that we watch on the television, the determination of the members to achieve the victory and so forth. The environmental variables include the pressure to perform felt by the existence of the sports society and to win laurels for the school. The process variables include the various on-field decisions the players and the coach have to make during a game, the strategies that we make use of in a match, the fights that the players have within the team and with members of the opposite team etc (Adams and Galanes, 54-64). These input and process variable combine together to result in the output, which may either be in the form of a victory or a defeat, both of which accompany with them either motivation and self-esteem or disappointment and the will to do better in future games trough feedback channels. The ethical concerns are of course present, the game requires a lot of stamina and there are almost four defenders and four midfielders, social loafing can be an easy task if one of the players feels exhausted and leaves the task for the remaining members to accomplish. However, the captain almost plays the role of a participant observer and notices the contribution of all the players. Sometimes, during matches the players lose control of their composure and tend to use abusive language which is not ethically right. It is sometimes believed that the captain or the coach favors a certain player and thus voicing one’s opinion becomes a little bit of a problem however, if all the players feel the same way approaching the coach or the captain regarding the issue is not a problem. I feel the above account adequately describes how I feel about our soccer team and the affiliation I have with it along with its strengths and shortcomings. Works Cited Adams, Kathrine and Galanes, Gloria J. Effective Group Discussion: Theory and Practice, 13th Edition. Pages 10-17 and 54-64. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2010. Web. 4th June 2011. http://www.coursesmart.com/0077319788/firstsection#X2ludGVybmFsX1BGUmVhZGVyP3htbGlkPTAwNzczMTk3ODgvaXY= Oxford Journals. An Outline of General System Theory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Volume 1, Issue 2 (1950): Pp. 134-165. Print. Oxford University Press.

WALMARTinternational corporation

The company has worked very hard to get into this position by pursuing right strategies in both national and international regions. The organization thrives as an efficient merchandiser with effective processes and systems. These strategies have contributed to the overall buying power, superior growth and leadership in various systems such as logistics and supply chain. The company is headquartered at Bentonville, Arkansas, United States. The company has established more than eighty-five thousands stores across the globe. Product portfolio of the company includes, apparel, footwear specialty, supercenter, discount store, warehouse club, cash carry, superstore, hypermarket and supermarket. The strategies of corporate management include selling products of high quality and high brand name and it lowest prices (David 293-298). The low prices are kept by reducing the overall operational costs through the use of advanced and unique electronic technology and unmatched warehousing. Merchandising deals are negotiated directly from the manufacturers which eliminate the work of middle men and save a lot of costs. The community outreach of Wal-Mart is focused on various goals such as involvement with local community services, customer satisfaction, providing scholarships for higher studies etc. The major emphasis of the company is on environmental and child issues. Mission and Goals Mission and goals are the building blocks of an organization. They guide the actions of an organization and define the goals and objectives. Whether an organization is big or small, to have a mission is the first step for setting up a business. The mission and purpose of Wal-Mart is to save the money of its customers so that they can have a better life. Apart from that, the purpose of the company is derived from the philosophy of the company’s founder. The motto of the retail giant is to work together and lower the living cost for everyone (Ahmed 23-30). This will provide an opportunity for the world in terms of saving money and enjoying a better life. Core Competencies Competitive advantage for Wal-Mart lies in its ability of cost differentiation and strong distribution channel across the globe. Cost leadership and distribution strategy of Wal-Mart has created barrier for competitors to copy the strategy of Wal-Mart (Gagnon 130-135).Expanded distribution channel of the company has helped them to sell products to large base of customers and increase market saturation for competitors. Wal-Mart follows a low cost leadership strategy. Macroscopic view of Wal-Mart’s competitive strategy shows that the company uses a resource based model in order to develop a value chain proposition which can’t be matched by competitors. With the help of the resource based view (RBV) model, it can be summarized that Wal-Mart has three major resources which are tangible, intangible and human resources, in order to create and maintain strategic capabilities. Resource capabilities of Wal-Mart can be explained in the following manner. Access to both tangible and intangible resources has helped Wal-Mart to achieve the capabilities which has established the departmental chain as a global market leader.

Global Warming Issue

Environmental philosophy holds that human beings are the only worthy things to be subjected to environmental study. This is because they are the only people who are the custodians and the stewards of the environment. They are responsible for the preservation of the environment. Environmental philosophy also explores the importance of environmental aesthetics. Environmental philosophy also entails the knowledge of the environment discovered in environmental research. In order to avert the problems associated with global warming fossil fuel, all nations must start making use of renewable energy sources. These sources of energy include wind, biomass, and sunlight.Environmental philosophy is a section of philosophy, which relates human co-existence with the natural environment. Global warming is a phenomenon, which emanates from naturalists and scientists. This concept was developed in 1960.this was because of the fear of the aftermath of the nuclear bomb annihilations. This was also as a result of the many chemicals contained in various food webs. Additionally, the toxic pesticides found in food webs informed the establishment of the environmental philosophy. The population of the population is also contributed to the formation of this phenomenon. This is because of the effect of depletion of natural resources. The aspect of pollution is another factor, which has led to Global warming, which includes environmental degradation.Technologies associated with energy are not satisfactory in their applications thus there are environmental aspects which need to be addressed with regard to these energies (Black, 2009). This research paper sheds light on some of the effects of renewable technology. The paper also suggests appropriate and plausible remedies to these effects. However, these technologies are a source of livelihood for millions of people across the globe. This is the most environment-friendly source of energy ever known.

Plato’s Meno

One very significant part of the Meno is that which demonstrates the Theory of Recollection, or the idea that what appears to be learning something new is really recollecting something already known (Cohen, University of Washington), or what is known as the doctrine of anamnesis, which means that all learning is [merely] recollection (Samet, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). This theory is what Socrates exactly proves to Meno when the latter asks, …on what lines will you look, Socrates, for a thing of whose nature you know nothing at all? (Plato, Meno, 80d2). The thing that Meno is referring to in his question is actually virtue, for this is the concept upon which the dialogue is particularly focused. Virtue, in fact, is the whole point of the discourse. However, the discussion has temporarily shifted to the Theory of Recollection in the middle part of the dialogue. This begins when Socrates has concluded that [no one] can know a part of virtue when he does not know virtue itself (79c1), which means that neither Meno nor anyone else knows virtue. Upon hearing this, Meno then begins to ask Socrates a rather common sense question: How can the latter know that this is not virtue the former has been talking about early on in the dialogue when the latter himself does not know what virtue is? Socrates’ reply to this rather sarcastic accusation is the Theory of Recollection. In demonstrating the theory, Socrates first attempts to explain to Meno the roots of the theory by stating that it came from priests and priestesses (81a8) and poets of heavenly gifts (81b1), and that these people all say that the soul of man is immortal (81b1). Socrates then concludes from this premise that the soul has been born many times, and has [therefore] beheld all things both in this world and in the nether realms [and therefore] has acquired knowledge of all and everything (81b1). Socrates then adds that since the soul has already learned everything, then there is no reason why we should not, by remembering but one single thing – an act which men call learning – discover everything else (81d1). Now, if one goes back to Meno’s accusing question – How can you look for something whose nature you do not know? – Socrates’ answer is that one actually already knows everything but simply cannot remember anything. In short, everyone knows what virtue is, only that not everyone can remember. According to Socrates, aside from courage and determination in searching, research and learning are needed in order to remember. Moreover, Socrates even equates research and learning with recollection (81d1), which means that, for the philosopher, the learning and the remembering are the same, and that everything is simply all remembering. After Socrates calls on the boy, what follows is an elenchus, whose literal meaning is refutation but may actually mean a type of cross examination (Ionescu 10). One purpose of the elenchus is for Socrates to help his listeners discover for themselves the inadequacy of what they hold as true (Johnston). A second purpose, however, is, according to Socrates himself, is for an individual to [find] out the truth of the matter [and to] push on in the search gladly, as lacking knowledge (Plato, Meno, 84b7). In short, the first purpose of this elenctic discourse is for someone to discover his ignorance and for him to search for the

Usefulness of Kants example of the promise in Contemporary Society

This is the bases on which Immanuel Kant lays his theory of categorical imperative, which argues that all the people need to put into consideration that a person has the understanding of what it means to say I must as a promise. Through this theory, people are able to make proper distinctions between the different things, which happen in the world because of their understanding of their responsibilities towards each other. Kant argues that the categorical imperative requires a person to know their specific duties in a situation and follow them to accomplish their promises they made. In this respect, he exemplifies all the demands of making promises, which require the person who give them to bear all the responsibilities of fulfilling them according to what they said. In using the categorical imperative, Kant explains how a person can promise to fulfil a promise, which they know they will not fulfil because the basic maxim of a promise is that everyone who promises has to fulfil his or her duty. Arguing like this, it explains why people will not predict that a person is lying to them in making a promise they are not committed to fulfil but which other people think they will honour. This philosophy of Kant was relevant in the past and remains relevant in the contemporary world where people have different engagement to assure others that they will fulfil something and end up not doing it. According to Kant, the issues people have in their minds and which they do normally, form an important part of their explanations to different other things because they get some experience in them. Through these experiences of the mind, individuals form special expectations, which are the outcomes of different things they do in their lives and which other people exploit for their good or for their bad. In this respect, people are caught up in ethical issues, which require them to determine the various things according to the expectations of the society, deviation from which causes a person to be rendered immoral. The things that a person is expected to do in specific situation can be his or her duty and he or she is bound to fulfil it within the stipulated time according to the predetermined social requirement. According to some critics of the theory, there is no clear definition of whether the duty to keep a promise in a situation will be categorized as an ethical, in which a person can do it because they are convinced that it is the best thing to do or legal, where he or she fulfil the promises they have made in fear of the outcome of failure (Byrd and Hruschka, 2006, p49-50). According to Kant, a person bears a duty to talk the truth at the time of making a promise to other people and failure to fulfil them pre-exposes them to lying, which is unethical. This means that according to him, talking the truth in the context of making a promise is ethical and on the other hand, lying in the same context makes a person unethical. He argues that lying violates the duty one has on himself or herself and therefore, ethical and can only be termed legal if it violates the right of another person who is affected by the lying of the people. For this reason, people who violate the duty of keeping a promise are termed unethical and lacking in moral values, which are unspoken rules that a person holds on himself or herself. Kant discredits lying as a legal duty arguing that all the people have their freedom to say whatever they can say regardless of the different implications they have on the other people in the

BIOGRAPHY ON THOMAS JEFFERSON INCLUDE HIS WRITINGS

He wanted to be remembered for the things people owed to him. His tombstone, which he designed for himself, read, Here was buried author of declaration of American Independence, of the statute of Virginia for religious Freedom, and father of university of Virginia, Born April 2, 1743 O.S. Died July 4. 1826, (Irelan,1888). Though, historians wanted to attach other triumphs as well, such as his expertise in linguistics, his distinction as an architect and an environmentalist, but readers of his life are well concurred with his own assessment.(Risjord,1994). MAJOR IDEAS: Thomas Jefferson promoted many philosophical theories such as natural rights, constitutionalism, which automatically leads to justice and democracy. He was a person who believed in equitable distribution of land. One of the major ideas of Jefferson were emphasizing on education’s importance in democracy. He extended the structure of educational system to four stages i.e., elementary school, grammar school, universities and lifelong learning. Jefferson was always known for his huge collection of books throughout the history. When the British burned the Library of Congress during the war in 1812, Jefferson was offered $23,950 for his 6000 volume library, which he agreed upon and sold. His uncountable efforts towards the development of educational sector are commendable. In 1819, he pressurized the Virginia legislature to employ a commission for the need of a university in the state. In 1825, University of Virginia was located in Charlottesville and accepted its first set of students in the year 1826. Thomas Jefferson took great pains for the establishment of University of Virginia. He not only designed the building and the whole campus himself, but also developed the syllabus and hired competent educationist at that time. He also coined the term aristocracy of merit, which signifies the importance of certain group of people who have unique tendencies. According to this, rewards are allocated to the best or those who have talents can rule the world.(Demille, ) Unfortunately, Jefferson’s view of education was limited to the Whites of the society. He also preached about the equality among human beings although he was one of the largest slaveholder, so apparently he excluded blacks or at least his own slaves from the territory of being considered as a human (Massner, 2008) He held an opinion that the states legislature should be the most powerful area due to this he was interested in writing the constitution of the state. EARLY LIFE Albemarle County Virginia, which was then called, Shadwell, was Jefferson’s birth place. He was born on 2nd April in the year of 1743. Thomas was Peter Jefferson and Jane Rudolph’s third child and eldest of the three sons. From Peter he inherited his energetic body and a love of mathematical subjects and a mind to formulate new ways of success and independence. After Peter’s death, Thomas was left with 5 acres of land and an established position and respect in the community (Malone, 1993). Due to his father’s inclination towards education, he had an opportunity of getting an excellent tutoring. He went to boarding schools and thus, excelled in languages. He took classes in William and Mary College at the age of seventeen in Virginia, where his majors were mathematics, science, philosophy, literature, rhetoric. He went to study law when

EXPLORATION PAPER

Emmanuel Kant is arguably one of the greatest western philosophers who devised methods to evaluate the reason and functioning of morality in human mind. According to him, ‘Categorical Imperative’ which is a standard of rationality determines morality. And, hence, the violation of CI becomes irrational and thereby an immoral act. From among the lists of names that appear before a researcher’s choice for references, Emmanuel Kant is the most prolific name as he is regarded as the most admired scholar in the field of modern philosophy. The greatest name in the present day philosophy was a German, born on 22 April 1724, to live only 79 years in this world. The thinker’s life was all about searching the facts that were hidden behind the fluctuating human tendencies to react to changing circumstances and the prominence of controllable factors lying in the apparently inexplicable character demonstrations of human beings. Kant’s time was during the eighteenth century, the relevance of exploring his observations is everlasting – at least until human being stops erring, either intentionally or instinctively. The magnificent effect of his appraisal of human behavior modals and the quality of his observations relative of the thesis of his researches make him a stalwart in his field. Among all his remarkable theories, Kant’s approach on metaphysical elements of human psychology is remarkable as they deal with the reasons behind ethics in detail. According to his view (Kant Abbot, 2008, p. 15), the obedience to moral laws followed by the rather unholy human minds is derivative of the constraints set by the notion of duty vested in them. He explains that the development of a resistance mechanism incepts in the human minds against the seductions of external factors which attracts an individual to do the morally wrong things and this development obstructs him most of the time from involuntary actions by submitting to the force of moral laws. Kant’s arguments go in support with the existence of a motivation in human minds proportionate to the need for respecting moral laws. His theory on moral laws is further explained with the evidences of civic behavior of individuals to show respect to the sets of rules administered by social and legal laws. What he establishes with the philosophical views is the abstinence of an individual from a theoretically developed set of rules does not constitute respect for the code of ethics to be followed as per the guidelines of any institutional body. Kant’s view on the aspect of humility concerns on individuals as a matter of comparative elements surrounding normal social life is inspirational for the enhancement of self-esteem in order to build a stronger personality. Kant (Kant, Heath Schneewind, 1997, p. 129) argues that the usual feelings of human beings to find comparative standards among one another is insignificant of the desired levels required for developing a franchise to evaluate the real meaning of humility that is expected only to derive from the self-assessment of an individual’s distance from the actual standards he sets based on his own moral laws. The constraints set by the influence of moral laws thus are decisive of the integrity of an individual with the combination of ethics and self-esteem needs based on the ability to create choices of preferences in his social life. An empirical study of by Emmanuel Kant reviews the features of a comparative examination of both civic laws

Beautiful and the Damned Portrai on New India

Precisely, Deb argued that modernity in India is an ambiguous phenomenon—while there are obvious developments in the fields of information technology, economics, and business, majority of middle class Indians are still reduced to poverty. Indeed, the gap between the rich and the poor is widening. And this phenomenon, as Deb further pointed out, is wreaking a more profound effect on the common mindset of Indians. Capitalism and consumerism have bore a culture of pretense among Indians—of frantic and mindless pursuit of material ‘nirvana’. In this essay, we look closer at the novel and its author, and evaluate whether his thesis rings some hardcore truths not only about Indian society but modern global society in general. By revisiting Deb’s distinct writing style, as well as examining the primary flow of his narrative, we intend to gather concrete evidences that will aid in better understanding his thesis. The findings that will be obtained in this phase will be used to study his philosophy in its entirely, and judge it according to the principles of ethics and social order. Thus, we support Deb in his thesis that any economic and social development, when divorced from the basic principles of morality and ethics, or when it fails to uphold the dignity of the human person, may bring the course of human development into its unnerving downfall. Understanding the Author: Siddhartha Deb Deb’s writing style in this novel was heavily influenced by his background in broadcast journalism. Unlike past novelists like V.S. Naipul who had trouble representing the status quo of modern Indian society, Deb maintained the journalistic value of ‘upholding the truth’ in his novel. However, of course, he maintained a sense of creativity and originality in the way he told his story to the readers. In this sense, much of his reportage was done on significant areas in urban and in rural Indian society. Like a seasoned field reporter, he went to prominent I.T. service firms, to highly commercialized factories, and to villages in slum areas and those situated in far-flung mountains to give the stories of people in each location. Indeed, his narrative achieved a contemplative, rambling rhythm that absorbed his passing sights and sounds of his adventure into a quasi-anecdote. Understanding the Narrative: The Beautiful and the Damned Deb began his narrative by describing the benefits of gilded India—the beautiful people, the booming commercial industry, the culture of prosperity and affluence. In this part, Deb underscored that India’s economic ascent not only propelled the country out of poverty but also chased away the unsightly class divisions. The strength of his detailed descriptions immersed the readers in a wondrous state of approval—a technique that attacked both the readers’ logic and emotions. But Deb did not there, behind the glamour and the increasing dollar laid a bigger dilemma, that is, the development of unequal social, political, and economic conditions in India. Indeed, modernization in India has destroyed the lives of farmers, has stoked the people’s appetites for materials wealth, and has nourished the scoundrels and profiteers. The irony is clear and crisp. To further strengthen this claim, Deb mentioned that between 1995 and 2006, two hundred thousand debt-ridden farmers committed suicide, while seventy percent of the

The Presence of Lexical and Functional Categories in the Speech

It is a keystone of any philosophy that the recording atmosphere where the transcripts were taken be a place of inclusiveness—whether Carl would be Black, white, Latino, Asian, Native American, or of mixed race(s) or races not named here, and be of whatever socioeconomic status, religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, disability, or cultural affiliation—that Carl might have.An inclusive philosophy dictates that each student should have the same opportunity to be transcribed accurately. This includes being cognizant of striving against favoritism, especially based on gender or race—which might then affect how Carl would be evaluated in terms of his speaking transcripts. Carl should be given a fair chance to succeed by providing him with the language tools he needs to succeed in an environment which has typically favored the dominant culture’s hegemonic social strata. A level playing field is key.Strategies include recording the dialogue with utmost accuracy. It is important that students of various national origins and religions feel comfortable enough to express themselves within the dynamic of their own backgrounds on tape. Carl demonstrates this especially well. Especially with students who have ESL/ELL/bilingual/multilingual backgrounds, it should be ensured that the transcripts are accessible to their language capabilities by supporting their learning with extra attention in order to check for understanding so that they have good recordings.Additionally, help should be extended to children like Carl who are just in the developing stages of language learning.

The Significance of the Role of Tom Mann in Challenging Authority in Britain in 18811941

An overview of Mann’s biography exposes his access to the political field in the year 1894 when he received the secretary position in the independent labor party. Later he organized frequent meetings of his party which augmented him to the position of a very notable trade union leader. It may be because his ability to indulge in matters related to laborers many regard him as a powerful and truthful advocate in England who could attend courts for resolving labor issues.Analyzing the historical records, one can identify that Mann always liked to keep in touch with the revolutionary workers. Harry Pollitt (2006) makes it clear when he truly narrates the character of Mann. According to him, Tom Mann was proud that he was a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party. He felt that this crowned his life’s work and brought him into close contact with the revolutionary workers of the whole world. During his lifetime, Tom Mann proved himself as an efficient organizer and eloquent speaker who could attract the attention of people. One can observe that it may be his eloquence as a speaker which endeared people to him and enabled them to follow his ideas and thoughts. An overview reveals that the ideas he propounded have a vital status even in current labor issues. At the time of the labor movement, he performed as the best labor campaigner and an excellent spokesman of his time.Tom Mann’s socialist ideology can be identified when observing his views towards the First World War. Without any chance of a debate, Mann showed his opposition towards Britain’s involvement in the First World War. Tom Mann developed his philosophy through socialism and the socialist principles had a great impact all through his life. His favor to socialism is visible in his act of joining the British Socialist Party. He joined the British Socialist Party, an organization hostile to the war and in 1917 supported the Russian Revolution and suggested the creation of soviets in Britain (Spartacus Educational, n. d)

Electronic Portfolio

Generally, my education was more closely aligned to the Jeffersonian model of education as compared to others. I joined Virginia University at the age 15 years, obtaining a post-graduate four years later. Naturally, I am an analysts and bibliophile, all to which I give credit to my teachers and parents. I am strong opponent of division within the society and as such, an advocate of an equitable society. Nonetheless, I disdain ethno-racial abhorrence. My thoughts are largely influenced by Marx’s ideas. Additionally, my perceptions are inspired by a distinguished educationist, Horace Mann. I have risen across various professional levels to reach my current position. I started out as an army recruiter in 1997 after completing my degree in General Studies from Central Texas College, Grantham University. Consequently, I have risen across ranks to reach the current position, JROTC Instructor. In general, I am an accomplished professional possessing experience directing logistics, and transportation of freight for the US Army and Federal Express. Where I stand today: I believe life has given me immense opportunities to reach where I am today. I have nothing to regret about my past. Today, I am lucky to be amongst the few Indians to attend IB schools. This is a great opportunity for me. Educational/learning philosophy I believe education offers every individual a unique opportunity to explore and make use of their potential. Each person is uniquely endowed with some intrinsic potential which if well nurtured within an educational setting, can offer immense benefits to the society. An educational setting must therefore offer a secure and stimulating environment which allows emotional, physical, social and intellectual growth to the individuals. It is my belief that a good educational environment should have a guide (teacher), a curious learner (student), and more importantly, respect from both parties. Other than the aforementioned, it is my sincere belief that education is only useful if learners have the opportunity to build knowledge through a self-discovery opportunity and access to practical skills in realistic environments. Offering learners a hands-on approach and sufficient time and space to make use of their potential and knowledge gained. In essence, I hold a strong opinion that self-discovery is just as important as is the opportunity to study and implement new ideas. Such should revolve around meaningful and relevant educational experiences. In general, school act as a pillar, social institution in human life, which provides individuals with a comprehensive learning program, and trains them on the ways necessary to lead a cultured and disciplined life. Given that the educators takes learners through disciplines in formal ways and fulfills their educational necessities, it assists them get qualified and ready to participate in economy building. Professional training accumulated during my career I must say my work experience has been unique and one of its kind. Through this uniqueness, I have been able to accumulate immense professional training. I started out as an army recruiter and I must say dealing with different people from different backgrounds taught me a lot. Not only did I learn the importance of being able to accommodate and tolerate different cultures but also ways through which you can delve into these cultures and find that potential your organization really needs. Coming from the army recruiter position, I

Diane Meyers’ Feminist Perspectives on the Self

This continues to perpetuate the idea that females are somehow secondary. This has led many women to lose or never develop a sense of self identity and autonomy. Modern feminists, like Diane Meyers, feel that in order for woman to gain a proper identity, sense of self and true equality it will require complete reforming or completely inventing new philosophies with the intention of elevating not diminishing woman. History There is a distinct difference between sex and gender. Biologically speaking, sex refers to the genetic determination, sex organs, and levels of hormones. However gender is something different. People’s gender identities are not always in agreement with their sex organs. as in the case of the transgendered, for example (Gender spectrum).Western philosophy prefers to see the world in a far more black and white, hence male and female kind of world. Much of U.S. perspectives are guided by Christian ideologies that are renowned for elevating the value of men and diminishing and limiting the place of woman. Gender in modern society is a matter of learned behaviors and indoctrination to behave appropriately for their sex. This is reflected daily in the purchasing of pink clothing, baby dolls, and toy sewing machines for girls, while boys receive blue clothing, dump trucks, and play weapons. From the day you are born to the day you die social structures and gender traditions will dictate who we are and who we become based, primarily, on whether we are male or female (Dietert, and Dentice 121). Discussion Once we are ingrained with the ideas of our gender identity taught to us by others, anything that varies from that may seem wrong, freakish, and makes changing quite difficult. She identifies women can never gain a sense of self identity or autonomy in modern society as long as society is working with the principles founded on male dominant ideologies. She believes existing society is far to andocentric, or male dominant, it by nature demeans females as secondary and it works continually perpetuate make dominance and control (Meyers). For example, a recent cases involving courts giving dirty cops a free pass and refusing to prosecute and officer accused of rape. Men protecting men from accountability in the crimes against women is the truest example of male dominance. (Bennetts ) In order for woman to gain a sense of self identity, autonomy, and true equality is to restructure outdated, male dominated, and offensive concepts it will be necessary to rethink the activities of motherhood, developing ethics of care, exploring separatist practices, and re-conceptualization of the definition of autonomy. Motherhood has always been perceived by the male dominated society as actions that were biological imperatives and instinct. However, in the modern era mothers like Susan Smith and Casey Anthony are not at all women that are naturally meant to be or are capable of being good mothers. In other words, being a good mother is a moral and ethical choice that women make, which means they are capable of thinking, being moral, and ethical people. Women have been referred to as somehow morally inferior to men because they are not capable of applying morality, logic, or wisdom due to their very emotional tendencies. This, also, reflects back to Christian ideologies, Eve disobeyed God and tricked Adam into eating the apple and apparently every female,

Vulnerable Populations And Self Assessment

The Belmont report of the year 1972 defined vulnerable population as the groups that because of their availability in the areas of the researches being conducted like hospitals, institutions, camps as well as prisons might sometimes bear the burden of the research that are unequal and thus there is the requirement of extra protection for these groups. The vulnerable populations of the society are generally the weaker sections like the women, children, the poor or the elderly people along with those who are mentally incapacitated. The vulnerable groups are not able to obtain and the use the rights of the society that they are entitled to by the declaration of the constitutional rights. (Ravindran, n.d: Chatterjee and Sheoran, 2007, pp 1- 6) In the last few decades the life expectancy of the general population of the society has experienced a significance increase. In most developed and the developing countries of the world with the following trend the life expectancy is assumed to experience a general increase over 80 years. Thus the elderly populations of the society are increasing. However the fast modern lives of the working population as well as the youths the person of providing cares to these elderly population of the society are on a considerable decrease. (Amrita institute of Medical Sciences, n.d) Thus the Geriatric population of the society is the vulnerable group chosen for the study…. The likelihood of living alone of the geriatric population also experience increase with their aging. Maximum of the elderly population live in communities with only 4 to 5 percent of the population of age group more than 65 years live in nursing home or other medical institutes as studied from the geriatric population of the American society. The general support systems for this section of the society are generally their family members, friends along with neighbors. However certain other support system also exits in modern societies that are the old age homes or the elder care agencies as well as the age centers (Gleich, 2009). In fact Sperry Prosen (1996) rightly says that aging is basically a developmental course, and the elderly population would be addressed in a better way provided theorists, clinicians, and researchers develop more positive images of aging. This leads to a standard shift in our philosophy about the elderly person. to make this effective it is important to confront the myths and misconceptions we have about aging and carefully consider the ever-increasing evidence that aging is in fact a development process (Sperry Prosen, 1996, p.3). They are characterized with negative thinking, low productivity and weakened health condition. With more health care facilities and social security provided to the section of the society the population with age more than 65, living below the poverty level have declined to about 9.8 percent in the year 2004 which is expected to experience more decrease in recent future. Study reveals that 36 percent of the total health care cost of the American society is