An It Executive Is Evaluating Financing Options For A New Project That Could Significantlyincrease Company


An IT executive is evaluating financing options for a new project that could significantly

increase company

profits each year if the new project is implemented.

The cost of capital for the project is 5%

Which internal rate of return (IRR) is needed to make the project worthwhile?

– 0%

– Less than 5%

– 5%

– More than 5%


Which financing strategy involves borrowing funds that must be repaid with interest?

– Reinvesting company profits

– Issuing shares of common stock

– Leasing necessary equipment

– Issuing corporate bonds


A company needs to purchase networking equipment every month to fulfill project

hardware requirements.

Which type of financing does it need?

– Trade credit

– Accounts receivable

– Inventory

– Bank loan


What is an advantage of short-term financing?

– Restrictive loan requirements

– Increased liquidity

– Multiyear repayment terms

– Lower interest rates


A company plans to expand into new sales territories and decides to obtain a long-term


What is an advantage of long-term financing?

– Lowers leverage by paying more interest

– Increases stockholder ownership

– The interest is tax deductible

– Creditors prefer companies with lower equity levels


Sociologydig_cba45 Module 3 Theory Deviance And Society Module 3 Assessment Attempt


Sociologydig_CBA45 Module 3: Theory, Deviance, and Society Module 3 Assessment – Attempt


1. Which of the following explains why the internet is an ideal site for promoting deviant behavior? Select all that apply. Select one or more: a. It is largely unregulated b. Information is privately hosted c. It requires deviant sites be blocked by paywalls d. Information can be posted and accessed anonymously

2. According to conflict theorists, why does the digital divide exist? Select one: a. The digital divide exists primarily because of differences in infrastructure networks in the U.S. South versus the U.S. Midwest b. The digital divide exists because those who have access are those who will help further society c. The digital divide exists because of power differentials that mean the internet is not equally available to everyone d. The digital divide exists because some individuals are inherently more capable of using the internet than others

3. Which of the following explains why the internet is an ideal site for promoting deviant behavior? Select all that apply. Select one or more: a. It is largely unregulated b. Information is privately hosted c. It requires deviant sites be blocked by paywalls d. Information can be posted and accessed anonymously

4. Which of the following would a conflict theorist explain as the cause of deviance at a workplace like Select one: a. Deviant behaviors at result from social or material inequalities in the workplace b. Deviant behaviors at result from the forcing of the label deviant upon groups or individuals c. Deviant behavior at results from the role deviance plays in ultimately constructing social cohesion among the non-deviant d. Deviant behavior at results from employees internalizing management’s conception of them as deviant

5. Which of the following terms best describes the rules, norms, and values that govern the internet? Select one: a. Virtual conduct b. Netiquette

c. Social cohesion d. Virtual responsibility

6. Conflict theory is ___ Select one: a. A critique of ideological progressivism b. A critique of structural functionalism c. A complimentary theory to structural functionalism d. A complimentary theory to ideological conservatism

7. Which of the following would a conflict theorist argue about why some individuals are labeled deviant? Select one: a. Some individuals are deviant because of mental disorders b. Some individuals are labeled deviant because of the specific acts they engage in c. Some individuals are labeled deviant because they are trying to maintain social cohesion d. Some individuals are labelled deviant because those in power have the resources to define these labels

8. What was the initial reason that managers made major changes to Select one: a. Employees had begun acting deviantly, and managers decided to address this b. The company experienced an exodus of qualified individuals c. The company was bought by a foreign corporation with must stricter policies d. The industry experienced a downturn and changes were needed to survive.

9. Employees in an organization might use social networking sites or browse the internet rather than completing their tasks. This is called: Select one: a. Cyber time theft b. Cyberloafing c. Production deviance d. Property deviance

10. Something considered deviant in one society might not be deviant in another society Select one: True False

11. Which of the following reasons for deviant behavior would a conflict theorists agree with? Select one: a. Groups will act deviantly in order to ultimately pursue widely shared goals or values b. Groups will act deviantly in order to assess where the boundaries lie between acceptable and unacceptable behavior c. Groups will act deviantly in order to change their circumstances, the social structure, or react to their oppressors d. Groups will act deviantly in order to challenge the moral boundaries of society

12. Which of the following have been shaped by the internet and technology? Select one: a. Crime b. Society c. Deviance d. All of the above

13. Which of the following are associated with an Integrated Perspective theory of technology? Select one or more: a. Technology development is associated with positivist and rational systems b. Technology involves the social construction of meaning, interaction, and historical progress c. Technology involves both social and technological optimization d. Technology development often comes from soft line determinism

14. Technology can also be used to reduce instances of deviance and crime Select one: True False

15. Which of the following best describes the relationship between deviance and conflict theory? Select one: a. Conflict theory has its roots in deviance. Conflict occurs when individuals are deviant b. Deviance and conflict represent the same theoretical concept c. Deviance has roots in conflict theory. Deviance often occurs because people resist social structures that constrain them. d. Deviance has its roots in structural functionalism, which is a type of conflict theory

16. Technology has only increased crime and deviance Select one: True False

17. Businesses with high levels of deviance from employees are likely to be successful. Select one: True False

18. Which of the following best describes how cell phones have helped police officers combat crime? Select one: a. Police have implemented elaborate tracking systems of trace suspected criminals’ cell phones b. Telecommunications companies are implementing tracking devices in cell phones purchased by those with criminal records c. Cell phones make it more difficult for criminals to evade police because many criminals are not adept at using them d. Crimes are more likely to be solved when individuals with cell phones can call them in in realtime

19. Which of the following is true about deviant behavior, according to Andria Hoplight Topia? Select one: a. Deviant behavior is sporadic in nature and rather than being committed continuously is often tied to particular organizational changes b. Deviant behavior is continuous in nature and rather than being committed sporadically is often tied to organizational policy more broadly c. Deviant behavior is more likely to be committed in the context of organization’s that remain stable, changing little over time d. Deviant behavior is more likely to be committed in smaller organizations than in larger organizations

20. Which of the following are consistent with a Decision-Making theory of technology? Select all that apply. Select one or more: a. Technology development is associated with positivist and rational systems b. Technology involves the social construction of meaning, interaction, and historical progress c. Technology development results from deterministic views of engineers d. Technology involves interpretive flexibility

21. Conflict theory might best be thought of as which type of theory? Select one: a. Micro-level theory b. Meso-level c. Individual-Level theory d. Macro-level theory

22. Which of the following is a recent real-world example of a contradictory response to deviant behavior online? Select one: a. The website Twitter removed pictures of nude female celebrities but did not remove leaked e-mails from a congressman’s office b. The website Reddit chose to remove leaked e-mails from the Sony hacking incident but did not remove leaked images of nude female celebrities c. The website Facebook removed leaked images of nude female celebrities but did not remove leaked e-mails from a congressman’s office d. The website removed leaked e-mails from a congressman’s office but did not remove leaked nude pictures of female celebrities

23. Why did employees at begin to commit deviant acts? Select all that apply.Select one or more: a. After a downturn in the industry, laid off half of its employees b. implemented mandatory, non compensated overtime for many employees c. The company closed down the kitchen to save money, meaning food was no longer available for employees d. reduced employees vacation time by half

24. Which of the following are ways that employees acted deviantly? Select all that apply. Select one or more:

a. Resisting mandatory meetings b. Taking long lunches and coffee breaks c. Stealing office supplies from the company d. Circumventing building security requirements

25. Which of the following best defines cyber law? Select one: a. Specific laws relating to corporate use of the internet b. Specific laws relating to underage individuals’ use of the internet c. Specific laws relating to the internet and computer offenses, especially fraud and copyright issues d. Specific laws relating to the provision and distribution of internet services by telecommunications corporations


Negative Ramifications on Children Exposed to ITC Programs

61500 A new facet of the Internet is socialization for the new generation (Pogue, 2008). Social networking websites have become a recent fad and children especially are extremely fascinated by it. It’s a great way to keep in touch with all your friends (old and new), and other networking purposes, however, there are many ways in which they can have a negative effect on the social well being and safety of a person. In the old days, socializing meant face to face contact or phone calls with your friends. This restricted one to a set of close friends. Later, the SMS-ing phenomenon came. Ease of text messaging allowed one to keep in touch with more people. Social networking on the Internet beat them all. All your old friends from school, college, camp, and various acquaintances are present in one place and you can keep in touch with all of them. The thought does seem amazing. what’s better than to have an online community of people you wanted to be in touch with but never got the time or resources to? The Internet made it much simpler. Many people argue that replacing a real-life community with an online community is making our social skills and relationships suffer. This is an entirely different debate altogether. However, the ease of finding and making friends is posing another threat to people especially children. On these websites and chatting software, exchange of information has become very easy. Your Facebook page may include all sorts of information ranging from your date of birth to email address, phone number etc. While security settings help you hide this information from strangers or people you don’t know, many children make accounts without being knowledgeable enough about the security settings and concerns.

Facebook Useful Website For People

This research paper focuses on describing Facebook, that is the biggest social online network in the world today. Facebook is basically a website on the internet which provides social networking service to the users. The social networking service helps one to be connected with one’s friends, relatives, well-wishers and the international community of Internet users. This paper also explaines the history of launching of the college project by Mark Zuckerberg and his friends, the popularity it quickly gained and a company that was established out of it.
In this research paper the first popularity of Facebook is described as 600 million active users in 2004, these days it’s more that 1.5 billion active users per day. As a social service, Facebook is one of the most creative platforms, that uses targeting advertisement, online games, videos, suggestions which are normally based on person’s googling history, his workplace, friends and his lifestyle.
But this research paper also describes the common thoughts about Facebook, that include some disadvantages of the website. For instance, one’s virtual presence hinders one from entering the real world of social service. If one is spending more time on these types of social networking sites, there exists the high possibility for wasting time that can be used for productive purposes.
In conclusion of this paper, main opinion is suggested: Facebook is a useful social networking website because it acts the role of an innovative mode of communication in the modern world.

About privacy and confidentiality in social applications

Legal frameworks and ethical standards of various nations protect the interests of the users of social applications such as search engines and wikis in regard to their privacy and confidentiality of personal information. This includes protection of user information from unauthorized access, use or sale of confidential data by hackers. The designers and administrators of social applications are therefore mandated to ensure that private data on users is treated with utmost confidentiality. Regardless of this, the privacy and confidentiality of user information has been infringed by being exposed to unintended or unauthorized parties and used for unintended purposes by system attackers. This essay gives a critical analysis and discussion of the privacy and confidentiality of data and information within social applications including blogs, social networking applications, blogs and wikis. The paper includes a comprehensive review of literature with an aim of giving a background analysis of the research on the topic. Past literature within journals, conference and workshop papers are analyzed including the methodologies used by the investigators on confidentiality and privacy within social applications. The proposed approach for an investigation into the privacy and confidentiality of data within social applications is also presented within this essay. The paper is based on the assumption that the breach of privacy and confidentiality of users is the greatest challenge that is facing social applications.
Surveys on privacy and confidentiality within social networking applications and text chats reveal that these two aspects are considered to be an ethical standard and the recognized around which the development, maintenance and use of social applications should be based (Belanger &amp. Crossler, 2011). Qualitative studies on legal frameworks and regulations on privacy and confidentiality reveal that these aspects are considered as one of

Society Science and Technology course (STS101)

The internet has changed the way of life of Saudi nationals with the launching of social networking sites like face book, twitter, and blogs
Today media is all around, but the profound impact which the computer and internet have on Saudi population is astounding. Information technology can be seen as corner stone of current world and it has revolutionized the communicating method of Saudi nationals. Technology has reached new heights and Saudi population’s indulgence with it has given ways to explore themselves and others. In her book (Turkle 1) writes that “Technology is seductive when what it offers meets our human vulnerabilities. As it turns out we are very vulnerable indeed”. The internet has made Saudi communities to be more interactive socially culturally and economically. Today internet makes it presence in homes, workplace, and schools which enhances its usability and potentiality as a social media platform.
The social networking medium of internet like face book, twitter, and blogs has not only influenced adults but also enormously changed the way of life of youngsters. Face book, being the most popular networking site has given the population of Saudi a golden opportunity to interact with the outside world without encountering any taboos. As per (Social bakers) “ Our social networking statistics show that Facebook penetration in Saudi Arabia is 22.95% compared to the countrys population and 52.48% in relation to number of Internet users. The total number of FB users in Saudi Arabia is reaching 5906220 and grew by more than 399720 in the last 6 months”. The people of Saudi have achieved a global platform to discuss their ideas and thoughts regionally and internationally. Twitter is one social networking site which has managed to hugely awaken the spirits of Saudi Arabians. In the same manner, blogs and other opportunity to present article have made the Saudi nationals more

Business Concepts The Role of the Information Technology Department and Difference between IT System and MIS System

The first role is the provision of technical supervision in the corporation, which does not only entail the supervision of the other IT specialists but also the information systems and the communications networks. The CIO also oversees the development and execution of an excellent customer service platform relative to the organization’s practices. He/she also liaises with management teams and organizational leaders on any IT-related alterations, advances or probable approaches to enhance communication. Additionally, still under communication, the CIO maintains the corporate network infrastructure for utter connectivity and remote access. Other roles of the CIO entail participation in vendor contract negotiations, assessing and anticipating technology projects, and establishing and directing strategic and tactical objectives, initiatives and practices in the IT department. Finally, the top-level management also requires the CIO to flourish in the identification of user needs and resolution of problems.
The core roles of the Information Department, relative to the name, entail dealing with most, if not all, of the organization’s information. The first significant role entails planning, where members in the department work with the Chief Information Officer in developing an IT approach supporting the corporate culture and objectives (Linton, 2015). The planning role of the department helps in building a resilient advantage over the rest of the competitors, which they achieve through customization of software and computer systems significant in meeting the needs of other organization’s departments.
Networking is also among the roles of the department as it is the backbone of efficient communication and collaboration between departments. The IT departments operations mostly relate to the organization networks and ways of making it more efficient.&nbsp.

Data Communication and Web 2 0

Data Communication and Web 2.0 Key components of data communication Data communication basically refers to data transmission from source to destination. It has five major components, which have been summarized in figure 1 below.
Figure 1: key components of a basic data communication system (Forouzan &amp. Fegan, 2007, p. 4)
This refers to the information to be communicated from the source to the destination, and can be a picture, text, a video or an audio file.
This is the source of information and refers to an electronic device used to send the message. In most cases, devices with computing capabilities are used to accomplish this task.
It refers to the device that receives the sender’s message1.
Transmission medium
It is a channel that facilitates message transmission from the source to destination. It can be a wired channel (Ethernet cables), or wireless (radio frequencies like Bluetooth and Wi-Fi).
It comprises of rules that authoritatively control the communication between the sender and the receiver.
The overall manner that data communication is used to reduce operating costs
Companies use data communication systems to efficiently and effectively communicate with relevant parties, including customers, vendors and partners. For instance, businesses can use Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) technology to save on their international calling costs because all calls via the internet are treated as local calls, regardless of their distances (Jacobs, 2013). Besides, VOIP support video conferencing, hence firms hold meetings from their respective locations without travelling and incurring the associated costs.
The use of web 2.0 to improve business operations
To start with, web 2.0 technologies refer to the second generation World Wide Web whose focus is to enable people to share information, collaborate, and interact online. A good example of this platform is twitter.
Firms can use web 2.0 platforms to easily distribute and market their products and services, and at the same time, invite and encourage customers’ feedback and participation in their product development (McKinsey &amp. Company, 2009). This can help them enhance the quality of their products to customers’ expectations and attain a competitive advantage over their competitors.
Firms can also use web 2.0 applications to gain access to external expertise that suit their immediate needs. Take an example of LinkedIn, whereby, a firm’s manager can access a particular person’s professional profile and evaluate his/her qualifications to see whether he/she can be of any value to his/her firm.
Forouzan, B. A., &amp. Fegan, S. C. (2007). Data Communications and Networking. Miami: Huga Media.
Jacobs, G. (2013, February 15). Ways VoIP phones can help businesses reduce communication costs. Retrieved from Shoretel:
McKinsey &amp. Company. (2009). How companies are benefiting from Web 2.0: McKinsey Global Survey results. Mexico City: McKinsey &amp. Company.

Social Network Analysis

If facebook were a country, it would have been the third densely populated country in the world. Security, settings, live chats and other features are distinct of facebook, which means this site is trying regularly to improve whatever it can offer to users. Analysts say that facebook’s IT engineering is complex and an engineering marvel for other IT engineers because of its many features. This is also one of the reasons why it can provide accommodate millions of users at the same time (Dashevsky, 2014).
Facebook can be accessed through an Internet browser, like Chrome or firefox. This enables quick and easy browsing for the millions of users. Through social networking sites, users are encouraged to access the Internet twenty-four hours, seven days a week. As stated, facebook has millions of users, and so a graphical representation can be expressed in millions of users but can be simplified in the following diagram.
The graphical representation above means that any user can be “friend,” or can “chat,” contact or access to any other user. Facebook has many features for user-friendly interaction. User 1 can be accessed by as many as he/she can for as long as permitted by fellow users. the same with the rest of the users, for as long as the other users are “friends” who want to communicate with the other users. “Friends” means a user has requested other user/s that he/she be added as friend in their accounts. Facebook friends can chat, freely communicate, exchange photographs, documents, and videos, or know what the other side is doing. Group chat is also one of the features. Inside one’s account or panel are ads from businesses. Organizations and businesses can register, or possess accounts and consumers can interact with the organizations or businesses. Individuals and organizations can feature their profiles so they can communicate with the consumers or the organizations’ stakeholders.
The central figure in the website structure is the

Critically evaluate the consequences of the consumers increased expectation that news should be free for content producers advertisers and consumers

Appurtenant to the digital revolution has been the radicalisation of communication modes, with the inception of chat rooms, email, instant messaging and blogs. In turn these novel communication modes have reshaped social interaction in the contemporary social framework within the continuous movement towards global homogenous cultural paradigms and international business networks (Volmer &amp. Precourt, 2008). Indeed, Volmer and Precourt (2008) refer to the comments of a 2007 interview with Nike vice president Trevor Edwards, who commented that “gone are the days of one shoe, one advertising campaign, Now you’ve got to engage consumers on every level” (In Vomer &amp. Precourt, 2008, p.2).
A prime example of one of these levels is the immediacy of the social network Twitter, which enables instantaneous connectivity with consumers. As such, Comm et al highlight that “businesses can harness the immediacy of Twitter to innovate and build relationships like never before” (2009, p.xiv). However, whilst the social networking phenomenon clearly enables businesses a much wider level of access to potential customers. the increase in networking and peer to peer information dissemination has led to an increased expectation that news and content should be free (Shimp, 2008. Gupta, 2009). Furthermore, the increase in consumer control has led to consumers wanting more information before purchasing and the availability of free information has led to an expectation of free content (Volmer &amp. Precourt, 2008).
Accordingly, the increased consumer control and expectation of certain content being free clearly impacts the traditional method of advertising and marketing as a result of changes in consumer expectation. For example, business leader and Squidoo creator Seth Godin refers to the fact that consumers are more likely to be

“Social Networking &amp

Security: Facebook" Facebook, Youtube, Myspace, Cyworld, Twitter, Orkut etc are some of the popular social networks currently operating all over the world with the help of internet. One of the major advantages of internet related communication channels is the wide reachability. No other communication media is capable of reaching the farthest corners of the earth like the internet.
According to Shih (2009), “right this moment at least 150000000 people are interacting with friends and talking about the brands on Facebook”(Shih, 2009, p.i). Data from Forrester Research (2007) showed that “about 2/3rds of all North American youths use social networks daily, and about 1/3rd of NA adults use it at least once a month” (What makes a Successful Marketing Campaign on Social Networks? 2008). The above statistics clearly underline the value and popularity of social networks in the current world. At the same time, social networks have raised many challenges also. Like many other revolutionary products or inventions, social networks are also facing security and misuse related problems.&nbsp.
Marshable (2010) has mentioned some facts about the history of Facebook, one of the most popular social networking sites, in his article Facebook – The Complete Biography. “Facebook was founded in 2004 by a former-Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg”. He has also pointed out that “Facebook and its idea spread across the college campus within months from launching and at present, it is the second largest social networking site, second only to my space as far as traffic is concerned” (Marshable, 2010).

Analyzing a Corporate Information System

The processed information is called as Output. The output is then reviewed and processed by the appropriate members of the organisation to evaluate and refine the input. This is called feedback.
In todays environment, information and technology have become a critical component of successful businesses and organisations (Avison, 2003). Most of the organisations are now relying upon the information systems in their day-to-day operations, management decisions and other business activities.
Information technology can improve the quality of health care by providing the new ways for the patient to access the heath related information at any time and at any place. By this chapter, we are taking the first step in increasing our understanding about IT, and how IT affects the health care industry (Glickman, 2007).
IT or Information technology is basically the use of computers and software to manage information in an organization (Schneider). In some companies it is referred to as Management Information system (MIS). The basic job of any IT department in an organization is to set up systems to process information, ensure data security, create information storage and retrieval mechanism and ensure error free flow of information to the relevant stakeholders.
Early use of IT was as simple as computing the totals of the sales done by a merchant in a day. However, with growth of technology companies have been using IT more rigorously for better accuracy and speed of an activity. The growth of IT in organizations started first with the use of computers and later went on to the use of communication systems. With the growth of networking, organizations strived to implement these so as to achieve maximum efficiencies. IT today is a vehicle for making substantial changes in organizations, markets and the economy (Lucas, 2001).
The basic purpose of any organization is to either manufacture a product or to provide a service to its

The Vice Chancellor Larking University

Majority of the PCs in the college use Microsoft Operating System although some of the computers are still running on Office 97. The college has achieved a milestone in networking all the computers although not all PCs have been networked there is increasing trend of networking them. With a population of about 3000 students, the University has been thinking of providing the laptop to the student the expense of which will be reduced from their fees. There has been increased pressure to make sure that the students accept the offer of the laptops because whether they accept them or not, they will still be charged in the school fees. This has been in line with the introduction of my Course system on the university website which is used by lecturers to post notes and exercises. There has also been declining number of student who is attending lecturer since they can download everything from the internet. How can the college achieve a competitive edge through the harmonization of the usage of the internet?
The aim of the university in introducing the use of computers has been to ensure that there is an efficient delivery of services. Therefore it has come upon with a strategy of ensuring the all the administrative staff and the lectures use the same minimum IT/IS platform which is Intel PCs with 1GB memory and running XP and Office 2003. The University also aims at connecting all of them to the internet and Outlook email service. In the evaluation, this is one of the most important strategies that the university can use in order to achieve maximum use of computer technology in the university.
If the university chose to sell the existing PCs and buying new ones, then the first step would be to find a way of storing the data based on the computers and then selling all of them. Then they would come up with a procurement procedure.


The key components of this proposal include the objectives, guiding principles, methodology of implementation, a technology strategic direction, goals, objectives, and a high level schedule to direct each step in the direction of the vision. Tasks will be updated and constantly monitored to ensure progress and accountability during implementation. Technology investments will be regulated appropriately to make certain that they are on course toward the achievement of Shiv LLC’S strategic vision and goals.
Shiv LLC is a manufacturer and distributor of solar panels for the consumer market. Presently, the company is operational in three cities: Los Angeles, Dallas, and Houston. Shiv LLC intends to expand their operations rapidly due to an escalating demand for solar panels.
A devoted “cloud computing” setting shall enable Shiv LLC to merge networking and processing services in a virtual environment. Such environment shall convey a high degree of availability, business continuity, and redundancy, while simultaneously enabling roughly all information to be controlled and availed both centrally and across networks.
iv. Data, information and applications shall be accessible via the cloud network. and consequently the company shall reduce its permanent electronic and data processing servers overseas, thereby decreasing environmental impact and operational cost. The network shall be in place as an inter-branch platform.
vii. Employees shall be able to attend to tasks from their home, while travelling, or while in meetings with stakeholders. All resources they have at their desks shall be accessible to them from any part of the globe, subject to stringent security requirements and processing limitations of where they are situated and what device they are carrying.
This technology proposal shall offer a well centralized and standardized technology infrastructure and timely delivery of

Strategy and Operations

The operational level deals with production and control, inventory management, material handling, equipment maintenance policies and inspection and quality control. Tactical level deals with plant layout, structuring, equipment selections and replacement and project management. Strategic level deals with fixation of location and size of the manufacturing plants, and also deals with the structure of networking and services and developing technology supply chains (MIT Sloan School of Management, 2010).
The operations function of any company moves in the direction on what the company’s business is all about. If the organization is into a manufacturing business, then it’s an operation that produces the products. If the organization is a service provider, then operations offers the services. Operations management involves managing various segments of operations (Krannert School of Management, 2010).
The operational management provides the manager with the tools and techniques in performing the operational, tactical and strategic levels of operations in the organization that produces goods and services.
Operations management is a vital part of business that deals with the production of goods and services and engages the accountability of certifying the business operations that are effective and efficient. It is the management of resources and the allocation of merchandise and services to consumers (Technology for Future, 2010).
This process is popularly used in garages, service shops, furniture restorer, printers that produce tickets for the local social event and includes numerous precision engineers such as specialist tool makers (Slack &amp. Et. Al., 2010).
In this process identical units are produced in a group called as batches. The units in one batch may differ significantly with the other batch. Each batch is different from other as the designs are different (Caplan, n.d.).
This process is

Achieving and Sustaining Growth at Lenovo

The Company has ranked behind only two companies – Hewlett Packard and Dell in profitability for 2006. However, customer perception of the Company does not appear good on certain issues such as installation, after sales service and availability of credit, based on a survey conducted as a part of this research effort. Lenovo must improve on these aspects, as well as build upon its success factors in order to sustain its current levels of growth.
Japan, the United States and Europe represented the majority of global production and sales of computers and related products during the 2000s. One division of the computer industry is Personal Computers – which are systems with inbred processing facilities embedded in one silicon chip, and these computers are primarily intended for single users. Personal computers first appeared in the 1970s with Apple II being introduced in 1977. IBM PCs became competitive in 1981. (Snapshot). The two major types of personal Computers are PC and Macs, which are Personal Computers manufactured by the Apple Company.
In the computer industry, Japan and the United States were the largest supercomputer manufacturers. Mainframe sales dropped in the 1980s and 1990s due to the development of client/server technology, with mid-range systems developing in the 1990s. With increasing sales, IBM and Hewlett Packard emerged as the major players and Hewlett Packard’s partnership with Intel has facilitated its growth in the marketplace (Snapshot).
With an increase in globalization, smaller, cheaper, standardized systems like PCs have been gaining popularity. In an effort to improve sales volumes and reduce costs, PC companies have been entering into networking arrangements with other companies to share research and development costs. One example is that of Microsoft and Intel that worked together to develop the Net-PC and NEC’s PC operations with Packard Bell, forming a new venture known as Packard Bell-NEC (Snapshot).&nbsp.&nbsp.

Security project planning

Bull Eye Model Bull Eye Model Affiliation In the past few years, we have seen massive developments and advancements in every area of information technology. Though these advancements of technology have brought a large number of advantages and opportunities for the business organizations as well as individuals however at the same time there have emerged serious security challenges. In this scenario, information security is process of developing and putting into practice security measures in an attempt to secure information and data. In addition, a business organization can also use a bull eye model in order to analyze the information security plan as well as its existing situation of the information security attempts with respect to a number of stages presented in the bull eye model. Basically, the bull eye model allows project teams especially the project planners to find out the status of their progress with respect to their information security efforts. It tells them in which areas they need to pay more attention and expand their information security efforts and potential. Additionally, the bull eye model depends on a process of determining the project plans in a series in the context of four layers, which include policies, networks, systems, and applications. These layers are illustrated in figure1. The figure1 shows how these layers are connected with each other (CQUniversity, 2009. Joshi, 2013).
Figure 1Bull Eye model, Image Source: (Joshi, 2013)
Bull’s eye model is based on four layers which are as follows (CQUniversity, 2009. Joshi, 2013):
Policies: This is the most outer layer in the bull’s-eye diagram. Basically, these policies are defined for all the other layers such as systems and applications installed on systems.
Networks: This layer deal with the threats from public networks that get together the company’s networking infrastructure.
Systems: This layer deals with all kinds of systems that can be used by the people. In this scenario, these systems can comprise computers used as servers, systems employed for process control and manufacturing systems and desktop computers.
Applications: These applications can comprise all the software applications installed on systems
In addition, the bull’s eye model can be utilized to assess the series of actions that need to be performed to put together elements of the information security plan into a project plan. There is a close relationship between all the layers and these layers can be associated with each other in the following ways (CQUniversity, 2009. Joshi, 2013):
Until an organization does not develop, communicate and implement an effective and useable information technology and information security policy, it should not spend further resources on additional controls.
Until an organization does not control and implement an effective network it must spend all resources to attain that goal.
Once an organization implements a policy and network controls, its deployment should concentrate on the process, information, and manufacturing systems of the firm.
Once it is ensured that there is an effective policy is prepared, systems are safe, networks are secure, an organization should pay attention to the evaluation and cure of the security of the firm’s applications installed on systems (CQUniversity, 2009. Joshi, 2013).
CQUniversity. (2009). COIT 13211 Information Security – Module 10. Retrieved June 20, 2013, from
Joshi, J. B. (2013). Information Security. Retrieved June 22, 2013, from

Action #3

Action Assignment #3 Send a letter/formal email to someone who has greatly impacted your life. Tell me about the nature of the relationship you have with this person and the form of correspondence you chose for the delivery. Include a segment of the text of the letter within this assignment.
Dear Father,
I hope you have been doing well. How is your health? I am enjoying my time here in the United States and everything is going on well. I cannot complain.
Father, I wanted you to know how much I appreciate you for everything that you have done for me. I know it was a struggle in the beginning to make it happen but it all became a reality. That is a sacrifice that I know I cannot give fully but I can at least give something back to you one day.
I appreciate the support and encouragement that you have given and shown to me throughout my studies and I am truly grateful for that. The University here is great and I am learning a great deal in my classes. Thank you for always being there for me, and I promise to do my best to make my life better and also help you back at home. That is what I pray for and i will make it happen for us. My regards to you father.
2. As a leader, what would it feel like to receive a letter like this from someone you have impacted? Why do you think it is important to share these kinds of words through written communication?
As a leader, if I was to receive this kind of letter I would be privileged and thankful to know that I helped someone to a point where they could be able to help themselves. I would be privileged to have impacted someone in their lives and to see them progress well.
Written communication is important because it has a touching and lasting impact for both parties. Written communication tends to be a primary source that someone can use to speak what is deeply rooted in their heart. It exposes what we feel to the receiving party.
From a professional perspective, written communication acts as a reference for the future. It also shows professionalism in the subject matter.
3. Create a concise (200-300 words) elevator/introduction statement that you can utilize in a variety of leadership situations (networking, interviews, etc.). Make sure to personalize your statement so that you connect most effectively with the individual you are networking with during that time. Remember, your elevator statement is a representation of your professional presence and "brand."

My name is Mram. I have a Bachelor of Arts degree in psychology. I have worked in an administrative position at the New Horizons educational institution. This position motivated me to want and accept a scholarship to study for my master’s degree in leadership at the University in the United States.
During my work period at New Horizon’s educational institution, I managed to gain a lot of hands on experience and practical leadership skills that improved my administrative leadership gear. At the same point in time I also managed to work extra hours just to ensure that my work outcome was top level with the stated organizational policies.
Regardless of all this involvement at the institution, I still had time for myself to improve on my people skills that have helped me communicate better with my colleagues.
I know and firmly believe that my study skills and experiences in my previous work environment have sharpened and prepared me and they will certainly catapult me to achieve my ultimate goal in the future of becoming the Director of Schools.
Finally, I am planning to make an impact in the institution that I will be a part of with the leadership and communication skills that I have gained in my previous experience. I have the motivation, potential and positive insight to make it work. All I need is a chance to prove my worth.

Looking for a Position in IT Field in a Dynamic Working Environment

Good at generic, common Office software applications (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access)
Good at basic computer Hardware and software skills.
English and Arabic Keyboarding: Typing speed in both: 35WPM
Punctual, loyal, trustworthy, Independent, and reliable.
Very ambitious and work hard to attain my goals.
Very good operating knowledge of Windows 95/98/2000/XP
Very good with Microsoft Office 97/2000/2003/2007/ XP
Extremely fast learner and grasp concepts immediately
Extremely adept at organizing and keeping tasks/logs/daily performance results.
Understand how systems work and how to improve and fix them
Professional Accomplishments
PC Support
Responsible for troubleshooting problems (hardware, software, network, etc)
Configuration of PCs, Servers, Scanners, LaserJet, Epson printers, Xerox printers.
Responsible for system support
Provide Remote Desktop support for outside branches.
Provide Zayed Port software support.
Taking care of shifting departments and offices from A to Z with troubleshooting any failures.
Help Desk Analyst
Responsible for answering calls from Zayed Port employees and solve their problems by accessing their PCs remotely using LANDesk, Configuration Manager Consol software or by guiding them step by step what to do to solve the problem If it’s not accessed remotely.
Good knowledge of the administrators works using Active Directory© (Creating new users on the domain, giving access to certain servers &amp. give user rights, privileges depending on each employee’s work &amp. create groups to join users to it).
I am a 24-hour call to troubleshoot any PC, network and server failures.
Familiar with Routers system (installation and troubleshooting in case of any hardware problem and simple faults of the software).
Exchange 2003 with Windows Server 2003 Active Directory
Network Support
Responsible for patching network cables from the floor box to the PC and from the patch panel to the switch in the communication cabinet, with testing the connection and troubleshoot problems happened because of network failure. Did an excellent job offering system support.
Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), Internet test score 105
International English Language Testing System (IELTS band 4.5)
International Computer Driving License (ICDL) Certification
CCNA 1, 2 Networking, Router, and Routing Basics
Mar 2001 – to present Zayed Port, Abu Dhabi, UAE
Arabic: Excellent, Mother Tongue.
English: V. Good

Social Networking Sites

Social Networking Sites – A Part of Our Daily Habit
Social networking sites have become a part of our daily habit. It becomes automatic for us to log-in every chance that we get to get connected to the worldwide web and to the member’s of our social network. It has turned into a one-stop communicating device that has diversified the way we communicate. Just when we thought cellular phones and texting was innovative, the advent of social networking sites to develop into multi-faceted websites that transcend the way we use the internet. None of these sites can boast more of this than the ever so popular It has developed into the most popular social networking site and has trampled and, its previously leading and seemingly impenetrable reputation for its precedent in the arena.
Facebook has transformed our internet usage and has made it almost impossible to log out. From a small college networking site developed by Harvard dropout Mark Zuckerberg, the multi-billion dollars worth company is continuously gaining momentum. The similarity between Zuckerberg and Microsoft head honcho Bill Gates makes for an interesting side note. And when software marketing giant Microsoft bought a mere 1.6% of Facebook, speculations ignited like wildfire. Already with its worth projected at billions but to no avail anything close to that of, the comparatively fledgling dot com has exploded in terms of its marketing side and money continued to pour in. With everything paying off, it seems that sky is the limit for this company (Hamilton, par. 3).
The undoable edge of Facebook is its integration of almost everything that you could want in a website and more. CEO Mark Zuckerberg counts on the influence of friends in the way that people make their decisions. It has incorporated the inclusion of enabling users to publish the most mundane facts and tidbits of their lives to the most significant in just seconds and with the simple clicking of a button. At no other point in our life have we become more aware of the activities of our friends than today. Commenting on their posts has also become so much easier and at no extra expense. Even the more seemingly irrelevant actions that include virtually ‘poking’ a friend, sending a ‘Starbucks drink,’ a ‘flower’ etc. all became possible through Facebook. It may not make sense but it cannot be denied that just the thought itself signified that the person cared enough to bother with it no matter how trivial the act seemed or whether or not it even made sense to us.
Of course we may have preferred it if there was an actual coffee that you could have shared with your friend but when the moment comes that the two of you had the time to meet face to face, it becomes apparent that there would be more things that you could talk about because you have been constantly bombarded and intrigued by the information they themselves have shared. Face time doesn’t necessarily need to be avoided but can be enhanced through your activities in Facebook. Even games become a matter of socializing and gauge your connectivity including your friend’s willingness to accept invitations and include you in his ‘neighbors’ list including helping you out with your task and giving you gifts and all the other activities you can each do for each other in games such as ‘Mafia Wars, ‘Café World,’ ‘Pet Society,’ ‘Farmville’ and so many other role playing games made available by the website. Not to mention other arcade games such as online ‘Poker,’ ‘Scrabble’ and even classic games like ‘Super Mario’ and ‘Pac Man.’
Getting connected has progressed into a state where it has become imperative to ensure that one is still ‘on the loop’ as a manner of saying. What’s even more interesting is that more and more people on the age group of 25 and above are joining the website (Davis, par.2). This proves that it is more than just a trend that the younger age groups, most especially the teenagers, as the most valid reason for its popularity. This goes to show that the social networking site was able catch the attention of a wider variety in members. So the rants that we may read are not only regarding school or teachers but also of bosses and company policies. Even the posting of relationship status becomes a thing of interest to people. With the selections to choose from that includes single, married, engaged, in a relationship, it’s complicated and even opting not to indicate it, this becomes a matter of scrutiny and gossip.
There is no doubt that Facebook has changed the way we communicate. It is more than just a choice it is an imperative, unless you want to be regarded as living under a rock. With the means of communication that we currently have, one can only presume what could be the next. But as it is that there had been those that preceded Facebook, no one can guarantee that the site will reign forever and with that perception, what could be next and how tremendous could the innovation be to create the migration of internet traffic. Suffice to say that the changes brought to our life have become tremendous. With the younger generations growing into the social networking phenomenon, more and more advancements are sure to be generated. For the mean time, we are more than content and even awestruck by what Facebook has brought into our lives and how it augmented internet consumption.

Davis, Lisa Selin. "Does Facebook Replace Face Time or Enhance It?" 18 January 2009. Time Magazine. 4 June 2010 .
Hamilton, Anita. "Is Facebook Overrated?" 27 November 2007. Time Magazine. 4 June 2010 .

What Effects Has Social Networking Had on Our Society

A man has always been a social animal and the oldest example for man to have company and live with someone goes back to the creation of Adam and Eve. This was the first example that man could not exist alone and needs some sort of recognition and contact with peers and members of his group. Although the concept of social networking is commonly understood by millions we will briefly discuss it as a refresher.
“Social networking is the grouping of individuals into specific groups, like small rural communities or a neighborhood subdivision, if you will This is a very general definition but covers the main idea of this term. Around us, we find many groups and different social activities that take place in form of college students, co-workers, friends, and even our families. These groups are also segregated by age and interests like sports or gaming etc. In recent years the internet has brought people from different walks of life together so that they can discuss and share their views and emotions on all kind of subject areas like professional alliances, gardening, golfing and&nbsp.developing friendships. As the recent concept of ‘online social networking’, the commonly used medium is websites. They are also known as “social sites”. They mainly function as a community of people who use the internet. Although they share topics and provide online interactions amongst people of different ages they do have some issues and threats associated with them. One of the most common threats of these networking sites is theft of data and the viruses that may be spread through their usage. The most prevalent danger though often involves online predators or individuals who claim to be someone that they are not. Nonetheless, people have various options and controls through which they can keep themselves safe from these threats. It has become such a common practice that someone who may not have an account on such a social network site is considered an ‘outcast’ of sorts.&nbsp.&nbsp.

The Role of Teamwork

The Value Of Teams The Value Of Teams I am currently managing a warehouse and I am working in a team that is recognized as a functional team. Functional teams are those teams in which there is a manager and the manager has several delegates who are assigned with the responsibility of carrying out a particular organization’s function (Pride, 2012, p.296). In my case my team comprises of me as a manager and subordinates who are responsible of managing the warehouse of the organization in which I work. We are assigned with the duty of ensuring that the stocks of the organization are up-to-date and are available at the right time at the right place.
2. There is a huge difference while team communication takes place compared to communication that takes place one-to-one. In team communication a single message has to be interpreted by more than one individual while in one-to-one communication there is only one receiver of the message. The sender of the message in team communication needs to ensure that his/her message is understood by all and in one-to-one communication the sender has to only ensure that the message is understood by one individual. In case of team based communication a message may not be directly communicated to the receiver and in one-to-one communication mostly face-to-face communication takes place.
3. One of the main benefit of team work is that division of labor takes place and parts of a task is divided amongst those who can complete that part in the best possible manner. Due to this there are lesser chances of wastage and mistake. Secondly, in team work different members come up with different ways of performing a task which help in identifying new and improved methods of accomplishing tasks. The disadvantage of team work is that conflict may arise between people from different groups and subgroups may be formed within the team that may indulge in negative political behavior.
4. The first stage of team development is forming stage in which team members are brought together but are not well acquainted with each other and do not have any idea about their tasks and roles. The second stage is storming stage in which there is immense conflict between team members and they tend to gain authority and challenge the authority of the team leader. The third stage is norming stage in which team members accept each other and even accepts the authority of the leader and in this stage their roles become clearer. The last stage is performing stage in which team members become focused on their roles and work towards the achievement of the team’s goal.
5. There are various skills that are useful for becoming a successful team leader and team member. One of these skills is communication skills which will help me as a warehouse manager in communicating the vision and objectives of the organization to the team members. Another necessary skill is the technical skill which will allow me to guide my team members when they face difficulty in doing their jobs. The third important skill is the interpersonal skill which will help me in resolving conflict and help me in understanding team members in a better manner.
6. Virtual teams are those teams in which the members of the teams do not work from a specific setting and are connected with each other through means of networking such as internet and telephone. In virtual teams, the team members are located in distinct areas and work from different areas at different points in time. While in conventional teams team members work in the same setting and work at the same time with each other. For example: people working as a virtual team may located in different parts of the globe and they may be working in different time zones.
Pride, W., Hughes, R., &amp. Kapoor, J. (2012).&nbsp.Business&nbsp.(1st ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

The Virtual Community by Rheingold

There are many examples of virtual communities that serve different purposes and target different segments. For instance, for independent contractors and consultants, is a key example of a virtual community that can be utilized to assist a distributed workforce. This community provides discussion platforms, online training, and other resource areas for assistance. Moreover, another example of a virtual community is, which specifically caters to African American society. It allows the Black minority to interact, by offering email, free personal pages, chat rooms, forums, news, instant messaging, and Internet telephony, as well as online events and special promotions. Furthermore, this community features online channels that cover a variety of topics, like career, health, money, politics, news, music, beauty, love, sex, and spirituality, etc.. it also has a ‘Black Expressions’ book club (McKay 2000, p.157).
Virtual communities go far and beyond to cover all segments, for example, for gaming and play station lovers, Sony’s Play Station Network (PSN) is a primary example, which keeps the players stay connected through online multiplayer games, tournaments, and competitions, PlayStation Store, and forums where users can create and share content with other members of the PSN. Users can even share text as well as audio and video messages with friends and family. This community also allows members to enjoy downloads on PlayStation Portable (PSP) and PlayStation 3 (PS3). Moreover, the network conducts different events, general discussions, and forum games, as well as music, videos, photos, comics, and network technical solutions, etc. (PlayStation Network Explained, 2010).
Virtual communities, besides serving other groups of people, do not miss out on kids’ interests. is an example of a virtual community for kids, where kids can make friends, play games, win prizes, design a home, shop, surf, and learn a lot. Kids can participate in discussion forums, post polls, share pictures and do a lot of stuff. Besides this, there are also health-related virtual communities. an example is the Le Club, which is a virtual community for women of all ages and backgrounds, focusing on their health and fitness. Members can participate in discussions, share personal stories, and seek health advice, etc. (, 2010).
Other social networking communities include Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter, which are the most common virtual communities at present.


This trend first came forth during the 1990s, when companies were trying to outsource non-core business tasks to specialist firms that cost less, which meant giving out a lot of information to smaller groups of contractors in different parts of the globe. It was like inviting outsiders into their company to help in finding innovations and solutions to current problems. This was a great fundamental change that spread among all companies, a business breakthrough made possible by Wikis. The Wiki platform has been one of the widely used Web 2.0 technologies. Wikis are web-based software that allow Internet users to edit data and other material (e.g. Wikipedia). So, the business model was named Wikinomics (Dawe, 2009).
According to Don Tapscott, an expert on business-strategy and a co-author of Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything, companies have realized that they have to connect to their customers and listen to what ideas they can offer. It means that companies have to interact with the outside world and gather ideas from the outside to use for new products or product improvement. This business breakthrough positions companies who are already using it in their strategies to face today’s changing economy with ease and gear themselves towards success (Dawe, 2009). With the time’s fast-paced global marketplace, successful collaboration is the answer to achieving a competitive advantage in the business field, and Cisco has through forward regarding mass collaboration.
Cisco is known to be the worldwide networking leader that changes the way people connect, communicate and collaborate with each other. It is a multinational corporation headquartered in San Jose, California. It manufactures switches, routers, and other networking and communications hardware both for business and home usage (St. James Press, 2000).
Cisco Systems was founded in 1984 by Len Bosack, Sandy Lerner, and Richard Trojano in

Operating System in Digital Machines

At the foundation of all system software, the operating system performs basic tasks such as controlling and allocating memory, prioritizing system requests, controlling input and output devices, facilitating networking, and managing files. It also may provide a graphical user interface for higher-level functions. For larger systems, an operating system has greater responsibilities and powers. In that case, it behaves like a traffic cop. the operating system makes sure that different programs and users running at the same time do not interface with each other. An operating system is also responsible for security, ensuring that unauthorized users do not access the system. Operating systems typically have four major components: process management, Input/Output (I/O) device management, memory management, and file management. Various services performed by the operating systems in any computer (digital machine) are. process management, memory, management, disk and file systems, networking, security (internal and external), graphical user interfaces and device drivers.
Basically operating systems performed two types of roles in a digital machine. provide standard library (abstract resources of computer system) and resource coordinator (manager). The first things come here what is a resource. it is anything that is valuable to a system such as CPU, memory, disk, etc. The advantages of the standard library are. allow applications to reuse common facilities. make different devices look the same. and provide higher-level abstraction. As a resource coordinator operating systems provide the following advantages. Virtualizes resources so multiple users or applications can share, Protect applications from one another and Provide efficient and fair access to resources. Below is the roles of the operating system is discussed as an extended machine and a resource manager.

Effects of the Social Networking on the Web

The history of social network communication can be traced back to the periods when people made friends in the past few years through the making of pen pals whereby these people would maintain long term and long-distance relationships without actually having seen each other.
The recent developments in the online social network domain have created more room for the development of the capacity to communicate more easily with families and friends in far off distances and in different geographical locations on the earth’s surface. Despite all seeming advantages that have come with the use of social networks, recent researches in the domain show that the system has had negative challenges alongside the positive effects on the way people interact and relate with each other.&nbsp.
On a positive note, the network domain has made communication between various people in different regions of the world more effective and efficient. This has been made possible by the use of emails where people can send and receive mails online, besides, the mails can be sent using either a computer connected to the internet or just an intranet, mobile telephones, fax machines among others. Compared to the past, the use of internet sources to communicate among various people around the world has proved to be cheaper and reliable. It takes less than a minute to send an email, a short text on the phone or to fax somebody who is very far away from the other.
Beer argues that in the olden days before the invention of networking, sending and receiving simple messages was a rather hard task to complete especially when the distances involved were great. The messengers would take a number of days or even months to reach their destinations a factor that could lead to the loss or distortion of the messages before they reached the intended recipients. This problem has been solved by the oncoming of the networking process.

Social Networking

Social networking can be termed as an act of getting connected to and participating in a network of users connected virtually via a network.&nbsp.
Advantages of Social Networking:
Keeps individuals up-to-date with the latest happenings throughout the world.
Enables the spreading of information at incredibly fast speeds.
Enables users to get connected free of cost and in real-time environment irrespective of their physical locations.
Enables sharing of thoughts and ideas with individuals all over the world without having to get mobile physically.
Enables you to disguise yourself if you are concerned about your personal identity being revealed to external individuals.
It is addictive. Gets you glued to all the status updates of your friends without having the realization of the passing time and other valued tasks.
Lack of Anonymity. Youngsters who constitute the major part of the social networking users often get harassed as they share their personal data with unknown users online.
Effects of social networking on the society can well be quoted in the following words of Voytovich (n.d.):
Communication with anyone and anywhere in a much more timely fashion
Meet new people, make new friends
Join groups of the same interest
Increase of knowledge from communicating with other people
Builds self-esteem
The way for disabled to communicate
Purposeful loss of privacy
Very small control over information flow that may affect your privacy
The ability for someone to use the information about you that may have an effect on you
Increased movement of social interactions from the physical domain to the digital domain
Unprotected communication which may harm individuals” (Voytovich, n.d.)
The reference to the case:
The most interesting part of the case under consideration is that it is the latest cyber crime. A woman has been sentenced to two years in prison for selling counterfeit software. The software had a retail value of over $2 Million. It was sold by the fraudulent lady for more than $400,000. She would be subjected to three years of supervised freedom once her sentence of prison is over.
The case is interesting because it enlightens the steps being taken to safeguard intellectual property by the U.S. Government. In my opinion, it was a serious crime because it involved the stake of various software giants like Microsoft, Adobe, Intuit, Symantec etc. Any pardoning in such a case could’ve led to various subsequent similar attempts.

Process of (research) investigation of geodetic Engineering for the designing of high speed (train) main railway line

Geodetic Engineering for the Design of High Speed Train Geodetic Engineering for the Design of a High Speed Train To makea remarkable improvement in the transport sector, there is a need to keep networking places. This is to improve the movement from one place to another and make transport even cheaper. Since the world has been concentrating on construction of roads in most of their economic activities, reverting to construction of railway lines would be an improvement to the transport system (Fischinger, 2000). In most of the developed countries, many people have reverted to using rail as a form of transport. This is due to the development of the networking in these countries, especially in relation to railway transport. In many instances, high speed trains reconsidered cost effective as compared to road transport. This is partially due to the volume of the train, which carries a large number of people at a time. Similarly, trains do not encounter traffic as they have exceptional rail lines. Therefore, use of geodetic railway constitution is a positive approach towards improvement of the railway connection (Torge, 2001). Banking on this system would improve the railway transport to a high notch.
In making this a reality, transport engineers have to embark on various activities that are geared towards establishment of an affordable transport system. First, they have to engineer tracks, where the transport system will be based. These tracks are made through all the basic terminals. The issue of making terminals is to ease movement of the people from one place to another. Apparently, terminals are the places where people wait to board the transport system. Therefore, terminals that are centrally placed make it easier to access the transport system. This is followed by analyzing and designing all the models that are required in the transport system. This includes land, air and sea. This will ensure the transport system is not affected by these natural features. For instance, some railway tracks are drilled through mountains, tunnels and rocks (Sansò, 2006). This is an involving task which requires highly credentialed engineers. Therefore, engineers have to plan, design, and manage and operate the railway system at high standards while offering top notch services.
Geodetic engineers have a task in using technology to make an improvement in the railway system. They use various technologies to measure and develop inventory research on land and other resources to ensure each is not affected while constructing rails. However, many of these factors were not considered during the construction of railway lines. As such, many issues were cropping up as most of the tracks were not following the stipulated guidelines. To reduce the occurrence of such incidences, the European Terrestrial System stipulated guidelines, which should be used in railway construction. This was an approach that would give fresh rules that would improve the construction of railway lines. The specified requirements were elaborate and straight to the point, giving open views on railway construction (Woldman and Frick, 2000). The coordination of these guidelines was the way forward as it would improve the construction of railway lines, to last for a longer time. Similarly, the guidelines would ensure the rail lines would be used for a long time.
The European Terrestrial Reference System (ETRF 89) stated the various procedures that should be used in railway construction. First, they embarked on data structure, which was the initial part of the project. The data structure explained all the requirements that would be used in railway construction. The data structure included feasibility studies, research and gathered information about railway construction. Secondly, there was the standard interface. This meant that geodetic construction of rails would be graded to ensure the standards are met (Seeber, 2003). For instance, the distance between the two rail lines should be standardized in all the tracks. This would make it easier to construct rail lines throughout the intended area.
Fischinger, M. (2000). Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering on the doorstep of the millennium: on the occasion of its 80th anniversary. Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, 2000.
Sansò, F., &amp. Gil A. J. (2006). Geodetic Deformation Monitoring: From Geophysical to Engineering Roles : IAG Symposium Jae ́n, Spain, March 17-19 2005. Volume 131 of International Association of Geodesy Symposia. New York: Springer.
Seeber, G. (2003). Satellite Geodesy. London: Walter de Gruyter,
Torge, W. (2001). Geodesy. London: Walter de Gruyter.
Woldman, E. N., &amp., Frick J.P. (2000). Woldmans Engineering Alloys Materials data series. London: ASM International, 2000.

Dangers for a Society Depending on Computer Screens for Communication Rather Than FacetoFace Communication

Dangers for a Society Depending on Computer Screens for Communication Rather Than Face-to-Face Communication
Computer is considered as the most amazing invention of 20th century. With the passage of time, further innovations were made in the use of this technology, for example, internet, chatting on live messengers, use of web cameras and social networking sites. This all technological advancement brought about rapid changes in human life. With this technology, one can interact with thousands of people and share whatever he likes with a faster pace. Putting aside all the marvels of technology, it has also done a lot of damage to human life style. Lacking physical activities, laziness, obesity, reduction in social gatherings are the few setbacks given by this technology.
Introduction of Internet technology did miracles in enhancing the communication technology worldwide. There are various modes of communication that internet has allowed to its users such as usage of chat rooms, messengers, social networking websites e-mail accounts and much more. Now people can interact with one another much easily as compared to previous times. However, these modes of communication have created a problem that is, people like to interact with one another only through computer screens and face-to-face communication has decreased extensively due to which, the society has to face some social problems.
Tamyra Pierce (2009) in the article, “Social Anxiety and Technology: Face-to-face Communication versus Technological Communication among Teens” informs that there is social change in people’s correspondence with another. The teenagers regard interacting and communicating through computerized resources as much convenient and effective as compared to face-to-face communication. Due to this consideration, people are moving away from social gatherings and are becoming lazy. They are making themselves to lead a machine like life, which is really problematic for the development of society.
Due to communicating through computer screens in place of face-to-face communication, the physical activities of people are also reduced. This is a major social concern. Tanson (2003) informs that lack of physical activities because of internet usage causes obesity in adolescent people. People consider their computerized communication with one another as enough and try to stick to their computers in place of going out and meeting people in person. The outdoor activities are decreased due to which, the whole society is affected negatively. The use of internet for communication makes one socially deprived as due to internet usage extensively, only online communication is left and no face-to-face communication is possible. As a result, people face problems of isolation and loneliness that are a major concern for the society.
Overall, it can be said that at one hand, communication through technology has eased the life but on the other hand, it has deprived people of their outdoor activities. Reduction in social gatherings, laziness, obesity, lack in outdoor and physical activities and social deprivation are some of the dangers that can be there because of extensive communication through computer screens rather than face-to-face communication.
Works Cited
Pierce, Tamyra. Social anxiety and technology: Face-to-face communication versus technological communication among teens. Computers in Human Behavior 25 (6) (2009): 1367-1372.
Tanson, Wendy. Adolescent obesity largely caused& lack of physical activity, study finds. UNC School of Public Health, 2003. Accessed on 4th March 2010 from

Capstone Business Project

Interactive webinars and workshops would be invaluable. Thirdly, business networking would see the company targeting at least 25 percent of the market share. Furthermore, branding the company would turn the fortunes. Fourthly, through a strong recruiting process, the company aims at tapping experience marketing professional to add to the talent pool for the steady growth of the company. Finally, the company aims at quality sales through defining the target market.
To achieve these objectives, the company would draft a strategic plan. Understanding the market and potential opportunities would be analyzed using the SWOT analysis—S (strength), W (weakness), O (opportunities), T (threats). Besides, the goal-setting theory is invaluable. It defines the outcomes of a project through goals, effort, persistence, and cognition. Additionally, the company would invest in human resource strategy through having the right people in place, the right conglomeration of skills, right attitude and behavior by the employees and developing employees in the most productive way. Nonetheless, capital is an important factor in the success of any business. As Walker and Brown (2004) observe, through proper financial planning, financial lifestyle can be used to assess success of a business.
Walker, E., &amp. Brown, A. (2004 ). What Success Factors are Important to Small Business Owners? International Small Business Journal, 22 (6). 577-594. DOI: 10.1177/0266242604047411.

Do Ads Work on Social Networks

Many social media analysts say that even if the brand is not online, it will still be discussed there by the consumers. One popular example is about a video on YouTube by Dave Carroll about his eight-month struggle to get compensation from United Airlines for a damaged guitar. The video was viewed by 6.6 million people and it became a Public relations nightmare for the company as it reached the news on television as well.
The companies have now realized the need to change the conventional ways of pushing ads to consumers. Consumers are no more interested in seeing your ads. They would rather enjoy if they can interact with your brand.
Southwest Airlines, announced a 2-day fare sale through twitter last July instead of taking the paid-advertising route. This resulted in two days that generated the highest traffic to the airline’s website and two days which had the highest revenue in the airline industry.
While the article talks about some airlines that are actively engaging their customers on social media, there are many that think they don’t need it or do not find the time to do so.
(Unnikrishnan &amp. Robert, 2010)
There are a lot of ways through which you can use social media to advertise your brand. Some do it subtly by adding their banner ads to their websites or blogs, some engage the users in interactive discussions on their fan pages, while some upload their ads on YouTube for consumers to watch, some post viral videos and blogs over the internet. Andrea Ahles in her article ‘In the airline industry, social media marketing takes flight’ writes that companies are starting to move beyond open social-networking sites like Facebook or Twitter and creating their own brand communities. This gives them a chance to connect with their consumers directly and they advertise freely through their website. Miyuru, a social media consultant for airlines says that it is very important for airlines to market online. The customers are online most of the time, be it from their computers or mobiles.

Business Bazaar Proposal by Alfaraj Company

The event is titled “An Investor-Consumers Forum for a Cancer-free Abu Dhabi’’ and will be hosted in Zayeed cricket stadium in Abu Dhabi owing to its large parking area on the west and east side of the stadium and athletic lane. The event is supposed to portray Abu Dhabi especially, a western region as an investment hub while increasing awareness about breast cancer by running for cancer awareness.
The previous year’s occasion for Abu Dhabi Investor Consumers Forum/Exhibition drew in more than 500 investors both internationally and locally. The event was welcomed by the stakeholders and the sponsors which included the Fairmont Hotel, and Abu Dhabi distribution company (ADDC). Marketing of the event was done as an exhibition for entrepreneurial abilities and a forum for networking professionals, businesspersons and consumers alike. The event yielded much income from the purchase of wares by attendees.
We, therefore, extend our special invitation to Baynounah Institute to be the exclusive sponsor of this year’s event that will include women marathon to increase cancer awareness. It will represent a free investment workshop and women marathon for breast cancer awareness. This will come with additional rights to the sponsors like being included in the advertisements both print, oral and view as the main sponsor. It will also give Baynounah Institute a chance to strategically position its tent and get mentioned in by every usher during the event to any new visitor.
We are already working on increasing our social media presence as a way of doing publicity for the event. We have also designed banners bearing this year’s theme together with a portion we are locating to the name of the sponsor. Once we get a confirmation of the sponsorship, we will just place the institute’s name and print them in bulk. The same also applies to the print and television advertisements.

Best Practices inTraining and Development

Your full February 14, Summary The article discusses the implementation of best practices in employee training and development that guarantee the success of an organization. The article starts with a discussion of components of a successful employee learning experience, in which the first and foremost component is the implementation of a clear employee training and development program. The organization itself, the management, and the employees, all play important roles in employee training and development. Job description should be well crafted. Individual development plans must be laid in which employees should be given opportunities to learn from everyday activities. The individual development planning process includes self-assessment, assessment of current position and work environment of the employee, identification of development activities, and finally putting the development plan in action. Furthermore, the article talks about different cost-effective practices in training and development. These include on-the-job experience that involves committees, conferences and forums, critical incident notes, field trips, job aids, job expanding opportunities, job shadowing, learning alerts, peer-assisted learning, stretch assignments, and special projects. Other practices include coaching, mentoring, networking, and performance appraisal. Classroom training practices are also important, and these include courses, seminars and workshops. Off-the job training and development can be provided through courses offered by educational institutions, professional associations, reading groups, and self paced independent learning. In short, the article talks about some of the best practices in training and development of employees. If implemented correctly, these practices can prove to be very fruitful for the progress and productivity of the organization in the long run.

Works Cited Learning, Training &amp. Development. Community Foundation of Canada , 2014. Web. 14 Feb 2014. .

Use of ict

Positive ICT investments and policies are undoubtedly beneficial to HEIs, even if ICTs have not managed adequately to replace classroom-based instructing models. Generally, ICTs offer effective access for various target learners besides academically termed as vehicles meant for enhanced pedagogical experiences. This is especially to distance learners whose separation between them and their respective HEIs id due to space as well as time (Surry, Stefurak &amp. Gray, 2011, p.45). In most HEIs, some of the major ICT facilities used include,
Together with the ever-rampant utilization of ICTs in basic education, most students get to campus with higher hopes in terms of technology uses and corresponding pedagogies. The gaps that exist between higher educational practices and student social media abilities are likely to broaden unless respective administrators ensure educational practices that bring about adequate reforms. Generally, from a pedagogical outlook, network technology such as social media tools avails greater potentials for both collaborative and interactive learning. Tools that employ networking knowhow avail students with an open as well as an innovative development platform (Surry, Stefurak &amp. Gray, 2011). In addition, it also avails an opportunity for aiding collaborative and interactive ways of learning mainly for those having exceptional needs (Surry, Stefurak &amp. Gray, 2011, p.46).
The enhancement of a wireless knowhow such as mobile wireless expertise has ensured generation of a significant level of excitement among academicians and practitioners. Reason being, it leads to a shift in the academic environment from out-dated settings to mobile learning (m-learning) settings (Ehlers &amp. Schneckenberg, 2010, p.14). Certainly, augmenting numbers of HEIs provide courses using wireless technology (for example, m-learning) as an substitute to learning and teaching tools. However, despite such interests in

Social Learning Approach to Organizational Behaviour

The business model that the entrepreneur comes up with has to show the way he is to get the human resources to assist in meeting the identified goals and objectives (Stevenson&amp.Jarillo, 1990).&nbsp.He outlines the resources needed in fulfilling the need identified. The entrepreneur is often responsible for the success of the business identified and its failure as well. therefore, he has to plan on how to manage the business amidst all the problems and challenges in the immediate and external environment.
The entrepreneur often operates in some kind of an entrepreneurship ecosystem whereby he has to plan and develop tools that he can use to obtain additional funding and other resources needed in the achievement of the identified goals and objectives. For instance, he has to prepare his business plan in order to get assistance from the bank and other financial systems.
Entrepreneurship has caused the growth and development of small business initiatives to become large international ventures (Stevenson, 1997). This has led to the great success of these multinational corporations that have been aided by resourceful and able networking among the stakeholders involved and the investors (Stevenson &amp. Jarillo, 1990). During the course, one of the areas that interested me was the development of social capital. This is because, in the long term, it helps in achieving great internationalization in many business activities across countries of the world. This paper summarizes all that I have learned, showing the areas that have been of great interest to me.
Stevenson &amp. Zarillo (1990), have been effective in their research about the different ways in which people can start and manage business activities. According to this research, entrepreneurship is an important activity through which people can identify and exploit their diverse potential in solving various needs in the society and corporate world. In the same way, Stevenson (1997), outlines the six different dimensions on the subject of entrepreneurship.

Integrated Service Digital Network

Integrated Service Digital Network
Frame Relay
This is a telecommunication service, which is designed for cost- effective transmission of data. This data transmission is for alternating traffic amid local area networks (LAN) and amid endpoints in a Wide Area Network (WAN). It puts data in a changeable-size unit named a frame. Then it leaves some essential error rectification (data retransmission) to the endpoints that accelerate overall transmission of data (Dean, 2010).
Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN)
This is an original internet service of high-speed. It sparked the development of high-speed internet amid service givers in the 1990’s. Moreover, it revolutionized the use of the internet. Much similar to its precursor, the service of dial-up internet, ISDN uses a phone line. In addition, it put the standard for the telephone data service (Dean, 2010).
Cable Modem
It enables the hook up of the local cable TV line to a PC and receives data close to 1.5 Mbps. This device is addable to or can be integrated by a set-top box, which provides a TV set with Internet access channels. Commonly, they are provided as part of the service of cable access. Furthermore, they are not bought directly and set up by the subscriber (Sobh, Elleithy, &amp. Mahmood, 2010).
Other Network Transmissions
Other network transmissions include (Ec-Council, 2009):
Repeaters (Multiplexers and Concentrators)
Gateways and Bridges
Switches, Hubs, Wireless Access Points, and Routers
Network Adapters
Conventional Dial-up Modems
Satellite Modems
DSL Modems
ISDN Modems
As the Sr. System Administrator of Minnesota Consulting Group, I would recommend RFID (radio frequency identification), portable cell phones and handheld inventory scanners to Star Clothing. This is because the company can use RFID in reducing theft. Moreover, the company can also use handheld inventory scanners in the control of inventories. In addition, the portable cell phones are cost-effective ways of communications between different departments of Star Clothing.
Dean, T. (2010). Network+ guide to networks. Boston, Mass: Cengage Course Technology.
Ec-Council, (2009). Secure Network Infrastructures. Course Technology Ptr.
Sobh, T. M., Elleithy, K., &amp. Mahmood, A. (2010). Novel algorithms and techniques in telecommunications and networking. Dordrecht: Springer.

Four Arguments topics

Four Arguments Research topics Research Topic Social networking sites have become an indispensable part of modern life. Still, their use has been also related to a series of risks, including the exposure of private life to an unknown audience. The studies developed in this field lead to contradictory findings in regard to the actual necessity of social networking today. The introduction of limitations in the use of social networking sites may be necessary. Which would be the most appropriate strategies for managing the above problem and how the consent of the public for this initiative could be secured?
Research Topic 2
The strong turbulences in the global market, as a result of the recent financial crisis, have led many firms to change their HR strategies. Flexibility has become a key characteristic of job agreements. In regard to the workplace, flexibility can be related to different aspects of work, such as the duties incorporated in each role, the hours of work or the place of work. However, flexibility as an aspect of the workplace has been negatively criticized, especially when it threatens the rights of employees. The role of HR managers in managing flexibility in the workplace should be studied at the level that the expansion of conflicts across a business, as a result of too flexible job agreements, could harm the performance of business, either in the short or the long term.
Research Topic 3
The recession of 2008 has highly affected the global market. Businesses have tried to secure their position by introducing strategies for increasing their competitiveness. Various tools have been employed for promoting the competitiveness of businesses in different industries. However, not all these tools have performed as expected. In this context, confronting competitors would be a challenging task for firms of all sizes. On the other hand, the success of many businesses in markets worldwide shows that increasing competitiveness is feasible even under strong market pressures.
Research Topic 4
The effects of business activities on the environment have been extensively reviewed in the literature. It seems that business operations necessarily affect the environment but not at the lame level. firms with extensive supply chain and production networks are more likely to harm the environment, even if they have taken measures for promoting sustainability. On the other hand, MNs are difficult to be controlled, as of the mode and effects of their operations. At this point, the following question appears: why existing measures for protecting the environment from business operations have failed? In addition, are there tools or frameworks that can secure the elimination of accidents like the one in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010?

Chinese Media

In the endeavor to maintain their hold on the conventional media, the Chinese government has blocked the popular sites of facebook, twitter, and YouTube amongst other sites that are a platform for free expression. The Chinese people are left with the option of building their own sites that conform to the policies of their government. One of these sites is Sina Weibo. This site has been revolutionary since its inception in the year 2009. Much of its success is owed to the closure of Twitter, in China, around that year. In order to show the significance Weibo in the context of Chinese media freedom, this paper will analyze its role in reporting the high-speed train collision in Wuhan. Weibo has been instrumental in propagating social justice, as such. it has become a precipitate of government accountability that has been lacking in China.
Sina Weibo has registered approximately two hundred and fifty million users to date. Chinese Weibo has the largest following in comparison to any one of the global sites operating in the world at the moment. Owing to the large Chinese population, Sina Weibo is larger than the sum of all other sites combined. Out of this, ten percent are frequent users on a daily basis. Ten percent of two hundred and fifty million is quite a considerable figure. It has become a platform of discussion of the most contagious issues pertaining to China. Most of these, however, arise from social, political and cultural issues. This is contrary to the social sites in the west. Western sites are primarily social interaction enhancing mediums. This is exemplified by the interactions on Facebook. The power of Sina Weibo is sourced from its function as a major forum for hosting public opinion. Unlike Twitter which is mainly a social networking site, its counterpart Sina Weibo mainly focuses on public opinion of ongoing affairs. It achieves this by providing for its users a free opportunity to participate in public affairs. An avenue via which the public could voice out its concerns has been all but lacking.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Ecommerce and emarketing for Book Bunkers You are an emarketing and ecommerce consultant Mary and Joe Johnson the owners of Book Bunker have hired you to help them create a comprehensive plan to utilize social networking in their marketing and adv

The paper then moves on to the various providers of social networking services and covers such companies as Facebook, Twitter, and LinkedIn among others, as well as how Book Bunker could benefit from these sites. Finally, the paper gives recommendations on the social media strategy that Book Bunker can institute to increase bookstore efficiency and increase their online presence.
The social media is made up of websites and online tools, which encourage individuals to interact with other people like journalists, brands, companies and businesses, as well as forming communities via the creation, sharing, and publishing of content. It is a two-way stream of communication, as compared to traditional media where publishing of a message is done via one-way communication to the masses, for instance newspapers, television, and radio. The social media is ever changing at a rapid rate and takes on different forms that include content communities like YouTube and Flickr, micro-blogs and blogs such as Twitter, social networking sites like MySpace and Facebook, and virtual worlds such as second life. This paper aims to provide information on the utilities of social media and web 2.0 to business, provide various sites that Book Bunker could use, and finally recommend a strategy for use by Book Bunker.
Companies and businesses utilize social media in different ways. They can use it for monitoring what is being said concerning the company and its brand on the social web sphere, for broadcasting news concerning the company, and also for connecting the company to its clients since it is a form of two way communication that allows the company to listen to its customers (Tuten, 2008). Social media also allows for networking with other companies for collaborative purposes, as well as allowing businesses to use it for interaction and servicing of its clients on an online forum that is customer service. Market research can also be carried out using social media after the company

Advance Career Development Strategies

There many ways a parole officer can create, maintain and enhance his professional network, some of the strategies for this purpose are enlisted below.
a) Join a professional organization or association to be a part of your professional community.
b) Keep close contact with your past, present and future clients t
c) Ensure an extensive use of technology, especially through social media and email.
d) Devise an action plan for the promotion of your professional contacts and a feedback mechanism.
e) Ensure active participation in social gatherings, ceremonies and welfare activities.
These activities are important because customer care can make a difference in a competitive environment and all of these activities show your concern and interest in prospective clients’ problems. The association not only provide a communal space and networking platform but it also keeps you updated on policy matters and legal issues of your interest along with several training programs that can give you an added advantage in the professional career.

Selling online

These websites are known as social sites. It is in fact an online community consisting of various kinds of internet users. The objectives and motives of each social networking websites are different from one another. The websites without any focus are often referred as “traditional”. At present, some of the most popular social networking websites are Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, Friendster and LinkedIn.
The first Social networking system appeared a decade ago. The evolution of social networking is rather fascinating because nothing over internet had evolved to excellence in such a short span of time as the social networking did. But social networking has clearly defined traces of its evolution. The initial motive of social networking over internet was to connect to old school friends or other childhood friends. Following such beginner networking sites, many other providers evolved with similar motives. Unlike the objective ten years before, social networks presently are a Wikipedia of objectives. because it is been put to various innovative uses by many. Some of the factors that have enabled the evolution of social networking are as follows:
Affordable internet: Affordable internet at home is one of the major factors that helped the growth of social networking websites. Over year’s internet have become more and more affordable even for a basic family. Less are the days where people sit for long hours in the internet café’s for browsing through their favorite websites. Most families have internet at their home. The average internet usage per person in 1996 was ½ hour per month while as of 2011 it is 27 hours per month. This figure could define the massive change that had happened in the domain.
High speed connection: Not only has internet become affordable over years but it has also become faster than before. As per reports, it took around 30 seconds for an internet page to load in 1996 while the

Security consultant

Network Risk Assessment Describe the purpose of a risk assessment, risk scope and identify critical areas for an assessment.
With the advent of computer networks and robust IT resources, the prevalence of malicious network activities such as hacking presents significant risks to the operational integrity of a company. A secured company network is that which has instituted a set of procedures to safeguard the fundamental networking infrastructure from misuse, disclosure of critical information, or simply access by unauthorized persons. Risk assessment is a proactive network security measure that serves to identify risks, threats, and vulnerabilities that could endanger the integrity of company’s operations. Secondly, this assessment forms the basis upon which these risks, threats, and vulnerabilities are prioritized in accordance with criticality. Remediation of the identified risks and vulnerabilities can then be effectively budgeted. Also, it is from this risk assessment that compliancy with new IT security laws and regulations can be achieved to avoid legal issues. Essentially, a properly conducted risk assessment offers a basis through which the company may roll out a set of procedures aimed at protecting company’s assets, which for this case include hardware, software, and critical information.
The scope describes what is covered and what is not covered in the assessment by identification of the needs to be protected, sensitivity of the information protected, and the extent of the protection. Defining the scope of network security assessment is important as it forms the basis of understanding the budget and level of security defined by the policies of the company. Understandably, the scope is a factor of criticality of information that a company has or seeks to protect from damage, manipulation, or malicious disclosure to the public. Areas covered include type of operating systems in used in the computers, access control permissions, port scanning, wireless leakage, firewall testing, intrusion detection testing, and service pack levels. A thorough assessment of these areas identifies the loopholes through which company’s critical information may be compromised. The aim is to proactively protect these areas from malicious attacks or access.
Select risk assessment methodology and give your rationale behind the one you chose.
OCTAVE (Operationally Critical Threat, Asset, and Vulnerability Evaluation) is a commonly used methodology for strategic assessment and planning of network security risks. The OCTAVE methodology is a technique used to analyze a company’s information security requirements. OCTAVE Allegro is the latest development and is widely used by the CERT Division. While older versions, which are OCTAVE and OCTAVE-S, are in operation, OCTAVE Allegro is the most preferred for the following reasons:
First, OCTAVE Allegro is a self-directed approach in the sense that it allows small teams of a company’s human resource across business units and IT to collaborate in addressing the security needs of the company. Generally, a successful business risk assessment methodology should allow for maximum collaboration. Secondly, the approach is flexible as it can be tailored to the company’s specific risk environment, security and resiliency goals, and skill level. Lastly, the evolved nature of OCTAVE transforms a company to an operational risk-based perception of security and addresses technology in business setup. OCTAVE can be modified easily and, in conjunction with the aforementioned benefits, can be employed as the fundamental risk-assessment component or rather process for the rest of the other approaches.
Violino, B. (2010). IT risks assessment frameworks: real-world experience. Retrieved from:–real-world-experience.html

The Challenges and Opportunities of Social Media

Many contemporary businesses have social media as their main agenda. In spite of the growing popularity of social media among today’s business executives, not many have a firm understanding of the real meaning of social media.

Social media can be defined as a group of applications based on the Internet that dwells on the technological and ideological foundations of Web 2.0 and enables the development and sharing of the User Generated Content (UGC).

Social media applications can be categorized in a variety of ways and Youtube, Facebook, Wikipedia, and Second Life are some examples of social media applications.
Collaborative projects and blogs have the lowest score with respect to media richness and social presence.

The score of blogs is higher than that of collaborative projects with respect to self-presentation and self-disclosure.

UGC’s most democratic manifestation is collaborative projects.

Blogs provide business executives with the opportunity to keep the stakeholders updated on the latest advancements and offerings made by the company whereas the challenges associated with it include the ability of stakeholders to provide damaging information about the company.

Social networking sites provide the opportunity of conducting marketing research and creating brand communities, and can even be used as distribution channels.

Virtual game worlds are used for in-game advertising and communication campaigns.

Content can be created and sold over virtual social worlds in exchange for Linden Dollars.

To make the best use of social media, business executives should choose it carefully, decide whether making or buying it is better, create alignment between social media activities, plan media integration, and establish access controls for the stakeholders.

Relationships over social media can be fostered by being active, interesting, humble, unprofessional, and honest.

Networking Infrastructure

For instance, if a distributed denial of service threat attack a website, the traffic can be routed from the other available locations on a different network segment. Moreover, the MX record demonstrates where an email needs to be delivered. Furthermore, TXT records are utilized for holding any type of text.
The Domain Name System is focused around the idea of name determination that is a key capacity of TCP/IP systems. Such systems are utilizing IP addresses as a part of request to recognize the beginning and objective of system transmissions. An IP location figures out where a datagram is sent and is extraordinary for the particular system area. IP addresses that were focused around IP rendition four (Ipv4) were as a 32-bit number. However the accessible locations were constrained and inevitably we arrived at the point where the Ipv6 tending to framework focused around the utilization of a 128-bit number where the IP location was sent. It is clear that individuals are prone to think that it’s hard to recollect 32-bit and 128-bit addresses that are sensibly straight forward for machines to distinguish. It is important to secure a more compelling framework for clients to distinguish the location of a system area. This is carried out by utilizing more significant names as the ones that we have in regular sites (e.g. This is a decent case of how a client may recollect an imperative site. However a machine must have the capacity to change over this name to an IP address that will figure out where the objective of the expected correspondence lives.
Name determination is the term used to portray the change of the name utilized for a site or the Internet area to an IP address for that particular area. Each one time we enter the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for a World Wide Web address in a web program this is changing over into an IP

New Generation with Technologies

Effect of Technology on the Behavior of Teenagers and Children General Aim: To inform my audience of the negative effectof technology on teenage and child behavior.
Specific Aim: to bring the attention of my audience to the manner in which technology is slowly destroying good behavior in children of the current generation.
Central Idea: To draw my audience’s attention from the worldwide championed technological developments, and bring it to the damage technology is causing in the children and teenagers of this age.
I. In this age, the media puts a lot of focus on how advancements in technology make work easier, and every day experiences better.
A. DeLoatch says that children are constantly yearning to try out the newly introduced social networking site, electronic gadgets, and own the latest gaming device, 85% of which contain violence.
B. They seek personal pleasure through gaining recognition from peers with the new technology they own (Villani). Children do not play as much as they did 20 years ago, riding, and building forts.
II. Gaining recognition is becoming more important to children because they get numerous opinions on matters in everyday life.
A. When one has a problem, their first instinct is to post it on Facebook or tweet it and get people’s view on it. These issues include what to wear, what to watch, which school to go to, what career path to take, dating and sex.
B. Since societies differ on what is right or wrong (Nables), children may get the wrong advice from people they talk to on the internet.
III. Watching television only requires sitting down and taking in what one is seeing, and it requires no reaction.
A. Spending too much time watching television reduces the time children spend interacting with others (James Jay Dudley Luce Foundation).
B. Introvert children use it as an excuse not to go out and meet other people.
C. Television content also influences a child’s social life because they will try to emulate what they see in terms of dressing and behavior (Subrahmanyam, Kraut, and Greenfield).
IV. Approximately 85% of the country’s population own one electronic gadget.
A. Time spent with these gadgets reduces the time families interact.
B. Family time is vital to a child’s development and technology is taking this away, with studies showing that 1 out of every 10 parents spend very little time with their children. 30% of people under 45, and 10% of older people admitted to this.
C. One child specialist observed an incident where a mother could not get off working through her phone to listen to her son. Another mother had to put a surfing curfew on herself so she could focus on her children.
V. The internet offers access to numerous articles, books, reports, and academic documents.
A. They have all they need in the palm of their hands, and this mostly entails copying what they need from the internet and pasting it in their work (DeLoatch).
B. Learning institutions are constantly finding ways to ensure assignments done by students are original and personally inspired.
VI. Technology makes life very simple.
A. It takes a shorter time to do the laundry and dishes, clean the house, and mow the lawn, leaving children so much time to spare after helping in house chores.
B. Most of them use the time to “connect” with friends, watch television and play games, activities that require little physical energy (Connelly).
C. This lack of physical activity has led to an increase in weight related ailments like obesity, which has tripled in children over the last 25 years. Almost 26% of children between 2 and 17 years of age are considered overweight.
Works Cited
Connelly, Marjorie. "More Americans Sense a Downside to an Always Plugged-In Existence." The New York Times – Technology 6 June 2010. Newspaper Article.
DeLoatch, Pamela. The Four Negative Sides of Technology – Edudemic. 2 May 2015. 23 May 2015.
Nables, Reynoldsburg. Negative Effects of Technology on Society – Teen Ink. 13 September 2012. 23 May 2015.
Scelfo, Julie. "The Risks of Parenting while Plugged In." The New York Times – Home &amp. Garden 9 June 2010. Newspaper Article.
Subrahmanyam, Kaveri, et al. "The Impact of Home Computer Use on Childrens Activities and Development." The Future of Children – CHILDREN AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY, Vol. 10, No. 2 Fall/Winter 2000: 123-139. PDF.
The James Jay Dudley Luce Foundation. Technology Can Have Positive and Negative Impact on Social Interactions. 21 June 2010. 23 May 2015.
Villani, Susan. "Impact of Media on Children and Adolescents: A 10-Year Review of the Research." Journal of the American Academy of Child &amp. Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 40(4) (April, 2001): 392-401. PDF.

Enterprise Networking and Security

123000 1 Introduction It has been concluded by some experts that the year 2012 is considered to be the worst year in terms of computer network security breaches (Schirick 2012). Likewise, the year that has not even passed the half year mark, some of the foremost companies were sufferers of network security breaches resulting in massive losses (Schirick 2012). However, the news buzz only highlights Sony and Citibank to be victims of network security breaches, as these companies are popular among the public. The other sides of the picture highlights organizations of all sizes are affected by the consequences of network security breaches. Likewise, it can be concluded that network security risks are continuously evolving, modifying and growing at a rapid pace. Organizations normally install a firewall and even intrusion detection systems that triggers alerts of any suspicious activity, as these two components only covers the technical domain and not the human and physical domain. The current network scenario is utilizing a Virtual Private Connection that is connecting one or more sites. However, the VPN connection is also entitled to allow internet traffic on the same dedicated line from the Internet Service Provider. Moreover, the current network only utilizes a single firewall that is located at the main campus of the university. It concludes that the rest of the two remote sites are only protected via a simple Network address translation function that is incorporated in a DSL modem. Moreover, there are no advanced security appliances such as Intrusion detection systems for analyzing and monitoring any suspicious activity that may possibly become a threat to the University’s computer network. Moreover, there is no patch management for updating security patches in the workstations connected to the network. There are no indications of hardening servers for instance, email server, application server, centralized server and database server must be hardened and needs physical protection as well. 2 Security Vulnerabilities The current network security vulnerabilities will be accessed in three categories i.e. logical security, internal security and external security. As far as logical security is concerned, we can see that the fig 1.1 demonstrates a firewall, Microsoft Internet Security and Acceleration (ISA) server and a domain controller with Microsoft Active Directory. The three categories for network vulnerabilities are categorized as below: 2.1 Logical Vulnerabilities The current logical controls for protecting information assets within the network are active Microsoft Active directory, ISA server and a Firewall. The Microsoft active directory is not primarily a security control, as it does not mitigate any risks associated with viruses, worms, Trojans, phishing, spam, denial of service attacks etc. however, it provides a secure administration of user profiles and File sharing features. File sharing threats are spreading on a rapid pace, as every now and then, new file sharing technologies are getting being developed and in demand. Controls will not only provide value from all network based services, but will also augment productivity for the organization in terms of revenue, customer loyalty and competitive advantage. Workgroup based environment is not centralized. For instance,

PLC Assignment 1

Wherever there is an enterprise or industry, you will find a PLC.
The PLC has seen dramatic evolution since the first PLC, the Modicon, was introduced by Bedford Associates in the late 1960s (Kuphaldt, 2003). Paralleling the evolution of larger data processing systems, Allen Bradley and General Electric introduced programmable units with terminal input in the 1970s (Morley, 2006). They are now available as stand alone units, flexible card driven modules, and rack mounted with standardized cards for large scale centralized control. The unitary style is a self enclosed, ruggedised unit that has all the circuitry necessary to operate independently. It is generally used near the machine it is controlling and is dedicated to a small number of tasks. Modular construction has the advantage of placing several control units into a single module which allows the units to share power supply and computing capabilities. Sharing support circuitry reduces the cost of the unit as well as allowing for expanded control capabilities. Rack mounted systems are used to provide centralized control of very large scale systems. With the circuitry on cards that are attached to a standardized bus, the rack mount system offers greater networking and communication possibilities. This allows PLCs to run lengthy programs and control complex automated systems.
In its most basic configuration the PLC reads a set of inputs, processes the inputs through a program, and makes a decision as to what output switching is required. The inputs are configured to sense the presence of a voltage, often 12VDC, but may be 5VDC or 115VAC. These inputs come from switches or relays on machines that may indicate level, position, or status of the equipment. A PLC can be used to stop a conveyor belt when an assembly machine is turned off. Sensors are widely used in process control to detect

Project Management Theory

People that studied specific professions such as law, accounting, medical would not fit the profile of union member and there weren’t any unions for these types of workers. In order to meet the social and professional needs of this segment of the workforce professional associations were created to serve them. The project management profession is no exception. The Project Management Institute (PMI) is the organization that serves project managers across the world.
The Project Management Institute was created in 1969. The organization has taken been very innovative and its overall reach and has been able to effectively expose the profession worldwide. The Institute has a membership of over 200,000 people from over 125 different countries (Pmi, 2007). Project management is a profession that attracts people from different specialization since within virtually every industry there are always projects that need guidance for successful completion. The PMI realized the needs of professionals from different industries and their assistance is guided towards helping profession in the financial services, aerospace, automobile, pharmaceutical, healthcare, construction, engineering, information technology, business management among many others. The institution has done a great job creating professional standards, conducting research and promoting the profession through certifications, networking and community involvement opportunities (Pmi, 2007).
The project management institute has accomplished great social initiatives throughout the community including outreach programs in developing nation such as Brazil. In Sao Paolo, Brazil the local PMI chapter developed a pilot program which offered project management classes to teenagers from low income families. The classes were designed to expose students to the basic principles of project management and to teach them how these principles can be applied to improve their everyday

Networking assignment

Paper Question What is HL7? HL7 is a standard for electronic data exchange that is used in the health care environments. Theaim of HL7 is to standardize the format and protocol for exchange of data in health care computer applications. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is responsible for writing and maintaining HL7 standards. HL7 consists of a set of communications rules referred to as protocol. Interface protocols specify the rules by which applications in the health care domain can exchange data in an orderly way. HL7 is also the name of the group that is responsible for publishing these standards.
The acronym "Level 7" refers to the uppermost level of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) model of the International Standards Organization (ISO). Those developing HL7 primarily focus on this layer.
Question 2
Interface: Refers to a shared boundary between two related systems across which information flows or may flow. The interface may be designed to filter or modify data as it passes through.
Segment: It is a logical group of fields of data. Segments of a message can either be mandatory or optional. They may be allowed to occur once in a message or allowed to repeat. A segment is recognized by a three character unique code referred to as the segment ID.
Field: It is a string of characters, which is described by a single HL7 data type.
Question 3
HL7 Segments in the message.
MSH- Message Header Segment.
EVN- Event Type Segment
PID- Patient Identification Segment.
NK1-Next-Of-Kin Segment
ZPD-VA Specific Patient Information.
PV1- Patient Visit 1
PV2-Patient Visit 2
DG- Diagnosis
GT- Guarantor
ACC- Accident
Question 4
EVN- Event Type Segment
Question 5
PV1 and PV2
Implementation Guide for the Transmission of Laboratory based Reporting on Public Health Information using Version 2 of the Health Level Seven Standard Protocol, 2005, CDC.

Voice over Internet Protocol Security Vulnerabilities and Recommendations

Software controls try to prevent the exploitation of vulnerabilities but not all attacks can be contained by technical measures. Many vulnerabilities are due to “poorly designed implementations that can provide inroads to data networks. ‘Mistakes’ such as remaining undocumented open ports, extraneous services, etc. can be easily exploited, and denial of service attacks is the most significant specific threat to VoIP.

Computers and networks are an important part of the information systems of many organizations. We are dependent on computers and networks for the provision of services across all sectors of the economy. However, vulnerabilities exist in these information systems. Vulnerabilities in operating systems and application software can be exploited by cybercriminals. Social engineering provides an alternative method for attackers to gain access to information assets, through exploiting human vulnerabilities.

Open access and networking of computers increase risks and therefore require greater measures of security. Security is both a technical and social concern. It relates to the confidentiality of information, system integrity, authentication of users, personal safety of people and other social issues. Information security, software vulnerabilities, and social engineering will be briefly discussed followed by an in-depth exploration of vulnerabilities associated with the use of VoIP. Included are details of how vulnerabilities work, the consequences of an attack, and a look at possible controls. Recommendations are then offered that organizations can take to protect themselves.

Information that is confidential must not be accessible by unauthorized parties (Kinkus, 2002). And, there must also be protected against unauthorized changes, which is known as integrity. Unauthorized access is a leak of information that could be mildly embarrassing in the case of personal information to outright disastrous in the case of sensitive information. Hacking compromises both the confidentiality and integrity of information.&nbsp.

Richmond Events

There is also a need to outline the Richmond Events’ historical background in detail and its current operating strategies should also be examined. This includes identifying the sources of competitive advantage as well as its potential for better performance in the future and recommendations would be given in the study.

Richmond Events specifically deals with organising events through offering a platform whereby people from various cultural backgrounds representing their organisations discuss pertinent issues that often affect their different businesses. According to information obtained from its official website, the organisation is particularly concerned with providing a better way for buyers to meet sellers through face to face meetings coupled with high-quality conference programmes and networking opportunities.&nbsp.These forums take place on cruise ships and more recently on land-based venues and at exclusive locations which allow attendees, particularly senior decision-makers to focus on key business issues in a relaxed and distraction-free environment.&nbsp.The organisation is continually looking to build its panel with senior professionals from the UK business.

The main purpose and objective of the organisation is inclusion, awareness, education, cultural, destination marketing, development and change with the aim of highlighting social issues among business executives. The major strategy employed by Richmond Events is that of targeting business executives by giving them the platform hold conferences in a conducive environment where they also get the chance to meet their partners in business. The organisation’s culture is accommodative to a wide range of people from a diverse cultural background.

Likewise, this organisation operates in an environment where there are also competitors who may offer the same services. It is imperative to give a critical analysis of the organisation’s environment in order to get a clear understanding of its operations through an analysis of its internal and external environment.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Information Technology and Moral Philosophy

In the case of networks for the website, one of the things, which need to be addressed, is whether the website will comprise of an intranet, in this case for use within the university or one, which will cover a larger audience such as the whole world. In this case, the website ought to be developed in such a way that the whole world can be in a position to access information that is related to the university. At the same time, there ought to be elements within the website, which can serve to be of benefit to the individuals in the university. An example, in this case, can be the services such as those related to the library, which is only accessible to the individuals who are associated with the university such as current students and members of staff. The network also needs to be one which can support significant amounts of data due to the downloads and uploads of documents and content which will be conducted by the users.&nbsp.
The network hardware is another area, which ought to be taken into consideration. In this case, the hardware ought to be consistent with the current technology, which is implemented in the case of networking and websites. For example, the routers, which are used, ought to be in a position to support multiple computers or nodes without failure. At the same time, the computers that will be used have to be supportive of the present technology. The specifications on these computers have to be rather high due to the high amount of activities, which they will be undertaking. The processor and RAM, for example, have to be capable of supporting various programs and processes concurrently. If this is done, the university will minimize costs significantly especially those that are occasioned by frequent repair and maintenance of hardware.
On the part of the software, they ought to be those that support various activities that range from personal to business elements. This is something, which should start from the operating itself as the most basic software on the computer. At the same time, the software that will be implemented has to be rather easy for the users to use. If this is not the case, then the university may have a rather difficult time in carrying out its activities in the future because the employees are not conversant with the software. Still, on the case of software, the organization should be dynamic in its implementation of computer software for meeting the changing needs and expectations in the business operations.
Bynum, Terrell Ward (2008). Information Technology and Moral Philosophy, Cambridge University Press
Robertson, James (1st November 2005). 10 principles of effective information management. Step Two Designs (Web)
Vincent, Sabrina (April 13, 2010). Contemporary Key Issues for Information Systems Manager. Yahoo Networks (Web)

The Impact of Online Consumer Rating/Reviews on Consumer Behaviors and Purchase Decisions

Consumer ratings/reviews play a key role in everyone’s purchase decisions today. Organizations must spend time and resources in measuring its impact on the buying patterns to better reach their customers. The organizations and firms find it easy to design their marketing strategies if they understand what affects the consumer behavior or buying pattern. It includes understanding the psychology of consumers as to how they believe, identify rationale, and select between the available substitutes. “Firms must also consider how society influences consumer behavior. There are several factors in the environment that have an impact on consumer perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors” (Perner, pp.1-14, 2008). An understanding and management of these factors may assist marketing professionals in helping consumers to decide in favor of their brands.
More and more consumers now base their decisions on product- related-reviews available on the internet before they buy a product. “The percentage of customers who follow online reviews have exceeded those that follow newspaper or magazine reviews” (Ahuja, 2009). For this purpose, most people these days use social networking sites and involve themselves in comparison-shopping. Most online buyers indulge in social networking in form of reading and writing blogs and customer reviews. Thus, people who shop from e-malls are more likely to give their opinions online as compare to those who use the regular brick-and-mortar stores for shopping.
One distinct feature of online reviews is that the information is available in high volume as compare to that one can get from traditional offline sources. It also contains information from many sources that is both positive and negative as compare to only getting either positive or negative information from a single source at a time. Analysis has indicated that online reviews are found in various forms and differ in

4G/5G wireless networks

Skype has been the most successful service provider and studying it may provide insights into possible solutions. A model has been proposed for further research that is not only user centered, but can also benefit from some of Skype’s attributes such as ability to interact with NATs and firewalls seamlessly.
Video conferencing is rapidly gaining momentum and many end users are adopting this service. For instance, skype is the fastest growing audio conferencing service provider with its annual revenue exceeding $ 136 million (Huang, Chen, &amp. Huang, 2009). With the rapid growth and expansion witnessed in this industry, information technology experts are concerned with the impact of video calls, and the quality of experience under a variety of network conditions that are available to them. Skype offers its end users voice calls services, text messaging services, audio conferencing services, and instant messaging (Baset &amp. Schulzrine, 2006). Delivering delay sensitive voice data from one user to user effectively has been a multimedia networking problem. Voice data has a high data rate. Failures in networks for example, impairments in network capacity significantly affects the voice traffic data rates. The rapid increase in multimedia traffic seen over the internet presents a major hurdle in delivery of quality service to end users. In order to deliver quality service, voice data has to be sent using a high bit rate. Using a higher bit rate could however result in the waste of network resources. Using a higher bit rate mat also result in congestion within the network. the aim is to guarantee quality of experience (QoE) the end users receive is high. However, using high bit rates would result in network congestion which would in turn compromise end user QoE.
In order to address this problem, studies have been conducted on skype to establish how it manages to deliver to its end users a high

PLN revised

PERSONAL LEARNING NETWORK An infographic: this was created through http Reflection of the PLN APLN is a very important vessel for most profession and the same is mine as a part-time teacher and student, currently teaching, on part-time basis, at Landmark Christian School and the same time a student at Walden University. Through my personal learning network above I have managed to make healthy friendship, professional and religious relations and engaged in constructive mind opening engagements through sharing knowledge, experiences and other relevant information.
In the past years I used to teach at East Coweta High School. During my time at East Coweta High School I made connection with my former colleague with whom we still share through twitter, emails and messages on career related issues and on the state of the school since I left. To boost my depth in my career and general knowledge I am also subscribed to journals which includes. American Education Research journal, Electronic journal of e-learning and The Journal which help me keep in touch with trending issues in the world of educational technology (Richardson &amp. Mancabelli, 2011). As an upcoming education technologist, these platforms plays a very crucial role in sharpening ability of applying technology at my current place of work, Landmark Christian School. I also engage in social media for further information and through this platform follow authors like. Alan Januszeuski, Michael Molenda and Dr Darci Harland. To keep tabs with my peers I also involve myself in social media revelation through different media platforms, such as twitter, edmodo network, text messages, Diigo networking tools and emails.
At Landmark Christian School I am taken in as trained professional education technologist and thus falling in the vast area of Education. The educational technology has been effective at building my career through sharing of experiences, knowledge and information from various social backgrounds. With such advances in technology, one is able to learn that education technology alters on the outcome of both teaching and learning, and altering on processes of teaching and learning (Januszewski &amp. Molenda, 2007). Engaging in seminal arguments helps at underlying different experiences and after putting these experiences differently. Experiments with technology combined with different teaching and learning experiences are different from the traditional forms of learning and teaching (Siricharoen, 2013). The personal learning network (PLN) has been effective at necessitating on my studying experiences with the media and technology through understanding on the in-depth of their role in both learning and teaching. Through engaging in the social media PLN, I have been able to realize that ICT can have many benefits to the daily lives of people and the society as a whole.
Januszewski, A., &amp. Molenda, M. (2007). Educational technology: A definition with commentary (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
Richardson, W., &amp. Mancabelli, R. (2011). Personal learning networks: Using the power of connections to transform education. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.
Siricharoen, W., V. (2013). Infographics: An Approach of Innovative Communication Tool for E-Entrepreneurship Marketing. International Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 4 (2) 54-71.

Assignment Rubric
Cover Page: 2 points
Student Self-Assessment
Cover Page includes
Assignment Title
Course Number and Name
Student Name and ID
Instructor Name
Comments: (click here)     

2 points

0–2 points
Infographic: 13 points
Student Self-Assessment
A minimum of two scholars and/or thought leaders are included in your PLN.
Comments: (click here)     

2 points

0–2 points
A minimum of two practitioners are included in your PLN
Comments: (click here)     

2 points

0–2 points
At least one social media community is included in your PLN. If you are not a member of a social media community, list one you are considering joining.
Comments: (click here)     

1 point

0–1 point
At least two professional organizations are listed where you can connect with other members of your profession.
Comments: (click here)     

2 points

0–2 points
At least two professional conferences are listed where you connect with others in your profession.
Comments: (click here)     

2 points

0–2 points
Two authors you regularly follow professionally or plan to follow are included in your PLN.
Comments: (click here)     

2 points

0–2 points
Live hyperlinks are included for each element of your PLN.
Comments: (click here)      

0 points

0–2 points
Infographic Mechanics: 6 points
Student Self-Assessment
A web-based template or tool was used to create the infographic
Comments: (click here)      

2 points

0–2 points
The infographic was one page in length.
Comments: (click here)      

2 points

0–2 points
A balanced use of graphics and text are used in the design.
Comments: (click here)      

2 points

0–2 points
Reflection on Your PLN and the Field of Educational Technology: 18 points
Student Self-Assessment
The relevance and importance of each element of the infographic to your professional life is described in one paragraph. [NOTE: A scholarly paragraph is succinctly written with 3–7 sentences.]
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6 points

0–6 points
The main focus is explained for each organization, conference, publication, and social media outlet you selected in one paragraph.
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4 points

0–4 points
Your position on the name of the field of educational technology was well stated and supported. If you preferred a different name, you justified your position in one paragraph.
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6 points

0–6 points
Your reflection is written with proper grammar and punctuation.
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3 points

0–3 points
References: 6 points
Student Self-Assessment
References follow APA (6th edition) formatting.
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2 points

0–2 points
References to the course learning resources used for this assignment are included.
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2 points

0–2 points
References to the professional organizations included in your PLN are included.
Comments: (click here)      

2 points

0–2 points
Paste This Rubric on Assignment: 4 points
Student Self-Assessment
You pasted your Rubric on the last page of your infographic and Reflection on a PLN assignment.
Comments: (click here)      
2 points

0–2 points

You completed a self-assessment of your infographic and Reflection on a PLN using the rubric for this assignment.
Comments: (click here)      

2 points

0–2 points

48 points

0–50 points

Using Collaboration Tools to Market Products

This is especially in the beauty industry where this study focuses to come up with an effective collaboration tool for a jewelry store. Collaboration tool product advocated in this presentation is “Yammer”, which will not only aid in serving clients as necessitated but also manage jewelry store’s human resource (Nash, 2011).
There are numerous collaborations tools, which corporations can use and attain their respective goals. However, in ascertaining collaboration tool that will work appropriately for a given corporation it entails meticulous research coupled with considering its respective goals. This is because the need to have an effective collaboration tool is to aid a given Corporation to attain its targets with ease. Some of the probable web-based collaboration tools for a jewelry store include,
Compared to other collaborative tools, Yammer emerges as the best option for jewelry store. This is because of its varied and essential features essential for reaching large pool of clients. It also enables effective management of human resource. Some of its essential functionalities include,
Yammer 2.0 version will enable Jewelry Store Heads to have direct conversations with their clients as well as interacting with employees (Markowitz, 2011). Hence, make it easy for its respective departments handle clientele’s complaints and suggestions with immediate thus improve their services. Technical department will set Yammer 2.0 and other recently incorporated versions such that varied departmental sections are in constant contact with each other, hence share information internally (Nash, 2011). Internal interaction with the aid of Yammer aims at improving social networking such that there is no wastage of both resources and time, which employees use while holding meetings (Sumner, 2011). Therefore, Jewelry store will be posting internal and urgent information to its employees who in turn will try to give their sentiments

Statistics for Management and Economics

There are three basic features that should be present in any theoretical framework. Discuss whether Jesse has included these.
• Creation of an inventory of variables relevant to the study.
Different variables have been created right from the introductory part. From the basis of being named at the abstract levels, the social networking sites, the online brand communities are the variables that do exist.
• Stating how the variables relate to each other
There are social networking sites related to online branding. Categorizations of the online brand communities as related variably to customer attraction and retention is also another secondary relationship that occurs in the piece of work.
• Theorizing the nature of relationships that exist based on previous research to indicate whether the relationship is positive or negative based on previous research
There has largely been a relationship between the development of social networks and the way it influences the spread of information to the different stakeholders. Based on the previous research, the writer has indicated that there is a positive relationship according to the given references between online marketing and customer loyalty.
• Clarified explanation as to why the relationship should exist
Customers, as stated in the literature, do participate in online branding and this helps them develop the knowledge of the product more than they would have done. Therefore there is a relationship clarified as to why the stated relationship should exist.
• Schematic diagram to clarify the observed continuity
This has been followed and the relationships are shown clearly where all the values identified to lead to the member’s satisfaction and eventual loyalty.
Conceptual models can be made by a collection of other approaches apart from the one used by Jesse. These are event-driven process chain, the Joint Application Development, the place/ transition Net and state transition modeling.

Economic Insights into Apple Inc and the Economic Trends in Nigeria

The company that I am going to focus on is Apple Inc. (Apple), it was incorporated on January 3, 1977, designs, manufactures and markets mobile communication and media services, personal computers, and portable digital music players, and sells a variety of related software, services, peripherals, networking solutions, and third-party digital content and applications. The company’s products and services include iPhone, Mac, iPod, Apple TV, and some other accessories.
It can be argued that Apple Inc. operates in an oligopoly type of market. This is because the company is characterized by a few producers in the market. And each producer has some control over the market. There is also a period where the company has faced intense price competition between rivals such as Android. There is also a lot of investment that has been put in research and development to speed up product and process innovation. Products of Apple Inc. fits perfectly to this description because there is the use of patented technologies such as digital rights management to protect Apple’s position. A lot of innovation is encouraged as it was with the case of release of the iPhone. Some of the company’s products have been involved with occasional price wars as the main suppliers compete for market share. The product of focus in this study will be an iPhone from Apple Inc.
Apple’s iPhone has high demand elasticity.&nbsp.It has a high demand as it is the latest technology with advanced phone features such as the camera and the internet. With the rise in globalization, many people are looking on avenues of connecting with the global world. The iPhone gives many people an opportunity to go digital through a phone. Considering the high price of the iPhone as compared to other phones in the market, a very small proportion of fall in prices will lead to a more than proportionate rise in demand for the iPhone.&nbsp.

Develop informal communication networks and roles in the workplace

Informal Workplace Communication al Affiliation) Communication is an essential part in the live of most individuals who strive to be successful. Communication involves transmitting information and ideas from one person to another. In addition, it involves transmitting emotions and knowledge and data. Tone of the voice, facial expression, and body language play a significant role in a workplace. Effective communication in the workplace enables organizations reach their set targets. It provides employees with information about their work and environment. Informal communication helps motivate employees to build trust with the job that they are performing (Curtis, 2009).
Informal communication is a workplace transmission of messages not official. Formal networks involve establishments formed to enable communication. A workplace system represents how communication flows in the institution. An informal network includes sharing of unofficial information through the workplace and social media (Drafke, 2009). Formal network communication entails communicating with other employees through official networks. Formal network in the organization reflects and shows the hierarchy of the management.
In the case scenario of Osaga Chemical Company, grapevine would represent a crucial part in the informal communication network in a workplace. Grapevine is a network that is unpredictable in its operations because employees control it (Fevre, Lewis, Robinson &amp. Jones, 2012). Grapevine Network is an informal network that employees use to communicate with each other. Management of an organization may use grapevine gain relevant information that will enable the organization reaches their target. As the individual in charge of implementing grapevine informal communication, there would be a proper communication channel.
Grapevine is an effective way of communication because it helps an organization manage their employees efficiently (Guffey &amp. Loewy, 2010). The system is useful in that the workers try to comprehend themselves. The managements of various organizations do not have consent of grapevines, and it makes it useful to get information. Grapevine is a network that is appropriate for the employees as a group. Employees get to connect and share their feelings without fear of judgments (Guffey &amp. Loewy, 2010).
Playing the role of a boundary spanner in a grapevine involves representing employees in the public. Boundary spanners develop external relationship with the employees of other companies to reach their set objectives (Walker, 2012). On the group, I play the role of a boundary spanner in an effort to establish the connection with the internal and external world. An effort of a company to reach out to the community members creates a beneficial relationship.
I played the same role in the each group because boundary spanner is an effective way of understanding employee communication. The system allows distribution of information to individuals while allowing communication between employees. Boundary spanning gives employees a chance to respond to one another. It permits a scenario where the organization gets feedback from its employees. On the contrary, it does not allow employees to access the information later.
I would like to play the role of gatekeeping of filtering the information to give out management. Gatekeeping reduces confusion among employees and enhances the relationship between individuals. Filtering of information allows the organization manages their employees effectively. Gatekeeping encourages networking of workers with their peers in order to reach the objectives of the company (Curtis, 2009). Formal communication may not be able to address all the areas in an organization. Informal communication creates a crucial culture in an institution for well-organized communication. It allows workers to avoid miscommunications, which can have devastating effects on a company.
Curtis, J. (2009). Managing sticky situations at work. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Praeger/ABC-CLIO.
Drafke, M. (2009). The human side of organizations. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Fevre, R., Lewis, D., Robinson, A., &amp. Jones, T. (2012). Trouble at Work. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Guffey, M., &amp. Loewy, D. (2010). Essentials of business communication. Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning.
Walker, S. (2012). Employee Engagement and Communication Research. London: Kogan Page.

The Impact of Social Media on News

The world has experienced a change from the quintessential traditional modes of news reporting to a more social media-centric way. The transformation of social media has initiated driving the society, connecting people from all spheres of life together and giving the people a voice (Bakhurst, 2011). However, social media also raise a number of concerns such as ethical problems, lack of privacy, lack of anonymity, defamation, to name a few (Artwick, n.d).&nbsp.
Social network refers to a place or forum where people share information and communicate with one another. It connects people through interpersonal means such as interest, friendship, ideas, etc (Coyle &amp. Vaughn, 2008). As human are societal and need to require a relationship with other people, therefore, the importance of social networks cannot be denied (Coyle &amp. Vaughn, 2008, p. 13). Social media include mobile-based and web-based technologies such as podcast, social blogs, and weblogs besides magazines and other sources (Kaplan and Haenlein, 2010).
According to Kaplan and Haenlein, there are six different types of social media: collaborative projects (e.g., Wikipedia), blogs and microblogs (e.g., Twitter), content communities (e.g., YouTube), social networking sites (e.g., Face book), virtual game worlds (e.g., World of Warcraft) and virtual social worlds (e.g., Second Life).
Social networking is still the fastest-growing active social media behavior online, this is followed by updating a micro-blog such as Twitter, which increased from 13% to 24%. There are over 2.8 billion social media profiles around the world, 70 million word press and 39 million tumbler blogs worldwide.&nbsp.According to Gartner, global social media revenue is forecasted to reach $14.9 billion in 2012 and double to reach $29.1 billion by the end of 2015. There are currently over 845 million active users on Face book, 465 on Twitter and 4 billion videos viewed globally every day on Youtube.&nbsp.

Past and Current Trends in Human Services

1250 Key among them include Best Practices, Evidence-Based Practices and Integrated Health Care (the State of Michigan, 2012). Best Practice entails a certain degree of agreement on research-based knowledge and a consultative process of using this knowledge in health care delivery. On the other hand, Evidence-Based Practice involves the application of the best-known research evidence when making healthcare-based decisions. Healthcare practitioners use patient preferences and clinical expertise alongside research evidence to provide quality health care (Lippincott, 2007). Integrated Health Care entails the control and delivery of health care services with a combination of curative and preventive services. In this instance, the patients receive care based on their needs over time and across various stages of the health system.The intended outcomes of the trends in Human Services are to ensure the effective delivery of human health services. For instance, EBP requires the researcher, client, and practitioner to work together to identify circumstances that benefit all parties involved. The approach provides surety that services and treatments, when offered as intended, will produce the most effective outcomes backed up by research. Such trends should be widely disseminated to benefit the greatest number of people. However, some of the unintended consequences are related to the costs incurred in the process. While it is expensive to get quality health care, it is mandatory also to save a life.With the changing trends in the Human Services, networking is essential for all the stakeholders involved. Networking among organizations at state, national and regional levels is essential in building resilience among Human Services providers and also to enable them cope with the fast-changing environment. Networking also provides a forum for information sharing among the various stakeholders. Such networks lead to an improved service delivery in the Human Service sector.

Impacts of technology

Technological Advancement: Is a good or bad thing to our society “There will come a time when it isnt Theyre spying on me through my phone anymore.Eventually, it will be My phone is spying on me”
Thomas Dick
"Just because something doesnt do what you planned it to do doesnt mean its useless."
Thomas Alva Edison
The advent of internet has brought about significant transformations in the field of information and communication technologies, thus drastically changing the pace and scope of societies at large. People today are highly dependent on various forms of technological tools and gadgets in their day to day activities. The impact of technology can be witnessed in almost every sphere of the society be it political, social, or commercial.
These transformational effects have only grown by leaps and bounds during the decade, courtesy of innovations in the field of technology, leading to emergence of new industries – thus ushering a new era populated by cyber citizens. The greatest impact of technology can be experienced in the way we communicate. The rise of social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, and video blogging sites such as YouTube etc., has made it possible for merging of cultures beyond people from across various continents and enabled a valuable and meaningful exchange of information. It has played a key role in promoting cultural tolerance and greater political participation, empowering the citizens in the process.
However despite the varied benefits offered by the information, entertainment and communication technologies, the perils of excessive dependence on such technologies are manifold. One of the greatest challenges faced by users in the digital world includes privacy issues and identity theft. Violation of privacy has been one of the most significant enduring social issues associated with digital and electronic information technologies, globally. The article ‘Is online social club, sharing is the point until it goes too far the authors have highlighted the downside of social networking sites, mostly surrounding privacy issues, mirroring the sentiments of millions of people of this virtual lounge, who feel threatened and vulnerable due to constant threats of being stalked and misuse of their private information (The Washington Post).
The key goal of social networking sites is to enable sharing of information and free and faster exchange of information across countries. The paradox however lies in the fact that contrary to the intended benefits of the social media there are increasing reports stating the contrary. The article “Does the Internet make as lonely?” discusses the potential effects of internet and technology on the society and the manner in which it has managed to alienate people. Social scientists have indicated a drastic rise in reports stating that as more and more people are logging online the communication between family members is drastically reduced leading to increased feelings of loneliness and depression (Frazen 428).
The paradox of social networking sites is further highlighted in the article "Isolated by the internet" where the author, Clifford Stoll discusses the contribution and significance of online groups and communities for obscure medical illnesses helping the patients in sharing their concerns and recommending solutions on one hand (392) and on the other hand adversely affects the communication skills and patterns of individuals (396).
The potential impact of technology has led to the development and innovation across various disciplines including information systems, human-computer interaction, communication studies, and the likes. Furthermore it has also been widely established through research that Information and Communication Technologies, have contributed immensely towards the economic growth of nations, by enhancing productivity and blurring the geographic boundaries between nations.
Information technologies have benefited the society by enabling the development of virtual organizations thus eliminating the space and time boundaries and enhancing the productivity and profitability of organizations. However it has also resulted in several setbacks. Organizations today are dependent on information more than ever before. The successful management of such vast amount of information and data defines their status in the highly competitive external environment. Since organizations in recent times have successfully managed to transcend the time and space boundaries they are now exposed to a highly dynamic and turbulent environment, over which they have hardly any control. The expansion of virtual organizations has widened the scope of business on one hand, and on the other it has increased its interdependence, thus resulting in increased uncertainty and ambiguity (Riemer and Klien 151).
On the other hand it has also led to serious negative consequences on the economy of developing economies. Technology has largely replaced humans with machines across countries. In a bid to compete on a global level such change is inevitable. However such changes powered by technology have increased the levels of unemployment in labor-intensive countries. Also, technology entails the hiring of highly skilled professionals to handle and operate the machinery, forcing organizations to provide adequate training to their staff and investing a significant part of their budgets to accommodate such demands.
Various forms of telecommunication and entertainment tools such as text-to-voice based TRS which uses the analog technology. voice carry over technology for the senior citizens with hearing disability. speech-to-text relay service for people with speech disabilities etc., among others have contributed immensely towards the well-being of people with disabilities. The contribution of enabling technologies in assisting people with various disabilities and providing them the opportunity to participate and co-exist with the mainstream society is undisputable. The rise in work from home jobs ensures increased employment opportunities for the disabled who otherwise would have found it difficult to commute to and from their workplaces.
The use of technology in the field of healthcare has drastically improved the provision of healthcare service delivery and improved the quality of life for the patients. In a study conducted by Powell et al (1073) to assess the contribution and impact of technology in assisting carers of people with dementia it was observed that the use of technology by carers was perceived as highly beneficial and helped them overcome key challenges including the costs. Technology, in the present times, has become an integral and inevitable part of healthcare delivery. It has been documented by researchers that the use of technology as a part of solution has enabled the carers to effectively manage patients in need of long-term care and those suffering from chronic illnesses. It was observed that technology greatly benefited the carers and enabling the patients to prolong their independence and promote their well-being in the process (1074). The use of digital technologies such as networked tele-care applications, social networking services, movement sensors, webcams and tracking devices has enabled the carers to access remote areas and monitor the progress and status of their patients anytime anywhere, thus overcoming the geographical boundaries (1074).
Medical technologies have given hope to millions of people across the globe including infertile couples, heart transplant, bone marrow transplant, etc., On the other hand, it has led to increased risk of negative consequences such as human cloning, abortions, the threat of development of biological weapons etc..
Technology has allowed for increase in sharing of inventions and innovations on the internet, thus making it available to all sections of populations across the globe. It has allowed for increased sharing of information thus educating and informing the global population in the process. Countries with advanced technology can now develop new innovative products and share and market them in other developing countries thus making the benefits of technology available to one and all. It has made sharing of art and literature online and accessible to almost anyone having access to internet connectivity.
However, there has been a rapid rise in cases involving violation of intellectual property rights, digital rights management as well as blatant plagiarism thus indicating the flip side of technology. The internet has indirectly assisted in the rise of illegal activities such as plagiarism, blatant copying and imitation of well-known brands (sale of counterfeit products), and violation of intellectual property rights thus resulting in the rise of a new era signified by the ‘death of the author’ where illegal activities such as theft of intellectual property over-ride the moral and ethical obligations.
Internet technologies have assisted in the development of user-centered approaches for addressing key issues. This has greatly benefited the teachers for overcoming the barriers encountered by them while imparting knowledge to students with special educational needs. It has been established through research that technology enables effective implementation of specially designed study plans to assist students with various learning disabilities such as attention deficit disorder. dyslexia. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder etc. The use of such technologies in special education classrooms has greatly influenced the field of teaching practice and brought about massive changes in the education sector. It has also enabled the teachers and parents to overcome the discriminatory treatment of such children and paved way for their assimilation into the mainstream educational settings (Williams 543).
Cyber bullying is one of the greatest evils of technology. It essentially acts as a platform for abuse and virtual aggression and has unintentionally encouraged acts of hostility. The internet enables complete anonymity to the perpetrators thus giving them a free hand in indulging in destructive behavior online and abusing their targets who are vulnerable to such acts. It has been widely substantiated by researchers that the key target of virtual bullies mostly comprises of young children who are active in the online world, via social networking sites. Furthermore cyber bullying is known to adversely affect and interfere with student learning, and the health and well-being of the students, often resulting in suicides (McCaw, Hemphill, and Myers 8).
Internet technologies have benefited the society in general but have played a key role in improving the quality of life for the disadvantaged and minority sections of the population, in particular. The rise in e-mentoring is one such example of technology whereby the use of online media was used to transform the roles of women in professions and propel their career development. The introduction of a boundary-less career is one of the most significant branches of technology, has assisted the career development of women by introducing novel and innovative work practices. Although the effectiveness and apparent benefits of such technology are under-researched the impact of the same is highly apparent as is evident from the large number of work-from-home jobs made available by prominent organizations.
Technology is widely hailed as one of the most significant tools for contributing to the social, environmental and healthcare fields and improving the quality of life worldwide. However various authors and researchers have pointed out the risks and challenges associated with the use of technology raising societal concerns. It has been argued that over-reliance on technology and technologically assisted tools would eventually result in repetition and hence de-skilling of work thus drastically affecting the skilled workers. Furthermore it is also argued that the blurring of boundaries due to technology and creation of cyberspace would pave way for increased cybercrimes mostly due to the fact that the cyber-world almost guarantees impunity (Malanowski &amp. Compano 22).
There have been widespread debates concerning the safety of individuals in this rapidly evolving cyber-world. These concerns range from the damage caused to the environment, to the safety of communities and peaceful co-existence of the nations (Plutzer, Maney, and OConnor 191). There were significant concerns regarding the contribution of technology in assisting the scientists in developing nuclear power and weapons of mass destruction (192). The use of technology has greatly influenced the development of destructive weapons and aided in promoting the development and use of strategic defense initiatives (193).
The use of internet technologies has contributed in bringing about significant changes in the entertainment industry by drastically changing its landscape and redefining the manner in which information was used and exchanged. It has enabled the international broadcasters and other media institutions to voice their opinions freely and reach communities located at far corners of the world. The scope of broadcasting was previously limited to passive transmission of information and news to the audience. However with the introduction of new interactive technologies and invention of tools such as webcasts, podcasts and video sharing websites, the scope of international broadcasting has changed and replaced the passive one-way rendering of messages. The re-defining of scope of international broadcasting has enabled the development of new marketing strategies such as cross-branding and facilitated the process of globalization in the process.
However the increased dependence on technology has completely commercialized the media marketplace, who are now increasingly using technology for sensationalizing the news, alarming the public in the process. Digital technology has enabled increased reporting and live coverage of sensational crime stories with extremely prejudicial and dramatic portrayal by the media. Recently a prominent news channel, FOX News aired footage of a man shooting himself while reporting news of a live car chase (The Washington Post) raising serious concerns regarding the ethical and moral aspects of news reporting in the digital age.
In an age where almost all aspects of our everyday lives are governed by and centered on technology, the love/hate relationship with technology is likely to continue. Technology as experienced in contemporary times can best be described as a double-edged sword. Its promises and perils are innumerable, improving and impoverishing human lives both at the same time. This paper on the good and the bad of technology helps in understanding the implications of technology on our everyday lives as well as on the society as a whole.
Works Cited:
Cavalier, Robert. "The impact of the internet on our moral lives". New York : SUNY Press
Frazen, Axel. "Does the Internet make us lonely?" European Sociological Review. Vol. 16 (4): p. 427-438
Malanowski, N., Compano, R. "Combining ICT and cognitive science: Opportunities and risks". Emerald Group Publishing, Vol. 9 (3): 18-29
McCaw, Donna., Hemphill, Leaunda., Myers, Jill. "Responding to cyber bullying: An action tool for school leaders". Thousand Oaks, California : Corwin Press.
Plutzer, Eric., Maney, Ardith., OConnor, Robert. "Ideology and elites perceptions of the safety of new technologies". American Journal of Political Science, Vol. 42 (1). 1998: 190-209
Powell, John., Gunn, Lee., Lowe, Pam., Sheehan, Bart., Griffiths, Frances., Clarke, Aileen. "New networked technologies and carers of people with dementia: An interview study". Ageing and Society Vol.30. 2010. Cambridge Unviversity Press: 1073-1088
Riemer, Kai., Klein, Stefan. "Is the V-form the next generation organization? An Analysis of challenges, pitfalls and remedies of ICT-enabled virtual organizations based on social capital theory". Journal of Information Technology, 23. 2008: 147-162
Stoll, Clifford. “Isolated by the Internet” Kennedy, and Kennedy, 392-398.
Williams, Peter. "Using information and communication technology with special needs students: The views of frontline professionals". Emerald Publishing Group. Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, Vol. 57 (6), 2005: 539-553
The Washington Post "In Online Social Club, Sharing Is the Point Until It Goes Too Far" 2006.

The Role of InternetEnabled Platforms for Entrepreneurial Firms

102500 The paper highlights the implications of using internet-based services as well as other technological means for managing information resources in the business. On the other hand, Lawson and Samson considered the enhancement of innovation capability of a firm and the approaches for doing the same in their paper Developing Innovation Capability in Organisations: A Dynamic Capabilities Approach. The paper argues the point that innovation management can be included within organisational capabilities. Sullivan and Weerawardena in Networking capability and international entrepreneurship: How networks function in Australian born global firms concentrated on the process of internationalization of small firms with the help of innovation and technological means. The factors driving the SMEs to expand their marketplace and the role of networking were the key themes of the paper. This paper helps in understanding the roles of entrepreneurs in a larger market and how they use their technological resources for driving results. Realizing Product-Market Advantage in High-Technology International New Ventures: The Mediating Role of Ambidextrous Innovation Hughes et al. (2010) analyzed the role of the ambidextrous innovation process in the strategic decision-making and performance of firms in relation to high-technological use. Apart from these resources, other journals used in the study also conform to the criteria of ABS. The researcher has ensured that all the sources are authentic and cited in other academic papers also.

The Use of PolicyBased Network Management

Policy-based Network Management or PBNM is the network management that is based on policy. The policy is the blend of regulations and services where these rules and regulations illustrate the conditions for resource access and management. A policy is appropriately described as a grouping of policy rules (Kenneth, 1998). Every policy rule is consists of a set of consequent set of events and conditions. The condition describes when the policy rule is can be implemented. Once, a policy rule is so started one or supplementary actions controlled by that policy rule may possibly then be executed. These events or actions are linked with either meeting or not meeting the set of conditions described in the policy rule (Mark, 1999).
The mission of managing information technology resources turned out to be more and more complex as managers have to take heterogeneous systems, dissimilar networking applications, and scattered applications into concern. As the number of resources to be administered raises the assignment of managing these devices and applications depends on several systems and dealer related matters. To avoid the operators from going down in too much point, the stage of pensiveness have need of to be raised in order to conceal system and network particulars. Strategies which are a follow-on from the objectives of management describe the preferred performance of distributed heterogeneous networks and systems, and state means to implement this conduct. The policy offers a way of identifying and dynamically altering management approach with no coding policy addicted to the implementation. Policy-based management has a lot of reimbursements of bringing steady, accurate, and understandable network systems. The profit of policy-based management will cultivate as network systems turn out to be extra intricate and offer additional services like QoS and security service (Westerinen et al, 2001).
This part of the paper will present different studies regarding Policy-based Network&nbsp.Management and its implementation.&nbsp.

Employee Improvement at Hotels Com

It is no more based on comparative prices but consumers look for the overall experience. Customers share views, opinions and suggestion through the social networking sites. The growth potential in the industry is tremendous despite strong competition. These challenges can be overcome by changing its strategy. needs to learn what the customers say about the company and its services. This information can help them in enhancing the customer experience and this information can be collected by linking to social networking sites.
Globalization has made the markets turbulent while the purchasing power in the hands of the people has increased. Technology has changed the way people live, work or search for information. The Internet has made information access quicker, cheaper and easier. The marketers and service providers also benefit as they are able to advertise and even sell their products and services through the internet. Internet today has become a new distribution channel while bringing the customers closer to them. The hospitality industry to has benefited immensely through the use of the internet. Quality service is a major challenge in this millennium. The airlines and the hoteliers are increasingly relying on the internet as a means to reach their products to the customers. At the click of the mouse, it is now possible to book an air seat or reserve a hotel room anywhere across the globe. According to an article by Bavik (2008), “internet creates a faster and better communication, which makes it easy to identify and to target a customer base”. Because of this convenient device companies should try to provide good service by the internet where people like to communicate. is an internet company offering 70,000 properties worldwide ranging from hotels to bed-and-breakfasts to condos to all-inclusive resorts.

INF Contemporary Problems in IT

An organization uses an efficient code of ethics for many purposes: although two important ones are: A code of ethics should 1) explain gray areas or queries employees have regarding organizational principles and opportunists and 2) assist in building confidence and dedication.
Codes of ethics are designed to increase ethical potential, Legitimize discussion regarding ethical matters, support ethical judgment, avoid bad behavior supply a foundation for enforcement, responsibility and accountability provisions (Akula, 2000).
One thing that differs for IT professionals, though, is the amount and variety of codes of conduct that the IT professional may refer to in his attempt to achieve the best ethical business solution in any morally ambiguous business computing situation. In conjunction with this difference is the lack of any real teeth to the IT professionals’ codes of ethics: the codal disciplinary provisions are only as binding as the codes are, and these codes are not legally binding. As the environment of commerce produces ever additional complex, especially in the development and provision of information technology, and more global, the need for one comprehensive code of ethics for IT professionals becomes even more advisable. With the advent of more than a few formal codes of ethics ready by various IT professionals’ relations, a more harmonized approach seems to be called for (Allmon, 1990).
Information technology has faced so many changes over the last decade. These changes include information distribution, ways of networking and so many other ways. At the same time, the people using computers have started to use the computer for computational purposes. The people who are attached to the information technology field would be agreed with the analogous advancement in ethical consciousness and thoughts about related issues. There is an obvious ethical space when we are going& deal with local, national, and worldwide issues.

Social Networking and Learning

The IT department at CPUT places communication at the core of teaching and learning for IT students in order to develop critical soft skills (Sylvester and Greenidge, 2010). Computer-mediated teaching and learning at the institution enhance communication which facilitates the development of cognitive skills of students (Alcock, 2009). The university resolved to this form of learning due to student under-preparedness, lack of student engagement in the classroom, link theory and practice, and to give students the necessary 21st-century skills (Greenhow, 2009). Instructors work with students in the classroom and students can access notes from the social sites. The young generation is more experienced in tactic knowledge sharing tools via the internet that they can apply in-class work (Warschauer, 2009). Recent studies indicate that about 79.31 percent of the IT students engaged in virtual learning find the system very convenient. This is due to the fact that social sites are accessible from different places both in the institution and at home (Knight and Rochon, 2012).
Over the past years, virtual learning has gained popularity among IT students due to its ease of use. The use of technology creates flexibility in the learning process and exposes students to different learning environments (Razmerita, Kircher and Sudzina, 2009). Social networks have increased the potential of e-learning as a mode of educational delivery. Learners have uninterrupted learning platforms that require minimum instructor supervision. Traditional learning methods depend on static learning environments such as classrooms, laboratories, teaching methods (Romm-Livermore and Setzekorn, 2009). This limits the flexibility of the learning process to include dynamic learning methods. The use of social networks among IT students enables them to be more creative and innovative within the technology sector (Lindberg and Olofsson, 2010). However, social media has some disadvantages when used as a learning platform (Dickson and Holley, 2010). Its efficiency and mobility require continuous accessibility of the internet in order to access learning materials. In most cases, social networking sites are utilized for leisure, and some students find it difficult to utilize the same platform for learning purposes. This reduces the efficiency and the extent to which this platform is an adequate source of knowledge (Wankel, 2010).
Learning about professionalism occurs through collaboration whereby peer groups are important sources of information and support for students. Professionalism begins in the undergraduate education stage for IT students. This entails developing work ethics, behavior, and attitude as well as accumulating knowledge (Dickson and Holley, 2010). Professionalism helps in the public and private aspects of identity and develops through interaction with others. Some IT students post unprofessional content on social networking sites, which is a negative reflection of their professionalism. However, social networking sites, media-sharing sites, wikis, and blogs provide an interaction arena where socialization and peer collaborations boost the development of professionalism (Kolek and Saunders, 2008). This helps form the professional identity of undergraduate students while still in college. Current studies indicate that over 90 percent of undergraduate students use social networking sites. Students utilize them mostly for peer interaction, but some of them exploit their educational potential. Peer groups among undergraduates are important sources of learning and social networks facilitate knowledge exchange (Dasgupta, 2010).
Social networking sites have been used in areas of computing and civil engineering according to Nicol et al. (2009). These sites are peer collaborations that provide a resource that can be utilized as a platform for enhancing knowledge acquisition. Students learn by consulting various sources and by sharing objectives through the virtual learning environment. Students connected through social sites can share web resources and links related to educational content. They also create an online space that engages students through reflections and assessments of internet resources. Students engage with these sites by posting content, commenting on posts, viewing posts, and sharing updated posts. Weblinks posted on social sites act as the main source of information to peer groups (Chan and Cmor, 2009). When peers come across good educational resources they post their links on the social sites. This makes it easy for other students to access the information, which would be otherwise hard to find.
Caruso and Salaway (2008) found that 49.7 percent of students in the U.S use social sites to communicate with peers about course-related topics. Ipsos MORI (2008) found that 37 percent of first-year undergraduate students in the UK use these sites to discuss coursework. Feature incorporated in social networking sites makes it possible to support the personalization of student-generated content. Facebook features encourage students to engage in creative social learning processes that extend beyond traditional learning processes and institutions. This increases the benefits accrued from wide and diverse sources of information (Greenhow, 2009). Students utilize opportunities provided by educational competitions available on social networking sites. Students in the IT and computing world have a wide range of application development competitions that expand their creativity. Facebook supports development competitions that are available to students all over the world. This provides IT students with a learning opportunity that is not available in the traditional learning environment (Alcock, 2009).

Research Article Review Paper (PAS)

This retrospective phenomenological study seeks to find the influence of PA on long-term psychological measures. A correlation between these domains and evidence of parental alienation will be drawn from evidence obtained through a survey.
The authors embarked to investigate the differences between those who reported an experience of PA and those who did not. The population of interest is composed of adult children who experienced divorce at childhood. The researchers seek to identify symptoms of parental alienation syndrome from the study subjects. In recruiting sample subject in the study, the researchers have used convenience sampling. Convenience sampling enables the recruitment of study subjects in a location where they are most likely to be found. This is because the sample the researcher is interested in may not be uniformly distributed in the general population.
The sampling thus is done by recruiting potential subjects from social networking websites and Listerv groups which have specialized in adult children of divorce. In adopting this sampling technique, the authors are aware that the population of interest is not evenly distributed in the general population and convenience sampling will ensure sample size is saturated making it reliable and representative of the population of interest. This is vital in transferring the findings to population of interest.
This correlation study seeks to investigate relations between various variables that are measures of effect of PA in adult childhood. It is possible that there may be no correlation, or there may be a positive or negative correlation. Two prominent research designs employed in correlation studies include naturalistic observation and survey method. Albeit, the former may have offered the best chance to the researchers to interact with research subjects in the field thereby providing them with rich information in

Role of Television in Stereotyping

One of the key reasons why television bears the blame is that women’s role and portrayal on television has remained constant although a few insignificant changes have been made. The reason for this is that one, the woman is depicted as an overly feminine object only capable of executing “female” roles in films, advertisements, and programs. For instance, men still play hero roles in most films, mostly protecting, saving, or tormenting women. Additionally, advertisements portray women as attractive objects used to market things by use of their sexual appeal.
The final evidence regarding the preservation of cultural stereotyping is racial segregation in films. There is still white domination in most films, with the people of colour playing mostly secondary roles, or being portrayed as inferior, unintelligent, criminals, or slaves. In short, an above average of television broadcasts places the white man above the black, or the black playing secondary to the white. One of the key examples is the film The Gods Must Be Crazy which portrayed a black man as being overly primitive.
The 21st century has brought with it digitalization which has in turn given birth to digital networks and communities. Unlike in real-life communities where contact, communication, conflicts and all other aspects of life are done face to face, the same is virtually executed on these digital communities. This, therefore, presents a twofold scenario when it comes to socializing. it can either foster or degrade it. Again, there is a danger in that owing to its virtual nature, digital networking is easy to manipulate thus give rise to virtual creations which may not exist in reality. What this means is that digital communities allow people to “write” themselves, meaning they can create multiple personalities of who they are not.

British Media

There is also a difference between quality and popular newspaper where the former projects international and national news but will have politically biased content while popular papers are consumed by readers who are minorly educated. Language and layout of the quality paper are precise whereas popular paper gives news in fancy layout and less authentic language. It could be said that the quality of journalism has increased due to the arrival of social media.

The diversity of news broadcasting also has increased with the incoming of social media. Moreover, users can research their news-related and also can broadcast through blogs and updates on social networking sites. However, it is sad that in my home country government does censor the press and regulate news which is broadcasted.

Impact of Technology on society

Lastly, health smart homes are utilized instead of separate medical facilities, resulting in significant cost savings. All these technologies are equipped with wireless communication devices that will deliver value, convenience, quality health care and a better life for the patients. Hence mobile computing devices enable and facilitate caregivers and health care cooperative roles instant access to patient information on a common platform or knowledge base regardless of geographical location.
Studies revealed that for improving the quality of health care, monitoring mechanisms must be efficient and effective. The effective monitoring mechanism will transfer information related to vital signs accurately and robustly, resulting in an instant transfer of medical information and response time from a caregiver or doctor. However, to make the monitoring mechanism effective, there is no solution so far except the integration of social networking sites empowered with mobile computing called as Mobile Health Monitoring (MHM) (Brahnam amp. Jain, ). After the integration, these systems have proven to be efficient and reliable, as they facilitate continuous connectivity of patient’s vital signs to the caregiver or doctors (Brahnam amp. Jain,). (Brahnam amp. Jain,) Magrabi along with other researchers has constructed a web based system that will be utilized for monitoring patients located at home and suffering from a disease called as cystic fibrosis. The system is fully equipped and works in a standard browser that becomes active whenever new data of a patient is transmitted. Moreover, the system also reviews patient medical history and sends reminders and suggestions via email to both the caregiver and the patient as well (Brahnam amp. Jain,). However, one problem is not addressed yet, i.e. absence of instant monitoring mechanism of the patient’s body, as it will be achievable by incorporating sensors attached to the body. In contrast, the mobile health

Company Sustainable Development

The sustainable business operations have greatly benefited the TMC to improve its competitive edge and strengthen its financial position. Toyota has been successful in making their customers aware of the company’s environmental sustainability efforts. The organization increasingly relies on sustainability reports and social networking sites to communicate its sustainability initiatives to the company stakeholders.
The emergence of globalization eliminated international trade barriers and thus intensified the cross-border flow of capital, labor, ideas, and cultures. Evidently, globalization and the resulted fast industrial expansion contributed to various issues like global warming, climate change, water pollution, and increased energy consumption, which in turn pose potential threats to the long-term sustainability of the environment today. There has also been a notable increase in the population growth over the last two decades, and that worsened the condition. Researchers indicate that world’s current non-conventional energy sources will be consumed out if people and organizations continue to consume the energy at the current rate. Therefore, it is necessary to limit the use of conventional energy sources, maintain water quality, and take other environmental actions to meet the needs of future generations. However, companies like Toyota have adopted the concept of sustainable development to drive environment-conscious growth and thereby enjoy wider market acceptance. TMC encourages and establishes innovative technologies to reduce the environmental impacts of its business operations and inspires local communities to support the company’s environmental efforts. In this context, it is relevant to explore how a company can pursue sustainable development in order to contribute to the competitive edge and financial position.

Impact of ICT on Every Aspect of Life


ICTs have connected the people together through social networking provided by mobile phones, personal computers and internet. People are able to help each other and even get married by means of this electronic means of interaction. Distance doesn’t matter since people are only a phone call away from each other. This way people travel more often for business or pleasure and still manage to stay connected at office or home. International trade has been increased with the help of information and communication technologies. This global trade includes goods and services being exchanged among different nations. Service industries which especially include public relations and public communication management have also experienced high growth in productivity and profitability by adopting ICTs (Sapprasert 2010). Call centers and software houses are the most successful examples of international trade taking place in terms of services. Thus, the developed countries get their required services at a very low rate while the developing and underdeveloped countries benefit from the foreign trade which brings earning opportunities and reduces poverty for them. The interdependency of different economies resulting through globalization has also brought challenges along with its benefits. such challenges include the current economic crisis worldwide, internet scams, etc.

Facebook Addictions

People socialize through facebook. They feel connected to the whole world on facebook. It is because of such a strategic design of facebook that hardly anyone would think of spending time on it as a waste of time. Facebook offers people an opportunity to search lost friends the easiest way. It has become more of a necessity than a fashion in the modern technological age and people have started to rely on it not only for casual gossips but also for important business information and business deals. If you have a business contact who requests to be your Facebook friend, you’re probably in good shape with that particular contact. (Treadaway and Smith, 2010).
Facebook, the popular networking site, has 350 million members worldwide who, collectively, spend 10 billion minutes there every day, checking in with friends, writing on people’s electronic walls, clicking through photos and generally keeping pace with the drift of their social world. (Hafner, 2009).
The addiction to Facebook is not normally viewed as an addiction although it contains all the aspects of addiction. Many lose themselves in it. They waste all their time on it because it interferes with their lives often times putting beside more important things such as good hygiene, paying bills. Children go to such limits that they even let it interfere with their work and school. People get so involved that when they do not have access or can not access Facebook they start to exhibit signs of withdrawal. The feeling arising as a result of such a withdrawal is not very different from that offered by social exclusion. Literature that refers to Facebook as an addiction is expanding beyond horizons. It is a psychophysiological disorder involving tolerance. withdrawal symptoms. affective disturbances. and interruption of social relationships. The most common one is Facebook Addiction Disorder (FAD).


Wireless Networking, Broadband and WIKIs are all new terms brought about by the changes, and they add to peoples ability to communicate with each other on a global basis.
Internet connections connect us with any type of research we can imagine within seconds. We also have the ability to freely conduct business, get an education or network with others, via these connections.
…is the defining trend of the world. Its driven by clearly identifiable, political, economic and technological changes that have removed barriers of contact across national borders… (2004, p. 35).
In the last twenty years, people have gained many things through the use of technology. They have been exposed to advertisements touting beautiful women and men with expensive cars and lifestyles. Life was once simple. Women didnt try as hard to look like models and gender bending meant something different than it does now. Because of this, people are obsessed with body image. They can change every aspect of the body through a variety of methods. Plastic surgery is now routine, fat goes away with liposuction, silicone implants increase breast size. These treatments were once hidden by those who were doing it, but now its become common place.
Before technology, and up until the last few years, everyone wanted to look younger. This was emphasized through the media and created new diseases like anorexia and bulimia. However, as Baby Boomers age, they are more into looking good and showing their real selves. Although there is still a strong market for anti-aging products like wrinkle creams, the Dove Pro-age campaign created products, advertising and billboards geared towards real women and helped older women accept that though they were growing older, they werent ugly.
Sex has changed since the late 1980s when HIV/AIDS came into global importance. People all over the world had to talk about sex more openly and had to redefine how they did sex. Altman states, AIDS is both a


Metropolitan- area Ethernet also known as metro Ethernet refers to a MAN (Metropolitan Area Network) which is based on Ethernet standards. Mainly, it’s used to connect subscribers to a larger service network. Also, this network can be used by businesses network administrators to connect offices to each other. This service is offered by a wide range of service providers including Comcast. This service is mainly preferred due to its advantages.
Metro Ethernet is easy to use. This service is provided over a widely available, well understanding and standard Ethernet interface. In this type of metropolitan Area Network, all networking equipment are virtually hosted and connected to the network using Ethernet. Thus using the Ethernet to interconnect such services makes it easier for network operations, administration, and management and provisioning. Comcast is using this advantage of Metro Ethernet to attract more customers in California and its environs. As a result, more subscribers are joining this service.
The Comcast metro network service is cost effective. Metro Service has characteristics that favor its cheap service. Metro Ethernet service has broad usage in all networking products. The inexpensiveness of the Ethernet interface makes it cheaper in all networking services. Secondly, the cost of equipment, service and operational is cheap. This makes Ethernet services to be cheaper. Comcast allows its subscribers to add bandwidth more incrementally. as a result each customer purchases the bandwidth according his / her use. Comcast has sub – divided its services into three classes. These classes offer different services at different bandwidth. These are premium, basic and priority. These services are offered in 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, and 10000 Gbps to Ethernet users and these interfaces and are available in an increment of 1Mbps to 10Gps.
The Ethernet service provided by Comcast has the following specifications. It has Ethernet user – to – network interface. This service facilitates provision of bidirectional, full duplex transmission of Ethernet frames using standard IEEE 802.3 Ethernet interface (Comcast, 2013). This service supports up to 100 UNIs.
Comcast manages its network by restricting traffic flow of a subscriber to the amount subscribed. In case the customer exceeds it’s the subscription rate, the traffic is discarded.
Works Cited
Comcast. (2013). Ethernet Network Service. Retrieved March 10, 2013, from Ethernet Network Service Technical Description:

Social Networing

This essay discusses thatnbsp.the early social networking practices were focused on bringing people to a common platform by using chat rooms. With the advanced information technology, the social networking practices have become more viral in nature. Social networking activities have started impacting people in various ways.nbsp.
According to the report findings the primary aim of social networking is to expand the contact base by connecting to various people. Almost all social networking sites try to build their platform towards this common goal. May be the purpose of connecting an individual differs from one social networking site to another but ultimately it is all about connecting to people. For instance, LinkedIn will be used by people who love to develop their professional contacts whereas SparkLives will be used by people who share a common interest, healthy living. Likewise, there are numerous other social networking platforms that are dedicated to a particular domain. People who understand the purpose of networking would get benefit from these dedicated communities or networking sites.nbsp.Globalization is making world smaller by breaking country barriers and social networking fueling this globalization in various ways.nbsp.Globalization is what making global economy much stronger. With the increasing social networking activities for past 10 years, the world has become much smaller as people from various countries interact and share information on a single platform.

Week 6 class discussions

Information Technology Security Information Technology Security Week 6 Discussion Cryptography means secrete writing (Coron, 2006). The main aim of cryptography is to protect the content of the message from unauthorized persons or programs. It ensures that communication between two devises happen securely over an insecure channel. Steganography means hiding of information in order not to be detected. It is advantageous to cryptography as the hidden message will not attract any audience. Watermarking involves embedding information to a host signal (Jiang, 2010). It operates with the principle of robustness to be safe against any attacks. Watermarking communication usually takes place in a one-to-many communication system while steganography communication takes place in a point-to-point communication. Both stenography and watermarking hide the content and existence of the message while cryptography hides the content but not the existence of the message, they are therefore mutually exclusive (Stefan amp. Fabien, 2000). Watermarking, cryptography, and stenography aim at securing messages from attackers.
The benefits of ADS outweigh the risks as files can be hidden on an NTFS hard disk in a way that is difficult to detect as long as there are proper security features to handle them and system administrators are aware of the streams. If Microsoft discontinues support of ADS in future versions of its operating system, the forensic industry would suffer a big blow as it would not be able to find most of the copies of some work for its forensic investigations. This is because streams are retained if a file is copied with ADS to another NTFS, which is very important for forensics.
Week 6 Discussion 2
The most significant obstacle to successful backing up data and/or recovering data for forensic investigators is lack of cooperation from the management (Wiles amp. Rogers, 2007). The management is responsible at providing funds and direction regarding backing up and recovering of data. However, due to many computer malpractices many managers get involved into, they fear that they might be caught one day when a forensic investigation is done and therefore might not fully cooperate in regard to backing up and recovering done for forensic purposes.
Forensic investigation is normally done to unearth the vices done in an organization. The results of forensic investigation are normally taken to law courts for legal actions to be taken. In the event that a system forensic is to be done, many people in the case normally do the much they can to destroy evidence in the computers. They do this through destroying computer systems, deleting information, burning computers, or even passing magnetic objects over hard disk with an aim of destroying any evidence (Vacca, 2008). If this is the case, such are information recovered and used for forensic investigations. Backup and recovery is therefore critical to the system forensics process to determine the potential effects on an investigation.
Week 6 Discussion 3
The physical security features observed include security guards, fencing including electric fence, alarm system, fire extinguisher, surge protectors, one door under lock, labeled equipment, locking the CPU, and placing backup sites away from the place of operation.
Week 6 Discussion 4
Information security threats at my house
My household information technology infrastructure will be vulnerable to the following threats: Virus attacks, password stealing, hardware and software theft, deletion of data, fire, and the power problems.
Protecting the system against the threats
The implementation will involve creating strong passwords, securing my house by locking it when not available, and installing antivirus software to protect the computer from malicious attacks, encrypting messages before sending, locking the CPU to prevent hardware theft components, using power surges and uninterruptible power supply, and fixing power extinguisher.
Reviewing and updating the plan
New threats emerge every day. The plan will therefore be reviewed and updated periodically to cater for new threats and any information technology infrastructure added at home.
Coron, J. S. (2006). What is cryptography? IEEE Security and Privacy, 4(1), p. 70-73.
Jiang, X. (2010). Digital watermarking and its application in image copyright protection. In 2010 International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation, ICICTA 2010, May 11, 2010 – May 12, 2010. Changsha, China: IEEE Computer Society.
Stefan, K. amp. Fabien A. P. (2000). Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking.
Vacca, J. R. (2008). Computer forensics: Computer crime scene investigation. New York, NY: Cengage Learning.
Wiles, J. amp. Rogers, R. (2007). Techno Securitys Guide to Managing Risks for IT Managers, Auditors, and Investigators. Security amp. Networking, Syngress, 1.

Building your marketing plan/ week 2

Marketing Plan Marketing Plan for Italian and Mexican Restaurant 3/11 [Type the company [Type the Contents Contents Identification of Trends 2
Social and Economic 2
Technological Factors 2
Competitive Forces 2
Regulatory Trends 2
Consumer Analysis 3
Market Size 4
References 6
Identification of Trends
Social and Economic
It has been observed that the young professionals and working families tend to avoid cooking in home due to time constraints issues. Increasing family commitments, work requirements as well as strong social preferences to dine out, therefore, seem to be the trends which will continue to dominate the market segment.
It is, however, important to understand that with the current economic situation in place where the overall disposable income has decreased and unemployment level increased, customers may shy away from eating out and rather prefer to save on food related expenses too.
Technological Factors
Though food business may not be directly affected by the technology, however, the use of social networking websites may help to boost the business. Such websites can be of great help in spreading the word of mouth, they can also increase the overall competition as too many businesses may be marketed by the users themselves.
Competitive Forces
Since the overall entry and exit barriers are low due to low capital requirements to enter into the business, there may be a relatively higher number of competitors entering and existing in the market at the same time. It is, however, important that quality of the food offered at reasonable prices can really work as the differentiation factor to withstand the competition.
Regulatory Trends
Since food is directly consumed by the customers, the issues like quality control and health related matters may attract regulatory attention. Restaurants, therefore, will have to maintain a certain level of hygiene and health standards in order to continue to comply with regulatory environment.
Consumer Analysis
The proposed product will be aimed at young people and working families who look for ready to eat Mexican and Italian food offered at affordable prices. The overall market segment, therefore, will be based upon two separate groups of customers, i.e. youngsters and professional individuals maintaining any kind of relationship.
This segment of the business is growing as increasing pressures to maintain their jobs and balance time between work and family may force such individuals to buy food from outside to save time. Similarly, youngsters who earn will also be our target market because of their mobile life style. Since our food menu will be offered at relatively affordable prices, both these segments of the business are our target market.
Market Size
Most of US population is an urban population, therefore giving a very large pool of customers to serve the Italian and Mexican food in the urban areas. 67% of US population is within the age range of 15-64 years, thus making it one of the largest chunks of the overall population to be served (CIA World Factbook, 2012). Further, the overall income levels for the age 25+ years is over $20,000 per year, suggesting that our target market has enough purchasing power to afford eating food from outside. It is also critical to note that a larger segment of population resides within our target market, offering a very good opportunity to our business to cater to the needs of this segment.
CIA World Factbook. (2012). USA. Retrieved March 09, 2012, from CIA World Factbook:

Role play

1. Have good analytical listening skills. This ability does play a significant role in leadership, for only through listening can one be able to gather as much information as possible. The modern leaders of our society that innovated the prosperity of their organizations, as well as nations, talk less and listen more. This is mainly because in listening to outsiders they can branch out of their comfort zones where everything is alright and learn of the emerging problems being incurred. In my leadership position, I utilize my analytical listening abilities by first surrounding myself with trustworthy individuals who can talk a lot and address problems experienced objectively. From this activity am also able to evaluate all the information that is supplied directly to me and thus be able to analyze how best to use this information. I do not seclude myself to only listening to the positive but majorly listen to the critical information to fully understand the depth of the problem and analyze how it can be sorted out.
2. Ability to persevere, deal with volatility as well as adapt to changes incurred. Great leaders always create a volatility plan in place in order to implement it, should a volatile season occur. This helps to keep them on the alert and also enhance the chances of the organization dealing with volatility in an appropriate manner. In my experience volatility mainly occurs with investments and the ability to adapt to the new nature of the environment is vital and it should be done with a remembrance of perseverance. I do this in order to be able also to support and help my employees towards enduring volatile seasons of investment. I usually do have very tight plans already drawn up to necessitate some business and changes incurred during these seasons.
3. Can conduct open networking and manage relationships. Technology has transformed the modern ways of networking in business and globally a leader should

The impact of modern technology ( mobile phone and the internet) on young people

This paper provides a critical analysis of the impact of modern technology on young people.
The proliferation of the Internet and online growth has facilitated novel societal trends and business opportunities through the piecemeal evolution of electronic commerce, thereby creating a new social and business model accommodating the contemporary market and thereby redefining youth culture. The creation of multi-faceted digital space has seen a significant uptake by youth on a global scale, thereby perpetuating a domino effect on culture, sub-cultures and social behaviour through the commercialisation of youth on the one side to changing communication trends with social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace and Bebo on the other (Cross, 2004: 3).
Moreover, this directly correlates with the fact that 70-90% of teenagers have access to the Internet at home and the commercialisation of youth has led to market segmentation and a changing consumer market, forcing retailers to adopt a multi-retailer strategy geared towards the youth market (Levy amp. Weitz, 2008: 27).
This has in turn created polarity in debate relating to the wider impact on youth of modern technology, which is the focus of this paper. For example, the diversity of social spaces through networks such as Facebook, internet chat rooms and MySpace for example not only changes the way in which teenagers interact, it provides a backdrop for a multitude of complex interrelated factors, which are difficult to monitor (Barabasi, 2003: 10).
On the one side of the spectrum is the issue regarding commercialisation of youth through modern technology with its concurrent impact on multi-retail strategy. This is further highlighted by the increasing influence of media on youth through the deregulation of the media. The Communications Act 2003 deregulates the media in the UK to permit more cross ownership models and integration and under the Act the Office of Communication

Over sharing of information on social networks

However, a vast majority of the social media users have resorted to sharing too much information that may compromises their integrity (Solomon 111). In essence, oversharing of information is a major problem in most networking sites, especially those with largely unregulated policies. In this regard, many people tend to share inappropriate content or too much personal information in on the social networks and this amount to oversharing of information in such platforms (MOAC 28). This paper therefore, examines the current trends, contributing factors, and impacts of oversharing of information on social networks.
Essentially, social media include all the sites in the internet that enable free interaction of people from different parts of the world. In such interaction, people can easily share multimedia files such as videos, images, and texts (Rasquinha). The use of social media enhances communication in a number of aspects. For instance, people can be able to chat online via the social networking sites besides having the option of doing online business. Initially, most people had the perception that social media was a tool that only friends and peers could use to interact especially in various situations (Solomon 111). Nonetheless, the mushrooming of various social networking sites, especially in the 21st century, has seen more individuals, corporates, and organization embrace the use of social media fully. One reason attributed to this is that one is able to reach and communicate to a large audience via social networking sites that in any other channel. The main social networking sites include Facebook, twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn, You tube, Blogger, MySpace, and Flickr (Mergel 87).
Although the main use of social networking sites is social interaction, as the name suggests, the integration of various services in such sites has attracted a number of specialized clientele over the years (Rasquinha). In turn, this scenario has

Virus Detection Software

A computer network, commonly known as a network, is a compilation of hardware apparatus and computers interconnected by channels of communication that have the same opinion to sharing of information and resources. In that case, one procedure in one device is capable to send or receive data to and from at any rate, and a procedure resides in a remote machine, then the two systems are considered to be networked (David, 2006, P.56). In essence, people categorize networks depending on a variety of traits. For instance, the medium employed to transfer the data, protocols of communications used, topology, scale, and organizational scope. Such mechanisms define the architecture of modern computer networks.
Network architecture denotes the design of the network, comprising of the software, hardware, communication protocols, connectivity and form of transmission, for example, wireless or wired. According to research, categorizations of different forms of networks exist according to the regions covered such as MAN, LAN, and WAN (Debashis, 2003, P. 38). There seem to be loads of communication protocols employed in the technology of networking. Consequently, it is considerate to know concerning the modern network architecture as networks play an extremely important position in today’s humanity.
In other definition, network architecture denotes the structural layout and logic of the network consisting of equipment of transmission, communication protocols, software, and infrastructure broadcast of statistics and connectivity between components. There are four diverse network topologies. These include ring network, star network, mesh network, and bus network. Such diverse topologies occur in a different fashion defined as Local Area Network, Metropolitan Area Network, and Wide Area Network.

Fast media report

Fast Media Report al Affiliation) Not consuming any media for eight hours was the most terrifying thing that can be imagined in today’s life. At the beginning of the exercise, I was feeling good and thought that life will be as normal. However as time went by, I noticed that my mood changed and I started experiencing withdrawal symptoms. Without communicating to my family, friends, and colleagues, I felt so lonely and secluded and the life was almost unbearable (Simon, 2010). It was very difficult to keep up without any of the social media networks, not knowing how your friends and family are now and then, in addition to missing the details and information that the social media provides.
The media that was most difficult to avoid was the phone. This is because with the phone am able to access internet, emailing, text messaging, face book and tweeting. In addition, am able to stay in touch with my family members, friends, and colleagues in all corners of the planet with so much ease and at the same time manage projects with teams in different cities within the shortest time possible. Without the phone, I missed my old routine of constant checking my emails, Facebook, and texting with my friends and colleagues. I love the information sharing through the social media platforms and so life without it was very intriguing to me (Simon, 2010).
Midway through the exercise, I was feeling isolated and lonely. I imagined that I already had received several calls that I could not answer. I felt the urge and need to check my emails and could only imagine the news and information I was missing in face book and other social media platforms. The dependency was sickening and sucking and I felt that I was on a deserted island where nobody cared about my well-being. The temptation to access the social media platforms kept occurring almost all the time during the eight hours. The eight hours seemed like a month to me and I could not wait to go back to my old routine of social networking, text messaging, emailing, and keeping in touch with all the people I interacted with (Simon, 2010).
The media that I missed most was my phone. It was hard for me to go without listening to music that I have stored in my phone. Listening to music when am walking, studying or just doing some chores around the house helps in keeping my moods right. Lack of music forced me to interact with people, open up conversations with people I never used to interact with just to fix my moods. A background that is too quite makes it difficult for me to focus or concentrate on what am doing and other things that are not even relevant keep carrying my mind away. The background noise of my music keeps me focused and relaxed throughout the day together with fixing my mind.
At the conclusion of the exercise, I learnt that am deeply addicted to the social media platforms. However, I found out that I become more social in real life without the social media. This is because am able to have actual conversations with other people in order to avoid boredom and loneliness. In addition, I was able to appreciate the presence and the role played by the social media platforms in today’s life for helping people to remain connected with their family members, friends, and colleagues despite the distance between them. One is able to accomplish projects, plans, and timelines easily and faster through the social media platforms (Simon, 2010).
Simon, B. (2010). How is the internet changing the way you think? Retrieved from:

Develop business aptitude skills


Develop Business Aptitude Skills INTRODUCTION Establishing an effective business networking has long been witnessed to ensure adequate opportunities for the entrepreneurs to build a productive relationship with different commercial institutions and potential clients. In relation to the concept of business networking, the process can be termed as a practice of building mutual and beneficial relationships with different business organizations along with potential customers within a particular marketplace (Wickham amp. Wickham 3-78). Keeping with the fundamental aspects of business networking processes, the primary aim of this report is to critically justify the evidences of a successful and effective business networking approach. In this regard, the report would be focused on determining the significance of developing an effective business network through the use of networking techniques which can facilitate to clearly communicate the services to the potential clients. Moreover, the business networking plan would further ensure to incorporate other peer business organizations and encourage them to act as a referral for the start up organization to the potential clients. 2. SUPPORTING EVIDENCES DEMOSTRATING THE EFFECTIVENES OF BUSINESS NETWORK An effective business networking process includes a range of attributes that are highly essential for the entrepreneurs to build long-term relationships with clients and other business enterprises as well. In relation to the evolving scenario of the contemporary business environment, an effective business network should facilitate to establish a strong relationship with the community which can be generated from maintaining adequate compliance with strong regulatory processes, bestowing unyielding commitment along with upholding quality practices (Wickham amp. Wickham 3-78). Establishing Relationship with the Community Building relationship with the community can be regarded as a primary step which can ensure adequate opportunity to the business organization for promoting its various business related services. In this context, the practices would be focused on promoting mutual benefits for both business and community. Additionally, adopting adequate community developmental measures would also enable to shape effective relationships with the community. Establishing relationship with the community would further facilitate the business network to widely practice its various business activities within a particular marketplace (Wickham amp. Wickham 3-78). Relationship with the Similar Business Owners An effective relationship with the similar business owners would also enable the business network to develop the practices as well as the performances within the respective business environment. The relationship with the other business owners can be developed through offering mutual benefit which can aid to build a strong relationship with the other business owners. Moreover, promoting the products or services of the partner organizations would facilitate to derive adequate cooperation of the other business owners within the business networking process (Gwinnett Network, Develop Your Business Networking Skills). 3. ADDRESSING THE MOST EFFECTIVE NETWORKING TECHNIQUES In relation to the present day context, there are numerous techniques through which an entrepreneur can build effective business network. A few of the major techniques of business networking have been briefly highlighted in the following discussion. Building Trust and Reputation Building trust or empowering reputation can be regarded as one of the major techniques for an organization in terms of building its effective networking process. In this context, the depiction of adequate integrity as well as honesty of helping partners and/or developing community can support the organization to build trust and reputation within a specific marketplace (Gwinnett Network, Develop Your Business Networking Skills). Seeking Relevant Business Owners and Partners The continuous process of integrating new business owners and partners across different marketplaces can also enable the business network to develop its functions and competence to achieve its desired business objectives. Therefore, the proposed business networking plan would be focused on emphasizing community and trade grouping wherein the community members and business owners can mutually take decisions for their beneficial interests (Delaney 13-68). 4. DEVELOPING NETWORK AMONG POTENTIAL CLIENTS The adequate incorporation of potential clients within the business network would also ensure to provide crucial insights to the organizations while practicing networking activities. In relation to the competitive business environment, developing and/or maintaining a strong relationship with the clients is the primary step for the entrepreneurs for developing business network. With regard to developing network among the potential clients, the process of community grouping would enable to efficiently perform various business services within a particular marketplace. Additionally, aligning business operations with the needs and the desires of the community would also enable the business organization to strongly perform and achieve its desired business objectives (Wickham amp. Wickham 3-78). 5. PLAN TO NETWORK AMONG PEERS AND OTHER BUSINESS OWNERS In order to strengthen the business networking process, the integration of the similar business enterprises along with other ventures would further offer adequate support to achieve the desired goals of the organization. In this regard, the adequate cooperation with the business performances conducted by the similar organizations would enable to build strong identity within the respective field. Moreover, promoting and emphasizing the practices of the peer organizations would facilitate to obtain significant support for the organization to develop its capability in a particular business environment. In the similar context, providing adequate assistance and cooperative steps towards the other business organizations would enable to acquire a large number of potential clients. Therefore, the business networking process would also focus on denoting clients to other business enterprises which would help the network to gain a similar outcome from the other groups of institutions (Delaney 13-68). 6. CONCLUSION With regard to the concept of business networking, it can be stated that the process considerably provides adequate opportunity to the entrepreneurs for increasing their efficiency in any respective industry. Moreover, an effective business networking process tends to offer pertinent opportunities as it significantly helps to strengthen referral backgrounds along with facilitating to upgrade the involvement with different types of enterprises and communities within a particular market. In relation to the proposed business networking plan, the adequate cooperation as well as involvement with various similar along with diverse organizations would enable the start-up organization to build a strong network within a particular marketplace. Moreover, the techniques such as social, enterprise and academic grouping related activities would further facilitate the organization to strengthen its referral background and enhance the capabilities within a specific business market. Works Cited Delaney, Dave. New Business Networking: How to Effectively Grow Your Business Network Using Online and Offline Methods. The United States of America: Que Publishing, 2013. Print. Develop Your Business Networking Skills. Networking Articles. Gwinnett Network, 2013. Web. 03 Sep. 2013. . Wickham, Philip amp. Louise Wickham. Management Consulting: Delivering an Effective project. England: Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.

Outlines about the controversy of showing personal information in social networking sites

Teacher Controversy of showing personal information in social networking sites/media I. Introduction: The social media A. The different kinds of social media (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest)
B. The advantages and disadvantage benefits of social media
C. Thesis: Social media has many benefits but it also has dangerous consequences when one get careless. Authorities have cautioned us that hackers prey into our private lives and hack into our financial accounts by using our personal information. These personal information are typically procured through the social media where hackers use it gain access into our personal and financial records either to bother us, steal from us or assume our identity.
II. Dangers of showing personal information in social media
a. Makes the person generally vulnerable to intrusion to online and physical intrusion.
b. Inadvertently provide prospective hackers with information to hack into our personal accounts that includes our financial accounts.
c. Easily victimized by identity theft.
d. Can become a target of theft.
III. How can unwelcome intrusion or hacking be avoided?
a. Do not share personal information such as passport number, mother’s maiden name, address, passport number, car plate number and similar information.
b. Limit post to general information and fun. Do not provide too much information in any activities.
c. Do not add or approve friend requests from people we do not know.
d. Delete people in one’s friend’s list that has shadowy character.
e. Do not show off money or wealth that will make one an easy target for thieves both online and offline.
f. Do not provide locations especially home address.
IV. Controversy: Many people still disagree on the idea that a seemingly harmless activity such as social networking poses danger to our well-being and financial health that has economic, legal as well as personal consequences. Their common arguments are:
a. It is online and no physical contact.
b. Username and passwords were not given.
c. There are a lot of people doing it.
d. So what if people will know a lot about me?
a. Hackers does not have to rob a person in his or her home but can do it online by accessing one’s financial bank record and make illegal withdrawal or transfer from there.
b. Information such as mother’s maiden name, date of birth, place of birth are hints to a password. Password can be had by providing these information.
c. The person who provides the more personal information are the most vulnerable.
d. It makes one vulnerable to identity theft which is becoming more and more rampant in the United States.
V. Conclusion
With or without social media, it is not wise to share personal information to people especially to those we do not know. Moreso with the advent of digital technology where transactions can be done online with a mere username and passwords. Being careless online particularly social media has economic and legal consequences where our personal information can be used to peer into our personal lives, steal money from us or use our identity for illegal means.
In short, one should not reveal and share personal information online especially in social media.

Technological Transformations of Society

As the above definition explains, technology is about applying technical means to life. In today’s developing world, technology is all around us. Its presence can be felt in almost all fields of life. Social Networking is no exception. In fact the term social networking itself is a product of innovative technology.
Social networking means to socialize via a network which is mostly done online, using some supporting platform. Most social networking websites enable the creation of a personal profile, where members of the network or ‘online family’ can feed their basic information and photographs etc. the members can then connect with other members on the website via platforms associated with these profiles.
According to one definition, social networks are: Web-based services that allow individuals to construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection and view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. The nature and nomenclature of these connections may vary from site to site. 2
Face book is one of today’s leading social network websites. According to one survey, people spend three times more time on face book than they do on Google (Ostrow, 2009). The main features of face book include: Face book profile, friend finder, photo and video sharing, news feed, personal wall and face book games.
Face book originated as ‘Face mash’ back in 2003 by a Harvard student named Mark Zuckerberg. The privacy policy of ‘Face mash’, which later became as ‘face book’ was criticized and the creator of this program faced many legal suites in this regard (Web hosting report, 2009). Zuckerberg mainly faced criticism against open exchange of data viewable by practically any body on the internet. The privacy policy of face book has been undergoing a lot of changes since its creation. ‘Face mash’, originally meant for Harvard

The risks and benefits of social networking services

research, it was found that through social networking sites are hugely favourable among people, especially young adults. they have been ignoring various dangerous attributes of these networking services.
Social networking sites can be defined as virtual communities used by individuals for interacting and communicating with friends, families and also meeting new people based on similar or shared interests. Social networking services such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter and Instagram have taken a critical important place in the lives of new age individuals. Apart from that, websites such as Facebook are known to increase the overall technical literacy of young adults. At the same time, these social media services are the cause of various positive and negative trends occurring in the society (Zafirovski, 2001). Therefore, it is important to understand the critical influence of these social media services so that negative consequences can be minimized and positive effects can be maximized. The objective of the present report is to understand the various risks and benefits of social networking sites.
Recent research on usage of social networking services has suggested that the overall interest towards these sites is increasing in a substantial manner. At the same time, there contribution towards risks and benefits in an individual’s daily life is also heightened. The most common social networking services are instant messaging services, email and websites where information is shared. According to a recent survey conducted in 2011, it was revealed that almost 73 percent children as well as 47 percent adults are using these social networks (Red Crbit, 2013).
Various benefits have been identified related to social media services and their usages (Cohn, 2010). By frequently using video clips, photographs and access to numerous articles, young adults gain a significant knowledge and understanding about the nature, production as well as usage of multiple content forms,

Computer Network

Moreover, there is no documentation for the current IT infrastructure. There is no documentation explaining the network setup in the company. Also, the software and the hardware are outdated. Considering that the computers are still running windows XP, it implies that the OS may not support the current versions of application software and hardware needed to run the business as per the requirements.
Considering the above stated issues, it’s clear that the WLA Company IT infrastructure needs to be restructured, redesigned and updated to meet the current IT requirements. This involves updating both the software and the hardware parts of the current system, designing new network infrastructure to cater for the needs of the company and training the existing employees on how to use the lately installed networking system.
To solve the above-connoted issues a network system has to be set up. This network system will consist of client computers, servers and other peripheral devices such as printers, fax machines, telephone etc. (i.e. a client/server network is set up).
The best network design for this company is peer-to-peer design. But the rapid growth of the company calls for the preparation of the company for further expansion by allowing flexibility. In this regard, the best network design will be a hybrid network. With this setup, account and permission will be required to access file on the server, while at the same time, access to other computers on the network will be shared equally. This will minimize the cost of setting up the network while at the same time bringing in efficiency. The hardware and software explain below are recommended to ensure maximum functioning of the company activities.
All software and hardware that will be required for WLA business is listed below and why the justification of why it is required. Garrett (2003)

How students use social media

According to the research carried out by Lenhart et al. (2010), people between 18 and 29 years of age account for 57 per cent of the total population of users of the social networks and maintain personal profiles on a range of social media websites. Pempek, Yermolayeva, and Calvert (2009) noted that although the amount of time spent by the users on social networking websites varied considerably, yet a vast majority of the users spend up to half an hour a day socializing on the social networking sites mostly from 9 p.m. to 12 a.m whereas students spend 47 minutes a day on the Facebook on average. More than half of the total population of students in colleges visits social networking sites numerously in a day (Sheldon, 2008).
Types of social media commonly used by the students include but are not limited to blogs, chats on Twitter and Facebook, social networks, wikis, podcasts, videos, photo sharing on sites like Flickr, and gamification. A blog is a webpage or website that can easily be updated. Authors of blogs write regular entries in the format of a diary. The most interesting and effective blogs provide the students with an opportunity to engage in conversations with the bloggers as well as other readers who have commented on the blogs. Microblogging, as the name implies, is the process of writing very brief blog posts, that are sort of text messages. Presently, the most popular service of microblogging is provided by Twitter that provides the students with the opportunity to post the entries as long as 140 characters. Using Twitter, students can not only read their messages online but also can send their posts as text messages to one another’s mobiles. Social networking websites like Facebook serve as platforms using which the students can connect with one another and engage in different kinds of activities both academic and otherwise. Facebook and MySpace

Impact of Excessive Internet Use on Adolescents

The original concept of the Internet is associated with research facilities for academic agencies. However, the manner in which the young generation uses this tool can adversely affect their mental and physical health. Research has shown that excessive Internet users suffer from similar psychological problems like any other kind of addicts. Such users experience technological addictions that involve excessive human-machine interaction (Griffiths, 2008, p.232). This paper focuses on the addiction to the Internet which is becoming increasingly a major issue among the adolescents. Studies have shown that in the United States, 6 percent of the Internet users experience strong addiction to the tool (Young, 2004, p.402). The popularity of social networking sites involves participation of millions of Internet users all over the world, mostly younger people. Since these sites are becoming rapidly more popular among adolescents to enhance communication and relationships, therefore the need is to focus on the impacts of these sites on the psychology of the users, and the factors that develop addictive tendencies in them (Wilson et al., 2010, p.173). However, studies also prove that the use of social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace does not always have adverse effects on adolescents since they use these sites mainly for the purpose of intensifying real life relationships, who are geographically separated, by facilities like instant messaging (Reich et al., 2012, p.356). 2. Literature Review Internet is rapidly gaining popularity among the young population especially for communication with peers. Although it can broaden the social circle of users, the risk remains high regarding…
Internet is rapidly gaining popularity among the young population especially for communication with peers. Although it can broaden the social circle of users, the risk remains high regarding Internet addiction. Excessive use of the Internet strongly affects personal relationships of adolescent users as they begin to prefer online communication to face-to-face interaction. As observed by Smahel et al. (2012), adolescents consider friends as a greater social support even more than their families, therefore interaction with online friends can have a strong impact on their daily lives. The popularity of the Internet as channel of communication with peers is same among the youth in every country although the pattern may differ. Internet is used by youngsters not only to maintain contact with current friends or to renew communication with old friends, but also to establish new contacts. As per a survey conducted in 25 European countries, 30 percent of young Internet users communicate with previously unknown people (Smahel et al., 2012, p.382). The growing tendency among the youth to use online services to maintain relationships is becoming an issue of concern since it can lead to psychological problems like Internet addiction disorder. It has been seen that young users of virtual chat rooms are more susceptible to Internet addiction as for them Internet becomes the main source for maintaining social life.

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Shocking! The author also has discussed the point of view of parents when it comes to the social networking of teenagers.
According to an author and some research by social scientists, social networking is beneficial for teenagers (Ryan 2011). Social networking can be the source of generating new ideas and innovative thinking (Cross amp. Parker 2004). The article argues with the idea that teenagers become unwilling to meet their friends face to face by too much social networking. There have been several kinds of research and the evidence proves that social networking can play a great role in generating innovative ideas and it causes no harm to teenagers when it comes to meet face to face with their friends (Lusted 2011).
Research proves that teenagers keep themselves connected with social media websites such as Facebook and Twitter to join the conversation and stay connected with their friends and family members (Gupta, Hate amp. Siemer 2011). Teenagers try and implement new things and communication skills in their daily life which is learned by social networking (Obee 2012).
The report also suggests that the parents are wrong when they think that their children are paying no attention to their privacy. Instead, an average teenager spends hours in the settings of social networking websites in order to minimize the traces and remove their personal snapshots. When a teenager talks with the friends they use pleasant conversation and then they delete the conversation to make sure that no one traces back (Rennie amp. Morrison 2013).
The article also discusses that the teenager often adopts uncommon words the short form of words while texting (Kelsey 2010). The teenage usage of short forms like ‘u’ for ‘you’ is common, but it fades away with time as the teenager gets older. They adopt to use more grammatical sentences because they want their status to be changed.

The Impact of Social Network in Tourism

Earlier travelers used to be dependent on travel agencies, their suggestions, and advice while planning any trip. However, over time individual traveling is gaining popularity. People have become more internet savvy nowadays and they are using various online information sources like official websites of travel companies, blogs, social networking sites, etc. to make their decision regarding any future travel. A number of studies have tried to find out how social networking is used by travelers as well as travel companies in this tourism market. Travel agencies are also increasingly realizing the need for promoting their services through social networking sites as members of various social networking sites are increasing significantly day by day.

In the age of social networking, the Travel and Tourism industry is growing rapidly. There are thousands of travel operators who have their websites through which one can book his tickets, hotels or plan his holiday anywhere in the world at just a mouse click. These social networking sites not only enable the tourists to get in touch with his or her respective tourist operator but also to communicate with the previous users of those sites. The latter helps the new users to get first-hand information about the operator and making the right choice.

Previously the travelers had to depend on many tour organizing intermediaries such as the traveling agents for their travel-related queries (Akehurst, 2009). But with the growing popularity of internet usage and social networking, this trend is changing. The whole pattern of information searching and decision making is much different for the new age travelers. Therefore the Tourism industry has almost completely become internet and social network-oriented. As far as internet use and online dealing are concerned this industry is ranked at the lead by Werthner and Ricci (2004 pp. 103-104).

The roles of pubic relations in crisis managment

The aim of nurturing public relations is to develop rapport with the public and by making them understand the organization and what its doing (Felea, 2004). Experts in public relation use all typology of communication with the public, as represented by personalities who are imbued with institutional and organizational identity (Felea, 2004). This process is deemed significant to avoid or wane down the opposition of employer and employees, in case of labor dispute, or probably to reduce panic in the market in the case of financial crisis.
In international relations, countries diplomatically develop public relations to ensure that social acceptability and to maintain social peace while engendering cooperation and collaboration on social policy or agenda (Felea, 2004). This is also true in market relations to ascertain efficiency on commercial firm’s services and to maintain connections with its clients while on business operation (Felea, 2004). Thus, in commerce, a company would use advertisements and other related propaganda to better its relations with the public, its goods suppliers, services providers, labour suppliers, clients, competitors, public organisms (Felea, 2004, p. 1).
Media is an instrument or tool for public relations. Companies relate with media to promote their products and to explicate its business operation and its campaign or probably to promote their activities relating to corporate social responsibility. With globalization taking the market’s core, modern commerce necessitates media in social networking, including the explication of its definitional struggle in the interface of science and policy for the market.
David (1999) for instance explicates the significant effort done my farming industry in explaining to the public cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow. By doing so, the company is able

The connection between Networks and the Internet

Teacher: Introduction In the center of the information age, modern daily lives depend on communication. The way weconverse has progressed through the years changing the means in which information is created and spread. This immense need for information has led to technological progresses and this have brought the world nearer, making lengthy remoteness shorter, permitting us to move to distant places faster and almost putting the entire globe at the palm. (LaQuey 34).
In a technology framework, a network can be described as interconnection of digital machines capable of sharing resources and information. In a computer network, all data transmitted consist of a node which refers to any computer or digital device using the network links (Krol 49).
The finest way to lead in the world of business today is to network systems in organization and businesses. Data networks are essential to all existing modern organizations. They facilitate in faster and easier ways to access any data and resources that are within the organization (Krol 53).
There are many types of networks used in the entire world today both commercially and homes. Networks cab categorized according to their scope and scale, historical grounds, favorites for networking industries, their design and implementation matter (Krol 59).
LAN – Local Area Network- This type links networking devices which are within small geographical area like homes, office and cyber cafes.nbsp.
WAN – Wide Area Network – This network covers up a larger span for communication between the network devices. It is an interconnection of many LANs through routers, and its example is the network which is covering the entire globe.
MAN – Metropolitan Area Network – This type of set-up is not common, but it can be useful in governmental departments and large organizations such as banks. It falls at the middle of LAN and WAN. It covers a larger geographical coverage compared to Local Area Network but smaller than Wide Area Network.
nbsp.nbsp.CAN – Campus Area Network – This network interconnects several multiple Local Area Networks but smaller compared to a Metropolitan area network. This type of network generally can be useful relatively in vast universities or buildings and local business offices.
nbsp. SAN – Storage Area Network – This technology is mostly used for data storage. It’s mostly crucial to those organizations that are data oriented. This network connects servers to the data store devices through fiber channels technology.
nbsp.SAN – System Area Network – This network also identified as cluster area network. It connects high performance computers with extremely high speed connections in cluster configuration (LaQuey 58).
A network topology illustrates the arrangement of machines and devices on a network. It describes the way the computers and other devices within the network are laid down and linked to each other. Common network topologies used include.
Star – One central device is joined to every other computer on a network.
Ring – Each computer is connected to just two other terminals, and this forms a ring. It looks like a ring as it forms circular shape. It requires three nodes to form the ring topology.
Line – The layout of the computers in this topology are joined up in a line format. Mostly computers are linked to two other.
Bus – Every computer is linked to a central bus that runs along the entire network. All data transmitted through the bus can be accessed by any computer within the network.
Tree – One ‘Main’ machine links to every other node which in turn get connect to other nodes forming a tree like structure. Data from the root machine may have to pass through other machines to reach the end machine (LaQuey 60).
The internet is an immense network of many different interconnected networks globally and it’s easily accessible to the public. These interlinked computers function by transmitting information through a unique type of packets switching which is generally known as the Internet protocol or IP.
Internet is the most essential technology of the modern world. It has not only made the modern society easier than before, but it as well plays a highly significant role in the prospect development. Researchers can get any information they require and anyone looking for other services such as games or any form of entertainment can easily get the information.
Internet can be looked at as a system involving two main components. Hardware components that include any machine that transmits data. They include cables, routers, radio equipments, satellites, cell phone towers and other data transmission devices.
Protocols are the other key component that facilitates the network communication. These are rules that governs machines to complete any task during data transmission. Without these sets of instructions, communication cannot happen because computers and other devices within the network would be unable to send any information in a meaningful manner (LaQuey 73).
From side to side, a computers system that is physically many miles away is just near as a computer in the office next room. This concludes that any information that is obtainable thousands of miles far away from your computer is as near as what is on your system. This is one of the major, significant advantages of the network.
Work sited
LaQuey, Tracy. Users Directory of Computer Networks. Bebford, MA: Digital Press, 1989.
Krol, Ed. The Whole Internet: Users Guide amp. Catalog. nbsp. Sebastopol, CA: OReilly amp.
Associates, 1992. Print.

Social networking sites help students do better at school

There are some students who find physical-social contribution and interaction difficult. Engaging these students through an online platform can make studying easy for them (Osborne). Dialogue and collaboration are hampered by the introduction of social networking on the learning environment. Collaboration and dialogue are critical to the one-to-many and one-to-one models. In the many-to-many model which is used in social networking, the point of attention shifts from the collaborative to cooperative learning and from the group level to an individual. While collaboration seeks that the group moves together, cooperation seeks individual affinity and flexibility in a learning environment.
George Middle School, in Portland developed a program that encompassed social networking and school routine. Through the program, they discovered that grades increased by 50 percent. 20 percent of the students completed extra assignments at will. Through the program, they discovered that integrating social networking with the education system lowered absences by 33 percent. An article in The New York Times explains that, Erin Olsonnbsp.a teacher uses social media to improve class participation. The students use a website where they post their feelings and thoughts about the classroom discussion. Olson appreciates the arrangement because students become more engaged in learning and participate when they others post their views than when done in class (Sang).
Students and other individuals join social networks to associate and engage with others who are like minded and in need of learning similar things. Some schools impose learning management systems on their students. Many students are of habit of avoiding using the school-managed learning environments and systems because they are either difficult to use or irrelevant to the basic daily learning needs. Such a response from students shows that a loose network of composed of willing participants guarantees