When the management engages in a quantitative and mechanical approach in managing people in stores, labour turnover increases. Gradually it has been recognized that allowing the store managers discretion in dealing with the problems can reduce the turnover. If the firms invest in developing the employees, it can lead to increased motivation and turnover.Tesco is the UK’s largest retailer employing over 470,000 people across 14 countries (O’Reilly, 2009). They employ blind graduates and they have new-look staff rooms designed by the Tesco staff themselves. They believe in Treat people how we like to be treated. The management focuses on teamwork, trust, respect, listening, supporting and simple gestures like saying thank you are considered important. They encourage sharing knowledge and experience. The senior managers are encouraged to be on the shop floor and spend time with the employees, to get a first-hand feel of their problems and concerns. The organization values workforce diversity and one in five people are over the age of fifty. In fact, they have people from the age of 16 to over 70 amongst their employees.Employee motivation is the key to low labour turnover, high productivity, and high level of customer satisfaction. Quality service is a major challenge in the retail sector. Job satisfaction, productivity and motivation are interrelated issues. Motivation is required at all levels within an organization and the happy feeling or motivation that employee experience is task-related. Hence it is not merely the pay factor that is the motivator.An internal communication study was conducted at Tesco, the UK in 1985 which revealed that staff behavioural issues were having a negative influence on the company’s efforts in the supermarket-battle for customers (Tuffrey, 2003). Tesco had taken immediate corrective steps and empowered the staff to address customer problems quickly and directly by removing the lengthy customer service procedures and hierarchies.
This is very necessary as teachers strive to align the learning experience with technological evolution in the digital era. The use of technology standards (NETS) for teachers would be very appropriate for an action research study. This is on the grounds that one of the center standards of NETS is that instructors ought to have the capacity to outline, create, and evaluate genuine learning and educating encounters. Subsequently, assessments that join contemporary mechanical devices and assets is valuable (Smaldino, Lowther, Russell, 2012). Thus, the results of an action research study will provide teachers with invaluable insight on planning and adjust the applicable learning encounters that use computerized assets and devices in advancing understudy innovativeness and learning. It will also enable the teachers to develop technology-based learning background (Smaldino, Lowther Russell, 2012). Students will also be enabled to cope with their education skill and assess their progress. The study will also dwell on how teachers can focus on different learning activities. Finally, a research on the technology standards will enlighten teachers on ways of giving their understudies changed and different summative and developmental evaluations. These are the one adjusted to mechanical and substance gauges, and apply the ensuing data to educate the showing and learning methodology. One of the external decisions that greatly affected my classroom practice was the introduction of high stakes tests, as well as a grading policy by the head of the department. The directive stipulated that teachers were expected to conform to standardized rubric assessment criteria in all subjects. I considered this decision as inappropriate and one that would affect teaching practice in a negative way.
Documents are drawn on a CAD system of by hand: The drawings give details of elevations, space planning, and the schedule. A pool of consultants joins together, to finalize this important document. Next, submit them to the local Building and Health Department for verification and eventual sanction. (www.mosserdesign.net.)2. Typical Drawings: Some of the important drawings are, Floor Plan with FF E( furniture, fixtures and equipment), environmental plan, kitchen equipment elevations, Telephone and electrical plan, etc.3. Building Codes: Your plans need to in conformity with the building and health codes applicable to your city/location. These plans are required to be approved by County Health Department, Dept. of Building and Safety, Fire Marshall and Special Agencies4. Food Service Consultants: Once you give the full specifications, they will plan accordingly. You will get a specialized opinion from these professionals, as they normally do not do marketing for any type of equipment. It is better not to give the contract for those consultants who do the marketing of the products also, in which case their opinion can be biased in favor of the products which they wish to promote.6. Architects: A very important part of the facility set up They avail the services of a Structural Engineer and submit plans to the Department of Building and Safety. In addition, an additional consultant is appointed by them, such as Mechanical Engineers, Lighting Consultants, Audio Consultants and Electrical Engineers.7. Equipment Suppliers and Dealers: This is a key area. Supply firms prefer turn-key assignments. You are offered free design as well. But you need to take care of the quality of the design. Designing in itself is a specialized job8. Hiring a General Contractor: Here Again, you need to hire the services of a specialist builder, not any other builder.
The concepts of cybernetics, when combined with the digital computers being created at that time, led Wiener to draw some insightful ethical conclusions. He perceptively foresaw innovative social and ethical consequences.In this new century, the global economy has entered an Information Technology era in which globalization and internet-based communication network have forced all large enterprises and companies to inevitably face the challenge of multiple venture management, including production management, strategic management, and capital management. (Ashby, 1956) The common essence for these enterprises is the uncertainty of management outcome. That is the reason why the manager cannot find a long-term and changeless way for fluctuating business environment and management objects. The theory of opportunity cybernetics and decision harmonizing in thispaper is designated to overcome the difficulties of modern enterprises with multiple venture management. In the following, we will introduce several exceptional phenomena that affect multiple venture management in the competitive global market. Then, we will outline the basic concepts and modeling of opportunity cybernetics and decision-harmonizing theory. Finally, an example of General Electric Company is shown to illustrate the practice of this theory in the real world.The science of cybernetics emerged during the 1940s as a part of the systems thinking movement. Norbert Wiener was the founding driver of contemporary cybernetics, working primarily on mechanical systems. Others have subsequently developed his work extensively in the modern field of robotics. Wiener’s group was interdisciplinary, bringing together mathematicians, biologists, operational researchers and physicists in a groundbreaking approach to developing a unified science for solving complex problems. Stafford Beer has for nearly forty years led the development of cybernetics in the study of organizations.
Among those, the first attack took place on March 3, 1863, in Bryan County, Georgia as ordered by Adm. Samuel F. Du Pont who intended to test their mechanical appliances by attacking the Confederate defenses. The attempt proved that an earthen fort like McAllister could not be destroyed easily by ironclads. History The fort is named after Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Longworth McAllister who built this in 1861 at Genesis Point. During the Civil War (1861-65), it ensured the protection of the southern flank of Savannah from the U.S. Navy. The fort also provided defense for the Savannah, Albany and Gulf Railroad Bridge, Ogeechee basin plantations etc for the survival. Fort McAllister mainly defended naval attack from the Union force, and it possessed very effective cannonballs and large-caliber guns that could destroy warships. As per reports, despite the latest naval warship technology deployed by the Union force, the fort survived seven naval attacks mainly because of its exceptional earthen construction. Features Obviously, Fort McAllister was strong enough to withstand each attack that involved heavy bombards. In addition to this advantage, some other factors also strengthened the Confederates. For instance, as Chuber (1996) notes, the U.S. … By 1864, the Confederates had equipped McAllister with a considerable amount of guns and other war apparatus. It possessed ‘four smoothbore 32-pounders, one riffled 32-pounder, two 10 inch Columbiads, 24 pounder, six 6-pound howitzers, one 12-pounder Napoleon, and many more’3. One of the notable defense strategies of the Confederate was that it anchored its line to the Ogeechee River and guarded Savannah from the Union force. Savannah was well prepared to meet all levels of contingency, for it had already stockpiled over 1,000 pounds of bacon, 2200 pounds of bread, 40 gallons of molasses, 50 pounds of candles, and a good supply of salt in the bombproofs4. The Confederate commander George W. Anderson was determined not to surrender McAllister to the enemy. The result was a terrible face to face attack and assault. Fort McAllister was finally captured On December 13, 1864 by General Sherman. According to many, the secret of the fort’s sustainability was that unlike other forts, it was entirely an earthwork. This admittedly marked a new era of fortification that utilized only natural materials like sand, timber, mud, earth, etc. other than stone, bricks, or masonry work of any kind5. Therefore, as compared to many other forts, it lacked aesthetic sensibilities as well. However, the fort later gained the appreciation of many military leaders for its better resistance as opposed to famous masonry works like Fort Pulaski. Another comparison is that when the Fort Pulaski took nearly 18 years and over one million dollars to construct, Fort McAllister was built in a few moths and was more effective than the former6 . Fort McAllister taught officials new lessons on
There are various modifications which can be made to slow sand filters and these adaptations offer an affordable option to the household applications of using slow sand filtration technology to treating and disinfecting drinking water in both the rural and urban communities especially those in developing countries (Gottinger et al. 1). According to CAWST, an NGO in Canada, and the University of Victoria, Canada, a slow sand filter field survey carried out in Haiti on the effectiveness of slow sand filters in removing e-coli and other contaminants, as well as decreasing turbidity, was estimated for 107 filters which had been in an active use for an average period of 1 to 5 years (Blaker and Duke, 1). CAWST (Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology) assessed both the sustained use and user satisfaction through interviews in all the 107 households individually. The durability of the slow sand filter, its maintenance requirements, and its affordability was appraised by the users by recording various observations during the survey (O’Reilly, 28). In recent years, slow sand filtration has been assumed to be an old fashioned and inefficient method of treating water for both domestic and industrial use. This method has therefore been suppressed by other modern innovations and filtration techniques. However, under suitable circumstances, using slow sand filtration techniques may not only be simple and cheap but also the most efficient method of treating water. Slow sand filtration comes as an efficient method of any particulate suspended matter hence it is appropriate for treating (purifying) water that contains solids in suspension (Jonathan and Douglas, 7). Apart from Slow sand filtration, there are other methods of water filtration (Bourke, 19). These are. Rapid sand filtration, Pressure filtration, and Mechanical filtration. The advantages of using the slow sand method of filtration over other techniques have been proved practically over a long period of time. Moreover, certain industrialized cities, rural areas and also small communities recommend the use of sand filtration techniques as the method to use when purifying water and water supplies (Bourke, 19). The greatest advantage of using slow sand filtration over other filtration techniques is that it utilizes local skills and materials which are readily available in the third world and the developing countries and that it is more efficient in removing bacterial contamination (Jonathan and Douglas, 17). The systems also have very little maintenance and operational requirements which can be carried out by local personnel after the appropriate training. Although a slow sand filter is easy to operate and maintain, a highly skilled technician should be present during construction and design in order to ensure that it functions correctly. The main objective of this report is to design a slow sand filtration unit using activated carbon, fine sand, and gravel. The filtration unit will be capable of effectively removing pathogenic organisms, organic matter, as well as color and mild turbidity and therefore providing safe and clean water. The basic process of treating drinking water in order to increase its quality to the highest quality possible is as shown in the figure in the paper.
There needs to be a message to be shared among the ‘contribute’ and a medium of exchange (Dickson,2003, p 12-13).The message is the pattern of thought, configuration of ideas or another form of response expressed by individuals as behavioral manifestations of thoughts and feelings. These manifestations are encoded into a physical form for being transmitted to the recipients who decode and attach meaning to them. And the medium of exchange falling into three types are presentational, representational and technological/mechanical. Presentational refers to the voice, face and body, representational, books, paintings, architecture and photographs and technological, television, CD, radio, and telephone. (Dickson, 2003)As said at the outset, communication theory comes in different models. This paper would discuss the Theory of Social Information Processing (SIP) selected out of the existing theories of communication and examines whether it is primarily objective or interpretive and where it fits in Griffin’s Map of Theory of Traditions. In other words, the idea of the theory of social information processing being objective or interpretive will be tested as per standards posited by Griffin E (2008) in his Map of Theory of Traditions applying the epistemology, ontology and axiology requirements essential for a theory.The Social Information Processing theory refers to the interpersonal communication development through online as opposed to communication face to face (FtF). This Theory was developed by Joseph Walther in 1992.
by Nixon Bostrom and The Transhumanism FAQs: A General Introduction, by Nixon Bostrom. According to Bostrom (2011), the formal definition of transhumanism cited directly from the source. …is a way of thinking about the future based on the premise that the human species in its current form does not represent the end of our development but a rather comparatively early phase. We formally define it as follows: 1) The intellectual and cultural movement that affirms the possibility and desirability of improving fundamentally the human condition through applied reason, especially by developing and making widely available technologies to eliminate aging and to greatly enhance human intellectual, physical, and psychological capabilities. 2) The study of ramifications, promises, and potential dangers of technologies that will enable us to become fundamental human limitations, and the related study of the ethical matters involved in the developing and using such technologies. The point being expressed by this definition is that this intended undertaking will solve the human limitations. More specifically, the limitations targeted here are human death, limited human memory span, IQ and minor limitations like stress, depression, fatigue, among others. From these propositions there are a few reservations to point out. First, the limited human intelligent which it intends to engage to create the supernatural, raises a concern as to how well he will achieve the task of creating this superhuman that surpasses him (Rees 2011). Even if it were possible already to create these superhumans, according to scientific policies of which it is required that a new technology has to undergo a given period of rigorous test to be adopted. how long would it take before we first see the prototype and exhaustively explore it before we can confirm it to be less hostile to the rest of the population? What about if the superhuman being rejects the creator who is the ordinary being with limitations that cannot subdue the successor? Since it is the same the experts behind the concept who have vehemently admitted that current human is far too limited. Joy (2011) raises similar concern in his work, Why the future doesn’t need us. In this source he meticulously states that human being would likely guarantee their own extinction by developing the technologies favored by transhumanists. He gives an example of the grey goo case where stubborn self-replicating nanorobots could consume the entire ecosystems, resulting into global ecophagy (the literal consuming of an ecosystem). As if that is not enough outcries over the transhumanism, Rees (2011) decries this path adopted by science. He states advanced science and technology could bring as much of disaster as opportunity for progress. He clarifies himself that science is better ventured into with a lot of caution. Rees (2011) contributed to the criticism in her work Cybog Manifesto. Cybog is an illustration of the transhuman that is intended to be created by science. It is a hypothetical person whose physical abilities are extended beyond human limitations by mechanical elements built into the body. From the definition of the cybog, it is realized that the intended superhuman will poses greater mechanical fitness or strength. Can this, mechanical fitness and higher brain power guarantee superhumans will be perfect? No, it does not
Literary works portray the themes of femininity, which is the reflection of the society in which the characters live. The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gillman and Woman Hollering Creek by Sandra Cisneros are two such works that depict feminism.Protagonists in both these stories suffer injustice from the hands of their husband and finally breaks away from the relationship The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman is a story of repression of women. In the story the husband’s domineering nature has imprisoned the wife into a domestic prison. It is the tale of insanity. In this sad story, the narrator the young woman is driven to insanity by her dominating husband. Even though her husband John was very much caring and loving, he never realized that his wife is a human being. He was blind to her desires, longings and wishes. John the husband-doctor was too mechanical and never allowed his wife to come to her self. The subjugation that prevailed in the society made women treated as subhuman. They were just considered as vessels of fertility and had the mere privilege of a set of ovaries and a womb. The novel is all about women’s rights. The central character of the novel, the narrator fought for the same cause. The narrator attempts to become a strong individual even though she was being locked in a male dominated world. The feminist ideologies of the narrator are evident throughout her talk. She was found subordinate to her husband John who believed that women are frail and can never make decision of their own. The narrator’s great passion for life and her strong feministic beliefs do not allowed her to be in the controlled world of her husband. Her house appeared as a prison for her all through these days. The narrator was always under the care of someone, her brother and then her husband. Both of them being doctors do not understand her mind. They are least flexible and only look for her physical recovery. They do not allow her to indulge in something that she wanted to indulge in. She wanted to write. may be she wanted to pour out her depression into words. She was of the belief that more mental and physical activity would solve her problems. She never desired to have physical rest. However her husband and brother were not able to understand this and compelled her to be under complete rest that would make her free from any activity. They were not able to comprehend their self and did not even attempt to understand her. The male dominated world never wanted the husbands to understand their wives. The narrator’s husband and brother did not have any plan to listen to the narrator. The Yellow Wall-Paper shows a traumatized middle-class woman’s exhibiting signs of trauma because of the society’s expectations on her (Aksehir 2008). Her traumatizing experiences as a female reflect as a hallucination of a helpless individual who is trapped in the yellow wallpaper in her room (Aksehir 2008). The period in the novel represents the period when women are inferior to men physically, mentally and intellectually. The cultural, racial, religious and other pressures subdued women to a good extent. Young girls were supposed to follow their mother’s path of cooking, cleaning and child caring and are supposed to become good house wives as they grow up. Women were considered as feeble compared to men. They were confined to the jobs that require less labor. Maternity, the biological and natural role of women has been considered as their one and only role. In the novel the narrator was confined to her and was not permitted to have any outside contact. This pushed her to depression and finally made her mad. We can see that this mental depression was enforced into the narrator by the society around her. Her life was like that of a butterfly that is trying to get out of the cocoon to show its true colors. We can see her striving, throughout the play, and finally collapsing. Even though the husband John loved her very much, the
your thesis. explain what your weapon is, which country side of the war used this weapon, what influence it had during WWII, WHY it was the most influential weapon used by any side during WWII. The Panther served as a formidable weapon at the disposable of Nazi Germany during the Second World War. A host of factors such as low weight, appropriately placed armor, mechanical efficiency and a fitting gun allowed the Panther to perform exceptionally throughout the war. The success of the Panther can be gauged from the fact that it served as a strong model for post war tank development both in Allied and the Soviet circles. The development and the influence of the Panther during the Second World War are a strange tale in themselves. The Panther was originally planned out as a replacement for the previously manufactured Panzer III and Panzer IV tanks that had been deployed on the Eastern and Western fronts. The ragged histories of the Panzer III and Panzer IV during service meant that a new and more reliable replacement had to come through that was based on new technology (Hart). The Soviet tactics during the war concerning armored warfare was simple – the enemy was to be overwhelmed using numbers even if the quality of the armor was compromising. The T-34s were produced in huge numbers in order to overwhelm the Nazi armor. The tactics deployed by the Soviets were successful given that their superior numbers were nearly always able to overpower Nazi armor arrangements. The situation demanded that a lighter, more efficient and capable tank be deployed to the battle zone in order to deal with the superiority of Soviet armor numbers. Ironically when the Panther was deployed to the battlefield it proved to be a total failure. The first deployment of the Panthers was made to the Eastern front where the Russians were bashing through German lines through their armor. The newly deployed Panther tanks suffered from a host of mechanical problems. The initial deployment of tanks suffered huge losses at the hands of their crews who had to destroy tanks to prevent the enemy from taking control of them. For one thing the Panthers suffered from engine overheating issues along with common failures of the connecting rods as well as bearing failures. The fuel system was also compromised often making it dangerous to operate the Panther in combat. Since the engine ran on gasoline and leaks were common from both the fuel pump and carburetor so tank fires were a common occurrence. In a similar manner the transmissions along with the final drives often broke down on the Panther’s first lot making it difficult to rely on in the battlefield. The Panther was built to enhance the very reliability that it was only scantily offering. In order to deal with this situation, the German high command decided to undergo a major tank rebuilding program based on the problems detected in these early Panthers. Between the April and May of 1943 all of the early Panthers were moved over to Falkensee or Nurnberg for a large rebuilding effort to take place. This effort was able to rectify most but not all problems being faced by the Panthers. In order to deal with this situation, another major rebuilding program was ensued in June 1943. The second rebuilding effort was able to ensure that the Panthers would last not only through the war but for years to come (Jentz). The first major deployment of the Panthers came through for Operation Zitadelle which had been delayed time and again in anticipation of the incoming Panthers. Only six days after the final Panthers arrived, the Operation was set in motion by the German commanders. As soon as the Panthers were issued to the armored brigades, similar problems were experienced again. The 200 Panthers that had been delivered to the armored formations reduced to only 40 by July the seventh. However, only this time the Panthers’ numbers had not reduced due to mechanical issues but rather due to the fighting. The German General Heinz Guderian reported to Hitler that the heavy fighting had proved the metal of the Panthers. The damaged Panthers were patched up quickly and were sent off once again to the front. This in itself testifies to the simplicity of the design such that the Panthers could be repaired in the field and sent into service again with little trouble (Speer). During Operation Zitadelle the Panthers were able to claim some 267 destroyed enemy tanks (Healy). This is impressive given that only some 25 Panthers were fully operational throughout the entire operation at one point in time. The Panthers were also able to prove their advantage in range as they were able to destroy Soviet armor without coming into range themselves. By the March of 1944 the Panthers had been able to work out all of the problems confronting them but by this point in time the tide of the war had turned. In the later months of the war, the Panthers were used purely in order to defend against any major attacks. The Panthers could also be seen as the reason why the Allied advance was slow in the beginning. Though the Panthers saw most of the action on the Eastern front but their role on the Western front cannot be denied. It was only because of the Panthers working in tandem with the German infantry that the fall of the Third Reich was slowed down. Works Cited Hart, Stephen. Panther Medium Tank 1942-45. London: Osprey Publishing, 2003. Healy, Mark. Zitadelle: The German Offensive Against the Kursk Salient 4–17 July 1943. London: History Press, 2008. Jentz, Thomas. Germany’s Panther Tank. Atglen: Schiffer Publishers, 1995. Speer, Albert. Inside the Third Reich. Tokyo: Ishi Press, 2009.
An increase in national self-consciousness came about during the age of industry. According to Miller and Smith, America is known with the notion of rugged individualism. To Trachtenberg, there are forces that contribute to America’s cultural synergy in that industrialization initiated a conflict between powerful corporations and the workers. The tensions between capitalists and laborers, corporations and individuals, produced a national nervousness, as presented by Trachtenberg (p.74). Divisions in classes became the centre of America as the elite derived riches while the majority lost hope for prosperity as they were thrust into labor. Trachtenberg presents various conceptual sites in which competing views of American distinctiveness played out. In real sense, the west represents the accomplishment of development and opportunity over the natural resources preservation. at the same time, the civilizing process of Native Americans was highly rationalized. To industrialists, mechanization meant efficiency in production and accumulation of wealth, as a tool to benefit human beings. To workers, mechanization represented the degradation of manpower and signified the future which meant that loss of human freedom at work and probably in society was overpowered by mechanical oppression. Trachtenberg illustrates that varied experiences divided small farmers, industrial workers, bankers, manufacturers, managers, clerical and sales workers, teachers, engineers, civil servants, and speedy growing stratum of lawyers. A major consensus was wrecked in the 1870 crisis. Labor movements were prevented by racial, ethnic, geographic dispersion, and sexual discrimination. exhausting and regularly impoverishing living and working conditions, and continuing violent opposition from the press, employees, and the regime (p 94). According to Smith in, politics, pluralism, and power, politics of cultural struggles and cultural nationalism characterize American studies. Trachtenberg shifts his focus on this concept by stating that the factory structure left permanent spots that defined American culture and society. The gilded age inspired the failure of populist movement that reflected a desire to go back to the classics of ideals in America represented in agrarian myths. Americans were equal politically, but America was not economically equal. Cities also represented the inequality and tension that defined America. Citizens were microcosms of class disputes, struggles and the consumer-oriented symbols populations that the country had turned into, with the gilded age, which was characterized by institutions such as periodicals, department stores, and mass spectator sports. During this age, America’s innocence was lost and it became relative. However, the industrialization and the age in question defined the citizens of America. According to Trachtenberg (p. 139), the tensions were determined by the elite class’s victory, meaning that their culture set up itself as an official doctrine as they controlled business, labor, and politics over the bickering, divided voices of the middle and lower classes. In real sense, America was not unified but rather constituted various sets of tensions which were finally dominated by the elites. The author presents a chapter on politics of culture where he exposes
This paper has also discussed the different applications of titanium alloys and its limitations in different uses in the modern society. Introduction Titanium alloy is a metal that consists of mixture titanium as the main element and other elements. This is done to achieve high toughness and tensile strength. Generally, alloys have extreme temperature resistance, resistance to corrosion and yet they are light in weight. The process of Titanium Alloying involves the allotropic transformation of pure titanium to the cubic beta phase at very high temperatures of 882.50C (Joshi, 2006). Elements used for alloying normally act as stabilizers at beta or alpha phase. However, by using alloying additions, it is possible to have alpha phase coexisting with beta phase at room temperatures. This is the principle behind manufacture of titanium alloys that can withstand high temperatures during heat strengthening. Titanium alloys are classified into three major groups. beta alloys, alpha alloys and alpha-beta alloys. Alpha is formed by addition of neutral alloying materials as well as alpha stabilizers such as Sn and Aluminum Oxygen respectively. Beta alloys on the other hand contain enough beta stabilizers that enable such alloys to retain their beta phase even after quenching. The strength of beta alloys can also be increased through subjecting them to solution treatment and aging. The third category of titanium alloys is beta-alpha alloys that contains both beta and alpha stabilizers thus withstand heat treatments at various degrees. It is important to note that the nature of alloy and stabilizers used greatly influence the heat stability, toughness, tensile strength and other mechanical properties. Production of Titanium Alloys Kroll Extraction Process Titanium alloy is made from Titanium metal and other chemical elements. The main production process for titanium metal is called Kroll process. It involves treatment of the main ore known as rutile with chlorine gas in order to get a compound known as Titanium tetrachloride. This compound is then purified and reduced by sodium or magnesium to produce metallic titanium sponge. It is the Titanium sponge that undergoes several alloying process that involve heating and melting to produce Titanium Alloys. In this respect, the purity of titanium resulting from Kroll process is therefore critical for alloying process. According to Leyens Peters (2003), the purity of titanium Produced depends on the purity of the starting material as well as the parameters and treatments. His is because there are several metallic elements that may cause very undesirable impacts even when they are present in small amounts. Melting Process The second stage in the production of titanium alloys is the melting process. Melting process involves combination of extracted Titanium alloy with alloying elements depending on the type of alloy to be produced. There are about five melting processes: induction Skull melting, vacuum arc remelting, plasma arc melting, Electroslag refines and Plasma Arc melting Process (Joshi, 2006). Melting process begins by blending together alloying elements with sponge followed by hydraulic pressing necessary to produce excellent blocks known as briquette. Apart from sponge, other titanium from scroll process such as scrap or Revert can also be used depending on the quality of the final Titanium Alloy
Moreover, not enough details were provided to establish the effectiveness of their recommendations. The presentation of recommendations, risk stratification, and treatment alternatives were generally clear and organized. Though nursing knowledge is increased by the information contained in the guideline, the inadequacy of the information renders the implementation of this particular guideline difficult. The need for an effective guideline is increasingly becoming a necessity as new pieces of evidence as discovered in various healthcare research. It is of the essence that organizations, such as the Joanna Briggs Institute, provide regularly updated guidelines that are comprehensive and clearly presented.Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious health threat, with a multitude of new cases appearing in Europe and the United States every year. The rising incidence and the typical asymptomatic nature of VTE, with a serious impact on health, present an essential requirement for suitable prevention methods for this condition. Excessive coagulability, venous stasis, and vein wall injury are the primary risk factors associated with the development of VTE, which comprises deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (Arcelus Caprini, 2009). As a result, most methods used to prevent this condition employ the use of mechanical devices, pharmacotherapy, or both. Mechanical devices, such as graduated compression stockings attempts to decrease vein dilatation and promote venous flow. Compression stockings reduce venous stasis by the application of graded levels of compression to the calf and ankle (Nasim London, 2009). Pharmacotherapy is based on the use of anticoagulants, such as low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) to inhibit coagulation (Ellonen, 2005). Since 1986, numerous randomized controlled trials and approximately 25 evidence-based guidelines on the advantages and safety of preventive measures for VTE have been published (Welch, 2010).
( v + gt;V. dy)
SW. dz )
change in [ irate ) mass of control us.
incompressible now + 8 is constant
( ju dy d z ) + ( swam1 dy ) + (fr dndz )
-3( utauam…Mechanical Engineering
1. pumps convert mechanical energy from a prime mover (engine or electric motor) into hydraulic
(pressure) energy. They have difference in pressure where the sunction has lower pressure than
By author: H.I.H Saravanamuttoo. Published by:Lecturer’s Solutions
Gas Turbine Theory
For further instructor material
please visit: www.pearsoned.co.uk/saravanamuttoo…Mechanical Engineering
Ans 1 amp; 2. Since escape velocity depends on the mass of the planet or moon that a spacecraft is blasting off of, a
spacecraft leaving the Pquot; surface could go slower than one blasting off…Mechanical Engineering
CONTRACT MANAGEMENT Table of Contents Contract Management: A of Literature
How do senior executives play essential role in contract management
The management method is used to manage the contracts…Mechanical Engineering
For the Rankine cycle shown, the pump takes in a saturated liquid at 100
kPa. The turbine inlet is 8 MPa and
600°C. The turbine has an isentropic
efficiency of 85%.
a. Find the quality and temperature of the steam exiting the turbine.
b. Find the thermal efficiency of the system.
c. If the pump power is 50 kW, find the rate of heat addition to the boiler.
d. If the cooling water may only change by 30°C, find the required mass
flow rate required.
e. Draw the T-s diagram
The water in a large lake is to be used to generate electricity by the installation of a
turbine-generator at a location where the depth of the water is 50 m. Water is
to be supplied at a rate of 5000 kg/s. If the electric power generated is measured to be
1862 kW and the generator efficiency is 95 percent,
(a) the overall efficiency of the turbine—generator,
(b) the mechanical efficiency of the turbine,
(c) the shaft power supplied by the turbine to the generator.
(a. 0.760 b. 0.8 c. approximate 1960 kW)
GREDIENT is – (a) – the rate of change with respect to distance of a variable quantity, as temperature or pressure, in the direction of maximum change. (b) – a curve representing such a rate of…
The current invention of Sam Leach, is claimed to convert tap water to combustible hydrogen
gas. The interesting part of the invention is that there is no any continuous energy…Mechanical Engineering
Is dE/dt the same thing as power?
Yes, Power = dE/dt, velocity = dx / dt, acceleration = 2
d x/dt or jerk = 3 d x/dt 3 . Power is change in energy flow with respect to time. A quick rise of power…Mechanical Engineering
Conclusion Carbon steel is an alloy of steel composed of carbon, as well as iron. It can be categorized into four types, which include low carbon steel, medium carbon steel, high carbon steel, and very high carbon steel. Carbon steel AISI 1040 can be used on crankshafts, couplings, as well as cold headed parts. As it is known for its strength and machinability, it is also widely used for mechanical applications.
Carbon Steel AISI 1040 has a couple of issues. First, the relationship between the hardness and tempering temperature shows that the correlation between the two is inversely proportional, which means that if the tempering temperature increases, the hardness decreases, and when the temperature decreases, the hardness increases. The lower the presence of carbon in the alloy, the lower the grade of the carbon steel is, thus, the softer the metal is. Whereas, the higher the presence of carbon content, the higher the grade, and the stronger the carbon steel is. Another issue is the machinability per se of the metal. As it enters the high machining zone, it could potentially lead to poor surface quality.
In order to improve the process of machining, the involvement of heating, cooling, and mechanical vibrations should be integrated into the external energy assisted machining. The future trend should be of perfecting the machining process of metals instead of the use of external energy assisted machining per se. Moreover, considering the applications where Carbon steel is commonly used, it is important that it should be heated and machined properly.
A methodology for converting the strain gage data to the reading of power This is a proposal on a methodological development that offers an insight on how to establish a power meter that shall be attached to the bicycle’s crank arm. Designed in such a manner that it allows for a signal transmission into an operating system at the ultimate rate of about 10,000 times/second (Gunn &. Jack, 1955). This wireless strain gage is deemed to be utilized in determination of the real time power that is transmitted by the cyclist to the entire bicycle. The primary application of this model is for the athletes to come up with the most favorable training schedules. These kinds of schedules tends to eliminate the gauging exercise intensity guesswork, improves the quantitative tracking with regards to the fitness levels, helps in defining an individual’s weaknesses, acts as an effort monitor, as well as a proper perspective for aerodynamic position testing.
Many cyclists often produce equal power output from both legs. The Info Crank tends to measures independently even small variations between the left and the right leg. A host of the remedial measures often exist to with the ultimate role of correcting the asymmetrical power inputs that requires adequate measurements. Info Crank will thus act as an accurate power meter with regards to cycling. Accuracy can hence be taken as an unlimited value that is accurate to almost 5 Watts. The relative measurements, as well as the cycling power readings should have greater reference on the context of ±2% regarding the systems utmost reading capability (Krolop &. Pfeffer et.al, 368). The level of accuracy also sets basis on the measurement of cadence, as well as the A-D converters rates of sampling. There is hence little or no variation between the amounts of watts deliberated on a single Info Crank’s set. If the Info Crank is switched between bikes, the measured watts are often equal.
Power is basically a phenomenon that has to do with the aspect of force and velocity. The mathematical expression can be taken as: power (W) = force x distance / time. Watts on the other hand refers to energy that is needed to move a given mass to a particular distance within an identified period of time. In short, is taken to be 1W = 1Nm/s. So in a bike speak, the overall mass will be taken as the sum of that of the cyclist plus that of the bike, while the distance should be taken as the covered ground distance. There is some difficulty when it comes to the measurement of power due to the resistance brought out as a result of inconsistent motion.
So, given that power is equivalent to force x distance / time
and, displacement / time = velocity,
Then the overall equation can thus be taken as.
power = force x velocity (Gunn &. Jack, 1955).
This is thus the key towards understanding the way a power meter operates. It is essentially the matter of applying this kind of equation to a part of a bike, ranging from the BB axle, hub, crank, and pedal axle, among others. This is a situation whereby the movement speed or the angular velocity can be measured and multiplied by the amount of the force computed by the strain gauges (Krolop &. Pfeffer et.al, 371).
Gunn, Jack T. A Strain Gage Investigation of the Forces In, and Power Consumption Of, an Oscillating Subsoiler. , 1955. Print.
Krolop, S, P Pfeffer, and R Stegmeyer. "Fracture Mechanical Assessment of Cracks under Cyclic Thermal Shock and Operational Conditions." Nuclear Engineering and Design. 96.2 (1986): 363-379. Print.
Deformation procedure in this material involves dislocation stages, mechanical twinning and the interactions of the mechanical twinning with the dislocations. The performance and properties of the SMAT treated layers were measured and tested by their thickness, hardness, fatigue, tensile strength and wear. The improved properties of the treated surface layer were attributed to the refinement of the strain induced grain. In this work, properties and microstructures of the SMAT treated layers of steel are reviewed
According to Hodgeson, Timokhina and Belad(Hodgson, Timokhina, &. Beladi, 2013), Surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) is a new approach that has been developed for the treatment of mechanical surfaces. In this technique a number of balls to be treated are placed in a chamber and are vibrated at a very high frequency by a generator. The sample of the material to be treated is fixed at the upper side of the chamber. It is then repeatedly impacted by the flying balls in order for its surface to be heavily deformed plastically. Beside the conventional use of the plastically deformed surface, it hardens the surface and improves its fatigue and wears properties. SMAT has also been utilized, for example to activate a material surface before nitriding (Lu &. Lu, 2004. Z. B. Wang, Lu, &. Lu, 2006). SMAT creates multi-layered laminate composites due to its subsequent roll bonding (Caballero, Garcia-Mateo, &. Miller, 2014. Lin, J, Wang, &. Xue, 2006).
With all these practical potential applications, the micro-structural and metallurgical states of the deformed surfaces must be tailored in a reproducible manner and in different ways to form nanostructures with deep hardened zones (Roland, Retraint, Lu, &. Lu, 2006. Waltz, Retraint, Roos, &. P, 2009). In most cases material failure occur on surfaces such as corrosion, fretting fatigue, fatigue structure and wear (Seto &. Matsuda, 2013). These
New school business historian’s approach to explanin Carnegie & Rockefeller" Horizontal Integration of Industry in the Late 19th Century The 19th century was a seminal period of industrial growth in Western society. The late 19th century in the United States experienced the widespread institution of factories and mechanical production. With the emergence and rise of big business there also emerged a growing vertical and horizontal integration of large manufacturing firms. Horizontal integration is a business strategy where a firm acquires another firm’s operations at the same level in the value chain. This process functions as a means of consolidating power in an industry and can lead to monopoly situations. This essay compares and contrasts ‘Old School’ and ‘New School’ perspectives of horizontal integration.
The old school perspectives on horizontal business integration emerged from theorists during the early part of the 20th century until the 1970s. This is contrasted with the new school forms that took on varying paradigms between the 1970s and the present day. The old school perspectives on horizontal integration largely emphasized biographical information of the participants. For instance, in the case of Rockefeller conflicting biographical perspectives on his life were considered, with one view emphasizing his contributions to social progress and innovation, and the other casting Rockefeller as a greed obsessed shark. One considers Rockefeller’s horizontal integration through Standard Oil as he systematically Within these perspectives historians such as Mathew Josephson labeled Rockefeller a ‘robber baron’ citing examples such as cheating and unfairness, as well as the diminished living conditions of many of the lower-tier workers involved in his operations. Still, other theorists herald these actions as cutting edge entrepreneurship.
Andrew Carnegie was another prominent individual examined by the old school and new school perspectives on industrialization. Similar to old school perspectives on Rockefeller, old school perspectives divide Carnegie’s horizontal integration through his Carnegie Steel Company along critical progressive lines and that heralded him as an industrial statesman. Individuals such as Harold Livesay, writing in an old school perspective, considered him a ‘master moneyman’ for his financing capabilities. He is also heralded for revolutionizing internal business elements and only engaging in horizontal integration when necessary. New school approaches consider corporate this organizational structure and management strategy. Prominently articulated by Alfred Chandler, this ‘Chandlerian new school view positions external market forces as a key driver of business decisions. While old school perspectives imbued moral dynamics into the equation, new school perspectives on Carnegie Steel and Standard Oil’s horizontal integration worked to establish an objective interpretation of events. Specific sorts of new school insights into these individuals are that the nature of supply and demand and the increasing shifting lines of American society and capitalist production in the late 19th century deterministically propelled Carnegie and Rockefeller’s venture into horizontal integration. In these instances it’s not so much the character of the barons, but the social forces that compel their decisions.
Ultimately, in terms of my own perspectives on Carnegie and Rockefeller’s horizontal integration practices, I currently believe that moral proscriptions are appropriate, but only to the extent that the individuals involved adhered to governmental regulations. While Carnegie may have more outwardly seemed socially responsible this can in part be attributed to external market elements. Although it is possible to retrospectively deride Rockefeller for being overly greedy, the reality is that corporate businesses are like sharks in that they must constantly be moving or die. The moral responsibility of these men then was to ensure that their businesses succeeded within the confines of governmental regulations. To this degree they were both highly successful and upstanding citizens.
Invention Synopsis The Dilemma One of our greatest social dilemmas is the betterment of the environment. How many of us are willing to sacrifice our luxuries for a healthier and safer environment? The answer is: not enough. The biggest modern day concern is fossil fuel. Oil prices are reaching a sky high level with Saudi Arabia being the dominant source and the increase in mechanical activity and rise in global population is causing the demand for oil and fuel to shoot up. Two of the major uses or products are petrol and diesel, which are extracted from crude oil. These fuels are mostly used in transport. Many alternative fuel sources like electricity, LPG, CNG etc. have been discovered and develop but the problem doesn’t seem to go away. Something needs to be done about it.
A New Breed of Fuel
During the mid and late 1970’s, Elsbett of Germany began works on a new type of fuel for automobiles, Vegetable oil. The concept of SVO (Straight Vegetable Oil) was born. It is the concept that diesel engines can also run on vegetable oil (Addison, n.d). This oil can be unused or recycled. Recycled vegetable oil must be clean, free of any water or particles. Vegetable oil serves as a substitute for diesel fuel which is the prime fuel source for heavy transport such as trucks and busses. These make up a large percentage of commercial and private transport. Converting these vehicles to run on an alternative source could save millions of dollars on oil purchases. Apart from commercial vehicles, a significant percentage of private vehicles are also diesel powered. If converted to SVO, this could further improve the situation. Furthermore, there are conversion kits and services available for gas/petrol powered cars. People, who do not own diesel powered cars, would definitely want to convert seeing the sharp drop in fuel prices. SVO fuel is cheaper than diesel and much cheaper than petrol. So, what’s the catch?
Until now, the vehicles that have used vegetable oil fuel have done it privately or individually. Companies do provide conversion services and filtering and recycling of used vegetable oil on a small scale, but nothing is being done on a scale comparable to other primary fuel sources. Maybe this is the reason why it’s not getting popular. My idea is to provide this service on a bigger scale. A company that has a contract with local restaurants and food outlets to purchase this used oil at low prices, filter and recycle it and provide it to the general public. With the growing fuel prices today, a proper outlet for a cheaper fuel source would be a welcoming service. In the past and currently, people have avoided this source because of the need to convert and filter their oil themselves. Thus, not many people have adopted this system. If a proper service is provided to people, where the oil is recycled and is available at stations for a cheaper price than the fuel they’re currently using, then more and more people would turn this alternative. Who knows, if this kicks of, we could probably have a chain of these stations throughout the country and, pretty soon, around the world.
Who knew saving the environment was so easy, cheaper and most of all, right there in our kitchens. Here we can say that, “One man’s trash is another man’s fuel.” (One Mans Trash is Another Mans Fuel) Simple actions like these can make a big difference. It can not only save millions of dollars, but also ensure a safer healthier tomorrow.
1. Addison, K. (n.d.). Straight vegetable oil as diesel fuel. Retrieved May 28, 2008, from Journey to Forever: http://journeytoforever.org/biodiesel_svo.html
2. One Mans Trash is Another Mans Fuel. (n.d.). Retrieved May 28, 2008, from Greasecar Vegetable Fuel Systems: http://www.greasecar.com/article.cfm?aid=19
3. Run a Diesel Car on Vegetable Oil. (n.d.). Retrieved May 2008, 2008, from Sovereignity.org.uk: http://www.sovereignty.org.uk/features/eco/biofuel.html
4. Vegetable Oils Fuel Databse. (n.d.). Retrieved May 28, 2008, from Vegetableoildiesel.co.uk: http://www.vegetableoildiesel.co.uk/fuelsdatabase/database/index.php
Investigator Scenario As an investigator, my first crime scene would be the vandalized electronic shop while the second crime scene would be the abandoned approximately two miles from the first crime scene. According to the two crime scenes, the occupants of the abandoned vehicles are the main suspect of the burglary. The suspects abandoned the vehicle after it developed a mechanical problem. The Ipad boxes and computer cheques provide evidence that connects the vehicle with the robbery. This information serves as corpus evidence as it provides a basis for further investigations.
The two scenes pose a great risk to me as an investigator. Firstly, the culprits might have been armed robbers who may still be in the neighborhood during our investigations. Despite this risk, I will conduct my investigations professionally by applying forensic investigation technique of tire track (Joe and John 122). This process involves matching the tire patterns of the impounded vehicle’s tire with those at the first crime scene. The two tire patterns will be similar if and only if the impounded car was used by the suspects.
However, the impounded vehicle can only be subjected to a search if forensic investigations link it with the first crime. The vehicle can also be subjected to a search if its owner’s information match with those of the individual captured in the surveillance camera. The main suspect to this case would be the last users of the impounded car. The person captured in the surveillance camera also has a case to answer in connection to the robbery. Information contained in databases of vehicle registration authority and person’s registration authority would enable the police to arrest the suspects.
Joe, Nickell and John, Fischer. Crime Science: Methods of Forensic Detection by. Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 1999. Print.
61500 This paper illustrates that Jack Welch is viewed as one of the best pioneers in corporate business in the 21st century. Welch changed General Electric, which was a key organization amid the mechanical age in American into the flourishing organization current organization that is profoundly focused universally. The way to the majority of Welch’s prosperity is his capacity to identify with individuals in a casual manner. He has ensured imparting over his association casually with his chain charge and with subordinates. Additionally, Welch’s alluring initiative style and his forcefulness going to the meeting and occasions his issue him the capacity to corresponded adequately with may representative over the whole association, he must convey his message rehash to strengthen them. By manually written straightforwardly to the representative this strategy has motivated a large number of the association. Welch is known to invest the majority of his time in managing issues with representatives. He personally knows more than 1000 workers at all levels in the organization and this is by a first name base. Before Jack Welch joined the company, the firm was going through bankruptcy. The world was going through the great depression and General Motors was laying off most of its workers like most of the companies at the time. The major reason why they were laying off workers was so that they could offset some of its debt. The company did not have any new car models that would result in more sales for the company. Therefore, the company needed to come up with a new strategy to ensure that the company did not close its operations. Jack Welch’s method to success needed to first get his workers to see the master plan where General Electric was heading later on. Next, he made a totally new association culture by rebuilding the order of nine administration levels in a basic structure that was more practical. Welch knew that a hefty portion of his senior authority would scrutinize his approaches.
As the discussion declares an evolution of the concept of motivation is briefly outlined along with the major theories to enhance the perspective regarding the present context as well as justify the identification of the lack of motivation as the fundamental problematic for the ITS of NII. Based on the theories of motivation, two features of the part-time employment policy – no dependence of pay on performance and the lack of information regarding intrinsic benefits of working part-time in terms of future full time employment possibility, are identified as the fundamental problems that create an environment that does not provide any incentives to perform better. The report suggests redesigning the employment scheme and making a part of the pay dependent upon performance, i.e., introducing financial rewards as incentives to perform better as the first step. Secondly, it is suggested to introduce the intrinsic reward of higher possibility of being offered full-time employment given higher performance.
The subject of the given case study entitled “Assistance at National Investment and insurance” is the sub-optimality of the service provided by the employees of the IT support (ITS) section identified to be Assistance Officers (AOs) and the resulting performance of the department in totality. The study reports that from a survey conducted on National Investment and insurance (NII) employees who utilized services of the IT support section regarding the performance of the AOs emerged to be less than satisfactory. Apart from delayed responses and resolutions, unfriendly or mechanical attitudes were reported though surprisingly, the considerable majority of the problems addressed were
Depending upon the intensity of the drive, the action results. Thus if one is less motivated and another is intensely motivated for the same kind of action say winning a game, it is likely that the less motivated loses or gains lesser score and the other wins or scores more points. This drive had been called an instinct by McDougall, 1908 who described it as
“an inherited or innate psychological disposition to perceive, and pay attention to, objects of a certain class, and to act in regard to[them] in a particular manner, or, at least, to experience an impulse to such action”(Wagner 1999 p5).
The second part of this definition describes motivation. (Wagner, 1999 p5) Thus instincts become motives. Freud also has categorized instincts into two: one, life instinct and two, death instinct which according to him are unconscious sources of motivation. Further even unintended acts like slips of our tongue are also acts of motivation. Hence our usual explanations of behavior do not recognize unconscious motivation. (Wagner, 1999, p5) Besides, humans and animals have features of some commonality in motivation. It would now be clear that in psychology, motivation is behavior adaptation by a set pattern within an individual or a program of action by an individual which may be innate or may be due to experience. Biological species, however, must have patterns of behavior based on instincts for which human beings are not an exception. However motivation is not a source of energy or stimulus but it releases an internal source of energy just as switching on a television set, kind of quasi-mechanical behavior in the words of the author. (Laming, 2003 p2).
Now it shall be seen what fear is and how it is a component of motivation. Fear has four distinct .components. 1) First internal emotion results in the apprehension of danger. .
EMC on the face of it may not be specifically safety-related, but it certainly forms the important part of safety regulations for all the railway systems. Under the EMC directive, there are a series of standards that are applicable to the railway systems only. While EN 50121 is the main standard laid for the railways, there are subgroups of this standard that cater to various aspects of the railways’ operation.
In any railway system, it is essential that the traffic moves smoothly, and safely. The railway signaling system is essentially a program to ensure this. The need for such a system was felt to avoid the collision of the trains at any point in the route, while many trains operate on a particular route.
Starting from the early days the rail signaling was known as Block signaling, which meant blocking of the train on a certain route to let the other train pass. .For this purpose the railway lines are divided into blocks so that only one train can pass through the block at a particular time, However, later on, fixed signals were erected on the poles located near the tracks to indicate the movement of trains. These signals were still in use have different colors to indicate the advice to the train driver for proceeding, stopping or waiting for some time. Further, mechanical signals were installed which reduces the work for most of the gang men on the rail route.
The modern railway signaling system will require computerized operations, while having the proper synchronization of software and hardware to ensure the safety of the railway system, as per the standards laid out. .The required signaling system has to be quite robust and above all, it must have the electromagnetic compatibility with the other apparatus and equipment working in the rail system as such, whether onboard or along the route.
The signaling system must be immune to the surrounding electronic or electrical devices operating within the railway system so that it does not cause any harm or impair the functionality of these devices in any manner. .  .
The Nora Eccles Harrison Museum of Arts Introduction The Nora Eccles Harrison Museum of Arts can be describedas one of the largest museum located at the Utah State University in Logan, Utah. On that point, it was founded in the year 1982 with ceramic collections by its founder member Nora Eccles Harrison. Essentially, the museum is part of the Fine arts complex located at Utah state university. However, this paper strives to answer questions pertaining to this museum and its activities. Notably, the questions are:
How are we directed around and through the space of the museum? How does the available space determine how and what we might see?
Apparently, visitors to the museum are directed around the facility by the staff of the museum. In addition to that, the particular individual allocated the role is also expected to explain any questions pertaining to the archived materials in the museum. On the contrary, with the incorporation of fascinating art constructed in a surrounding which is resembles a stage, suggests a narrative or metaphorical significance.
There is a diversity of objects on display in the museum. How and why has this diverse collection been arranged in the way that it has?
Notably, the objects in the museum have been arranged in the museum following the criterion of subject. Apparently, fascinating objects have been place together and likewise for other subjects for instance those with metaphorical significance.
Have a look at the ceramic cabinets 1 through 4. What is the organizing principle of each cabinet? What common elements do the objects share and why have they been arranged in that manner?
Evidently, the key criterion in the categorizing of the archived objects is based on the age. Apparently, they are arranged in this manner for convenience purposes. It is important to note that the content in this section are similar based on the theme they champion which is American history.
4. Objects and items from the museum’s permanent collection are displayed in the gallery areas on the lower first floor. Identify three pieces of art each of which is an example of a distinct genre or style. For each painting/object explain what the genre/style is and why the piece fulfills the generic criteria.
Three pieces of art with a distinct style include a set of 27 the drawings by Jim Starret collectively known as ‘Fragments of Terror.’ Evidently, the drawings exhibit a cool passion that exudes a vibrant ‘fiery ice.’ In this regard, the drawings exude pattern of rationality that is characteristic of an emotional appeal and mechanical resonance.
5. Which is your favorite piece of art currently on display in the museum? Describe and critically analyze the piece and explain why you find it compelling.
All the pieces displayed are my favourite and I find it hard to decide on one particular object. However most of the works of art are unique in the manner in which the old ink paint has been blended with the canvas.
The Ceramics collection of the Nora Eccles Harrison Museum of Art, Utah State University, Logan, Utah. Logan, Utah: Utah State University, 1994. Print.
The paper thoroughly discusses the complete history of computers. It looks into its advancement through decades, especially those enhancements of the technology, which were kept secret for decades.
Charles Babbage is known as the father of the computer. He was the man who designed the first computer in the form of different engines. There were two different engines in his possession. One was called the Analytical engine. The combination of these two engines is also known as the Babbage engines. Unfortunately, Charles Babbage could not witness the completion of his invented machines in his life but the process continued for many decades. Due to the preservation of the computer design by Charles Babbage, the process of development kept on going without any hurdles (Campbell, Aspray, p.45).
It should be noted that the first computer engine bears very little resemblance with the present computers but they provided the basic grounds for the development of many more technologies and played a key role in finding the right path of enhancement. The basic grounds include the concepts of the separate storage area for processing, the way of inputting and outputting data and the logical infrastructure inside the computer.
Among other mechanical machines are the Tabulating machines. This tabulating machine was used by the United States of America to handle the bulk of data during the census of 1890. In the census approx 62 million American’s data was processed through this machine. One name also comes under the category of the mechanical computers but it was the first mechanical cum electrical machine. The machine was binary computer Konrad Zuse’s Z 1. It was built in 1938. Z 1 opened many doors for further development (Chappman, 2010).
These types of machines usually worked with vacuum tubes. These vacuum tubes or relay can also work as the switches. Some Electro-mechanical machines were completely mechanical from inside but these machines utilized electric motors for their power requirement. .
The subsequent literature based understanding can enable dissecting further into this field for the purpose of future developments, research and studies.
Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a method through which the various components are joint together for the large purpose of creating a substance related to the 3D model data set, commonly layered one over the other, in contrast to the other methods such as that of the subtractive manufacturing methodology [1-5]. This particular method is believed to bring about the new methods and techniques which will generally make the overall process of structural design and crafting much more easily as compared to the previously existing methods and techniques. With the given modern day advancements and developments in the form of automation supported features, without the tool technique or AM supported functioning units, each will benefit from the given method and new techniques incorporated in this regard . A commonly used and implemented method in this regard is that of the AM support unit in the form of Direct Metal Laser Sintering, which comes along with the feature function of generating a net-structured part and can further extended for the entire process of manufacturing through the use of the pre-alloyed powders [7-10]. Components that are generated through this method yield more accurate results and the crafted outlook is much more appreciated and encouraged in terms of quality and general outlook. . Hence, shot peening is possibly an option towards making use of the techniques that enable designing any structure and any outlook based object.
51250 Even though wind power plants have comparatively small influence on the surroundings when judged against power plants of fossil fuel there are certain problems regarding the impacts on wildlife habitation, sound created by rotor blades, aesthetic (visual) effects, and mortality of bats and birds . One of the effects of this technology has been the noise production from development of wind turbines. Noise, in contrast to the effects on scenery or visual impact can be calculated and measured quite simply. Two kinds of noise are produced by wind turbines, generators and gearboxes create mechanical noise, whereas blades produce aerodynamic noise. Even though the advanced wind turbines have almost eradicated the mechanical noise through high-quality material for insulation in the nacelle, so, aerodynamic sound is the major contributor in the noise pollution. It is formed by the turning round of the blades producing a swishing sound that is broad-band as it is a work of pointed speed. According to European wind energy association “ at any given location, the noise within or around a wind farm can vary considerably depending on a number of factors including the layout of the wind farm, the particular model of turbines installed, the topography or shape of the land, the speed and direction of the wind, and the background noise.” Noise pollution has a harmful effect on the lives of thousands of individuals. . Researches have exposed that the link between noise and health is a direct one. . Health affects linked to noise are anxiety associated sickness, high blood pressure, hearing troubles, sleep disorder, and disoriented concentration plus productivity. . (NIHL), Noise Induced Hearing Loss is the widespread and frequently discussed effect on health, but studies have revealed that exposure to continuous or high-pitched intensity of noise can bring about countless
Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences. Chapter 13 Summary Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences. Chapter 13 Summary
Entitled Choosing Crime in Everyday life: Routine Activity and Rational Choice Theories, chapter 13 begins by acknowledging the fact that some criminological theories are often interested in examining why some people resort to committing crimes, while others do not. It is acknowledged that whereas the criminological theories have varied perspectives, they are both guided by the fact that criminality is something that develops over time as individuals grow (pp 329). In this regard, a lot of focus is often directed at the conditions that create an enabling environment the criminality element to thrive, including ineffective parenting, frustrating schooling environment and lengthy incarcerations. In this sense, the criminality is perceived as inevitable and even justified based on the intervening circumstances. The chapter proceeds to present the theories that are interested in crimes, as opposed to the root-cause of crimes. those that do not concern themselves with the past, but the present occurrences of the crimes. The theories are guided by the assumption that the present condition of crime is what matters because it has an implication on the ramification measures to be adopted, and that criminals are not mechanical but people who are capable of reasoning rationally.
One of the theories that are examined is the routine activity theory, which focuses on the crime and opportunity relationship. This theory suggests that crimes do not just happen, unless they are presented with the opportunities. The opportunities work as incentives of motivation agents for people to engage in crimes. For example, robbers will be motivated to turn to the bank to steal because they know there are opportunities to get money and because they are often convinced that they can outflank the security. However, questions have been raised to the extent that the opportunities play role in aggravating the commitment of the crimes and the eventuality has been a heated debate. Some additional points that have been generated are that there can be no appropriate way of addressing crimes other than checking to limit the opportunities that aggravate the commitment of the crimes.
The second theory that has been explored is the rational choice theory (Lily, Francis, Cullen, &. Richard 2011. 341), which draws a relationship between the rational choices that people make and the crimes that follow the actions. The theory asserts that criminals are human in the sense that they are rational. Criminals are often about the implications that follow their actions and act to safeguard their interests and fulfill their motives, just like other people. Criminal do not engage in the criminal activities mechanically but consciously. Rational decisions, in this case, are attributes of various factors such as family upbringing, neighborhood, styles of cognition and intelligence, so on.
The third and last theory examined is the perceptual deterrence theory, which draws on the association between deterrence and crime commitment (pp 346). This theory posits that people engage in crimes because they perceive limited deterrence. Conversely, the only reason why people desist from crimes is because they think are deterred. There are various dimensions of deterrence. These include the far-reaching legal implications, ethical implications as fostered by the nature and nurture or limited incentives that are attached to the crimes. In other words, the perceptual deterrence theory suggests that people will engage in crimes based on the rewards that are attached to the actions. If the implications of committing crimes are associated with severe crimes, deterrence would work better. Thus, this theory asserts that there is the potential of addressing crimes effectively by meting penalties on criminal acts.
Lily, Robert J., Francis T. Cullen, &. Richard A. Ball. (2011). Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences. Sage Publishing: Los Angeles, C.A.
It is important to examine all the disadvantages of telecommuting before making decision to offer telecommuting. Here some of the arguments d inthe paper are evaluated to bring the negative aspects in front. A review of advantages and disadvantages is necessary for successful telecommuting.
This paper presents an argument that telecommuting helps in reduced use of parking lots and roads expansion. This can be a necessary benefit for those companies which hire telecommuters but this can be disadvantageous to the community since this will lead to fewer needs of parking attendants and road workers thus causing reduced opportunities for job for a section of people. This can act as detrimental to a section of people are not well educated or skilled to perform any other kind of jobs. (Piskurich, 2008, p.27)
Another argument presented by this paper is that telecommuting can provide an employee the added advantage of selecting his/her own working environment and this can have both economic and social benefits. However, there is also a down side because it becomes the responsibility of the employee to pay the bills of electricity and heat of his own working environment and in most companies the employees are not reimbursed for these aspects. (Piskurich, 2008, p.22)
The paper puts forward a third argument that telecommuting provides the employee the advantage of working from home. This can help the employee to spend more time with the family thus promoting family values and developing stronger family relations. However, this can be disadvantageous for the supervisors whose primary responsibility is to monitor the efficiency and productivity of their supervisees. The supervisors do not feel comfortable because they cannot physically see their supervisees on daily basis. If the supervision is done badly then telecommuting can further reduce its effectiveness, however it can increase supervision that is done well. There is also the problem of jealousy from colleagues as many people feel that telecommuters do not work in all working hours at home. There may be others who cannot take up telecommuting because of their nature of work. All these can arouse jealousy from colleagues. This working from home facility can have an added disadvantage for those companies which regularly face crisis as it causes lack of flexibility. In case of emergency when holding a meeting is required it becomes extremely difficult to bring all the employees together if majority of them work from home. Therefore telecommuting as a way of job is not recommendable for business that faces regular crisis. Telecommuting as way of job can also face mechanical problems which may range from simple problems like insufficient paper or major problems like computer crash. In any case people who are capable of fixing such problems may not be available in time for those employees who work from home and this may cause a delay of a day or two. (Piskurich, 2008, pp.23-24) People who are engaged to do telecommuting and work from home also suffer from the feeling of loneliness and isolation due to lack of personal conversation in the office ambiance. This can be detrimental to people who are more gregarious in nature. Also working from home can make a person stay at home for days thus making him workaholic which can have negative effect on the telecommuter. (Piskurich, 1996, p.23)
Many programs of telecommuting fail to succeed because of their apparent simple and logical nature which causes the company to concentrate less on the planning. It is necessary to develop proper telecommuting policies and procedures to achieve maximum benefits.
Piskurich, G.M. (1998) An Organizational Guide to Telecommuting: Setting Up and Running a Successful Telecommuter Program. USA: American Society for Training and Development
Piskurich, G.M. (February, 1996) Disadvantages of Telecommuting, Training &. Development, 50(2), p.23
Minimizing Hospital Acquired Infections This project seeks to explain the connection between hand hygiene programs andthe reduction of hospital acquired infections (HAIs). The report is based on relevant statistical data that will enable healthcare providers to change their approaches to treatment so as to reduce the rates of HAIs and make the hospital environment safer for patients. The fact that patients can suffer from a wide range of infection while receiving treatment in hospitals challenges the essence of healthcare facilities in the country. Recent reports indicate that about 200,000 patients fall victim of HAIs, with a large fraction of them succumbing to the infections and passing away. The research studies have not adequately determined the actual figures of deaths resulting from HAIs, although all indications point to the fact that the numbers have risen high. However, existing literature points to the fact that hand hygiene plays a vital role in preventing HAIs. This project applies the quasi-experimental research design, which applies control and experimental groups to gather and analyze relevant data. The data will be collected through quantitative approaches for further analysis to assess the effectiveness of hand hygiene programs in reducing HAIs.
Keywords: Hand Hygiene, Hospital Acquired Infections (HAIs)
I. Section One: Overview of the Evidence-Based Project
Hospital Acquired infections (HAIs) present a serious challenge in provision of healthcare services to patients in hospital settings. Studies you cite only one study indicate that about 80 percent of patients who contract HAIs often succumb to the diseases and die while receiving treatment in the hospital (Ivers, et al. 2012). The numbers of patients and HAIs have continuously risen. hence, it has been increasingly difficult to identify the actual population of patients suffering from HAIs (Monnet, 2012). Nevertheless, existing literature has produced a great deal of evidence indicating that hand hygiene practices among providers reduces HAIs. However, compliance rates to hand hygiene practices such as hand washing and gelling remain low, which makes it difficult to prevent HAIs. Specifically, healthcare related infections have been on the increase in the recent years, prompting serious investigations as to whether healthcare facilities were taking hand hygiene seriously. Global statistics indicate that the rate of hospital-acquired infections revolves around 25 percent, while also increasing costs involved in treating and managing HAIs in healthcare facilities (Kim &.Kollak, 2006). However, substantive epidemiologic evidence supports the fact that hand hygiene helps to reduce the instances of HAIs in hospitals (Kim &.Kollak, 2006).
The main underlying factor is that compliance with hand hygiene practices reduces the rates of related infections to a greater extent (Ivers, et al. 2012). However, inadequacies exist in the literature available regarding how to increase compliance with hand hygiene practices before and after attending to each patient according to the guidelines stipulated by the WHO (Dennison &. Prevost, 2012).Thorough and proper hand hygiene is one of the most significant practices in eliminating cross-contamination and reducing incidences of hospital-acquired infections (HAI) (Kim &.Kollak, 2006).
The World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and the Joint Commission have acknowledged the significance of hand hygiene globally (Ivers, et al. 2012). These organizations recommend hand hygiene practices as one way of reducing or eliminating Healthcare-acquired infections in hospitals. In the hospital scenario, the WHO recommends five main points when healthcare workers ought to observe hand hygiene (Parker, &. Smith 2010). These are before having contact with patients, before any antiseptic tasks, after exposure to bodily fluid, after contact with a patient, and after coming in contact with the patient’s surroundings. Healthcare workers are expected to comply with these guidelines in order to minimize healthcare-acquired infections.
However, compliance with hand hygiene has always been low historically with the average compliance rate at only 39 percent (Parker, &. Smith 2010). This situation has made it difficult to manage healthcare-acquired infections as well as alleviate the impact of health campaigns to minimize cross-contamination. Research has shown that failure to adhere with hand hygiene practices not only makes healthcare costly, but also undermines the efficacy of delivering healthcare services (Kim &.Kollak, 2006). Healthcare costs reportedly increase to 16 billion if hand hygiene is not complied with, and most of the costs involved in treating patients who stay longer in the hospital after contracting (Kim &.Kollak, 2006). HAIs Compliance is vital for measuring the rates of success of the various healthcare interventions that patients receive.
Re-education is a multimodal intervention aimed at inducing and improving compliance with hand hygiene practices. Re-education is based on theoretical frameworks of behavioral change at the individual, interpersonal and organizational level. At the individual level, re-education aims at providing healthcare workers with the right motivation and education that will help them inculcate a culture enshrined in hand hygiene practices. At the interpersonal level, re-education aims at empowering patients to understand the importance and impact of hand hygiene (Stewardson, et al., 2013). At the organizational level, this intervention measure aims at initiating a shift in thinking, restructuring the organizational structure, and developing appropriate philosophies aimed at supporting proper hand hygiene practices and other interventions that can reduce the rates of healthcare-acquired infections.
Hospitals and other healthcare facilities play a key role in treating and preventing spread of diseases. This is because the hospitals possess adequate competencies needed in mitigating the disease. for instance, hospital staffs, budgeted financial resources, health technologies, and adequate medical supplies. However, the increasing rates of HAIs make the hospitals unsafe for patients and undermine the role of these health facilities in promoting good health. Recent research studies attribute the prevalence of HAIs to lack of adherence hand hygiene in healthcare settings (Dennison &. Prevost, 2012). Lack of adherence to hand hygiene practices is due to various reasons including negligence on the part of healthcare workers, inadequate care, and lack of sufficient knowledge and training regarding the importance of hand hygiene practices (Glanz, and Bishop, 2010). As a result, patients continue to suffer from low recovery rates, and become more vulnerable to contracting new infections while undergoing treatment (Dennison &. Prevost, 2012). If the situation is not checked, or addressed adequately, patients will continue to suffer and in other cases die from HAIs. Recent studied also point to the fact that efficiency can be ensured in healthcare settings through laying emphasis to the significance of hand hygiene practices in the treatment process (Glanz, Bishop, 2010). Re-educating healthcare workers will remind them of the important role that hand hygiene practices has on the treatment process.
Purpose statement and project objective
The purpose of the project is to assess how re-education can improve compliance to hand hygiene in hospital settings, thereby reducing the rates of HAIs. The project aims at applying re-education as an effective approach of increasing healthcare hygiene.
The main question guiding this DNP project is. “How can re-education be used as an intervention strategy to increase compliance with hand hygiene in healthcare environments with an aim of reducing the rate of healthcare related infections?” This project assesses how reeducation can enhance compliance to hand hygiene in hospital settings thereby reducing the rates of HAIs.
At the end of this project, the following objectives are expected to be achieved:
i To increase the rate of adherence to hand hygiene practices in the healthcare sector as a strategy in reducing HAI among healthcare practitioners
ii To advice and motivate stakeholders in the healthcare sector on effective ways of reducing HAI infections through re-education
iii To improve the level of understanding of healthcare practitioners on the importance and significance of hand hygiene in eliminating preventable HAI
The concern that I have is still the same from your last revision – your questions do not match your methods.
Significance/Relevance to Practice
Healthcare services are aimed at saving more lives by treating, curing, and preventing occurrence of diseases that can threaten the existence of human beings. Therefore, healthcare providers are expected to work hard to ensure that the patients receive the best possible care that can help them overcome their health challenges. One main critical factor in the provision of healthcare services is the environment within which healthcare is administered to patients (Glanz, Bishop, 2010). A good environment fosters and facilitates the recovery process of the patients. Hospitals are expected to create a favorable environment for patients to recuperate while undergoing treatment.
However, some hospital environments and the treatment process have become as threat to the health of the patients. Studies indicate that the number of patients succumbing to their deaths while undergoing treatment has been on the increase in the recent years (Hhs.gov, 2014). The new wave of hospital-acquired infections has made it easier for patients to contract other diseases within the hospital environments. This makes it difficult for patients to respond to their treatment and eventually dying (Hhs.gov, 2014). While there are many factors that can contribute to the increased rate of hospital related infections and deaths of patients while undergoing, hand hygiene has emerged as the most common factor. Hand hygiene, while being a very essential component of the treatment process, is often neglected by most healthcare providers and their organizations. Some of the healthcare organizations do not have appropriate structures and guidelines to enforce hand hygiene. Some healthcare workers also neglect hand hygiene because it is a simple exercise that should be repeated very often during the treatment process (Behnke, Gastmeier, Geffers, et al., 2012). Patients are the ones who suffer the most from this negligence and lack of adequate structures to address the problem of hand hygiene.
Evidence-Based Significance of the Project
The hand hygiene project is very significant in the healthcare industry. First, hand hygiene is directly linked to the quality of healthcare services. Hospital workers who do not adhere to hand hygiene practices often undermine the quality of their work, thus leading to poor patient outcomes and in some situations, death (Boyer, et al., 2009). The failure to observe hand hygiene often arises from the need for the hospitals expanding to accommodate the increasing number of patients and the rush that healthcare workers have as they try to cover more work in the shortest time possible. In some cases, the failure to observe hand hygiene results from sheer negligence where the healthcare workers overlook the importance of hand hygiene in treatment (Bull et al., 2011). The resultant factor is poor delivery of healthcare and the inability of healthcare providers to meet their objectives.
Second, the prevention of injuries and sickness through modern provisions such as high quality lighting and temperature-controlled environments is fairly standard, but the prevention of infections continues to be a challenge (Boyer, et al., 2009). Healthcare providers ought to ensure there is asepsis whenever attending to a patient in the hospital, that is, a state where the patient has a sterile environment free of external pathogens that can cause infections during the period of treatment (Hix, McKeon, &. Walters, 2009). Nurses and medical practitioners in close contact with the patient should have knowledge on the various techniques in order to prevent the patient from coming into contact with potentially harmful bacteria.
Studies indicate that many patients lose their lives after surgical treatments due to infections that could have otherwise been prevented. For example, in Canada, 9% of all patients in the country acquire infections during and after the operation process leading to deaths amounting to around 5,000-15,000 victims per year (Prevention, 2014). Is this generalizable to the US? Evidence from scholarly journals, indicates that the most common type of healthcare-acquired infections results from open wounds, accounting for 38% portion of all surgical operation (Hhs.gov, 2014). Lewis, Dirksen, Heitkemper, &. Bucher (2010), noted that in the United States, there are more than 500,000 cases of infections annually that are related to wounds during the surgical processes. Most of the wound infections affect adults and once the infections have occurred, the patients are forced on average to incur an extra $3,152 in medical costs to treat the infections (Lewis, Dirksen, Heitkemper&. Bucher, 2010).
The main responsibility of ensuring a safe and a healthy surgical environment rests on the nursing staff, meaning that negligence accounts for most of the infections that occur. According to statistics from the Center for Disease Control (2013), around 27 million patients undergo surgeries in the United States on an annual basis. Of these patients, there is a probability that a third of them will remain in hospital for longer periods due to infections that occur during the surgery process. As a result of the patients staying longer in the hospitals, they end up incurring more financial costs and in some cases, the infections are ultimately fatal (Bode et al., 2010).
Several audit reports in the healthcare sector in the U.S and other developed countries including Canada indicate that the levels of hand hygiene compliance have been deteriorating (Prevention, 2014). According to most of the reports, the main culprits of surgical infections were poor hygiene and staff not adhering to hand hygiene procedures (Darouiche, 2010). Therefore, it is recommended that hospital staff receive consistent education so that they could better understand causes of the healthcare-related infections and ways of eliminating the infections.
Implications for Social Change in Practice
Compliance with hand hygiene practices will be accompanied with social change strategies that will ensure the practice becomes entrenched in the daily practices of the people. Social change refers to significant alterations in behavioral patterns, cultural norms and values of a group of people of the entire society. Adherence to hand hygiene requires people to change their attitudes and perceptions towards their health and adopt better ways of improving their health. Healthy lifestyles often depend on how people change their lifestyles and adopt recommended ways of managing their health in order to prevent spread of diseases in the society (Costers, Viseur, Catry, Simon, 2012).
Hand hygiene has huge implications for social change because behavior varies significantly among both patients and healthcare workers in a given healthcare setting or a country. Therefore, individual features have a major role to play in determining how individuals respond to hand hygiene and their health behavior in general. Social psychologists try to understand these individual features like social cognitive determinants, which can determine an individual’s hand hygiene behavior (Allegranzi, Stewardson &. Pittet, 2012). Individual behavior is best understood as a function of the different perceptions and attitudes of individuals rather than as a function of their lives (Allegranzi, Stewardson &. Pittet, 2012). In this regard, it is easier to understand that individual behavior is shaped through a process of socialization in the different societies in which they grow and their environments. Through appropriate behavioral models, it can be easier to understand and influence individual behavior when initiating change programs.
Hand hygiene requires social change at all the three levels in the community in order to be effective (Darouiche, 2010). At a personal or intra-personal level, social change requires that the individuals change their attitudes and beliefs towards hand hygiene. This can be achieved through access to more knowledge and information about hand hygiene, its benefits and implications to health. At the interpersonal level, hand hygiene requires social change in terms of how the different social networks help to promote healthy practices (Allegranzi, Stewardson, Pittet, 2012). Social units such as the families are the basic units for socialization. If individuals are properly socialized in their families, their relationships with peers and friends, it will be easier for them to respond to social change. Families need to appreciate hand hygiene and inculcate hand hygiene practices in their socialization processes. On the other hand, at a community level, hand hygiene requires that community structures create an appropriate environment for health practices and promote compliance to hand hygiene. Policy and decision makers in the community need to focus more towards setting up appropriate frameworks where hygiene practices hand can thrive (Hhs.gov, 2014).
Definitions of terms
a Hand hygiene products
These are the different agents used for removing microorganisms and microbial agents from one’s skin. Some of the commonly used hand hygiene products include.
i Alcohol-Based Rub
This refers to a preparation fluid (gel, liquid, or foam) that contains alcohol. It is meant for application on the hands in order to inactivate microorganisms by suppressing their growth.
ii Antimicrobial Soap
This is a soap that contains concentrated antiseptic agents that can suppress growth of microorganisms on the hands. The detergents can also dislodge transient microorganisms from the skin in order to facilitate their removal by water.
iii Antiseptic Agent
These are antimicrobial substances that inactivate contaminants by inhibiting their growth on living tissues of the skin (Lester, 2010). They include quaternary ammonium compounds and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) among others.
iv Antiseptic Hand Wipe
This refers to pieces of fabric that are pre-wetted with antiseptics. They are meant for wiping hands in order to inactivate microbial contamination.
Detergents are compounds that contain a cleaning action. They contain a lipophilic and a hydrophilic part. They can also be categorized into four main groups. cationic, amphoteric, anionic, and non-ionic.
vi Plain Soap
These are detergents that do not contain any added antimicrobial agents.
vii Waterless Antiseptic Agent
This is an antiseptic agent that does not need one to use exogenous water. After applying the antiseptic on the hands, an individual will have to rub his hands together until the skin dries out.
b) Hand hygiene practices
i Antiseptic hand washing
This refers to the process of washing ones hands with soap and water or any other antiseptic agents
ii Antiseptic hand rubbing
This is the process of applying an antiseptic hand rub on the hands to inhibit growth of microorganisms without using water or other drying agents.
iii Hand antisepsis/decontamination
This refers to the process of reducing the growth of microorganisms through application of antiseptic hand rubs.
iv Hand care
This is a general term referring to the various practices aimed at promoting hand hygiene
v Hand washing
This refers to the process of washing hands with antimicrobial soap and water or with plain soap.
vi Hand cleansing
This is the process of removing dirt on hands mechanically or physically in order to clean the hands.
vii Hygienic hand antisepsis
This is the process of treating hands using either an antiseptic hand rub or an antiseptic hand wash to reduce microbial flora without having to affect the resident skin flora.
Re-education refers to the process of training or educating someone in order to help them change their beliefs or behaviors to reflect the desired norms.
Thorough and proper hand hygiene is one of the most significant practices, backed with sufficient evidence, which helps in eliminating cross-contamination and reducing incidences of hospital-acquired infections (HAI). Specifically, healthcare related infections have been on the increase in the recent years, prompting serious investigations as to whether healthcare facilities were taking hand hygiene seriously. Global statistics indicate that the rate of hospital-acquired infections revolves around 25%, while also increasing the costs involved in treating and managing HAIs in healthcare facilities (Brownson, 2011). However, substantive epidemiologic evidence supports the fact that hand hygiene helps to reduce the instances of HAIs in hospitals (Timby&. Smith, 2013). The World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control (CDC), and the Joint Commission have acknowledged the significance of hand hygiene globally. These organizations recommend hand hygiene practices as one way of reducing or eliminating Healthcare-acquired infections in hospitals (Amsn.org, 2014). In the hospital scenario, the WHO recommends five main points when healthcare workers ought to observe hand hygiene. These are before having contact with patients, before any antiseptic tasks, after exposure to bodily fluid, after contact with a patient, and after coming in contact with the patient’s surroundings. Healthcare workers are expected to comply with these guidelines in order to minimize healthcare-acquired infections.
The project aims at using re-education as a way of increasing healthcare hygiene. Reduction in HAIs enhances the general hygiene conditions. Re-education is a multimodal intervention aimed at inducing and improving compliance with hand hygiene practices. This intervention is based on theoretical frameworks of behavioral change at the individual, interpersonal and organizational level. At the individual level, re-education aims at providing healthcare workers with the right motivation and education that will help them inculcate a culture enshrined in hand hygiene practices (Brownson, 2011). The re-education program will place greater emphasis on certain elements of hand hygiene that healthcare providers will rely on to help reduce the rates of HAIs. Healthcare providers will also understand the main causes of HAIs and work towards involving the patients in the process of managing their health through hand hygiene practices (Goldsteen, Goldsteen, &. Graham, 2011).
II. Section Two: Review of Scholarly Evidence
The search strategy for this paper entailed analyzing several libraries and databases, for relevant information relating to the subject. The search included seeking for appropriate scholarly articles in libraries such as OVID, Walden library and Medline databases. The key words used during the search are. hand hygiene, hospital hygiene, and hospital acquired infections. Inclusion criteria for the articles were: articles published not later than 2009. studies conducted in the US or Canada in order to provide the most up-to-date information on the topic. Data for the project was also gathered from relevant online sources such as Department of Health (DOH) and Science Direct. In addition to these sources relevant websites were also used to acquire information. The websites were selected based on prior knowledge of their contents. The most commonly referred to website was Amsn.org which contains information on hand hygiene.
The search focused on specific key words such as hand hygiene, hand hygiene compliance, healthcare-related infections, and adherence to hand hygiene, hand hygiene practices, and hand hygiene compliance statistics. The search generated numerous results for different articles, including 850 articles on ebscohost, 753 articles on emerald, and another 1133 articles on ncbi resources. However, after analyzing the articles from these searches, 45 articles were deemed relevant for this project. The assessment criteria that were used to grade the articles reviewed during this research focused on the date of publication for the articles selected, thematic relevance of observations, year of publication and author(s) reputation. Based on these criteria, the articles that were selected from the research effectively addressed the issues of concern. Opinions and research outcomes gathered from the articles adequately informed the conclusions arrived at in this report to ensure the authenticity of the research.
The first step to controlling infections is effective washing of hands (Fry, 2013). An effective hand washing process requires three steps. The first step is preparation, followed by washing and rinsing. The first two processes ensure that any microorganism is expelled from the surface of the hands (Fry 2013). The last step is drying. Preparation first involves wetting the hands under running water without first applying any liquid soap or other antimicrobial disinfectant. According to American Medical Surgical Nurses, the solution to be used in hand washing must pass through all surfaces of the hands and rubbing them together is very important and must be done for a period of 10 seconds or more (Amsn.org 2014). The staff washing their hands must concentrate on areas such as the fingertips and between the fingers. After the thorough washing process, the hands should be dried using paper towels.
All patients who get admitted to hospitals (Haynes et al., 2009) are exposed to the risk of acquiring new infections that they did not have before admission. Most patients become inflected through contact with healthcare workers. Traditionally, hand washing was emphasized for the healthcare providers but recently, the matter seems to have been neglected (Nursecredentialing.org 2014). Healthcare professionals are currently using an alcohol-based solution to act as a replacement of the traditional washing elements of water and soap (Chambers &. Roche, 2010). Despite of the new innovative ways of washing hands, the level of compliance to the hand washing procedures remains too low. A study done by Patil, Gaikwad &. Kulkami (2013) showed that there are effective ways to improve the compliance of hand washing procedures. The study also showed that the introduction of alcohol as a replacement of soap and water is not enough to promote proper hand-washing.
Importance of staff training in controlling HAI
Training is basic because it endows the staff with the skills to deal with infections, but it must be mixed with other strategies in order to get the staff involved in the process. The first strategy that should be implemented is to include the staff in the planning process. This generates a feeling among the staff that they have a stake in the whole process (Fry, 2013). However, there are suggestions that more research is needed to identify more strategies that are required to promote the hand washing process. A program for promoting hand hygiene should be introduced in clinical care studies. The program would involve pocket-sized containers containing a washing gel and the program coupled with thorough education will educate and demonstrate to the healthcare staff how easy it is to adopt effective hand hygiene practices (Bull et al., 2011).
Washing hands is a routine that should always take place before and after surgery and if something becomes a regular habit, there is a tendency to make it a part of the standard practice. There is also scientific evidence that shows that traditional practices such as washing hands before surgery should be made a custom to make it a part of life of the healthcare professionals (Fry, 2013). More research needs to be performed to ensure that the healthcare professionals recognize the importance of hand washing before and after a surgical process and make it a part of their lives. The research should incorporate the techniques of hand washing, especially the rubbing of hands together, and the appropriate procedures that should be used (Jaffe, 2014).
Monahan, Neighbors and Green (2010) emphasized that taking thorough sanitary measures is very important in preventing the spread of infections in the hospital environment. Proper disinfection reduces the chances of viruses and bacteria entering the system of patients and also the spreading of such organisms or infections caused (Monahan, Neighbors &. Green 2010). Careless disinfection measures significantly raise the risk of diseases and infections spreading between patients and the healthcare providers. The surgery rooms become more sensitive and rigorous cleaning practices should be utilized (Chambers &. Roche 2010).
Noone and Griffiths conducted research on the same topic by studying patients admitted in hospitals and they concluded that the best way to control the outbreak of the infection of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE) in a hospital situated in the United States was by thoroughly cleaning of the wards which would greatly reduce the contamination of the environment (White, Duncan &.Baumle, 2013). The research noted the number of infected patients as a way of ascertaining whether cleaning had any effect.
Methods of killing microorganisms on hands
Ultimately, the best way to kill microorganisms thoroughly is by the use of sterilization. Sterilizers can be in form of steam or liquid chemical and there are three ways of determining whether a particular sterilizer is effective. First, there are gauges and mechanical means to determine whether the machines are performing properly. Secondly, there are tapes or indicators that change color to indicate the right amount of heat or steam is reached (Lautenbach, Woeltjeand Malani, 2010). Lastly, there is biological testing that selects a microorganism even if it is resistant to high levels of heat and chemicals and the biological testing treats the microorganism as a challenge.
If the procedure is able to kill the microorganisms, then the machine is rendered effective. After a single procedure of the sterilizing machine, the machine should be cleaned thoroughly to prevent a barrier from forming since this might result in to the microbes not functioning appropriately (Marra&. Edmond, 2012). Moreover, the sterilization instrument is highly vulnerable and it should be taken care of to ensure that the instruments are free from contamination before they are used. Disinfection is the process of having chemicals on appropriate areas and the maintenance of the appropriate temperatures to offer a hostile environment to microorganisms that cause diseases (Weigelt, 2012). Disinfection aims at killing the microorganisms but the process is not as effective as sterilization because it leaves out bacterial endospores.
If all procedures are followed appropriately, sterilization is very effective, especially in ensuring that the bacteria do not spread. The process should also be applied in cleaning other medical equipment such as gloves and other instruments that have contact with the tissues of the patient or the blood stream (Vincent 2010). There are other sterilization methods in existent but their functioning remains controversial. Examples of such sterilization methods are gas sterilization and sterilization with paraformaldehyde.
*This is the same comment from your last revision – you indicate that you used 45 articles, yet your literature review does not present 45 articles….please address this.
The health belief model (HBM) is a psychological health behavioral change theory that helps to predict health related issues of individuals, and also how they use health services. This theory gained popularity in the 1950s after it was developed by Irwin Rosenstock, Howard Leventhal, Godfrey Hochbaum, and Stephen Kegeles who were social psychologists in the Public Health Service in the US. The theory is based on the premise that people’s engagement with health behavior is informed by their beliefs about health problems, self-efficacy, and perceptions about the benefits and barriers relating to healthy lifestyles (Brownson, 2011). The key tenets of this theory are the changes in behavior of individuals in relation to the messages they receive. This project will use this as a basis for instituting social changes in the community with regard to health by making people understand the significance of hand hygiene compliance.
This theory relates to the hand hygiene project in various ways. Firstly, the theory predicts social change in terms of behavioral alterations that will help instill a culture of hand hygiene among both patients and healthcare workers. The theory informs social change at both interpersonal and intra-personal level where social change can be achieved through changing the beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes towards healthcare. In this regard, this theory will form an effective foundation of communicating promotional messages that will resonate with the beliefs and attitudes of the people.
III. Section Three: Approach
This project will predominately entail data collection with regard to the rate or level of compliance to the hand-hygiene program. However, the project will also make use of data pertaining to the rate of hospital related infections. This project will zero in on any data that pertains to the health care providers’ compliance to the ideals or practises relevant to the hand-hygiene program. For instance, through surveillance by hand hygiene champions like hygiene nurses, the project will establish the number of times the medical staff members wash their hand before, in-between patients, or after attending to a patient before moving to another. The champions will have special training sessions with the medical staffs, to illustrate the health benefits of hand washing when handling patients. Similarly, the project can also establish the amount of time nurses and doctors gel after attending to patients. The targeted population in the projects is Nurses and physicians, who work in the in-patient medical units and also the surgical units.
This project will use a quasi-experimental research design. The quasi-experimental design has two groups. the experimental group and the comparison group. The subjects of the project will be chosen based on a convenience sample, selected from healthcare workers in the inpatient units. Nurses and physicians who work in the in-patient and surgical units were specifically targeted in the project. The nurses included in the sample will be identified based on prior experiences achieved from their narrations. In this regard, randomly selected groups of health care nurses will be interviewed, based on past experiences with HAI. This is a qualitative method. Those that have contracted any HAI prior to the time of interview will be incorporated into the sample category for further observations. The sampling frame is the entire population in which the sample is selected….The rates at which the selected sample contract HAI will be computed based on narrations from the nurses past experiences with the infections. The rates will then inform the process of re-education to investigate the relationship between re-education and the contraction of re-education. The primary method of data collection involves the pretest-post-test design that will involve a re-education program for the selected sample to assess their compliance rates before and after re-education. Two variables are applied. compliance to hand hygiene is the dependent variable, and the reduction of HAIs is the independent variable.
The project through similar means (surveillance) will look at data on the compliance to hand-hygiene practices pertaining to three months before the commencement of the program and three months after the completion of the program. Compliance and infection rates between the two periods will then be compared and conclusions derived from the observations. As such, the data obtained after the education program will be compared to two sets data. the base or initial compliance rate established by medical bodies, which is fifty percent that of the data on compliance relating to six months before the program commences. The comparison between the base or initial rate and the compliance rate before the implementation of the hand hygiene program will ascertain if the health care providers who are subject to this project have realized the base level of compliance.
A comparison of the two categories of pre and post data will determine the impact of the hand-hygiene re-education program on the level of adherence to the relevant practices aimed at improving compliance rates and inadvertently reducing rates of hospital related infections. From the evaluation, if the program improves the rate of compliance to hand hygiene practices, then there should be a considerable drop. However, if there is no change in level of compliance, then the program may be deemed ineffective and no considerable reduction in hospital related infections is expected.
The data variations are effectively monitored through the control charts. Control charts differentiate special variation sources, from the common variation sources. Common sources are expected in the research. for instance, the differing professional competencies of the respondents may generate differing research data. The special variations are unpredictable. For instance, the differing effectiveness levels of the healthcare providers during the research process.
Project Evaluation Plan
Evaluation of hand hygiene program
Healthcare Acquired Infections (HAI) are undoubtedly a serious public health concern not only the United States but across the globe (The Joint Commission, 2009). It is unfortunate that significant numbers of patients continue to suffer in different ways ranging from loss of life, extended stays in hospitals and huge medical bills owing to HAI. Hand washing among health workers stands out as one of the most effective ways of eliminating HAI (Yokoe, D et al, 2008). A quality improvement project is a robust initiative aimed at ensuring the goals and objectives are achieved effectively.
Was the evaluation plan appropriate to the design of the project?
The evaluation plan was highly suitable to the design of the hand hygiene project because it was designed to cover the entire process of the project. For instance, the three major methods and tools of evaluation, which include previously collected data (archive), observation and review of infection control monitoring reports applied in the evaluation process, were consistent with the needs and goals of the project as stated in the design. The plan was also designed to be robust covering all processes but at the same time cost effective making it appropriate to the program design.
Identify the goals and objectives of the evaluation plan
The goals and objectives of the hand hygiene evaluation plan are as follows: assess whether the program met its stipulated goals and objectives, measure the long-term effect of the hand hygiene initiative, measure the quality of the hand hygiene programs implemented in hospitals, and assess the satisfaction level of the key stakeholders.
What were the activities related to this evaluation?
The evaluation process took in to consideration a wide range of activities key among them building a conceptual model of the entire process including identifying the key stakeholders, and stipulating their respective roles and responsibilities. Another vital activity involved carrying out member surveys concerning the project and this covered the survey of impact, goals and the processes. Additionally there were constant reviews of impact indicators, such as, infection control monitoring reports to establish the reported cases of HAI at specific intervals, for instance every month. The final activities of the project plan, involves recording of the gathered data, analyzing it and finally presenting it to the concerned parties.
Based upon the data, how valid are the outcomes?
It can be said the outcomes are well founded considering most of the stipulated long-term goals and objectives of hand hygiene programs were effectively attained based upon the data gathered. For instance, it was observed that healthcare settings that observed and took hand-washing initiatives seriously reported significant reduction in Healthcare Acquired Infections (HAI) estimated at 70% within the first year of practice. The same results were also observed from the infection control monitoring reports by hospitals practicing hand washing initiatives.
Hand washing is a very basic procedure yet very vital in the prevention of HAI that is spread by healthcare personnel. This proposal is designed to establish the effects of poor hand hygiene in the propagation of HAI. Statistics by CDC have indicated almost half of patients admitted in the hospital suffer from the HAI-related complications. It also has been documented and established through research that these infections have resulted in a number of deaths (approximately 100,000 annually). Death is the ultimate effect of the infections though other issues are also evident.
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MRI is the safest imaging clinical imaging technique that is used for a variety of medical purposes like differentiating between normal and pathological tissues for diagnosis and tracking dynamic changes in tissue properties over time.
Magnetism is physical phenomenon in which materials and moving charged particles can attract or repel other materials or moving charged particles (Ballinger, Intro to MRI, 1998). Magnetism results from moving electric charges or intrinsic spin moments of electrons or nucleis. Spin is a quantum mechanical property. This means that the available spin energy levels are constrained to specific, discrete values. A spin 1/2 particle has only two possible spin states: spin up (+ 1/2) or spin down (- 1/2). The magnetic moment is aligned with the spin. The spin-up and spin-down states are described as being equal in energy, or degenerate. However, if another magnetic field is introduced, the spin-up and spin-down states will be no longer equal in energy. The energy difference introduced by applying the external magnetic field is known as the Zeeman splitting (van Geuns, 1999). This effect is very important in such applications as magnetic resonance imaging. Magnetism can be classified as paramagnetism, diamagnetism, ferromagnetism, and antiferromagnetism (Ballinger, Intro to MRI, 1998).
Having microscopic magnetization, protons within a magnetic field produce wobbling as they spin. The rate of this wobbling or precession constitutes resonance or Larmor frequency (Intro to MRI). The application of a radio frequency pulse at the Larmor frequency causes a change in the distribution of spins with respect to their energy state and precessional phase coherence (Rodr´ıguez, 2003). Practically, it means that If individual nuclei is exposed to RF radiation at the Larmor frequency, nuclei in the lower energy state jumps to the higher energy state (Intro to MRI). Upon
Personal tendencies and priorities still play a pivotal role in the path selection for professional development. Personal tendencies, priorities, likings and disliking, stamina are an important contributor for this path selection. Above all, you have to keep in mind the time and effort that you can put in to achieve professional development goals. The complexity of striking a balance in all these variables characteristics is not a simple task and a mere miscalculation can drive you into the chasm of wilderness and despair beside wastage of time and hard earned resources. Often in life, we face crossroads and have to make a decision on a diversion to adopt or abandon one of the two favorites and only a correct decision can make things happen for us, the same goes with our professional development. A well-thought-out plan can make thing easier and can help you choose the correct option. Especially, in a fast-paced professional environment today, decision making has become an art of making the right choices at the right time.
It is important to understand professional development in its correct perspective. Professional development is a long term plan but it yields results only on putting restless daily efforts. Professional development is a lighthouse in your journey towards professional excellence. It is not a destination but defines a path towards the ultimate destination. Like any other long term plan, professional development requires careful planning and consideration as Zepeda has pointed out in his book, “Professional development cannot be left to chance. Professional development must be planned purposefully and deliberately as part of the workday. Professional development is never the end but rather the beginning of the journey toward learning.” (Zepeda, 2008, p.61).
This research is aimed at investigations into the available career paths in the field of mechanical engineering and provides a strategic approach towards achieving goals hence set for professional development. .
This wave1lengths often occurs at about 10 µm. The carbon dioxide lasers help in the maintenance of continuous and high levels of the power applied, making them suitable in cutting and marking applications. They are often applied in the cutting of steel and superalloys at various power levels ranging from 1 to 5 kW. The lasers are also applied in the laser eye and in the correction of the laser vision. (Krar 51)
Discussion. Some of the specifications for the cutting and the laser welding machines which includes the transverse speed, power, Y-axis travel, X-axis travel, and the Z-axis travel. Usually, there are three different types of carbon dioxide lasers: transverse gas flow, axial gas flow, and the sealed tube. For the various sealed tube lasers, the power output is 40 to 80 watts (W) per meter of the each of the tube length. The lasers are usually pumped by flash lamps, near IR laser diodes and also the gas discharge lamps. A number of the specialty laser cutting and welding laser cutting machines are applicable in the cutting of pipes tubes, films, adhesives, and composite materials. The laser cutting and welding machines helped in the cutting of machines are specifically designed in the cutting of rubber, plastic, stone, marble, metal, foam, granite and composite material. Some of the laser cutting and welding machines include integral interface and computer interface. Other systems include motorized heads, robotic arms, guidance modules, pallets, gantry tables, monitoring systems, cabinets, sensors, and laser optics.
Advantages of Laser Welding. There are a number of advantages which are associated the laser welding and these includes. Punctual energy input which is exactly localized in very fine structures. Limitation of various working piece deformation in a very slight manner or even none. Very high mechanical strength of the welded seams. The seams are very slim and flat with their surfaces being oxide-free. There is no contact welding without any effects of various effects of the mechanical force on the specific workpiece. Various excellent process control which helps in ensuring constant quality in the entire process of manufacturing. Various laser cutting and welding machine help in the designing of applications with the highest demand on the cutting speed. The fields of application include precision engineering, jewelry [production, electronics production, vehicle, and machine construction and medical technology.
There are also a number of features which has been associated with it which includes. The flexible laser cutting and the welding systems for the fast 2D and 3D in the handling of the metals such as pipes, steel sheets, and 3D forms are often used. The working chamber of 1100 X 1500cm and also the working area 500 X 450 X 350mm
There are various laser sources of 50W to 200W available.
Hence, it boost the firm’s economic status and generally the state.
An accomplished expert in this field his or her knowhow in most cases is applicable in the factories as well as garages. Since, in these areas is where designing, development as well as the production of varied machines normally occur (Whatuni.com, 2015). In most cases, Engineers’ roles encompass utilizing scientific know-how with the intention to make humanity’s life more enjoyable. Hence, end up utilizing varied prototypes and pilot plants intended to ensure that ideas materialize to more accomplished and advanced machines that the existing ones (The University of Nottingham, n.d). For instance, this is quite evident with coming up with machines and cars that will ensure the effective production of quality products in any given sector and high speeds in the latter. Hence, cut on the cost which is the core goal of a factory’s internal management who measures their efficiency with the aid of variances (The University of Nottingham, n.d).
My interest in this course is to acquire adequate know-how coupled with experience that will enable me to realize the goal of fabricating a car. Since, my degree from Nottingham University besides equipped with interpersonal and managerial acumen, I will have specialized in automotive (The University of Nottingham, n.d). Consequently, this will be an advantage to me in realizing my dreams based on the quality of education the university normally equips its students with for almost 3 years. However, in building my car the focus will not only be to come up with an ordinary product like any other in the market or an imitation but that has varied specific advancements. This is because of the automotive field’s present competition whereby to remain at the top it is only by constant innovation.
Similar to University of Nottingham, there are other varied as .well as numerous institutions that normally equip students with the same know-how globally intending to specialize in Mechanical Engineering.
At a young age, Burns exhibited unequaled interest and capability in mathematics thus prompting her to like mathematics throughout her learning years (West Hartford).
Burns’ mother acted as an immense inspiration for being able to cater for own three children single handedly thus giving her inner strength as well as courage. All through her life, almost each thing seemed extremely hard including utter deterrent from people who constantly told her how unlucky she was because been black, underprivileged and more so of being a woman. However, Burns’ mother tried to equivocate all those discouragements get into her and constantly reminded own daughter that, where she was will not in anyway delineate her future (“Embassy of the United States of America”).
Back then, she anticipated of embracing nursing career, nun or if not those a teacher. Since, all these aspirations descended from the influence of their teachers in catholic schools where she schooled while undertaking high school studies. Conversely, not all the three options did prompt her feel contented as her ambition was to become an engineer, hence defying careers that her tutors were advising her to undertake (“Lean In”). Nursing this dream and actualizing it did not seem that easy but due to constant encouragements especially from the mother as well as her high school, Cathedral High School she eventually managed (Robertson 3).
Due to her proficiency in mathematics, she ended up schooling in Polytechnic Institute of new York University (Smith 1903). Here she chose a career path, which majority of the students was men and mostly the whites thus joining few females dared to pursue engineering. Initially, she opted to undertake chemical engineering but eventually changing to mechanical engineering for she thought it suited her more than the former. After her Bachelor of Science degree in engineering, she proceeded to Columbia University for a graduate program (Smith
Blind Momentum by Irving Norman, two-panel oil painting, 93.75×45 inches, in the possession of Nora Eccles Harrison Museum, Utah State University.
Strongly contrasting with this curvaceous ambiance, are projecting out the black hooked pillars bearing strange letters, appearing to be strange and diabolical in their intent and purpose. The painting also contains isolated and gloomy, small triangular spaces trapping the faces presenting varied emotional states like screaming or forlorn. The presentation of the steel machinery is marked by hangings depicting glaring lights, toys, and smiley faces. The palate used is black with strong overtones of urban red, with shades of green and purple, accentuating a landscape littered with corpses and body parts, as neon lights glare from the hangings.
Perhaps the painter in this particular painting intends to bring out the cynicism, gloom, and despondency inherent in modern urban life. This in a way carries forward Irving’s favorite theme of criticizing the contemporary times and life, urging for a spirit of change. The painter in a way intends to warn the modern viewers of the consequences of the industrial panache for material progress, at the cost of human aspirations and yearnings. The screaming and smoking faces depict the sterility inherent in the modern consumerism that gained grounds in the 60s, when this painting was made, bringing to fore the demise of innocence and a sense of human kinship. The entire landscape in the painting is viciously prearranged in a mechanical way, blatantly crushing the essential humanness residing in the recesses of modern urban life.
Despite the score of 15/15 Glasgow Coma Scale and PEARL, the patient health may rapidly worsen.
Most common shock prevalent in trauma relate to haemorrhage included low volume/hypovolemic shock (absolute hypovolemia) emanating from hemorrhage or other significant body fluid loss. high-space or neurogenic shock (relative hypovolemia) emanating from spinal injury, sepsis, or certain drug overdoses, and mechanical/obstructive shock emanating from pericardial tamponade or myocardial contusion. The patient may be experiencing circulatory problems as a result of shock. The patient may not be having enough blood (hypovolaemia) due to the extensive external bleeding (O’Neill, 2005). Increased blood pressure can accelerate bleeding, dislodging soft early clots. Class II shock represents a significant volume loss of about 15% to 30%. This is evidenced by a delay in capillary refill, as well as an increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. The extensive blood loss may have led to profound shock and may easily transit into Class III shock (Americal Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, 2011). The paramedic should run wide-open employing regular, macro-drip, or blood tubing. There is a need to decrease fluid rate by SPB>.100.
The unstable nature of the trauma patient requires an early active treatment. Two peripheral IV catheters should be established. The standard early treatment is a 2L bolus with normal saline (NS) as well as IV fluid resuscitation with saline or colloid (500ml 15 minutes). Normal saline is mainly less expensive and compatible with most medications/fluids. The goal of initial fluid resuscitation should be to restore circulating volume to maintain vital organ perfusion (Soreide &. Grande, 2001). However, there is evidence that normalizing the blood pressure in the setting of an uncontrolled haemorrhage may worsen the outcome. If the patient is still hypotensive, PRBC’s should
f)Master status. This refers to a particular status in society that automatically ranks above all others, placing the individual with these characteristics within the top element of his or her society.
g)Status symbols. Status symbols are specific material clues that refer to an individual’s position in society such as a doctor with a stethoscope or an athlete with a basketball. h)Roles. Roles are specific patterns of behavior that are expected of people who fall within a specific social status position.
K) Major institutions. A major institution is any institution as defined above that are significantly large and well organized such as a school system or the national government. n)Mechanical solidarity. This refers to a situation in which things happen essentially in the same way they have always happened bringing about social cohesion based on shared experience and knowledge skills.
o)Organic solidarity. Organic solidarity suggests there is a sort of collective consciousness which exists due to society’s inescapable mutual interdependence which exists in proportion to that society’s complexity in its division of labor.
The theory that Goffman presents suggests that the forces that shape who we become, who we are and how we will act in various situations is significantly affected by the people with whom we associate. According to this theory, each individual has a tendency to present ourselves as what we want others to think of us as if we are permanently on stage. In keeping with the metaphor, he suggests we spend a great deal of time rehearsing our performances in the backstage action using the life script we are given by our society prior to our ‘live’ performance. This performance, again like that seen on a stage, also requires the participation of other characters/cast/individuals if it is to be successfully presented to
Based on this research energy production is an important practice for the successful running of communities, cities and countries. With the advancing use of technology and other forms of machinery the world over, the use of various forms of energy (power) to run machinery for both domestic and industrial purposes is inevitable. But one critical situation that seems to be developing very fast is the seemingly expensive cost of energy for domestic and industrial use. Studies have however showed that energy would generally be expensive when demand for the product is higher than supply can meet. This means that one important problem that the United Kingdom must be seeking to tackle if it does not want to deal with high cost of energy is to look critically at the making of the availability of energy abundant. To do this, sources of energy must be diverse and easy to come by. It is also important that the cost of production of these energies become highly economical. This is because even if the source and supply of energy is abundant but its cost of production is high, chances are that the consumer would have to buy the energy at higher price. More to the issue of availability is the issue of environmental protection in the quest of supplying uninterrupted and affordable sources of energy. Indeed, energy sources that are produced with consequential effects on the environment are as hollow as they were not produced at all. This is because the situation creates a typical scenario of ‘robbing Peter to pay Paul’. …
Basically, such claims have only remained hypothetical with very minimal scientific researches to back them. This is a major problem that needs to be addressed because by addressing the problem, there is every indication that this is going to do a lot of good to science as a subject, mechanical engineering as a discipline and United Kingdom in general. 1.3 Research Aims and Objectives The overall aim of this research is to find out the potential of energy from municipal solid waste over other forms of energy. To do this, there is the need for setting specific objectives. This is because specific objectives are minor goals that need to be achieved before the overall aim can be said to be achieved. Below are the specific objectives that need to be achieved for the overall research aim to be achieved: 1. To critically scrutinise the position of the United Kingdom in tapping the potentials in energy from municipal solid waste by the use of PESTLE analysis 2. To find out how PESTLE analysis on municipal solid waste energy management in the United Kingdom favours of disfavours the country’s potential to maximise the use of energy from municipal solid waste 3. To outline the various solid waste management options available to the United Kingdom as a nation 4. To bring out the waste legislation in the United Kingdom that controls municipal solid waste management and handling 5. To relate the legislation discussed above to how they impede or promote the fulfilment of energy generation from municipal solid waste 6. To establish the environmental impact of energy recovery from municipal solid waste 7. To design a model solid waste energy extraction plant for use at medium scale level 1.4 Significance of the Study The specific objectives outlined
They are available with different silicon dioxide concentrations depending on the purity of the silicon metal being produced. It would be convenient if silica fumes are integrated to the cement mixtures. Studies have shown that silica fumes strengthen concrete structures. This experiment aimed to determine establish the effect of replacing percentages of cement with silica fume.
The main objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of the utilization of silica fume in the production of Portland cement.
This experiment specifically aims to:
1. produce three concrete mixes. Mix 1, Mix 2A and Mix 2B containing 0, 5, and 10% silica fume respectively.
2. and test the fabricated mixes in terms of slump test, maximum load, flexural strength, stress test, and compressive strength under European standards.
Review of Related Literature
Silica fumes are by-product of the manufacture of silicon metals or ferrosilicon alloys (Dunster 2009). It is called various names such as silica dust and microsilica (Kuennen 1996). This is because it consists of very fine spherical glassy particles. Its silicon dioxide content ranges from 61 to 98 percent depending on the silicon purity of the metal from which production the silica fumes are collected (ACI Committee 2000). Silica fume was first characterized in the 1950s. It was discovered to be harmful to the environment in the 1970s (Dunster 2009). Because of this, it has been a concern to use it instead of releasing it as an air-pollution. Silica fumes are lighter that cement, having density of about 2200 kg/m3 while that of the latter is 3100 kg/m3. Its surface area ranges from 13,000 to 30,000 m2/ kg while that of cement is 300 to 400 m2/ kg (ACI Committee 2000). Because of these properties, silica fume particles pack in between larger cement particle which enhances mechanical performance and chemical resistance of concrete. For example, silica fume decreases chloride penetration of concrete (Kuennen 1996). This property makes it suitable construction material for bridges, decks and other specialized structures since it reduces harmful effects of chloride in salt water, other chemicals and abrasions. In general, hardened silica fume concrete has lower permeability, improved durability, greater resistance to abrasion and impact, higher flexural strength, compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. Silica fume can also be added to concretes containing micro-fibers for explosive applications such as those involving exposure to fire (Dunster 2009). Studies show that the higher the silicon dioxide content of silica fumes, the more reactive it is with concrete (ACI Committee 2000). Materials and Equipment Raw Materials The raw materials used for this experiment were CEM 1 Portland cement, coarse aggregate, silica fume and water. Slump Test (British Standard Institution 2009) Most important equipment for the slump test was the mould. It was made of metal so it would not be readily attacked by cement paste. Its wall was at least 1.5mm thick. It was also smooth and free from projections and dents as required by the standard procedure. Its shape was a hollow frustum of a cone with base diameter of 200 mm, top diameter of 100 mm and height of 300 mm. The base and top were both right angles to the axis such that both were perfectly horizontal and parallel to each other. It had a base that it can be securely clamped to and two handles near the top. A compacting rod was also used in the experiment. It was straight and made of steel with a diameter of 16 mm and length of 600 mm. It was a straight rod with rounded ends. A square-mouthed shovel and a container were used for the remixing of sample before filling of mould. As required, the container was a flat tray made of a non-absorbent rigid material. A
Discussion—Fossil Fuels versus Renewable Energy Discuss the scientific and technical concepts related to the uses of fossil fuels and renewable energy resources
The use of both fossil and renewable energy fuels serve a significant role in the development as well as running of varied mechanisms in any given state but in certain forms like electricity. However, the final acceptable for of energy usually encompasses use of varied mechanisms that are extremely complex, for instance, like that of electricity. In order to obtain electricity from both fossil and renewable energy sources, it is imperative for one to apply relevant scientific techniques to harness them. Obtaining of electricity usually entails use of coal coupled with devising or establishing an appropriate coal fire power plant. In this case, coal normally serves the purpose of heating water to produce steam, which in turn is essential in running turbines give the final product, which is electricity (Goldemberg &. Siqueira Prado, 2011). After extraction of oil from the underground, it ought to pass through a refinery to produce other varied essential in running diverse machines like vehicles though these fuels are lighter in terms of carbon content. On heating oil under pressure, it produces hot exhaust gases that spin turbines meant to generate electricity, which is an extremely complex procedure. To produce electricity, the first step involves burning the natural gas. This creates superheated gas with heightened high pressure essential in facilitating turning of turbines in an electric field, which in turn gives the required energy. Conversely, renewable sources such as wind turbines, wave power geothermal and offers an alternative method of generating electricity. Production of electricity by these methods involves provision of a mechanical force that facilitates turning of turbines in the generators and generation of electricity from the generators. This results to production of a renewable form of energy (Goldemberg &. Siqueira Prado, 2011).
Explain the advantages and disadvantages related to both fossil fuels and renewable energy resources such as wind power, hydroelectricity, geothermal energy, and biomass.
The advantages of using fossil fuel include the following:
Coal is an abundant source in terms of carbon content whose purpose encompasses increasing the rate of electricity produced.
Method used in the extraction of coal is cheap and affordable including even expenses incurred during mining this commodity (Liming, 2009).
It also offers a variety of fuels once it has undergone cracking and distillation processes such as, kerosene, gasoline and diesel (Liming, 2009).
They are significant potential environment pollutants. Burning of natural gas produces CO2 and NO.
Produced smoke end up being a medium meant to deposit harmful pollutants in the atmosphere like HFCs known to deplete ozone (Liming, 2009).
Continued extraction of this commodity leads to its exhaustion.
Fossil fuels’ preparation their respective processes are expensive because they normally entail heavy machinery besides funds.
Renewable energy advantages
Their pollution is quite little or insignificant because their mechanisms are environmentally friendly (Liming, 2009).
They have significant limitations like wind
The capital costs for equipment to convert renewable energy like wind and tide are extremely high.
Goldemberg, J., &. Siqueira P. L. T. (2011). The decline of the world’s energy intensity. .Energy Policy, .39(3), 1802-1805.
Liming, H. (2009). Financing rural renewable energy: a comparison between China and India. .Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,13(5), 1096-1103.
The paper tells that a demand for the electrical power is rising as the population is growing. Electrical energy is adopted as one of the basic requirement of humans and in the urban life it is nearly impossible for a person to have a day without the utilization of electrical power. In older times, the wing mills were utilized to extract the mechanical power from the wind and then it was utilized to separate flour from the wheat grains or for some other purposes. In the modern world, most of the works is done by the utilization of the electrical power. Electrical power can easily be transmitted from one place to the other and it can easily be converted to any other form of energy. The power generation system is only the transformation of energy from one form to another. However, mostly electrical energy is generated by the utilization of the mechanical energy, which is attained by the thermal energy from coal or other fossil fuel materials, geothermal energy, nuclear thermal energy or solar thermal energy and sometimes directly from the mechanical sources like hydrodynamic energy, wind energy, tidal energy. The mechanical energy attained from the thermal energy rotates the shaft of the electrical power generator, converting the rotator mechanical energy to electrical energy. However, the photovoltaic solar cells directly convert the solar energy into direct current (DC) electrical energy. As the law of conservation of energy states, “Energy can neither be created nor can it be destroyed, although it may be converted from one form to another”….
l power, wind power, tidal energy, hydropower, geothermal, solar thermal power and electrical power from the geothermal energy are also utilized t generate the electrical power (Breeze p2-8). However, many countries like Germany, United Kingdom, Spain and United States of America emphasize more to utilize the renewable resources as compared to the conventional methods due to the environmental concern but conventional energy generation systems are still utilized mostly (Lozanova 2008). Nuclear power provides the thermal energy and the rest of the process is same as in the thermal power generation system like the conversion of thermal into super saturated steam that runs the turbine of a steam turbine generator utilizing the aerodynamic energy in the steam that generates the electrical power by rotating the shaft of the generator. Nuclear power is attained from the fission reaction, in which, mostly Uranium is utilized as the core material of the reaction. In this reaction, the nucleus of the atom splits into two smaller nuclei (Moore, Stanitski &. Jurs p709). The reaction is accompanied with the release of massive amount of energy and the reaction continues. The fission reaction splits the nucleus of Uranium into two smaller element nuclei and then smaller nuclei split further to smaller nuclei and then the reaction continues making a chain of reactions. After each split a large amount of energy (nearly infinite) emits that is in the form of thermal energy. The attained thermal energy is then allowed to change the state of the water from liquid to gas, which then runs the turbine of the electrical power generator. Nuclear power is not considered as the sustainable resource to generate the power, as the fuel rods or Uranium rods after the use are considered to be waste
164000 This paper purports to determine the nature of the engineering and construction industry in UK. The engineering and construction is considered as one of the most complex and hazardous form of industries. This involves various workforces from skilled to unskilled since it entails different and numerous ranges of activities starting from the design to construction stage as well as during the productive use of the built environment. Basically, engineering and construction involves complex and critical operation process. Hence, it includes various construction personnel who works together in order to complete a built structure based on client’s specifications, costs, time and building standard quality. Usually, the team is consists of the following personnel: Architect, Mechanical and Electricity Engineer, Site-Based Cost Control Surveyor, Site Engineer and Site-Based Environmental manager. As cited in APUC, these personnel have their own specific tasks and responsibilities to perform in every stage of the built environment projects and they are the ones accountable and liable to these tasks in case errors or defects emerged. In engineering and construction, the architect plays a very crucial and important role because he/she will lead the design and planning team of the built environment project. The architect is the one accountable in the conceptualization of the design up to the provision of detailed floor plans and sets of building construction drawing designs which is necessary to start the actual construction of the project. The purpose of the design stage of building construction is to integrate the requirements specified by the client according to the project budget and timescale as well as to assess the possible occurrence of design risks. In addition, it is also the responsibility of the architect to look the overall coordination of the built environment design including space planning, appearance, and materials/equipment used in construction and the furniture to be placed in the built structure upon its completion. The architect will work hand-in-hand with the site engineer during the construction phase to ensure that all the requirements specified in the design are properly installed and able to meet the client’s design preferences (APUC, 2007). Mechanical and Electricity Engineer The mechanical and electricity engineer is the one responsible in ensuring that the electrical and mechanical facilities and equipment to be installed in the built environment are environmentally sustainable which features energy efficiency use. The purpose is to minimize the consumption of energy to lessen/reduce carbon emission. In addition, the M &. E Engineer is also the one responsible in the estimation of cost related to his/her specific task, which in turn forwarded to the Cost Control Surveyor for cost planning. The M &. E Engineer will closely work with the Architect and Site Engineer in order to ensure that the
Choices Affiliation CHOICES The debilitating sun unbendingly shed light onto the basketball patio where varsity players are practicing. Nearby, daffodils are dancing and yielding fresh scent to give joy to a disconsolate heart. Students rush by to the near buildings of the school, walking hastily to make it to their classes while I sit complacently at one of the benches, waiting for the sun to come down. It was right at this place that I met him. A memory so fresh of the innocent smile gladdens me, and I could see that, whenever I visit this place and see the young men playing. The bench where we used to sit had been broken, reminding me of the years that passed and the time difference between now and when I first felt love.
I was in senior high school when Fitsum and I first met. he was playing basketball while I was studying at the bench. During their practice session, the ball went over the fence and hit my shoulder. Though I wasn’t hurt, I got irritated. When I turned my face towards the player who would retrieve the ball, I made sure he knew I wasn’t OK. However, when our eyes met, the anger flushed out promptly. There was this “sorry” expression in his eyes for having hurt me and I looked away to in dismissal of him as he apologized. After the game, Firsum approached me at the bench and apologized yet again.
He asked unending questions when I tried avoiding him. He was very amiable and claimed to know some of my friends. He even said he has been to our place and knew a lot of my neighbors which, of course, I didn’t believe. One couldn’t be that friendly and popular in the same breath, I thought. We ended up eating at a pizza parlor next to the school. He was very handsome and many girls looked at him and tried to call for his attention but he never paid interest in them.
It’s been seven months since we first met. Days flew by without my knowledge because we were apparently so in love. Fitsum seemed to be the ideal man, the best I could ever have. During graduation day Fitsum was neatly dressed, as he waved at me enthusiastically, holding his diploma certificate award. He introduced me to his parents on the day of graduation. They shared the charismatic smile that Fitsum had on the first day we met. They were a lovely couple. Mom had known Fitsum all along as he usually hanged out at our house every weekend. However, like other love stories, we needed to put an end to a chapter in order to continue with life. Graduation day marked the day of our parting but we promised to communicate as often as we could.
Fitsum took up Mechanical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania. The distance between us was never an issue because we always found time to communicate. My friends knew him well as he always escorted me in school activities. Fitsum, as they said, was an ideal guy. I felt proud whenever I heard this comment. Fitsum was still a varsity player in college. Every girl in school adored him and it sometimes felt awkward for me to see girls flirting with him while he tried to get rid of them.
The first two years of college life was quite simple. Adjustments were necessary but they were all part of life. Fitsum continued to be popular in his school while I got busy with my studies. Taking up major subjects was quite taxing. As days went by, I felt there was a growing distance between us. Fitsum seemed to be the same but things around us had changed. He became extremely popular, till there came a time when I got tired of his popularity and so avoided watching his games. I could feel the pressure as girls peered at me when they saw us together, so I would see him after the game and that was how we celebrated. Things got more complicated as he wanted me to watch all his games, saying I was a source of inspiration. I made alibis every now and then, which made him feel like I was not interested in what he did. He reacted the same way towards me by never showing up when I invited him to our school activities. I ran for the council’s Vice President and won without his presence. My friends asked why they did not see Fitsum anymore and I told them he was too busy with his games. Deep inside, I was hurting and could feel the end of our relationship.
It’s now two weeks since the elections and I have not seen Fitsum. I missed him so much but did not know what to do. Alas, I decided to come to his game only to learn that he had an injury. I took strength to visit him at home the next morning only to find out that they were moving to Ethiopia. To my surprise, he did not want to inform me because he said he did not want to break my heart. I was flustered and felt it was unfair for him not to tell me about his plans so I broke up with him immediately.
Fitsum tried to contact me several times. He also sent me mail which I never responded to. In fact, I didn’t read two of his letters. I put them straight to the bin after realizing they were from him. I was deeply hurt by what he did but after some time, I realized I still loved him. Rocky, a mutual friend said he’d already got a new girlfriend. Picking up the pieces of my heart, I tried befriending other guys and going out with some but his memories always struck me whenever I went to places similar to where we’d been to. Everything, even the street lights reminded me of him. It was very difficult to move on because the pain was unbearably too deep. I cried every night for him but was so afraid to confront my feelings. Later, after two years, I sent him a birthday card but there was no reply. I did it again in the next year and in the succeeding years but still there was no reply. I was stuck with him for almost six years and maybe until now.
“Mom, are you OK?” I heard Kirsten as he held my arm. “Yes darling. Just remembered something. Shall we go now?” I replied still feeling flustered.
I walked with him towards the gate, still remembering the steps to the nearest pizza parlor where Fitsum and I ate the first time we dated. Kirsten, my son, didn’t have any clue on what I was thinking at that time. Strange feelings filled me and I didn’t know how long I could live with them but I knew I had to make the right choices this time around.
The students who wish to pursue their careers in either of these fields however remain confused as to which fields to choose solely because they do not have the required knowledge to make such an important decision. As a result, many students end up taking the wrong decision and by the time they realize it, it is too late and their future becomes dark.
In this report, this question has been discussed at length. A through research has been undertaken to find out just what exactly the two fields require from a person, and crucially, how the two differ in terms of coursework and future career opportunities.
This section covers the two fields from three different perspectives. Firstly how these two fields differ and what they focus on will be discussed. Then in terms of education and knowledge required of the field will be discussed. Lastly, both fields will be analyzed to find the future career opportunities.
As the term suggests, the mechanical engineering program focuses highly on the mechanics and motion of objects. It applies the principles of Physics in a very constructive way to bring about new equipment and technology to help make our lives easier. (Johnson &. Sherwi, 1996)
Mechanical Engineering involves the analysis of design, manufacture, and maintenance of all types of mechanical systems. These can be automobiles, aircraft, and miscellaneous systems, manufacturing plants, industrial equipment, and machinery. (Johnson &. Sherwi, 1996)
Being such a wide and very broad field, a student is required to study all sorts of courses relating to all types of scientific phenomenon. The general courses that students have to take up are the following: (Johnson &. Sherwi, 1996)
The courses specified above mean that the student will be .required to study all the basic and advanced concepts of how things basically work. It will be required of them to know and research how one thing leads to another and how the chain of processes goes on to make one single process work and create a basis for the next consecutive process.
VISUAL ARTS FILMS STUDY Date:
Visual Arts Special effects
Time has seen the evolution of the film and movie industry especially with the introduction of modern computer systems in animations, multimedia systems, and 3D animation, special and visual effects. Special effects are old school camera motion effects that were done in a mechanical manner whereas visual effects is all about post production editing done mostly by computer software and programmes hence making a movie or film to be exciting. Examples of movies done under visual effects include Tron legacy, Robocop, Inception, GI joe the rise of Cobra among many others (Sieber, 2011).
Tron legacy is a science fiction movie which shows tremendous use of computer visual effects. The movie was shot in 3D and ten companies were involved in the enormous visual effects work. Chroma keying is a film technology for compositing two images or video streams together based on color hues (color range), this technology has been incorporated in this movie hence bringing out an exciting and thrilling 3D effect in the movie. Artificial intelligence is also a technology used in the film. This is a technology where machines are perceived to be autonomous and tend to have human like intelligence.
Visual effects is a term used in describing imagery created, altered or enhanced for a film or other motion pictures production That can’t be done during actual shooting of a film. Visual effects can also be incorporated in to live action capture through techniques like mate painting, miniature or forced perspective sets, computer graphic objects, characters and surroundings, compositing of disparate images recorded in any number of ways. These are some visual effects that have been used in the Tron legacy film, and have contributed very much in modern film production and technology (Zwerman, 2010). Computer technology was vastly significant in the production of this film whereby some scenes in the movie were very graphic and could only be achieved through computer graphic techniques (Mitchell, 2004).
Love and hamburgers is a short film about two neighbors that leave short messages for each other on each other door steps. Before the first scene a note written question is left on the front door step of the lady. Here the exposition is an apartment scene where neighbors live next door to each other.
The rising action occurs where the two neighbors start leaving sweet notes on each other’s door steps trying to court each other by asking interesting questions afterwards the man asks the lady out for a date only to come back home the following day and find that there is no reply note on his door step He then leaves a note telling the lady to call him and that he misses her.
Then the climax reaches when the following day the man comes home and hears the doorbell ring only to find a telephone on his door step with a note prompting him to pick it up, he picks the telephone and the lady comes out of her apartment and calls him telling him that someone is stalking her and he responds by saying the same thing.
The denouement occurs when the man opens the note that was attached to the telephone only to see the message that being extraordinary was never their problem then he remains silent for a while thinking.
The resolution comes when the lady tells the man that she thinks that he is cutting out on the phone then the whole plot comes to an end. The genre of this movie is that it is a short romance film. It is a fictional romance narrative since the characters are just following a script based on a fictional romance story.
Okun, .J. .A. (2010). .The VES handbook of visual effects: Industry standard VFX practices and procedures. Oxford: Focal.
Mitchell, .A. .J. (2004). .Visual effects for film and television. Oxford: Focal Press.
These days, the mechanical industry has a wider scope. However, in the case of the mechanical industry, the chance of occurrences of fretting fatigue is very high. The mechanism of fretting fatigue is very complex in nature, and it relies heavily on several factors. It is extremely important for the industry to understand the mechanism behind the fretting fatigue. Therefore, effective analysis is a pre-requisite for this concept, and a marked attitudinal change and a positive mindset are also required for successfully tackling such failures. The significant areas where the concentration needs to be made should be identified. Controlling the mechanism and development of various test methods are also essential. .
The term itself indicates that fretting fatigue means fissures from the outer side of a one particular constituent by excluding the rest of the constituents. .“Fretting Fatigue has proved a challenging problem from the design perspective and a significant number of fretting related failures still take place in service. Two features make an analysis of the crack nucleation and short crack growth phases of life particularly demanding. These are the existence of high-stress gradients, which can lead to a side effect, and the difficulty in quantifying the effect of surface damage on crack nucleation. Both of these difficulties can be overcome, at least in terms of analyzing fatigue thresholds, by considering the possibility of short crack arrest. The argument assumes that conditions at the frictional interface are so severe that cracks are highly likely to nucleate. The difference between finite life and ‘infinite life’ is therefore attributed to whether these embryo cracks are able to escape from the highly localized stress concentration caused by the contact.” (Novell 2007).Fretting failure is a highly intricate problem and any attempt to provide an explanation for it needs to analyze the root causes for it and trace its evolutionary process apart from devising on an effective system for the management of data involved. .
This perception distinguishes important patient characteristics and helps in staffing procedures for fairness in patient staffing and enhancing excellence of care and performance. Information acquired with the use of the PCS can be used by nurse leaders to efficiently and impartially lobby for proper patient care resources (Harper, et al. 2007).
To get the required care that is adequate to their uneven patterns of acuity, patients repeatedly shifted a number of times throughout their small of stay in hospital. Because of these shifting, patients some times miss or get their treatment delayed which in turn cause medication errors, patients falling, and personal contact with several caregivers or related health experts. This cause an enlarged workload index, responsibilities and physical movement, which is innate in existing nursing care models and it attach no worth to patients’ care outcomes.
The majority of tools for gauging acuity do not reflect on the effects of repeated shifting of patients on healthcare centers or nursing units. However, the estimate of slanted procedures for patients’ acuity, transformed to a workload index, is the process the majority nursing division resources and plans the number of nursing hours per patient day. Present day’s customary nursing unit might move or discharge an astounding 40% to 70% of its patients each day. A rational workload index is a vital evaluator of withholding of nurses. therefore, it is a main area of prospect as it is linked to the flow of patients and the progress of innovative nursing care models.
Throughout the last decade, the difference between critical care and medical-surgical care units was uncertain with a rising acuity of patients, ensuing in the development of progressive care units. Patients are admitted to progressive care units as the patients need immediate mechanical aeration, infusions of vasopressors, or physiological
“Language occurs through an interaction among genes (which hold innate tendencies to communicate and be sociable), environment, and the child’s own thinking abilities” (Genishi, 2006). But just how does this happen? How do children learn to use sounds to communicate and then to place those sounds in the correct order to make themselves understood? While much of this behavior can be attributed to an imitation of the caregivers, there remain aspects to the development of language and communication that cannot be so easily explained. To provide a more complete understanding of how language and communication development in the young child, it is necessary to understand not only the primary terms that are applied but also the parts and components that make up language. This helps to inform the various theories that have been developed relating to language development which then begins to identify how environmental aspects of the child’s world may contribute to the development of language and identify those strategies that are used to encourage language development.
There are several terms used in a discussion of language development that may not be quite as obvious as they might seem at first glance. Generally speaking, language is defined as a set of symbols, typically in the form of articulatory gestures and the creation of sounds, which are used to communicate or store information (Eccardt, 2003). “The symbols are words, and their meanings cover everything we humans deal with … Generally, the above definition puts the label ‘language’ on English, Spanish, Chinese, etc. It also covers sign languages for deaf people” (Eccardt, 2003). .However, it does not necessarily include mechanical forms such as the alphabet, writing or other forms of expression. . This is quite different from what is meant by the term ‘communication.’ . .
Selection of thermocouples is based on the application, the range of temperature required, chemical resistance of the sheath material, and the mechanical resistance to abrasion and vibration. The most commonly used standards are J, K, T and E. B, S, R and K are used in steel and iron industries. Thermocouples are suitable for measuring high-temperature range applications including kilns, gas turbine exhaust, diesel engines and other industrial applications (Pollock, 1991, p. 215)
K thermocouples are appropriate for testing temperatures in processing plants such as petroleum refineries and chemical production plants. They are also appropriate for the tests of heating appliance safety.
J thermocouples are appropriate for monitoring temperatures in inert materials and vacuum operations. They get oxidized when used for low-temperature applications and thus are suitable for high-temperature monitoring processes such as the manufacture of resins and plastics
N thermocouples offer a wide range of temperature and are stable resisting oxidation making suitable for use in high-temperature applications. They are used in furnaces, ovens, and kilns. They are also used to monitor the temperature in engine exhausts and gas turbines.
It is the smallest thermocouple consisting of two pieces of dissimilar wires that are held together through a welded bead. The welded bead is easily corroded or oxidized when used with liquids. It relies on a direct connection to an electrical circuit to accurately measure the temperature. They are small with fast response time making them a suitable choice for measuring gas temperature.
Has a wire that is housed inside a metallic tube. The metallic tube serves as a sheath and is made up of materials such as stainless steel and Inconel. Inconel supports a higher temperature range while stainless steel is suitable for a wider range of chemical compositions. The tip of the probe may be grounded, ungrounded or exposed. The grounded tip keeps contact with the sheath to provide quick response time.
It is a natural strategy to control access to the premises and creates risk perception in offenders’ thus reducing crime. The photo also has an extensive semiprivate land attached to the tarmac road to reduce its exposure to crimes (Newman, 1996).
In photo 6, the natural surveillance concept is evident. The windows depict it, and the door faces the parking area and the street. It also has a friendly street and sidewalk with security light at the door for enough lighting. These ideas increase awareness of the residents and neighbors on anything that happens within their residence (Newman, 1996).
In photo 7, there is a territorial reinforcement which creates a sense proprietorship of the user to perceive an influence of the territory to the criminal. According to the photo, there is weak support evidence by a temporary fence made from sticks (Crowe, 1990).
It can explain the security of the place is enough, and no need for concrete wall and also this is a rural setting (Newman, 1996).
In photo 8, the mechanical concept is applied. The windows have a protective glaze with reinforced metals bar from inside and doors with materials that are difficult to breakthrough. This technology makes crime a difficult thing to commit (Smith, 1996).
Stress distribution in a spanner/wrench Stress distribution analysis is a necessity in any structure or part being utilized to perform a given task. Majorly, inherent material properties have an influence on stress distribution. Stress itself is the internal distribution of force per unit area (pressure) within a body reacting to applied forces which may cause deformation or strain within the body. The distribution of the forces within spanners determine the efficiency of the spanner and are dependent on the shape and design of the spanner. In this case, two designs are explored and their stress distribution, associated with the design analyzed. A spanner or wrench is a hand tool used to provide grip and mechanical advantage in applying torque to turn objects such as nuts and bolts. The figures below show the designs and the explanations thereunder.
Original design stress distribution
Figure 1 (a) Figure 1 (b)
In the original design shown in the above diagrams, the design is shown in figure 1 (a) and the stress distribution in figure 1 (b). Stress is concentrated around the grip edges, and at the ring end of the wrench. There is also concentration of von misses stress along the axis of the wrench. From the figure 1 (b), the red color shows regions that are heavily stressed whereas the blue color indicates regions with minimal stress. From the summary at the top left the same figure indicates the extent to which the von misses stresses are distributed within the wrench body.
Modified design stress distribution
Figure 2 (a) Figure 2 (b)
In the modified design, shown in the diagram above, the over stressing of the same region is eliminated. Stress is redistributed and is only excess at the collar of the wrench. In this design, stress has been managed well and is uniform almost throughout the entire figure. The contours show the von misses stress distribution.
It is therefore true that shape of the object, affects a body’s stress distribution and the above examples clearly dictate this.
Zienkiewiez O.C and Campbell J.S (1973), shape optimization and sequential linear programming
Morris A.J. (1982), Foundations of structural optimization: a unified approach.
“Language occurs through an interaction among genes (which hold innate tendencies to communicate and be sociable), environment, and the child’s own thinking abilities” (Genishi, 2006). While some of this behavior can be attributed to the child’s natural imitation of the caregivers, there remain aspects to the way language and communication develops that haven’t yet been sufficiently explained.
Through this paper, the various terms used to discuss language development will be identified followed by discussion of the various parts and components of language that a child must master. This will lead to investigation of how young children up to the age 4 seem to have an innate switch designed to facilitate language development and the theories that have evolved. Some activities that children and their parents may engage in that might help foster language and communication development will be discussed along with other factors that may contribute to development. Common mistakes shared by children as they learn how to communicate for the first time provide clues as to how language development progresses and contribute to a discussion of the average stages of language development exhibited among young children.
Generally speaking, language is nothing more than a set of symbols, usually auditory, that are commonly understood and are used to share or warehouse information (Eccardt, 2003). “The symbols are words, and their meanings cover everything we humans deal with … Generally, the above definition puts the label ‘language’ on English, Spanish, Chinese, etc. It also covers sign languages for deaf people” (Eccardt, 2003). This definition does not necessarily include the alphabet, writing or other forms of mechanical expression. On the other hand, most experts define the term communication as a method of conveying meaning through the
The manufacturing process is desirable for mass production because of the shared value of dies and punches with production of a large number. The performance of film forming distinct rolls to achieve a particular image was done in the past. This process is known as sheet metal rolling, but the process is possible for production of natural shapes. Therefore, the search for new sheet metal forming solutions has been started. The developments took the route of searching for new shapes of rolls, which in turn paved a way for new forming scopes. (Mecanica 2009)
However, in a severe world industrialization competition, there is the need to obtain the demand for increasingly complex shapes. For the demands of complex requirements, metal plate stretching attempts have been made by outstanding prototypes, to reach the final shape. In order to contour the high volume demands, the use of presses for short lead times and production costs began. The main benefits of this method is the need for the formation of a significant essential tool for the plate formation. This increases cost of the tool, as a result of high production costs. The presses system establishment is suitable for mass production.
Nevertheless, in the current global fierce competition, there is a need for more and more products that are complicated by the demand. For the achievement of the final requirements, attempts for sheet metal extension on exceptional prototype have been made to achieve the optimum shape. The formation of stretch metals on presses was adopted to handle mass production demands with more batch measurements at lower costs of manufacturing. However, the system was disadvantaged in that every product needed a specific tool, for the sheet metal development. This increases the device costs which results in higher production costs. Therefore, presses forming can be appropriate
61500 Providing a structural element Floor Plate will take care of the constraint. nevertheless, through the propagation process, someone can formulate some extra constraints. For instance, someone now requires some structural component(s) that can gather the weight from the floor plate and effectively transmit it to the ground. Thus, the constraints that may be devised may occur from structural deliberations or exogenous such as constructibility, mechanical and architectural considerations. Thus, constraints emanating from various domains might interact with one another, hence building mutual constraints. For instance, considering a high-rise office building floor system, in a characteristic floor system, architectural and mechanical components (ceiling and ductwork) are also present together with structural components such as floor slab and girder. Therefore, mechanical depth, ceiling height and structural depth form a mutually constrained combination such that when considered in together with the needed floor-to-ceiling height, they must not contravene the controls on the tolerable floor-to-floor height. The result of such an association is that disparity in the constraints of some domain may affect the choices in other domain(s).Hence if the mechanical ducts depth is enlarged, one may be forced to minimize the depth of girders or, otherwise, if the ducts were primarily beneath the girders, they might now have to be passed via the girders. The 2 top-level classes of constraints, specifically exogenous constraints and structural constraints can be further decomposed according to the classification put forward by Luth.Thus the subclasses are illustrated diagrammatically as indicated in fig 1.1 and are explained in the two subsections that follow.
Aerospace Engineering" The discovery of smallest planet, the discovery of earth like planet and some huge planets were explained in this part.
The thirst for knowing more about our universe has developed in the minds of the human only after science and technology started to develop rapidly. Earlier, human had very little knowledge about our universe and our planet, but as science started to unveil the mysteries about the universe, one after another, humans started to dream about finding life in other planets also. They started to investigate more about other planets in the solar system and the possibility of life existing there. But so far, no planets in the solar system appear to be having life forms because of the extreme weather conditions there. The failure to find life forms in the planets of the solar system forced the human to look beyond the boundaries of our solar system in search of life forms which resulted in the discovery of many other planets in the recent times.
Planets found outside the solar system is generally termed as Extrasolar planet or exoplanet. As of from now scientists have discovered around 500 such planets outside the solar system with the help of indirect methods such as radial velocity observations and direct methods or direct imaging technologies using powerful telescopes. The discovered exoplanets were large and small in size compared to the earth. It is scientifically proved that a substantial number of stars may have planetary system like the sun. Exoplanets became a matter of interest in the nineteenth century when the scientists and technologists started their space exploration actively to find extraterrestrial life with the help of powerful telescopes and other modern technological equipments.
On September 30 2010, Paul Butler and his colleague Steven Vogt of the University of California at Santa Cruz, “announced the discovery of a rocky planet in another solar system that has the most basic and essential conditions needed to
Human life should be given priority in assessing risk because no value can be attached to it and then other factors to follow.
There are ways of assessing risk in the existing civil engineering facilities in an attempt to come up with decision making tools. Risk is the measure of the probability and severity of adverse effects (Lowrance, 1976) while risk assessment is the act of determining the likelihood of a risk occurring and the consequences that come with it. For sustainable development to be achieved, intense focus on risk assessment has to be put in order to maintain the existing and future infrastructure. Determining what should be done in case of occurrence of a risk, impact of current decisions on future options and the consequences due to a given activity is also part of risk management. Due to day to day changes in systems, technology and environment, risk management has to be monitored regularly.
This is the first step of risk assessment. It is the act of identifying the sources of risk in the existing civil engineering facilities. Some of the sources of risk are human error, environmental catastrophes and system failure due to mechanical breakdown. These hazards can be identified by past experience and also in incident data banks where past records are kept. It is very important to take into account all the relevant hazards in a facility. This ensures critical decisions are made in regard to the risks. Ignoring a hazard causes negative impacts in terms of financial losses and human injuries or even lives may be at stake.
Logic tree analysis provides a tool for assessing various branching probabilities divided into, fault trees, event trees and consequence charts. Fault trees explain the source of failures. event explains the occurring of possibility while consequence explains the outcomes associated with the occurrence of an
In simple words almost all have their own strategies to survive the downturn and afloat their businesses.
This report aims to offer an insight into the financial analysis of the two companies in the light of the credit crisis on the financial state of these companies. The past and current financial performances of any company are significant to shape up the future funding strategies of the respective organisation. Shareholders’ wealth creation is significant for any organisation. The impact of credit crisis on the creation of shareholders’ wealth of the two companies is analyzed in this report to make the analysis more judicious. Balfour Beatty and Redrow are two leading players in the housing development and infrastructure industry. Both of these companies are listed in FTSE 250 index. These two are taken up for financial analysis to detect the effect of financial downturn on the market.
Balfour Beatty: This UK organisation is a renowned name in road infrastructure, electrical and mechanical engineering, support services and other disciplines (Balfour Beatty, n.d.). In the year 2009, the company ranked 19th among the international leagues table of contractors. Established in the year 1909, it is now one of the largest fixed rail infrastructures contracting company across the globe. The company handles infrastructure building, including civil and rail engineering for a wide range of products. Apart from UK, the organisation also focuses on asset management and capital projects in United States (Hoovers, 2010). In future, its strengths and well-developed strategy will help it to retain the respected position.
Redrow is one of the leading property development organisations in UK. Imaginative design and quality customer service have been the key pillars of its operation (Redrow, 2010). At the time of financial downturn, the entire housing market of UK was in a very vulnerable
According to the papernbsp.the companies operating in extractive industry are working to explore natural resources in different parts of the world and are then extracting them to obtain its pure and useable form. Mining companies investigate for and extract minerals and metals including copper, gold, silver, platinum, precious stones, clay, gravel, shells, coal, iron, zinc and nickel. Once extricated, these assets are refined into materials for assembling, vitality creation or for immediate shopper buy, for example, gems. Large mechanical mining companies are ordered by their size, proprietorship structure and concentrate on particular minerals. Oil and gas companies investigate for and extract natural gas and crude oil, which are eventually refined and sold as transportation energizes and for power generation purposes. Extractive industry is researching aggressively to explore other types of extractive resources to ensure economic growth and community development in the long run.
From this study it is clear nbsp.thatnbsp.all extractive resources are not available in every part of the earth and there are some specific regions around the world popular for certain types of extractive resources. For example, most of the Arab countries are blessed with oil resources. Similarly, most of the minerals rich countries are African countries whereas metal rich countries are Saudi Arabia, Guinea, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Mexico, Peru, India, USA, Ukraine, China, Chile, Brazil, etc.nbsp.
Movie Review Movie Review Apparently, the profound film displays an investigative process seeking to answer questions of diverse nature. Some of these queries are of value while some are questions of facts. The questions of value include. what is the impact of Vermeer’s work on the contemporary artist? Does Vermeer’s work depict an element of creativity? What does Vermeer’s work indicate about originality in the field of paint art? Some of the questions of facts include. did Vermeer seem to obtain mechanical help while working on his paintings? What are some of the features of Vermeer’s work that distinguishes it from regular art?
After a long duration of attempting to provide answers to his questions, Tim formulated a thesis and his work brought to a halt the raising of more question and judgments. He concluded his research process convinced that Vermeer used optical devices to undertake his work in painting. Tim ultimately answered the numerous questions that he posed and that his critics could have raised.
Through setting on a course to establish the techniques that a predecessor artist used in his work, one can say that Tim engages in a process of critical inquiry. To guide the endeavor, he had to pose critical questions that he was to provide their answers based on his research. However, Tim was successful in narrowing down the differences that existed in his initial views and Vermeer’s perception and techniques or tools of art. Through successfully answering his critical questions, he minimizes the broader discourse that would have existed between his perception and Vermeer’s views on the techniques and tools of art. Therefore, Tim harmonizes his views with his predecessor through confirming the validity of his thesis. Tim’s rhetorical situation is that he seems to become obsessed with work that was originally done by another artist. His situation leaves one wondering whether he lacks originality or whether he just needs to prove a point. The fact that he confirms the techniques used in Vermeer’s work was not any different from what he thought is a sign that there is no discovery that he made.
YouTube, (2015). Tims Vermeer 2013 full movie in English. Retrieved 25 June 2015, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1uNrC6nptFI
Introducing Ammar Alwayel Give me an engineering problem and I can solve it easily. If I was born to do anything, it was to work out the intricacies of engineering challenges and create solutions to meet the needs of my employer or client.
Originally born in Kuwait, I have been living in Charlotte over the course of my studies. I attend the University of North Carolina and managed a GPA: 3.8/4 in my senior year of High School. My intention is to return to Kuwait once I have graduated. I want to be able to apply the skills and information I have learned through my studies towards practical applications.
I count myself fortunate that I already have a range of skills suitable to the workplace. On the computer I have experience with AutoCAD, MATLAB as well as all four functions of Microsoft Office (Word, Excel spreadsheets, PowerPoint presentations and Access databases). My UNIX technical skills include the use of the drill press and soldering iron and I am fluent in Arabic and the English language.
I already have some experience in the workforce. In Kuwait I worked as a trainer for three months at a Kuwait oil company and I have also worked as a trainer in the Kuwait power plant. That experience taught me some valuable work ethics – such as being reliable, turning up on time, meeting deadlines, following instructions and working as part of a team. I was really proud that I could take some of the skills I already had and apply them to a real life situation.
It is my intention to obtain an internship position in the field of Mechanical Engineering. I believe that my skills and experience would be a valuable asset to any organization and I am keen to learn new skills to compliment those I already have. I have a career plan and am focused on acquiring as much experience and new knowledge as possible so that on my graduation, my skills will be useful to the engineering industry in Kuwait.
So why should you hire me? I can offer a lot of useful skills and solid work ethics that would be of use to your organization. I understand the need to work hard and I see my working as a means of learning new skills. I have excellent computer skills. Through my studies and past work experience I understand the need to meet deadlines and to remain focused on my tasks. I will never be late for work and if you give me a chance I will ensure that you are pleased that you did.
My main aim in life is to graduate with a good degree and work for a company that not only appreciates my skills but is one that is also going to provide me with the opportunity to learn more in engineering. If you want a team member who is willing, who works hard, who can pick up new skills easily and who will be a reliable member of your staff, then I look forward to working with you.
Motorsports may include a number of sports activities which involve the racing of different vehicles which are powered by the engine in order to compete with other pilots and drivers. Automotive racing is the most popular type of motorsports activity. There are other popular types of motorsports like motorcycle racing, boat racing, truck racing and aircraft racing. The motorsports competitions are becoming increasingly popular in the global racing and non-racing sports industries. As such, this popularity has driven the growth industries around this area of sporting activities. The motorsports industry, especially the auto racing segment is an industry which is highly dependent on technology (Henry and Pinch, 2000). To compete effectively and to ensure that the industry can function with continued innovation and high efficiency, it is necessary to propagate technological innovations in this field. Product design remains the most important concept in the motorsport industries. The engine powered vehicles used in motorsports are designed with high capabilities and functionalities so that the drivers and pilots can drive these autos in an efficient manner. For making the motorsports industry a competitive and sustainable industry, it is essential to continuously improve the factors like speed, efficiency, power braking systems, auto acceleration, combustion, calibration and other factors of mechanical performances of the automotive used in motor vehicles.nbsp.The research is conducted with the purpose of evaluating the importance of technological innovations and developments in the motorsports industry.nbsp.
Chapter 10 Fault Diagnosis of reciprocating compressors using relevance Vector Machines with a Genetic Algorithm based on vibration data Literature Review of RVM and GA-RVM for Fault Classification
Relevance vector machines (RVM) have been used in tandem with genetic algorithms (GA) in order to classify faults in non linear systems. The relative accuracy of RVM systems supported by GAs provide better classification rates for small learning data sets than for other comparable artificial intelligence fault classification methods.
RVM has been utilised along with GA in order to to optimally control nonlinear manufacturing processes. The technique relies on discerning approximately optimal control parameters of the manufacturing device. In turn, the nonlinear behavior of the manufacturing device has regression performed to filter out noise through the utilization of a kernel based Bayesian structure. The GA tabulates the near optimal control parameters in order to maximize the required objective (Yuan et al., 2007).
Rotating machinery fault diagnosis has been attempted using thermal imaging processed through RVM methods in combination with bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) and generalized discriminant analysis (GDA). The BEMD enhanced thermal image is treated with GDA to reduce features after which RVM is implemented for fault classification (Tran et al., 2013).
RVM has been compared to support vector machine (SVM) methods to demonstrate its robustness for gear fault detection. Compared to SVM, the RVM method required lesser kernel functions and learning time while demonstrating comparable performance (He et al., 2009).
RVM combined with GA has been utilized in state classification of roll bearings. The GA is applied to determine training parameters for RVM. Experimentation and analysis revealed that the application of GA in combination with RVM produced better results than back propagation neural networks and SVM (Li amp. Liu, 2010).
A comparison of multi class RVM and SVM methods for low speed bearing fault detection revealed that RVM methods held great promise for accurate fault classification. Component analysis was carried out in order to classify features and to reduce the dimensions of the raw data set. Fault diagnosis was carried out with feature extraction and without it (Widodo et al., 2009).
Wavelet packet feature extraction was applied in tandem with RVM for detecting gear faults. Using the Fisher criterion, the discrimination power of the features is tabulated and two optimal features are selected in the time domain and wavelet domain. These are used as inputs to the RVM. Comparisons with SVM revealed that the RVM based method produced better results for online classification (Li et al., 2011).
RVM methods have been used on multi class discrimination problems in order to examine sparsity and recognition problems. RVM was used in tandem with multi class and multi kernel methods to test a number of different real world data sets. Results obtained from these methods were compared to results obtained from existing classification techniques. The application of multi kernel RVM methods demonstrated accuracy in producing multi class discrimination problems (Psorakis et al., 2010).
RVM methods were applied to analog circuits for the diagnosis of faults modeled as multi class machine learning problems. Investigation was carried out on a first order Op-amp reluctance capacitance (RC) circuit in order to demonstrate the capabilities of RVM methods in resolving such problems. Results indicated that these methods could be utilized in order to diagnose faults in more intricate analog circuits that involve a greater number of components (Jain et al., 2011).
He, C. et al., 2009. Relevance vector machine based gear fault detection. In CCPR, ed. Chinese Conference on Pattern Recognition. Nanjing, 2009.
Jain, V., Pillai, G.N. amp. Gupta, I., 2011. Fault diagnosis in analog circuits using multiclass relevance vector machines. In Proceedings of ICETECT., 2011.
Li, Y. amp. Liu, T., 2010. Study on classification model based on relevance vector machine with genetic algorithm. In ICIFE, ed. 2nd IEEE International Conference on Information and Financial Engineering. Chongqing, 2010.
Li, N. et al., 2011. Gear fault detection based on adaptive wavelet packet feature extraction and relevance vector machine. In SAGE, ed. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C, Journal of Mechnical Engineering Science., 2011. Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
Psorakis, I., Damoulas, T. amp. Girolami, M.A., 2010. Multiclass relevance vector machines: sparsity and accuracy. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 21(10), pp.1588-98.
Tran, V.T., Yang, B.-S., Gu, F. amp. Ball, A., 2013. Thermal image enhancement using bi-dimensional empirical mode decomposition in combination with relevance vector machine for rotating machinery fault diagnosis. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 38(2), pp.601-14.
Widodo, A. et al., 2009. Fault diagnosis of low speed bearing based on relevance vector machine and support vector machine. Expert Systems with Applications, 36, pp.7252-61.
Yuan, J., Wang, K., Yu, T. amp. Fang, M., 2007. Integrating relevance vector machines and genetic algorithms for optimisation of seed-separating process. Engineering Application of Artificial Intelligence, 20, pp.970-79.
ssay aims at examining how the Shell Oil Company has utilized its operational space, particularly office space, to increase operations and profits as a result, in the United States.
The Shell Oil Company is a subsidiary business of the Royal Dutch Shell Oil Company, located in the United States. In 2011, the Shell Oil Company leased a total of about 1.3 million feet squared of office space at the One Shell Plaza and the Two Shell Plaza in Houston (Hines, 2011). In the One Shell Plaza. Shell Oil Company occupies the largest percentage of office space. For instance, on the first floor, the Shell oil company has a small museum which illustrates the company’s history. The whole of Shell’s head office is located at the One Shell Plaza, while most of the other floors serve as corporate offices for the company. The Two Shell Plaza, on the other hand, plays the purpose of a parking lot as well as other Shell Oil Company offices.
From 2011, the lease is set to expire after 15 years, thus making the Shell Oil Company a tenant at the Hines-owned property for over 55 years. According to Hines (2011), Shell renewed the lease in accordance with the latter company’s plan of consolidating more office space at Houston downtown. According to Cook (2012), the lease was the largest office space contract in the world that year. The acquisition of this office space is a significant leap from the 650, 000 square feet that the Royal Dutch Shell started with in 1970 (Cook, 2012). Over time, Shell has made progressive steps towards ensuring that there is enough working space for the thousands of people working in the company. In the 1990s, for example, Shell made major renovations to the Shell Plaza buildings aimed at easing operations and maximizing the output of the workforce (Cook, 2012). For instance, modern elevators were installed, electrical and mechanical upgrades were done, and architectural lobbies were upgraded, in addition to other changes.
In 2011, after Shell signed
There is enough evidence on nature on nanotechnology. For instance, the DNA molecules width is about 2.5nm, the thickness of the human hair is about 10,000nm thick, and the diameter of a hydrogen atom is about 0.1nm that is too small to be seen by human eyes. Nature also produces nanostructures that offer functional proteins, which are of great significance at the cellular level. It is argued that one of the functions of these proteins found in cells is nanotechnological separations. Molecular motors that comprise the human muscles are complex nanomachines that convert chemical energy to mechanical energy with high efficiency. Ribosomes can also produce protein molecules with high precision and photosynthesis is carried out in plants by nanosize cells that use energy to synthesize organic compounds with the use of cheap raw materials (Bender amp. Nahta, 2008).
Pharmacists have confirmed the effectiveness of using Herceptin. Although the medication has raised controversies among scholars, it is confirmed that the medication is of paramount importance in the process of healing. According to Sauter et al. 2009, Herceptinis anticancer medication used mainly to treat early stage malignant cancer of the breast and in some cases cancer of the stomach. This is a condition that has for a long time given medical researchers sleepless nights as many of the medications used currently have been found to have severe side effects. In the process of treatment, Herceptin acts on those tumors which produce the Human Epidermal growth Receptor (HER2 protein) more than the normal amount.
Human Epidermal growth Receptor 2 is a protein which enhances the growth of cancer cells. The presence of the cancerous cells leads to excessive production of the HER2 protein hence promoting the metastasis of the cancerous cells to a larger part of the affected area. The
Temperature, Forms of Energy, and Alternative Fuels By experience, people have become accustomed to the knowledge that temperature merely pertains to the degree of hotness or coldness felt through a body of an object or an atmosphere. Technically, as a property of matter, temperature is known as the measure of the capacity by which kinetic energy is translated due to the rapidity of molecular movement or atomic collisions in space where the flow of energy can be amply expected. So long as there emerges transfer of heat or change in phase of matter sometimes temperature, in Celsius, Kelvin, or Fahrenheit scale, is inevitable.
Energy is known to have existed in different forms and by law of conservation, it is neither gained nor lost, only transformed between such forms. Humans have since time hugely benefitted from utilizing energy with light, heat, gravitation, and sound. Scientific studies, moreover, allowed discoveries of other convertible energy forms such as mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, and nuclear energy. It is of primary significance to life that each energy form is capable of operating a specific engine or machinery to aid men in their means of comfortable living and advancement toward a more sustainable economy.
Out of these forms, energy is further classified as either originating from resources or non-renewable resources. In particular, biofuels like the ones based on algae are a renewable alternative fuel used in producing electricity. Besides the renewably drawn energy derived through biomass, geothermal energy, hydroelectric energy, wind, and solar powers, good fuel alternatives are present as well in bioalcohols, non-fossil methane and natural gas, ammonia, and vegetable oil. These safer options create possibilities of reducing air pollution since less hazardous substances are involved during the crucial stages of extraction and emission processes. This way, state investments may be allocated for concerns other than for setting up regulations.
Nave, R. (2011). Temperature, [Online], Available: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/temper.html [29 Sept 2011].
Alternative Energy, [Online], Available: http://www.altenergy.org/renewables/renewables.html [29 Sept 2011].
Deleuze finds the existence of the soul in the body. however, since there is no way for the exiting of the same, he justifies the statements made by his predecessor philosophers’ opinions regarding the place of the soul in the upper dark chamber of the body, diversified by folds, i.e. the mind. Deleuze also cites Focillon, where he submits to state that the latter viewed Baroque Gothic as the birth of the mystical experience, which is actually the long voyage of the soul within various parts of the vast and endless universe. Hence, the body remains confined to one specific zone or area, where it is actually present, while soul seeks no limits and boundaries for traveling and can reach everywhere it wants to move. On the contrary, the body remains silent to some extent and requires permissions and efforts in order to change its place. Deleuze declares Leibniz as the first philosopher to define and elucidate the mystical and mathematical dimensions in his work. He also states that the world is made up of monads and divergent series, which can be compared to the folds. Consequently, it can be examined by keeping in view the infinity of pleats and creases of unified and dispersed matter.
Deleuze has also discussed plastic forces in an analytical manner by presenting the examples of organism or living matter, where artificial is always inferior to the real one. It is because of the very fact that plastic cannot perform altogether in such a way as the living matter, though it is more machinelike than mechanical.
The most optimum engine operation can be realized by supervisory engine management since it enables the pilot to select the most appropriate thrust setting quickly and accurately. Irrespective of the changes in atmospheric conditions, the engine thrust can be maintained at a level predetermined and set by the pilot who can change again the thrust settings to his requirement by changing the thrust lever angle, in which case, the engine adjusts to the new thrust setting without overshooting of N2 or temperature. Thrust is not controlled directly by supervisory control unit, which calculates the value of the main control parameter (N1 or EPR) corresponding to the demand thrust to obtain N1 command or EPR command. This function is called ‘power management’ and the calculating unit is called ‘power management control’ (PMC) (Diesinger 89). Supervisory engine management is used in proven hydro-mechanical fuel control to obtain complete control over all engine functions and is characterized by a mechanical backup which monitors engine control in case of failure of the electronic control. Supervisory engine management systems, thus, perform functions necessary for engine operation and protection enabling reduction of crew work load and maintenance costs and constitute the last designs using hydro-mechanical control systems (Diesinger 89).
The FADEC engine management system uses an electronic control system with a digital computer as the only control unit. The FADEC engine management has taken over all steady state and transient control intelligence replacing most of the hydro-mechanical and pneumatic elements of the supervisory engine control system (Maclsaac and Langton 70). The capability of the digital computer to process a large number of parameters is fully utilized by the FADEC system. The FADEC engine management system provides engine system regulation and scheduling for thrust control in addition to
nbsp.The research will conclude by providing recommendations of what needs to be done to prevent such accidents in the future.
Air accidents have continued to occur despite the measures by the National Transport and Safety Board (NTSB), and the aviation industry. Recently, the aviation industry has witnessed major accidents, including the disappearance of the Malaysian Airline in 2014, and the recent German airline in the French Alps. The main causes of airline accidents have been cited to be inexperienced pilots, physiological and psychological factors, and weather conditions (Grossman, 2013). Most busy airlines overwork pilots and cabin crew, a situation that has been blamed for making pilots make wrong decisions. Fatigue is a major factor that interferes with the level of productivity and job satisfaction of cabin crew. Some pilots experience mental disorders, such as depression, hence affecting their judgment and prone to making the wrong decisions.
The flagship airline flight 3379 crashed in 1994. The flight origin was Piedmont Triad International Airport and the final destination was Raleigh-Durham Airport. There were 18 passenger and 2 crewmembers (Aircraft Accident Report, 1995). The experience any mechanical problem until when the pilot received the clearance to land. The ignition light of one of the engines illuminated in the cockpit, calling for immediate intervention. It appears that the pilot panicked on realizing the speed of the plane began to decrease drastically. Without taking a moment to determine the cause of the incident, the pilot decided to execute a missed approach.
Engineering Reflective ment Part one Engineering solutions have an impact on global, economic, environmental and social issues. This article is important because the impacts of these solutions are seen daily in various areas of our daily activities. There has been a change in climatic patterns because of the various inventions and innovations some of which have been brought about by engineering solutions. However, there have been positive and negative impacts of these solutions.
I chose this particular article because I am currently taking Alternative Energy Engineering Course. Apart from that, I enjoy reading materials on engineering like the Mechanical Engineering Magazine monthly edition and the Mechanical Society of American Engineers which promotes the art, science amp. practice of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the globe. However, the main reason why I chose the article is an article I read on making coal a cleaner burning fuel.
The global impact seen as a result of engineering solutions is the destruction of the ozone layer due to the use of various machines. A good example is the CFC used as a coolant because of its excellent heat capacity, but it ends up destroying the ozone layer. A lot of machines that have been invented contribute towards the destruction of the ozone layer through the fumes that they emit while in operation. The economic impact is felt in the manufacture and distribution of the various machines that have been invented. They provide a trading ground for many companies and individuals and at the same time create revenue for firms, individuals and governments (Huber, 23).
The environment is also affected by engineering solutions in that there is increased pollution of the air and water sources. This is due to the fumes emitted by various machines and waste deposited by various industries. Automobiles have eased transportation problems but cause pollution and, as a result, global warming. The social impact can be seen in the way communication has been eased through various gadgets and social networks that have come up as a result of engineering solutions.
Mechanical engineers need to understand the impact of their engineering solutions in order to come up with better ideas that will ensure the safety of everyone in the future. Their inventions have solved a lot of problems within homes, at work places and around us. However these solutions have come along with other negative impacts that are slowly affecting the natural ways of living and putting the future at risk. In order to understand these impacts, they need to appraise all inventions (Huber, 45).
Once they have understood the impact of their solutions then they can be able to come up with better machines and ways of doing things that will not adversely affect the global, economic, environmental and social areas negatively. They need to understand that the impacts their solutions are having today will affect their future inventions and therefore there is a need to start improving on them now for a better future. They ought to comprehend the various natural solutions that they can incorporate in their solutions in order to reduce the negative effects.
The engineers need to understand that their solutions will still have a high economic value since they will still provide solutions and easier ways of doing various things. The atmosphere will also be well maintained of if they understand the need to come up with solutions that will have a better way of disposing of waste material rather than disposing them in the open and in water bodies. Socially, they need to understand that they need to find solutions that are not be harmful to the users or the environment in any way (Huber, 54).
Huber, Mark. The Beginner’s Guide to Engineering: Mechanical Engineering. New York, NY:
CreateSpace. 2013. Print.
History of Voice Coil of a Speaker History of Voice Coil of a Speaker Introduction The 19th and 20th centuries have seen great transformation in the development of innovative and creative ideas. The major catalysts for such ideas include. appearance of empirical science, advanced computing, evolution of knowledge economy, short life for products and universal education. Innovation is the development of original solutions that are geared towards meeting the needs of the consumers and new market demands. An innovation can be said to be an idea or practice that is apparently new that has produced by an individual or an organization. One such innovation is the voice coil, which is used in the speakers. A voice coil in a speaker is the loop of a wire connected to the top side of a loudspeaker conduit. Its main function is to give the motive force to the conduit by use of magnetic field created by current passing through it. The common loudspeaker that is currently in use was developed in the 1920s and uses a magnetic force to move a coil that is attached to a diaphragm.
Information passing capabilities of a system through a magnetic-core, memory circuits and peripheral magnetic storage and retrieval devices was a challenge that faced traditional scientists. Although the history of voice coil technologies is particularly complex and tumultuous. Voice coil has been made in linear and rotary designs, but the rotary design has become the dominant design because it requires less space (Kamm, 1996). A much less expensive mechanism is a stepper motor, in which a shaft rotates in discrete steps to new positions in response to changes in the surrounding magnetic field. The functioning of the voice coil and related associates is closely related to the history of magnetism. It is recorded that around 1820’s a scientist, Hans Christian, demonstrated that magnetism was linked to electric current through the use of a wire carrying an electric current close to a magnetic field. This caused a deflection of the compass needle, which was being used at the time of the experiment (Schilders, Vorst, amp. Rommes, 2008). It is important to note that current flows causes the emergence of a magnetic field in the neighboring field.
The history of voice coil indicates how abstract scientists ideas of this device has been ongoing since the invention of magnetism. Before any concrete advances could be made utilizing magnetism, scientists needed new tools and techniques that could be used to hear sound from a speaker (Brauer, 2006). One of the challenge was an inability to construct novel experimental materials with the desired degree of control and accuracy. The desire to construct and study magnetism and sound made them think of having a voice coil to help in turning sound waves and magnetism into a concept where sound could be heard externally.
Over the last one hundred years, research laboratory is credited with countless groundbreaking innovations such as the transistor, the laser, stereophonic, voice coil and motion picture sound, cellular telephones, and related solutions. Innovation has played a major role in revolution within the electronics sector. As a result, people are able to communicate faster and use better electronic devices compared to the 17th century. In every cycle of disruptive innovation, new ideas are born, leading companies are ousted by newer companies while the consumers get improved products. Fusing information technologies facilitates creation of new ways of production, restructuring and reforming of the subsisting ones and changing the way companies compete.
Brauer, J. R. (2006). Magnetic Actuators and Sensors. Hoboken : John Wiley amp. Sons.
Kamm, L. J. (1996). Understanding electro-mechanical engineering : an introduction to mechatronics. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
Schilders, W. H., Vorst, H. A., amp. Rommes, J. (2008). Model order reduction : theory, research aspects and applications. Berlin : Springer.
Apple Inc. is a company that manufactures electronics such as computers, mobile devices, as well as, developing software programs (Trautschold, Rene and Mazo 207). The iCloud is a system with features, which allow sharing of information, protection from device thefts, back up data services and more. The system was developed to curb the problem of theft and hacking in the cloud. The system has so far proved its efficiency due to the mechanical systems applied, but, the power of seeing has also contributed to its success.
Michel Foucault, a French philosopher, argues in his book, Discipline and Punish, that, the effectiveness of surveillance systems does not rely on mechanisms used, but, rely on the fear and doubts of the subjects towards the authority and the systems (Foucault 34). In the case, of the iCloud system, therefore, one can argue that thieves and hackers tend to reduce their acts due to fear of invasion of privacy that would follow if they are caught up when performing those acts. In other words, mobile thieves will not go on grabbing people their iPads, iPhones and more because they fear to be caught up due to the existence of the iCloud systems.
The purpose of this study is to explore the exact ways in which panoptic surveillance contribute to the effectiveness of the iCloud systems. Also, Foucault’s ideas will be developed in order to make them fit in many areas of applications, for example, in offices, classrooms etcetera. As stated earlier, iCloud serves three major purposes to the Apple consumers. First, consumers using the iCloud applications can send videos and snapshots to their friends and family from the remote locations. Additionally, they can send alerts based on the specific locations to their families in case of anything, for example, accidents, attacks or demonstrations. They can report when they arrive home or in their
Out of the available models, the applied prediction code is the best one because of one main reason. The model integrates changing thickness and width as well as other numerous fabric configurations that the rest of the models omit from their structure and computations.
Clifton, P., Subic, A. and Mouritz, A. (2011). Structural Model for Prediction of Thermo- Mechanical Properties of Fabric Sandwich Composites. Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 22(c):
This design of the proposed system will save on cost and subsequently increase the profit margins by the end of the financial year.
The implementation report will also highlight on the systems approach for building a technological software application that universally integrates all the end user entities within a central information system. Automation of this project passes will go through specific software development phases. These processes start from feeling the need of automation (Requirement analysis) to reaping the benefits of automation (project execution) within the proposed environment.
In huge organizations like the DaimlerChrysler (DC) Company the implementation partners in this project have to be kept informed in order to ensure a fruitful completion of the implementation plan. A poor implementation in important IT project like this one may result in big operational troubles, huge business loss or even closure of operations. Identifying and examining the business goals of this project form the basis for achieving the objectives of the IT project proposed for the DaimlerChrysler (DC) Company.
The project goals and objectives mainly define the sole purpose for carrying out the implementation of the technology project. The objectives of this implementation plan can be divided into two sections, namely:
The sharing of technical and general information, for example, the CATIA files can be easily communicated to both internal and external entities authorized to participate or interact with the organization’s system.
This is achieved via consolidating activities for the various entities involved with the system. For example, the time for suppliers to make and receive approval orders for mechanical is greatly reduced.
Operating a universal or unified system that can be monitored from a central or remote location by a system admin facilitates reducing corruption or fraud that might
User charges, user fees and licenses are taxes by another name. Do you agree with this statement? Discuss thoroughly, giving reasons for your answer.
The debate on categorizing user fees, user charges, and licence charges as taxes has been well established within the society, moving to the court level in some states for clarification. It is important to note that as much as both the taxes and these user charges and fees contribute towards the government revenue, there is a significant difference between them. One of the most significant differences between the user charges and taxes is that the user charges are paid primarily for the sake of regulating the welfare of the target population or in other cases. they are charged a fee for services of the same value, offered by the government [Mik13]. Contrary to this, the taxes are mainly aimed at raising the government revenue and do not involve a direct reciprocating service in respect to the value of the amount paid. Another important point to note is that user charges are mainly required of the particular individuals that a government service is directed to, or towards off-setting an incurred regulatory burden. This is unlike tax that is uniformly applied to the district in which it implemented. Lastly, the funds gained from the user charges are directed towards catering for the cost of regulation or the cost of service providence for the involved fee payer. On the other hand, funds gained from general taxes are directed towards the benefit of the public [Mik13].
What is Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)? What does it require of employers?
The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) is a law developed by the Federal government of the United States to govern safety and occupational health both in the Federal government and the private sector within the U.S. The aim of the Congress in passing the law was to ensure that all individuals within the nation are exposed to healthy and safe working conditions [Kli09]. The OSHA requires all the employers both in the public and private sectors to ensure that employees are provided with working environments that are free from any recognized hazards such as excessive levels of noise, toxic chemicals, cold or heat stress, mechanical hazards, or unsanitary conditions. OSHA forms a division under the Department of Labour in the U.S., which develops and enforces standards, and oversees implementation of the Act in the states within the U.S. [Kli09].
What can employers do to reduce or respond to workplace violence?
The best way through which employers can deal with workplace violence is by establishing mechanisms through which such incidences of violence can be prevented. One of the measures that should be upheld towards managing violence at the workplace is proper screening of employees before they are employed [Kli09]. Through checking of the references and proper inquiry of prior violence incidents, the employer can reduce employment of personnel who are prone to instigating violence. It is also important for the employer to take advantage of the resources within the community in mitigating chances of workplace violence. This could include inviting security and law enforcement experts to the organization to educate the employees on the importance and ways of avoiding workplace violence. Proper institution and timely review of security procedures are important in reducing workplace violence through increasing quick response to threatening situations. Other measures that could be taken by the employer include: establishment of proper rules that govern employee behaviour. improving internal employee communication and reporting mechanisms. training the managers and employees in handling situations that could lead to violence. establishment prevention programs such as the employee assistance program (EAP). and development of a threat management plan [Kli09].
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Outline Introduction 3 Home Solar Applications in Context 3 Solar Thermal 3 Passive Solar 4 Solar Electric/Photovoltaic (PV) 4
Works Cited 8
Home Solar Applications
It is common knowledge how homeowners are weighing options between solar power and other sources of energy for domestic purposes. Many people are looking to solar power for such reasons as enhancing overall energy efficiency when it comes to matters of home management (Tiwari, 27). Solar power is known to be a non-pollutant and renewable as compared to oil, natural gas and coal. The United States for instance boasts of slashed energy bills meaning that the country’s dependence on imported fuels is minimized (DeGunther, 234). It is worth noting that the process of harnessing solar power has a wide scope. This could be as simple as ‘upgrading hot-water heating system or as complex as considering the application of green building design principles.
Home Solar Applications in Context
Solar power has various applications as regards domestic level of energy utilization. The various categories include solar thermal, passive solar and solar electric.
Berry (88) reveals that these systems are known to use heat emitted from the sun for a number of household purposes including space, water and pool heating through radiant floors. Successful installation of an efficient solar domestic hot-water system translates to the drastic reduction of water heating, natural gas and electric bills. Tiwari (25) asserts that installation of solar power in homes guarantees financial paybacks in less than eight years. Solar power systems have been accurately designed to be used in almost any location even areas where there is little exposure to direct sunlight (Solar Technologies, 1). `
These systems operate on the principle of utilizing heat and light from the sun without influence mechanical devises. Passive solar systems are built on the principles of maximum energy efficiency. Glazed windows, heat absorbing thermal mass, south-facing windows, and overhangs are examples of passive solar design (Berry, 110). Additionally, these designs are commonly located on floors and walls that are exposed to direct light through southern windows.
Solar Electric/Photovoltaic (PV)
This solar power system uses light emitted by the sun to successfully excite photo electron in order to generate electricity. Consequently, solar modules are durable and require exceptionally minimal maintenance. This category of solar power systems is sub-divided into grid-tied systems (with or without battery backup) and off-grid systems the following illustration according Oksolar (1) are meant to give a clear impression solar electric.
Figure 1 depicts the layout of a basic grid-tie system consisting of the solar panel, main utility service unit and utility all interlinked to the utility grid.
Figure 2 is a clear representation of a grid-tie system with backup power. This is very essential especially in the event of technical hitches that tend to tamper with the normal functioning of the entire system (Rutledge, 1).
Figure 3 is an off-grid system with an inverter and a battery for backup purposes.
Figure 1 above is a basic grid-tie system with OEM Wind Generator (Oksolar.com). In addition to the main utility service unit, utility grid, utility meter and battery tank, this system is also installed with a diversion controller and the OEM wind turbine as shown in the figure.
In conclusion, it is important to always consider the essence of increasing home energy efficiency. Solar power systems are reliable relative to this challenge. Today, many practical applications of solar have emerged due to diminishing costs and increasing solar energy technology efficiency. Home owners should, therefore, feel encouraged to establish solar power systems in their respective homes in order to reap the numerous benefits.
Solar Technologies. About Solar Power Applications. 13 Dec. 2008. Web. 19 Mar. 2013.
Berry, Berth. Solar Power for Home Applications New York: Demand Media. Pp. 76-121.
Oksolar.com. Home Solar Energy Complete Residential Solar Systems. 03 Mar. 2011. Web. 15 Mar. 2013.
Rutledge, Renee. Five Practical Applications for Solar Energy in the Home. 04 Apr. 2013. Web. 18 Mar. 2013.
Tiwari, Gopal. Solar Energy: Fundamentals, Design, Modeling and Applications. New Delhi: Narosa, 2002. Pp. 23-34.
DeGunther, Rik. Solar Power Your Home For Dummies. New York: For Dummies. (2 ed.). 2010. Pp. 203-289.
AAA Mechanics Ltd has tasked your team to develop the requirements for their vehicle mechanical service company
system. The system is to allow the company to record client information – their details (for example name, address, contact details), vehicle details (for example make, model, colour, registration), and service history (for example service dates and odometer readings, details of the services performed separated into labour tasks and parts used, the mechanics involved). The system must also keep records of the mechanics employed by the company – their personal details, their qualifications and special licenses, time sheet information, emergency contact details, supervisor details. The company has a pool of ten mechanics who are entitled to a rostered day off per fortnight and so the system must be able to produce a roster for the mechanics ensuring that there is always at least five mechanics working on a day and one mechanic available for emergency call in, in the event of illness or extra work demand. Mechanics can enter information into the system at any of five terminals to be placed in the workshop area; front office staff can enter information at any of two terminals in the front office; and roadway staff can enter details at an outside terminal on arrival of the client with their vehicle. The company also provides loan cars to clients on request and so must keep information on when loan cars are available for clients and who has a loan car at any given time and for how long. AAA Mechanics Ltd needs to manage an inventory of common parts and consumables that the mechanics use for jobs. Mechanics decrement the inventory as they use parts and consumables. The purchasing officer for AAA Mechanics Ltd needs to be able to check inventory levels at any time and order additional stock (typically via email to a supplier as necessary). However, the purchasing officer should also receive a warning email if stock levels decrement below a threshold. The system should be able to handle up to 5000 part numbers (a consumable also has a part number) and the purchasing officer set the thresholds for the warning levels for each part as they require. A part or consumable has a name, a number, a supplier and a minimum order quantity. AAA Mechanics Ltd has a finance manager who must be able to extract information related to car services and bills paid (clients pay the front office staff on completion of a job) as well as invoices paid to suppliers, for parts ordered by the purchasing officer. The finance manager prefers to use Microsoft® Excel® and MYOB® for accounting activities. AAA Mechanics Ltd has a marketing manager who needs to be able to set up mail out reminders to clients when their car might be coming due for a service and any special offers. The marketing manager also likes to use Corel® Draw®, as well as Microsoft® Excel®. There has been some consideration to giving mechanics a tablet computing device so that they can enter information more freely as they move around the workshop but there are concerns about the robustness of such devices (mechanics like to drop things) and the need for a local wireless area network – if possible this is desirable, but not mandatory. AAA Mechanics Ltd has an IT administrator to maintain the system, perform backups and set access permissions, for example. The team, apart from the IT administrator, finance manager and marketing manager are generally fairly IT illiterate and so need very simple user interfaces.
Identify and describe appropriate non-functional requirements for the system.
A simply supported beam is carrying a distributed and point load as are shown in the figure. The beam has a square cross section with length a.
For this beam:
– Plot the shear and Bending Moment…
Bringes, a retail chain, has retail stores across three states. With its current legacy system, Bringes is having
problems tracking the inventory levels for its stores. It is planning to implement an Oracle database system to replace this legacy system. Which of the following most supports Bringes’ decision to replace its legacy system with an Oracle database system?
Conversion cost required for the implementation of an Oracle database system is not supported by the IT budget.
Maintenance of an Oracle database system is more expensive than the legacy system presently in use.
Bringes’ channel partners use a database system that supports the Oracle database system.
Implementing an Oracle database system will require Bringe to hire additional specialized personnel to manage it.
Partial implementation of the Oracle database system can create more problems than it is likely to solve.
Which of the following statements best describes the productivity paradox of technology investment?
As investment in technology increases, productivity decreases steadily.
The productivity of any technology is directly proportional to the investment in that technology.
While it is easy to quantify the costs associated with developing an information system, it is often difficult to quantify tangible productivity gains from its use.
The productivity of an information system is in no way related to the investment in the technology.
While it is easy to identify and quantify the intangible benefits of an information system, it is not easy to quantify the tangible benefits.
A metric deemed most critical to accessing progress toward a certain goal is referred to as a(an) ________.
critical performance initiative
key performance indicator
critical performance indicator
Which of the following statements is true about a mashup?
It is used to disseminate information to a narrow audience.
It is the process of allowing companies to use everyday people as a cheap labor force.
It is used to increase brand awareness through the network effect.
It is an application or a Web site that uses data from one or more service providers.
It is a small interactive tool used for a single purpose.
________ is the dubious practice of registering a domain name and then trying to sell the name for big bucks to the person, company, or organization most likely to want it.
Whenever an order is placed with online retailers, the retailers put together the order, ship it, and charge the payment to the customer’s credit card. This process of selling a product or service is known as the ________ process.
Which of the following statements about a just-in-time strategy is true?
Companies using this strategy allow suppliers to manage the manufacturer’s inventory levels based on pre-established service levels.
Retailers using this strategy allow suppliers to maintain ownership of inventory within their warehouses or stores until items are scanned at the point of sale.
Companies using this strategy try to optimize their ordering quantities such that parts or raw materials arrive just when they are needed for production.
Companies using this strategy maintain large inventories of supplies, parts, warehousing resources, and extra workers to meet production contingencies.
A manufacturer or retailer using this strategy shares real-time sales data with suppliers who maintain inventory levels based on pre-established agreements.
A dataset comprised of extremely large amounts of complex data would best be described as ________.
When a company uses a fingerprint recognition system instead of access cards, it helps the company prevent unauthorized physical access. Which of the following technologies is used for authentication here?
In the context of GPS-enabled location-based services, the ability to determine the basic geographic position of a cell phone is an example of ________ service.
An enterprise license is also known as a(n) ________ license.
Amazon.com took crowdsourcing mainstream with its micro-task marketplace called ________.
Companies implementing ________ enterprise resource planning (ERP) can benefit from scalability and agility.
Which of the following occurred in the 1946-1958 generation of computing?
The mainframe era began.
The internetworking era ended.
The mainframe era ended and the personal computer era began.
The personal computer era ended and the interpersonal computing era began.
The interpersonal computing era ended and the internetworking era began.
________ customer relationship management (CRM) systems help to create mass e-mail marketing campaigns wherein each consumer receives an individualized e-mail based on their prior purchase history.
Which of the following statements is true about companies pursuing a click-only business strategy?
These companies operate in both physical and virtual arenas.
These companies approach business activities by operating in physical locations.
These companies conduct business electronically in cyberspace.
These companies are only involved in export business activities.
These companies choose to operate their business activities solely in the traditional manner.
________ is a group meeting-based process for requirements collection.
Joint application design
When we consider entities as tables, each row is a ________.
________ is the process of gathering and organizing information from users, managers, customers, business processes, and documents to understand how a proposed information system should function.
Which of the following is likely to have the suffix .com after the domain name in its URL?
The Federal Reserve
The World Wide Fund for Nature
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
________ testing is performed by actual users of the system.
Identify the software that is cost effective, since the vendor that builds the application spreads out the development costs by selling copies to a large number of users?
________ refers to the process of identifying, quantifying, and presenting the value provided by a system.
Deploying a software product
Testing a process
Refining a prototype
Making a business case
Making a prototype
Subprocesses of the procure-to-pay process include ________.
creating customer records
speeding up the collection process
collecting the payment
price and terms negotiations
creating customer satisfaction
The term urbanization is best described as ________.
the movement of rural populations to urban areas
the movement of urban areas to the country
the movement of people between cities
the loss of people in major cities
the expansion of city boundaries
Which of the following statements is true about key-indicator reports?
They highlight situations that are out of the normal range.
They answer unplanned information requests to support a non-routine decision.
They help analyze why a key indicator is not at an appropriate level or why an exception occurred.
They are produced at predefined intervals to support routine decisions.
They provide a summary of critical information on a recurring schedule.
In electronic commerce, ________ is defined as the percentage of single-page visits.
value chain analysis
The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 prohibits ________.
the use of external devices to provide access and information to companies’ confidential information
stealing or compromising data about national defense, foreign relations, atomic energy, or other restricted information
access to companies’ extranets when outsourcing work to clients overseas
signing contracts with consultants outside the United States to process information
accessing company intranet and confidential information from public computers
Which of the following statements is true about peer production?
A guest is a person who can only view the digital information.
The creator is responsible for publishing new information.
Anyone can help in producing or improving the final outcome.
Only editors have the right to develop new content.
It is also known as an enterprise content system.
Which of the following types of information systems supports the coordination of suppliers, product or service production, and distribution?
electronic commerce system
supply chain management system
geographic information system
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For the first part of this assignment you can just type in the Answer and then submit this page. 1. Using the indicated scale, measure each line and write your answer in the space provided. (5 pts…
each of the eight classes of mechanical hazards. Describe
the type of injury
Eight classes of mechanical hazards
1. In-running nip point hazards In-running nip point hazards are caused by rotating parts of machinery. The parts rotate in an
opposite direction creating…
≤ 0.60 versus
For a simple random sample, n = 700 and p = 0.63. At the 0.025 level, test H0: ≤ 0.60 versus
H1: 0.60 by answering the following questions:
Please round your answer to 2 decimal places
a. The test statistic is .
b. The critical value is
The director of admissions at a large university says that 15% of high school juniors to whom she sends university literature eventually apply for admission. In a sample of 300 persons to whom materials were sent, 30 students applied for admission. In a two-tail test at the 0.05 level of significance, answering the following questions to determine whether we should reject the director’s claim:
Please round your answer to 2 decimal places
a. The critical values are +/-
For a simple random sample, n = 200 p = 0.34. At the 0.01 level, test H0: pi = 0.40 versus H1: pi ≠ 0.40 by answering the following questions:
Please round your answer to 2 decimal places
a. The test statistic is .
b. The critical values are +/-
For a sample of 35 items from a population for which the standard deviation is = 20.5, the sample mean is 458.0.
Please round your answers to 2 decimal places.
a. The lower bound of the 95% confidence interval for the population mean is
Following maintenance and calibration, an extrusion machine produces aluminum tubing with a mean outside diameter of 2.500 inches, with a standard deviation of 0.027 inches. As the machine functions over an extended number of work shifts, the standard deviation remains unchanged, but the combination of accumulated deposits and mechanical wear causes the mean diameter to drift away from the desired 2.500 inches. For a recent random sample of 34 tubes, the mean diameter was 2.509 inches.
Please round your answer to 3 decimal places.
a. The lower bound of the 99% confidence interval for the population mean is .
b. The upper bound of the 99% confidence interval for the population mean is
Statistics and Probability
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1. How would you explain the nature of the panel interview
Maria had to endure? Specifically, do you
it reflected a well-thought-out interviewing strategy
on the part of the firm or carelessness on the part of
the firms management? If it were carelessness, what
would you do to improve the interview process at Apex
2. Would you take the job offer if you were Maria? If you re
not sure, what additional information would help you
make your decision?
3. The job of applications engineer for which Maria was
applying requires (a) excellent technical skills with respect
to mechanical engineering, (b) a commitment to working
in the area of pollution control, (c) the ability to deal
well and confidently with customers who have engineering
problems, (d) a willingness to travel worldwide, and
(e) a very intelligent and well-balanced personality. List
10 questions you would ask when interviewing applicants
for the jo
Out of control Interview
Maria Fernandez was a bright popular and well informed mechanical engineer, who
graduated with an engineering degree from State University in June 2003 . The…
what is thermodynamics as used to refer to terms in mechanical engineering?
Prof. S. K. Som
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur
Lecture – 01
Introduction and Fundamental Concepts
Good morning to all of you…
A circular viewing window of diameter D = 0.4m is placed in the Holding tank. The top of
the window is H =
1.2 m below the water surface. Find the hydrostatic force acting on the
window and locate the corresponding centre of pressure (CP).
who can help me to solve them? Thanks very much~
Hi guys~ I can’t understand this two questions; who can help me to solve them? Thanks very much~
Papermaking is known to have been traced back to China about 105 CE, when Cai Lun, an
official attached to the Imperial court during the Han Dynasty (202 BCE-220 CE), created a
Please Use autoCad to sketch these 4 drawings. You Must submit them each as a separate file , so you will submit 4
files. There is video attached to help with directions, please watch the video. Let me me know if there is anything you need.
Module 6 Finger Guide
Construct complete front, top and right side views for the part below in Autocad. Submit your resu as
an Autocad file. Omit dimensions on your drawing.
I need help with the following question, I would greatly appreciate the help.
E-RATE 2016-17 BID EVALUATION GRID (EXCEL VERSION)
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