I will tip nicely if i get it before 12 am please please )The SituationYou did not

Question

I will tip nicely if i get it before 12 am please please 🙂

The Situation
You did not

thrive in your job at the survey company, and now you are back at your former work museum curator. A Japanese auto manufacturer recently opened a facility in your city, and the museum’s upper management decided to do a series of exhibitions concerning Japan. One of those managers had recently toured Japan as part of a group, and the itinerary was one temple and shrine after another. So that manager’s impression of Japan is that religion is a deep component of the cuural fabric.

Your Task

Your job is to write a preliminary plan for an exhibition on Japanese religion. Note the term preliminary. You need not and should not get into specifics about which objects to acquire, where to put them, and so forth. Instead, your report will:

1. list 5 main ideas about religious cuure in Japan;

2. offer 2-4 sentences for each idea explaining why that is important and should be included in the exhibition;

Your report is limited to 400 words. Be sure to include citations

Religion in Japan
Religion does not assume a major part in the regular daily existence of most Japanese individuals
today. The normal individual commonly takes after the religious customs at…
Religious Studies

Culture is embedded in the fabric of an organization Clearly it defines the unique character and image of a

Question

Cuure is embedded in the fabric of an organization. Clearly, it defines the unique character and image of a

business, club, or enterprise. When change is implemented, the cuure is disturbed causing anxiety, uncertainty, hostility, and withdrawal from among its members. Coping-readiness can, therefore, hasten the change acceptance and process.

Research and answer the following questions:

1.
How can cuure facilitate change?

2.
Describe an effective change management program.

3.
Cite a recent change within your organization. What was your reaction? How did you cope with change?

Management

Explain the roles of ERP system in Marketing and Sales

,Accounting and Finance
,Supply Chain Management
, and

Question

Explain the roles of ERP system in Marketing and Sales ,Accounting and Finance ,Supply Chain Management , and

Human Resource (HR) department.

Business

Hello Everything is been good far Thank you for you assistant this is my last Term I will be in for school So

Question

Hello Everything is been good far, Thank you for you assistant this is my last Term I will be in for school. So

again I have a DQ and my Journal. this is Unit 3 of MT435 Operation Management and it seems to be very Interesting material. If we can always use a creditable reference and a In text citation that works every time.

Design for robustness is an element of product design which makes product withstand
variations in environmental and operating conditions. Focusing on robustness can demand
changes in the material…
Management

Working with chemist at George Mason University Golding blended GoldingGrow It consists of four chemical

Question

Working with chemist at George Mason University. Golding blended Golding-Grow. It consists of four chemical

compounds: C-30, C-92, D-21, and E-11. The cost per pound for each compound is indicated in the following table:

Chemical Compound Cost Per Pound ($)

C-30 0.12

C-92 0.09

D-21 0.11

E-11 0.04

The specifications for Golding-Grow are as follows:

a. Chemical E-11 must comprise at least 15% of the blend.

b. C-92 and C-30 must together constitute at least 45% of the blend.

c. D-21 and C-92 can together constitute no more than 30% of the blend.

d. Godling-Grow is packaged and sold in 50-pound bags.

1. Formulate an LP problem to determine what blend of the four chemicals will allow Golding to minimize the cost of a 50-pound bag of the fertilizer.

2. Solve by using Excel to find the best solution.

Can you include a spreadsheet with this problem.

LB LO
tions
Properties
A Z
Reapply
Solver Parameters
X
Get
Refresh
Stocks
Sort
Fier
Data
All ~
Edit Links
Geography
Advanced
Get amp; Transform Data
Queries amp; Connections
Data Types
Sort…
Operations Management

Advantages and drawbacks of exporting importing licensing franchising ??

Question

Advantages and drawbacks of exporting, importing, licensing, franchising ??

A number of market entry strategies are available for a firm wishing to internationalize into overseas
markets. Entry techniques consist of Exporting, Licensing and Franchising.
Advantages of…
Operations Management

Why is it important for top executives to value and support shared leadership? Do you think that shared leadership

Question

Why is it important for top executives to value and support shared leadership? Do you think that shared leadership

is essential for team and organizational effectiveness? Why or why not?

Running head: SHARED LEADERSHIP IMPORTANCE OF SHARED LEADERSHIP
Students Name
Institutional affiliation
Date SHARED LEADERSHIP
Shared leadership is a form of leadership whereby the leadership…
Management

A Ophthalmology Hospital called Super Eye Hospital with 100 beds in the community is doing exceptionally

Question

A Ophthalmology Hospital called Super Eye Hospital with 100 beds in the community is doing exceptionally

well with 85% occupancy and making good profits

• The organization structure has the Governance comprising of Independent board memberswith the representation from CEO and MedicalDirector

• They want to set up another hospital with Mui Speciaies in Dubai Since they are already have a hospital, they asked the in-house engineer to make a plan

• Plan was approved by the CEO

• Governance gave their nod• Started building the facility

• Hospital was commissioned and inaugurated at the same time

• Hospital costs have gone really high, the hospital had to shut down operations as they incurreda huge loss

Questions to be answered:1. What has gone wrong with the facility once it is opened – in terms of design andfinances?2. Why are the occupancy rates low?3. What could the Hospital Governing board or management done different to make sure thattheir decision was right?

Grit Review the Grit learning activity How do grit and growth mindset relate to one another? Provide at

Question

Grit: Review the Grit learning activity – How do grit and growth mindset relate to one another? Provide at

least one example of how you might use grit or growth mindset as you pursue your goals?

Bad Habits: Of the four bad time management habits outlined in this week’s reading activity, which is most likely to negatively affect your ability to manage your time relative to your classroom requirements? What actions can you take to help ensure you avoid those pitfalls?

Evaluating your time: Which of the two types of time usage, listed in the Evaluating Usage of Time section of this week’s readings, do you struggle most with?

Challenging Uncertainty: Review the Challenging Uncertainty learning activity – What is your greatest uncertainty, as an adu learner? What steps can you take to be proactive and reduce this uncertainty?

Management

As a manager you have decided to delegate the task of purchasing resources required to creae this new kitchen

Question

As a manager you have decided to delegate the task of purchasing resources required to creae this new kitchen

appliances to the accounts and administration. Develop and implement strategies to ensure that resources and services are acquired in accordance to the with the company’s policies, practices and procedures. List 3 any three policies and procedures.

UNIT: BSBMGT517 Manage Operational Plan

Management

Sully is a top executive but he has a troublesome manager He has heard that this manager is constantly changing

Question

Sully is a top executive, but he has a troublesome manager. He has heard that this manager is constantly changing

his mind about how he wants reports written, what priorities the team is to work on and when they are to submit deliverables. Sully has heard him described as a flavor of the day kind of boss. Sully has known this manager for a long time and feels that this manager just needs some guidance and redirection. What should Sully do?

Management

If a manager uses positive reinforcers such as money and gift certificates to shape the behavior of his or her

Question

If a manager uses positive reinforcers, such as money and gift certificates, to shape the behavior of his or her

employees, what can the manager then expect? Check all that apply.

To satisfy the employees’ affiliation needs

To see a long-term increase in the rewarded behaviors

To see a temporary increase in the rewarded behaviors

To satisfy the employees’ lower-level needs

Management

Behavioural economists have worried there is no such thing as a rational agent Which of the following

Question

Behavioural economists have worried there is no such thing as a rational agent. Which of the following

considerations supports this view?

Question 17 options:

a)

Humans tend to use heuristics or shortcuts in thinking, characterized as fast, stereotypic, subconscious and based on emotions. This type of thinking is frequently mistaken.

b)

Humans tend to think slowly, logically and in a calculating manner. This is frequently a problem to situations in which fast judgement is required.

c)

Humans are typically ethical relativists.

d)

Humans are utilitarian, and many of the consequences of utility theory are unthinking or illogical.

Management

SC is a 300 bed facility It is part of a nationwide chain with a reputation for providing quality

Question

SC, is a 300 bed facility. It is part of a nation-wide chain with a reputation for providing quality

care. Earlier in the week, the president of the hospital received the resignation of Mary Johnson, the VP of nursing services. This was upsetting as he personally brought her onboard to help with some serious issues in the nursing department. He has asked her to reconsider long enough for him to find a solution to the conflicts that led to her resignation. You, as the Associate Director of St Mary’s, have been tasked with finding out what has happened and developing a strategy do deal with the issues. Here is what you found out:

Management

Neal noted to one of his managers Sheila you and the other senior managers have done an outstanding job of

Question

Neal noted to one of his managers, Sheila, you and the other senior managers have done an outstanding job of

developing leadership in your divisions, especially at the very top of your organizations. But we need more than just one or two superstars at the top of your organizations. You need to spread out the responsibilities so that

a) leadership permeates your organizations.

b) your staff are no longer responsible for their own performance.

c) your superstars perform the majority of the work.

d) senior managers can take credit.

e) senior managers can tell subordinates what needs to be done.

Management

Managing Diversity in the Workplacejjkmnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnjjj

Question

Managing Diversity in the Workplacejjkmnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnjjj

End of Chapter Answers 1
1. Self-acceptance is getting to move on despite what people thinks about us, it is more
of self-esteem, white self-esteem is how important we see our self.
It is good to…
Management

Fashion Impressions is a designer clothing manufacturer interested in improving service to their retailers as

Question

Fashion Impressions is a designer clothing manufacturer interested in improving service to their retailers, as

well as improving their financial tracking of the various profit components. The company uses Excel to track, store, and analyze all the data associated with its retailer, clothing, and billing. To determine ways to improve sales, management has hired you to thoroughly examine the retailer and clothing information for a sample month’s orders.

Title:
Date: Fashion Impressions
5-Jun-16 Author: Type in your name here
Purpose: To analyze the data for a sample month’s orders relating to
clothing, manufacturing and retailing departments under…
Finance

BUS 5113 Organizational Theory and BehaviorIn the study of human behaviors organizational

Question

BUS 5113 Organizational Theory and Behavior

In the study of human behaviors, organizational

leaders must understand concepts such as values, attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of people. The objective is to align their thoughts, emotions, and competencies with organizationsl success. We often ask why people do things the way they do or behave in a certain way. Research these attributes and provide references.

Address the following questions:-

1 How are values formed? How do they influence our attitudes toward work and others?

2 In the worker’s perspective, why are perceptions their reality?

3 Why do negative behaviors affect organizational success?

4 What can organizational leaders do to foster a positive work environment?

Discussion post should be minimum of 500 and more than 1500 words

Thanks

Management

Discuss

the use of Porter’s Five Forces to develop the supply chain strategy. How can it be used to recommend

Question

Discuss the use of Porter’s Five Forces to develop the supply chain strategy. How can it be used to recommend

an approach to reduce or eliminate barriers that may exist in a supply chain?

Supply Chain Management

9 You are working on a project to move the contents of an office from one location to another You need to move

Question

9 You are working on a project to move the contents of an office from one location to another. You need to move

heavy furniture such as desks, filing cabinets, lounges and photocopiers.

It is anticipated that the move will take two days as there is a lot of furniture, equipment and a lot of paperwork to be moved.

The company will use a removals company, but employees are also expected assist with the move.

Ahough this is not a major, on-going project you should conduct risk assessments and formulate risk management plans.

Why are risk assessments and risk management plans necessary and what areas should be covered by the plans? Consider business risk, heah and safety risks and possible injuries.

4 Summarise equal employment opportunity and anti-discrimination principles, workplace relations regulations and legislation, and other legislation associated with recruitment, selection and induction.
Management

What is

a notable experience in operations management. Was this a service or manufacturing operation, or both?

Question

What is a notable experience in operations management. Was this a service or manufacturing operation, or both?

Operations Management

Hi need help with 2 3 and 4 revising for my exams

;

Question

hi, need help with 2, 3 and 4. revising for my exams.

There are four tailors who can produce four types of garment. The number of hours for each tailor to
complete each garment are shown in the table below
Time in Hours
Tailor
Costume
Dress Blouse…
Operations Management

1 …

Provide a precise definition for Planning.

2.
Provide an example of a time in your organization

Question

1. Provide a precise definition for Planning.

2. Provide an example of a time in your organization

where planning affected the whole organization either in a good or in a bad way.

3. Describe the situation and identify what management did in their successful planning efforts or in their lack of planning efforts AND what they did to improve their future planning efforts.

Management

1 With whom do you need to build (or repair) relationships at work?2 What do you need to

Question

1. With whom do you need to build (or repair) relationships at work?

2. What do you need to

share (hidden quadrant) with others to be more open and productive? In other words, what would cause people to say wow, that guy/gal is awesome?

3. Think of an example in which you regularly engage in negative self-talk personal, and/or pervasive messages about events/situations or people). Describe the negative self-talk content and context. Is it about your behaviors (i.e., less than perfect), other’s behaviors? Blaming or criticizing? What are the consequences (i.e., anger, avoidance, hostility, less effective/productive, bad performance)? What WILL you start doing differently TODAY (be specific) to change the self-talk to constructive messages?

Examples: You might simply consider the possibility that belief about the person (or yourself) is not 100% correct! That they act a certain way because they are afraid of losing respect, relationships, status, approval, etc.

Part 2

Leading Teams

Management

An online retailer that sells home and children’s items such as children’s furniture clothing and toys was

Question

An on-line retailer that sells home and children’s items, such as children’s furniture, clothing, and toys, was

seeking a way to reach a new audience and stop the declining sales and revenue trends it was suffering. A market research firm hired by the retailer identified a new but potentially risky market: lower-income single parents. The new market seemed attractive because of the large number of single parents, but most of these households were severely constrained in terms of their monetary resources.

The research firm proposed that the retailer offer a generous credit policy that would allow consumers to purchase up to $500 worth of merchandise on credit without a credit check, provided they signed up for direct payment of their credit account from a checking account. Because these were high-risk consumers, the credit accounts would carry much higher than normal interest rates. The research firm believed that even with losses, enough accounts would be paid off to make the venture extremely profitable for the on-line retailer.

Should the retailer pursue this new marketing strategy? Why or why not?
Management

Kaleena a student has a difficult decision to make

Kaleena’s sister (Raquel) recently lost her job and moved

Question

Kaleena, a student, has a difficu decision to make. Kaleena’s sister (Raquel) recently lost her job and moved

in and they live together. Today Raquel asks Kaleena if her boyfriend can also move in. Kaleena does not get along with her sister’s boyfriend. She is afraid that having him there will cause stress and damage relationships. However, Kaleena doesn’t want to disappoint Raquel or make her angry.

Management

My question involves using your criticalthinking skills to describe the impact of time management in the

Question

my question involves using your critical-thinking skills to describe the impact of time management in the

workplace. Managing our time effectively in the workplace is very important. We all have a job to do, and we must be very timely while completing our tasks. Most of the time, we work with others or for clients, and they depend on us to complete the work. And, that is why using time-management techniques is beneficial to us. For my question, list a brief essay that describes what is likely to resu from two instances within a workplace: (a) using time-management techniques and (b) not using time-management techniques. Within the brief essay, include workplace examples to support your message.

my response must be at least twohundredand fifty words in length.

Management

Developing employees is different than training employees though human resource functions often tend to group

Question

Developing employees is different than training employees, though human resource functions often tend to group

these activities together. Training and development are not always mutually exclusive, though they do have a different focus. Though training programs tend to be focused on improving employee performance in a current job, they may also be preparing employees for future assignments/jobs. Please describe how:

a) employee development differs from training;
Management

Assignment 1 Trends in the WorkplaceDue Week 3 and worth 200 pointsAccording to

Question

Assignment 1: Trends in the Workplace

Due Week 3 and worth 200 points

According to

the text, there are a number of key trends in the workplace that have significant influences on organizations. HR professionals play a key role in helping organizations respond to evolving trends, comply with federal and state regulations, and manage workplace flexibility. As an HR professional it is important for you to demonstrate your understanding of the ever changing global environment.

Write a five to seven (5-7) page paper in which you:

Running head: TRENDS IN THE WORKPLACE Course Title
Professor’s Name
Student’s Name
Date Running head: TRENDS IN THE WORKPLACE Question 1
Human resource management (HRM) plays a key role in each…
Management

I am looking for the test bank for Primary Care A Collaborative Practice by Buttaro 4th or 5th edition?? This is

Question

I am looking for the test bank for Primary Care: A Collaborative Practice by Buttaro 4th or 5th edition?? This is

for the whole text not just 1 chapter. thanks

There is no subject heading for medical or heah sciences???

Yes, there are various test banks are existing for primary care as part of collaborative practice in
nursing to acquire competence in practice especially in the contemporary trends and issues…
Management

Unit III Assignment You receive a document (linked below) by certified mail After reading the document prepare a

Question

Unit III Assignment You receive a document (linked below) by certified mail. After reading the document, prepare a

response that summarizes the approach you would take to the citations and penaies that have been proposed. Be sure to include the following in your response:

ï‚· steps you are required to take,

ï‚· options available to you,

ï‚· contacts you would make, and

ï‚· documentation necessary to respond to the citations and penaies.

Your response must be a minimum of two pages in length, using at least one reference. All sources must be cited and areference provide using APA style.Click here to access the OSHA citation document for this assignment.Information about accessing the Blackboard Grading Rubric for this assignment is provided below

RUNNING HEAD: OSHA guidelines and procedures
OSHA guidelines and procedures Name
University
Course
Date 1 RUNNING HEAD: OSHA guidelines and procedures 2 OSHA guidelines and procedures
Steps you are…
Operations Management

This is for help with the final project You have been asked by the executive committee of a

Question

This is for help with the final project.

You have been asked by the executive committee of a

company (fictional or real) to freshly implement the following accounting information system process:

Human Resources (HR) Management and Payroll Processes

Examine the Human Resources (HR) Management and Payroll Processes and show how you would implement it in a company of your choice, or invent a fictitious one. Discuss processes as well as as risks associated. Why did you choose the HR Management Payroll Process that you did? How does what you chose compare to other options available?

Use knowledge obtained in this course to help. Running head: HRM AND PAYROLL PROCESSES HRM and Payroll Processes
Student name
Course title
August 8, 2017 1 HRM AND PAYROLL PROCESSES
2
Abstract
In this paper, I will discuss the human resource…

Business

Visit any retailer or other type of merchant and ask questions about anything you would like to purchase either

Question

Visit any retailer or other type of merchant and ask questions about anything you would like to purchase either

now or in the near future. Pick a location where there are active sales staff present (Namely, Apple Stores, Best Buy, Nordstrom, Sephora, Buckle, and car dealers).

As you are participating in the sales process, try to observe how the salesperson presents their product as well as how they handle their dialogue with you, the customer.

Now answer the following questions:

Management

Topic III 4 6Please let me know correct answer and explain it !For

Question

Topic III 4 6

Please let me know correct answer and explain it !

  1. For

specific activities and processes you should evaluate these two dimensions ________ and ________.

a. Purchasing’s services, purchasing’s people

  • b. Purchasing’s time, purchasing’s services
  • c. Purchasing’s revenue, purchasing’s costs
  • d. Purchasing’s people, purchasing’s metrics
  • e. None of the above

2._______ powers the centralized sourcing structure. Because everything happens in one central location, you know what your spend looks like.

a. Visibility

  • b. Coherence
  • c. Reliability
  • d. Interdependency
  • e. Adjacency

3.After Toyota’s production ground to a ha following a devastating fire, what allowed them to make up for all the lost production in only 6 months?

a. An extremely lean supply chain

Supply Chain Management

Trésor Katembo the CEO of OMWISI Energy believes that the company can greatly increase its operating profit

Question

Trésor Katembo, the CEO of OMWISI Energy, believes that the company can greatly increase its operating profit

by

implementing supply chain management. OMWISI Energy produces a variety of solar panels, inverters and provide renewable

energy solution for the sub-Saharan market.

Trésor believes that OMWISI has already integrated its internal processes and is ready to proceed with external integration.

However, he is uncertain as to which direction to take. Should the company work on integrating the suppliers or the distributors

first? Currently, OMWISI Energy uses approximately 1 350 different components and/or raw materials in manufacturing its

product line. Those components and raw materials are purchased from approximately 375 different suppliers around the world.

In terms of distribution, OMWISI currently sends its finished products to a central warehouse that supplies 10 regional

distribution centres (RDC); 6 are domestic, in South Africa to cater for the South African demand, and 4 are located outside of

the South Africa. Each RDC supplies an average of 12 local distributors that each supply an average of 35 retailers.

Trésor is looking for some advice.

Briefly describe OMWISI’s supply chain.

2. What are the advantages that OMWISI can gain by implementing supply chain management?

3. What would you recommend OMWISI attempt next? Should it work on integrating the suppliers or the distributors first?

Or should it work on both simuaneously?

4. What are your recommendations with regard to the external suppliers?

5. What are your recommendations with regard to the external distributors?

Operations Management

Part B

Q10

For 3 years Jack Sandeen has worked for Crate Builders, an industrial plant that

Question

Part B – Q10

For 3 years Jack Sandeen has worked for Crate Builders, an industrial plant that

manufactures and sells high-tech packing containers in an employment-at-will state within the eastern United States. When he was hired, he believed he would receive training that would enable him to move from the factory floor into the supervisor’s role. The company experienced a downturn in revenue, however; and, along with 50 hourly workers, several managerial positions were eliminated. During restructuring, the boss’s son, Darrell Sheon, was appointed head of Jack’s department. There has been friction between Darrell and the rest of the staff. They don’t like the new scheduling and work quotas he has implemented. When Jack complained to Darrell that the required quota was too high, in front of the other workers, Darrell snidely reminded him that he was the supervisor, times were tough, and more people could be let go.

That evening, Jack went with a few of the guys to the local pub. A union organizer was at the bar and overheard the group complaining about Darrell. The organizer told them about their right to representation. He gave them his business card along with a few brochures to take home. The next week, Darrell found one of the brochures on the floor by the locked company bulletin board. The staff saw him crumple it and spike it into the trash can. He turned and glared at Jack. You think you’re so smart. We’re watching you. We know about your little chat. He bit back more words then walked into his office and slammed the door.

Several weeks later, Jack was called into the Human Resource Management office. He was informed that his production numbers were low and they needed to cut more staff so he was being let go. Jack asked to see the statistics for the department, but HR said that was proprietary information. When he asked who else was being fired, HR told him that was also private information. The guys at the bar told Jack later that they could not find anyone else who was terminated when he was.

10) True or False: Darrell’s comments represent Budd’s concept of voice.

Management

1) Why is innovation so closely linked to a healthy and effective culture Why is it important?In order for

Question

1) Why is innovation so closely linked to a heahy and effective cuure. Why is it important?

In order for

an effective strategic innovation or transformational innovation to occur, what cuural and leadership elements must be in place to foster this?

2) When we observe leadership and cuure together, the manner in which an organization handles adversity or challenges becomes greatly influenced by the form of cuure and leadership. Briefly explain why the behavior and style of a leader faced with adversity can determine whether or not the organizational cuure works to produce well-executed strategy and performance.
Management

RideOn Inc is an automobile company that has strategic alliances with two entities a supplier in India and a

Question

RideOn, Inc., is an automobile company that has strategic alliances with two entities: a supplier in India and a

manufacturer in South Africa. RideOn’s vehicles are known for being of good quality, but they are more expensive than the average person can afford. The company would like to further reduce its costs so that it can pass those savings on to the end consumer. Todo tis RideOn would most likely

1.create-a boundaryless structure with the manufacturer in South Africa.

2.set up a liaison relationship between the South African manufacturer and a distributor in China.

3.form a joint venture with the supplier in India.

4.form a strategic alliance with a distributor in China.

Management

Week One DQ #2 The Nature of Organization EnvironmentsDiscuss the

Question

Week One, DQ #2: The Nature of Organization Environments

Discuss the

structure of your work environment using principles and concepts from this week’s readings. Also, considering the process of delegation in your work environment, do managers find it difficu to delegate; if so, why?

Management

Howard Cho has been hired by Greenwood Enterprises to work on an assembly line in its small engine division He

Question

Howard Cho has been hired by Greenwood Enterprises to work on an assembly line in its small engine division. He

understands that he will be on probation for 30 days and then must join the union. Cho Enterprise has a(n)_________ shop.

A.Open

B.Managed

C.Union

D.Closed

E.Agency

2) The U.S. Pentagon offers childcare for its employees. It pays Aramark to provide its employees with this service. The Pentagon uses ________ to care for its employees’

A.Outsourcing

B.Contingency workers

C.Functional reassignment

D.Organizational reassignment

E.Reciprocity

3) An article on the heah care industry revealed several assumptions that heah care administrators have adopted during the last decade. The administrators assume their (1) employees have several interests other than work and will work only to the degree necessary. (2) employees will accept additional responsibilities only if they receive rewards, and (3) employees exhibit little loyay and will leave employment for reasons that are in their short-term interest. These assumptions lead support to the ________ approach to management.

A.The Hawthorne effect

B.The Theory Z style of management

C.The Theory X style of management

D.The Theory Y style of management

E.Scientific management

4) Equity theory is a theory of motivation that focuses on the link between motivation and organizational cuure.

True

False

5) Spring Airlines is a small budget airline that is based in China. The company has a strict rule against passengers bringing any food or beverage on board with them. In a country where meal time is extremely important, this has caused some passengers to slap, throttle, and insu stewardesses who tried to enforce this rule. The tenacity with which the company’s employees enforce this ruling is based on how the employees predict customers will react to the news. This is an application of the _________ theory.

A.Psychological

B.Estimation

C.Equity

D.Expectancy

E.Reevaluation

6) At Children’s Hospital in Denver, good attendance is encouraged by recognizing staff members who have not missed work in the previous three months. At three-month intervals, at staff meetings, the names of those who have not missed work that quarter are announced. These employees are given ribbons of excellence, perfect attendance pins, prizes, tote bags, alarm clocks, gift certificates or movie tickets. As an added incentive, the person with the longest record of perfect attendance is allowed to choose first from the list of gifts. This is an example of how ________ are used in association with the _________ theory.

A.Rewards; Reinforcement

B.Instruments; Expectancy

C.Satisfiers; Equity

D.Objectives; Goal-setting

E.Hygiene factors; Herzberg’s

7) Lumber mills are located near the forests in the Northwest to save shipping costs and to be near their raw material.

True

False

8) Which of the following businesses is most likely to consider proximity to raw materials when locating a new manufacturing plant?

A.A company that provides fresh baked goods for restaurants

B.A manufacturer of hunting equipment

C.A pharmaceutical manufacturer

D.A publisher of textbooks

E.A whiskey distillery

9) What management function is production manager Cedric Stein using when he orders aluminum component parts (bumpers, drive trains, etc.) to be used in the production of Audi cars in Audi’s Neckarsulm plant?

A.Delivery

B.Coordination

C.Materials requirement planning

D.Purchasing

E.Recruitment

10) Crown Holdings Inc. manufactures a high-resolution, full-color digital inkjet printed cans that allows smaller beverage producers to label the cans as they are needed to be filled rather than keeping a stock of preprinted cans. This is an example of how a beverage company could use:

A.Lean production control

B.Controlled production

C.Just-in-time

D.Materials requirement controls

E.Sigma Six

Economics

This course covers many different waste streams For your final project choose one waste stream (you may use any

Question

This course covers many different waste streams. For your final project, choose one waste stream (you may use any

chapter as your topic), and provide an in-depth analysis of that waste stream. Your paper should address the following:

ï‚· Describe chemical and physical characteristics of the waste stream.

ï‚· Discuss the most significant problems with managing the waste stream.

BEM 3601, Waste Management 5

ï‚· Discuss the regulations that apply to your chosen waste stream.

ï‚· Analyze the treatment technologies and management techniques for the waste stream.

ï‚· Make an argument for the best course of action for managing the waste.

Your Research Paper must be a minimum of five pages in Times New Roman 12-point font (not including title and reference pages) in APA style.

A waste stream is the complete flow of waste from domestic or industrial areas through to final disposal.
The intervention of recycling may act to lessen the content of a waste stream as it moves…
Science

Why is health reform important to the Nurse Practitioner’s concepts of professionalism and care?a) Nursing

Question

Why is heah reform important to the Nurse Practitioner’s concepts of professionalism and care?

a) Nursing

job opportunities are likely impacted by heah reform policy and change

b) In practicing leadership and quality competencies, nurses evaluate and advocate for improvements in access to quality heah care

c) Heah reform often resus in significant heah informatics improvements, thus influencing data management in nursing

d) heah reform often affects change management in primary care the most

Science

APPLICATION OF ETHICAL THEORY TO A CASE STUDYSam joined Moyuka a global car manufacturer

Question

APPLICATION OF ETHICAL THEORY TO A CASE STUDY

Sam joined Moyuka, a global car manufacturer,

about a year ago to work in a team responsible for monitoring product quality of one of Moyuka’s best-selling models.

Recently, Sam has received reports about a few isolated incidents involving problems with the model’s acceleration pedal, which lead the cars to speed dangerously out of control. Sam decides that this is a serious safety concern that needs urgent attention. He raises this with Kathy, his line manager, who listens carefully, takes copious notes and promises to escalate his concerns to senior management.

A few days later, Sam receives a briefing from the Head of Product quality, which strongly recommends that, because there were only a few isolated incidents, that the issue be treated as a ‘quality’ and not a ‘safety’ issue. The briefing points out to the high costs involved in a global product recall and its financial consequences for the company, its employees, and strongly discourage any further investigation. Sam feels uncomfortable with this but, because of his junior position, decides to let the matter drop.

Has Sam done the right thing?

Economics

How are various tools (Pareto chart check sheet flow charts histogram FEMA etc ) potentially used to represent

Question

How are various tools (Pareto chart, check sheet, flow charts, histogram, FEMA etc.) potentially used to represent

performance management data and how can these types of tools help heah care organizations in making important decisions? Explain your answer (250 words cite your sources).

Tools like Pareto chart, check sheet, flow charts, histogram, etc, can be potentially
used in presenting performance management data and these tools can help heah care
organizations in making…
Other Subjects

In the organizational context our perception affects how we communicate among ourselves

some factors such as

Question

In the organizational context our perception affects how we communicate among ourselves. some factors such as

those shown below may get in the way of understanding the truth within the message; thus, affecting our behaviors:

a. Stereotype

b. Prejudice

c. Discrimination

d. Selective Perception

e. Projection

f. Halo Effect

g. Tokenism

h. Intersectionality

Explain only THREE factors from the list as how to your attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors are affected positively or negatively by them in a personal and organizational context. References are required.

Management

Creating Job Descriptions and Interview QuestionsStep

Question

Creating Job Descriptions and Interview Questions

Step

1 Read the following scenario.Consider a mid-size IT organization with approximately 8,500 employees. Its headquarters are in the United States and its employees work in its offices located in 32 countries. The company went public five years ago, and it has been growing at the rate of 20 percent per year ever since.

Step 2 Write a job description.Write a job description for the HR management director of this organization. Remember to consider the strategic goals and HR strategic plan as you develop the requirements for this position. Create 10 questions that you can use to interview candidates for the position of HRM director at the company. The questions should include probes for additional information and desired responses.

A two- to three-page (500- to 750-word) paper, double-spaced with 12 point Arial font

Recruiting and Selecting the Right People

Step 1 Read the following scenario.You work for a medium-sized, high-tech firm that faces intense competition. Change seems to be the only constant at your workplace, and each worker’s responsibilities change with the project assigned. Suppose you are responsible for filling the job openings at your company.

Step 2 Answer the following questions.Assuming the role outlined in Step 1, describe the process you would follow for recruiting and selecting the best personnel. How would you identify the best personnel to work in this environment?

A two- to three-page (500- to 750-word) paper, double-spaced with 12 point Arial font

Case Study: SimufliteObjectives

  • Identify the role of new employee orientation
  • Describe the basic training and development process
  • Identify opportunities to use employee development to retain employees
  • Explain the employee’s, manager’s, and employer’s career development roles

Assignment Overview

This assignment examines employee training effectiveness.

Deliverables

  • A two- to three-page (500- to 750-word) paper, double-spaced with 12 point Arial font

Step 1 Read the scenario.Simuflite, a Texas aviation training company, expected to beat the competition with FasTrak-its computer-based training (CBT) curriculum for corporate pilots. Instead, the new venture sent Simuflite into a nose dive. An analysis revealed that in traditional ground-school training, pilots asked questions and learned from war stories told by classmates and instructors. However, with FasTrak, pilots sat in front of a computer for hours, trying to absorb information. Their only interaction was to tap the computer screen to provide answers to questions, and that novey wore off quickly. Pilots soon got bored with the CBT ground school, and as a resu, it was deemed ineffective.

Step 2 Answer the questions.Post responses to the following questions:

  • What does Simuflite’s experience suggest about the limitations of interactive media and CBT?
  • In which situations is CBT most likely to be beneficial to the trainees?

Planning Careers and DemandObjectives

  • Explain the employee’s, manager’s, and employer’s career development roles
  • Identify the issues to consider when making promotion decisions
  • Describe methods for enhancing diversity through career management

Assignment Overview

This assignment explores the current employee’s motivation and outlook on career development.

Deliverables

  • A two- to three-page (500- to 750-word) paper, double-spaced with 12-point Arial font

Step 1 Read the scenario.According to a 2003 survey in the United Kingdom, many recent college graduates, who had not yet found their first jobs, were already planning career breaks and were maintaining their hobbies and other interests. As one report put it, the next generation of workers is determined not to wind up on the hamster wheel of long hours with no play. Part of the problem seems to be that many already see their friends putting in more than 48 hours a week at work. Career experts reviewing the resus concluded that many of these recent college graduates are not looking for high-pay, high-profile jobs anymore. Instead, they seem to prefer to compartmentalize their lives and decrease the number of hours they spend at work so that they can pursue their hobbies and interests.

Step 2 Answer the following questions.Based on the scenario above, do you think these findings in the United Kingdom are also applicable in the United States? If so, what career advice would you give to these recent college graduates if you were mentoring them? Explain three key pieces of advice.

Case Study: Ford and NasserObjectives

  • Explain the process of establishing pay rates
  • Evaluate the differences in compensating managerial and professional jobs

Assignment Overview

This assignment explores the ethical implications of severance pay at different levels of employment.

Deliverable

  • A two- to three-page (500- to 750-word) paper, double-spaced with 12 point Arial font

Step 1 Read the scenario.In 2002, Ford made public some of the details related to the firing of the former CEO Jacques A. Nasser, which followed a $5.4 billion loss during his last year in the job (Mullaney Darnell, 2002). In addition to an annual pension for life of nearly $1 million, the 53-year old ex-CEO received performance bonuses through 2003. He also received full payment on stock granted to him in 2001. It isn’t known how many shares he received, but his 2000 award was worth $5.8 million in January 2002 (Business Week, January 14, 2002). This type of sweet severance package is not unusual when a corporation terminates a CEO for lackluster performance.

Step 2 Answer the questions.Based on the scenario, answer the following questions:

CREATING JOB DESCRIPTIONS AND INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
Job descriptions
1. Develops business enterprise strategies by using identifying and learning human
resources issues; contributing statistics,…
Management

The topic is Employee DevelopmentWrite in free word not copying from othersAnswer all

Question

The topic is: Employee Development

Write in free word, not copying from others

Answer all

questions

Write the question before you write the answer

The answer will be in paragraphs not in build

Write at least 6 references and put the link of the website that you take information from

Put the reference at the end of each paragraph

Read Assignment Getting Started docx

Write the abstract and Introduction

  1. Abstract for article

Strong, well-articulated summary of research; Research details clearly and concisely highlighted; Motivation to read the complete article clearly and concisely articulated; Strong critical thought and logic clearly evident

  1. Final Draft – Introduction; Resources organized under headings, points of agreement and disagreement or divergence articulated; Integrating resources to tell a story; Personal observations and interpretations, based on your knowledge of human resources management theories; Conclusion or summary

Paper well organized, with Introduction; resources organized under headings, well-articulated points of agreement and disagreement or divergence; Exemplary integration of resources to give a complete picture; Insightful personal observations and interpretations, based on thorough knowledge of human resources management theories; Well-articulated conclusion or summary; Thoughtful interpretation and integration of instructor and mentor’s feedback

Running Head: EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT
1 EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT.
Name:
Institution:
  EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT 2 Abstract.
Employee development is an important aspect in the field of management. However,…
Management

What are the key elements of Under Armour’s strategy?

Select yes for those statements below

Question

What are the key elements of Under Armour’s strategy?

Select yes for those statements below

that are accurate and choose no for those statements that are not.

a. Broadening the company’s product offerings to men, women, and youths for wear in a widening variety of sports and recreational activities.

(Click to select)

Yes

No

b. Marketing the company’s ever-expanding lineup of performance products to additional consumer segments.
Management

Hello wanted to know if anyone could assist me with my

annotated bibliography. I would like the topic to be

Question

Hello wanted to know if anyone could assist me with my annotated bibliography. I would like the topic to be

:

the benefits and challenges you face when working in human resource management. I’m open to a better bibliography but I need it to pertain to human resource management.

BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING (STUDENT’S NAME)
(INSTITUTION NAME)
(DATE) BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING 1. Overview. (1996). Trends In Organized Crime, 2(2), 58-60.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02693202…
Writing

Due to increased demand for​ products your privately held manufacturing company recently grew from 26​

Question

Due to increased demand for​ products, your privately held manufacturing company recently grew from 26​

full-time employees to more than 190. The organizational structure was fairly hierarchical and​ tall, with most employees hired by you and reporting directly to you. Growth has forced you to flatten the​ organization, promoting people from within to supervisory​ positions, but you are still the only person in a management position. Which of the following​ upper-level positions would be the BEST choice to add first in this​ situation?

A.

A structural engineer

B.

A diversity manager

C.

A human resource manager

D.

A dynamic leader

E.

An advertising manager

You have recently been hired by a consuing firm that is 90 percent Caucasian male. As a new member of upper​ management, you have been asked to assist the human resources department in deciding upon a strategic initiative that fits with the​ company’s overall goal of gaining a competitive advantage. Which of the following ideas would be the BEST​ strategy?

A.

Hire more temporary workers

B.

Diversity training

C.

Implement performance appraisals

D.

Outsourcing

E.

Homogenizing the workforce

Management

Please help i’m stuckQuestion11Which of the following is a well written instructional

Question

Please help i’m stuck

Question11

Which of the following is a well written instructional

objective?

Select one:

You will learn how to type on a Dell Computer

You will learn everything about Human Resource Management

You will be able to correctly describe 5 external recruitment methods after completing this course

You will be expected to run one mile after exercising daily

Question

12

Question text

Succession planning requires an organization to:

Select one:

Lay-off surplus employees

Reorganize job responsibilities

Identify employees for future executive positions

Accept employee referrals to fill internal job openings

Question

13

Question text

Performance appraisal programs sometimes fail because:

Select one:

It’s difficu to determine the difference among employee work performance

Managers fear legal implications

Employees are not concerned with performance feedback

Managers dislike the face-to-face confrontation of appraisal interviews

Question

14

Question text

Vignette: An employee of Smith Associates was required to make daily banking Deposits at GetWell Bank. While there, this employee was wounded by a Security Guard who went berserk and started firing wildly. This Security Guard was hired by the bank through a Temporary Agency. A subsequent investigation disclosed that the Security Guard had a history of violent behavior. Who, in this scenario, could possibly be held liable? (Think out of the box on this one)

Select one:

Smith Associates

GetWell Bank

Temporary Agency

All of the above

Vignette: Smith Associates posted an Advertisement in a local newspaper for: 5 Customer Service Representatives to handle similar billing complaints from customers, 2 Computer Operators to load and maintain the HRIS system, 4 Salespersons to sell X21 computers and 1 Marketing Manager. This scenario represents a good example of

Select one:

4 positions, 12 jobs and 4 job families

4 jobs, 12 positions and 12 job families

4 job Families, 4 jobs and 12 positions

12 jobs, 12 positions and 12 job families

Management

What does Heilbroner mean by the expression Commercializationoflife? chose the correct answer

Question

What does Heilbroner mean by the expression . . . Commercialization-of-life? chose the correct answer

a)The impetus to put weah to new and aggressive use.

b)Turning all decisions over to a game based economic system where deception is key to winning and only one player wins.

c)A moral concept that personal gain is good, the idea that each man not only may but should constantly strive to better his material lot

d)Charging above the absolute-total-cost to make, deliver and market it. In a 2-player game only one can profit, otherwise the laws of conservation are violated.

Management

Questions answer with clear explanation 1 Does a firm need to

Question

Questions: answer with clear explanation:

1. Does a firm need to

diversify across different businesses in order to benefit from economies of scope?

2. Describe the characteristics of international modes of entry including exporting, licensing, strategic alliances and wholly owned subsidiaries?


Management

1 …

What are the main objectives of a risk management plan, and why is it so important to implement

Question

1. What are the main objectives of a risk management plan, and why is it so important to implement

one.

2. What are some of the key elements a risk management plan should include to ensure its success? Why?

3. Explain the purpose of charting and reporting findings, and why this is a critical step in risk management.

Information Security

Frederick W Taylor’s research led to the emergence of scientific management which is defined

Question

Frederick W. Taylor’s research led to the emergence of scientific management, which is defined

as(4pts)

eliminating waste and inefficiency at work.

the application of scientific principles to the management of work and workers.

researching optimal tools for motivating employees.

using the workplace to conduct scientific research on human behavior.

Business

*I have prechosen my three articles The topic I would like for you to focus on is Managing Volunteers The

Question

*I have pre-chosen my three articles. The topic I would like for you to focus on is, Managing Volunteers. The

assignment is Due on October 17th at 5pm.

Thanks 🙂

1 MANAGING VOLUNTEERS Name
Institution
Tutor
Course
Date 2 Managing volunteers
Volunteer management should be organized, planned and aligned with the goals and
objectives of an organization as well…
Operations Management

Q1 Provide an example of at least one team member you coached during one of the services Explain how you

Question

Q1 Provide an example of at least one team member you coached during one of the services. Explain how you

identified the need for coaching, the details of the coaching you delivered and the resu. how did you know if it was successful or not?

Q2.Thinking about what worked well and what didn’t work well during each service, what are three recommendations you make to senior management to either achieve or maintain high performance in the team?

Q3. If money, time and other resources were no object, how would you like to reward the team for a job well done?

Q4. Summarise the feedback you received you received from your team members on your performance as a manager and explain what you will or won’t do differently and why.

Project Management

Importance of webbased ERP implementation Question Explain how webbased ERP implementation can

Question

Importance of web-based ERP implementation

Question: Explain how web-based ERP implementation can

aid operations improvement efforts with focus on service organization. Also highlight the risks and necessary controls in the implementation of ERP systems. (300 to 450 words. Attached journals will be of good help and guide)

Note: Write up to cover references cited in Harvard citing format both the write-up and bibliography.

ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING 1 Enterprise Resource Planning;
Name;
Course; ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING 2 Enterprise resource planning is a method of using computer technology to combine
various…
Operations Management

Assume you are the Executive Director of HR for a leading

Question

  1. Assume you are the Executive Director of HR for a leading

Canadian firm, and you have been tasked by the CEO to design an effective performance management strategy for the company. What will be your key considerations when designing a performance management system that is suitable for the entire company, including its branches across Ontario, Manitoba, and Alberta? What other considerations will you make when designing a truly Canadian performance management system? What are the potential challenges? Illustrate your answer with examples.

  1. Critically discuss how a company’s pay system is related to its organizational strategy. Support your answer with an example of a Canadian organization you are familiar with or any case study organization.

Management

When you look at the timeline of the history of management theory and the accompanying historical events that

Question

When you look at the timeline of the history of management theory and the accompanying historical events that

triggered changes in the practice of management, do you think the Google philosophy of management signals a shift in how work is managed?

Management theory
Student name
University Winslow Taylor developed the concept of giving personnel or employees the necessary
tools to do their tasks accurately. The reasons behind this was the…
Management

An employee that you manage really gets on your nerves It’s not that their performance is all that bad For

Question

An employee, that you manage really gets on your nerves. It’s not that their performance is all that bad. For

example, the employee always does what is required of them in terms of professionalism, administration tasks and dressing appropriately. They meet sales targets and their customer service ratings on their performance scorecards are good.

On the other hand, the employee does not really respond to the team training and team-building sessions that you have initiated and have proven so effective in sustaining team morale and driving others to success. Other team members seem to thrive on, and draw energy from, these team sessions, while this employee, if anything, appears emotionally drained from interacting with their peers.

The employee says that they would rather work individually and that all the team stuff is suffocating. You’ve really tried hard to build a cuure of teamwork and this feels like a slap in the face.

3a. How would you set aside your own emotions to focus on and identify how the employee (probably) feels?

Refer to relevant principles of emotional intelligence, and describe how knowledge of, for example, learning styles, personality types or communication styles, could help you relate to and understand the employee better and adapt your response.

3b. How could you use your awareness of your own feelings and those of the employee to adapt your response to satisfy:

i. your needs (emotional needs, need for team cohesiveness, need to meet performance standards), and

ii. employee’s needs (emotional needs, need to develop and perform within a team environment)?

Refer to relevant principles of emotional intelligence where applicable.

Management

I just need help answering the seven questions below We need a minimum of hundred words on each question the

Question

I just need help answering the seven questions below, We need a minimum of hundred words on each question, the

assignment will be submitted on a site that checks if we are using our own words. There is no correct or incorrect answer, but rather YOUR answer, based on YOUR thoughts and understanding of the material/concepts. All the documents and videos are attached to this regarding these questions.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?embed=nov=EnGHF-QkSUA

https://www.youtube.com/watch?embed=nov=83vczUPiMv0

https://www.youtube.com/watch?embed=nov=tL_sQddBtU4

https://www.youtube.com/watch?embed=nov=xcTtQ0hiHbE

https://www.youtube.com/watch?embed=nov=0jvCTFIvjG4

https://www.youtube.com/watch?embed=nov=JHzm0YSQmSU

Question #1: Based on your experience, education (including the videos and materials assigned this week), and knowledge, how would you best incorporate the following concepts into your view of how to get the best performance out of an organization: core competency, organization structure, MBO (Management by Objectives).

Question #2: Summarize and expand on Chapter #8 of the textbook (Corporate-Level Strategies), and describe what YOU think about the world of large corporate level strategy. Should firms diversify, and is unrelated diversification as bad as most experts suggest? How important is it for a firm to identify and bolster their core competencies? Do mergers and acquisitions help or hurt employees and customers? Use personal examples/experience to expand on these concepts, if you can.

Question #3: Summarize and expand on Chapter #9 of the textbook (Organizational Design), and the importance of organization structure, a chosen legal form of the organization, and organization control systems. Also rate (good or bad) MBO as a management style, and whether you believe it will lead to improved firm performance (or other benefits).

Question #4: This week there were videos (and readings) covering somewhat disparate topics in business and strategic management. Which of these videos most resonated with you in regards to understanding business and strategic management (and why)?

Question #5: For U-Haul, describe the firm’s competencies. Once you have identified core competencies (in your opinion), what types of diversifications should U-Haul target in today’s market – what kinds of companies should it attempt to acquire (and why)?

Question #6: This is a connect-the-dot overarching question. Thus far, you have reviewed nine chapters in the textbook, and summarized the first five of those nine chanters; and you have reviewed seven chapters in the PLAYING-TO-WIN book, and summarized the first six of those seven chanters. Based on your reading and review of these 15 chapters (combining the two books), and your own personal experience/education, synthesize the aforementioned material into an explanation as to the value of Strategic Management in an organization. This is an expansion of what you synthesized in Skill Builder #2 and Skill Builder #3. Basically, you are being asked to demonstrate that you (1) actually reviewed and understand the materials, and (2) are capable of connecting the dots (forming conceptual interconnections into a meaningful and useful model).

Question #7: What kinds of companies should U-Haul be looking to acquire? Why? Should they be trying to diversify? Why? Give examples.

Question 1.
Core-competency are specifics of the company that give it a competitive advantage in its
industry. In order to get the most out of an organization, a company should focus on…
Business

Which of the following is true of the relationship between training and development?Training

Question

Which of the following is true of the relationship between training and development?

Training

is often an ongoing process, while development tends to be a short-term process.

Participation in training is voluntary but compulsory in development.

The use of work experience is high in training but low in development.

Training is future oriented, while development is focused on improvement of current job.

The goal of training is preparation for the current job, while the goal of development is preparation for changes in the current job.

Management

Quality Management Tools Process ToolsDecision Making ToolsWork Flow

Question

Quality Management Tools:

  • Process Tools
  • Decision Making Tools
  • Work Flow

Tools

  • Communicating status through Metrics and Dashboard
  • as many tools are used in quality management, Pick one tool that you particularly like to use, and tell us why you think it’s great?
    Project Management

    1) What roles do frustration stress and emotional disturbances play in the increase of incivility in

    Question

    1) what roles do frustration, stress, and emotional disturbances play in the increase of incivility in

    organizations? What can managers do to prevent employee behavioral problems?

    2) d escribe an instance when you were experiencing acute stress at work. What was the cause of the stress and how did you manage it?

    3) think back to a recent student or work group project in which you participated, how effective were you as a team member? What behaviors did you engage in that contributed to your and the group’s effectiveness? (Refer to the seven characteristics of effective team members presented in this chapter).

    4) think about the last time you had to negotiate something (e.g., a higher grade, the purchase of a new or used car, etc.). Which of the following negotiation tactics were used by and/or the other party: good guy/bad guy, the nibble, joint problem solving, power of competition, or splitting the difference? Identify which tactic was introduced and explain how it was used.

    Management

    Resource is under the line of stars at bottomGuidelines for Submission Your performance

    Question

    Resource is under the line of stars at bottom

    Guidelines for Submission: Your performance

    management system should be an approximately 3- to 4-paged (not including your cover page and references) Microsoft Word document with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, one-inch margins, and at least three sources cited in APA format.

    For your final project, you will analyze the WeaveTech: High Performance Change case study in order to develop a proposal. You will have to consider the important aspects of the company within the case study when formulating the proposal. When developing your proposal, make sure that all elements align with the mission, vision, and goals of the organization. Be sure to support your proposal with appropriate scholarly sources.

    For Milestone Two, you will develop a draft of a performance management system and total rewards plan for WeaveTech. You must consider individual employee and organizational needs as well as federal laws and regulations in the development of your performance management plan. In addition to the performance management plan, you will devise a total rewards system and compensation and benefit strategies that are appropriate for the organization. At this point, you should be considering the implementation of self-service technologies at WeaveTech and preparing a message to stakeholders on issues regarding self-service technologies as they relate to benefit programs.

    The resources that support this milestone include the WeaveTech Case Study, Why Incentive Plans Cannot Work. This case study is available as part of your custom e-text and is listed at the end of the text, under the heading Harvard Business Case Studies. Your submission should contain all of the elements for Section II of your final product, including all of those listed below.

    Your instructor will grade your submission using the rubric below and will provide feedback to be applied to the final project.

    Begin by using the following guiding questions for your analysis. Then, once your analysis has been completed, draft a performance management system and total rewards plan that thoroughly covers each of the critical elements listed in A through F below the guiding questions.

    1. Based on the data presented in Exhibit 5 in the WeaveTech case study, what are some of the potential flaws with the performance management system at WeaveTech?

    2. How would you change the performance management system to enhance the organization’s strategy, mission, and support for employees?

    3. How can the performance management system best enable the workforce to meet individual and organizational goals?

    4. What performance appraisal methods could be applicable to this organization?

    5. What are some of the legal and regulatory issues to consider in regard to the performance management methods?

    6. How can WeaveTech use its total rewards programs to encourage proper behavior and reward employees?

    7. How can self-service technologies be used by WeaveTech to communicate to stakeholders and enhance the strategic focus of human resources?

    Specifically, the following critical elements must be addressed:

    II. Performance Management Systems and Total Rewards: In this part of the assessment, you will develop a performance management system and total rewards plan for this organization.

    A. Develop a performance management system designed to enhance the organization’s strategic mission of quality support for employees.

    B. Evaluate how your developed performance management system complies with federal laws and regulations. In other words, are there any concerns about compliance issues?

    C. Evaluate how your developed performance management system enables the workforce of the company to meet individual and organizational needs now and in the future.

    D. Determine appropriate performance appraisal methods that could be applicable to this organization. In other words, what method do you propose, how does it relate to compensation, and so on.

    E. Develop a total reward system that encourages proper behavior and rewards appropriate employees.

    F. Develop compensation and benefit strategies to include job evaluation strategies, pay programs (variable or merit), and benefit programs. Explain how you would communicate to appropriate stakeholders issues regarding self-service technologies as they relates to benefit programs. In other words, how would you write a memorandum or other appropriate message to stakeholders on issues regarding self-service technologies as it relates to benefit programs?

    *************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************

    If you want to build a committed, collabora- tive, and creative workforce, you have to pay employees for excellence, right? Not necessarily. Though most U.S. corporations use incentive programs, trying to reward quality may be a fool’s errand.

    Why? Studies show that people who expect to receive a reward for completing a task typically underperform compared to those who expect no reward—particularly if the task requires sophis- ticated thinking. At the executive level, studies reveal minimal or even negative correlations between pay and performance, as measured

    by corporate profitability and other criteria.

    Why Rewards Don’t Work

    Pay-for-performance carries a high price for your organization in six respects:

    1. Pay doesn’t motivate. People need money, of course. But when asked what they care about most, pay typically ranks only fifth or sixth. Though cutting pay would damage morale, increasing it won’t necessarily improve performance.

    2. Rewards punish. Do this and you’ll get that rewards aren’t too different from Do this and here’s what’ll happen to you punishments. People make little distinction between not receiving an expected reward and being punished. Pay-for-performance usually makes people feel manipulated rather than moti- vated to explore, learn, and progress.

    3. Rewards rupture relationships. When you force people to compete for rewards, team- work evaporates. Viewing teammates as obstacles to their own success, employees pressure the system for individual gain. And instead of asking for help from managers— essential for enhancing performance—they conceal problems and present themselves as infinitely competent.

    4. Rewards ignore the causes behind problems.

    To solve workplace problems, managers must understand their causes: Are employees inad-

    Why Incentive Plans Cannot Work

    Whether it’s piecework pay, stock options, commissions, or Employee of the Month privi- leges, pay-for-performance gains you one thing: temporary compliance. It may change people’s behavior in the short run, but it doesn’t aer the attitudes driving behavior. It can’t create

    an enduring commitment to your company’s values or lasting, meaningful change.

    So how can you build an exceptional work- force? Understand the real costs of pay-for- performance. Then consider more potent strategies—including long-term goal setting and training.

    equately prepared? Unable to collaborate? Burned out? Too many managers use rewards as substitutes for what workers really need: useful feedback, social support, and room for self-determination. Dangling bonuses may be easy—but it impedes managers’ ability to ful- fill their real responsibilities.

    5. Rewards kill creativity. Incentives encourage people to focus on precisely what they’ll get for completing a task—not what might be gained by taking risks, exploring new possi- bilities, and playing hunches. Rewards pull people’s attention away from excellence. Employees may manipulate task schedules or behave unethically to make the numbers. To finish the task as expediently as possible, they’ll opt for simplicity and predictability, not challenge.

    6. Rewards undermine interest. If your goal is excellence, no artificial incentive can match the power of intrinsic motivation: people working because they love what they do. Rewards undermine intrinsic motivation by making people feel controlled and devaluing their work—especially when tied to interest- ing or complicated work. When people view their work as externally directed and unwor- thy, they won’t approach it with a commit- ment to excellence.

    THE IDEA

    AT WORK

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    When reward systems fail, don’t blame the program – look at the premise behind it.

    Why Incentive Plans Cannot Work

    By Alfie Kohn

    It is difficu to overstate the ex- tent to which most managers and the people who advise them believe in the redemptive power of rewards. Certainly, the vast majority of U.S. corporations use some sort of pro- gram intended to motivate employ- ees by tying compensation to one in- dex of performance or another. But more striking is the rarely examined belief that people will do a better job if they have been promised some sort of incentive. This assumption and the practices associated with it are pervasive, but a growing collec- tion of evidence supports an oppos-

    ing view. According to numerous studies in laboratories, workplaces, classrooms, and other settings, re- wards typically undermine the very processes they are intended to en- hance. The findings suggest that the

    failure of any given incentive pro- gram is due less to a glitch in that program than to the inadequacy of the psychological assumptions that ground all such plans.

    Temporary Compliance

    Behaviorist theory, derived from work with laboratory ani- mals, is indirectly re- sponsible for such pro- grams as piece-work pay for factory workers, stock options for top exec- utives, special privileges accorded to

    Employees of the Month, and commissions for salespeople. Indeed, the livelihood of innumer- able consuants has long been based on devising fresh formulas for com- puting bonuses to wave

    in front of employees. Money, va- cations, banquets, plaques – the list of variations on a single, simple be- haviorist model of motivation is lim- itless. And today even many peo- ple who are regarded as forward

    thinking – those who promote team- work, participative management, continuous improvement, and the like – urge the use of rewards to institute and maintain these very reforms. What we use bribes to ac- complish may have changed, but the reliance on bribes, on behaviorist doctrine, has not.

    Moreover, the few articles that ap- pear to criticize incentive plans are

    invariably limited to details of im- plementation. Only fine-tune the calculations and delivery of the in- centive – or perhaps hire the author as a consuant – and the problem

    Alfie Kohn is the author of four books, including No Contest: The Case Against Competition and the newly published Punished by Re- wards: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A’s, Praise, and Oth- er Bribes, from which this article is adapted. Kohn lectures widely at universities, conferences, and corporations on education and man- agement.

    Incentives do not aer the attitudes that underlie our behaviors.

    Most managers too often believe in the redemptive power of rewards.

    Copyright © 1993 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved.

    PHOTOS BY T

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    As for productivity, at least two dozen studies over the last three decades have conclusively shown that people who expect to receive a reward for completing a task or for doing that task successfully simply do not perform as well as those who expect no reward

    at all. These studies examined rewards for children and adus, males and females, and included tasks ranging from memo- rizing facts to creative problem-solving to de- signing collages. In general, the more cognitive sophistication and open-ended thinking that was re- quired, the worse people performed when working for a reward. Interest- ingly enough, the researchers them- selves were often taken by surprise. They assumed that rewards would produce better work but discovered otherwise.

    The question for managers is whether incentive plans can work when extrinsic motivators more generally do not. Unfortunately, as author G. Douglas Jenkins, Jr., has noted, most organizational studies to date – like the articles published – have tended to focus on the effects of variations in incentive condi- tions, and not on whether perfor- mance-based pay per se raises perfor- mance levels.

    A number of studies, however, have examined whether or not pay, especially at the executive level, is related to corporate profitability and other measures of organizational performance. Often they have found slight or even negative correlations between pay and performance. Typi-

    Rewards do not create a lasting commitment. They merely, and temporarily, change what we do.

    will be solved, we are told. As Her- bert H. Meyer, professor emeritus in the psychology department at the College of Social and Behavioral Sci- ences at the University of South Florida, has written, Anyone read- ing the literature on this subject published 20 years ago would find that the articles look almost identi- cal to those published today. That assessment, which could have been written this morning, was actually offered in 1975. In nearly forty years, the thinking hasn’t changed.

    Do rewards work? The answer de- pends on what we mean by work. Research suggests that, by and large, rewards succeed at securing one thing only: temporary compliance. When it comes to producing lasting change in attitudes and behavior, however, rewards, like punishment, are strikingly ineffective. Once the rewards run out, people revert to their old behaviors. Studies show that offering incentives for losing weight, quitting smoking, using seat bes, or (in the case of children) act- ing generously is not only less effec- tive than other strategies but often proves worse than doing nothing at all. Incentives, a version of what psy- chologists call extrinsic motivators, do not aer the attitudes that under- lie our behaviors. They do not cre- ate an enduring commitment to any value or action. Rather, incentives merely – and temporarily – change what we do.

    cally, the absence of such a relation- ship is interpreted as evidence of links between compensation and something other than how well peo- ple do their jobs. But most of these data could support a different con- clusion, one that reverses the causal arrow. Perhaps what these studies reveal is that higher pay does not produce better performance. In other words, the very idea of trying to re- ward quality may be a fool’s errand.

    Consider the findings of Jude T. Rich and John A. Larson, formerly of McKinsey Company. In 1982,

    using interviews and proxy state- ments, they examined compensa- tion programs at 90 major U.S. com- panies to determine whether return to shareholders was better for cor- porations that had incentive plans for top executives than it was for those companies that had no such plans. They were unable to find any difference.

    Four years later, Jenkins tracked down 28 previously published stud- ies that measured the impact of fi- nancial incentives on performance. (Some were conducted in the labora- tory and some in the field.) His anal- ysis, Financial Incentives, pub- lished in 1986, revealed that 16, or 57%, of the studies found a positive effect on performance. However, all of the performance measures were quantitative in nature: a good job consisted of producing more of something or doing it faster. Only five of the studies looked at the qual- ity of performance. And none of those five showed any benefits from incentives.

    Another analysis took advantage of an unusual situation that affected

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    IN QUESTION

    On Incentives

    The Pay-for-Performance Dilemma by Herbert H. Meyer Organizational Dynamics Winter 1975.

    Financial Incentives

    by G. Douglas Jenkins, Jr. in Generalizing from Laboratory to Field Settings edited by Edwin A. Locke Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1986.

    Why Merit Pay Doesn’t Work: Implications from Organization Theory by Jone L. Pearce

    in New Perspectives on Compensation edited by David B. Balkin and Luis R. Gomez-Mejia Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987.

    The New Performance Measures

    by Monroe J. Haegele ?in The Compensation Handbook

    Why Some Long-Term Third Edition Incentives Fail edited by Mion L. Rock and by Jude T. Rich and John A. Larson Lance A. Berger in Incentives, Cooperation, and New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991. Risk Sharing edited by Haig R. Nalbantian Intrinsic and Extrinsic Totowa, NJ: Rowman Motivational Orientations: Reward- Littlefield, 1987. Induced Changes in Preference for

    Complexity Output Rates Among Welders: by Thane S. Pittman, Jolee Emery,

    Productivity and Consistency and Ann K. Boggiano Following Removal of a Financial Journal of Personality and Social Incentive System Psychology by Harold F. Rothe March 1982. Journal of Applied Psychology December 1970. Enemies of Exploration: Self-

    Initiated Versus Other-Initiated The Effects of Psychologically Learning

    Based Intervention Programs on by John Condry Worker Productivity: Journal of Personality and Social A Meta-Analysis Psychology by Richard A. Guzzo, Richard D. July 1977. Jette, and Raymond A. Katzell Personnel Psychology Toward a Theory of Task Summer 1985. Motivation and Incentives

    by Edwin A. Locke

    One More Time: How Do You Organizational Behavior and Motivate Employees? Human Performance by Frederick Herzberg Volume 3, 1968. Harvard Business Review

    January-February 1968. Intrinsic Motivation and Self- Determination in Human Behavior

    An Elaboration on Deming’s by Edward L. Deci and Teachings on Performance Richard M. Ryan Appraisal New York: Plenum Press, 1985. by Peter R. Schoes

    in Performance Appraisal: Inferred Values and the Perspectives on a Quality Reverse-Incentive Effect in Management Approach Induced Compliance edited by Gary N. McLean, et al. by Jonathan L. Freedman, John A. Alexandria, VA: University of Cunningham, and Kirsten Krismer Minnesota Training and Journal of Personality and Social Development Research Center and Psychology

    American Society for Training and March 1992.

    Development, 1990.

    People, Performance, and Pay

    by Carla O’Dell Houston: American Productivity Center, 1987.

    The Battle for Human Nature: Science, Morality and Modern Life by Barry Schwartz New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1986.

    a group of welders at a Midwestern manufacturing company. At the re- quest of the union, an incentive sys- tem that had been in effect for some years was abruptly eliminated. Now, if a financial incentive supplies mo- tivation, its absence should drive down production. And that is exact- ly what happened, at first. Fortu- nately, Harold F. Rothe, former per- sonnel manager and corporate staff assistant at the Beloit Corporation, tracked production over a period of months, providing the sort of long- term data rarely collected in this field. After the initial slump, Rothe found that in the absence of incen- tives the welders’ production quick- ly began to rise and eventually reached a level as high or higher than it had been before.

    One of the largest reviews of how intervention programs affect worker productivity, a meta-analysis of some 330 comparisons from 98 stud- ies, was conducted in the mid-1980s by Richard A. Guzzo, associate pro- fessor of psychology at the Universi- ty of Maryland, College Park, and his colleagues at New York Univer- sity. The raw numbers seemed to suggest a positive relationship be- tween financial incentives and pro- ductivity, but because of the huge variations from one study to anoth- er, statistical tests indicated that there was no significant effect over- all. What’s more, financial incen- tives were virtually unrelated to the number of workers who were absent or who quit their jobs over a period of time. By contrast, training and goal-setting programs had a far greater impact on productivity than did pay-for-performance plans.

    Why Rewards Fail

    Why do most executives continue to rely on incentive programs? Per- haps it’s because few people take the time to examine the connection be- tween incentive programs and prob- lems with workplace productivity and morale. Rewards buy temporary compliance, so it looks like the prob- lems are solved. It’s harder to spot the harm they cause over the long term. Moreover, it does not occur to most of us to suspect rewards, given that our own teachers, parents, and

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    IN QUESTION

    managers probably used them. Do this and you’ll get that is part of the fabric of American life. Finally, by clinging to the belief that motiva- tional problems are due to the par- ticular incentive system in effect at the moment, rather than to the psy- chological theory behind all incen- tives, we can remain optimistic that a relatively minor adjustment will repair the damage.

    Over the long haul, however, the potential cost to any organization of trying to fine-tune reward-driven compensation systems may be con- siderable. The fundamental flaws of behaviorism itself doom the pros- pects of affecting long-term behavior change or performance improve- ment through the use of rewards. Consider the following six-point framework that examines the true costs of an incentive program.

    1. Pay is not a motivator. W. Ed- ward Deming’s declaration may seem surprising, even absurd. Of course, money buys the things peo- ple want and need. Moreover, the less people are paid, the more con- cerned they are likely to be about financial matters. Indeed, several studies over the last few decades have found that when people are asked to guess what matters to their coworkers – or, in the case of man- agers, to their subordinates – they assume money heads the list. But put the question directly – What do you care about? – and pay typically ranks only fifth or sixth.

    Even if people were principally concerned with their salaries, this does not prove that money is moti- vating. There is no firm basis for the assumption that paying people more will encourage them to do better work or even, in the long run, more work. As Frederick Herzberg, Dis- tinguished Professor of Management at the University of Utah’s Graduate School of Management, has argued, just because too little money can ir- ritate and demotivate does not mean that more and more money will bring about increased satisfaction, much less increased motivation. It is plausible to assume that if some- one’s take-home pay was cut in half, his or her morale would suffer enough to undermine performance.

    But it doesn’t necessarily follow that doubling that person’s pay would re- su in better work.

    2. Rewards punish. Many man- agers understand that coercion and fear destroy motivation and create defiance, defensiveness, and rage. They realize that punitive manage- ment is a contradiction in terms. As Herzberg wrote in HBR

    some 25 years ago (One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employ- ees? January-Febru- ary 1968), a KITA – which, he coyly ex- plains, stands for kick in the pants – may pro- duce movement but never motivation.

    What most executives fail to rec- ognize is that Herzberg’s observa- tion is equally true of rewards. Pun- ishment and rewards are two sides of the same coin. Rewards have a puni- tive effect because they, like out- right punishment, are manipulative. Do this and you’ll get that is not really very different from Do this or here’s what will happen to you. In the case of incentives, the reward itself may be highly desired; but by making that bonus contingent on certain behaviors, managers ma- nipulate their subordinates, and that experience of being controlled is likely to assume a punitive quality over time.

    Further, not receiving a reward one had expected to receive is also indistinguishable from being pun- ished. Whether the incentive is witheld or withdrawn deliberately, or simply not received by someone who had hoped to get it, the effect is identical. And the more desirable the reward, the more demoralizing it is to miss out.

    The new school, which exhorts us to catch people doing something right and reward them for it, is not very different from the old school, which advised us to catch people do- ing something wrong and threaten to punish them if they ever do it again. What is essentially taking place in both approaches is that a lot of people are getting caught. Man- agers are creating a workplace in which people feel controlled, not an

    environment conducive to explo- ration, learning, and progress.

    3. Rewards rupture relationships.

    Relationships among employees are often casuaies of the scramble for rewards. As leaders of the Total Quality Management movement have emphasized, incentive pro- grams, and the performance ap-

    praisal systems that accompany them, reduce the possibilities for co- operation. Peter R. Schoes, senior management consuant at Joiner Associates Inc., put it starkly, Ev- eryone is pressuring the system for individual gain. No one is improving the system for collective gain. The system will inevitably crash. With- out teamwork, in other words, there can be no quality.

    The surest way to destroy cooper- ation and, therefore, organizational excellence, is to force people to com- pete for rewards or recognition or to rank them against each other. For each person who wins, there are many others who carry with them the feeling of having lost. And the more these awards are publicized through the use of memos, newslet- ters, and awards banquets, the more detrimental their impact can be. Furthermore, when employees com- pete for a limited number of incen- tives, they will most likely begin to see each other as obstacles to their own success. But the same resu can occur with any use of rewards; intro- ducing competition just makes a bad thing worse.

    Relationships between supervi- sors and subordinates can also col- lapse under the weight of incentives. Of course, the supervisor who pun- ishes is about as welcome to em- ployees as a glimpse of a police car in their rearview mirrors. But even the supervisor who rewards can produce some damaging reactions. For i

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    IN QUESTION

    Recommended Reading

    A Model of Creativity and Innovation in Organizations by Teresa M. Amabile in Research in Organizational Behavior, Volume 10

    edited by Barry M. Staw and L.L. Cummings Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, Inc., 1988.

    Out of the Crisis

    by W. Edwards Deming Cambridge, MA: MIT Center for Advanced Engineering Study, 1986.

    Merit Pay, Performance Targeting, and Productivity by Arie Halachmi and Marc Holzer Review of Public Personnel Administration

    Spring 1987.

    No Contest: The Case Against Competition, Revised Edition by Alfie Kohn Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992.

    Punished by Rewards: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A’s, Praise, and Other Bribes by Alfie Kohn

    Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1993.

    The Market Experience

    by Robert E. Lane Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

    The Hidden Costs of Reward: New Perspectives on the Psychology of Human Motivation edited by Mark R. Lepper and David Greene Hillsdale, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates, 1978.

    The Great Jackass Fallacy

    by Harry Levinson Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973.

    The Human Side of Enterprise

    by Douglas McGregor New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960.

    Weah Addiction

    by Philip Slater New York: Dutton, 1980.

    Money and Motivation: An Analysis of Incentives in Industry by William Foote Whyte and Melville Daon, et al. New York: Harper, 1955.

    stance, employees may be tempted to conceal any problems they might be having and present themselves as infinitely competent to the manager in control of the money. Rather than ask for help – a prerequisite for opti- mal performance–they might opt in- stead for flattery, attempting to con- vince the manager that they have everything under control. Very few things threaten an organization as much as a hoard of incentive-driven individuals trying to curry favor with the incentive dispenser.

    4. Rewards ignore reasons. In or- der to solve problems in the work- place, managers must understand what caused them. Are employees inadequately prepared for the de- mands of their jobs? Is long-term growth being sacrificed to maximize short-term return? Are workers un- able to collaborate effectively? Is the organization so rigidly hierarchical that employees are intimidated about making recommendations and feel powerless and burned out? Each of these situations calls for a different response. But relying on in- centives to boost productivity does nothing to address possible underly-ing problems and bring about mean- ingful change.

    Moreover, managers often use in- centive systems as a substitute for giving workers what they need to do a good job. Treating workers well – providing useful feedback, social support, and the room for self-deter- mination – is the essence of good management. On the other hand, dangling a bonus in front of employ- ees and waiting for the resus re- quires much less effort. Indeed, some evidence suggests that produc- tive managerial strategies are less likely to be used in organizations that lean on pay-for-performance plans. In his study of welders’ perfor- mance, Rothe noted that supervisors tended to demonstrate relatively less leadership when incentives were in place. Likewise, author Carla O’Dell reports in People, Per- formance, and Pay that a survey of 1,600 organizations by the American Productivity Center discovered lit- tle in the way of active employee in- volvement in organizations that used small-group incentive plans. As Jone L. Pearce, associate professor at the Graduate School of Manage-

    ment, University of California at Irvine, wrote in Why Merit Pay Doesn’t Work: Implications from Organization Theory, pay for per- formance actually impedes the ability of managers to manage.

    5. Rewards discourage risk-taking.

    People will do precisely what they are asked to do if the reward is signif- icant, enthused Monroe J. Haegele, a proponent of pay-for-performance programs, in The New Perfor- mance Measures. And here is the root of the problem. Whenever peo- ple are encouraged to think about what they will get for engaging in a task, they become less inclined to take risks or explore possibilities, to play hunches or to consider inciden- tal stimuli. In a word, the number one casuay of rewards is creativity.

    Excellence pulls in one direction; rewards pull in another. Tell people that their income will depend on their productivity or performance rating, and they will focus on the numbers. Sometimes they will ma- nipulate the schedule for complet- ing tasks or even engage in patently unethical and illegal behavior. As Thane S. Pittman, professor and chair of the psychology department at Gettysburg College, and his col- leagues point out, when we are moti- vated by incentives, features such as predictability and simplicity are desirable, since the primary focus as- sociated with this orientation is to get through the task expediently in order to reach the desired goal. The late Cornell University professor, John Condry, was more succinct: re- wards, he said, are the enemies of exploration.

    Consider the findings of organiza- tional psychologist Edwin A. Locke. When Locke paid subjects on a piece-rate basis for their work, he noticed that they tended to choose easier tasks as the payment for suc- cess increased. A number of other studies have also found that people working for a reward generally try to minimize challenge. It isn’t that hu- man beings are naturally lazy or that it is unwise to give employees a voice in determining the standards to be used. Rather, people tend to lower their sights when they are en- couraged to think about what they

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    IN QUESTION

    are going to get for their efforts. Do this and you’ll get that, in other words, focuses attention on the that instead of the this. Empha- sizing large bonuses is the last strat- egy we should use if we care about innovation. Do rewards motivate people? Absolutely. They motivate people to get rewards.

    6. Rewards undermine interest. If our goal is excellence, no artificial incentive can ever match the power of intrinsic motivation. People who do exceptional work may be glad to be paid and even more glad to be well paid, but they do not work to collect a paycheck. They work because they love what they do.

    Few will be shocked by the news that extrinsic motivators are a poor substitute for genuine interest in one’s job. What is far more surprising is that rewards, like punishment, may actually undermine the intrin- sic motivation that resus in opti- mal performance. The more a man- ager stresses what an employee can earn for good work, the less interest- ed that employee will be in the work itself.

    The first studies to establish the effect of rewards on intrinsic moti- vation were conducted in the early 1970s by Edward Deci, professor and chairman of the psychology depart-

    ment at the University of Rochester. By now, scores of experiments across the country have replicated the find- ing. As Deci and his colleague Richard Ryan, senior vice president of investment and training manager at Robert W. Baird and Co., Inc., wrote in their 1985 book, Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior, the research has consistently shown that any contingent payment system tends to undermine intrinsic motivation. The basic effect is the same for a va- riety of rewards and tasks, ahough extrinsic motivators are particular-

    ly destructive when tied to interest- ing or complicated tasks.

    Deci and Ryan argue that receiv- ing a reward for a particular behavior sends a certain message about what we have done and controls, or attempts to control, our future be- havior. The more we experience being con- trolled, the more we will tend to lose inter- est in what we are do- ing. If we go to work thinking about the possibility of getting a bonus, we come to feel that our work is not self-directed. Rather, it is the reward that drives our behavior.

    Other theorists favor a more sim- ple explanation for the negative ef- fect rewards have on intrinsic mo- tivation: anything presented as a prerequisite for something else – that is, as a means toward another end – comes to be seen as less desir- able. The recipient of the reward assumes, If they have to bribe me to do it, it must be something I wouldn’t want to do. In fact, a se- ries of studies, published in 1992 by psychology professor Jonathan L. Freedman and his colleagues at the University of Toronto, confirmed

    that the larger the incen- tive we are offered, the more negatively we will view the activity for which the bonus was re- ceived. (The activities themselves don’t seem to matter; in this study, they ranged from partici-

    pating in a medical experiment to eating unfamiliar food.) Whatever the reason for the effect, however, any incentive or pay-for-perfor- mance system tends to make people less enthusiastic about their work and therefore less likely to approach it with a commitment to excellence.

    Dangerous Assumptions

    Outside of psychology depart- ments, few people distinguish be- tween intrinsic and extrinsic moti- vation. Those who do assume that the two concepts can simply be added together for best effect. Motivation

    comes in two flavors, the logic goes, and both together must be better than either alone. But studies show that the real world works differently.

    Some managers insist that the only problem with incentive pro- grams is that they don’t reward the

    right things. But these managers fail to understand the psychological fac- tors involved and, consequently, the risks of sticking with the status quo.

    Contrary to conventional wis- dom, the use of rewards is not a re- sponse to the extrinsic orientation exhibited by many workers. Rather, incentives help create this focus on financial considerations. When an organization uses a Skinnerian man- agement or compensation system, people are likely to become less in- terested in their work, requiring extrinsic incentives before expend- ing effort. Then supervisors shake their heads and say, You see? If you don’t offer them a reward, they won’t do anything. It is a classic self-ful- filling prophecy. Swarthmore Col- lege psychology professor Barry Schwartz has conceded that behav- ior theory may seem to provide us with a useful way of describing what goes on in U.S. workplaces. Howev- er, It does this not because work is a natural exemplification of behavior theory principles but because behav- ior theory principles…had a signifi- cant hand in transforming work into an exemplification of behavior theo- ry principles.

    Managers who insist that the job won’t get done right without re- wards have failed to offer a convinc- ing argument for behavioral ma- nipulation. Promising a reward to someone who appears unmotivated is a bit like offering sa water to someone who is thirsty. Bribes in the workplace simply can’t work.

    Product no. 2799

    The number one casuay of rewards is creativity. As the late John Condry put it, rewards are the enemies of exploration.

    Do rewards motivate people? Absolutely. They motivate people to get rewards.

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    ARTICLES

    Introducing T-Shaped Managers: Knowledge Management’s Next Generation by Morten T. Hansen and Bolko von Oetinger (Harvard Business Review, March 2001, Product no. 6463) One reason so many managers embrace pay-for-performance is that it’s much easier to dangle carrots before employees than to fulfill managers’ real responsibilities: develop- ing direct reports and creating horizontal value by sharing ideas and expertise across the company.

    This article takes a closer look at the benefits of horizontal value—including better deci- sion making through peer advice, increased revenues through shared expertise and cross- pollination of ideas, and well-coordinated implementation of bold strategic moves.

    How to spur the creation of horizontal value? Formalize cross-unit interactions and clearly communicate the corporate value of sharing knowledge outside individual units.

    A Simpler Way to Pay by Egon Zehnder (Harvard Business Review, April 2001, Product no. 6765) Though Zehnder agrees that pay-for-individual- performance programs can backfire, he does recommend compensating workers for com- panywide resus. At his company, executive search firm Egon Zehnder International (EZI), success hinges on employees’ networks of contacts, sharp intuition, and commitment to the firm—all qualities derived from lengthy tenure. For this reason, EZI links compensa- tion directly to seniority.

    EZI pays partners a base salary; gives them an equal number of shares in the company’s

    Why Incentive Plans Cannot Work

    equity, regardless of tenure; and rewards them with profit shares based solely on length of tenure. Nonpartners receive base salaries and annual bonuses based on their support of their colleagues and their enhancement of EZI’s reputation, for example, through pub- lishing articles. Resus? Annual profit expan- sion for 40 consecutive years, 60% of business from repeat customers, and yearly employee turnover of 2%—in an industry averaging 30%.

    The Best-Laid Incentive Plans by Steve Kerr (Harvard Business Review, January 2003, Product no. R0301A) In this fictional case study, the CFO of Rainbarrel Products experiences firsthand the perils of incentive programs. Rather than enhancing productivity, his new performance- management system seems to be destroying the company: Rainbarrel fails to bring a breakthrough product to market quickly enough, a survey reveals a demoralized work- force, and customers lament the quality of Rainbarrel’s service.

    Four experts offer explanations, including the you get what you pay for rule. For example, if you compensate salespeople only for sales dollars, they’ll achieve more sales—but at lower prices or with expensive extra services. Define your criteria for long-term success before launching an incentive program. Is it sales? Profits? Retained business? Then select appropriate performance metrics. Use clear, two-way communication—so employees understand and accept your company’s strat- egy and can align their performance behin

    (Strategic Human Resource Management 759)

    Strategic Human Resource Management. McGraw-Hill Create. VitalBook file.

    The citation provided is a guideline. Please check each citation for accuracy before use.

    Business

    You are a newly appointed manager of an under performing team in a $50 M organization which is struggling within

    Question

    You are a newly appointed manager of an under performing team in a $50 M organization which is struggling within

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    Based on our readings / discussions and case studies please answer the following questions:

    1. What will your management style be?

    2. What are your goals for the first thirty days?

    As you can imagine this situation is critical.

    You are a newly appointed manager of an underperforming team in a $50 M organization
    which is struggling within its industry, which is Say Snacks. Morale is faering and a
    number of employees…
    Operations Management

    Read and summary this article Please follow the requirement

    Question

    Read and summary this article. Please follow the requirement.

    1 Article Critique
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    Management

    Conflict occurs when two or more individuals perceive a situation differently and at least one person’s perception

    Question

    Conflict occurs when two or more individuals perceive a situation differently and at least one person’s perception

    is that he or she has been negatively affected. In fact, conflict can occur at any time, in any situation, and often at the worst possible time. When a group or team is working toward a goal and conflict erupts, the process can come to a ha until the conflict is resolved. For the following questions, take into consideration a conflict that you have experienced in your workplace:

    Management

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    Question

    Which step in decision making process do you think is difficu to complete? What would you do to change or make

    it easier? Which information would you say is most overlooked when making risk-and quality management decisions?

    Where one hits a hurdle in the process of decision making can be entirely
    case specific. It is because in some cases defining the problem can be
    difficu while in some cases it may be developing…
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    What factors are associated with successful Continuous Quality Improvement programs and what are barriers in CQI

    Question

    What factors are associated with successful Continuous Quality Improvement programs and what are barriers in CQI

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    What factors are associated with successful Continuous Quality Improvement programs
    and what are barriers in CQI and what are some recommendations to overcome the
    challenge? CQI is a management…
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    Explain the importance of health care Governing Boards and the Board’s essential responsibility? Also include in

    Question

    Explain the importance of heah care Governing Boards and the Board’s essential responsibility? Also include in

    your response the types of risk management information that is shared with the Board and in what format. (please site your sources).

    1 Running a heahcare organization is a team game in which every party including the
    governing board has to play its role. The medical staff, the management, and the board must
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