Of late it has traveled from wildlife hunting for food, clothing, and fuel to industrialization of animal agriculture.In recent years there has been a resurgence of awareness and concern about the hidden nature of industrial capitalist food production. Animal agriculture globally is affecting the earth, human health, the environment, the quality of rural life, and the animals themselves in many ways. Today animal products are supplied to distant markets and animal agriculture has reduced the nature and animals to nothing more than vehicles of profit or money-making machines. Morals and ethics have been replaced by the motive to maximize profits. Besides, animal farming has found to be unsustainable as nitrates have been found in drinking water (Hodges, 2003). Such claims necessitated research into the current position to determine how exactly mankind or the industrial corporations could introduce ethics in animal agriculture like any other business.Research of current literature has been undertaken through online scholarly sources including published journal articles. These journals quote from various renowned ethicists and animal liberationists like Peter Singer amongst others. Streams of literature on ethics, on human health, conditions in farms, particularly in Australia, and literature from other countries, have been considered. All sources used have been properly cited.Research reveals that animal agriculture is unethical as it produces unhealthy food. Significant historical and social upheavals after World War II woke up the agricultural scientists and the government officials when the public was supplied with cheap and plentiful food for various reasons. Land diminution, lack of trained people in agriculture coupled with technological advancements, and economies of scale led to the rapid industrialization of animal agriculture (Rollin, 2002). While the number of trained people, declined, the number of animals produced increased. This
1Character Analysis: Greasy Lake by T. Coraghessan BoyleThe fantasy of invincibility exists in every young man’s life until time comes mortality is recognized. As the clock ticks its hands, transformation occurs and the fantasy dissipates, maybe gradually to some, through a series of progression without a defining moment of enlightenment. For some others, there is a realization of mortality through a striking image or manifestation, maybe a tragic event that leads to their transformation. Just like the narrator in Thomas Coraghessan Boyle’s Greasy Lake, remains unnamed, in the midst of all the wrongs and the gory happenings, he encounters an epiphany that gives him a glimpse of realization that leads him to his transformation. Bad-wannabeThe narrator, unnamed, is described as a tough character through his description of his group: We wore torn-up leather jackets, slouched around with toothpicks in our mouths, sniffed glue…we drank gin and grape juice, Tango, Thunderbird, and Bali Hai. We were nineteen. We were bad. (Boyle, 1986) As supported by an article published by Gale Research, the narrator and his two other friends are the embodiment of coolness. With his detached tone, he defines himself as someone who rolls marijuana cigarettes, a smooth dancer and an all-day-and-night sunglass user. He thinks of himself as someone who is bad and so he personifies it even not being born on the streets but just a mere son of rebellion. His self-proclaimed bad character goes on until sometime in the jungles of Greasy Lake. Three mistakes 3 days before summerThe unidentified narrator, just like his bad-wannabe friends, could not wait for summer break. Just like any other impatient and thrill-seeking young man, he goes out with his friends to give his bored soul some thrills, not knowing he is about get himself more than what he is looking for. In an encounter he and his friends have near the banks of the Greasy Lake when he hits a guy with a tire iron in the head, he realizes the serious trouble he is in – murder. He then recounts the mistakes he could’ve avoided had he stayed in the house: loosing grip with the keys, identifying the wrong car and hitting a guy who freaks out in the head with a tire iron. These series of mistakes symbolize the epiphany that leads him to his transformation. Biker in the lakeThen I thought of the dead man. He was probably the only person on the planet worse off than I was. . . . My car was wrecked. he was dead. (Boyle, 1986) The narration itself depicts the narrators awakening. The encounter with the dead biker in the lake serves as a major ingredient in the dawn of awareness in the adolescent. The narrator is the epitome of the young sons of rebellion in the US that era. His youthful ignorance of life outside his bailiwick is eventually replaced with awareness and knowledge that soon enough leads him to a deeper understanding of the world. His passage from the lake to land symbolizes ignorance to knowledge. Maturity becomes visible in his face as he walks towards the land. Overnight, an older soul emerges from the lake is ready to leave the jungles it. Works Cited Boyle, Thomas C.Greasy Lake and Others Stories. New York: Penguin books, 1986. Print.Howes, Kelly K.Characters in 20th-Century Literature Ii. Detroit: Gale Research, 1995. Print.
How effective is the labor market policy or program in preventing a sudden increase in the unemployment rate despite the globalization? Lastly, how does globalization affect the distribution of Income in general?To be able to answer the research question, this paper will include several kinds of literature that are categorized as economic journals. With the use of HighWire – for journals, google, and yahoo search engines, it is possible to answer the main question or hypothesis of the topic research.Economics journal coming from the Journal of Industrial Relations (JIR), European Union Politics, and Inaugural Article Economic Sciences will be used in addressing the research questions and eventually derive the conclusion from the related literature that was gathered from the research activity.This paper will discuss several external factors that could affect the flexibility of the work market. External factors such as employment protection, wage flexibility, internal or functional flexibility, and the supply side flexibility will be explained one by one in the literature portion. Knowing which of these factors contributes more to increasing the unemployment rate as well as being able to determine whether globalization has a positive or negative influence on the employment rate will make it easier for us to manage, control, and avoid a high unemployment rate in the European countries.Also, through intensive research, we will be able to answer the question of how globalization could affect the distribution of Income in general. In line with this topic, the research will focus on determining whether people, in general, are economically better off as part of the effect of globalization or not. Unequal distribution of income is another way of telling us that the gap between the rich and the poor is becoming wider. This is also true in the case of a third world and a developed country.
Nea, to be specific, grew up around her sister, Sourdi, with whom she developed a close relationship. The two-character have grown up together and have stayed together for the better part of their lives. Their close bond is revealed in several sections of the literature piece. Sourdi and Nea are the main characters in the narrative.The short story primarily characterizes Nea as a caring and loving character. Through her nature, May-Lee Chai reveals a strong connection in the family of the two sibling characters. Furthermore, the author also presents an idea of the changes that occur as members of a family mature. More to it, below is the description of the character of Nea and her close relationship with her sister in Saving Sourdi, a short story by May-Lee Chai:Nea is Nervous and AggressiveIn the story, Nea takes up the role of the primary character and narrator throughout the narrative. Even though she and her sibling grew up together most of their lives, there is a notable difference between each character. Correspondingly, the disparity is particularly noted in the way Nea and Sourdi are maturing. In essence, the latter seemed to grow quicker than Nea. The lag in her growth has been revealed to make her nature more nervous and aggressive. The two natures of her character are illustrated by the author throughout the entire story.Nea’s Protective Desire to Save SourdiDespite Nea having a drawback in maturity, several instances in the piece demonstrated her desire to save and protect her sister. Unlike Nea, Sourdi is more of the ‘insecure’ type. As such, her sister attempts to protect her from her insecure feelings and other predicaments that she would face in her maturity. However, her intentions did not succeed on several occasions. More of Nea’s purposes of saving her sister also show an adequate level of perseverance.Ideally, Nea’s physical nature would probably be the reason why she intends to save her sister from men. May-Lee Chai brings out the character of Sourdi as more beautiful and appealing to men. On the other hand, the character of Nea is less of stunning beauty. She interprets the differences between her and her sibling as an aspect of a threat to their warm sisterhood. All the same, she perceives her sister’s appeal as a threat to steal Sourdi’s attention. Well, the case does not have any significant truth in it.Nea has a Protective NatureAlthough Saudi seems to be more mature and attractive than her sister, the latter undoubtedly dominates her. Seemingly, her character holds an absolute position that is expected of her sister. Nea’s authoritative nature is shown when she refuses to support her sister’s relationship with Mr. Chhay- Sourdi’s husband. As naïve as she is, she fights the fact that Mr. Chhay is taking her sister away from her. She goes on to fight to be close to her sister, just like when they used to enjoy their sisterhood.Primarily, her protective nature is demonstrated as she tries to fight for closeness with her sibling. Additionally, she accurately demonstrates her intent to fight anything and anyone that would come between her and her sister. However, her protective nature crosses the line when she drags Duke into her sister’s marriage without proof that Chhay was attacking her loved one.The Figure is Hard-headed and Acts on ImpulseNea’s naïve and aggressive behavior is the primary cause of her character and the decisions that she makes throughout the narrative. Simply put, she acts before thinking. The aspect is clearly illustrated by the author from the mentioned situation with Duke and Chhay. What’s more, she doesn’t mind the shameful conditions that she puts herself in. Ideally, one would expect her to have a change of heart and character after embarrassing herself in one situation. Well, she doesn’t think that. The character does not find any bother from her wrong actions in the past. Following her behavior, her mother alludes that her major drawback was acting without thinking. Her mother also emphasizes that her big problem is that she never things.Her Character is StubbornFrom her childhood up until maturity, Nea’s behavior didn’t depict any positive change. She remained stubborn throughout the short piece. Well, perhaps she has another side of her maturity that would make her a better and more reasonable person. In essence, the author’s primary intention was to show the actions of an overprotective person whose choices are to maintain an excellent family bond.However, other analysts hold different opinions about the character of Nea. They presented her to be one with a strong will character. To demonstrate it, she stubs a drunk man who had terrible intentions of messing up Sourdi. She was willing to go to any extent to show her desire to keep her sister safe from harm. Other analysts bring her out as a reckless teenager who is yet to grow up from her age.ConclusionGenerally, the author uses Nea to paint the theme of a good relationship. The theme was particularly between sisters to grew up together and developed a healthy relationship. Finally, the author of the story illustrates the possibility of siblings having different personalities and maturity levels. In short, the fact that two people come from the same family doesn’t mean that they should have similar behavior. Instead, the story shows that character is what differentiates two people.
tly includes newspaper and journal articles though the authors also provide the results of at least two surveys carried out by highly credible organizations such as Kaiser Family Foundation and Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.2. The lack of detailed literature review barely allows to somehow link Aiken’s findings to a wider framework of information available in the field. Although the study’s objective (to determine the association between the patient-to-nurse ration and patient mortality, deaths following complications, and factors related to nurse retention) clearly suggests that the authors’ intention is to reveal and detail the root causes of the recent nurse shortage, absence of a serious literature review does not make it possible to find out whether this objective is an actual extension of the existing knowledge base. By contrast, solid literature enables the reader to identify gaps in the relevant research and properly justify the need for another study in this field.3. Although the authors do not state any specific rationale for the study there is simply no need to do so: the rationale is absolutely clear. The issue of nurse shortage is not new to the scholarly literature through Aiken and colleagues provide only a very brief insight into the existing publications. A growing body of empirical evidence is available to support the notion that the effectiveness of the health care system largely depends upon the nurses. At the same time, there are few studies that attempt to clarify the root relationships between nurse retention rates and job satisfaction and burnout. Therefore, expanding the body of knowledge on this phenomenon is an important task building opportunities for better performance in hospitals.1. The authors provide no operational definitions of the independent and dependent variables under study. However, the lack of definitions does not negatively affect the study: the variables are simple and do not necessarily require definitions.
The main aim of the research was to understand perfectionist profiles in a sample that was constituted by elite athletes and the dissimilarities that may exist between them concerning fundamental variables in terms of motivation. Even though there is emerging research that has assessed perfectionist clusters as far as the general population is concerned, very few studies apart from this have dwelled on such profiles in terms of athlete samples. Regardless of theoretical constructions developed by this research, there is a general agreement that perfectionism is a construct of multidimensional nature entailing intro and inter-personal attributes that are associated with tendencies to seek very high standards regarding performance.According to this research, prior investigations concerning perfectionism in sports that were centered on the individual have considered the differences existing between perfectionist clusters regarding the degree of anxiety prior to a competition and directions, anger, feelings concerning modes of parenting as well as burn out. These aspects developed the secondary goal of the research, which involved determining whether the profiles of perfectionists were different when other meaningful variables were considered. While trying to get more literature on this aspect, the study considered maladaptive and adaptive characteristics, which could possibly be a source of clues concerning the functional characteristics associated with the profiles of perfectionists. In particular, the research dwelled on independent and connected motivational variables such as achievement objectives as well as intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and fears of failing.It is clear from this article that perfectionism is a prevalent attribute in the case of athletes. however, it has been argued by some researchers that perfectionism in sporting disciplines is maladaptive since it undermines the performance of the athletes while at the same time hindering their development and growth. This point of view does not consider the aspect of perfectionism as a multidimensional attribute and only limited aspects of perfectionism are predominantly maladaptive while others are not.
The second aspect is redistribution, which involves shifting lifetime income from one person to another. The third aspect is insurance, which aims to eliminate risks at the individual level, by the transfer of incomes to pool risks.The basic criterion of a good pension system is that they must be able to generate incomes sufficient to provide a socially acceptable standard of living for those who are no longer working. At the same time, it must not be a generous system that is financially unstable. A system that is likely to go insolvent cannot be considered a sound one. (Davis, 2004)The United Kingdom, like several other countries, offers a defined benefit (DB) state pension to retirees, which is linked to their lifetime earnings. Cocco and Lopes (2004) state that longevity coupled with a fall in birth rates has led to serious concerns about the sustainability of these schemes. Another option that has been suggested, by experts in the field of pension reform, is the stress on the defined contribution (DC) system where individuals can allocate their retirement wealth among financial assets in a manner that they feel is most appropriate. (Cocco, Lopes, 2004)Based on a study of several aspects of the pension system, like the age of retirement, funding aspects, demographic issues and nature of pension schemes, this paper will try to estimate whether the current pension policy in the UK is financially sustainable in the long-term. A comparison between the Defined Benefit (DB) and Defined Contribution (DC) schemes will be made to ascertain which of these can ensure sustainability to pension provisions.The second section of the paper will deal with the literature available on this topic. Starting with the Second report of the Pension Commission, the paper will highlight how a range of sources like research documents and reports from institutions like the Pension Policy Institute, HM Treasury, and the Institute of Fiscal Studies play asignificant role in understanding the issues related to pension provisions in the United Kingdom.
During the course of time, many themes began to get introduced in the literary works but the biggest progress could be seen in the Romantic literature produced during the era of Romanticism. Firstly, the literary term romantic or romanticism should not be mixed or confused with love stories, Harlequin romances, or anything of that particular genre. Even though love, as in any literary movement, plays a very important role in romanticism, but the term itself signifies something much more vast and different. (Lewis)Romanticism was actually a complex intellectual movement consisting of artistic and literary advancements. The movement has its roots back in the latter half of the eighteenth century in Western Europe. Charles Baudelaire, the famous poet and critic wrote: Romanticism is precisely situated neither in a choice of subject nor in exact truth, but in a way of feeling. Romanticism could really be called as a revolution against the aristocratic norms of the society which was largely dependent on class differentiation. (Kelly, 1989)The Romantic period observed huge political and social turmoil with notable political proceedings and social processes as the American and French Revolutions, the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, the prosecution and criticism of the transatlantic slave trade. Thus the themes in Romantic literature reflect the cultural and historical context of that period. Romantic literature stressed upon emotions which were previously alien to the previous authors. The themes stressed upon the emotions of love, romance, trepidation, wonder, and fear. (Curran, 1993)A person can easily see the birth of romanticism tracing back to burgeon in the middle of the 1700s. As a matter of fact, one of the supreme influences on the growth and expansion of romantic literature came from one of the most serious supporters and believer of Reason in the Enlightenment, the great author, and poet, Edmund Burke.
This paper is a review of the development that is fuelling the Chinese economy for the past decade, one which is expected to continue into the future as well. But as mentioned above, the country is facing all the challenges and problems associated with rapid economic growth. In the process of the review, the following factors or issues will also be considered. The first question is, whether it is prudent on the part of the Chinese Government to ignore associated problems like pollution in the short run, while it aggressively pursues its development policies. The Chinese government follows an authoritarian style with very little political/personal freedom of expression in the hands of its citizens. A review of this scenario will also be done here since this freedom is seen as essential for a well-balanced economic growth. The third issue is the rising levels of income inequality that is seen in the country. Finally, the role and importance of the Chinese legal system will also be reviewed with a focus on its ability to root out or at least control corruption and injustice faced by its citizens.There exists abundant literature on the environmental problems faced by the country. What becomes apparent is that environmental pollution comes from two areas, namely automobile emissions and effluent from its manufacturing units. An article in the online edition of the New York Times titled ‘China’s environmental crisis’ dated August 26th, 2007, provides a Flash supported map of the country showing different areas of environmental vulnerability and damage. One glaring fact is that the majority of the damage is seen in the Eastern part of the land and to a small extent along the northern border. The central and eastern parts are relatively left untouched by pollution and probable development as well. With regard to the quality of air, the article states that the air in many Chinese cities is the most polluted in the world (China’s Environmental Crisis 2007). For example, Beijing, one of the world’s polluted cities in terms of quality of air, the particles found are three times that is seen in Los Angeles. Water scarcity affects nearly 600 million people, nearly half of its population. The encroachment of desert and arid land is increasing and acid rain is common in many parts of the land especially in highly polluted areas.
The present research has identified that experiential learning offers an alternative and needed a mode of learning for many of Scotland’s youth, which in the regular course of their traditional schooling are in a way deprived of more experiential learning modes because of an emphasis on book and academic learning for most of the academic year. Experiential youth learning via targeted interventions that deal with sensitive and potentially traumatic life circumstances have great value for those involved, and for the larger community too. Often young people in difficult situations have no one to turn to, and academics and school learning seem irrelevant in such instances. The experiences are too raw, and the impact not always fully understood, and there is a need to provide avenues for processing those experiences and to transform them into learning and self-improvement opportunities. It is not difficult to see, moreover, from the wealth of academic literature on the various aspects of experiential learning as they apply in youth learning contexts that there is a rich and fertile ground for exploration that is available for both educators and learners. The literature is rich and therefore there is enough theoretical grounding to be able to successfully launch an exploration of an intervention along these lines, and in the process come up with a robust approach and a viable set of techniques to give flesh to the proposed intervention here. The richness of the literature pertains to the value of experiential learning to process youth experiences that are often difficult to do so otherwise. In the context of this discussion, when we talk of experiential learning or learning that is experience-based, we are referring to the same set of concepts tied to that learning mode where the learner and his or her experiences are central to the learning process or are the starting points of the learning process.
It is a concise title, which is free of extraneous words and or phrases. Abstract. The wide ranging approach of the article is confirmed in the abstract which stresses the complex and multifaceted way in which ideology affects people at various stages in their professional careers, and in different contexts. The abstract highlights the theoretical underpinning of the work by the work of Goffman on frame analysis (1974. 1981) and outlines how a grounded theory methodology was used to analyse the interactions between professionals and older people. There was some indication of the scope, the variables and the findings of the study in the abstract, but little in the way of detail. The most accurate description for the type of research that this study represents is a survey, with strong theoretical underpinning and a focus on linking ideology with practice. No direct interactions between social workers and clients were observed, and the information about such interactions was second-hand via the interviewing process. Introduction The problem that the article addresses is was very clearly defined as a need to evaluate the success of the 1990 NHS and Community Care Act in meeting the needs of older people. This is not a new issue, since the Act had been in force for almost two decades at the the time of publication of the article, but the author demonstrates that the critical literature has produced very mixed evaluations. The complexity of the environment, with its conflicting demands such as professional standards, management directives, shifting ideologies, financial constraints and different individual values has led to a proliferation of research outputs which illuminate the detail, but do not address the more fundamental question of dominant ideologies. The background to the problem is described as a practice context that has challenged well established modes of social work intervention, … an emphasis on inter-professional working… and ethical considerations surrounding service rationing and individual rights. (Sullivan, 2009). The problem itself is clearly formulated as a need to explore both the manifest content and the functional properties of dominant ideology in community care practice. (Sullivan, 2009) Literature Review Sullivan cites a number of key studies in her description of the fundamental changes in the delivery of care to older people since 1990. These include the work of Postle (1999. 2000. 2002) on the changing role of social workers, and various studies on how bureaucracy affects the delivery of care, such as Lipsky (1980) in an American context and Ellis et al. (2007) in a UK context. Stereotypes of social worker description are listed with reference to Wilmot (1995) and Dalley (1991). A great many studies on organizational policy and its effects on professionals and older people are cited. The extensive quotation of other scholars gives the literature review the quality of a meta-analysis, and at the end of this the author homes in on the issue of how ideologies impact on practice delivery. The somewhat overpowering density of references is no doubt due to the fact that the article rests on the author’s PhD research. (Sullivan, 2003). Method procedure. The study proper begins with a reiteration of Goffman’
In opposition of euthanasia, critics of its legalization present four main arguments, namely religious, slippery slope, medical ethics and alternative argument. However, modern medical care has relevant facilities to provide comfort and dignity to a dying patient without the need of legalizing euthanasia. Introduction Euthanasia remains one of the most controversial in the society today. The practice has been in existence for a long time but recently, calls for legalizing it have become more intense, in order to accord the patient the right to die with dignity and comfort. Euthanasia should not be legalized in society because there are other more humane medical interventions to guarantee a respectable death to a patient. However, the society remains polarized in opinion as far a legalization of the practice is concerned. This paper explores the various arguments for and against euthanasia in addition to the ethical consequences of providing and denying euthanasia to patients. Literature Review Care (2010, p1) defines euthanasia as deliberate killing by an act or omission of an individual whose life is considered not to be worthy of living. … The second circumstance involves prescription of pain killing medications, in situation where such medicines are known to have a likelihood of causing premature or early death (Care, 2010). In case a patient dies from taking such medicine, the doctor cannot be accused of undertaking euthanasia because the intention is to reduce the pain but not cause death. Finally, refusal by a mentally astute individual to take life saving treatment is not considered as euthanasia because the physicians cannot compel an individual to take medication against his or her will (Care, 2010). According to Kappel (2007), patients have a right to accept or refuse treatment. In case a patient dies from his or her refusal to take the prescribed treatment, the doctor cannot be accused of carrying out euthanasia. Proponents of euthanasia have advanced various arguments pertaining to why the practice should be legalized. Several arguments have emerged from people supporting euthanasia including equivalence, mercy, golden rule, autonomy and public policy in addition to the best interests’ arguments (Thomasma, 1996). Compassionate argument holds that euthanasia is needed in the society in order to allow people to die with dignity. From this point of view, it is more humane to instigate euthanasia on a severely suffering and terminally ill patient, rather than subjecting such an individual to longer period of more pain and distress. The autonomy argument is founded on the conviction that the patient has the right to determine when to die. The public policy argument postulates that the practice could be regulated in the society by the government through legislation and enforcement of
Indeed, because in the country there is still no clear distinction between the public and the private sector (at least referring to the commercial activities) and the former constantly involves in the initiatives of the latter, the provision of funds for the development of a strong commercial sector is considered to be of crucial importance for the improvement of the position (mostly from a financial and administrative aspect) of private enterprises across the country. Today the foreign direct investment in China is appropriately supported by the Government that has alternated the country’s existed commercial and financial framework in order to attract foreign investors, an initiative that has been strongly appreciated by foreign entrepreneurs (see also Figure 2, Appendix section). Under these terms, the chances for growth offered to foreign enterprises that enter the Chinese market are many. In the case of the GermanElectrics (the firm, the potential growth of which in the Chinese market is examined in the current paper) the entrance in China could be possibly related to the improvement of the firm’s profitability. However, it would be necessary that the firm’s existed strategies are thoroughly reviewed in accordance with the demands of the international marketplace.The operation of firms within the international market has been extensively examined in the literature and the empirical research. The increase of competition and the radical development of technology are two issues of significant importance for firms worldwide. Towards this direction, it is supported by Douglas et al. (1989, 437) that ‘recent years have witnessed a growing intensity of competition in virtually all areas of business, whether at home or abroad, in markets upstream for raw materials, components, supplies, capital and technology as well as in markets downstream for consumer goods and services’.
To prove this point, however, some studies need to be explored with a special focus on personality traits and how they can be used as predictors of future job performance.Thompson (2005) in particular reviewed past literature about personality on the job and found out that proactive personality tends to boost job performance. This has been influenced by the employee’s interaction with other individuals as well as the degree of self-motivation or initiative that they exhibit. The research was conducted among 126 employees with a 1:1 proportion with their supervisors. Data were obtained by sending out survey questionnaires to randomly selected alumni of business schools and their respective supervisors. Out of the 2,718 letters containing questionnaires, the ones who responded yielded a number of 202 from the alumni and 126 from the supervisors.Proactive personality, network building, organizational initiative-taking, and performance were the areas appraised by the questionnaire. A factor analysis was used. The path model that placed a vital mediating role on network building between proactive personality and job performance was also tested using the Structural Equation Model (Thompson, 2005). Analysis of the data gathered and presented confirmed the existence of a connection between being proactive and performing well on the job. In particular, a proactive personality trait is a good predictor of the individual’s implementation of his initiative in the organization.Individuals with proactive personality are typically those who try to seek for solutions to organizational concerns at their own level even if it is already beyond what has been stated in their job description (Thompson 2005). This implies that employees who deal with the problems in a positive manner are able to carry out their tasks well in comparison to those who would just complain over administrative shortcomings. There are even those who will go out of their way to plan out and impose major programs that will address the needs of the organization.This kind of proactive attitude allows employees to go back and focus on their tasks while the administration is also able to work on the more pressing concerns after other areas have already been covered by the proactive employees.
If the layers of meaning, incorporated with these devices cannot be perceived then it remains just a work of imagination, far removed from reality.The modernist literary trends, compared to the Romantic and Victorian era, have expressed a different level of mastery infusing the elements of fancy and mundane. While in the earlier times, most of the literary artists used to churn out symbols and metaphors from the imaginative world, the modernists started using these literary devices from the general course of life, incorporating within those the colors of fancy with the intention of providing an imaginative dimension within the mundane. The devastation and immense brutality of the two consecutive world wars cast such prevailing impact over Western socio-cultural discourse that representation of the mundane took a further crude form. On one hand, people had to encounter the tiring, inescapable pangs of reality and on the other spontaneity of human fancy excited them to enjoy the escape to a land of eternal bliss: on one hand, there was a random derogation of basic values towards life and moral and on the other natural human inclination towards faith, human fellowship, and humanity.Thesis Statement: Tapped within a crucial phase of human existence, several immortal pieces of literature were created that incorporated the aesthetics of human dilemma and modernist existential angst. Tennessee Williams’ The Glass Menagerie, the earliest of his major dramatic creations, is one of the most brilliant examples where the dramatist has brilliantly expressed elements of human transience, from extremely mundane to fancy, from real to surreal.Compared to the other plays by Tennessee Williams, The Glass Menagerie definitely lacks the elements of typicality. Violence and sexuality, which are also considered by most of the literary and sociological scholars as an important feature of the postmodern, especially post-Great War II, existence, are surprisingly missing.
Building self-esteem in such students with dyslexia is the key to helping them overcome their devalued feelings of anxiety and frustration, and such remedial measures need great attention.This paper undertakes a reflective analysis of the issues confronted by dyslexic students on the basis of a review of the literature on the topic, with a focus on self-esteem in dyslexic students within a classroom setting. It includes a profound analysis of how the teacher can make the classroom dyslexia-friendly and the lessons more accessible to the dyslexic student. It also attempts to investigate how structured, multisensory teaching, which in turn helps to raise the self-esteem of these children, can help children to develop literacy skills more quicklyIn the contemporary situation of teaching practice, many otherwise effective teachers find themselves unable to deal with the issue of low self-esteem of dyslexic students, and dyslexia still remains a confusing term for most educators despite the fact that an estimated 10-15 percent of the general population has dyslexia. Significantly, teachers and reading specialists are frequently uncertain of the exact definition of dyslexia as well as their legal and ethical responsibilities concerning this learning disability. There are also several other issues confronted by educators dealing with dyslexic students, which will be considered later. It is therefore essential to seek to end the confusion regarding the issue of dyslexic students by first defining dyslexia indefinite terms and identify the characteristics of students with dyslexia as well as the ways in which the needs of dyslexic students can be met in regular classrooms.
Moreover, it has to be noticed that in order to be more effective, HRM has to refer to several organizational issues especially when a particular firm operates in many countries around the world (multinational enterprise). For this reason, HRM tends to present a variety of norms and characteristics that differ in accordance with the country and the organization involved. Sims (2002, 3) noticed that that human resources involve HRM programs aimed at developing HRM strategies for the total organization with an eye toward clarifying an organization’s current and potential problems and developing solutions for them. They are oriented toward action, the individual, the global marketplace, and the future’. Under these terms, the role of HRD practitioners is becoming extremely difficult and complex. The existence of several ‘tools’ and ‘techniques’ that have been developed in the HRM area (literature, scientific research) can be very helpful to the completion of the tasks assigned to an HRD practitioner, however, the influences of the turbulences occurred in the local and the global marketplace can create additional obstacles to the achievement of the targets set.As stated above, HR can have many forms. In accordance with Lawler et al. (2003, 15) HR ‘has mainly focused on the administrative aspects of human resource management. however, with the growth of information technology, the hold of the corporate staff of HR on this work is weakening significantly however much administration can be accomplished by self-service information technology solutions that are either hosted by the company or outsourced’. Furthermore, in order to achieve the targets set in the corporate strategic plan, HR has to use all the available resources and techniques to the point that they can be applied to the specific organization. In this context, Kesler (1997) noticed that ‘the tools of the trade.
This will also help to identify which style of leadership may be more helpful in the current organizational context, where global competition is intensive.This section will examine the impact of leadership styles specifically upon team communication and interaction. It will also look into differences in managerial styles within different organizational contexts and the corresponding impact upon employee perceptions.An attempt will be made in this study to conduct a thorough examination of the literature review, in order to determine what previous authors have concluded as a result of quantitative studies that have examined the issue of leadership. In view of the studies that are examined below, the importance of the research question posed in this study is further highlighted. In a rapidly changing, global environment that is also intensely competitive, the importance of relevant, clear, and effective leadership becomes vital in ensuring organizational success.The article by Tatum et al (2003) is useful in comparing transformational and transactional leaders. It points out the differences between these leaders in their decision making styles and organizational justice patterns. Transformational leaders adopt a comprehensive approach in their decision making and tend to focus on the achievement of social justice in the workplace. Transactional leaders, on the other hand, adopt a more structured approach towards organizational justice and in their decision making, they tend to favor limited options and few alternatives.A study conducted by Aarons (2006) developed the concept of transformational and transactional leadership further in the context of mental health providers’ attitudes towards adopting the evidence-based practice.
Results of the pre course content knowledge assessment exam reveal that students lacked a strong understanding of many of the concepts and theories regarding research methods prior to taking the course in that 93% of the class scored a 0%–69% (D) or
From this paper it is clear thatCrane and Matten humorously stated that an organization without ethics is like a ship in the middle of the sea without sailor. It has been argued by the researchers that ethical leadership is needed for organization in order to achieve sustainable growth. Crane and Matten also argued that global organizations face plenty of conflicts and trust deficit while operating business in competitive global environment and in such cases, these organizations need to follow some rigid ethical guidelines in order to address these challenges successfully.This discussion highlights thatCameron and Quinn raised a pertinent question that can organizations achieve leadership position by deploying culture of ethics and moral principles? Well the answer of the question is not very simple due to the fact ethics is an intangible element which has the capability to impact the tangible outcomes. Another problem is that there is still no standardized definition of organizational culture. In such context, Trevin˜o and Weaver defined ethical organizational culture as the organizational setting which allows members to follow legal principles and do not involve in those activities which can hurt the interest of not only organization but also hurt the interest of social members. Consideration of the research work of Kaptein reveals the fact that corporate ethics virtues (CEV) model can be used to understand ethical culture in organization…. Zhang, Lowry, Zhou Fu (2007) criticized the assumptions of previous research scholars that organizations only use the concept of diversity for achieving innovation because sometimes, organizations create culture of diversity due to strategic reasons. However, it is evident from the above discussion that there is significant amount of doubt. confusion and argument exist regarding integration of culture of ethics and culture of diversity within organizational context. Another important thing is that, very few research scholars have tried to understand the intra level relationship between ethical culture and diversity driven culture and how the conjoint relationship between these two variables can impact organizational leadership. In the next section, the researcher will address these issues in the light of existing literature. Literature Review Organizational Leadership Ethical Culture Cameron and Quinn (2006) raised a pertinent question that can organizations achieve leadership position by deploying culture of ethics and moral principles? Well the answer of the question is not very simple due to the fact ethics is an intangible element which has the capability to impact the tangible outcomes. Another problem is that there is still no standardized definition of organizational culture. In such context, Trevin?o and Weaver (2003) defined ethical organizational culture as the organizational setting which allows members to follow legal principles and do not involve in those activities which can hurt the interest of not only organization but also hurt the interest of social members. Consideration of the research work of Kaptein (2008) reveals the fact that corporate ethics virtues (CEV)
According to several eminent authors around the world, leadership activity plays critical roles in initiating the actions of the organization, motivating the workforce, providing guidance to the team followers, building a proper working environment and also coordinating with the upper management in order to ensure smother work flow (Duke, 2009. Mackay, 2007. Harrell, 2008). This segment of the study will undertake a critical review of the article, Combinative aspects of leadership style and the interaction between leadership behaviours by Gian Casimir and Yong Ngee Keith Ng. This journal article was published in the year 2010 in Leadership Organization Development Journal, Vol. 31 No. 6, and can be found in pages 501-517. The authors carried out this study for the principal purpose of testing an alternative standpoint of interaction, which is purely based on the technique or way leaders amalgamates various leadership behaviours (Casimir and Ng, 2009). The two principal leadership behaviours considered by the authors are socio-emotional leadership and task oriented leadership. The subsequent section of the study will enumerate brief summary and review the findings of the paper. In addition, this paper will also critically review the study by Gian Casimir and Yong Ngee Keith Ng in the context of its weaknesses and strengths. Review and Summary of the Paper The study by Gian Casimir and Yong Ngee Keith Ng was about examining the interaction between socio-emotional leadership and task-oriented leadership. According to the authors, there were two major underlying principles for which the subject of study was opted. The first and most important reason was that these two leadership styles have always been the centre of attention when it came to test of interaction in the field of leadership literature. The second reason was that the authors identified that a number of day-to-day organizational leadership involve attitudes and behaviour that can be articulated as task oriented behaviour or socio emotional behaviour (Luthans, Hodgetts and Rosenkrantz, 1988. Judge, Piccollo and Ilies 2004. Komaki, 1986). Lastly the topic of interaction is also considered to be significant (Blalock, 1965. Cronbach, 1987). In the meantime, it is also necessary to define the two leadership style being discussed here in the study. A proper definition will help in better understanding of the subject and will also help in reviewing and summarising the paper. Task oriented leadership is often deemed as multifaceted and encompass wide range of behavioural traits (Glass, 2010. B. Bass and R, Bass, 2009. Northouse, 2011). Some of the typical function of task oriented leadership is allocation of resources, assigning the particular job to the followers, emphasizing on the deadlines, to cross check whether the followers are actually following the rules and regulation and maintaining the decorum of the organization and pressurizing the followers to work hard towards the achievement of the goals (Delamater, 2006. Heinemann and Zeiss, 2002. Lussier and Achua, 2009). Therefore, from the perception of the authors, it is evident that one of the most vital features of a task oriented leader is pressurizing the followers to accomplish the task in timely manner by delegating the tasks as per the capabilities of the followers (Misumi, 1985). On the
Subprime denotes any type of loan which does not satisfy the prime guidelines of a loan. Subprime lending is a process of making loans or lending money to the borrowers who are not qualified to be given a loan at the market interest rates because of their low credit ratings (Bahin, 2007). Both the borrowers and the lenders find themselves in a riskier position as a result of subprime lending. It is so because such lending is characterized by poor credit rating, a high amount of interest rates associated with it, and unfavorable financial situations. The mortgage brokers played an important role in the rise and fall of financing related to subprime mortgages. The competition corresponding to the subprime loans increased as a result of the increasing demand of Mortgage-Backed Securities (MBSs) sought by the investment banks. The lenders were observed to be involved in activities of introducing innovative financial products which seemed to be attractive to the borrowers, and the latter was thus becoming more and more interested to borrow money from the lenders. If we consider the job responsibilities of mortgage brokers, it can be observed that they had to perform the activities related to identifying the borrowers, receiving an application for a loan from the borrowers, assessing their creditworthiness, evaluating their income-to-debt ratios, and then finally sending the borrowers to the lender who meets all the criteria. However, it is worth mentioning that all these activities and processes followed by the mortgage brokers did not correspond to the actual plan. The mortgage brokers received emoluments in the form of commissions and, therefore, it worked as an incentive for them to earn greater commissions by sending even the prime credit borrowers to the subprime lenders. Even the people who had little knowledge about MBSs were attracted to them because of the increasing demand for them in the market. There were not even any kinds of licensing requirements for a person to become a mortgage broker (Sanders, 2002). All these factors led to the emergence of mortgage brokers in the market and had an impact on lowering their reputations. The lenders have exposure to such a huge number of participants in the mortgage industry that many of the borrowers received loans who should never have been lent money because they were to face financial problems while repaying the loans received by them.Based on the above evaluation of the situation it can be concluded that besides some of the minor incidents, certain specific individuals like mortgage brokers cannot be blamed for the downfall of the overall subprime mortgage lending process. The blame should actually go to the regulatory authorities and government institutions which failed to oversee the situation beforehand, to different corporate misdeeds, motivation to earn more profits, and also, to a large extent, to the borrowers themselves.Incentive contracts or managerial incentives in a corporate organization mainly correspond with the agency theory and the problems associated with it. Jensen and Meckling (1976) are commonly associated with the term agency theory as found in most of the existing literature. According to Alchian and Demstez (1972), the business activities conducted by most of the organizations are mostly governed through contracts that involve voluntary exchanges.
One of the cornerstone Internet technologies that have emerged in recent years is electronic commerce. Electronic commerce does not simply provide convenience to merchants and retailers, but has revolutionized many aspects of banking and even social life. One of the prominent sub-elements of electronic is mobile commerce. This is the combination of electronic commerce with mobile handset technology. This thesis specifically provides an overview of electronic commerce and the means by which it has been integrated with mobile technology. The thesis implements literature sources and industrial and practical articles from the telecommunications and mobile industries. The research is categorized in three main sections: the history of electronic commerce, GSM network elements, and finally the implementation of mobile commerce banking solutions in Sub Saharan Africa. In terms of the history of electronic commerce, background elements examine the way electronic commerce is implemented in contemporary contexts as compared to historical contexts. This section also examines the means of past and future growth of electronic commerce. … The final section considers the implementation of mobile commerce banking solutions in sub Saharan Africa, with particular emphasis on Kenya. This section recognizes that there are a variety of mobile banking solutions that have gained widespread popularity in the region. This popularity is partially motived by the large-scale need for banking solutions for individuals with non-traditional incomes. The two major banking solutions considered in these regards are the M-PESA Banking solution and the Gemalto Mobile Banking solution. The technological aspects are examined, as well as the means of security they provide. Acknowledgements This thesis owes its existence to the help, support, and inspiration of many people. In the first place, I would like to express my sincere appreciation and gratitude to my supervisor Dr.Konstantinos Markantonakis for many hours of useful discussion, tirelessly reading and correcting my work, and suggesting many invaluable comments. Without his support, this thesis would not have been possible. I am also indebted to Dr. Chez Ciechanowicz for their care and guidance throughout my Master at Royal Holloway. In addition, I would like to thank the staff and colleagues in the Information Security Group for making my time at Royal Holloway an enjoyable one. Finally, and most importantly, I am most grateful to my family for their continuous and unconditional support throughout the period of my studies. Contents Abstract 2 Acknowledgment 3 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 8 1.1 BACKGROUND…………………………………………………………………………………………8 1.1.1 The growth of e-Commerce/ m-Commerce…………………………………….8 1.2 Motivation
Comparing and contrasting of the Malcolm X Autobiography, Elie Wiesel’s Night, and the Epic of GilgameshThis essay compares and contrasts the way writers have demonstrated this theme in the works of the Malcolm X Autobiography, Elie Wiesel’s Night, and the Epic of Gilgamesh. While not fiction, the Autobiography of Malcolm X presents as compelling and fantastical a portrait of human existence as can be found in even the most wildly imaginative works of literature. There are a variety of prominent themes throughout the work, but perhaps the most compelling is the theme of self-determination and freedom. In addition to the highly articulate prose, one of the reasons this story makes such an impression is the fact that the struggle for self-determination is not that of a single man, but of an entire race of people struggling for freedom in a land that has oppressed and maligned them. In these regards, Malcolm X begins by establishing the nature of oppression. He states, In one sense, we were huddled in there, bonded togethher in seeking security and warmth and comfort from each other, and we didn’t know it. All of us—who might have probed space, or cured cancer, or built industries—were, instead, black victims of the white man’s American social system (Malcolm X). This is important as it establishes the structural dimensions of what Malcolm X perceives as the pivotal element of the Civil Rights Movement, of which himself and other African Americans must strive to overcome. For Malcolm X the issue of self-determination isn’t one of simply competing in society, but rather of redefining the very nature of the social order so that a great degree of freedom and success can be achieved. As the text progresses, Malcolm X considers the nature of his own life in terms of the larger question of African American oppression. He writes, I reflected many, many times to myself upon how the American Negro has been entirely brainwashed from ever seeing or thinking of himself, as he should, as a part of the nonwhite peoples of the world (Malcolm X). In these regards, Malcolm X is further considering the nature of oppression and the means by which the social order has operated to convince African Americans that the freedom and self-determination they deserve has been withheld from them by society through a sort of brainwashing. It’s clear that within this passage there is a great degree of anger on Malcolm X’s part that is indicative of his struggle for freedom. Later in the text, he further illustrates his quest for self-determination, indicating, I’ve had enough of someone else’s propaganda.…I’m for truth, no matter who tells it. I’m for justice, no matter who it is for or against (Malcolm X). One sees that ultimately he has become so increasingly angry at his oppressive conditions to the point that he believes violence is a viable solution to the problem. While not a memoir or autobiography in the sense of the Autobiography of Malcolm X, it’s clear that the general reflective nature and structure of Elie Wiesel’s Night is very similar to that of the Malcolm X text. Of course, the major difference is the context of the fight for freedom, with Night occurring in the Nazi Concentration camps of World War II. Whereas the Autobiography of Malcolm X has a tone of anger at the oppressive mechanisms that stand between the individual and freedom, because of the gravity of the situation Night takes on an almost nihilistic tone of despair punctured by moments of hope. In considering the n
The research question holds a central position in a research paper. It addresses the idea, in brief, that the researcher explains in the course of his paper. Generally, the research question is stated specifically although sometimes, to address complex issues, multiple questions have to be mentioned. A common phenomenon observed among the Chinese enterprises is described by the phrase ‘lasting briefly, and growing with difficulty’. With the passage of time, the mindset of people has undergone changes along with the economic development of the country. In the later part of the 1980s, the term ‘Private Economy’ emerged in China. The economic entities which are invested into by a non-government body or a private enterprise or individual and run by them are known as the privately operated economy. They are based on private resources and do not embody the state capital. There are several small and medium enterprises that are emerging in the country based on private investment. Such firms, although faring well in the initial phase, sometimes cannot grow further later on. It is quite difficult for any enterprise to hold on to its existence if it becomes stagnant. The hypothesis made in this paper is: whether the difficulties faced by private enterprises is owing to the problem arising in the management of their human resources. Literature Review The literature review of a research paper provides guidance in the formation of a theoretical and conceptual framework required for the study. This builds the base on which the entire research work is founded. The literature review provides the backdrop for research work and shows further avenues for conducting research. In this current paper, the theory of small and medium private enterprises in China and their basis of management have been well established. Consequently, the authors have discussed the hurdles that these firms face, and the links between these problems and their improper management structure. Conceptual Framework The conceptual framework pertaining to research work is inclusive of three broad things: the problem to be addressed, the literature review and the purpose of research. Foreign companies operating in China had brought in the term ‘Human Resources’ into China. In simple words, the term refers to the workers that work in a certain organization and their capability to do productive work. They are an integral part of an enterprise since the development of a firm, both economically and socially, depends to a great extent on the human resources of the firm. The workers’ efforts can be categorized into two divisions: physical work and intellectual work. Not only does the quantity of production made by the workers put an upward thrust on the performance of the company in the market but is also largely dependent on the efficient management of the resources that would lead to a good quality of their performance. Human resources management, thus, plays a crucial role in any organization’s administration for it to remain healthy over time. By ‘effective human resources management’ one emphasizes the management of human resources in a reasonable and scientific way. Reasonable utilization of the human resourceis very important.
After the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, China was opening up and modernizing its economy. So in a sense, this memoir by Dewoskin, who is the daughter of Kenneth DeWoskin, a noted Sinologist at the University of Michigan, should become a serious record of those changing times, of at least the city of Beijing, especially as she had childhood memories of China because of which she says she felt connected to China. Her father had been taking his family to China since her brothers were tiny. Even she remembers the childhood train rides across internal China, and how her parents made the children drink thick, warm beer, since they could never be sure water was clean, even when it was bottled. And her mother felt that China, of those days, was just like Disneyland, except of course authentic. My mother brushed her teeth out the train window, rinsed with beer, and read us Charlotte’s web in hard sleeper bunks. But, despite all these childhood China impressions and parental background, the book fails to satisfy any high academic research expectations. The book is more descriptive than analytical. At the same time, it does makes some serious and interesting observations about the people, political environment, and the culture, which give us a picture of the modern Chinese society.THE TRIVIAL AND THE POETIC: Superficiality of the book starts from its cover. The cover shows a long stunning pair of fish netted legs. These legs are not hers, the author points out. But a semiotic reading of this image and its signs on the cover leads one to assume that the book will not go beyond her soap opera experiences. This risqué photo on the book jacket is the most misleading cover one may have seen in forever.When one moves from the cover to the opening of the book, this impression gets more confirmed.
Essay: Literature This short story revolves around the life of a young woman by the Eveline. The nineteen-year-old woman remembers her past with great nostalgia. She takes about her freedom less life especially after her mother passes away. She is determining to flee with her boyfriend to find freedom, but she finds herself held up by her past. Evelines story attracts lots of strong reaction. As young girl, Eveline was deprived of the right to play with fellow kids as she mentions her father hunting them with his blackthorn stick while playing with the neighbor’s children. She had not accessed freedom since her childhood. It hurts a lot to see a father denying his kids the right to play which is a necessary and fundamental activity for young children. Exercise helps the children to grow healthy and active in life. Despite brutal treatment, her father gives her. she still loves him when she recalls the days her father used to treat her when her mother was still alive. Therefore, it is saddening to see her desperately loving someone who seems not to care about her. When she resolves to elope with her boyfriend in order to find freedom, she takes a critical look of her surrounding, her sweet home where she has resided for at least nineteen years. The familiar objects covered in dust and the yellow picture of an unknown priest seems to hold her back. It is hard to break with things that remind of your past especially when it concerns the person you loved most. These familiar objects and the picture of an unknown priest must have been important to her mother and her. She has to remain back to guard the things something Eveline’s mother would have done if she were alive. She thinks of the consequence of leaving her home, she thinks how her neighbors will talk about her and how life will be when she is married. Eveline’s mother must have been treated with little respect from the fact that she says she thinks people will treat her with respect. Her decision to stay indicates Eveline’s choice of her community over an isolated strange country despite the fact that the community seems ruptured. Her home is much better than Franks lodging that is temporary. Furthermore, she had promised her to unite their home. Hence, there is hope for stability and unity in the future. The haunt of her mother’s dying words which had a warning to her change her thoughts of going to exile (Joyce et al, 1997).Like Eveline, Jacky, my classmate narrated to me how her father was mistreating her. She had lost her mother through a tragic road accident when she was twelve years old. Her father was a drug user, and he had no time for her. He never allowed Jacky to mingle with her friends and ever since her mother passed away. she took over nanny’s work. Jacky, who is now a young woman, was offered an opportunity by her uncle, but like Eveline, she cannot leave her father who stood with her always before getting into extreme addiction (Joyce et al. 2006). She is determined to unite her home by choosing to stay with her father despite pressure by her uncle to abandon him. Jacky says her mother had made her nice clothes and thought her how to use the tailoring machine. Her mother’s tailoring machine is and clothes she had made for her pull her to stay back. Traditionally, Eveline has been regarded as a character who cannot take advantage of an opportunity to escape. She is unable to leave Ireland’s shores even after getting an opportunity to leave a limited economic potential and an abusive father. Eveline’s promise to her mother bounds her not leave despite the sailor waiting for her. A critic such as Katherine and Hugh Kenner argues that she made the right decision by choosing to stay. They give examples of those who had done so in the past and settled being exploited, disappointed and betrayed. Some even ended up in white slavery and lost their lives (Kenner, 1978).ReferencesJoyce, J., Norris, M. (2006). Dubliners: Authoritative text, contexts, criticism. New York: W.W. Norton.Kenner, H. (1978). Joyces voices. Berkeley: University of California Press.Kovacs, M., Joyce, J. (1997). Dubliners: James Joyce : Curriculum unit. Rocky River, Ohio: Center for learning.
Early in 1995, a successful real estate developer in Arizona by the name of Charles Dunlap was invited to join a local nonprofit organization known as the National Family Legal Foundation. This organization, which began as a small group of concerned citizens in the 1950s, had dedicated itself to fighting the spread, creation, and distribution of pornographic materials. Specifically, the National Family Legal Foundation fought against the purveyors of child pornography. Although Dunlap held most of the qualities needed by the NFLF, he was less than enthusiastic about the organization and about the offer to join. Dunlap believed the organization to be lacking in influence, monies, and motivation: all key aspects to saving a previously prosperous and well-organized organization. Upon accepting the offer under the condition that he would remain on the Board of Directors for a one-year period, Dunlap realized just how disorganized and ineffective the National Family Legal Foundation had become. Dunlap came to realize that he must make a decision: to either allow the National Family Legal Foundation to cease functions and dissipate, or to come up with a plan to save the foundation.The National Family Legal Foundation (NFLF) began as a small group known as the Citizens for Decent Literature (CDL). Charles Keating, a young and assertive lawyer in Cincinnati, started the group as a means to urge prosecutors to begin filing suits against those people who made a living through the publication and distribution of pornographic and other obscene materials–specifically, the purveyors of child pornography (Buntin, 1999). The Citizens for Decent Literature began in 1957. however, by 1967 the group had already grown into a national organization with more than 300 national chapters.During the 1970s, Keating’s empire grew to include a real-estate development organization–the American Continental Corporation–in Phoenix, Arizona and later Lincoln Savings and Loans in Irvine, California.
After 24 hours of growth on both MacConkey and r2a plate, small growth was observed in all the samples. Similarly after 48 hours, large colonies were observed on both media for samples ec1 and ec2 but this was relatively higher on ec5 and ec 6.After undertaking Gram staining, it was observed that all the samples on both media had Gram positive bacteria. Catalase test indicated positive results on all the samples. According to the result findings, the most probable bacteria identified were all cocci, bacilli, and spirilla. Besides, sample ec5 and ec 6 seems to have high levels of cross contamination. These tests have been explored in the next section. Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Background By definition, Cross contamination is the transfer or physical movement of bacteria that are harmful from one place, person or object to another. It is a major factor which contributes to food poisoning, and it consists of 4 common sources that include people, work surfaces, food and equipment. Harmful bacteria live in or can be on our bodies, particularly around or on hands and faces as well as on clothing (McKillip, 2011). Due to the fact that they exist in small numbers they never cause a disease. If it happens that, there is a transfer of these bacteria from the clothes or bodies to food, and then given a chance to multiply, it can lead to food becoming unsafe to be eaten. Bacteria have the ability to multiply and live in any crevices and cracks in equipment including the chopping boards surface cuts. After using the equipment, food bits with bacteria can remain. If there is no proper cleaning of the equipment, there will be transfer of bacteria to another food when it is used next. Surfaces including bench tops might have bacteria on them as a result of contact with people, also dirty equipment, raw foods or other things like cartons stored on the floor can contribute. If there is no proper cleaning of bench tops, there might be bacterial contamination of any food that is placed on them. The main objective of the study was to ascertain the level of cross-contamination during cleaning in an office environment 1.2 Main Concepts and Theory Cross contamination is a major factor which contributes to food poisoning. The contaminants (Bacteria) can be transferred from the clothes or bodies to food, and then when given a chance to multiply, it can lead to food becoming unsafe to be eaten. Bacteria have the ability to multiply and live in any crevices and cracks in equipment including the chopping boards surface cuts. Most of these contaminants are harmful to humans and can cause diseases when they enter the body. 1.3 Objective of Research To determine the level of cross-contamination during cleaning in the office environment 1.4 Structure of dissertation. The dissertation is divided into 6 sections. first section covers the background of the main concept explored in the study, second section explores literature review on methods and type of bacteria found in the study, this enabled the understanding of the available methods that have been ever done successfully then borrowed the idea to the current study. It also allowed the understanding of the characteristics of various bacteria applicable to the study so that the information got can assist in the classifying and identifying the bacteria found
Plot and Character Driven Drama in A Streetcar d Desire, The Lottery, and The Bourne Identity Be it a courtroom drama, an accident on the side of the road, or an argument in the street, humans are, by nature, attracted to conflict. Conflict tends to draw us in, captivate us, and capture our attention. It’s why Survivor has higher ratings than the Home Shopping Network and it’s why stories are not just presentations of utopias in stasis. Stories revolve around conflict, and authors tend to choose one of two methods to create this conflict: establishing conflict between characters’ personalities and establishing conflict between characters and their environment. While these two methods differ in style, they both use conflict to drive the plot effectively and hold the reader’s interest. In Tennessee Williams’s A Streetcar Named Desire and in the screenplay for the same work, conflict is created between characters’ personalities. The main plot of the story revolves around the conflict between Blanche and Stanley, two completely different personality types. Blanche is an aging southern belle with a catch-22 desire for men. Stanley, with his brutish and animalistic qualities, is the antithesis of Blanche’s ideals. He beats his pregnant wife in an alcoholic rage and accuses Blanche of trying to steal his wife’s inheritance, yet despite their apparent differences, Blanche and Stanley’s conflict is what drives the plot forward (Williams 2004). Readers are interested in the story because of their argument, and as the heat builds in that Tennessee summer, so does the conflict and the subsequent reader’s interest. Through this conflict between characters, Williams effectively uses conflict between character’s personalities to capture the interest of the reader and drive the plot forward (Kazan 1951). In contrast to Williams’s style are the plot driven stories of The Lottery and The Bourne Identity. Shirley Jackson’s method of utilizing action to drive the plot is obvious by analyzing the structure of the short story. The first half of the story builds the plot. In this portion, Jackson utilizes short paragraphs without dialogue to establish the pretense for the action. After this is done, Jackson uses quick paragraphs of back and fourth dialogue to tell the story and drive the action (Jackson 2004). This stands in contrast to Williams’s style of using longer sections of dialogue to establish differences in character’s personalities. Just as Jackson uses a quicker dialogue style to move the plot, Doug Liman uses a quick directing style to accent the action sequences of The Bourne Identity. During the car chase scene, each shot last roughly 1-3 seconds (Liman 2002). Going through many short shots quickly gives the viewer the feeling of being in the action and helps not only capture the viewer’s attention but also drives the plot. This is similar to Jackson’s style in that readers or viewers are presented with many short bits of information in quick sequence to relay the anxiety of an action sequence. This is in obvious contrast to Williams’s slow, building manner that is more reminiscent of the heat building in a hot southern summer night. While these two methods differ in style, they both use conflict to drive the plot effectively and hold the reader’s interest. Works Cited 1. The Bourne Identity. Dir. Doug Liman. Perf. Matt Damon. Universal Films, 2002. DVD. 2. Jackson, Shirley. The Lottery. The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Literature. By Jay Parini. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. Print. 3. A Streetcar Named Desire. Dir. Elia Kazan. Perf. Vivien Leigh and Marlon Brando. Warner Bros., 1951. DVD. 4. Williams, Tennessee. A Streetcar Named Desire. New York: New Directions, 2004. Print.
The relative lethal nature of mercury is dependent on its chemical form, methyl mercury as one of the substances existing in the environment. Additionally, this chemical form of mercury is also toxic due to its high liposolubility. However, all the forms of mercury released in the ecosystem undergo biogeochemical transformation processes hence converted to methyl mercury. The main exposure of mono methyl mercury to humans is consumption of fish. Mono methyl mercury (MMHg) represents the major type of mercury in fish. This is because it has the capability of biomagnification in the food chains within the marine. Organomercury compounds may also find their way into the environment from both anthropogenic sources and from production by natural in situ biogenic modifications. Exposure to mercury leads to a variety of signs and symptoms including dizziness, allergy, vomiting and muscular weakness. Furthermore, its toxicity elicits impaired hearing and vision as well as depressed immune system. Eventually, its accumulation within the body leads to brain damage which consequently may lead to death. As it is the case with most anthropogenic, mercury finds its way into the aquatic environment in its inorganic form. Chlor-alkali industry is one of the major pollution source and gateway for mercury (Gao et al.). Consequently, monitoring of the mercury levels within the environment is not enough. Therefore, speciation analysis provides critical in useful information in the assessment of toxicity and health risks of mercury. Furthermore, such analysis helps in understanding the biogeochemical cycling of mercury compounds. As a result, enormous and concerted efforts have been made in developing reliable methods for mercury determination and speciation analysis in biological and fish samples. This review articulates with emphasis special attention to clean sample preparation, good storage sample procedures and performance of the different techniques (Lee et al). Mass spectrometry (MS) can be considered as one of the most important analytical techniques in the analysis of element concentration. It is a method that has also been employed for isotope analysis, surface characterization and structural examination of bioinorganic compounds. In an attempt to understand metabolic pathways of toxic and toxicology in general, strategies have been developed. These novel approaches are important in obtaining qualitative and quantitative information regarding the elements, element species and their interactions. A variety of methods for determination of mercury have been well captured and elaborated in literature. The cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS) has been the most preferred method in the analysis of mercury especially in foodstuffs. This is because the method has an efficient speed in addition to its simplicity. Moreover, this technique possesses relative freedom from obstructions and also has low operational costs as well as high sensitivity. The high sensitivity is very evident when mercury vapor is pre-concentrated on an amalgamation comprising gold element. Another variant of atomic absorption spectrometry is the graphite furnace technique, commonly abbreviated as GF AAS. This method allows for direct determination of many metals at trace and ultra trace levels in solid samples. Advantages of this technique include high sample throughput and low sample requirement in terms of the sample mass for analysis. In
Narration and depiction of a scapegoat is found throughout literature that partially or fully build up as a tragedy The three stories that we examine here are Ursula Le Guin’s The Ones who walk away from Omelas, The Lottery by Shirley Jackson, and The Blue Hotel by Stephen Crane.LeGuin’s story The Ones who walk away from Omelas presents a picture of a utopian city, governed by an underlying understanding that despite the moral repulsion of heaping torture upon one individual, it is a necessity for the mental well being of the many, so that the utopian condition of the city might be preserved. The story encapsulates the full beauty and horror of a society in which the good of the many occurs at the expense of the suffering of a small minority. The abused child in the basement from that story became a kind of shorthand for the disadvantaged in our discussions of social equity as it applies to all citizens. (Adams, and Pugh 65) Similarly, Jackson’s The Lottery is based upon the theme of one individual becoming a scapegoat to support a group mechanism for the sacrifice of one to preserve the happiness of many. Crane’s The Blue Hotel shows a self-selecting scapegoat who by rubbing in his difference creates a collusive communal reaction leading to his death.LeGuin’s story suggests an idyllic existence in a culture of a prosperous and sophisticated people, much given to carnivals, parades, and festivals of all kinds where their leaders are wise and free of corruption. A picture of a crime-free society where there are no wants or distress of any kind. The shocking contrast comes when the existence of a single child locked in filthy, miserable conditions within a broom closet is revealed to the reader.In a basement under one of the beautiful public buildings of Omelas, or perhaps in the cellar of one of its spacious private homes, there is a room.
Homer wrote The Iliad. Homer is called the father of all poetry, and The Iliad, as a masterpiece for all time (Weigel 3). Tradition says that Homer was a Greek of Asia Minor (Weigel 3). Herodotus thinks that Homer lived in the eighth century BCE, which could be right, because of the existence of modern scholarship and archeology during this time (Weigel 3). Homer combined legends about the siege of Troy and familiar oral stories about the Greeks to write The Iliad. Homer himself could not have transcribed the two other epics that people attribute to him, but it is probable that he gave the poems their present shape (Weigel 3). Heike and The Iliad are orally presented, instead of being read. Heike is sung for oral performance, and this is similar to The Iliad which is also orally performed. Unlike The Iliad, Heike has significant Buddhist influence, with Buddhist scripture pervading its prose. At the same time, Heike is sung as part of religious chanting, which makes it a different form of oral composition than extemporaneous poetic composition(Tosa 6). Heike, furthermore, is not the same epic as The Iliad, because it also has Japanese song rhythm. The Iliad is also religious in a sense, because it affirms the power of the gods over people. It is not a poetic prose like Heike. The gods are greatly humanized in this epic, because they take human shapes and passions. They have super powers, but they are also human-like, because they eat, fornicate, lie, cheat, change their minds, and protect their favorites (Weigel 4). Their system is both loose and structured like the humans, since they also oppose each other and Zeus (Weigel 4). Heike and The Iliad have similar plots. Both of them are about wars and changing political orders. Heike is the… The Tale of Heike and The Iliad are both considered as military tales too, where military strategies are discussed in vivid details, enriched further by the textured personalities of their heroes and their struggles. These epics have differences in their literature structure, but they are similar because they are both epics in their respective nations. in addition, they are comparable in their war and royalty settings, plot that revolves around great wars, social hierarchies, transitions of power, and characters that struggle with the themes of life and death and loyalty to the gods and human rulers. The Tale of Heike and The Iliad are national epics of their cultures and nations. Heike is an epic of the Japanese culture, because like The Iliad, it is a quasi-historical tale of a real war between prominent groups/families. Heike is the most important source for Nô and Kabuki drama, which is similar to the Homeric cycle that Greek tragedies often used. The Iliad is considered a great Western epic, particularly of Hellenic culture, and the Greeks treat it as a national epic with paramount importance to their culture. As epics, these stories have been translated many times as novels and motion pictures too.These epics remark on similar cultures that are hierarchical and war-immersed. They have strong rulers, but who also have human flaws. They are noble, nevertheless, despite their weaknesses, because they submit to their fates, while continuing their struggles. The Tale of Heike and The Iliad also describe the transition from one power to another. They stress that power is fleeting. Moreover, they assert that the gods rule over the people. Human fate is not based on human will alone, but also subjected to what the gods want for humanity.
This led to the decision of all the Japanese immigrants being relocated to internment camps. This move by the USA was justifiable, as it would help curb any violent acts from Japan, and enhance safety in USA. However, this was also considered as a prejudice toward Asians, since the same sanctions were not taken against immigrants of other rivals such as Germany, and therefore, this is unjustifiable (Welgny 23). This paper will use literature review to address this issue from two points of view, before taking a stand in the conclusion. The Japanese immigrants were put in internment camps not because they were guilty of crime, but because their country had become one of the USA’s enemies during the period of the Second World War. The USA therefore, considered these Japanese people in America as a threat to its national security. During this period, most Japanese people in America had occupied the area in the west coast of America. They worked hard to sustain their families. They had bought land, gotten an education, and had become citizens of America, who participated in voting during American elections. Problems rose after their country of origin attacked the USA. This had their land taken away from them, and them sent to internment camps, to avoid further attacks in the USA from Japan. … In this order, there were the instructions about relocating close to 1110,000 American Japanese people to the ten internment camps that were available. When the Japanese were taken to the internment camps, they lost their rights as American citizens, as most of them were legally settled in America. This also separated them from the things and people they loved. The camps were fenced, with block arrangements inside. In each block, there were more than ten barracks, a recreational hall, and one mess hall. This also included car storage and repair area, canteens, hospitals, schools, a post office, a library, among others (Welgny 47). Apart from being alienated from the wider society, the Japanese Americans were exposed to many hardships in the internment camps. Since most of the camps were located in desert places, the Japanese people had difficulties dealing with the extreme unbearable temperatures in the camps. For instance, during summer periods, the temperatures could reach 100 degrees and more. On the other hand, winter periods had extremely low temperatures, going as low as negative 30 degrees in some of the camps. Meals in these camps were served in meager portions. Most of the food was grown in the camps, including vegetables and fruits. In addition, the people bred livestock in the camps, which was also a source of food. Due to insufficient provision of healthcare in the camps, most Japanese people died when they got sick. The psychological stress that most of them were experiencing also contributed to the deaths of Japanese people in the camps. Aggressive military guards sometimes harassed the people, killing those who showed signs of resistance to their orders (Heinrichs 31).
Very often this label was used in ignorance, and it served to make as big a distance as possible in Greek minds between those who were within its extended territorial reach, and those who were beyond it. In short, all that was culturally good and proper, and admirable was Greek, and all that the barbarian cultures represented was depicted in opposite terms. In modern language, we would call this a stereotype, and then, as now, there was some truth in this stereotype, but it was by no means the full story. This paper explores the way that Greeks define and depict themselves and the barbarians through various artifacts including literature, painting, and sculpture. It covers the values and the virtues of Greek and of the barbarian as seen from the Greek point of view, both positive and negative, as demonstrated through actions and outward appearance.Hall points out that there were hundreds of tragedies written for fifth-century Athenian theatre and that more than half of them introduce barbarian characters, choruses and locations, even when there is no need for these details in the main plot: Supernumerary foreign characters or choruses, and the ubiquity of allusions to the other, inferior, world beyond Hellas, therefore provide evidence that barbarians were a particular preoccupation of the Greek tragedians. 1 Hall identifies two main areas of difference between Greeks and barbarians. The first is political, thanks to the Greek commitment to democracy as a form of government for a modern state: Greeks are democratic and egalitarian. the barbarians are tyrannical and hierarchical2 although thisconveniently overlooks the fact that Greek wealth and leisure to depended upon a large underclass of slaves who were mostly non-Greeks.
In the first part of the book, the story revolves around Pacman-looking circle, searching for the lost pizza-like piece which completes its being. There is no indication whether Pacman-looking circle is a male or female. Pacman-looking circle looks for the missing pizza-like piece everywhere, asking people it meets along the way if they have seen the missing piece or if they can give directions leading to where the missing piece is. It looks everyone and does not give up with the search since it has high hopes that it was going to find the missing piece. In his search, it sings a melancholic song which it hums to show how sad it was for not finding its missing piece. The song, Oh, I am looking for my missing piece. I am looking for my missing piece… (Silverstein, 1976) makes readers feel the pain the Pacman-looking circle has. Pacman-looking circle finds several pieces a long its way. It tries if they can fit in the space only to be disappointed that they cannot. Some fitThis does not discourage it since it goes on with its search with hopes that it would find the missing piece. The first part of the series comes to an end when Pacman-looking circle finally finds its missing piece. It is intriguing to note that Pacman-looking circle fits the missing piece only to realize that it cannot put up with it. … Silverstein demonstrates that the missing piece had not come to terms with Pacman-looking circle’s realization that one should be happy with the way they are. It was searching for a piece to make it complete. However, upon meeting the big O, the missing piece is made to understand the fulfillment one gets by understanding one-self. The big O mentors the missing piece and makes it understand that there is no need to look for another piece to make it complete. The content in The Missing Piece series is suitable for young children. This is because at this age, most children normally face challenges of self-acceptance brought about by some of the imperfections they may have. For instance, an albino child may be alienated from his peers because he or she feels out of place. In as much as being an albino is not his or her wish. the child should be made aware that the condition should not be a hindrance to his or her communication and interaction with others. Therefore, by reading the book, children will get an understanding of how they are. Additionally, will learn to appreciate and love themselves despite the imperfections they have. The book also has basic illustrations and simple phrases that catch the attention of children. For instance, while describing the missing piece’s movement, Silverstein (1976) asserts, the missing piece was bumping instead of flopping, and then it was bouncing instead of bumping. Such illustrations arouse the interests of young children. The front cover of the book also has the picture of the Pacman-looking circle, and it is most certain that children who have a glimpse of it on bookstore shelves would request
The nature of piety was altercated in ancient literature through the characters of Antigone and Euthyphro. Antigone and Euthyphro’s individual’s beliefs and perception of how rules must be taken were the forces that influenced them to choosing decisions that shaped their recognition about the nature of piety. The life story of Antigone indeed began with a tragedy, which had provoked her to make a decision that changed the course of her life, or perhaps, has become the instrument to ending her life through unjust means. Antigone was trapped in a situation, where she had to choose between what is right based on her conscience, and on what is right based on the legal code of Thebes. Apparently, conflicts were brought by the opposing view of Antigone and Creon on the type of law that must be sustained, referring to the divine law and the human law. Despite this conflicting belief, Antigone was certain that the human law does not surpass the divine law, when it comes to what is morally right for people. For this reason, she stood by her conviction that religious piety supersedes whatever law is created by people, who claim as rulers or kings in this world. For Antigone, even the punishment of death will not defy her devotion to the divine law. Antigone’s views adhere to the idea that there is more to life than being devoted to an earthly government, whose doctrines do not agree with the authentic nature of piety. That is, decisions in life must not dwell on human laws that dishonor the essence of the divine law — the laws, which are there to guide people of what is morally right and wrong. By and large, Sophocles’s Antigone encapsulates the weaknesses of an earthly government, where the elected military leaders reap the benefits of them having judicial authority. Antigone is being oppressed by the tyranny of an earthy government that is ruled by a male leader, whose interpretation of justice violates the divine law. Still, in spite of their oppression, Antigone was willing to sacrifice her life so that Polyneices may rest in eternal peace. No earthly law hindered here to fulfilling her duty to the corpse of her brother Polyneices. In the end, Antigone may have died, but her pious devotion became the instrument to amending the flaws of the justice system in a city that is oppressed by tyrants. The story of Euthyphro, on the one hand, narrates the experiences of Euthyphro as he pushes for the prosecution of his own father, who had murdered a servant. Similar to Antigone, Euthyphro’s desire to let his father bear the consequences of his actions was a result of him believing that what he was doing was a pious thing. However, the presence of Socrates in this story made the character of Euthyphro confused over the real meaning of piety, for Euthyphro has always believed that making his father liable for killing an individual is the right thing to do, and that his father has committed a wrongdoing, which is impious. Socrates was the key to letting Euthyphro realize that his own beliefs of what is pious do not justify the act of being pious itself. Euthyphro agrees to the nature of piety but he did not fully understand how it may apply in seeking for authentic justice not in the eyes of an earthly court, but in the eyes of the gods. He was adamant to defend not his own father, but the victim, who his own father has killed, and for Euthyphro this is deemed an act of piety. It is an act of piety not because it is
The particular organization operates in the context of the US Department of Defense. Since its first appearance, DECA Commissary had to face the following problem: ethics related to the organization’s activities were often not appropriately promoted. For addressing this issue effectively, the organization’s managers decided to establish an ethical environment for others and introduce a plan for developing Positive Ethos across the organization. These efforts are described below using relevant literature, where necessary, for evaluating the appropriateness of the measures taken. It is proved that the organizational initiatives for the incorporation of ethics in the organizational culture have been successful but minor improvements would be made so that the high performance of the organization in regard to ethics is standardized. DECA Commissary – investigation of practices Company Overview DECA Commissary is an organization aiming to promote a particular plan: the provision of grocery to American Military, not only to the active members of the Military but also the retirees, at cost prices (DECA Commissary Overview). In this way, the Commissary helps the members of the Military to make a plan of living and to be released from stress related to the costs related to the particular type of food. According to the organization’s website, ‘the authorized patrons purchase items at cost plus a 5 percent surcharge’ (DECA Commissary Overview). As a result, the members of American Military and their family can enjoy a life of high quality, as possible, a fact that helps them to increase their readiness towards the challenges that they have to face daily (DECA Commissary Overview). The organization’s success up today is highly based on its ethical environment, which is based on certain principles, such as ‘excellence in quality, sense of urgency, high standards and innovation’ (DECA Commissary Mission, Vision, Values). Establishing an Ethical Environment For Others The promotion of ethics within organizations has a series of benefits for stakeholders. reference is made in particular to those individuals who support the organization’s plans, i.e. employees, suppliers and shareholders, but also to those affected by the organization’s activities, such as the state and the public in general (Brown 2005). In practice, it has been proved that establishing an ethical environment in organizations can result to a series of benefits, such as ‘the improvement of society, the increase of productivity and teamwork and the promotion of ethical education as part of the organization’s strategies’ (Fernando 393). For Collins (2009) the criterion for considering a behavior as ethical is the following one: the particular action needs to have ‘an ethical motive and ethical consequences’ (Collins 5). In the context of organizations the above view would be translated as follows: a business plan would be ethical if the motives of its designers are ethical and if the consequences of the plan are expected to be ethical. In business environment, ethics is a concept related not just to society, i.e. morals, but also to business, i.e. ethical conduct. DECA Commissary has managed to establish an ethical environment for others through the following practices: a) at a first level, the organization tries to ensure that the members of the
International relations date back to the time of Greek historians to the eras of World War and are still holding in the contemporary world. In light of this, vast means of explaining or expressing concerns over international affairs exist, such as literature (text) and which address vital emerging issues with reference to international relations theories. This student text will evaluate online literature which addressed a vital international relations issue and reveal how it relates to concepts of international relations theories.The featured issue in this case study is the Iraqi war of 2003. The war was initiated by a U.S. and U.K. led invasion force in Iraq, upon which some forces opposing the invasion joined the war to oppose the invasion, resulting in an intense war. The invasion was inspired by the U.K and U.S’s claims that Iraq under the Saddam Hussein rule was in possession of chemical weaponry capable of causing mass destruction and that Saddam was taking part in most of the terrorist attacks in the world. Including 9/11. The invaders used heavy artillery and military force to weaken and take out the Saddam administration. By the time the last U.S. convoy left Iraq in 2011, civilian deaths outnumbered tens of thousands in addition to thousands of military men casualties. Iraq was left in rubbles with only a new government to gain from the 8 years of grotesque living. The end of the war initiated the beginning of important discoveries. that Iraq had dropped its nuclear weaponry programs way back in 1991, and there was insufficient proof that Saddam Hussein was a sympathizer of terrorist acts on the globe. This has left the world wondering what the motive behind the invasion was, and why the Iraqi people had to suffer.Similarly to many other concerned political authors, Raymond Hinnebusch in 2006 published an article seeking to reveal theunderlying torments that Iraq underwent, and what this had on the perspective of world politics from an international relations perspective.
Sometimes, making the right decision conflicts with the organization’s goals. Conversely, resolving in favor of the organization may conflict with one’s personal values. In recent years, both the Academy of Human Resource Development and the Academy of Management dedicated entire volumes of their journals to ethics and integrity (Veiga, 2004). The journals contain case studies about the ethical dilemmas professionals face and present guidelines for solutions. People in occupations without a formal set of ethical standards must rely on their own instincts, backgrounds, experience, and judgment to handle ethical dilemmas that arise in the course of their work lives. Leaders at various levels of organizations, large and small, face ethical dilemmas daily and must be prepared to make the right decisions for the organization and for themselves (Bass Steidlmeier, 1999). There is a void in the empirical literature with respect to ethical decision-making because the literature on ethical decision-making has been based on hypothetical dilemmas instead of on actual situations. Decision Making ModelsWhen managers are faced with ethical dilemmas in their employing organizations, they are not always in control of the situation and often must consider other factors (e.g., employees, organizational risks, organizational pressure) in their decisions. Most of the ethical decision-making models have stemmed from the cognitive moral development theory of Kohlberg (1973). Two models that were introduced around the same time are those of Rest (1986) (Four-Component Model) and Trevino (1986) (Person-Situation Interactionist Model). Both Rest and Trevino expanded on the work of Kohlberg, and their models have been tested multiple times. Kohlberg, a social psychologist, was the first to expand Piaget’s concept of stage development to include moral judgment. Moral judgment is a process of reflecting on one’s values and choosing among them. Piaget, a Swiss biologist, was interested in how children reason. From his qualitative studies, he concluded that the ability to reason is age-related, and he identified cognitive stages ranging from infancy through adolescence. He studied moral judgment only in children under the age of 12 and held that cognition and affect develop separately, but in parallel ways, and that moral judgment is a cognitive process. Kohlberg’s (1968) theory focuses on the moral reasoning process – how people decide which course of action to take when faced with an ethical dilemma. Using a research instrument that he developed, Kohlberg conducted a longitudinal study of 84 boys ages 10 to 16, following up at four-year intervals from 1956 to 1976. In the moral judgment interviews, Kohlberg presented the subjects with three dilemmas and asked the boys to tell what the resolution should be and why. The why is the determining factor for stage identification. People at different stages might reach the same conclusion, but Kohlberg was interested in the reasoning process. He was looking for consistency of reasoning across the issues. From his research, Kohlberg (1968) classified moral development into three levels, within which there are six stages, and concluded that there is a relationship between maturity of moral values and maturity of action in ethical dilemmas. He also concluded, like Piaget, that moral
The region has been affected by the Arab uprising causing many economies to strain. The move by the government of Saudi Arabia to inject US$37 billion into the economic social initiatives is likely to improve the consumer purchasing power (Hutchison and Davies 42). This has increased the sales and revenues in the motor vehicle sector. Most retailers and importers in the country have started dealership expansion programs. This paper gives an economic analysis of the car market in Saudi Arabia. The car market in the country has been bent towards high-end models. However, there is a propensity towards purchases in the lower-priced family cars. The cars to small and their running cost are economical. The demand for family cars is expected to rise with increase in population (IMF, 2008). In 2010, the market for ultra-luxury cars grew by 39 percent. Porsche and Lexus have opened high-end servicing centers in anticipation for rising demand. Commercial vehicles are responsible for 20 percent of the demand for auto mobile products in Saudi Arabia. The increasing spending in government infrastructure and the demand created by visiting pilgrims continues to be a major boost in the sector. Literature review Saudi Arabia remains the largest importer of vehicles in Middle East (Hutchison and Davies 42). … This has affected the car industry positively (IMF, 2008). In 2009, about 600,000 units were purchased. This represented a sales rise of 1 percent. However, the demand for vehicles grew by 12 percent in the following year (Ahmed, 103). The flood situation in Thailand and the tsunami in Japan affected the supply chains in the Saudi market (Hutchison and Davies 42). This resulted to 0.7 percent decline. The growth in demand for private vehicles was inversely proportional to the commercial vehicles in 2011 (IMF, 2008). The automobile industry is dominated by Japanese brands (Abushakra, 19). This accounts for over 60 percent. Increased competition from Korean brands is making the automobile industry favorable to the customers (Hutchison and Davies 42). The Korean brands are low priced and offer improved quality (Abushakra, 19). The trends in the automobile market share are changing as new market entrants gain momentum in the local market (Hutchison and Davies 42). The young generation is getting draw to small cars causing a shift of preference. The expansion in the private sector is responsible for the surge in demand for small cars (Hakes, 51). The automotive sector in the Saudi market is expected to grow by about 7 percent in the next two years. The imports are might grow to over one million cars (IMF, 2008). The financial support for the importation of cars is on the increase as banks offer increased credit to support supply levels (Hakes, 51). The oil revenues continue to support the fiscal position of the government. Increased spending on the infrastructure is causing the demand for vehicles to remain high (Ahmed, 103). The modernizing of transport facilities in the kingdom will result in sustainable development (Hutchison and Davies 42). The
Though some of the causes of disorder conditions have been widely agreed upon by World Health Organization (World Health Organization (WHO) Study Group, 1994), a lot remains unknown hence the presence of many discrepancies in the existing literature on eating disorders. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), (2004) has explored into the various causes of eating disorders and concluded that the condition can be preceded by overeating and overweight conditions in the victims and later on culminate into continuous desist to foods, purging and induced vomiting. Eating disorders are indiscriminate and affect both men and women across all age groups (Becker, Grinspoon, Klibanski, Herzog, 1999). Among the most vulnerable groups include young women, adolescents, and female athletes. Even though the condition is most common in the categories mentioned above, all persons are liable to developing the condition at any age (Becker, Grinspoon, Klibanski, Herzog, 1999).A wide array of methodologies has been devised to diagnose the occurrence of the disease including both medical therapeutics and psychological procedures. No definite drug has been identified to treat eating disorders since these are psychotic conditions. However, psychotherapeutic procedures have however been recommended by various researchers and medical experts as the most appropriate method of combating the occurrence of the condition (Fairburn, O’Connor, Doll, Palmer, 2007). The effects borne by eating disorder conditions on humans are far-fetching, majorly negative effects. The occurrence of the disorder condition affects all aspects of a person’s life ranging from their, physical orientations to the psychotic conditions. Among the most notable effects are overweight conditions, hallucinations, psychological defects such as aphasia, health deterioration in the individuals suffering from the disease, social defects, among other notable defects.Numerous debates have been set to discern the causes of eating disorders in human beings.
According to Greasley (2008, p. 3), operation management is about the management of the processes that produce or deliver goods and services. All organizations do not have a separate operations department but since every organization produces goods and services, it will always undertake the operation activities for management purpose (Greasley 2008). Previously, operations management was mainly associated with manufacturing field however as the scope of service industry grew and as it started contributing more to the industrialized economies operations management activities started becoming important for service oriented businesses as well (Greasley 2008). Johnston (1999, p. 104) highlights that it is in 1980’s when services have become a focus point in operations management and prior to that operations management field is only restricted to manufacturing industry. A new term i.e. service operations management is introduced and a new field emerged to cater for the operational needs of service oriented businesses. Service operations management specifically is concerned with how services are delivered to the customers or users. It involves understanding what the customers want, managing process of delivering the service, making sure that the organization’s objectives are met while continuously trying to improve the services offered (Johnston and Clark 2007, p. 24). Given the growing importance of operations management in service industry this research seeks to explore quality framework for service oriented businesses by taking a case study approach. The case studied in this study is Mandarin restaurant which is one of the leading Chinese Restaurants operating in Nottingham for more than a decade now. In addition to this it has been one of the top most among all the other Chinese restaurants catering to both Chinese and Western clientele. The research for this dissertation is based on the responses received from structured interview conducted via email from restaurant manager and 10 employees of the restaurant. Apart from this, analysis was done on the basis of observations made at the restaurant. Since interview had open ended questions in it, analysis is qualitative where the researcher has interpreted the findings from interview and observation and conclusions are drawn based on primary findings and the literature. 1.1 Background and Context The ultimate aim of service operations management is customer satisfaction via offering quality services (Arora 2004, p. 654). Offering quality is becoming extremely important for service oriented businesses and hence is the reason it is important managers understand how to manage and constantly improve quality. Pfeifer (2002, p. 4) points out that quality management today is dramatically different from what it was a few decades ago. He points that very less percentage of the dissatisfied customers will go to the point of reporting and communicating why they are dissatisfied. Maximum number of customers will never come back and will also share their grievances with other potential customers. Quality and more importantly quality management is slowly becoming the most critical factor where the survival of businesses is concerned. Quality management is not just an individual approach, rather it is spread throughout the organization no matter how small or big the organization is (Chary 2009). This approach aids in understanding what customers want. It does not just
This project helped me a lot in exploring new facts and increased my knowledge for practical implementation. Thanks a lot to all who helped me a lot in completing the project. Table of Contents List of Figures Tables i Abstract ii Introduction 1 Origin of ERP 1 Steps involved in the Implementation of ERP 2 i. Stratategic planning 2 ii. Procedure Review 3 iii. Data collection Clean up 3 iv. Training and testing 4 v. Go live and evaluation 5 Best Practices affecting the successful Implementation of ERP (Supply management Software) 6 i. Requirement of an ERP solution 6 ii. Successful project planning and project execution 7 iii. Integrated Team work 7 a. Identification of Team leader 7 b. Balancing the duties of ERP team members 7 iv. Selection of the best ERP Solution ERP implementation strategies 8 v. Building up realistic expectations about the ERP implementation 8 Literature Review 9 The Study. Implementation of ERP (SUPPLY Management System) on RCA 9 Research Methodology 15 Pre-Implementation Activities 18 i. Requirement of an ERP solution 12 ii. Reasons for RCA to implement ERP solutions or management system 13 iii. Scope of Work 13 iv. Steering Committee 14 v. Preparedness 15 Implementation Processes 16 1. Preparation Business Document 17 2. Signing Base-Line agreement 19 3. Picturing the Scenario 20 Five steps for implementation of ERP on RCA: 21 1. Strategic planning 22 2. Procedure review 23 3. Process maps 23 i. Initializations and configurations 24 ii. Making user accounts and details 24 iii. Data Collection Clean Up 25 iv. Business Documents as prepared by the ERP implementation Team:25 Conclusions 28 Discussion and analysis 30 References 31 List of Figures and Tables: Fig i. ERP and its five successful modules Pg Fig ii. Different steps of successful implementation of ERP Fig iii. Workflow for implementation process List of Tables Table 1. signing sheet for implementation processes Table 2. showing the process maps and legends of process maps Table 3. Initialization and setting document Table 4. showing the document of Budget setting Table 5. showing the approval of authorization matrix Abstract The Enterprise Resource planning is the most widely used technology around the world for integration and automation of the systems which help in the operational organization. In this study, special focus has been paid on analyzing the various steps that are involved in implementation of Enterprise Resource planning on RCA. It discusses the various modules and the initializations that need to be done before preceding an organization to a fully automation and integration of the systems. It discusses the complete framework of the implementation of ERP with reference to the risks and necessary management associated with each and every step of the implementation. The study also analyzes the extent of the support that ERP implementation provided on RCA and what were the impacts of the ERP implementation on the system efficiency and processes. Actually the RCA is trading company to
Greek myths related to philosophical, cultural, religious and social ideas.Greek mythology exerted extensive power on the arts, culture, and literature of societies worldwide. They remain an integral aspect of Western language and heritage. Artists gained tremendous influence for their work from ancient Greek mythology. This led to the discovery of relevance and contemporary significance of Greek mythology (Bremmer, p. 5).Mythology occupied the heart of daily life and given a historical regard by the Ancient Greeks. Myths explained cultural differences, natural incidents, friendship and traditional enmities. People took pride when tracing their descent from a legendary god or hero. Genuine mythical elements exist in stories, and the most illuminating or complete version is not given by a single author. However, while searching for a complete version, the most ancient written or oral source is not always accurate or authoritative (Graves, p. 3).Myths served the purpose of finding people within the society. For instance, in early Europe, there existed no god and the Greek gods and goddesses took center stage. People regarded the Greek supernatural beings as changeless, omnipotent and immortal. The ideologies of fatherhood did not exist in ancient Europe. Greek goddesses according to the myths took lovers for their own pleasure. not for fatherly reasons (Alhadari, p. 4). Men and society in general adored, obeyed and feared the matriarch. the goddesses’ motherhood was reserved with prime mystery. The Greek gods and goddesses received human sacrifices, and their image preserved in a dignified manner (Bremmer, p. 8).The three phases of the moon (fresh, filled, and elderly) according to the myths represented the maiden, nymph and late life stages. The sun’s yearly courses similarly represented ascend and decline of the gods and goddesses physical abilities.They united people because of their association with seasonal changes in both human, plant and animal life.
The protagonist of Kafka’s The Trial, Josef K, and the protagonist of Coetzee’s book share a lot in common, even if the latter book is more political than anything by Kafka. These issues, and the full power of Kafka’s The Trial, will be explored in this paper. Many might suggest that Kafka’s work has no fore-bearers and that it appeared fully formed. There is sense in this suggestion. The period and place in which his books and stories were written were historically unique. The First World War had demolished many naive beliefs about the world and the rapid industrialization of the modern world was creating difficult conditions for many people. World War II and the destruction of European Jewry lurked on the horizon. The sense of dread in Kafka’s work seemed in some way to have the power of a fortuneteller. It is truly terrifying. It is almost as if Kafka knew what was awaiting the world. If he had lived, he too may have perished in the Holocaust. Nevertheless, there were works of literature before Kafka that in someways suggest his work. One of these is Nathaniel Hawthorne’s the Scarlet Letter. In this famous novel, Hester Prynne is branded with a scarlett A, after committing adultery. She is ostracized from her community and refuses to publicly identify the father of the child that is then illegitimately born. The community has turned against her. She is removed from the community by the force of the institutions that protect public morals. This is similar to Kafka’s The Trial, but the most important distinction to be made, however, is what each authors’ real subject is. Hawthorne’s target is society’s hypocrisy and its willingness to ostracize essentially good people. But however much we may dislike the methods of the town people and their treatment of Hester Prynne, we nevertheless recognize their cruelty and hypocrisy as deeply human. We are familiar with the human hypocrisy which these people represent. Additionally, we might even understand that adultery would be a big problem in a small town in New England during that period. The treatment of Hester may be over the top, but perhaps she did deserve some sort of censure. Kafka’s work, however, is very different. There is little to be understood about the forces arrayed against his various protagonists. These forces are not really human, they seem to not even be living. In the Trial, Josef K. is accused of an unspecified crime which he did not commit. Although the institution that tries him appears to be human, it is clear that it is instead a monstrous machine at work, slowly seeking to crush him. There can be no appeal to passion or humanity, as in the Scarlet Letter. Josef K. is trapped by forces that do not feel. At first, he feels like if he just explains himself to the court they will understand: He had often wondered whether it might not be a good idea to work out a written defence and hand it in to the court. It would contain a short description of his life and explain why he had acted the way he had at each event that was in any way important, whether he now considered he had acted well or ill, and his reasons for each. There was no doubt of the advantages a written defence of this sort would have over relying on the lawyer, who was anyway without his
Down the ages the concept of the Muse changed. The Elizabethan poets often seemed to idolize their beloved or lady love as the Muse and wove their poetic tales around the theme of unrequited love. The 16th century poets referred to the Muses ironically to achieve satirical effect or criticizing the works of other poets. The Romantics considered their Muse as anything that had the power to stir up poetic creativity. The presence of the Muse in modern literature is completely revolutionized. The modern poets undermine the traditional role, subvert the meaning and reconstruct a whole new identity of the classical persona of the Muse. The Muse in literature The Muse is the poetic inspiration or the force that compels the creative drive. Poets of every era have recounted their own perception of the Muse. In literature the concept of the Muse rides a vast domain from being referred to as the creative urge to having psychic connotations or being the poet’s alter ego. The Muse is not conceived as a constant figure of divine inspiration but rather an ever evolving essence of the creative impulse. When Elizabethan poet Sir Philip Sydney wrote Fool! Said my muse to me, look in thy heart and write (Astrophel and Stella) he probably conceived his Muse as his passion for his beloved. Being inspired by the Petrarchan tradition the Elizabethan poets fantasized their love-interests as their Muses which resulted in great lyric poetry. Shakespeare was also believed to have located his Muse in the mysterious Dark Lady which was a radical deviation from the norm of idolizing fairness as the measure of beauty (Falconer, Martinelli, Mesa, 16). Milton introduced his own version of the Christian Muse at the onset of his grand epic venture Paradise Lost. Milton evoked an entity of awe and extreme reverence in his Muse. His Muse was the divine and omniscient being the poet looked up to for guidance. O Spirit, that dost prefer Before all temples th’ upright heart and pure, Instruct me, for thou know’st. thou from the first Wast present… Milton was approaching the biblical theme of the fall of man and had declared his intention behind his poetic attempt. He wanted to justify the ways of God to men which in itself called for intense philosophizing and unbiased thinking. He had to reach sublime heights of artistic creativity to give justice to such a grand theme. It explains his creation of the sacred Muse. The poets of the Romantic tradition believed in as Wordsworth put it spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings as the primary requirement of poetry. Blake in his poem To the Muses lamented the gradual disappearance of the spontaneity and poetic fervour. How have you left the ancient love That bards of old enjoy’d in you! The languid strings do scarcely move! The sound is forc’d, the notes are few! For the Romantics poetry need not depict lofty theme or high emotions. The Romantic poets seemed to deliberately seek their Muses in the simple things of Nature and everyday life. Wordsworth chose vagrants, solitaries and the destitute as personas of poetic inspiration to compose poetry that spoke of their existence to the world (Harrison, 16). It was quite a deviation from invoking the goddess to being inspired by the ordinary. However, a further deviation had been determined in Emily Bronte’s works. The essence of the Muse had always been feminine as creativity is naturally associated with women. But critics have interpreted that Emily Bronte’
Retailers have the prerogative of declining acceptance of products they deem do not conform to set standards. These provisions encompass verification of technical performance at food production sites. 1.1 Literature review British Retail Consortium The British Retail Consortium formulated in 1998 the BRC Technical Standard and Protocol for organisations intend on engaging in supply of retailer food products. This Standard was to be used in verification of food production site technical performance. Before the formulation of this Standard, UK retailers undertook their verification using individual, internally developed standards and in some situations in collaboration with third-party inspection bodies. The BRC Food Technical Standard has evolved since its inception to not only catering for the supply of retailer branded products but also covering other areas of the food industry. The new additions are for example the food service and ingredients manufacture sectors. The BRC Food Technical Standard, has been used outside the UK as a benchmark by retailers to assess their suppliers as described by (BRC Global Standards 2006 P.120). This development led to the change of name to BRC Global Standard – Food. This was to reflect the worldwide embrace of its principles and partnerships for best safety practices. The BRC Global Standard stipulates that an organisation should put in place structures that ensure facilitate quality and efficiency in production processes, management of the production environment and proper utilisation of human resources. There are substantial benefits derived from the use of the BRC Global Standard – Food. First, it offers a one stop shop certification process allowing collaboration with other certification bodies and accreditation to an international Standard ISO/IEC Guide 65. Secondly, the single verification acquired by the manufacturer or supplier allow reporting of the safety status of the food as per their agreement. Thirdly, the Standard encompasses quality, hygiene, product safety and the production environment. Fourthly, food manufacturers may find the Standard useful in ensuring that their suppliers are adhering to good hygiene practices hence completing the ‘due diligence’ chain. There is also a requirement for continued monitoring and evaluation in order to apply corrective measures. This ensures a self-improving quality, hygiene and product safety system. The BRC Global Standard – Food’s effectiveness emanates from some principles. One such principle is eradication of duplication of evaluation procedures among member organisations. This is possible through consultations among the accreditation and certification bodies and the BRC. This has the overall effect of smooth certification procedures. The International Food Standard (IFS) This is an association of retailing companies in Central European countries of Austria, Switzerland, France and Germany. It is an equivalent of the British Retail Consortium and serves to facilitate effective selection of branded food suppliers for the retailers on their ability to maintain supply of safe food products. The suppliers should also conform to statutory and contractual requirements. IFS provide the evaluation benchmarks for organisations manufacturing retail food products. It is mostly useful in situations where the product is processed or handled (on site performance), or where there
In researching the Yoruba people and their spiritual beliefs under Santeria, the book Santeria: African Spirits in America by Joseph Murphy allows for an exploration of the origins of Santeria which then creates a background for how the beliefs manifest in the United States. Through researching relevant literature to enhance topics within the framework of the subject, an exploration of the topic of the beliefs of Santeria creates a deeper understanding of the spiritual communities that celebrate the traditions of the religion.Background Santeria has been embraced through the Afro-Caribbean cultures that emerged due to migration of West African communities through slavery. The religion is practiced in North America, but has a large following in Cuba, Brazil, Haitii, and in West Africa (Brown 115). Among the multi-cultures in the United States, has provided a diverse place in which the practice and belief in Santeria has had a chance to flourish. Practicing communities can be found in Miami, New York, and in Havana Cuba. Urban cities in the Dominican Republic and in Haiti also have large size communities who share in the beliefs. There is an estimated 100 million people in the Americas that practice the worship of Santeria (De La Torre xiv). While the belief systems from West Africa have a very specific nature, the Santeria in the Americas has been changed to embrace a conglomeration of religions which are founded in Haitian Voodoo, Obeah, Brazilian Candomble, with high influences from the Catholic Church. When African slaves escaped their bondage from Brazil and reached Cuba, they were given the ability to marry, have property and to live in such a way to be trained and conduct free, contributing lives to society. The only stipulation was that they become baptized into the Roman Catholic religion (Murphy 28). The relationship that was formed between the religious beliefs of the West African form of spiritual life and the tenets of Catholicism formed the beginnings of the way in which it the beliefs are currently practiced, similar reformations creating the many influences that have combined to form the current forms of Santeria practice. Because of this mixture of religions from which the practices in the Americas were created, there is no individual who can be named for being the founder of the religion. The beliefs of Americanized Santeria still hold the worship of the orisha. The orisha are associated with the saints of the Catholic religion. Each of the saints is represented as an orisha with a principle, a color, a number, a food, a dance posture, and an emblem. The orisha are honored through sacrifice, often a ritualized taking of the life of an animal. The blood is used as an offering to the orisha to please the saints in order to bring good luck, purification and the forgiveness of sins. Other aspects of evoking spirits and creating possession by ancestors are accomplished through rhythmic dances that are freely expressed through fervent dances (De La Torre 126). Findings Santeria is a cultural religion that began in Africa among the Yoruba people who lived in the region now considered Nigeria. Among the many developments of the Yoruba people was the development of a complex understanding of their spiritual life that reached into a subtle envelopment of their way of life. God was called ‘Olodumare’ and was considered the owner of all destinies. He was also considered the ‘almighty’ and ‘the ground of life’ (7). The power that is the force of Olodumare has a name that identifies its association within the culture. Ashe is an incarnate life force that is the ‘
Nevertheless, in spite of the acknowledged importance of teacher leadership, little if any is known about the pathways that teachers may follow and how they can be supported to develop as leaders. Therefore, understanding the efforts necessary to support teacher leaders is necessary. Levin (40) argues that, it is not only important to know what teachers do as leaders, but also gain understanding and in-depth descriptions of how leadership skills are developed. According to Donaldson (28), action research refers to a professional inquiry into a given situation. As the name suggests, action research is concerned with undertaking certain professional actions and its sole purpose is to understand and improve teachers’ leadership actions. In this letter, action research in education is therefore grounded on the working lives of teachers and how they experience their profession. The following are the identified action research projects that facilitate growth of teachers’ leadership skills necessary to effect school reforms. Needs assessment The entire school reform process begins with identifying needs. Through use of rubrics and other resources, needs assessment will help in comparing leadership practices and reform programs of our school with best practices of the successful schools. The sole purpose of needs assessment is to lay out a comprehensive plan to improve student learning and performance. Teacher leadership is the process in which teachers collectively or individually influences principals, colleagues and other members of the school community to upgrade learning and teaching practices with the sole aim of increasing student learning and achievement. In addition, leadership is about action that transforms learning and teaching hence tying the school and the community together to advance quality of life and social stability (Froyd and Ohland 154). There are numerous ways in which teachers can actively engage as leaders, including mentoring new teachers, development and distributing of curriculum materials, coordinating professional development, participating in decision making among others. Strategic planning In response to the assessed leadership needs, the school will come up with a comprehensive strategic plan for developing teachers’ leadership skills. Ingram, Wolfe and Lieberman (480) observed that such strategic plans would have consensus on priority goals. Further, each priority goal will be aligned to school reform goals to facilitate the desired school reforms. Such strategic planning process will help the leadership teams to focus on priority goals that can help in capacity building for implementation of the entire school reform. Attending training workshops Teachers will undergo training workshops to hone their leadership skills as innovators, advocates and stewards. During the training period, teachers will have an in-depth review of leadership-related literature to try to understand the vast scope and the available avenues of teacher leadership and to find out potential solutions to different barriers. Developing customized goals and action plans Based on their interests, teachers will be expected to develop action plans on how to practice acquired leadership skills and the possible anticipated challenges likely to be faced. Enroll for relevant courses To support growth of leadership skills, teachers will enroll for graduate-level courses relevant to their lines of teaching. They will also
Also after explaining the why maybe predict a future policy possibly that could be made down the road or just provide an implication from using our logic on why the other policies were created.The Middle Eastern foreign policies are among the most complex policies found anywhere in the world. Policymakers in this region have much internal autonomy in policymaking. But, Middle East is a region which has been plagued quite often with issues like instability and terrorism. This is why many opinions that this region is crowded with unstable states each of which is encountered with different challenges. This turbulence or insecurity plays a big role in shaping foreign policies. Many different labels have been given to these policies over time in research literature from strictly Islamist to Western to secular. This research paper aims to label these foreign policies as appropriately and objectively as possible with the help of modern research. It also serves to explain why foreign policies in the Middle East are so hugely affected by religion. Though there is a mix of factors which influences Middle East foreign policies, policymakers have never been able to ignore the factor of religion which is a very powerful means of controlling or shaping the image of Middle East. A growing body of research over past many years has scrutinized the relationship between Islam and regional politics of Middle Eastern states. But, this research can surely benefit from more illuminating concepts about how religious thought works to affect outcomes of these foreign policies of different Middle Eastern states. Following discussion aims to illustrate the reality of this claim that religion strongly influences the internal relations of Middle East. It also hopes to improve understanding of this relationship between the two entities. The countries covered in this discussion are Iraq, Kuwait, Egypt, and Syria.Some suggest that bringing religion into international relations is not a modern or thoughtful strategy, but the state in the region of Middle East is different.
However, any type of abuse to a child tends to scar the child for life. In this study an attempt is being made at analyzing the problem of Child abuse and trying to find the right strategies and interventions that could be used to minimize the pain and trauma that a child goes through when such a catastrophe happens. Body – Literature review Child abuse is an ugly scar on society, that has a very negative impact on the community and society at large and hence there is a dire need to address this problem by putting an end to the physical, emotional and psychological scourge faced by such vulnerable children. There are many common factors that contribute towards child abuse. Some of these factors include physical abuse, sexual assault, neglect, high levels of stress, abusive childhood, depression and anxiety. Such abuse towards children leaves a lasting impression on them and impacts upon their own lives as they grow into adults. Such abused adults are a threat to their own families and society because they continue to exhibit the same pattern of behavior right through their lives. According to (Cindy, 312) individuals who once get into the habit of abusing do not hesitate from extending this practice towards other members of the family thus further strengthening this trend in the society. (Cindy, 312) Child abuse has proved to have very long term effects on the society, children who are subjected to this blight tend to maintain the same attitude on their future generations especially their own kids. This way a cycle is developed which takes conscious and intended efforts to break in the years to come. (Mary, 250) Some of the reasons for its prevalence involve having being abused during their childhood, insecurity, frustration, revenge, health problems, ego- identity and poor self image which makes them fall an easy prey to Child abuse. Larry J. Siegel et al., (2010) sheds light on the different aspects of Juvenile Delinquency in his in-depth analysis and cutting edge seminal research work titled ‘Theory, Practice and Law.’ In addition to the controversial issues discussed, the authors examine the important initiatives and intervention programs to help children who are delinquents. Problematic issues such as drugs, gangs, delinquency and capital punishment for juveniles are also important aspects of his study. According to (Larry, et al., 2010) adolescent dilemma comprising of conflict, stress, ego identities and problems within the family, school and community serves as a potent ground because they make children vulnerable to Child abuse. Uncertainty of the future due to poor experiences in life makes them disillusioned, depressed and frustrated making them easy prey for child abusers. Statistical figures have exhibited an alarming rise as far as child abuse is concerned. In Greenville South Carolina. 1019 cases of child abuse were reported in the year 2005 which speaks volumes of the negative effects it might have inflicted on the community. (Larry, 64) (Rachel, 220) believes that children who are abused are driven to extreme attitudes. either they become too indifferent towards love or too aggressive which results in bullying other children and in the former case, end up being terrorized themselves. The pioneering work of (Ruth Kempe, 2001) presents a statistical view of abused children in the United States. According to them about 2% to 6% of children have been injured through physical assault and neglect by
This paper seeks to study the relationship between sales tax and individual consumer expenditure and saving. Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 1.0. Introduction 1Sales tax is part of consumption tax, tax on imposed on spending on goods or services in various states. Sales tax is usually imposed to buyers during the purchasing of goods or services. The sellers are the one who collect the tax. Tax rates vary from one state to another. In United States, the sales tax has been increasing drastically since 1997 and this has led to rise of prices of both services and commodities. The people who are affected indirectly by sales tax are the buyers. Their expenses rise per month forcing them to draw narrow budgets. This is the same in the whole world and the economies of many nations are going down. What it exported or imported is also highly taxed. Sales tax is different from value added tax because it is only imposed once at the retail level. Different states in United States have different tax rates. There are some jurisdictions in these states that determine the tax rates to be imposed on various goods and services. Goods for manufacture or resale are usually exempted from sales tax. Some other jurisdictions also exempt sales tax on foods sold in grocery shops, agricultural supplies and prescription medications. Sales tax greatly affects the spending of consumers, changes their consumption behavior and marketplace at the household level. 2.0. Literature Review There are many researches that have been done to show how the increase in sales tax affects personal consumption expenditure. Most of the results got from these researches have showed negative impacts on personal consumption expenditure. As Kevin 2001 puts it, this has been the case in the 2United States of America and the rest of the world. In a case study conducted in California in 2007, it was revealed that the best sales tax rate was 7.25%. This was a rapid increase from 6.6% in 2004 while in 1990s it was less than five percent. Most of this was taxed because of transport expenditures that were incurred during transportation of the goods or services. The estimation for the next year after 2007 was 7.75% tax rate and this was observed to be the trend to be followed unless the economy in the whole world is restructured since the people in California must rely on imported and exported goods and services. In this case study, the main objective shall be to show the effects of increased sales tax on the well-being of people in California. The methods that shall be used shall help to come up with resourceful data that shall be analyzed in depth. From the analysis, it shall be clear on the real effects that are caused by increased sales tax. Increase in tax rate has been there in California just as it is with other states in America. Some of the effects may be positive. however, many of them are negative. To the unemployed the situation is worse thus, there must be proposals to look into the issue deeper before it goes beyond recognition. From another research done in the same state to identify the much that is used for consumption by individual persons, according to Kanbur and Spence, it was found out that 65% of the spending per individual was on consumption. It was not, however, constant as it varied with genders and age. There were many reasons that were given for the high spending in consumption and the main one was increased sales ta
It was also a time when a shift was started in the long-held class systems from that of the feudal organization made up of the traditionally wealthy and the barely recognized desperately poor to one consisting of a greater stratification of wealth and prestige, in which social mobility was possible with little more than a ready mind and a willingness to make the attempt. According to Stephen Greenblatt (1997), This is a world in which outward appearance is everything and nothing, in which individuation is at once sharply etched and continually blurred, in which the victims of fate are haunted by the ghosts of the possible, in which everything is simultaneous as it must be and as it need not have been (60). These issues are strongly addressed in the literature produced during this time period such as William Shakespeare’s play A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Although it is not known exactly when William Shakespeare wrote his play, perhaps around 1595 or 1596, the inspirations Shakespeare used for the play as well as the changing nature of his own time are worked into the play in such a way that it continues to capture the postmodern condition of the world today.While many of Shakespeare’s plays can be traced to earlier stories, this particular play has fewer of these connections. One probable source for the play was Geoffrey Chaucer’s story of the Knight’s Tale in his Canterbury Tales (Mabillard, 2000). This is a story told from the perspective of the noble Knight who values above all things the concepts of chivalry and the ‘right’ place of women within this world. His courtly preoccupation with truth, honor, liberality and courtesy shines through the noble soldiers Arcite and Palamon, illuminating the wise, righteous, merciful ruler Theseus and highlighting the faultless Lady Emily … Fortune and her false wheel control the plot as regal personas are maneuvered by chance and by the gods (Dosik, 2006). The Knight’s story is full of the importance of honor and oath-taking among men of the nobility.
It brings harmony and the representation of food in different forms of media often arouses the taste buds of the readers (in case of literature) or the audience (in case of movies). Food highlights different moods and might be introduced as a new genre that gains significance in the topical times of globalization. The paper discusses two short stories by Jhumpa Lahiri ‘A Temporary Matter’ and ‘When Mr. Pirzada Came to Dine’ from her work, Interpreter of Maladies and Nora Okja Keller’s Fox Girl where food serves as a metaphor for human relationships, emotions and identity.Jhumpa Lahiri’s ‘A Temporary Matter’ highlights the importance of small changes in the everyday way of living through food as a metaphor. The story unfolds gradually the separation in the marital life of thirty-five years old Shukumar and thirty-three years old Shobha following the birth of their dead child during which Shukumar was away. Things were no longer the same between them as they managed to stay away from one another for most of the time. The story essentially focuses on the interplay between these two characters. Shobha began to take little or no interest in cooking and Shukumar had to cook most of the dishes without which Shobha could even do with a simple bowl of cereal. The different varieties of food items which clearly represent their Indian origin despite the fact that they lived in Baltimore, also reflect their happy days when Shobha looked after the nitty-gritty of domestic affairs and was futuristic when it came to shopping and storing food items for emergencies. Food mediates the relationship between the couple. The pleasant memories of their relationship often haunt Shukumar’s mind as he recollects:The pantry was always stocked with extra bottles of olive and corn oil, depending on whether they were cooking Italian or Indian. There were endless boxes of pasta in all shapes and colors, zippered sacks of basmati rice.
Market competition persists with an increase in demand for services provided by freight forwarders in Hong Kong and this, coupled with a shortage of key account managers that are at home in Hong Kong and the region around it, presents a necessity for the development of relevant competencies among aspiring key account managers. Hong Kong must compete to ensure that its logistics and freight-forwarding industry remain at the leading edge, and all organizations are likely to benefit from efforts directed towards trying to develop their human resources. This dissertation presents a competency development plan for those joining key account teams in the Hong Kong freight-forwarding industry based on themes from a review of relevant literature, expert opinion elicited during interviews and a review of available professional development courses for key account managers.Any business can only succeed and grow if it has the right competencies and employees are often more critical than business plans because it is employees with the right skills and competencies that make things happen (Sanghi, 2009, Pp. 14 – 15). Thus, a sales organization can only win if it has talented salespeople or those with the right competencies who can emerge as the new champions after training. However, although many managers in organizations recognize that competencies are an important source of competitive advantage, the identification, assessment and development of competencies often present problems (King, 2001, Pp. 95 – 96). Competencies refer to a combination of knowledge and skills that are essential for high performance and unless individuals within an organization possess the right competencies, they are unlikely to deliver excellence, something that is necessary for those organizations that must maintain leadership positions (Derven, 2008, Pp. 70 – 71).Hong Kong has retained its position as a logistics hub of global significance by providing excellent logistics services even after its handover to China and the departure of the British.
Outsourcing is a decision that has been in the news recently because of the different viewpoints and the debates that it has given rise to. Outsourcing is difficult to define and has often been misunderstood. It is usually associated with jobs being moved overseas. The term ‘offshoring’ refers to the relocation of jobs and production to a foreign country (Garner, 2004) while outsourcing refers to jobs and services irrespective of the location of the provider. Offshoring refers to the location of the work while outsourcing refers to who does the work (Scott, Ticoll Murti, 2005). It is possible to offshore without outsourcing if the company has its own office or a captive unit in another country.Although outsourcing initially started with manufacturing, today services in different forms are being outsourced. Examples of such services include facilities management, IT services, software development, human resource administration, payroll processing and call center services. Outsourcing decision has been taken based on the transaction cost theory, competency-based theory or the relational theory (Mehta et al., 2006). Various benefits have been cited for outsourcing which includes cost savings, reduced inflation, and interest rates, increase in consumer spending and increased productivity. Firms see outsourcing as a business strategy which allows them to focus on core competencies (Isern Benedixen, 2007). It also gives them the flexibility to respond to market forces. However, it is increasingly being felt that firms lack an adequate decision framework to weigh the tradeoffs involved in outsourcing. The existing literature gives diverse opinions about the effects and effectiveness of outsourcing. Firms are realizing that the financial benefits of outsourcing firms may be much lower than expectations. This gives rise to the question of whether outsourcing can be used as a generic global strategy.
As representatives of that type of literature, we have Oscar Wildes’s first novel The Picture of Dorian Gray and Henry James’ The Turning of the Screw both of which contain themes of hidden sexuality and criticize the manner in which society treats sex. James suggests that sex is an unmentionable topic in society while Wilde said that homosexuality is a love that dares not speak its name (McKenna, 2006). In fact, beyond these two authors, there are several other related examples of writers using their craft to show the awkward and extremely uncomfortable relations that existed between society and sexuality during the Victorian era. In essence, the literature of the time certainly shows that many artists and thinkers working at the time were entirely dissatisfied with the way society was progressing (Beckson, 1979). To better understand the significance of the two primary works under consideration, it would be ideal to examine them individually and link them to sexuality in the Victorian age.An understanding of the Picture of Dorian Grey has to be taken in view of the life lived by Wilde and the times he was living in. The conservatism of society at the time and the repressive attitudes expressed in the social order were the hallmarks of how individuals were expected to behave in social scenarios. For instance, pursuing and finding a good husband was seen as the only social duty of a lady while professional circles were limited to men and many young people had to actively avoid getting married as per the dictates of their parents. Men who chose not to get married or women who selected the single life were seen with suspicion and were largely considered social outsiders (Beckson, 1979).Wilde himself was married to Constance Lloyd but his homosexual tendencies remained quite obvious to those who knew him well. His literary works were not well accepted as far as his poetry was concerned but the social commentarycontained within his plays was much appreciated (McKenna, 2006).
Because of the motivation made by the same innate nature, dwelling in human breast since ever, man seeks help and support from metaphysical and supernatural beings at the critical moment when he finds himself hapless and surrounded by misfortunes and miseries. Thus, he has established his faith in the powers apparently invisible, but can be traced and seen by gaining some knowledge or metaphysical powers. Man in a state of society, more especially where there is an inequality of condition and rank, is very often the creature of leisure. He finds himself at one time engaged in the accomplishment of his obvious and immediate desires, and at another in a state in which these desires have for the present been fulfilled, and he has no present occasion to repeat those exertions which led to their fulfilment. (Godwin, 2002, p. 9)… So they took soot from a furnace and stood before Pharaoh. Moses tossed it into the air, and festering boils broke out on men and animals. The Qur’an also narrates that the magic was practiced in the Solomon’s kingdom for condemnable purposes of creating differences between husband and wife in order to create disorder in the society. (Al Qur’an, 2: 102) Witchcraft has not been confined to western societies and the Middle East. rather, it had got popularity in Chinese, Egyptian and Indian cultures, where it had been widely practiced as an essential element of the conventions and traditions of these societies. It is therefore the literature of these societies is replete with the tales related to black magic, sorcery, necromancy and witchcraft. Foxes, lizards and cats were the symbol of witchcraft and magic in Chinese culture, and people had developed superstitions in the light of the stories related to witchcraft and black magic found in abundance in the Chinese literature and religious mythology as well. Like Medieval era, Renaissance Age also identifies witches and sorcerers in their society. The literature of that era explicitly defines the evil curse being observed in society. Christopher Marlow’s Dr. Faustus manifestly ratifies the exercising of magic by the satanic forces by revolting against the Divine Law just for obtaining the worldly gains. Similarly, ghosts and demons also frequently made their appearance in Shakespearean plays, which endorse the existence of the same in Elizabethan era. Practicing of black magic and sorcery is actually the outcome of attaining worldly pursuits without making efforts. Additionally, the humans desire to supersede their fellow beings in the race of earning pelf, power, popularity and possession, which cannot be
Chapter III An in depth review of the literature pertaining to the research methodology that will be used to assess the military resource requirements to counterdrug activity along the Southwest border. In this segment only secondary data will be used, understanding that the desired result is the formulation of goals with regards to strategies directly pertaining to MSCLEA deployment along the Southwest border with Mexico. The goal of the research is to detail what steps will be taken to understand the necessary approaches for military assistance with local and federal law enforcement in the restriction of further action by drug trafficking organizations (DTO’s). The literature used in this review of secondary information was taken from various texts, journals, memos and available verifiable internet sources. Among the sources used for research purposes are Congressional Research Services reports, RAND Arroyo Center and the Homeland Security journal. During the searches certain keywords and phrases were used including, military and police merge, securing Americas borders, posse comitatus, border surveillance including military, and drug trafficking organization capabilities. Various available texts were also included as a result of the searches committed. The approach taken will look at the information requested, briefly describe each approach and why it was taken, and show its validity as applied to the goals outlined in the paper. The law governing the use of the military in direct conjunction with domestic based law enforcement agencies is the Posse Comitatus Act, which prohibits federal personnel (i.e. military) from being directly involved in local law enforcement matters. This however, only applies to local matters affected and affecting the local populace, as the interdiction of illegal drugs and the crime accompanying that interdiction affects the populace as a whole the Posse Comitatus Act may not necessarily apply. Inclusion of the military in local law enforcement efforts on the Southwestern Border may continue, This use of the military in antidrug law enforcement was approved by Congress in 10 U.S.C., sections 371–381. (Major Trebilcock, 2000 para 7)As a part of the MSCLEA under Chapter 18 of Title 10 of the U.S. Code, § 374 allows Department of Defense (DOD) personnel to maintain and operate equipment for a variety of purposes, including aerial reconnaissance and the detection, monitoring, and communication of air and sea traffic, and of surface traffic outside of the United States or within 25 miles of U.S. borders, if first detected outside of the border. (Mason, 2010 p 7) Currently as a part of the initiative MSCLEA unmanned UAVs are being tasked to patrol along the border and record, monitor and watch the border on both sides of said border. As of late June 2010, the Air and Marine (AM) branch of the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP’s) office is operating between 5 and 6 Predator B UAVs out of Fort Huachuca/ Sierra Vista, Arizona’s municipal airport. These Predator B UAVs were originally built for the DOD and its various military branches, though they are not tasked through the DOD the technology and support systems is. (Haddal, Gertler, 2010 p 4) Deploying additional drones and support staff in mobile command centers along the border would assist with increased response time and still be within the boundaries of the law. Drug Trafficking Organizations (DTO’s) have many available resources as well, however, with the technology, support and administrative assistance of the United States military these advantages assist in overcoming the DTO’s current potential. (Drug Trafficking Organizations, 2006) Because of the use of weapons and people in a constant flow from Mexico into the United States continues it would be within the bounds of the law, i.e. The Posse Comitatus Act to deploy active duty and reservists in set positions along the border to act as support and interdiction when violence flares. In 2009 a Rand report was released with regards to the need for military and local police being brought together as an appropriately named, Stability Police Force (SPF) this report was directed at current operations by the United States in other much smaller countries. However, the idea pre-eminent in the paper was that the military and local police could be merged into an effective civil force. The direct tasks of the SPF were, performance of high-end policing tasks, identifying and deterring high-end threats, criminal investigations, SWAT, crowd control, and intelligence collection and analysis. (Kelly, Jones, Barnett II, Crane, Davis, Jensen, 2009 p17) The research gathered and disseminated allows us to understand the current approaches being undertaken within the government and to assess the desired goal. Drug Trafficking Organizations. (2006, October). National drug intelligence center national drug threat assessment 2007, strategic findings. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/ndic/pubs21/21137/dtos.htm Haddal, Gertler, C, J. (2010). Homeland security: Unmanned aerial vehicles and border surveillance. Congressional Research Service, 7-5700(RS21698) Major Trebilcock, C. (2000). The myth of posse comitatus. homeland security.org, (para 7), Retrieved from http://www.homelandsecurity.org/journal/articles/trebilcock.htm Mason, R. (2010). Securing Americas borders: the role of the military. Congressional Research Service, 7-5700. (R41286) p 4-7 Kelly, Jones, Barnett II, Crane, Davis, Jensen, T, S, J, K, R, C. (2009). A stability police force for the United States, justification and options for creating U.S. capabilities. RAND Arroyo Center, Contract No. W74V8H-06-C-0001(P 17), doi: ISBN 978-0-8330-4653-6
Through exploration, they also understand how change comes about. They also learn to understand patterns, similarities, as well as differences and how things work the way they do (Ouvry, 2003). In understanding the world, designing and making are essential elements. By designing and making, they learn the construction process and tools involved, including the techniques which are needed in order to build or assemble something (Bilton, 2010). Understanding the world also includes the use of computer technology, learning how to use such technologies including the programmable toys which can support their learning process (Fairfield Children’s Centre, 2011). In relation to time, it is a unit of measurement which helps children understand the world, their past, their present, and their future. Place is also an aspect of their understanding of the world as children become more aware of the natural world and their localities, their communities, and what they may like or dislike about their environment (Fairfield Children’s Centre, 2011). Through their communities, children get a larger understanding of the world, especially as they find out about their culture, and the culture of others. Through their interactions with communities, they also learn to understand the similarities and differences in culture, beliefs, traditions, as well as practices. These elements all contribute to the children’s understanding of the world. According to Ouvry (2003) children learn to understand the world as they start to explore it, and such explorations are often best left to the children, allowing them to make their own discoveries and develop their personal… This report focuses on the conditions of children’s learning and growing. Children learn fast and effectively by doing, by using their hands and their senses to explore and understand their environment. Their progress and development in the future is based on innovation and creativeness. It is therefore crucial for children to be armed with significant and lifelong learning tools, as well as attitudes. In continuing to understand the world, it is important for children to be encouraged in their curiosity, to be assisted as they explore their ideas, and to be encouraged to try things out even if they may not work out well. The knowledge and understanding of the world is based on various elements. One of these elements relate to exploration and investigation This paper makes a conclusion that the above literature indicates the relationship between the outside world and the children’s learning. The studies highlight the importance of allowing children to interact with the outdoors as it helps them acquire skills, knowledge, behaviour, and attitudes which can they can use in better understanding the world. Through outdoor plays and environmental interactions, they are able to gain a better understanding of their classroom instructions, applying theoretical concepts to the real world and on real time. What results is an engaged, dynamic, and diverse learning atmosphere for children who are able to understand and appreciate the world outside their classrooms.
These definitions have therefore lost their significance in modern time when law is being treated as an instrument of social change, but they still have a theoretical significance. The element of ‘justice in law is however considered necessary even in the present time. But what law contemplates today is legal justice and not abstract justice as visualized by the ancient jurists. In the present age law pervades all the spheres of human activities and the state seeks to regulate them. The law therefore has to play a positive role in regulating human conduct. The modern jurists have defined law as a means to secure legal justice. WHAT IS LAW? Law in its most general and comprehensive sense means any rule of action and includes any standard or pattern to which action are or ought to be confirmed. In its judicial sense law means a body of rules of conduct, action or behavior of person, made and enforced by the state. It expresses the rule of human action. It is astructureof rules and guidelines, usually enforced through a set ofinstitutions. As Holland puts it, the term law is employed in jurisprudence not in the sense of abstract idea or order but in that of the abstract idea of rules of conduct2. … Morris also holds similar views about the lack of unanimity in the definition of law and opines that since law has been definitely defined by various legal scientists, from different points of view, there could not be any unanimity of opinion regarding the real nature of law and its definition. Despite there being lot of literature available on law, there is no common definition of law which could acceptable to all. Modern jurists have defined law from different angles. Some have defined in on the basis of its nature, some concentration mainly on its sources. Again some writers define law in terms of ends or purpose of law. About the exact definition of law, Keeton pointed out that to attempt to establish a single definition of law is to seek to confine jurisprudence within the straight jacket from which is continually striving to escape. According to Blackstone, law in its most general and comprehensive sense signifies a rule of action and it applied indiscriminately to all kinds of actions whether animate or inanimate, rational or irrational4. Hooper defines law as any kind of rule whereby actions are framed….that which reason in such sort defines to be good that it must be done5. Ihring defines law as the form of the guarantee of the conditions of life, of society assured by states power of constraints. Thus he treats law only as a means of social control and obedience is secured by the state through external compulsion. Ihring emphasizes that law is an instrument for serving the needs of human society. According to C.J.Gray law is a statement of the circumstances in which public force will be brought to bear upon men through courts6. It consists of
Teaching as a profession requires specific traits in order for a teacher to be effective in achieving for students academic success. There are numerous theories that explore this theme. For instance, Sharick (2007) argued that teachers should have social traits in order to be able to communicate effectively with the students.A social teacher in this theory is one that could display dominant characteristics like that of being enterprising, investigative and a capacity for empathy, among others. The idea is that the relationship between a teacher and the students complement the transfer of knowledge. The concept of leadership, though not a prominent element in this model as suggested by the researcher, can also be considered a social trait. It plays an important role in the way students learn from instruction and classroom interaction because it underpins the efficacy of the social interaction. It takes advantage of the relationship in order to have an authoritative process by which knowledge is imparted and received. Simply put, leadership provides the framework by which a teacher could control the teaching process successfully. Leadership and Best Practice in Teaching Leadership is increasingly becoming a byword in the literature on current best practices in teaching and educational improvement. York-Barr and Duke explained that this is because it is aligned with the notion of individual empowerment and localization of management (p. 255). In this respect, teachers are sought to be empowered and have greater degree of control, with an expanded role in the classroom instruction. This has been the trend in the United States since the 1980s, when leadership came to be considered as an integral component of teacher professionalism (York-Barr and Duke, p. 256). The educational reform aimed to replace the traditional framework of the technical model, which emphasized the transfer of knowledge through systematic inquiry. The new goal is to focus and rely on the teachers’ capability, knowledge and judgment. Leadership figures prominently in this aspect because it allows the teachers to exercise and implement academic decisions, in addition to helping lead pursue educational initiatives. The study conducted by Camburn, Rowan and Taylor in 2003, which evaluated the efficacy of the educational reform found that academic progress was, in fact, achieved in the process. Particularly, the study revealed that those educational reforms that integrated leadership components such as the distributive leadership schemes led to positive outcomes both in the capabilities of the teacher and the students’ academic performance (p. 367). There are numerous studies that reflect these findings. A case in point is that by Ross and Gray (2006), which found that schools with higher levels of transformational leadership had higher collective teacher efficacy, greater teacher commitment to school mission, school community, school-community partnerships, and higher student achievement (p. 798). Also, Copland (2003), in his study of the Bay Area School Reform Collaborative program, found that leadership works well with inquiry-based approach, with distributive leadership playing an important role in implementing inquiry-based practice and collective decision-making at school (p. 375). The empirical evidences that support how leadership contributes to positive student learning outcome are not that surprising. Aside from the quantified direct and positive leadership impact represented by effective cognitive learning outcomes, there is also the deeper socio-psychological discourse that covers education and learning. Here, leadership is critical because it plays an important part in the transformation of behaviors. Encouraging Leaders, Imparting Values According to LeComte (1978), going to school is a socialization process wherein teachers transmit skills, aspirations, norms and behavioral patterns which assist in the assumption of roles (p. 22). This is demonstrated in observing the classroom
The purpose of the paper is to generate an in-depth understanding about the aspects of recruitment. The paper will describe the recruitment process and identify the similarities and dissimilarities between the works of two authors i.e. Bach’s book Managing Human Resources and Torrington, Hall and Taylor’s book Human Resource Management regarding the internal recruitment. Literature Review According to Bach (2005), recruitment and selection is the procedure of selecting the appropriate employees from the pool of inappropriate employees who can effectively fit in the organisational culture and job responsibilities. Bach had mentioned the recruitment model as ‘psychometric’ or traditional method to employment because traditional method of recruitment focused on job and followed a coherent structure of actions. This method is mainly used in service organisations which require high degree of job fit. Bach focuses on finding suitable selection methods which are capable of forecasting appropriate employees from inappropriate employees, i.e. methods which have thorough psychometric components of rationality and consistency (Bach, 2005). According to Torrington et. al. (2008), organisations require finding and getting employees who are required by organisation for success. These employees can be part-time, permanent, or irregular, and the employment relationship with them is the agreement which sums up the aspects of that association so that both parties know their position. According to the authors, the entire employee resourcing procedure is represented by the joint assessment that occurs in selection meeting, in order to identify that if certain candidates are appropriate for the organisation or not. Selection meeting not only assists the organisation to get proper employee, but also helps the applicant for getting his/her desired job (Torrington et. al., 2008). Recruitment Process Both authors have certain similar and a few dissimilar opinions regarding recruitment. According to Bach (2005), recruitment often takes place when a present employee leaves the organisation or when organisations need to fill any vacant job position. The organisational reaction is to replace the old employee with substitute employee so that the absence does not hamper the business operations. Torrington et. al., (2008), described that apart from using recruitment, organisations have several other ways to fill the vacancies. For instance, organisations can reform the tasks by allocating or shifting the time as well as reorganise the work procedures to fill the gap of performance caused by departure of certain employees. However, there are certain situations where recruitment becomes essential even if employees do not leave an organisation, for instance, if organisations enlarge the business or create new divisions in the market. According to Bach’s (2005) point of view, recruitment process includes a methodical appraisal of the necessities of an organisation and detailed examination of job requisite in terms of job analysis. It is essential for an organisation as even when an employee is substituted, there can still be variations in job necessities. Torrington et. al., (2008), had also suggested that job descriptions are crucial for evaluating the job necessities and for preparing the employers for recruiting.
Black Boy is an autobiographic novel of the writer Richard Wright written in the year 1945. While navigating through the plot of this autobiographic novel, one can find the stories of a deprived childhood, the relationships between races in the South and author’s gradual transfer to Chicago where his insights of life instigates him to join the Communist Party gradually and explore his career as a writer. In this novel, amid many themes and motifs Hunger both physical and mental has appeared recurrently. Physical hunger is assertive in the novel by repetitive mention of Richard’s craving for good and more food. However, the motif of hunger which is non-physical or mental in the memoir surfaces out a number of times as well. Richard is hungry for socio-political issues, he is hungry to learn more and he reads medical journals at night after a tiresome day at his menial jobs. Richard is hungry for literature and art. Physical hunger is a mere symbol in the novel indicating a huge space or vacuum in the society. His eventual conclusion that food is very less important as regards to the much more serious problems faced by the world indicates his mental hunger and craving for his food for thought (Wright 280-335).Unplugging Philco is a novel by Jim Knipfel published in the year, 2009. It is a fictitious novel where Knipfel portrays an anonymous attack at the near future from Australia on America. America declares war on Australia due to the fictitious attack named ‘The Horribleness’…. s section of the novel particularly assumes a dehumanized or animal standpoint in the novel which is very much pitted against humanity (Lautraeamont 60-120). Example of Hunger in the book Black Boy by Richard Wright Black Boy is an autobiographic novel of the writer Richard Wright written in the year 1945. While navigating through the plot of this autobiographic novel, one can find the stories of a deprived childhood, the relationships between races in the South and author’s gradual transfer to Chicago where his insights of life instigates him to join the Communist Party gradually and explore his career as a writer. In this novel, amid many themes and motifs Hunger both physical and mental has appeared recurrently. Physical hunger is assertive in the novel by repetitive mention of Richard’s craving for good and more food. However, the motif of hunger which is non-physical or mental in the memoir surfaces out a number of times as well. Richard is hungry for socio-political issues, he is hungry to learn more and he reads medical journals at night after a tiresome day at his menial jobs. Richard is hungry for literature and art. Physical hunger is a mere symbol in the novel indicating a huge space or vacuum in the society. His eventual conclusion that food is very less important as regards to the much more serious problems faced by the world indicates his mental hunger and craving for his food for thought (Wright 280-335). Relation of the Book Unplugging Philco by Jim Knipfel with Post 911 Unplugging Philco is a novel by Jim Knipfel published in the year, 2009. It is a fictitious novel where Knipfel portrays an anonymous attack at the near future from Australia on America. America declares war on Australia due to the fictitious attack named ‘The
This section presents the results of the estimation. In table 1 we present the results of running regression specifications (1) and (2) using OLS and GMM instrumental variable estimation. We have used the S and P 500, Dow Jones as well as the FTSE 100 indices as measures of stock market prices. All three have been included to verify whether the results obtained are robust to changes in stock market indices. For the GMM estimation, lagged values of inflation and the output gap have been used as instruments. Finally, we have incorporated a recession dummy in the 2nd specification. This dummy variable takes the value 1 for all quarters between 2007 Q3 and 2009 Q4. In table 1, the 1st column presents the results of running a simple OLS regression on equation (1). The intercept and the coefficient on inflation are positive and significant. However, the coefficient on the output gap, although quite large is not statistically significant. Thus, from the 1st column where the estimation was carried out of equation (1) we find that the interest rate responds only to the inflation. It does not respond to the output gap. Also, from the last row which presents the Wald test statistic which tests the hypothesis β = γ = 0.5, we find the statistic is highly significant. So, the null hypothesis is rejected by the 1st model. In column 2, the results of estimating the OLS specification (2) are presented. The wald test statistic is 89.25 which is highly significant…. This translates into the query of whether equity price levels as measured by indices such as the Dow Jones or the Standard and Poor 500 should be targeted explicitly by monetary policy or not. Most macroeconomists however are of the opinion that pursuing these queries is not worthwhile since targeting stock market prices requires identification of what the fundamental prices of an asset is before the extent to which the actual price has deviated from the fundamental or target price can be identified. In other words, ex-ante identification of a stock market bubble is extremely difficult. Since the fundamental price of a stock is not verifiable then the nature of deviation of actual prices remains unverifiable as well (Shiller, 1989. Salge, 1997). Bubbles, i.e., increase of prices steadily above fundamentals can be identified ex-post. In hindsight it is clear that the Nasdaq rise or the steady rise in Japanese asset prices in the late 1980’s were such bubbles. But during the respective phases these movements were not convincingly identified as anything other than reflecting fundamental price dynamics. Therefore under these difficulties of recognising stock market volatility in real time the true complexity of asking what the reaction of monetary authorities should be becomes clear. One possible direction suggested in literature is to make the simplifying assumption that the monetary authority is aware of the presence of a bubble and realizes that the collapse of the bubble is imminent. Post-collapse prices will revert back to the fundamental levels. Then ask what the appropriate reaction of the monetary authority should be under such assumptions. (Blanchard, 2000) Opinion among economists
But if there was a single thing that defined the Enlightenment, it was the primacy of reason. This primacy led to all of the other changes in western thought and practice. Voltaire was in many ways the prototypical man of the enlightenment – a cross between a renaissance man and a modern scientist, Voltaire valued reason most highly in all of his philosophical works. The picaresque novel Candide, however, is in many ways atypical of Voltaire’s reputation. Probably the single most significant way it was atypical of the Enlightenment was its willingness to go to polemical extremes – often overstepping its logical argument for rhetorical purposes. One of the fundamental ways the Enlightenment separated itself from the era before it was a paucity of emphasis being placed on rhetorical technique. Rhetorical technique fundamentally relies on the manipulation of emotion, while Enlightenment thinkers would have preferred to win over their opponents through pure reason and logical argument. Candide, however, takes an entirely different tact. One of its basic purposes was to mock the idea of optimism, an idea associated with the thinker Leibniz, and essentially argued that absolute, irrevocable evil did not exist. In some ways Voltaire counters this argument logically in Candide, by, for instance, demonstrating a great number of tragedies that seem to counter the most fundamental idea of optimism, such as ship wrecks, earth quakes, war, thievery and so on (Voltaire). This acts as a logical counter to the ideas that Voltaire is trying to counter. Yet, in an entirely un-Enlightened fashion, Voltaire also resorts to illogical tactics in order to drive his point home further. Rather than simply put the counterpoints logically and leave it at that, Voltaire finds it necessary to mock the very idea of optimism as ridiculous, in order to discredit Leibniz and his followers. Voltaire does this through the creation of the character Pangloss, who calls himself a follower of Leibniz, and indicates that he teaches what the master Leibniz argued (Voltaire 473). Voltaire makes this character the opposite of reasonable, and entirely comical in his idiocy. At one point, for instance, he completely inverts the ideas of cause and effect – saying that the nose is formed for spectacles, therefore we wear spectacles (475). This is obviously the reversal of cause and effect – spectacles are designed for a nose because we have a nose for them to sit on. But by mocking the lack of logic in his opponents, Voltaire actually demonstrates a lack of logic on his own part – this is an ad hominem argument, which is one of the most basic forms of logical fallacy. This thus goes against the fundamental ideas of the Enlightenment, and uses illogical arguments to try to convince the reader of something – in this case, the idiocy of optimism. If there is a single thing that defines the Enlightenment it is an intense attachment to reason and rationality. If an argument cannot stand logically, it should not stand at all under Enlightenment thinking. Voltaire, however, moves away from this in his novel Candide. He seems so eager to make his points, to mock his adversaries, that he results to illogical arguments, placing rhetoric of a previous age above the rationality that was so central to the Enlightenment. Works Cited Voltaire. Candide in Norton Anthology of Western Literature Sarah N Lawall, Ed.
By becoming energy efficient the company becomes cost efficient which provides not only the economic benefit but also a marketing benefit. One way YEG can tap into the eco-consumer market is by providing LED light bulbs that reduce utility bills by up to 80% and have the lifespan of as long as 20 years. In this report, a cost benefit analysis of LED bulbs and its non-LED counterparts will be done and the pros and cons of each product will be analyzed. Green Marketing Analysis Green marketing is essentially the, consumption an disposal of products and services happen in a manner that is less detrimental to the environment (Choudhary Gokarn, 2013). With the rise in the awareness about nonbiodegradeable waste, impact of toxic pollutants and global warming, marketers are consumers are now shifting towards green marketing and becoming more environmentally conscious. We believe YEG can achieve success in green marketing if three key principles given below are followed (Choudhary Gokarn, 2013): Consumer Value Positioning Calibration of Consumer Knowledge Credibility of Product Claim Customers are looking for these three principles when they consider the green products. Consumer value positioning entails providing a product that is just as good if not better, than its alternatives. The value that the customer is looking for should be present in the eco-friendly product. Calibration of consumer knowledge means that you educate the consumers about the specific environmentally friendly attributes of the product. This involves using the ‘green’ aspect of the product as a marketing tool. Marketing the product as a ‘green solution’ for their needs is essential as studies show that if all other things are constant, consumers will prefer the green alternative (Ginsberg Bloom, 2004). Credibility of product claim means that the business should market the products’ benefits in a specific and meaningful manner. Studies show that consumers don’t like ‘green marketing’ if it is done as a, token gesture flashed as eye candy on market literature (Univsersity of Vermont, 2012). Hence credibility of the claims being made is important while implementing this strategy. Keeping in mind these three principles that the customers require, if YEG will provide a product that delivers on all three factors with its value and is a ‘green solution’ then YEG can tap into this market. Annotated Bibliography Mishra, P., Sharma, P. (2012). Green Marketing: Challenges and Opportunities for Business. Journal of Marketing and Communication, 8(1), 35-41 This paper analyzes the need for green marketing in a business, the goals of green marketing and the challenges associated with it. It also examines the benefits it can give to the business if implemented properly and the role this strategy will play in the future. The core theme of this paper was how to pursue green marketing along with its environmental and social dimensions. It suggests that environmental impact assessment must be done in a systemized and effective manner. The three goals that companies must achieve to become ecofriendly include: Cleaning up their products by eliminating hazardous substances, take back and recycle products and reduce climate impact. The marketers should educate the consumers about the benefits of green products and form a policy that addresses their need for a quality product that does not
What does it entail? What kind of statement is this–a definition, a description, or an exhortation? The given statement means that a literary activity arises out of a special occasion of encountering the established order. While lacking the possibilities of development and enhancing the potential of coercion, the statement entails that a social order gives way to the human expression, in the form of literary expression, linked up with the conscience having concern for humanity. The literary activity has to address its social environment and can not remain in isolation. The solipsistic activity can generate a literary activity but it will not be considered a literary piece unless it imbibes within it the cries of uneven social justice. The given statement tries to develop a definition for the literary expression. To identify an expression as a literary expression, the expression must be seen in the light of three things: challenging the existing legal order. having conscience. and must have a concern for the humanity. A literary piece must be having all these three elements in order to be identified as a literary expression. In this sense the statement can be considered as a definitional statement. However, the statement is also exhortative. It is certainly not a universally accepted truth that literary piece must be having all three given elements. … b- Testing the Truth: Is it true? Can we test its truth? How can we justify (or refute) Algren’s claim, and what kind of evidence might suffice? The statement makes a point in such a way that it should be considered as a truth. However, the truth of this sort is different from the truth of many other sorts. There are truth-claims making an objective universal claim of truth. From any perspective such truth-claims can be accepted as truth positions. Sciences, especially those of physical and natural sciences make such claims. For Jurgen Habermas, these forms of truth-claim are purposive-rational and directed towards technical interest of controlling the environment (McCarthy 55). Sciences employ Empirical-analytic method for following purposive-rationality within their specific tradition in order to gain better control on natural environment. The empirical-analytic method brings forward objective truth claims through collecting sufficient experimental evidence. There is however another form of expression that brings forward different sort of social interest, as what Jurgen Habermas says, practical interest (McCarthy 56). Truth generates within society and also embeds within itself the social interests. It is not possible for any individual to transcend this condition, even a scientist needs to be a social being first for producing a scientific fact. Society however does not only generate interest emerged out of as scientific interests. an objective observatory tendency to generate a truth-position for finding out the essential-truth of the natural environment in order to have a predictable control. Society also brings forward the conflicting tendencies rooted in the existing social justice. An expression that emerges out of aesthetic feelings
The large enterprise which has more than 250 employees is just 0.1 percentages of the total enterprises. This indicates the importance of small and medium-sized enterprises. It accounts for more than fifty percent of employment and turnover in the UK. The majority of these small and medium-size organizations are part of the value chain of the production process of large organizations or other organizations. These are suppliers and vendors of various products and materials. The quality of the products of these organizations is crucial for the quality of the products of those organizations which use these products as an essential part or raw material for their organization. This indicates the importance of the quality concerns of the production material and process for these segments as well. Apart from that these organizations form a large employment sector. The appropriate working condition impacts society as a whole. This research proposal aims to study the significance of the quality management concerns of the SMEs in the recent past. The first section of the paper covers the research question and objectives, followed by the literature review and methodology. This is followed by the timescale and resources which would be required for the study.Quality management in SMEs has been one of the interesting topics of research in business studies. One of the core areas of this study has been the varying definition of SMEs, which have made the topic complex to study. First of all for studying the significance of the quality management concerns of SMEs in the recent past it is important to understand various quality management tools and standards adopted by SMEs of various sectors. These sectors can be manufacturing, service, agriculture, or any other. This understanding will give an insight into the quality management tools adopted in SMEs which will include crucial information like when it has been implemented and what kind of changes resulted.
Both Washington and Du Bois were prominent Blacks who propagated education but in different manner. The book Norton Anthology of African American Literature applauds the efforts of these two Black leaders in the field of education and refers to their works with respect. However, it states that both these leaders failed to make any significant reform in the Black education system. In his famous book, Up from Slavery, Washington stresses on the industrial education of the Blacks. He reasoned that a vocation, or a job oriented study would help the Blacks realize their dreams and start an early and successful career of their liking. However, Du Bois in later years dismissed Washington’s claim on industrial education as an essential way of uprising of Blacks and instead stressed on the classical education form. Let us see the background of these writers and the points that the deliver in support of their thinking. Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) was an African American born in the family of a slave. He was the son of a Black slave woman and a White planter. He rose in his life due to proper education and became the last Black politician born into slavery. Washington dominated the America’s African American community during the period of 1890 to 1915. Besides being a political leader, Washington was also an orator, author and educator. Washington remained in power because he was able to influence both the prominent Southern Whites and also the business class Blacks. Besides, Washington was also able to influence the religious and educational classes. Along with his views, he also promoted for black individuals to obtain training in service trades and agricultural occupations (Meier 397). Washington is most famously known for his book Up from Slavery (published 1901). Up from Slavery Up from Slavery is an autobiographical book where Washington pens down his difficulties in rising up from slavery and educate him. Washington was convinced that there is no education which one can get from books and costly apparatus that is equal to that which can be gotten from contact with great men and women…. Instead of studying books … how I wish that our schools and colleges might learn to study men and things (Washington, 1965, p. 49). Washington adopted the means of slow and steady progress and he advocates the same means to his Black readers. The main stress is on useful and marketable skills to pull the Blacks up as a race. Washington realizes that freedom was a great responsibility and that slaves realized they had to think and plan for themselves and their children including the question … of a school … for colored children (Washington 1965, pp. 27 – 28, 32) Washington urges the people of his community that while pursuing an education they should undergo some sort of a vocational or industrial training so that they could earn a decent living for themselves. He termed classical form of education for blacks as impractical. However, the Negroes belonging to working class South and Alabama rejected this theory and demanded more classical form of education for blacks. Critics said opined that this was Washington’s his was also a way of winning the goodwill of the White Southerners who would benefit from the skills of the Black and establish the African Blacks as a useful community. Washington suffered much criticism due to his beliefs and one of his most ardent critics was W. E. B. Du Bois. W. E. B. Du Bois W.
For example, Woody Allen titled his recent book as ‘Mere Anarchy’. (Harmon, (1998) William Butler Yeats, besides being a poet of great repute, played a very active role in Irish politics at the time it was trying to gain its independence from England. As a poet he wrote poems on a wide range of subjects such as Irish folklore, and on many other uplifting themes. Even before his poem ‘The Second Coming’ got published, Yeat’s had become quite famous and even received ‘The Nobel Prize for Literature in 1923 for his highly inspiring poetry and contribution to literature. The mysterious symbolism that he uses in his poems is very meaningful as it is attractive to people from different walks of life, regardless of their personal political views or social standing. The poem reflects the deterioration of European society following the destruction and death of millions of European people. In fact, Yeat’s poem is viewed as a sort of prediction of the violence to follow. The emergence of Hitler who brought in fascism during the 1930’s and the wars that followed proved the poem to be highly prophetic during the 20th century. Yeat’s vision was to steer society away from destruction and shift it back to its strong traditional values and usher in a new order. The opening line of Stanza 1 starts with the image of a falcon in the distance. The falcon is shown to have flown too far away and hence it has got lost in the sky without a glimmer of hope of its return. In those days, when means of transport was hard to come by, people made use of birds such as falcons and hawks at the ground level to help them track animals. In the poem, the falcon is shown to have flown away very far and gets lost in the sky. The poet uses simple yet stylistic language to draw a correlation between the falcon that has lost itself and cannot find its way back to its master, and the collapse of traditional, cultural and social values in Europe during the time W.B Yeats wrote this poem. This correlation can be seen in the following lines – Turning and turning in the widening gyre The falcon cannot hear the falconer. Yeats makes use of the image of a ‘gyre’ to get his point across. Being a spiral, the gyre opens outwards as it rises up and this motion of the gyre is what correlates with the instability and chaos of history as it moves. In regular circumstances, when a falconer sends out a falcon, he watches and waits with his falconer glove, for its return. Inevitably, the falcon always returns and comes back to its mater and sits on his glove. But in the poem, the poet has portrayed the falcon as flying too far off and getting itself lost. The following 4 lines in Stanza I, highlights violence and terror in the world and to give expression to his thoughts Yeat’s uses harsh phrases like – ‘Things fall apart, the centre cannot hold’, ‘Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world’, ‘blood-dimmed’ and ‘innocence drowned’. (Yeats W.B, ‘The Second Coming’) These lines bring out a situation of terror and violence and a feeling that there is a gush of water all around, drowning the innocence left in society, leaving people in despair and a bleak hope of survival. In the next two lines, Yeat’s uses comparison and contrast pitted against each other.
After World War II, the world economy gradually went to integration. With international trade growth, the rapid development of maritime transport has become the most important means in economic development and trade. The world wars of the 20th century promoted the rapid development of technology, which is brought about by a huge move to marine transportation. The most dramatic changes are with ships, such as the diversity of the ship. the ships’ design and manufacturing being upsized and capable and high-speed, as well as the communication technology and safety equipment of the ship.The seaport development is basic on the shipping raise. In the beginning, ports serviced to shipping docks, Marine cargo handling, storage and transport, et cetera. Nowadays, except for those basic functions, according to the requirement of modern logistics, the customers are regarded as the center, which involves perfect management and the controlling of the logistics services. For example, applying the information systems and other networks to improve the effectiveness to request the consumer demand.Just like the way peoples’ lives have changed, there are some important innovations in the ships and ocean transportation that have been made since the 1950s. The purpose of this research is to pay attention to the impact of technology in maritime transport and port management since World War II.Chapter 2 explores the academic literature about the fast development of ships and seaports after World War II and, at the same time, the changing or upgrading of technology in ships and seaports. In this part of the paper, it will also show some of the reasons why Singapore’s port has become the success that it is.Chapter 3 is about the same common method in research, which is what the writer has used. In this part, the pros and cons of this method, such asprimary research and secondary research, are clearly illustrated.
The report consequently recommended that prompt action on cancer prevention should be considered to decrease illness and mortality everywhere in the world. There are many risk factors associated with the causation of cancers. These include certain eating habits like extreme intake of salt, fatty foods, and meat, low intake of fruits and vegetables, cigarette smoking, and excessive alcohol intake (Tsugane, 2005). Practically, all the aforementioned dietary factors have been observed to be present in junk foods that the college students are accustomed to. However, this might be changed by proper nutrition and health-related education. It is perceived that such poor eating habits are as a result of inadequate knowledge of the increasing effects of their eating habits. Nutritional knowledge has been recognized as a significant factor for adequate nutrition, which improves host’s resistance to chronic diseases. Numerous studies have pointed out the helpfulness of nutrition knowledge in the prevention of cancer, particularly diet related cancers (Anderson et al, 2004). Diet is deemed as one of the strongest environment cancer-causing factors with an estimated 80% of breast, colon, and prostate cancers, and a third of all cancers, attributed to related lifestyle and dietary factors (Awad, Bradford, 2006). Consequently, although it is not yet likely to provide quantitative estimates of the total risks, dietary factors are presumed to been related to 35% of deaths as a result of cancer. Diets containing fruits, vegetables and spices might provide significant health benefits in terms of cancer prevention and treatment by defeating the inflammatory procedures that lead to transformation, hyper proliferation and the beginning of carcinogenesis. However, the dietary component in these agents in control of their capability to fight the effects of cancer and their mechanism for fighting cancer remain unknown (Sung et al, 2011). Based on epidemiological studies, common predictors of cancers include reduced physical activity, excessive adiposity, and unhealthy diets (Eslami et al, 2012). Statement of the Problem People can take positive steps toward preventing some form of cancer through their diet. It is unclear the extent to which people are aware of the relationship between their dietary choices and cancer prevention. This study will, therefore, examine people’s dietary choices and their perception regarding the link between these dietary choices and cancer. More specific, it will address the following questions. 1. To what extent do people consume food with known links to cancer? 2. To what extent are people aware of the link between the foods and cancer? Definition of Terms The following terms are defined here for the purpose of better understanding of their intended meaning in this research. Cancer: Diseases characterized by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division. The cancer cells can attack surrounding tissues, may as well spread through the lymphatic system and blood stream to other body parts. Oncology: Refers to the study of cancer. Mortality: Refers to the number of deaths due to a specific cause such as the number of deaths caused by cancer. Prevalence: Refers to the rate of cancer in a given population at a given point in time. CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE The
The changing business environment calls for companies to adopt better ways that can
provide cost cutting measures at the same…Management
Johnson took that helped them navigate thisdivis
Chapter 4 Public Opinion 75
Pick of the Literature
The New York Times, nytimes.com, and The Wall Street
Public relations can be practiced only by understanding
public opinion, and two of the most prominent daily forums
Both papers, through their opinion pages and in-depth
in which to study it are The New York Times and The Wall
stories, express the attitudes of leaders in politics, business,
Street Journal or, as is increasingly the case, their online
science, education, journalism, and the arts, on topics rang-
vehicles, nytimes.com and wsj.com.
ing from abortion rights to genetic engineering to race rela-
Despite the 21st-century problems of newspapers, these
tions. Occasionally, the Times and the Journal supplement
two most venerable news organizations reveal the diverse
their usual coverage with public opinion polls to gauge at-
views of pundits, politicians, and plain people. The Times
titudes and beliefs on particularly hot issues. Sure, the news
is arguably the primary source of printed news in the world.
is often infuriating, but it’s also a joy to know more about
The Journal, likewise, is the primary printed source of the
what’s going on than virtually anyone else.
world’s business and investment news – an area of increas
The Times and the Journal are clearly the most important
ingly dominant importance.
reference works any public relations professional can read
(even including this book!).
The Tylenol Murders
Arguably, the two most important cases in the history of the prac-
tice of public relations occurred within four years of each other to
Caught by Surprise
the same product and company.
Johnson amp; Johnson’s management was caught totally by surprise
For close to 100 years, Johnson amp; Johnson Company of New
when the news hit. The company recognized that it needed the
Brunswick, New Jersey, was the epitome of a well-managed, highly
media to get out as much information to the public as quickly
profitable, and tight-lipped consumer products manufacturer.
as possible to prevent a panic. Therefore, almost immediately,
Johnson amp; Johnson made a key decision: to open its doors to
On the second day of the crisis, Johnson amp; Johnson discov-
That image changed on the morning of September 30, 1982,
ered that an earlier statement that no cyanide was used on its
premises was wrong. The company didn’t hesitate. Its public
when Johnson amp; Johnson faced as devastating a public relations
relations department quickly announced that the earlier informa-
problem as had confronted any company in history.
ion had been false. Even though the reversal embarrassed the
That morning, Johnson amp; Johnson’s management learned
company briefly, Johnson amp; Johnson’s openness was hailed and
that its premier product, extra-strength Tylenol, had been used as
made up for any damage to its credibility.
a murder weapon to kill three people. In the days that followed,
Early on in the crisis, the company was largely convinced that
another three people died from swallowing Tylenol capsules
the poisonings had not occurred at any of its plants. Nonetheless,
loaded with cyanide. Although all the cyanide deaths occurred in
Johnson amp; Johnson recalled an entire lot of 93,000 bottles of
Chicago, reports from other parts of the country also implicated
extra-strength Tylenol associated with the reported Chicago mur-
extra-strength Tylenol capsules in illnesses of various sorts. These
ders. In the process, it telegrammed warnings to doctors, hospi
latter reports were later proved to be unfounded, but Johnson amp;
tals, and distributors and suspended all Tylenol advertising.
Johnson and its Tylenol-producing subsidiary, McNeil Consumer
But what about all those millions of dollars worth of Tylen
Products Company, found themselves at the center of a pub-
capsules on the nation’s shelves?
lic relations trauma the likes of which few companies had ever
The company was convinced such a massive recall wasn
warranted by the facts. It was convinced that the tampering ha
Tylenol had been an astoundingly profitable product for
taken place during the product’s Chicago distribution and not
Johnson amp; Johnson. At the time of the Tylenol murders, the prod-
the manufacturing process. Further, the FBI was worried that
uct held 35% of the $1 billion analgesic market. Throughout the
precipitous recall would encourage copycat poisoning attempt
years, Johnson amp; Johnson had not been-and hadn’t needed to
Nonetheless, five days later, when a copycat strychnine pois
be-a particularly high-profile company. Its chairperson, James E.
ing occurred in California, Johnson amp; Johnson did recall all ext
Burke, with the company for almost 30 years, had never appeared
strength Tylenol capsules-31 million bottles-at a cost of m
on television and had rarely participated in print interviews.
than $100 million.Marketing
If the white female dancer with the American Flag tattoo is
a symbol signifying that the quot;American Dreamquot; is an
illusion for those young African-American men, what
connection should we draw between that symbol and the
narrator’s dream at the end of the story?Literature
Modernism was moving in two different directions. While T.S. Eliot and Pound found
motivation and subjects in arcane conventions of the classical and medieval Europe and Asia,
don’t needRunning head: IMPACTS OF LITERATURE Impacts of Literature
Institution 1 IMPACTS OF LITERATURE 2
Impacts of Literature
How literature impacts our life Literature is affecting our…Literature
Equality of intelligence, and the social order come together in my section of the chapter, The
Society of Contempt. Ranciere focuses on the idea of a reasonable man, and of how they act in the forced social order. The process of society , the human creation of organization, can be idealized similarily to Thomas Hobbes’ idea of the nation state. But in Ranciere’s idea of the pre-state, instead of there being uncivilized people out for their own interests, there are reasonable people who are all equally intelligent. Society, in Ranciere’s view, is an oppressive regime consisting of people who have placed the order of society over their freedom as bearers of reason and are obedient to the ideas and rules of the social order as they will benefit from being citizens with rights and order. To Ranciere the citizen is an inferior version of a man who is a person possessing of freedom from the sentiment of the inequality of intelligence (86) meaning a reasonable man knows that everyone is born with equal intelligence and that society is something that cannot be rationalized but must be obeyed.
1. Ranciere claims that the battlefield is the true portrait of our society just like how the reasonable man must battle with inner conflicting reason and the reality of an oppressive social order.
- can you use any real life institutions as an example of this statement?
2. What do you think Ranciere means when he says social inequality starts with an acknowledgment of equality of intelligence?
ROLE OF LITERACY
Literature: It is writing considered as an art form or a form of writing deemed to have artistic or
intellectual value and often deployed languages in ways it differs from ordinary…Social Science
Health ServicesEconometrics Assignment
Institution 1. The author is trying to assess whether system membership affects patient outcomes
broadly defined. The study expands the literature on health…Economics
TOPIC: After reading the introductory section onSurname 1 Student’s name
Enlightenment Ideals in Tartuffe
The Enlightenment is a historical period during which reason was placed as a primary value. The
41000 In the article, the author describes that they use data software to anise the data collected. The author presents the data in graphs and tables reflecting the collected information. Besides, the information is discussed in a logical, manner to explain the identified gaps. The discussion borrows widely from the works of other studies to draw conclusions and recommendations. Therefore, in this perspective, the author meets all the basic requirements of the research. The authors use literature review in various ways. First, he uses it to show studies that have been done previously. The articles the authors review represent various studies in the past. In this, the authors explain the main aims of the studies hypothesis and the finds of these studies. When relevant the author also shows various recommendations the scholars made. By critically explaining the researchers reviewed, the scholars seek to prevent duplication of the work. Doing studies that have been already done wastes both resources and time that could be employed in other places. Secondary, the author uses the review of articles from other scholars to identify the gaps in the study. This is the gaps that he eventually will seek to fill by his study. In this, the authors compare the objectives of one study with the findings of the study to find whatever that was left out. These they draw them from various sources on one study. In another aspect, the authors compare related findings to show various gaps that studies did not fulfill.
Part Summary The aspect of whiteness in management in different organizations that are characterised by diversity is a source of power and it is deeply entrenched in the status quo of such organization. In brief, it can be noted that whiteness is seen as the invisible norm in different organizations which ought to be interrogated to improve the effectiveness of the organization in terms of communication.
2. The paper mainly presents three themes on whiteness namely interrogating, re-centering and masking whiteness. The first theme tries to uncover the hidden assumptions that are related to the aspect of whiteness. Re-centering whiteness is a theme that is seen as normal way of doing things while on surface all people are regarded as equal. The third theme, masking whiteness protects their superiority.
From these themes, it can be seen that there is need to interrogate whiteness in order to realise the problematic assumptions that help to re center or mask the aspect of whiteness. It can also be seen that the issue of whiteness is hidden and it portrays itself in a subtle way in different organizations. The invisibility of whiteness has to be investigated in order to enhance organizational effectiveness when managing diversity. This helps all the people to freely give their ideas without any prejudice.
Part 2: Reaction
i. What has made me uncomfortable through reading this article is that we are made to believe that we are all equal on surface while in actual fact there is a certain race that is seen as superior. In many multinational organizations, senior management posts are held by whites but there are also other people from other races who are capable of performing the same task.
ii. What I had not realised is that the issue of whiteness is significantly gaining prominence in the world of management. Measures are being taken in order to try to address this problematic issue which gives other people more privilege than others on the basis of race.
iii. My question is related to the measures that can be taken in order to change the status quo. While the aspect of whiteness is acknowledged in different sectors of the society, it can be seen that the whites have a hidden unfavourable privilege over other races which may be difficult to challenge since it is entrenched in people’s lives such that they see it as normal.
iv. Favourite quote: “One important practical implication of the interrogating whiteness perspective is that it brings to light our hidden assumptions about difference” (402).
Part 3: Relation
This article is closely related to different incidences that I encounter in my life in many occasions. There is so much talk about the issue of equality among different people but it can be seen that there is a hidden element of racial superiority in favour of whites in different institutions. Whites yield more power compared to their counterparts from other races counterparts from other races. Even in our daily lives, be it on television of any other form of media, it can be seen that whites are portrayed as superior than other races.
Diane Susan Grimes. ‘Challenging the status quo? Whiteness in the diversity
management Literature. Management communication quarterly, vol 15, no 3, February 2002, 381- 409.
There are many sources that may lead to research.  . Three sources of knowledge usually add to problem discovery. . Researchers own experience or other researchers experience may be a source of research problem. . Scientific literature could be another source of research problem. .
A researcher may understand certified findings and observe that a certain discipline was not well covered. . This might lead to a researchable research problem. . Theories could lead to a research problem. In that the shortcomings in theories might be researchable. Research can therefore be intended at descriptive or substantiating a presented theory, at expounding conflicting findings, at amending a defective methodology, at amending the insufficient or inappropriate use of numerical techniques, at integration of contradictory opinions, or at providing solutions at existing realistic problems.
The potential researcher does think of what influenced his or her need to conduct the research which is referred to as problem identification. .The researcher thinks of what he/she needs to do: the researcher should think of the questions about research problem to which responses and findings have not been established.
According to Winston-Bartlett (2001), research problem develops from a necessity that arises. . An apparent difference between the research problem and the purpose of research should be developed. . The research problems are the characteristic the researcher doubts, reflect about, and needs to find an explanation for. . The research purpose is to resolve the problem, which is discovering answers to the research question(s). . If there is no unambiguous research problem development, the research purpose and methods are pointless.
Therefore, the researcher ought to’s to keep the following in mind. (1) Sketch out the wide-ranging
Cherlin points out child bearing outside family, changes in household labour division, cohabitation and gay marriage as factors which redefined the structure of marriage as a social intitution (403). Other materialistic trends included “decline of agriculture labour and the corresponding increase in wage labour. the decline in child and adult mortality. rising standards of living.and in the last half of the 20th century, the movement of married women into the paid workforce”(403). These factors along with global events including depression and World War II brought in changes in the sociological understanding of the term marriage to a large extend.
One of the first meaning assigned to marriage was that of a process which legitimises sexual relationship and to have children. Cherlin here provides a comparitive global picture on the understanding of marriage at this context. He notes that this trend resulted in an increase in the percieved importance of marriage among young Americans during the 1950s (403). This trend began to diminish in the 1960s. The median age of marriage in US began to be as it used to be in early 1900s (403). Cherlin also notes that during this perion living together before marriage became more common. Another notable trend during this period was that divorses increased and “same sex unions found greater acceptance”.
The article further talks about the transition from companionate marriage to individualistic marriages. The three vital characterestics of these marriages were. self development. flexible and negoitibale roles within marriages and communication and openness in confronting problems(404). The article provides extensive literature support which suggests similar trends.
Cherlin identifies that a complete deintitutionalisation of marriage occurred in the 20th century. Here the bonding of marriage was not based on the traditional roles as that of raising children. These
The legal framework and procedure that should be followed to resolve the potential or existing dispute between the firms or other parties to an externality are critical (Kaul, 1999). It is therefore important that strategic tools are put in place and surrounding factors captured in settling the affecting individuals.There are legal frameworks that guide the bargaining power of the affected parties when it comes to externalities.It is therefore important that strategic tools are put in place and surrounding factors captured in settling the affecting individuals.The objective of this study would involve determining various forms of externalities that a firm presents to the society. It would also help in establishing whether there are diverse resolutions legal mechanisms to the affected individuals through systematic bargaining approach.
Externalities have remained a critical aspect of the corporate world and its relationship with the members of the community (Kaul, 1999). The establishment of a legal bargaining process for the affected members is key in promoting the general welfare of the society by the firms. Besides, the outcomes of the research would provide information that would serve as a literature review in further future studies.
Collecting relevant data and incorporating them into existing legal framework reforms would be an uphill task considering the deep political aspects of the corporate world. Besides, the research requires a significant amount of funds and time which poses a real challenge to the resolution mechanism establishment.
A Dream Deferred
Struggling in life makes one to stand strong and never be shaken by any kind of situation that comes on one’s way. When one comes out successful through struggling, it leaves behind a positive lesson for those who are in the same circumstances. It will help them to take heart and think positively about their future that will benefits others by being their role model as it is in the case of Mario Escobar, Matias Ramos, and Stephanie Solis.
When Mario Escobar lost his father, cousins and grandmother as a result of El Salvador’s brutal civil war, he never gave up his dreams but fought hard for his life. Being a student at the University of California, money was a barrier to his academic endeavors but through struggle he is currently pursuing his Ph.D. in literature.
On the other hand, Matias Ramos, who was not eligible, for in-state tuition and his parents. They were not able to rise for his fees struggled hard until he was able to complete his four-year course in college. Stephanie Solis too had financial difficulties when she enrolled to UCLA. She decided to become a housecleaner. she made cardboard boxes, and tutoring which helped her save money that enabled her get through UCLA.
The Langston Hughes poem, “A Dream Deferred” reflects a dream, which achievement is by hard work. The poem relates to the stories of Matias Ramos, Mario Escobar, and Stephanie Solis since their dreams were achieved through a tough struggle and hardships. In the poem, the dream is a load that is so heavy to bear and can not let one go a milestone to achieving the desired goals in life. The dream in the poem is full of pain, sorrow, and hardships that is not worthy to bear and can only be achieved by one who can only live the hard way out. As in the case of Mario Escobar who after surviving the El Salvador’s brutal civil war where he lost his parents, he never gave up but struggled the hardest way out to achieve his dreams. The same applies to Stephanie Solis and Matias Ramos whose dreams were like a heavy load that had no signs of exploding, but through struggle they are at the top of their dreams.
The internet has continually paved way for new research methods, particularly in the survey domain. The transformative trend in research has been evident following the inception of the World Wide Web (WWW) and its vistas. For instance, there are web surveys, where respondents are provided with hyperlinks to websites containing the questionnaires or survey questions. This is the survey method I utilized during the class mini-study. The survey website, SurveyMonkey made it possible for me to formulate a questionnaire for my study titled, “What Value does Parole Supervision Add?” Just like the primary research question asserts, the study sought to examine people’s opinion on whether parole supervision is beneficial in the process of rehabilitating offenders (SurveyMonkey, 2014). I formulated the research question as a way of exploring validity of parole supervision as a valid rehabilitation measure, especially following increased contention of its applicability. Few respondents answered the questionnaire, making it difficult to conclusively prove or disprove the hypothesis that, parole supervision adds value to offender rehabilitation. Nonetheless, the two respondents indicated that parole supervision is a positive and effective correctional strategy (SurveyMonkey, 2014). This shows that 100% of the willing research participants supported the hypothesis that parole supervision adds value to restoration of offenders to productive societal positions.
Judging from the mini-study, it was apparent that web based surveys have several advantages and disadvantages as discussed further herein. One of the principal advantages of the web based survey is that it allows respondents to fill questionnaires instantaneously without incurrence of transmission costs (Fricker &. Schonlau, 2002). This is because, as seen in the study, the individuals simply had to access the SurveyMonkey hyperlink and provide their answers. The other advantage is that the survey questions are standardized. this ensures that there is no interviewer bias, which is not the case in other research methods such as observation. I also realized that the survey method used is advantageous since the web platform makes it possible to generate visual data interpretation aids such as graphs. Consequently, it is relatively easy to analyze research findings. Further, online surveys are ordinarily time saving, since one is able to reach out to many respondents via one platform. In addition, individuals are able to provide their responses at their own time hence convenience. The web-based survey used also allows one to progressively monitor respondents’ answers and analyze them as they stream in (Maxfield &. Babbie, 2008).
In regard to disadvantages, the most significant one noted is that, the response rate is poor. This is perhaps attributable to the fact that, potential interviewees do not feel obliged to respond to the questions (Fricker &. Schonlau, 2002). Another demerit of a web-survey noted in the mini-study is the failure of respondents to answer all the questions in the structured questionnaire. Failure to respond to some questions further makes it difficult for a researcher to obtain conclusive study results. I also realized that the standardization of questions limits respondents’ answers. This is disadvantageous, especially in a subject like criminal justice, where answers are bound to vary from one respondent to another. For example, while the respondents were quick to agree that parole supervision adds value to rehabilitation, they differed on the level of its efficacy and its importance to individuals and the correctional system in general. This shows that surveys are not the best research tools in the study of criminal justice subjects, since answers are not clear cut (Maxfield &. Babbie, 2008).
Fricker, D. &. Schonlau, M. (2002). Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet Research Surveys: Evidence from the Literature. Field Methods, 14 (4), 347-367.
Maxfield, M. &. Babbie, E. (2008). Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
SurveyMonkey. (2014). What Values does Parole Supervision Add? Retrieved from https://www.surveymonkey.com/analyze/browse/XzzCyKn95mptCxEVd9uhjt256KVdGu2r8I_2FGk1ddnPQ_3D
Heaven" Dante produced the image of hell in parts which have an authority to punish the sins of a particular degree.1 According to Dante, there are nine circles that constitute the hell and are located within the earth. The religion of Islam has also got a very vivid image of hell which is explained in great detail in its literature i.e. Quran and Hadith. Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is believed to have visited the hell himself when he went on Miraj" (Quran 17:1). Muslims belief in hell is quite different from Dantes hell in many ways. These differences are discussed in the coming paragraphs.
The first difference between the two hells is of location. Dantes hell is believed to be within the earth, preferably underground. Muslims hell, on the other hand, is not located within the earth. Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H) traveled at more than the speed of light upwards in the sky. That gives us an idea of how far the hell is from the earth. He travelled seven skies and it is not possible for normal human beings to go beyond the boundary of even the first sky while they are alive. Second really important difference is of the constituents of the two hells. Dantes inferno consists of nine circles namely Limbo, lust, gluttony, greed, anger, heresy, violence, fraud, treachery. Muslim hell is one gargantuan place which is larger than the planet earth. Another distinction between the two concepts is that in Dante’s inferno, people who prayed for forgiveness before their deaths are not found in hell but they labor for their freedom from their sins. Islam teaches that this world is a place of doing good deeds and refrain from sins. Forgiveness is granted in abundance by Allah. Even a person who has committed a hundred murders can be forgiven in his life at once if he asks for Allah’s forgiveness from the deepest pit of his heart and does not repeat his sins.
The first .circle of Dante’s hell is Limbo. Limbo contains the people from different religions and beliefs who did not accept Christ but were good and pious and refrained from committed sins.
It is an important feature of contemporary society and one which is set to grow as network technologies, such as the Internet, enable us to communicate almost instantaneously with organizations and individuals regardless of geographical location. For example, it is because of the emergence of a ‘borderless’ society that law enforcement agencies increasingly seek to be exempted from the full rigors of the privacy laws. That this kind of exemption can lead, in turn, to misuse and abuse of these powers is perhaps one of the ‘costs’ we have to bear if law enforcement agencies generally are to be effective in combating crime in the information age.
However, before evaluating how ethically right is the State’s intervention in the privacy of the members of the society for its proposed public interests, the very terminology of “Privacy” needs to be understood.The extensive material the n literature on the definition of Privacy reveals that the term’s meaning differs under various approaches to privacy offered by different scholars. Privacy’s most widely spread definition has been coined by Warren &. Brandeis (1890, p. 205) who define privacy, as an intrinsic value, the “right to be let alone” (Stahl, 2007). Another approach to define privacy by (Stalder, 2002) is that of informational self-determination which sees privacy as the right to determine who accesses person-related data. This interpretation is widely spread in continental Europe whereby privacy may be taken in terms of property which includes the protection of an individual’s financial records, health records, ex-directory telephone numbers, criminal records, etc.
If person-related information can be treated as property, then privacy issues can be reduced to the more established (intellectual) property law as Spinello (2000) puts it. .
However, after the discovery of vast reserves of petroleum in Saudi Arabia, the country has been a central focus of globalisation, internationalisation and modernisation . This has caused the Basic Law of the country, which is steeped in Sharia to be re-examined and reviewed in order to streamline Saudi Arabia’s laws with the international order.
This study has identified in the preliminary analysis that the religious and political leadership have shaped the modern history of Saudi Arabia which has in turn influenced the traditions of the Kingdom. The literature review identifies that the international order of the international community is strongly steeped in the Eurocentric theories and concepts of statehood.
This study will seek the end of identifying the variance and similarities between the Western view of civil society and the current Saudi civil society systems and structures. This is because preliminary readings show that there are various variances and limitations in the way and manner through which the two different civil society structures are organized. This is because literature identifies that Saudi Arabia’s political and religious institutions are authoritarian in nature. This is not the same as what exists in the Western world.
Thus, the dissertation will focus on the articulation of a new construct that will define a new and completely different set of actionable proposals and principles that can be implemented by public policymakers and key stakeholders in the civic society. The recommendations will be based on the findings and empirical analysis of various approaches used in other parts of the world to attain convergence between local and international civil society groups.
The aim of the study is to examine Saudi Arabia’s civil society in the context of international political theory over the past century. In order to attain this end, the following objectives will be
Voices of Freedom “Capture the American civil rights movement in the voices of those who were there, and thereby give … some idea of the raging torrents that had engulfed America in the fifties, sixties, and seventies and that came to be known as the civil rights and black consciousness movements.” These were the words of Henry Hampton, describing the purpose of the book The Voices of Freedom.
The book has been able to capture the scope of the major themes in the struggle for freedom experienced by various people from different places all over the world. These topics include the fight against slavery, the struggles against racism, the issues brought about by globalization and themes in the new century, post September 11th, 2001. The book brings to life the various architects, movers and shakers of civilizations from the 1700’s to the year 2009. It provides biographies and a brief historical context of the period in which an interview with the historical figure happened. The following is an analysis of three of the main points of this book and a brief focus on Fredrick Douglas.
The first theme that is predominant throughout the book is that of human rights. From the first chapter on, Adam Smith and the results of colonization on the societies present in the new world to the last chapter on September 11 and the next American century we find the theme of the struggle to be heard. The importance for the establishment of freedom with respect to human rights.
This has been established as the main reason leading to most conflicts especially when one group feels its rights and freedoms are not upheld. This leads to civil unrest such as the ones advocated for by the African Americans in the 1950s and 60s and highlighted by sensational leaders such as Fredrick Douglas, Martin Luther, and Malcolm X.
The second theme is that of freedom. This theme is as relevant as that of human rights in that they both co-exist in a political social and economic set up of any society. In this book, it has ties with all other themes as it cuts across all of them. The concept of freedom and liberation is what drives all of them. Good examples of this, is the way it is visible in the establishment of a new nation in chapter 7, democracy in America in chapter 11 and chapters 14 and 15 which deal with the civil war and Reconstruction respectively (Bliss 63).
The last -but not the least- point of our focus is slavery. Slavery is a theme that dominated over all the class struggles in the United States and the world over many centuries this led to uprising that demanded the observation of equal rights and freedoms to all races. This demand was led by organizations as well as individuals in a society. In America, we can see this struggle through such monumental figures as Martin Luther King and Fredrick Douglas.
Fredrick Douglas was a born slave who later on became a pioneer writer and advocator for equal rights and against slavery. He overcame various personal struggles to achieve his goal.
One can conclude that there is a great need for debate and understanding of the needs and themes that affect all major societies, especially in this day and age through literature such as voices of freedom this debate that started two centuries ago has not ended, merely changed, and will not stop until the fundamental principles are reached in our societies.
Bliss, Bill. Voices of Freedom. White Plains, New York: Pearson Education, 2010. Print.
in Europe, Hong Kong and Singapore in Asia, and various Caribbean island nations in the Americas.” (2004: p 2) The study makes a comparative analysis of the tax haven regions with heavy tax zones to project the differences economies examine in respect of laving taxes on the companies and firms. The present study has also been supported by the literature relevant to the topic of the research. The research also contains theoretical framework in its fold that is helpful in elucidating the topic under study.
Different economies of the world at large have offered a variety of incentives to the corporations, organisations, and firms so that investment can be made within their economic set up, and economy could observe an imperative boost in the state of perfect competition created all over the globe in the aftermath of globalisation. The UK, USA, the UAE and other countries have established offshore centres for the local, national and multinational firms and brands, where the firms of sound reputation are offered considerable concessions in taxes and tolls, which encourages more and more firms make investment under rules and regulations designed by the governments for the offshore centres. “According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development”, Almeida submits, “international tax competition is lowering tax rates and making government expenditure more efficient worldwide.” (2004: p 2) Though tax havens do not exist in China and Germany in their true definition, yet there exist several low tax authorities in many countries of the world. These include Italy, the USA, Canada, China, Germany, France, Australia and others. “About a quarter of US and UK FDI”, Dharmapala notices, “is located in tax havens. By way of comparison, tax havens are home to only 0.7 per cent of the worlds population when havens are defined as in DH (2006), or just 0.2 per cent when using the OECD definition.” (2008: p 4)
Since low tax rates leave indelible
There is a vast body of research on the intricate link between academic success and a perceived self-worth. There is also a large amount of research detailing how the dynamics of student-teacher interactions play a key role in the formation of self-worth by these same students. However, Fay and Funk (1995) point out that educators only have access to the formation of such perceptions when providing feedback to behavior. Schroeder (n.d.) points out that feedback also involves the methods by which the educator communicates correctness of student responses to academic questions.
Jim Fay’s (1995) discussion of three major teaching styles reminders readers that feedback sends not only the overt message of the words used but the covert messages of tone, actions and general body language. Of the three teaching styles – helicopter, drill sergeants, and consultants – it is the consultant teacher who embodies the overt and covert “messages of personal worth, dignity, and strength” (Fay &. Funk, 1995, p. 197). When looking to the strategies employed by consultant teachers, it becomes obvious that these can be used with all teaching styles to provide corrective feedback in a whole instruction setting.
First, educators should make sure the questions being asked are of appropriate difficulty and cognitive levels while being stated as clearly as possible. Schroeder (n.d.) suggests that questions dealing with new material should be such that 80% of the responses given are correct and 90+% for review materials. Educators may find that low-level questions that ask what, where, and who are best for this. Such pedagogical procedures will promote self-esteem as well as momentum needed to progress with instructional activities. Students will then be more willing to work for answers to higher order questions dealing with the why and how.
Secondly, teachers should react to responses in such a way as to encourage student answers. Quick, certain responses that are correct need only affirmation that they are indeed correct. Correct but hesitantly given responses need the affirmation of correctness as well as praise and perhaps a short review of why the response is correct. Incorrect responses that are due to a careless error need only a quick reference to the error and time for the student to be allowed to provide the correct answer. Incorrect answers based on a lack of knowledge should be met with prompts and hints that may engage the needed information. Clarifying, rephrasing, or even changing the difficulty level may also assist these students (Schroeder, n.d.). Educators should provide students with every opportunity to get a correct answer but should not prolong the experience once it becomes obvious that the student lacks the knowledge needed.
Third, instead of issuing orders teachers should present expectations as a challenge of something the student can and will do – positive expectancy. There are many procedures that will engender such an atmosphere. However, students sometimes resist the challenge even though a sense of positive expectancy has been created. Effective teachers will continue to work with the student and try to help him identify how to meet the expectation.
Such teachers are engaging in tenacity (Saphier &. Gower, 1987). Tenacious teachers engage in a “no excuses” policy. In this procedure the teacher will ask why the student is unable to meet the expectation. She will then refuse to accept such excuses. Work may be sent back to be done over. supplies may be procured and provided to the student. help and individual instruction may be offered more often. and eventually the consequences of the performance – superior, adequate, or poor – will be given without anger (Saphier &. Gower, 1987).
Such a discussion is not complete without including a mention of negative feedback. It has been posited that negative feedback may be damaging to self-worth. According to Saphier and Gower (1987), “…honest feedback…does not damage students’ self-image…[t]eachers show they are caring people through feedback that is clear and honest…” (p. 381-382). When students provide an incorrect answer, they must be told that their answer is incorrect. The question then becomes how to provide the needed feedback without seeming to single out or humiliate the student.
If it is important to receive correct answers from individuals, revisiting might prove useful. The educator should note which students have not answered correctly as well as a question that each student can answer. At some point in the question-and-answer session, the educator will return to the student with this question. Once the student has provided a correct answer, praise is given.
If the group is having trouble with a particular concept, choral response seems to be the most widely used method to provide whole class feedback (Schroeder, n.d.). Here the teacher provides the correct answer(s) and the students provide the correct response (often repeatedly) as a group when the question is asked in various forms.
Perhaps the most beneficial practice is to create a climate in which incorrect answers are a natural happening. Students need to know that making a mistake is a part of life and how to deal with mistakes without embarrassment or becoming defensive. After students have sufficiently mastered a particular skill, teachers may even create situations in which they make mistakes and then praise students for catching those mistakes (Schroeder, n.d.).
Fay, J. &. Funk, D. (1995). Teaching with love &. logic. Golden, CO: The Love &. Logic Press, Inc.
Saphier, J. &. Gower, R. (1987). The skillful teacher. Carlisle, MA: Research for Better Teaching, Inc.
Schroeder, B. (n.d.). The research literature: academic feedback. Retrieved June 30, 2008, from http://www.usu.edu/teachall/text/effective/research/feed.pdf
246). A love affair between rich Tokyo dilettante, Shimamura, and a young geisha, Komako, is the main story of the novel. However, cultural symbolism interwoven in the plot of the story makes it look like a Japanese puzzle. It is both interesting to read and complex to understand all the meanings of writer’s cultural riddles. One has to be well aware of Japanese cultural nuances to accept Kawabata’s book as easy reading of a love story. Romantic relationship is not the main idea the writer wants to express. There are much more issues of cultural identity which are raised in this literary work.
To understand and appreciate Kawabata’s “Yukiguni” a reader has to be competent in Japanese culture and literature enough. Also difference in mentality and perceptions of Japanese and Western culture might influence on understanding Kawabata’s work. There is no wonder in different interpretations of the main messages’ meaning, because Kawabata’ “characters are determined by forces so completely beyond their control that these characters typically appear to the Western reader almost pathologically passive and irresolute” (Pollack, 102). At the same time, however, life and human relationships in different cultures are much alike. There is no wonder that a non-Japanese reader will associate himself/herself with Shimamura or Komato.
Furthermore, most of Kawabata’s works are claimed to be plotless. Reading “Snow Country” requires some meditation and contemplation. Otherwise, the reader might lose not only interest, but complete understanding of the essence of this book. Having enough knowledge about Japan and its culture, one has to be able to read between the lines to understand Japaneseness of Kawabata’s novel. According to Pollack, Japanese writer’s work is based on Tanabata legend (misfortunate astral lover who are
The disease not only impacts the physical well being of the patient, but also poses a burden to the emotional, economic and social aspects of both the patient and the family members (Fromer and Cooper, 2008). The condition is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and affects the quality of life of the patient. COPD cannot be cured, but timely and appropriate treatment can significantly reduce the severity and duration of symptoms, thereby increasing the quality of life and decreasing morbidity and mortality (GOLD, 2008). The main problem in COPD is breathlessness. Several strategies have been developed to minimize these symptoms in COPD, the most important of which is pulmonary rehabilitation. Evidence-based analyses from several randomized controlled trials have proved that exercise training is critical for improvement of not only the exercise capacity of the patients, but also their quality of life (Yohannes and Connolly, 2004). There are basically two types of exercise training and they are continuous training and intermittent training. Both types of training have been used for the management of chronic breathlessness in COPD. However, which of the two is better is a much debated topic. In this literature review, studies comparing the two methods of exercise training will be reviewed to ascertain as to which is a better strategy for prevention and management of breathlessness in COPD patients.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD may be defined as "a disease state characterized by the presence of airflow obstruction due to chronic bronchitis or emphysema" (Sharma, 2006). Clinically, the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis is made when there is chronic productive cough without any other specific etiology for more than 3 months, and emphysema is diagnosed when there is irreversible damage to air spaces beyond terminal bronchioles, with no obvious fibrosis (Fromer and Cooper, 2008). According to NICE (2004), "diagnosis
LITERATURE ANALYSIS CHART of Story J. California Coopers "Filet of Soul_______________________________________________________________ Instructor:
Identify whether they are major or minor characters
Luella a major character in the story
Sedalia, who is Luella’s mother, is also a major character in the story
The conman is a minor character
Sedalia’s high school lover is a minor character
Luella’s true lover is a minor character
The major theme in the story is love. Sedalia is unable to find true love after her high school lover abandons her while she is pregnant. She therefore does her best to prevent her daughter, Luella from falling in love. Luella however ventures out upon her mothers death in an attempt to find love. She falls for a conman who steals from her. She however triumphs by meeting the love of her life.
Another theme in the story is betrayal. Sedalia feels betrayed by love when her lover abandons her while she is pregnant. She also betrays Luella by raising her to believe that she is ugly and unlovable so that she cannot attempt with love. Luella is also betrayed by the conman who steals from her in the pretence of love.
Lastly, another theme is self-identity. Sedalia believes that she cannot fall in love again after being betrayed by her lover. She does not therefore attempt to look for another love. Luella on the other hand grows up believing that she is unlovable and ugly. However, this changes when her mother dies and she attempts to find love. She manages to get true love, but after some betrayal.
Plot Summary—(points at which major changes of development are shown)
Sedalia cannot afford to go to high school prom because of her poverty.
However, Sedalia is enchanted when her teenage lover leaves the prom party to dance with her at the school lawns. They engage in physical overtures that result in her only sexual encounter that leaves her pregnant. She later gives birth to Luella. Because of this, she becomes even poorer than before.
After giving birth to Luella, she vows never to allow her to repeat the same mistakes that she did in her teenage years. To achieve this, she raises Luella by making her to believe that she is ugly and not worth of love from men.
This however backfires when her mother passes away and leaves her a modest inheritance. Luella’s luck changes but not immediately, as she would have imagined.
First, she falls for a conman who tricks her into love and leaves her later own. She feels betrayed because she looses her dignity and inheritance to the conman.
Despite the betrayal and the unfortunate love experience, Luella does not give up on love and she soon manages to find everlasting love.
(identify whether they are internal or external)
a) Sedalia experiences an internal conflict as she struggles with guilt following her unplanned pregnancy after her first sexual experience. The conflict triumphs because she ends up not finding love at all.
b) There is an external conflict between Sedalia and Luella. Sedalia wants to raise Luella in a way that would protect her from heartbreaks and pains of love while Luella wants to explore and experience the true meaning of love. Luella triumphs when her mother passes away.
c) Luella experiences an internal conflict as she struggles with self-identity crisis following the belief that she is unlovable and ugly as uncalculated by her mother. This conflict is however manifested externally as she struggles to find love. Despite being betrayed by the conman, the inner desire to disapprove her mother enables her to find true love.
The story is set in the rural poverty-stricken location. Sedalia is a poor black woman who cannot afford to go to high school prom. The actual events move from the school setting where Sedalia is first betrayed, to a family setting where Luella is being raised up. Upon the death of her Sedalia, story shifts to a town setting where Luella is abandoned by the conman and eventually meets her true love.
Point of View(s)
The story is written from a black woman’s point of view as she struggles to find her identity despite all odds. A back woman struggles to find her identity through the various odds presented by family, love and sexuality. The author’s believe is that one a woman finds her self-identity, she would be able to triumph all obstacles in life, including finding true and satisfying love.
There is the symbol of the struggle and triumph for love. Love has been used to depict the elusive freedom and identity of the black woman. the failure by Sedalia to find true love indicates the many failures women have undergone in search of liberalization and freedom. Being betrayed in love indicates the many challenges that women have to undergo in order to gain self-identity and equality. In the end, Luella manages to conquer all fears and obstacles and finds her everlasting love. This signifies hope for the black woman. It shows that
Cooper, J. California. “Filet of Soul”. The Future Has a Past: Stories. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2007.258-` 170. Print.
Appraisal of one published Research Study" Themes in the literature tend to lean toward identifying the consequences and causes of domestic violence (Johnson and Ferraro, 2000). Crime studies tend to demonstrate a bias in favour of women as the primary victims of domestic violence (Straus, 1999). The reality is however, that men are victims of domestic violence (Straus, 1999). In fact, the Home Affairs Committee (2009: 133) of the House of Commons commented that ‘men are the forgotten victims of domestic violence’. It is the reality that men are victims of domestic violence and the fact that the Home Affairs Committee acknowledged the neglect of male victims of domestic violence that prompted my interest in research on this subject.
I selected a peer reviewed article by Dobash and Dobash (2004) because it provides empirical evidence of why much of the focus on domestic violence tends to be biased in favour of women as the primary victims. The research was based on a mixed methods approach involving 95 couples where both partners had reported violence against one another. This research is important to me because it helps me in my future career plans in social and community development by shedding light on the social construction of domestic violence as a problem primarily for women. The article selected is: Dobash, R.P. and Dobash, R. E. (2004). ‘Women’s violence to men in intimate relationships.’ British Journal of Criminology, 44: 324-349.
In selecting the article by Dobash and Dobash (2004) I began by entering key terms in the search engine provided by several databases online. The databases selected were Jstor, Springer, Wiley, Google Scholar, Sage, Karger Open Access, Elsevier, Taylor &. Francis Group, and Exlibris. I also conducted a general search of Google. The key words entered into the search engines were ‘domestic violence against men’, ‘domestic violence against men in the UK,’ ‘men as victims of domestic violence’ and ‘men as victims of domestic