Therefore, Diamond believes that proximate reason as to why some civilizations came to dominate others through militarily, economically, politically, and cultural landscapes are from the effects of food production, effects of writing, effects of technology, governmental organizations, and effects of religion. He thus went ahead to demonstrate how these issues led to the occurrence of differences among cultures (Diamond, 1998). On the other part, Diamond believes that ultimate reason as to why some civilizations came to dominate others is through geography, but not through biology or race of which some studies have tried to prove. Henceforth, geography produces the cultural disparities of which his friend Yali had pointed out. The concept thus implies that Eurasian colonizers did not gain it power they still hold today through a systematic process, or through having the greatest of skill or mind, but pure geographic chance created this difference. The role of innovation in this process is that it leads to the development of systems of some specialized knowledge that eventually leads to the advances in metallurgy, literacy, and eventually the socio-economic organization. Diamond thus concludes that accidents of geography and environment created the domination of whites of the Eurasian origin over other races. Thus, the Europeans received more favors since they had more starting material and also had more favorable conditions. I agree with Diamond’s conclusion because I believe that all people and cultures have the capacity of doing similar things on the provision that they have the resources and privileges of doing so. Another proximate factor that might cause these differences in availability of advanced resources. These resources could be useful for people in all regions to conduct their own research, hence becoming the ultimate solution to many problems that occur in societies.
The world was opening up, explorers were gaining ground, and the British crown was claiming more and more land. Not only did this new territory have to be mapped and surveyed and its inhabitants interviewed and learned about, but the new borders to be imposed would have to help Britain maintain and defend this new territory. An organization that could do all of this would be an organization that would and could become increasingly powerful. While some of the work done by the RGS was in good faith and showed a high level of accuracy and ability, much of it was politically influenced and done at the service of political and business interests that were more concerned with profit than geography. Indeed, when a person looks at a map of the globe today and the borders of countries in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa, one often wonders, Why a border there? There is no physical or ethnic reason for it to exist there . . . Many of these borders actually fly in the face of any practical consideration and were created solely for the benefit of others. As such, they continue to this day to create conflict and strife around the world. The RGS contributed to the British imperial ethos of the day.By the mid-19th century lots of places in the world, considered for many years as terra incognito were opening up for the first time. Explorers such as Stanley and Livingstone were for the first time making inroads into the interior of Africa. British citizens were present in India and had substantial roles in the various courts there. Britain had significant interests in the Middle East. Britain’s economy, more than ever before was linked to the world’s. Britain relied on its colonies and the new lands being discovered for a great deal of its wealth—and as such, it wanted to keep control not only of these colonies and lands but of trade links that led to them.There were constant threats. Threats came not only from restless natives who were very resentful of being dominated by British soldiers and bureaucrats but also from imperial rivals such as France and Germany. Everyone was trying to carve out a portion of the new land and to create various spheres of influence over which they would have dominion.
of California Introduction California otherwise called the Golden is one of the fifty s that constitutethe whole United States of America. Located in the Western region of America, California bears numerous political, agricultural, economic, demographic and urban significances that affect the whole of the United States of America. California is the third largest state in the union after Alaska and Texas, and covers a total land mass of 403,934 square kilometers. California is globally popular due to its large cities, favorable climate, large economy and varied topography. The largest known cities within the State of California include San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, San Jose, Long Beach, Oakland, Sacramento and Fresno. The highest point in California is Mount Whitney, which is at the height of 4, 418 meters above the sea level. The Death Valley that is at 86 meters below the sea level is the lowest point in the whole State of California. Political Geography of the State of California California bears overwhelming political importance in the whole United States of America. California is the most densely populated state with a total population of over 37 million people. This population gives the state its deserved political significance with the America. The State of California experiences division of its population along racial, religions, economic, ethnic and cultural lines. Importantly, the latest political division of the population of California has shifted the traditional North-South partisan to East-West partisan arrangement (Lawrence 8). Initially, the North divide supported the Democratic Party while South divide supported Republican Party. The support of the South for the Republican Party, which is also pro-war attributed to the existence of defense industry in the region. In the new political alignment of the regions, the Coastal region that has a dense population supports Democratic Party while the less populated interior region supports the Republican Party. According to Lawrence, additional political significance of California relates to the fact that it bears the highest number of the Electoral College votes that stands at 55 (13). Since 1992, Democratic Party has managed to win three out of the five presidential elections. Population Geography of the State of California According to the census of 2009, California is the most populated state in the USA with over 39 million residents. About 7.3% of the human population in California consists of illegal immigrants. The largest proportion of the population in California clusters in the three major cities that include Oakland Bay area in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Central Valley, Sacramento, San Diego and Stockton (Briney). Economic Geography of the State of California The economy of California pegs on many sources of livelihood that ranges from entrainment, processing industry, technology to other natural resources like oil, cement, sand and gravel. The state has many industries that focus on processing farm and agricultural products, which generates revenues as well as providing employment to a section of the population. The Silicon Valley also defines an important region in California considering its domination by high-tech companies that produce important computer software and hardware. Apart from the Silicon Valley, South Carolina also hosts many high and low-tech companies that make the region stand as the largest manufacturing region in the whole USA. California hosts many entrainment industries that specialize in the production of motion pictures, television films and other entertainment related contents. In fact, California has global recognition for production of Hollywood and Burbank entrainment materials. Tourism also defines part of the economic drivers in California. Tourism sites in the state include and not limited to Sea World, Disneyland, the numerous attractions in San Francisco, entertainment dominated Los Angeles, Yosemite Falls, Pacific beaches and the giant sequoia trees, which attracts millions of tourists every year. The general economic activities in California contribute an average of 13% to the GDP of the whole USA. Agricultural Geography of the State of California The State of California practices most of the agricultural activities taking place in the United States of America. California leads other states in the production of vegetables and fruits like lettuce, carrots, broccoli, onions, tomatoes, strawberries and almonds. The most valuable crops within California include cotton, grapes, flowers and oranges. California also leads other states in the production of dairy products (Starrs and Peter 14)). The agricultural viability and productivity of the State of California relates to its good soil, long growing season and abundance of rain. Irrigation of dry land as happens in areas like Imperial Valley and San Joaquin Valley is another factor that makes California appear as a viable and productive agricultural land. Urban Geography of the State of California California has many urban centers that include and not limited to Torrance, Pomona, Pasadena, El Monte, Downey, Norwalk, Compton, Hesperia, Redding, Santa Monica, Westminster, Chico, Roseville, Concord, Salinas and Concord (Briney). Cultural Geography of the State of California The interior region of California that includes Inland Empire, North Carolina and the Central Valley adopt very conservative social structure and less diversified. The region is more evangelical and the population there practices extensive agriculture. Works cited Briney, Amanda. Geography of California. 2010. . Lawrence, David G. California: The Politics of Diversity. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2013. Print. Starrs, Paul F. and Peter Goin. Field Guide to California Agriculture. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010. Print.
Jane Austin’s novel concentrates on human relationship revolving around the main character Emma and the importance of Highbury setting to the characterization of the Heroine. Relationship between Emma and Harriet With the witty and charming heroin Emma, Jane Austen’s work was flawless with exploration of human relationship. The major subject of Jane Austen’s Emma revolves around the natural power of human relationship. Austen in this novel compares the healthy and unhealthy relationship between Emma and Harriet. The relationship between Emma and Harriet was an epitome of unhealthy relationship where the teacher Emma exploited, manipulated and neglected her student Harriet. Emma took Harriet under her wings and wanted to teach how to adjust with her choices of acquaintances. Emma was more concerned about her own desires rather being concerned about what would be best for Harriet. Chapter seven of the novel lays special reinforcement to the relationship between Emma and Harriet Smith. Harriet depend upon the decision and suggestion of Emma whether to marry or reject Robert Martin. Though she had some opinion and decisions of her own but could not go by them since Emma’s opinion was more important. This shows how much important role Emma plays in the life of Harriet. They had friendship but between unequal. When Emma advised her to reject Robert Martin, Harriet was disappointed and said You think I ought to refuse him, then (Austen, 44) but did not have the courage to go against Emma’s decision. This clearly reveals that Harriet was totally dependent on Emma’s decision and trusted her blindly. … Elton developed theme like reason versus thoughts, social responsibility versus selfishness and arrogance. Settings The Novel of Jane Austin, Emma has its setting in a provincial community, which involved the gentry of the region. She chose a small tiny town named Highbury where everybody knew everything about anyone staying over there. This revealed that everyone was aware of the peculiarities and odd habits of each individual in the town. One was unaware of the local’s geography. The closeness of the town Highbury to its estates Hartfield, Donwell Abbey and Randalls were clearly revealed in the novel as the fact that London was sixteen miles away. However the description of the physical aspects of the town was not given except that of the Donwell, which was given with a purpose to portray Emma’s reaction. The presence of Richmond road can be felt from the description that Harriet met the gypsies on the Richmond Road but no other details were found. The presence of an embankment over where the companions scuttles was also derived from the description. Emma and Mr. Woodhouse’s house was the geographical center around which the whole novel revolved. The drawing room or something equivalent was the primary setting of the novel. The scene of Box Hill or even the shrubbery walk where George proposed Emma was simply an open-air drawing room. The novel mainly concentrated on the social involvement and human relations. It did not give any clear description of the vegetation or terrain or any connection that leads to the description of the geography of the place. Instead the novel had an evident presence of the description of drawing and dining rooms, rooms for dancing and scenes of carriage and equipment of
Times Square hold many attracting activities i.e. underground passages, penthouses and connects streetscapes among others. All these aspects are considered in planned and with spontaneous manner. The Time Square comprises stores, theatres and diners that are specifically intended to provide entertainment to the visitors. In the year1928, this place produced a total of 264 shows in 76 theatres. These theatres comprised an array of entertainment aspects that included old-world opera, new popular culture such as movies, vaudeville, musicals and jazz. Currently, Times Square is considered to be the most active theatre district around the world. This place is also home to Best Buy Theatre, Hard Rock Cafe, B.B. Kings, ABC, MTV and Madame Tussaud’s. In relation to the objectives of the essay, the essay will highlight the broader aspects of the tourism industry by way of analysis of the social, geographical, psychological and environmental aspects among others. Time Square, being the perfect example of the tourism destination, will provide great aid in this respect (Times Square District Management Association, 2013). Discussion In relation to the historical geography of the Time Square, it is located in Manhattan, New York City. This intersection is responsible for attracting mass visitors as it comprises of numerous events as mentioned in the above section. The history of Time Started way back in the year 1928 and throughout its years of existence it has been able to bring an array of entertainment facets. It has been able to re-introduce the aspects entertainment to a very large extent which in turn provided great aid to the overall tourism industry. From a geographical viewpoint, it can be said that this particular industry has been able to grow and expand to new heights as it has been driving tourists from all over the world. Tourism geography encompasses a broad range of interest activities that includes the geographies of tourism and the environmental impact of tourism among others. All these aspects determine the importance of this industry along with its impact on different nations. Geographies of tourism represent all those options where this industry broadly operates. However, there are few environmental impacts that are associated with this industry. Various factors such as construction of airports, and roads, introduction to new tourism facilities that includes marinas, restaurants, hotels, golf courses resorts and shops can very well create negative impacts in the overall tourism development. It can lead to gradual destruction of the environmental resources as well (Times Square District Management Association, 2013). According to the report provided by Cohen (1984), sociology has always been an integral part which has a close interrelation with the aspects of tourism. It can be said that the tourism industry mainly operates to serve the society and its people. In this respect, it can be believed that this industry fulfils the social needs of the people to a very large extent. Taking Time Square into concern, it can be very well affirmed that it revolutionized the world in a unique way. It showed a new direction to the entertainment aspects and made the people enjoy their lives by way of providing them with an array of public leisure services (Cohen, 1984. Times Square Distr
Product Impact Statement: Leather ShoesHow people use leather shoesLeather shoes are a favourite for many people not only because of their comfort but also their durability. Besides, they always make the right statement fashion wise. Men and women, use leather shoes mostly for the workplace. However, the workplace is not the only place for leather shoes. There are plenty of leather shoes made for the casual look including moccasins and sandals for ladies. The softer the leather, the more precious it seems due to its comfortability. Heavy leather shoes can also be worn by soldiers in combat and when they are fighting in a harsh environment. It offers the best protection against sharp objects, venomous snakes, and heat.How leather shoes are madeWhen raw hides are taken from animals, they are first dried. Then they are treated with chemicals to make them softer so that they can be easily worked on. The most common source of soft leather is in Morocco. The hides, when dried, are dunked in a mixture of pigeon droppings that makes them very soft and easy to work with. Leather is the material that will be used to make the outer covering of the shoe (Tokatli Kizilgun, 2013).Other materials neededOne needs to have a material to use for the insole. The insole is the part where one step in when they wear the shoe. It should be soft and supportive of the foot. Then there is to be a cushion which rests between the insole and the outer sole. This material is most likely made of cork. It is tough and yet very easy to cut into the desired size. The outer sole can be made of rubber, leather, plastic or even resign. Another piece of tough leather will be used to make the welt that joins the upper part of the shoe to the sole. The thread is also needed since it is what is used to join these materials. It should be chosen well, according to the colour of the shoe since it will be visible when the shoe is finished (Tokatli Kizilgun, 2013).Designing the shoeThe shoe can be designed according to personal taste and also the size. The outer covering is then cut and put aside, leaving an allowance all-around for stitching. The insole, the cushioning, and the sole are then glued together and left to dry. Then the outer covering is stitched to the sole, and the shoe is complete (Tokatli Kizilgun, 2013).Effect on the environmentLeather shoes do more harm than good to the environment. Making leather shoes involves taking life from animals to get the raw material. The soles are made of plastic that does not decompose very fast. The leather shoes make a challenge for the environment because when they are out of use they get buried in the soil without decomposing. Many other materials that are used to make faux leather also have even further reaching effects to the environment. For this reason, leather shoes should be done well so that they last longer. Thus, lesser animals will have to be killed for hides, and lesser amounts of leather will litter the environment (Tokatli Kizilgun, 2013).ConclusionLeather shoes are not only comfortable. they are also fashionable. Taking into consideration that animals must be killed for meat, using hides is not inevitable. However, as an entrepreneurial dealer, I would put a higher price on leather shoes to ensure they are only bought when necessary. This policy will have a positive impact on the environment, and also very profitable.ReferenceTokatli, N.,Kizilgun, O. (2013).Coping with the changing rules of the game in the global textiles and apparel industries: Evidence from Turkey and Morocco. Journal of Economic Geography, 209-229.
The role of technologyTechnology affects in everything that one can think of, be it eating, treating, social life, sporting and many others. Technology is bridging the cap between people far apart but at the same time distancing neighbors. In modern times, people can’t even imagine their lives without technology. In our midst, technologies are helping people to live their lives more luxuriously. The technology sector has changed the development of many products. The technology is providing many advantages but also it has some disadvantages. In the field of communication, technology have make it faster and cheaper while at the same time it has decreased the earlier forms of communication like going to public places and travelling. Due to this advancement of technology in the field of communication, people have become more impersonal. The modern means like email are very quick and whatever is communicated is kept and can be referred to in the future. People surround themselves with technology as they distance themselves to others at the same time paying little attention to their need. With technology, people are on a daily basis building solid relationships with people across the globe.Technology have also taken cooking to a whole new level and one can easily cook by using electrical kettles and other electric equipments that enable one to regulate and control heat. There is also efficiency with customers in the hotels because one chooses food of its choice and gets cooked within few minutes. The same fast food is also responsible for various health related challenges like obesity. Technology is making it easier for one to access information touching on various aspects of their lives by just goggling. One can easily study in dept by finding information from various sources in the internet. Technology is also offering a lot of entertainments to people. Through YouTube one can watch videos of their choices through the touch on the button (Muller 2011). With internet and a computer one don’t have to buy a radio because radio stations offer online services and one need not also buy a DVDs because all sorts of music can be downloaded from the internet (Muller 2011). One should however be aware that not all information’s in the internet are factual, majority are just opinions. Searches in the internet also have made people to be less thinking. Steve Jobs in the early of 2001 iTunes, and it has made it possible to convince music label executives that people might pay for songs online, iTunes was an unexciting all-in-one digital music program that brought together MP3 playback, internet radio and CD writing (Lucas 2008). Apple began letting people access their digital music across any of their devices wirelessly. People are able to watch on televisions program that motivates them and encourage them to keep on. They watch stories from various parts of the world of people who were at the verge of giving up but dint, they pick up the broken pieces of their broken lives and were able to make in live, such people make our role models and we often copy them (Lucas 2008). Some programs however show bad characters and some people copy them. I phone, a product of apple is making people feel that they are much connected with the world. Through the maps, one can look at the terrain and general geography of the places they have
In that context, the book tends to discuss not only the visible aspects of the geography of the universe like the stars and the planets, but also delves exhaustively on the elusive ingredients of the universe like the dark matter which is predominant and all pervasive. The book under consideration furnishes a lucid understanding as to whether this universe is expanding or rather contracting. The overall objective of the book appears to be to give to the readers the necessary information that will go into achieving a relative perspective of the universe and the humanity’s place in it. The essential theme of The Stuff of the Universe tends to delve on the predominant query as to what features of the universe as the humanity knows it were pivotal to the emergence of life on earth and whether it was merely a coincidence or some deeper reasons that led to such a propitious alignment of the cosmic elements and constituent. The humanity has always been curious about the fundamental questions surrounding the origins of the universe and life and this book caters to this curious and academic aspect of human interest. However, the lacuna rampant in this sphere of human interest has been that the science of cosmology has been to a great extent kept remote and away from the everyday concerns that engross the mankind. In that context, The Stuff of the Universe tends to bridge the gap between the mundane concerns of life and death engaging the humanity and how the cosmic elements tend to play a pivotal role in these concerns. In the book, Gribbin and Ress have tried to make the queries surrounding the origins of the universe an integral part of the mainstream life. They talk about varied stages of the origins of the universe as when it was just a second old, or its earlier stages. The book intends to bring the science of cosmology, out from the privileged scope of the cosmologists and astrophysicists to the realm of general public. The book comprises of three parts. The Part I, ‘Cosmic Coincidences: How special is the Universe?’ discusses the geography of the universe and two kinds of dark matter. However, in this part, the main forte of the authors lies in their ability to establish links between the cartography and constitution of the universe to the everyday human existence. For instance, it gets really enticing to learn that, We live in a galaxy. Galaxies contain stars, and stars are made of baryons- the same sort of stuff, to a physicist, as our own bodies are made of.1 Part II, ‘The Stuff of the Universe: The Particle Zoo’ is primarily about the essential constitution of the universe and the constituents affiliated to it. This part elaborates on the cosmic constituents and phenomenon like halo stuff, gravity’s telescopes, cosmic string, core stuff, etc. in as lucid and simple a language as could be possible for a Cosmologist to interpret the cosmic facts to a layman. Part III, ‘The Bespoke Universe: Tailor-Made for Man. or off the Peg? ‘touches on the perpetually stimulating and ever poking questions as to whether the existence of life on earth was part of a great and ever unraveling plan or merely a prosaic coincidence. The book both ponders on the individual constituents of the universe like galaxies, stars, quasars and their constitution and evolution as well as links this knowledge to the philosophical and theological queries grappling the mankind since times immemorial, in as simple and precise language as
If one would go to the top floor of the Bank of America tower overlooking the park, the once capacious area below becomes cramped, as people move like ants in the limited space left. Yet people continue to engage in their own activities, oblivious of their compromised surroundings. For as long they are able to carry out their purpose in the place, all the rest remain strangers to them – never mind, if they are already literally rubbing elbows with one another. Nevertheless, this is typical in the urban land. While those who are used to living in the countryside may find this situation suffocating, it is quite astounding how city dwellers seem to have adopted survival strategies to cope with the continuously crowding area, as though they do not need space. Going back, an imaginary view of the Bryant Park on top of Bank of America tower creates a vivid and lively scene where stories are formed. Perhaps, in one of the couches in the Southwest Porch, there may be a woman who would say, I just need space, a typical spiel when two people are in the brink of breaking up. This line serves as an easy way to warrant the ending of a relationship, especially if the individual, for some reason, desires to get freed from whatever attachment – may it be physical or emotional. Although it may be an effective way out, there seems to be more to ‘needing space’ aside from a reasonable means to end a relationship. While the literal meaning of a space is a spot left empty, it remains to be related to its figurative definition such that the space between individuals actually separates them, limiting their social interaction and attachment. Yet for a place like Bryant Park, keeping a space seems impossible. But perhaps, the city dwellers’ concept of space has indeed gone beyond just a simple matter of geography. Introduction The innovation of the concept of space probably roots to the time of Edward T. Hall, an anthropologist whose field of interest and expertise centers on spacing behavior of individuals. Hall identified several terms related to space – most notable of which is the social space. By definition, social space is such which individuals feel comfortable enough to engage in occasional social interactions with friends and strangers. Moreover, Hall proposed that people have an unconscious perception of space which can be manifested by the way that they behave towards it and the people that they are sharing the physical space with. This behavior is largely based on the culture from which an individual belongs. As such, public space always becomes cultural space (Ferrell 14). Meanwhile, as a result of this proposed concept, social space has become a subject of studies for many years. Generally, these studies were geared towards simply finding out why this space exists and how it is manifested. Based on the findings, it is surprising that several factors actually account for what was once seen a simple yet perplexing matter. The present research also attempted to explore many aspects of this ambiguous concept. however, in the context of urban settings where crowding is inevitable and violation of physical space is likewise expected. It may be assumed that spacing behaviors could only be maintained in low-density situations when there is a small number people who can act on their respective assumed space. But then again, given the limited physical space in the urban area, the social concept of physical space
The National Geographic Society was founded in 1888. It is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational s in the world. The interests of the organization include geography, archeology, natural science and the promotion of environmental and historical conservation (Nationalgeographic). Due to the popularity of national geographic the organization has a presence on the internet through its website. The website of the organization has lots of information. There are a lot of pictures in the home page of animals. The beautiful animals illustrated in the website connect the viewers of the website with nature. At the top of the website there are eight primary links that allow the users to visit different parts of the website. The eight primary links are photography, animals, environmental, travel, adventure, nageotv, kids, and video. The photography section has lots of different pictures of animals, nature, landscapes, among other things. The kids section has educational games children can play. The travel section has images and information about the cultures of different parts of the world. Below the primary links at the top there are secondary links in yellow. The secondary links take the users to different segments of the website. The secondary links are daily news, the magazine, maps, science, education, games, music blogs, movies, in the field, mobile, and newsletters. The daily news segment has lots of interesting articles. I read an article that stated that being bilingual delays aging effects. In the maps section there are different interactive 3D maps of the world. The magazine link has the current issue of the National Geographic magazine for the month of March 2011. The issue can be read online free of charge. The mobile section has different application for smartphones. The newsletter link allows the users of the website to sign up for a national geographic email newsletter. The games link has multiple games that the user of the website can play online. In the right hand side of the website there are more links with articles, photos and information. There is also a daily pop quiz and a link to donate money to help protect endangered places. The primary and secondary links at the top repeat themselves at the bottom with an additional 16 links available to navigate different parts of the website. I liked visiting the National Geographic website. A positive aspect of the website is that there are very few advertisements. I do not like when website bombard the viewer with ads. The fact that the website has the current issue of the National Geographic magazine is a value added proposition for the users of the website. The photos and images that were displayed throughout the website makes navigating the website very entertaining. My favorite segment of the website is the animals segment. The website has lots of valuable information. Despite the positives of this website there are also some negative aspects. The website simply has way too much information. There are too many links which at times makes the website a bit confusing. The website has an information overload. Work Cited Page Nationalgeographic.com. 2011. About Us. 19 February 2011.
For example, the life of human beings and the whole universe revolves around these concepts. In my opinion, human being is an incorporated whole composed of internal psychological, physical and social nature with differing degrees of ability of self care. Humanity is a real or substantial unity whose parts attain perfection and are formed through differentiation during the development process. Human beings are able to reflect and use symbols. On the other hand, health and healthy describes the state of the living things. This is a state of well being including the condition of a person identified by pleasure, contentment, and happiness among others (Jim, 2010). Nursing as a concept is an art in which the nursing practitioner provides a specialized assistance to people with disabilities who need help in order to attain their daily requirements of self care. Finally, environment in my opinion is the surrounding of patients that may impact on their ability to carry out their self care activities. This may include dimensions such as chemical, physical, biological features and socio-economical features. The later include atmosphere, weather, pollutants, infectious organisms and pests, while the former may include community, family, gender and gender roles, cultural prescriptions of authority, and cultural roles (Potter Perry, 1992). According to Martha Rodgers in her 1970 book, ” The Theoretical Basis of Nursing, human beings are seen as seen as open energy field possessing a distinct and unique life experiences. Just like energy field, human beings are much different from and greater than the sum of their parts and cannot be anticipated from the knowledge of their parts. Human beings are dynamic, unique, multidimensional, and sentient capable of creativity, abstract reasoning, self responsibility and aesthetic appreciation. Humans are valued persons, nurtured, respected and understand and make informed choices concerning their health. Martha Rodgers considers dimensions such as biological, spiritual, psychological, intellectual, and socio-cultural dimensions as stages of human development because they affect the health and behavior of human beings (Rodgers, 1970). Environment, according to nursing theorists, is a geography and landscape of human social experience. She considers environment as a context or setting of experience as a daily life and consists of variations in time, space and quality. This human geography includes social, global, personal, national and beyond. Martha asserts that environment also entails societal values, beliefs, customs, mores and expectations. The environment is like an energy field in the mutual process with the energy field of human and is understood as an arena where by the client of nursing encounters caring relationships, aesthetic beauty, threats to wellness, and lived health experiences. The environmental dimensions that may impact on health include psychosocial, physical, historical, cultural, political, economical and developmental processes and aspects of the social world (Gunther, 2011). In nursing theorist perspective, health is a dynamic process. She describes health as the synthesis of illness and wellness defined by the nursing client perception of the across the life span. The view of health concentrates on the whole nature of the client in social, moral, physical, and aesthetic realms. Martha, a nursing theorist asserts that health is relational and
How Tectonic Plate Theory explains the Origin of Mount St. Helens Tectonic plate is an actively collapsing spot where the fragments of the lithosphere push towards each other and crash. This is because of the intense pressure that facilitates the melting of plate substances in the mantle. Mt. St. Helens in the California is a notable example of the collision of plate tectonics to form it (Foxworthy and Hill 27). This occurred due to the volcanoes in the West Coast Cascade Range that produced the earth’s convergent plates to crash gradually over the years. This implies that the creation of Mt. St. Helens occurred in the subduction zone where plates collide beneath another. Juan de Fuca is one of the plates that slide under the continental North American plate causing the convergence.
The Cascades and Andean-type mountains
Volcanic eruptions near the oceanic lithosphere contributed to the formation of the Cascades and Andean-type mountains. This was because of the subduction of the landscape along the mountains that led to the invasion of magma from the layer and some due to crustal reduction. It is apparent that at the boundaries of the ranges are sedimentary rocks that slant, forming hogbacks. When the molten rocks and solids present under the earth mix together, then they form the magma. This substance is capable of triggering intrusion into the adjacent rocks that form the sills. The magma rocks are formed when explosive gases and hot underground water melt the glacial ice near the mantles (Price 24).
The magma at Mt. St. Helens contains glacial rocks, ash and sedimentary rocks that melt during eruptions to form the mountain. This happens when the pressure pushed up the weaker sedimentary rocks that mix with the ash along the mantes (Foxworthy and Hill 23). The eruption can take long hours in the atmosphere before reaching the surface and this is harmful to the people in the vicinity. The magma erupted through the explosives are highly viscous and resistant to flow, which make the steep volcanoes. As a result, the chemical investigation of the eruptive materials from various phases of Mount St. Helens volcanism indicates that the magmatic structure interacts with different chemicals such as silicic and other compounds (Anderson 50).
The Andean-type mountains
The Andean-type mountains extend from the Columbian to the Chilean regions. They were shaped through the subduction of the Nazca plates that collided with the Antarctic plates to cause an eruption. In this regard, the other geologic features associated with the Andean-Type mountains entail faults, folds and igneous rocks (Price 24). These features are remnants of active eruptions and they exist due to the spills that emerge from the volcanic activities. The connection among the features is that they their formation is normally under varied conditions of stress, pressure and extreme temperature. The presence of the weak sediments triggers the breakages to form the faults and folds near the lavas. This implies that the impact of volcanic activities results in the breaking of cracks and cone-like structures that form near the mountains. The Andean-type mountains are synonymous with the existence of the faults and igneous rocks that occur during the exertion of pressure and volcanism (Price 24).
Anderson, David A. Mount St. Helens. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Foxworthy, B. L. and Mary Hill. Volcanic Eruptions of 1980 at Mount St. Helens: The First 100
Days. Washington: U.S. G.P.O., 1998. Print.
Price, Martin F, Alton C. Byers, Donald A. Friend, Thomas Kohler, and Larry W. Price.
Mountain Geography: Physical and Human Dimensions. , 2013. Internet resource.
Media theories such as imperialism suggest that such imposition of the dominant society – the English – may not be welcome among the minority populations and there may be an emerging and ever urgent need among the less dominant population to cling to their cultural values in an effort to avoid a complete displacement of their cultural roots, norms and practices. For young British Asians, the struggle to shape and develop an identity within a dominantly white society is a challenging one. For young second-generation Asians, the struggle to reconcile the cultural values and beliefs of their parents with the values of the society they live in and interact with is a Herculean task. .
Waters view globalization as a “social process” in which the limitations imposed by geography are receding (Waters, 1995: 3). According to the world theory of globalization, the world is a system that is comprised of “multiple cultural systems” (Wallerstein 1974: 390). According to Waters, these social exchanges of symbols, tastes and values are such that “material exchanges localize. political exchanges internationalize, and symbolic exchanges globalize.” (Waters 1995: 9). Therefore Waters sees a social transformation taking place. Critics of globalization argue that it leads to homogenization or hybridization of cultures, so that the rich diversity of local culture and traditions may be irretrievably lost. (Nederveen Pieterse 1995. Robertson 1995). The imposition of one dominant culture upon another as a part of the globalization process is the cultural imperialism theory that emerged in the 1960’s – in .direct opposition to the Marxist critiques of capitalism (Schiller 1976). The beliefs, values, behavioral patterns and norms of the economically dominant nations are imposed upon the weaker ones (Salwen 1991). .Such cultural domination is viewed as a particularly dangerous process because it produces a homogenization of culture in line with dominant countries such as the United States – “the fundamental concepts of a society’s national image are remodeled in the American image” (White, 1983: 120). .
The disappearance of national barriers that divide the world and the increasing interconnectedness open a wide range of opportunities for the information exchange. In all these processes the language plays one of the most important roles. In this paper, we consider borrowings from English language in the Japanese and also we critically evaluate its impact on society of Japan. In the mosern world the international language is English and in many countries it is considered to be (officially or not) the second language. This phenomenon makes it possible to say that the nations unite in a single society, speaking the same language. Does this mean that we are witnessing "the end of geography"?
The aim of this paper is to critically evaluate the proposition that globalization is leading to the end of geography using the example of Japanese language and the English borrowings in it. During the work over this paper we analyze and evaluate that the phenomenon of the ‘end of geography’ is not so vivid and the boundaries between countries are slightly blurred but not completely washed away, so geography remains vital to its study.
Ulrich Beck, the research worker who studies globalization, argues that: "Globalization affects mainly the social micro-level, structured on the genesis of certain forms of cultural, socio-cultural systems and the genesis of ethnic and cultural systems." (Beck, 1999) The most successful model developed in relation to globalization, belongs to Japan. Throughout most of its history, Japan has shaped their culture on the basis of borrowing religious doctrines of Buddhism, Confucian ethical and religious system, arts and crafts from China, however, since the Meiji Restoration, the country has become, so to say, westernized very rapidly. The peak of this Westernization of Japan accounts for the years of American military
RESEARCH PAPER, GEOGRAPHY Introduction: Introduction It is important to highlight that this paper delves on the environmental conservation and management issues. This paper has selected on two articles that argue oppositely based on the chosen topic. The paper therefore delves on the biological pest control and the articles chosen give different perceptions concerning the topic. Biological pest control is the form of pest control whereby animals are used as the controlling mechanism. This is in the case whereby animals that feed on animals especially pests such as aphids are used in the farms and other areas that could be affected by pests to feed on the pests that are harmful and hazardous to the crops or animals reared (Bharuch, 2012).
The first article is on the report that was presented by Chymlley Organization. According to the article, they had a perception that the use of pests is not effective given the fact that this is another way that reduces the insects that are in the environment. According to the organization, their view in regard to the pests, they view them with an aesthetic perception and not in a layman’s way. This is the benefits accrued o having diverse types of animals (Mtsiva, 2003).
The National Environment Management Authority, (NEMA) of the republic of Singapore however encourages this natural suggestion in controlling pests. According to the organization, they view this as an environmental friendly method owing to the fact that there is no chemical that is discharged on to the ground. The organization considers this method in mind environmental conservation (Khopkar, 2007).
The weakness of these two articles is that in the first article, it focuses on the aesthetic benefits of the pests and insects but not mentioning the adverse effects of the pests on productivity. The second article on the other hand focuses on the environmental conservation measures but not mentioning the ecological balance in terms of biodiversity (Bharuch, 2012).
Bharuch, E. (2012) Textbook of Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses, Universities Press, pp. 78
Khopkar, M. (2007) Environmental Pollution Monitoring And Control, New Age International, pp.56
Mtsiva, C. (2003) Oil and Natural Gas: Issues and Policies, Nova Publishers,pp.59
When violence is perpetrated on a woman some of the basic human rights are violated: The human right to life, the human right to respect and dignity, the human right to good physical and mental health, the human right to freedom from violence and discrimination, the human right to equality between women and men and the human right to freedom from sexual and physical abuse. As Kofi Annan (1999) UN Secretary General has said, “Violence against women is perhaps the most shameful human rights violation. And it is perhaps the most pervasive. It knows no boundaries of geography, culture, or wealth. As long as it continues, we cannot claim to be making real progress towards equality, development, and peace.”
According to the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action the human rights of women and of the girl-child are "an inalienable, integral and indivisible part of universal human rights." There are many human rights treaties that guarantee women equal treatment and freedom from discrimination. In recent world conferences commitments have been made by governments to ensure the human rights of women. For instance womens human rights are central to the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states that "everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status." Whereas The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women states that "violence against women means any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life." and that states have an obligation to
How the West Was Won The American frontier is made up of history, geography, cultural expression, and folklore of life as the Americans expanded westwards from the initial colonial settlements up to the early 20th century. Emphasis is placed on the second half of the 19th century, a period commonly referred to as the old west. Frontier history is all about the story of the creation and protection of communities, land use, market development and the formation of states. It is further explained as the tale of conquest, as well as one of survival, and the linking of people and cultures and ways of life that led to the rise and continuing life to America (Rooselvelt 16). Through foreign treaties, political sabotage, military conquest, and digging mines, and pulling in enormous migrations of foreigners, the United States expanded greatly from coast to coast. With time, the American frontier drifted into history, and the myths of the west firmly held to the imagination of Americans and foreigners alike. From this understanding, this paper will give a detailed analysis of How the West Was Won.
The outer line of settlement moved steadily towards the west from the 1630s to the 1880s, with some movements from towards the north. The ‘west’ was always the area beyond that boundary. Thus, the Midwest and parts of the American south have a frontier history with the modern western states. Politicians prioritized the west during the colonial period (Leslie 73). In terms of expansion and settlement, the English, Dutch, and Spanish happened quite differently. The Dutch traded in the Hudson River valley, taking up tracts of land, but they did not push westward. In contrast, the Britons gave priority to individual land ownership among farmers (Otten 85).
Some American politicians began to argue that the United States should absorb the whole of North America. Bills were introduced into the senate, in an attempt to allow granting of free land to reward those willing to travel and claim the Rocky Mountains. Other politicians were of the opinion that such legislation would trigger war with Britain, and the bill did not sail through (Addison 4). There were several reasons, which made people risk travelling to California and Oregon. Emigrants emphasized on the importance of leaving the swamps of Mississippi, which were infested with fever. Antonie Robidoux claimed that he had never witnessed any case of fever. Stories regarding the high quality crops and the possible yields after growing spread widely. Claims were thrive that the motives, which brought forth togetherness of the crowds, were as many as their features. They were bound by a common object, that of bettering their condition (Leslie 76). They were psyched up by the sentiments of Richard Henry Dana, who in his book claimed that people living in California were lazy.
The journey from the Midwest to California was a six-month trip across 200 miles of rough terrain. There was also the need of a special wagon, which was costly. Between 1840 and 1848, approximately 11512 migrated overland to Oregon and 2735 to California. Some though returned home due to poor health and fear of Native Americans. The worst disaster in the history of wagons struck in the year of the donner party, when 42 immigrants and Indian guides died on the journey. In 1857, Alexander Fancher left Fort Smith with his wagon train for California and was attacked by Native Americans.
For a Native American, a material like this would be tantamount to treason, given the fact that the westerners were and are still deemed at the forefront in terms of discoveries, innovations, and any kinds of victories among others. Talking of how the west was won will be the best definition of the word impossible. This is because despite the many attempts made by the Native Americans to ascertain a pseudo-omnipotent disposition through films and other diverse channels, such a material would serve as a constant reminder that the west has been won (Runge 46). They would therefore remain to be viewed as conquerable and not as ‘impossible’ as they have made many a people believe.
Addison, Steve. How the West was Won Methodists and Baptists. Web 8 October 2012.
Leslie Stuart W. How the West Was Won: The Military and the Making of Solicon Valley. Web 8 October 2012.
Otten, Willemien. How the West was Won: Essays on the Literary Imagination, the Canon, and the Christian Middle Ages for Burcht Pranger. Chicago: Brill, 2010. Print.
Rooselvelt, Theodore. The Winning of the West, Volume One: From the Alleghanies to the Mississippi, 1769-1776. Los Angeles: Library, 2007. Print.
Runge, Ronald E. George Washington Jones: Re-winning Of The West. Lincholn, NE: iUniverse, 2005. Print.
Leisure and Tourism in Santa Fe, New Mexico
Current list of services available at the city
Private non-farm establishments.
Retail sales services.
Merchant wholesale services
Manufacturer shipment services
Food and accommodation services
Non-employer establishment services (Nelson Velvet, 45-6).
Sections of the city representing dense numbers of diverse communities (share of population by race/ethnicity)
Major and minor league sport industries
American Basketball Association, which were the New Mexico style founded in 2005 (Nelson Velvet, 78-9).
Santa Fe Roadrunners, which was North American Hockey team but later moved to Kansas and became Topeka Roadrunners.
Santa Fe Fuego was formed in 2012 at Santa Fe and became a professional baseball club.
Community/Municipal Recreational Departments
New Mexico Museum, which is an art collection of Southwestern collections
Institute of American arts museum, which is native American arts possessing political aspects (Nelson Velvet, 56-7).
Georgia O’Keeffe Museum, which devotedly worked for O’Keeffe
New Mexican History Museum, which was located behind the governor’s palace.
Site Santa Fe, which was described as a contemporary art space
A children’s museum known as Santa Fe Children’s Museum
Conventions and visitor’s Bureau
Summer Art markets, which makes Santa Fe appear in the top ten destination for art market
Exotic treasures, which involves eclectic shops dealing crafted items such as turquoise, pottery, and silver jewelry
Cultural collection, which involves museums presenting history and culture (Nelson Velvet, 90-1).
Deals and specials, which include packages, deals, and specials that Santa Fe offer throughout the year.
Tourism forms the major component of Santa Fe’s economy, with visitors being attracted by climate and other outdoor activities throughout the year. The visitors are also being attracted by cultural activities in the city and across the whole region. According to Nelson Velvet, (98), tourism information is presented by visitor bureau and convention and also the chamber of commerce. Most tourism activities occur in the city’s historic down town around the plaza, nearer to the palace of governors. This was the original seat for territorial government in Mexico since the period of Spanish colonization. Other areas of attraction include the “Museum Hill” and Santa Fe Fork art market, which was the site of major city’s art museums. Some visitors also get attracted to Santa Fe during the week of September when Sangre de Cristo Mountains’ aspens turn yellow as the skies become blue and clear. The locations in Santa Fe that are frequently visited during the day by the tourists include certain locations like the town of Taos, which is about 113 km north of Santa Fe. The historic Valles Caldera and Bandelier National Monument can also be found 48 km away. In addition to that, Ski Santa Fe, which is around d Santa Fe’s ski area, is approximately 26km north of the city. Santa Fe has always had communication and association with science and technology through the help of Santa Fe Institute to research on complex matters related to tourism and political sciences (Nelson Velvet, 102-3).
Nelson, Velvet. .An Introduction to the Geography of Tourism. , 2013. Print.
Topic: The internet and global activism of the University
Topic: The internet and global activism
1. The article “New Media Power: The Internet and Global Activism” by W.L Bennett demonstrates the importance of internet-mediated networks, its functioning through the trans-boundary mechanism, and how online activism has engulfed every segment of human endeavors. The technological advances and the internet revolution have contributed much to the concept, ‘the world is one family’ from the scientific and commercial points of view. Social media, the important by-product of the internet revolution, continues to challenge the print and electronic media. The dynamics of online activism has direct bearing on political control and has opened a new and important channel of political protest.
Luc Reydams (Editor) of the book “Global Activism Reader” (2011) in which the article “Social Movements, NGOs, and Networks” by Mary Kaldor appears articulates,
The salient characteristic of the world after 1989 is the advent of politics in the ‘global scene’. By global politics, I mean the interaction between the institutions of global governance (international institutions and states) and global civil society—the groups, networks and movements who comprise the mechanisms through which individuals negotiate and renegotiate social contracts or political bargains at a global level.(p.4)
The patronages and protests grow with lightning speed and the scope of such activities is vast and multinational in character. The article throws light on the importance of collective actions and social movements.
2. My passion is writing short stories and topics related to current social movements and the dispositions of the combustible younger generation. My mainstay is satire in literature, highlighting the importance of moral values, how a happy family is the important unit of the society, and the need to do serious rethinking on marriage as a social institution and the need take steps to curb the divorce rates. Child-labor is another important social issue, that needs urgent attention at the highest level and I have published a few articles on this subject.
3. I took active interest in a demonstration for providing tangible facilities for the first time offenders when they are released from the prison, to enable them to adjust honorably in the mainstream society. Unless this is done, they will end-up as hard core criminals and will take up the path of crime and violence forever. I have also addressed letters to the Editors of important newspapers and I have my own blog titled, “Reform and reformers—farewell to crimes forever!”
4. The media power has not been the same as it was once upon a time, as there are many contesting partners in the field of information dissemination. Not long ago, newspapers and the magazines played an important role in publishing articles and opinionated statements on all and sundry issues. Television and internet have changed the concept of news value. By the time the morning newspapers arrive, the people are up-to-date with the knowledge of the important events taking place in the world. The people actually see the news and events happening and are in a position to have their own opinions. As such the importance of media has weakened the quantity and quality of news reporting. There are specialized channels, running into hundreds, for each subject from geography to religion and what not! Though there are many negative aspects of media on account of showing sex-related and violence-prone programs, it has played positive role in the area of fast communication of useful information.
5. Canadian society is multicultural and multi-ethnic. Interconnections of identity problems are natural in a democratic society and as such dialogue is the only alternative for every knotty issue. Peculiar conditions prevail in the Canadian society. For example, the important section of the society stands for liberal universalism. But a section of the society strives to establish Marxist universalism in the political structure of Canada. Increase in nationalism, religious fundamentalism and racist attitudes create problems of various magnitudes to vitiate the social atmosphere. The referendum in Scotland relates to a unique historical past of Britain and Scotland. The cause for such serious division on geographical basis does not exist in Canada. If such differences/divisions are pressed too hard by the people, it will result in civil wars, widespread violence and disintegration of the society. Dialogue through democratic means is the only alternative.
Readams, Luc (Editor) (2011).Global Activism Reader: New York: Bloomsbury Academic
due: Landscape and Maps A landscape is a drawing that displays all the visible features of an area or land. A map can be defined as a geographical representation of the earth. A map illustrates and shows its physical features of which they may include: roads, cities, oceans and rivers among others (Tyner 6).
The relationship between a map and a landscape is that both are a representation of a part or the whole of the earth area on a flat surface of which can vary from a sheet of paper or a board. A landscape and map shows an area of land that is representing, as it would appear when viewed directly from above. It does not display all the details of objects on the ground, it only shows and outlines of such objects. They both give information of a particular area (Meinig 33-48). A landscape and map are similar in that they display a representation, or rather they are both presented on a piece of paper or board, they are both visual representation (Berger 7-11). They are used to summarize information for easy and quick reference. Moreover, maps and the landscapes might be used by planners to plan specific areas properly.
Maps and landscapes are different in that the maps are used and made for different purposes unlike the landscape which their purpose is to represent visible features of an area or land (Kaplan &. White 69). A map generally displays only those geographies required for a specific location. Additionally, maps show much information unlike the landscape that shows only the details of the restricted area. Travellers use maps to find their way whereas a landscape gives the travellers the overview on an area. Maps can calculate the distance from one place to another while as the landscapes only shows the general view. Maps are used to locate places on the earth surface. Maps also can be used to compare the sizes and the shapes of different lands and water masses. The maps provide detailed information about an area while as a landscape just hints on the background (Tyner 6). However, a landscape helps improve the aesthetic appearance of the field by planting shrubs or trees, changing the lands contours or adding ornamental features. A landscape process can be defined as a process that occurs in a spatial domain (p. 69). The landscape process is primarily propagated across the land surface. It not only serves to structure but also, it is influenced by the spatial structure of the ecosystems. and whose impact on the spatial pattern is dependent to a degree upon the landscape structure is either greater or lesser (Kaplan &. White 69).
The history of the relationship of a landscape and map is that both form core geographic core concepts. They have been used from time immemorial. Also, they are vital in the field of geography in that they reveal spatial relations over linear relations. Moreover, they share some of the characteristics, and they can also be used together as a way to show or describe a particular area. Maps show all the features such as parks, forests, towns among others in the company that landscape shows the clearest view of these features. Both are used to locate features such as mountains, rivers among others while as the landscapes are used to give an overview look of this features (Tyner 6).
To sum it all up, maps and landscapes act as an aid in locating the actual view features on the ground. It is important to learn and have knowledge or rather familiarize oneself on the use of maps and landscapes. Location of places or features on maps means being able to know precisely where such features or places are found on the surface of the earth.
Figure 1:0 Image of a landscape
Source: "Images of Landscape – Google Search." Images of Landscape – Google Search. Web. 18
Dec. 2014. .
Figure 1:1 Image of a map
Source: "Images of Maps of the United States – Google Search." Images of Maps of the United
States – Google Search. Web. 18 Dec. 2014.
Response to a given question from the seminar Response to a given question from the seminar Question: What is weird realism and how does the speaker apply this concept to his music?
Lovecraftian is a word used to refer to works of horror in a suggestive manner as developed by Lovecraft. Tabas (2013, p. 12) explains that the idea is to drive the theme of music into the mind of the audience by knowing that reality is weird and horrifying to understand and much more impossible to describe. The concept of weird realism refers to a style of artwork where the speaker communicates a message that is characteristically mysterious in a terrifying manner. Weird realism technique makes use of Lovecraft characteristics in music art hence it is possible to identify the philosophical relevance of the music art. Therefore, this paper presents an interaction between the style of weird realism and its use in highlighting music theme.
Applying weird realism in music
The technique of weird realism suggests how the artist works through Lovecraft deeper conception of realism than it may be usual (Cartwright, 2010, p. 32). The foremost philosophical ideas of weird realism are that the speaker applies the technique of representational in character. The speaker confesses about his influence from Lovecraft artworks. The application of representational in character in music makes use of weird realism by informing us about the real world outside human contact. For example, the use of cock’s sounds in the music is a reality mirrored adequately to represent a character in natural science.
Another application of weird realism in the music relates to use of factual characters. The horrific nature of the Lovecraft work is achievable here by use fiction (Lee, 2015, p. 1). The stories in this music paraphrase impossibilities of some of the occurrences mentioned in the music. Therefore, the use of fiction shows that no reality of translation of such characters can represent anything.
The illusion is another application of weird realism in this music as explained by the speaker in the seminar. Elements of illusion such as magic are horrific to the listeners and viewers. From the speech during the seminar, the sound of the music played in an alternate manner with the speech is terrifying. The impacts shock on the audience with a frowned facial appearance. The use of delusion is inexhaustible in this music. The music scary sound that continues from a low to a high pitch at once is of horrific scenes (Harman, 2015, p. 1).
The tone used in the music is another application of weird realism. The ‘screeching’ sound in the music is prohibitive and may create tension in a person. The awkward gimmick sound produced during the speech when the speaker plays his music is terrifying. A person who listens to such sound may have a frowned face but the reality of frowning may come from sound disturbances. This shows that reality is weird because it is not commensurable with any attempt towards measuring it (Davis, 2013, p. 1).
This music uses implications to communicate horrific information. The mentioning of different geographical place and other names to imply another meaning is a technique in the song. The artist fails to represent the misery of occurrences propounded by horrific things. There is a failure of language to describe truly the meaning of misery things. For example, the speaker says the misery has an acute angle but it is behaving as an obtuse angle. This is an application of Lovecraft work and hence the use of weird realism.
Cartwright, W., 2009, Applying the Theatre Metaphor to Integrated Media for Depicting Geography, Cartographic Journal, 46, 1, pp. 24-35, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 1 May 2015.
Davis, Mike. December 12, 2013. Weird Realism: Lovecraft and Philosophy. Lovecraft Ezine. Web. May 2, 2015.Retrieved from http://lovecraftzine.com/2013/12/12/review-weird-realism-lovecraft-and-philosophy-by-graham-harman/
Harman, Graham. 2015. Weird Realism Lovecraft and Philosophy. Zero Books. Web. Retrieved from http://www.zero-books.net/books/weird-realism-lovecraft-and-philosophy
Lee, A. C. 2015. The ‘Weird Realism’ of H.P. Lovecraft. The New York Times. Web. May 2, 2015. Retrieved from http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/04/17/the-weird-realism-of-h-p-lovecraft/?_r=0
Tabas, B. 2013. Thinking in a Weird Green Light, or, Between Total Recyclability and the Toxiconomy. The Word Hoard, 1(2), 12.
To relate the role of IMF and WB to international relations it is proper to define the latter term first. Wikipedia, (2006), said, defined international relations (IR) as “ a branch of political science, is the study of foreign affairs of and relations among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations (IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). It is both an academic and public policy field, and can be either positive or normative as it both seeks to analyze as well as formulate foreign policy.” It also referred to IR as drawing upon such diverse fields as economics, history, law, philosophy, geography, sociology, anthropology, psychology, and cultural studies and that it involves a diverse range of issues, from globalization and its impacts on societies and state sovereignty to ecological sustainability, nuclear proliferation, nationalism, economic development, terrorism, organized crime, human security and human rights. (Paraphrasing made)
As to how international relations originated, one cannot avoid talking about the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. It is with Westphalia that e the modern state system was developed since it encouraged the rise of the nation-state and the institutionalization of diplomacy and armies. (Wikipedia-IR, 2006) (Paraphrasing made)
Having a background therefore of IR, we are confronted with the questions: What are the institutions involved? The United Nations assumes a major role in IR as it describes itself as a "global association of governments facilitating co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity". Wikipedia, (2006) stated that it is the most prominent international institution and many of the legal institutions follow the same organizational structure as the UN. (Paraphrasing made)
UN has, therefore, affiliations with several legal institutions which include the International Court of Justice, European Court of Justice and the African Court of Justice. It has also affiliations with human rights organisations which include, United Nations Human Rights Council, Human Rights Committee, European Court of Human Rights, Inter-American Court of Human Rights, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and International Criminal Court. . .
Compare the causes of European, African, and Asian emigrations to North America Human beings do not stay put as they wander from one place to the other. Human migration has led to the distribution of population all over the world. According to (Dahlman and Renwick 233) “Geographers who analyze human movements divide the causes for those movements into push factors and pull factors.” The quote states that, Push factors are forces that oblige individuals leave their residents in search of a better life. The factors include lack of jobs opportunities, harsh environmental conditions, loss of wealth, and the like. The pulling factors attract people to new destinations. Pulling factors include job opportunities, religious and political reference. The essay will try to discuss the causes of different races to North America and the reasons for immigrations.
“Migration is not always voluntary” (Dahlman and Renwick 235). For instance, Africa America migration to the North America was due to conflict in South America. African Americans migration was suffering under the Jim Crow laws that segregated blacks from the white. After the civil war, cotton prices depreciated in the South as the weevils destroyed most of the crop that highly affected the economy causing African America to migrate to the North. Some countries got rid of unwanted prisoners by taking them to other countries, the prisoners however settled in these areas, as they could not go back to their countries.
Millions of people left Europe during the time of empire and colonies and settled in North America. “This emigration was driven by the rapid growth of the European population during its demographic transition” (Dahlman and Renwick 241). Harsh living conditions in their original homes contributed to the migration. There was unending famine in some parts of Europe due to harsh weather conditions and this highly contributed to the migration. Asian birthrate and poor economic growth pushed more people to North America where the economic was booming. Most Asians relocated to North America looking for peace because of the World War 1.
North America changed rapidly due to the migration. “European exploration and settlement had a devastating effect on the indigenous peoples, meaning native populations” (Dahlman and Renwick 244). For instance, they natives had a low immunity to diseases carried by the immigrants, which cause a high death rate in the first century. The immigration causes intolerance attitude from the natives and this caused immigrant is put in smaller reservations. Many native intermarried with the immigrants, which caused assimilation of cultures and beliefs. Most American copied the Europeans cultures forgetting their own.
The emigration to North America was a large boost to its economy as there were many willing workers in the farms and the industries. Immigrant saw the North America as the Land of opportunity as it saved them from the harsh living conditions in their native homes. North American government was welcoming and the introduced a system that made immigrants travel freely and become American citizens. However, the immigration caused the American a big deal as the immigrants carried with diseases with and their immigration led to racial segregation in America.
Dahlman, Carl T. and Renwick, William H. Introduction to Geography: People, Places &. Environment, Sixth Edition: Upper Saddle River, New JerseyPrentice HallDiv, 2012. Print.
With reference to Bambui in Cameroon, research indicates that the region bears potential water and other mineral resources pending maximum and beneficial exploitation to cater to the population’s needs. Precisely, reviews argue that the region’s water supply utilities remain insufficient with the majority population lacking access to the resource. Apparently, 63% of the population remains marginalized from accessing clean water.1 The analysis conducted by Reignite Action for Development in the region ascertains that the available water systems would sustain the community’s demand if proper criteria were implemented to control the resources. In the present, Bambui’s population depends on twelve springs in Tubah while a secondary source is used to cater to the heightened demand during the dry seasons.
The elective position acquainted with student groups by the RAD organization emanates from the notion that unified concerns could yield knowledge-bound strategies in addressing the best alternative solution for the various water sanitation and supply systems. The report seeks to implement the appropriate solution that would solve the problems faced in the region’s water supply infrastructure. It is salient to understand that the forecasted plan would solve the problem with the inclusion of sustainable measures in controlling dangers imposed by the economic and social welfare of the community through the improper farming and dumping and other informal practices.
Bambui community comprises a 50,000-population tally. The Cameroon Township experiences a substantial tropical climate with its temperatures varying from 190- 320 Celsius. The North-Western rural geography of Bambui in Cameroon comprises an English speaking population. It is arguable that the region depends on agricultural production for economic and social progression.3 The informative survey conducted on the community denotes the inadequacy of infrastructure as a hindrance in the acquisition of profound social and economic independence. .  . .
51250 In fact, Ziegler mentioned how these funerary practices are a function of a political project in governance. This introduction framed the forthcoming discussion as essentially an academic and philosophical exercise, in the sense the topic of funerary practices is talked about in unusually deep intellectual discussion of the sensitive topics of death, immigration, politics, integration, power, governance, and other highly-conceptual topics. In other words, the reader was well-advised to prepare himself for a profound discussion of the said topics and that much material of academic origins will be used to support and augment the discussions and arguments. The article authors had read a lot of background academic material on their topic and used them extensively all throughout their article, by making frequent and liberal citations in the article. The article had seemed like a literature review of sorts by the sheer number of the journal articles, writings, and books used in the discussions. At any rate, it is hard to argue for or against some of the justifications they had used in their article, because the discussions are also very abstract in nature although the reader is free to form his or her own conclusions. Discussion (Argument) Their argument centered on how the perception of death had changed so much in the eyes of Western society. Death had once been seen as a great equalizer, a natural consequence of life, but the new social sciences had denaturalized death. it is now viewed as the social and political product of social relationships. that death is essentially a social construction whereas the prevailing mindset was that death is largely a cultural thing or a result of civilization. This new paradigm overturns the previous philosophy of death due to the emerging importance of funerary practices, especially within an urban setting in a modern society, with politics in it. A desired effect of this article is to bring the discussion of death into a new direction. The article authors gave the three main approaches with regards to funerary practices in terms of the location of cemeteries within the larger discussion of the geography of religion in which the first is the physical arrangement of a cemetery (its layout, design, or architecture) or called as the classical approach, the second is the cultural geography, in which a cemetery is indicative of social representations of the phenomenon of death, a function of the culture of a given society affecting the relationships between the living and the dead, and lastly, the third approach which is a conception of the idea of “deathscapes” that involve appropriate land-use and the allocation of burial spaces, which in turn cause certain conflicts among stakeholders. Structure The academic and intellectual premise of the article was framed in the form or kind of a question: how does the regulation of a space (in this case, a cemetery) dedicated to a certain type of funeral practices related to the “governmentality” of the political community of citizens? (Matthey, Felli, &. Mager, 2013, p. 430). Along this line, funerary practices such as the allocation of precious urban space is located within the larger context of the politics in that particular community, in which
The discovery of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492 led to increasingly greater numbers of European explorers and settlers arriving in the New World to form their colonies there. An economy built on their resources and geography evolved with the growth and development of the American colonies. Similarly, the English principles of self-government took root in their colonies in America, and later in the United States.
Thesis Statement: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the seeds for the later push for American self-government were sown in the early colonies.
The development of self-government in the separate colonies is a reflection of the self-contained economies of each settlement. While New England developed fishing, trade and shipbuilding for their livelihood, the Middle Colonies cultivated their fertile soil and promoted farming. Several businesses and manufacturing units also emerged in this location. The most extensive cities in the colonies were New York and Philadelphia. In the southern region, the cash crops of tobacco and rice were the dominant features of the economy. Enslaved Africans were brought to work on the large plantations of the south, for the triangular trade of the New England colonies.
In England, limited government and representative government were the norms. hence the same was adopted in the various new European colonies in the New World of America. With greater growth of the colonies, they relied increasingly on their own governments to formulate laws that would be applicable locally within their settlement. Three types of colonies emerged in America by the 1760s: charter colonies, proprietary colonies, and royal colonies. A religious revival known as the Great Awakening occurred in the colonies during the 1730s and 1740s, leading to the development of several new churches. Freedom of religion and democracy contributed significantly to the self-government in colonies. With the evolution of uniquely American culture, there was a great focus on education and the concepts of the Enlightenment. The increased orientation towards education also played a part in the evolution of self-government in the various colonies. Through strengthening their self-government, the colonies aimed to prevent interference from the mother country in their domestic concerns.
The numerous colonial governments received instructions from the Imperial Crown in England that future public affairs in the colonies would be carried out according to the principles of ministerial duties which had been included in the British Constitution after the Revolution of 1688. The promoters of colonial reform had been striving to achieve modification in the mode of colonial administration bestowing the British colonizer’s rights to self-government as experienced by their compatriots back home in England. However, the change in policy did not permit a fundamental change in the laws of government by changing the existing monarchical rule for self-government. Lord John Russell was the first to impose the concept of self-government (Goldfield et al, 2008).
The anti-government protests and demonstrations were made not only by Arabs but also Africans. The word “spring” is an allusion or reference to water being a welcome development in the mostly arid geography of the MENA (the Middle East and North Africa) region. Other similar protests, uprisings, and rebellions were termed as “The Velvet Revolution” and the “People Power Revolution” (depending on the degree of peacefulness or violence) in other countries.
Arab Spring started innocently enough in Tunisia when a street fruit vendor immolated (burned alive) himself to protest the lack of jobs for poor people like him. This vendor named Mohamed Bouazizi was reportedly a college graduate who could not find any decent job for himself to feed his family. Soon other protesters took up his cause and led to the downfall of long-time Tunisian president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. The events in Tunisia were soon copied by people in other countries like in Egypt (ousted two presidents), in Libya (where Gaddafi was eventually killed in the civil war with foreign military intervention), in Yemen (where its president handed over power to a national unity coalition), and still on-going in some places like in Syria (a full-scale civil war), street protests in Saudi Arabia, Mauritania, and Sudan, in demonstrations against the governments in Bahrain and the UAE (United Arab Emirates), or constitutional reforms implemented in Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Kuwait, etc. to stop protests.
Historians, academicians, political scientists, and media practitioners are offering their own opinions and theories on why the Arab Spring had taken place in the MENA region at a particular time in this region’s history. There is a real danger of civil uprisings turning into a full-scale civil war with the result of the country becoming a failed state like that in Somalia where there is no central governing authority and the country becomes a lawless place. Another risk is the Arab Spring could also be hijacked by other extremist or Islamist groups that will integrate themselves in the uprising and then later on grabbing the leadership of the movements when they think it is already right to do so and move it away from the original objectives of trying to obtain liberal democracy. The Arab world is known for its historical democratic deficit because of so many long-standing institutional control structures that hinder the introduction of meaningful changes in a nation (Chaney et al., 2012:363). The influential social, political, and religious structures had been in place for many centuries already since the Arab armies conquered these countries and to also introduce Islam wherever they went at that time in history. Many of these historical events are still exerting influential and enduring effects so that introducing change is very difficult.
Physical Geography Articles http tntoday.utk.edu 10/01/research-confirms-controversial-darwin-theory-jump-dispersal/
This article contributes towards understanding the unique phenomena of geographical distribution of organisms around the world. In regard to Darwinian Theory of jump dispersal, it is worth to note that scientists assert the idea of various animals’ habitats being specific to some physical features. This article also emphasizes the reality that various landforms resulted from breakup of land masses. This point shows that some of the animal species found in specific parts of the world must have resulted from Jump dispersal rather than variance biogeography.
This article tries to define sand dune and ripples and the cause-effect relationship. The author argues that sand dunes are result of sand waves which piles up with a particular pattern over a large area mostly of desert. However, the article shows that bedforms that result to such land forms are not only caused by wind but any other fluid. It is therefore important to note that climate factor which in turn influences movement of wind and water is responsible for the various landforms that characterize Earth surface. The central idea of the article is that Dunes and ripples are considered bedforms.
Increasing changes in global climate has significant effect on various land forms. The deserts are particularly in danger as temperatures plummets and humidity dwindles. The little vegetation that covers desert landforms is at the brink of complete elimination. In other words, deserts that already have scanty vegetation cover are likely to be transformed to bare land. This would lead to other features like sand dunes among others. Besides, the trend in the desert change is closely associated with rising water levels due to increasing global temperature that melts ice. This article therefor offers an insight into the complex consequences of climate change of various landforms.
This article centers on the unforeseen benefits of global warming as the ice melts. The Glacial melt constitute shift of more iron deposits which are seen as facilitating growth of phytoplankton. These phytoplankton in turn help in absorbing excess carbon dioxide with marginal reduction in greenhouse effect. This fertilization observation is attributed to the silver lining that can be observed on glacial landscapes. The author of the article therefore offers an insight into the existing relationship between physical geography and climate change.
GEOGRAPHY AND ITS GEOLOGICAL RELEVANCE The principle of uniformitarianism s that the natural laws existing today are constant all throughout the universe with respect to time and space and that the earth came into being by gradual changes on the physical attributes of the earth for thousands of years, in contrary to the purported claims of catastrophism that the formation of the earth was entirely influenced by some biblical catastrophic events like the great flood. Meteorite impacts, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes account to uniformitarianism since the processes involved in these natural events is in conformity with the gradual changes in the physical attributes of the earth as predicated by uniformitarianism.
Geologic processes involve dynamic changes or occurrences due to the natural forces that acts upon any celestial object like the earth. It affects our daily life in different ways. Because of some changes in temperature, some aberrant behaviours of the climate physically distract us – excessive rains and violent storms. The melting of the ice in the Arctic Ocean elevates the water level of the earth which immerses low lying areas and even kills human beings. In the earth’s material, the continental drifts and seismic quaking affects us terribly when it triggers monumental waves in the ocean.
The rocks that were found in the moon and the rocks that can be found in the surface of the earth both started from the dust and the clouds of gas that amalgamated and joined together all around the sun which eventually turned into planets and therefore they have mostly identical elemental contents. The moon materialized as a lump slashed from the body of the earth due to some celestial collisions occurred millions of years ago. It is also possible that planets like Venus and Mars could have the same geological contents because of their close proximity from the earth.
A mineral is a naturally arising solid chemical substance molded via geological progressions. It contains a distinctive chemical arrangement, very structured atoms, and exact physical traits. Diamonds, Emeralds and gold nuggets are minerals simply because they occurred naturally, although gold nuggets are just mostly crystalline. Diamond is a perfect example of a mineral. It is approximately made up of carbon. Beach sand, water, fishbone, vitamin pill and wood are not minerals mainly because most of them are not geologically emerging. Water cannot be considered as mineral because it is just made of gaseous elements: hydrogen and oxygen.
Rocks found in the area where I live are about 100 million years old. It is manifested by the rock formations as well as the elements present in the rocks. I chose Pliocene. Rocks on this epoch were identified through fossils and remains of some old geological objects. Gastropod Oliva Sayana, rhinos and horses with three toes are the most characteristic fossils. Pliocene rocks are the best sample of rocks found. They are scattered in China and some other Asian countries.
Venus and Earth have a lot of similarities but they have many differences as well. Venus, unlike the Earth, has weaker gravity and magnetic field is created by interacting with the ionosphere. The pressure and temperature in Venus is enough to rip your body apart. Earth’s oceans will evaporate if it goes nearer the sun because the atmosphere disappears and will boil the ocean.
If dinosaurs were not wiped out during the K-T extinction, it would have affected the ecosystem of the world. Dinosaurs find their diet on smaller mammals. If they have not died out, the costs would have been remarkable reduction of mammals in the world’s ecology.
Scholarpedia:the peer-reviewed open access encyclopedia. Retrieved from.
Mutual recognition has its limits and is likely to be less effective the more diverse the countries involved.
The challenge facing the Union with the start of the eastern enlargement, the first wave of which was decided at the end of 2002 and implemented during 2004-2006, cannot be underestimated. A region of about 100 million inhabitants was integrated into the EU. Populations deeply rooted in European history had become part of the continental polis, yet these same populations emerged from almost half a century of Soviet domination and planned economy only just over ten years ago. A complex net of similarities and differences make the eastern enlargement something quite different compared to previous episodes of EU expansion.
The first point relates to the relative level of economic development in the Eastern European countries. The second point is a reflection of the particular historical circumstances of these countries. The second, third and fourth features are very much linked to the necessary conditions for the successful rebuilding of the EU and the steps that have been taken to meet those requirements.
The previous two enlargements were, first, to the South, and then, to the North. The accession of Greece, Portugal and Spain in the 1980s brought relatively low-income partners in the Union, and this changed the economic geography and the budgetary structure of the EU. However, both the population dimension and the average income gap of the countries then involved in the southern enlargement were about half those relating to the newest members.
The Northern Enlargement of the 1990s actually raised the average per capita income of the EU, and the accession of Austria, .Finland, and Sweden brought a net positive contribution to the Union’s budget. This time the picture is completely different. .
The encyclopedia states that the climatic conditions of Long Island are said to be similar to the coastal areas of the Northeastern United States with warm and humid summers and cool wet winters. However, to be more distinctive, Eastern and Western Long Island have varying temperatures. It is said that the Western region of Long Island-Nassau County is warmer than the Eastern region of the island called Suffolk County. The reason for this lies in the location and the development of the areas. Nassau County is closer to the mainland and more developed in contrast with Suffolk County which is less developed and cooler due to the moderation of the Atlantic Ocean and the Long Island Sound.
The formation of the island has made room for arguments by Geologists, as they still find it puzzling. The island is also said to have been sporadically researched. Some Geologists did conclude that the island was made up of two spines of the glacial moraine with a large sandy outwash plain. The moraines consist of gravels and loose rock left behind thousands of years ago. The Moraine to the North of Long Island is called harbor Hill whilst the other on the Southern end, often referred by geologists as the backbone of Long Island is called Ronkonkoma which also gave birth to Lake Ronkonkoma- a kettle lake. It is referred to as the backbone because it runs through the very center of the island. The glaciers melted and moved further to the North and thus creating North and South Shore Beach. The difference between the two is. North Shore Beach is rocky from the remaining glacial debris and South Shore Beach is crisp and clear with outwash sand.
Blessed with four counties. Nassau, Suffolk, Queens, and Brooklyn, it is divided from the Sate by the East River, which is .actually a tidal strait and not a river and from Connecticut by the ‘Long Island Sound’. A ‘sound’ in maybe geographically described as a large sea or ocean inlet, larger than a bay, deeper than a bight, wider than a fjord, or it may identify a narrow sea or ocean channel between two bodies of land, according to an article published on wordIQ.com. .
The main focus of the market and product planning is, therefore, the consumers who form the target market which may be widespread (international) or centralized (confined to a specific geographic location. Consequently, for viability, the marketing mix hinges on the 4P components: Product, Price, Promotion, and Place. (Kotler, 2003).
Currently, the Russian marketplace is one with great potential for international investment given its natural physical and human resources, as well as political development of the last few years. As a result, this paper will focus on a market plan for entering this market with Australian gourmet wines, and the subsequent sections will address the different components of the mix as it applies to Russia.
Russia is a large country in terms of geography and population size with almost two-thirds of the population living in big cities far away from each other and surrounded by vast and little populated areas, often with poor transportation connections between these cities. Over the last decade, there has been some political stability and an improved standard of living with the passing of a new constitution and a selection of a new government. Notwithstanding, there continues to be widespread crime and corruption as well as deteriorated urban infrastructure.
In terms of businesses, although there are retailers and suppliers, these are fragmented, and the few chain stores are not under any organized umbrella. On the socio-economic front, whereas the greatest purchasing power of the society is concentrated among the minority who are business people living in large cities, pricing is a very important factor to all consumers. Those with limited purchasing power are mainly older citizens who are interested in the reliability and the quality of goods, especially in the health care sector. Despite this, the leisure preferences displayed currently are sport activities and eating out at restaurants, and for shopping, they prefer large .centers.
51250 The conflict between these two people discloses the main idea of the story. The story has a very interesting structure – a story in the story, but at the same time, it doesn’t prevent Chekhov from conveying the uniform assessment of human life perception, stating his ideas and outlooks. Plot composition of this story is simple and original. The prolog is the story of a gymnasium teacher Burkin telling to his friend, a veterinarian Ivan Ivanovich, a story about the teacher of Greek language Byelikov. We learn about the appearance and the way of life of the main character. The plot begins when a new teacher of history and geography Mikhail Savvich Kovalenko comes to the city. He comes with his younger sister Varinka whom Byelikov liked and considered marriage with her. The conflict of Byelikov and Kovalenko is the conflict of the people with absolutely different characters, different ideas, and moral principles, and it is the foundation of the story. Byelikov lived in panic, being afraid of reality irritants. Byelikov praised the past, expressing disgust for the present and classic languages which he taught. He wore the same “an umbrella and galoshes” in which he was hiding from the real life. And everyone was afraid of this strange person. His thoughts were also hidden in a “case”. Nobody could know what he is thinking about and what he is going to do. Kovalenko, on the contrary, was open to people, he clearly expressed his opinion. A number of events make the culmination of the story: the desire of Byelikov and Varinka to get married, the drawn caricature of the main character, driving bicycles. All these actions excited Byelikov and provoked the conflict between him and Varinka’s brother. Belikov’s death, which according to others serves as a solution to all the problems, is the outcome.
Ruth Frankenburg once said that “any system of differentiation shapes those upon whom it bestows privilege as well as those it oppresses.” (Frankenberg: 1993: 131). This is a critical insight to begin to understand and reflect on the complex ways that the color of one’s skin determines a person’s life-chances. Whiteness indeed bestows a structural advantage to those who possess that color of skin, and conversely, creates disadvantages for those who are of another skin tone. In the past, race was used as an organizing device to include or exclude. In a way, therefore, it becomes inextricable with class – particularly when race becomes the determinant of conferring economic benefit. At present, while there are discrimination laws in place now that bar racial discrimination, there are still insidious ways that race creep in. For example, white is still considered the standard of beauty in many places – with women opting for rosy creamy white skin Caucasian features. To provide a specific example in the community, a news report came out recently1 that Wal-Mart is selling black Barbies at half the price of white Barbies, causing critics to comment that this can send a wrong message to children. It internalizes racial discrimination and reinforces the message that white is beautiful and other colors are not.
In a sense, race and class and gender are similar in that it triggers the process of differentiation, and these differentials are legitimized and ratified in order to support existing power structures or arrangements. Race and gender and class differentials therefore, operate to strengthen one another and create filtering mechanisms that determine what people can get, and how, as well as the relationships between the group that gets and the group that does not. A black woman for example is beset with deeper structural disadvantages than a white woman, or a black man. A poor black worker will not enjoy the same financial advantages as a rich black businessman. Discrimination therefore takes place on multiple levels. To address one and ignore the other is a profound injustice.
Frankenberg, R. (1993) “Growing Up White: Feminism, Racism and the Social Geography of Childhood.” Feminist Review. Vol. 45. 51-84.
41000 The characteristic hammer shaped head of these ocean predators is called cephalofoil and is the reason why they are called hammerhead sharks. The nostrils and eyes are located at the tip of the extensions. All hammerhead sharks belong to the genus Sphyrna. There are nine identified species of Hammerhead shark and all have the characteristic projections on both sides of the head. The largest Hammerhead species, the Great Hammerhead shark, can grow up to 20 feet in length and weigh up to 1,000 pounds, although smaller sizes are more common (National Geography). The smallest of this species is the Bonnethead, which can reach an average length of 3-4 feet and can weigh up to 24 pounds (University of Florida). Cephalofoil: Structural Variations There are two main theories regarding the development of the cephalofoil. Some scientists believe that the shape evolved gradually over numerous generations, while others suggest that it was a sudden mutation that rapidly proved to be an advantage (Aquatic Community). The shape of the cephalofoil has been found to vary considerably among the various species of Hammerhead sharks. The great hammerhead has a cephalofoil that is broad and nearly flat across the front, with a single shallow notch in the center. The scalloped hammerhead is arched more and has a pronounced center notch with two matching notches on either side, giving it a scalloped appearance. The smooth hammerhead is smooth with no notches but a slight broad arch. The cephalofoil of a bonnethead is rounded at the front and resembles a shovel more than a hammer. Function of Cephalofoil Researchers are not sure about the function of cephalofoil in hammerhead sharks, but they have a few theories, some of which hold up well under research. The prominent theories which have been tested are listed below: 1. Enhanced binocular field In this study, scientist hypothesized that one of the main features of the cephalofoil is to enhance frontal binocularity (McComb et al. 4010). As part of this study, they compared the visual fields of three hammerhead species: the bonnethead shark (Sphyrna tiburo), the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) and the winghead shark (Eusphyra blochii) with the visual field of two carcharhinid species: the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris) and the blacknose shark (Carcharhinus acronotus). Scientists also quantified the eye rotation and head yaw of these sharks in order to determine if species compensate for large blind areas anterior to the head. The study revealed that the winghead shark possessed the largest anterior binocular overlap which was nearly four times larger than that of the lemon and blacknose sharks (McComb 4013). The binocular overlap in the scalloped hammerhead sharks was greater than the bonnethead sharks and carcharhinid species (McComb et al. 4013). However, the bonnethead shark did not differ from the carcharhinids (McComb et al. 4013). The hammerhead species did not demonstrate greater eye rotation in the anterior or posterior direction. However, both the scalloped hammerhead and bonnethead sharks exhibited greater head yaw during swimming than the lemon and blacknose sharks, indicating a behavioral compensation for the anterior blind area (McComb et al. 4013). The results indicate that hammerhead species have larger binocular overlap compared to the carcharhinid sharks which is consistent with the ‘enhanced binocular field’ hypothesis. 2. Head Morphology Scientists have conducted a comparative morphology test to determine if the sphyrnid cephalofoil offers better stereo-olfaction, increases olfactory acuity and samples a greater volume of the medium compared to the carcharhiniform sharks (Kajiura et al., Morphology 253). The broadly spaced nares provides significantly greater separation between the
A Short Insight Into The Life Of Some Of The Major Aztec Cities.
The Aztecs were ancient cultural groups of people living in what is now central Mexico. These groups were in control of large parts of Mesoamerica between the 14th and the 16th century. One characteristic feature of the Aztecs was that they spoke the Nahuatl language. The word Aztec is from a Nahuatl origin derived from the word ‘aztecah’ meaning ‘people from Aztlan’. Aztlan was a legendary place which was the centre of cultural activity of people who spoke in Nahuatl. The word Aztec is commonly used as a reference to the Mexican people living in Tenochtitlan. Knowledge about the Aztec has been gained through archaeological means from excavations of Mexico City especially from Temple Mayor. Detailed descriptions written by Aztecs and some Spanish clergymen in both Spanish and Nahuatl language have been a great help in getting knowledge about the history and lives of the Aztecs. Spanish conquerors like Hernán Cortés and Bernal Díaz del Castillo also relate stories about the Aztecs that they had witnessed. The Valley of Mexico was the center of the cultural activities of Aztecs and it was there that the Aztecs reached the pinnacle of their civilization. Tenochtitlan, the capital city of the Aztec Triple Alliance was located in the Valley of Mexico. Tenochtitlan was the center of trade, geography, government and agriculture. Apart from Tenochtitlan, the other two major cities were Texcoco and Tlacopan located in the Valley of Mexico.
Tenochtitlan was founded in 1325 by Aztecs who built the first temple there. It was the biggest city of the Aztecs home of about 200,000 of them. Its central area was very well organized whereas the areas away from the centre were not that organized. The citizens of Tenochtitlan wanted it to look brimming with grandeur as it was their capital city and for that they used grids, sculptures and architectural designs borrowed from Tula. The entire city was renovated along with the areas surrounding the city to increase its grandeur. There were many religious and administrative centers in the city apart from the central plaza. Each of the quadrants had their own central plaza. Normal citizens lived on the periphery of the city centers whereas the area surrounded by the nobles and the lords was near the trade centers. Rectangular patches of land called chinampas were used for cultivation and building houses. The city was made up of five quadrants divided by canals. Tenochtitlan was destroyed in 1521.After a period of time it was rebuilt and renamed as Mexico City.
Texcoco was located east of the Lake Texcoco and was proud of its shared name with the lake. It had played great part in history and the people were proud of their ancestry. Five provinces to the east of the river were under the rule of Texcoco by the start of 15th century and the lands it ruled over went as far as their enemies’ borders in the Highlands. It had flourishing markets, grand temples, and the people living there were educated. But upon attack from Tepanecs, Texcocan enemies, people of Tenochtitlan did not help them to defend them.
Tlacopan was joined with the Aztecs and Texcocans in to form the Triple Alliance in 1428. Founded originally by Tepanecs who arrived in the Valley of Mexico early in the13th century, Tlacopan was not a very big city and only received one fifth of the compliments received by the Triple Alliance. Tlacopan was seized over in 1521.
When the Aztecs first arrived in the Valley of Mexico in 1300 A.D., it was nothing but a marshy island near Lake Texcoco. Out of that marshy island, the Aztecs gave rise to a magnificent city, which stood for centuries and whose temples and buildings were a sight to behold.
"Ancient Aztec Summary: Ancient Aztec Timeline." .Ancient Aztec Summary. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. .
MacAllister, Stuart, and Historical Novel Society reviewer. "The Rise of the Aztecs Part V, Texcoco, The Acolhua Capital – History Literature The Rise of the Aztecs – Acolhua altepetl Azcapotzalco Aztecs empire highlands historical novel historycal fiction Ixtlilxochitl Lake Chalco Lake Texcoco Mayans Mesoamerica Mexico Nezahualcoyotl politics Tenochtitlan Tepanecs Texcoco Tezozomoc tribute war warriors – Pre-Columbian Americas." .Pre-Columbian Americas – Zoe Saadia. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. .
"TLACOPAN." .Tlacopan. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Dec. 2012. .
"Tenochtitlan." .Project Two: Aztec City Layout and Architecture. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Dec. 2012. .<. https://www.courses.psu.edu/anth/anth008_cmg149/aten.html>. "The History of the Aztecs." Powering Silicon Valley | San Jose State University. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Dec. 2012. <. http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/aztecs.htm>.
A nation attains competitive advantage through competitive firms and firms and industries become competitive through innovation. It is the pressure and the challenge of competing against the best in the world that brings out the best in a nation in terms of competition and the creation of a sustainable competitive advantage. An abundance of inherited factors can only undermine the competitive advantage of a nation. (Porter E.M., 1990)
Nations will be able to achieve short-term success but never will be able to achieve a true and sustainable competitive advantage. Porter says that a new set of perspectives and tools are required, a kind of an approach to national competitiveness that has been derived through the direct analysis of successful international companies and not a result of traditional economic ideologies and current intellectual trends. The simple question that needs to ask and solved is “what works, why, it works and how it works?” After finding solutions to these “what, why and how” it’s just a matter of applying them. (Porter E.M., 1990)
Hence this paper delves with the ideas and theories of M.E. Porters on national competitive advantage. His concept of clusters, the diamond model and as well as the role of the MNEs and FDIs in the culmination of a nation’s competitive advantage.
The geographic concentration of interconnected industries, service providers, specialized suppliers, and the other associated institutions in a particular sphere or a field that are present in a nation or within a region are known as clusters. Clusters arise and grow because they increase the productivity with which the companies can compete. These clusters are linked by the interdependence in providing a related category of products and services (Porter E. M, 1990). Due .to the close proximity of the clusters both in terms of their activities and geography, the constituents of clusters enjoy a number of economic benefits culminating from positive location and precise externalities.
Discovering Caves with BBC BBC Documentary series Planet Earth, Episode 4 is about most interesting caves on Earth. It generally discovers what is going in different kinds of caves: what does a cave consists of, how is it populated, and what are the rules and laws of a cave life. It appears, there are insects, birds and fishes that live in caves a quite isolated life. The cave world appears to be very natural, and untouched. It’s a world without people.
For people it’s very hard to reach inside a cave, – it’s a first thing to notice. Humans have to use parachutes and jump into a cave, like Alice in Wonderland when following a rabbit, or swim and go diving with a lot of equipment, basically risking own life. Even when getting inside a cave on foot, it’s not always safe. For example, de Villa Luz cave in Mexico which has a white-colored water inside, is full of unhealthy gases, specifically hydrogen sulfide which only bats, which live very up, near the cave’s ceiling can survive. Even when getting inside a quite safe cave, it seems to be a great danger. As well as the most of Earth surface, caves are made from rocks, particularly from a limestone. Limestone can be deformed, mostly by flowing water, but still it’s a hard rock and cave visitors can crash themselves, or damage the equipment. Maybe risk worth it, when discovering new wonderful places and filming a documentary program to show to other people, but it’s odd to see how people risk their lives for a delicious soup. Yet there are caves in Asia, where birds named cave swiftlets live. They build nests, and people risk their lives to get those nests and use for a specific soup cooking.
Except birds, caves are highly populated with insects. The cave food chain generally, looks very disgusting. For example, there are caves in Mexico with cave’s floor almost made of beats. Those beats feed by eating bats’ excrements, or simply by eating dead bats. Another disgusting example can be found in Waitomo caves. Those caves look very beautiful when taking a panorama view. It’s dark there and millions of glowing dots are shining in darkness, like it’s a starry night. Yet in fact, they are glowing worms that do the shining. From their slim they make nets, generally looking like draperies. It’s a worms’ way to catch a food, primary insects. Remarkably, how beautiful those draperies look from a distant view and how disgusting they are when looking closely. Yet not all cave creatures are so disgusting. There are beautiful crabs, angel fishes and blind salamanders which live in caves of Texas. They are absolutely white, because they live only in specific cave conditions without any sunshine and have no eyes, because they don’t need them anymore. Naturally, those creatures had eyes, but as they live so specifically and so isolated, they evolved into a no-eyes version.
Despite there’s a lot of information on biology in this BBC documentary episode, the main idea is geographical. People are so use to live at a surface, that they never discover what’s underground, or deep inside mountains, or deep undersea. If going deeper into the Earth, it’s usually only for a profit reason: rocks are studied to retrieve some goods. Yet geography does not only mean surface: there’s a quite specific world inside a cage too, with its specific laws and wonders.
Save Our -Venice Introduction Venice is naturally prone to floods, as the is fast spreading across many islands located along the Arabian Sea, in the Venetian lagoon. However, the efforts are on to save this city from sinking, which the city is going through currently at the rate of 0.08 inches each year, according to a report published in the March issue of Geochemistry, geophysics and Geosystems.
Answers to questions:
Q.#1 Location of Venice, reason for its floods
Venice is located on a lagoon along the Arabian Sea. The city is separated from the sea by many barren islands. The lagoon had mudflats earlier, which formed a natural barrier for the rising tides causing them to disburse. However, with continuous human interference with Venetian ecology, the city is now more prone to floods from high-rise tides. The utilization of mudflats for construction and diversion of rivers and other similar actions have disturbed the ecological balance of Venice with the Arabian Sea. This is the main reason for Venice getting floods during high tides and heavy rains. (Nosengo).
Q.#2 MOSE– its brainchild, date of completion and cost.
It is the Italian name of the engineering solution for saving Venice. Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi initiated this costly project and declared the working on it in December 2001. The project cost is around USD 2.6 billion and it is scheduled to complete in 2011, with the construction of hollow gates starting in 2006.The project being an engineering solution to save Venice from floods involves construction of 78 hollow metal gates, having the height of 20m with thickness of 5m. The placement of these gates is at three main inlets of this lagoon. (Nosengo).
Q.#3 Positive and negative positions from advocates and critics of MOSE
Many environmentalists have shown concerns about the project as they feel that even a few hours of closure of gates can cause tremendous disturbance to the ecosystem of this lagoon. Politicians have expressed fears that money meant for this project will be diverted elsewhere in the city. Deputy Mayor of Venice, Gianfranco Bettin has been the most forthright in his criticism of MOSE, saying that it is “expensive, hazardous and probably useless”. (Nosengo).
The strong criticism to the technical feasibility of MOSE is from Paolo Antonio, who was born in Venice and works with Laboratory of Physical Geography in Meudon, France. His main concern relates to MOSE being developed keeping in mind the 1966 major floods, which are unlikely to occur for another 165 years. He says the project cannot offer result-oriented solution for smaller floods. His other concern relates to the rapid rise in water levels during the closure of gates.
However, supporters of MOSE argue that 1966 can repeat anytime, if proper remedial measures are not taken. Andrio Rinaldo is also Venice born and has seen the 1966 disaster. He is now working as a Hydraulic engineer with Padova University, near Venice. Supporting the project, he feels that water will not rise to alarming levels, as expressed by Antonio. (Nosengo).
Q.#4 Environmental concerns from critics
Environmentalists criticizing MOSE argue that Venice cannot afford even a brief pause in the water exchange with sea, as it can cause unthinkable disturbance in the lagoon’s ecosystem. The designers of MOSE have provided for the closure of gates for four to five hours, which is not acceptable to environmentalists. (Nosengo).
Q.#5 Businesses have serious concerns and doubts about MOSE
Human intervention has made the city of Venice vulnerable to rising floods. MOSE is yet another such intervention, which will completely deprive Venice of its natural ecosystem. The mudflats being developed naturally over the years had provided good support to Venice, but they have been destroyed by mass constructions of canals, shipyards and diversion of rivers. In addition, this project is very costly and money spent on MOSE may not be worth it. (LoVerso)
The time only will tell about the fate of businesses, after implementation of MOSE, when another flood occurs,
LoVerso, Marco. “Can Moses Save Venice?”, The Continental Reader. n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2014. Nosengo, Nicola. “Save Our City”, News Feature, Nature Publishing Group, 07 August 2003, Web. 21 Feb. 2014,
On account of such transformations taking place on a massive scale the concept of globalization has also been described by many as the end of mankind’s ideological evolution (Cazdyn and Szeman, 2011: 25. Herod, 2009: 39). of renewable natural resources (Brauch et al., 2009: 679). as well as the end of the world – thus inciting controversies. both – within and beyond the academic and literary circles. As the process of globalization intensifies, the debates, controversies and criticisms surrounding the same are likely to grow simultaneously. This paper aims to discuss various key aspects of globalization beginning from the general definitions of the term to the key features, impacts and implications, theoretical underpinnings of the concept, and criticisms as well as counterviews surrounding it.
According to Giddens (1990) globalization is defined as "the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa" (qtd. in Hothi, 2005 p. 10).
Walters (2001) describes globalization as "A social process in which constraints of geography on social and cultural arrangements recede in which people become increasingly aware that they are receding" (p.5).
According to Friedman (1999) globalization is "the inexorable integration of markets, nation-states and technologies to a degree never witnessed before- in a way that is enabling individuals, corporations and nation-states to reach around the world farther, faster, deeper, and cheaper than ever before, and in a way that is also producing a powerful backlash from those brutalized or left behind by this new system… Globalization means the spread of a free-market capitalism to virtually every country in the world" (p.7-8).
As observed from the above definitions, the concept of globalization is diverse and