## PUTCALLPARITY

PUT CALL PARITYThe Put Call Parity defines a price relationship between Call options, Put Options, and Underlying stock. The idea was first introduced by finance journalist Hans Stoll in 1969, in his paper ‘The Relationship Between Put and Call Prices’ in 1969. It is considered as one of the most important principle in Option Pricing (Hecht, 2019).There are two types of Options 1. XEO (European Options): the exercise of these options will only happen at the option’s expiry date.2. OEX (American Options): the exercise of these options can be at any time during their life.The Put Call Parity tends to work perfectly only with European options compared to the American Options (Hull, 2017).The formula applied to check the relationship between European put and call options with same strike prices and expiry isC + X  = P + SHere,C: Call PremiumP: Put Premiumr: risk free interest rate T: Time to maturity in terms of year.X: Strike price of Call and Put Option.S: Initial Price or Current Price of underlying. Put Call Parity Testing(XEO) European Put Call Parity                                 EUROPEAN PUT CALL PARITY OPTIONS ATM ITM OTM X 640 560 1190 PV(X) 617.2154797 540.0635448 1147.635033 C 627.7 706.5 140.35 LHS 1244.91548 1246.563545 1287.985033 S 1271.2 1271.2 1271.2 P 2.375 63.75 1.45 RHS 1273.575 1334.95 1272.65 DIFFERENCE -28.65952028 -88.38645524 15.33503261 OUTCOME DOES NOT HOLD TRUE DOES NOT HOLD TRUE HOLDS TRUE In the European Put Call Parity the options that hold true are the ones where the LHS is equal to the RHS, or they must be almost similar to each other with a small difference. In this scenario, from the above mentioned table we can conclude that OTM with X=1190 holds true. The other two figures were ITM with X=560 and ATM with X=640, since they have a slightly larger gap comparing to OTM. It does not hold true. This offers an arbitrage opportunity for the investors.(OEX) American Put Call Parity AMERICAN PUT CALL PARITY OPTIONS ATM ITM OTM C 636.8 716.1 143.45 D 2.16% 2.16% 2.16% PV(D) 0.020831022 0.020831022 0.020831022 X 640 1190 560 PV(X) 617.2154797 1147.635033 540.0635448 LHS 1254.036311 1863.755864 683.5343758 S 1271.2 1271.2 1271.2 P 2.375 64.85 1.475 RHS 1273.575 1336.05 1272.675 DIFFERENCE -19.53868925 527.7058636 -589.1406242 OUTCOME DOES NOT HOLD TRUE HOLDS TRUE DOES NOT HOLD TRUE In the American Options the Put Call Parity holds true when LHS is greater than or equal to RHS. As from the table above we can see that LHS < RHS when X=1190 when the option is in the money (ITM).   The Put Call Parity is denoted by the equation, P (So, T, X) = C (S0, T, X) – So + X (1+ r)-T Applying to the formula,1.45 = 140.35 – 1271.2 + 1147.6350332.375 < 16.785033As we can notice here that 16.785033 is greater, the call is over-priced. The investor is advised to sell his over-priced call in this situation and buy a put of the same value, as it becomes a perfect hedge. We could use an alternative equation i.e., S0 = C (So, T, X) – P (So, T, X) + X (1 + r) -T  Applying to the formula,1271.2 = 140.35 – 1.45 + 1147.6350331271.2 < 1286.535033When using the above formula, it indicates that the call, put and bonds are overpriced, so the investor should sell theses and buy the shares as they are underpriced. Therefore, to check arbitrage profits Put Call Parity variations can be used.Hecht, A., 2019.Options: The Concept Of Put-Call Parity. [online] The Balance. Available at: <https://www.thebalance.com/options-the-concept-of-put-call-parity-808888< [Accessed 12 April 2020].Hull, J., 2017.Fundamentals Of Futures And Options Markets. 10th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

## Phase1

ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/IrwinDavid, F. R., & David, F. R. (2017). Strategic management: A competitive approach, concepts(16th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson Education, IncForbes. (2012, April 4). Jeff Bezos reveals his no.1 leadership secret. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/forbes/2012/0423/ceo-compensation-12-amazon-technology-  jeff-bezos-gets-it.html#557be68e5227Northouse, P. G. (2015).Leadership: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Thousand, Oaks, CA: Sage
publications.Palumbo, D. (2019, July 5). Amazon at 25: The story of a giant. BBC Business. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-48884596Reuters. (2020).  Amazon.com, Inc. AMZN.OQ. Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/companies/AMZN.OQStreitfeld, D. (2018, September 4). Amazon hits \$1,000,000,000,000 in value, following Apple.   New York Times. Retrieved from       https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/04/technology/amazon-stock-price-1-trillion-value.htmlUnited States Securities and Exchange Commission. (2018). Form 10k: Amazon.com, Inc.       Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing OfficeWhittington, D., & Whittington, W. (2018). Digital innovation and entrepreneurship. New York,       NY: Cambridge University Press

## NR447_W2_AACN_Essentials_SelfAssessment

Week 2: The AACN Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Self-AssessmentUnderstanding the competencies related to the AACN Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice provides you with valuable information as you begin to study this course.Complete this self-assessment, which is based on The Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing from the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (2008) prior to posting to the discussion on this topicPlace a check mark or X in the column that best describes your current level of competency or understanding of the Essential’s statement. There are no incorrect answers. After you have completed the assessment, total the number of points that you earned. Record this number in a location where you will be able to retrieve it at the end of the course, when it will serve as the basis for a future discussion. AACN (American Association of Colleges of Nursing) Baccalaureate Essentials Poor 1 Good 2 Very Good 3 Excellent 4 Essential II: Basic Organizational and Systems Leadership for Quality Care and Patient Safety Apply leadership concepts, skills, and decision-making in the provision of high quality nursing care, healthcare team coordination, and the oversight and accountability for care delivery in a variety of settings. Demonstrate leadership and communication skills to effectively implement patient safety and quality improvement initiatives within the context of the interprofessional team. Participate in quality and patient safety initiatives, recognizing that these are complex system issues, which involve individuals, families, groups, communities, populations, and other members of the healthcare team. Employ principles of quality improvement, healthcare policy, and cost-effectiveness to assist in the development and initiation of effective plans for the microsystem and system-wide practice improvements that will improve the quality of healthcare delivery. Essential V: Healthcare Policy, Finance, and Regulatory Environments Demonstrate basic knowledge of healthcare policy, finance, and regulatory environments, including local, state, national, and global healthcare trends. Explore the impact of sociocultural, economic, legal, and political factors influencing healthcare delivery and practice. Examine the roles and responsibilities of the regulatory agencies and their effect on patient care quality, workplace safety, and the scope of nursing and other health professionals’ practice. Advocate for consumers and the nursing profession. Essential VI: Interprofessional Communication and Collaboration for Improving Patient Health Outcomes Use inter and intrarofessional communication and collaborative skills to deliver evidence-based, patient-centered care. Incorporate effective communication techniques, including negotiation and conflict resolution to produce positive professional working relationships. Demonstrate appropriate teambuilding and collaborative strategies when working with interprofessional teams. Advocate for high-quality and safe patient care as a member of the interprofessional team. Essential VIII: Professionalism and Professional Values Demonstrate the professional standards of moral, ethical, and legal conduct. Promote the image of nursing by modeling the values and articulating the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the nursing profession. Reflect on one’s own beliefs and values as they relate to professional practice. Articulate the value of pursuing practice excellence, lifelong learning, and professional engagement to foster professional growth and development. Total for each column Grand total (add all columns) Source: American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN). (2008). The essentials of baccalaureate education for professional nursing practice. Washington, DC: AACN. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/education-resources/baccessentials08.pdf/

## MarketingCW2brief003

Netflix,
P&G
(select
one company from their portfolio), Cadbury Marketing M&S, Nike, Unilever (select one company from their portfolio) HR Hilton, Starbucks, Coca Cola (e.g. Coca cola,  Fanta,  Smart  water  –  select  one 1 company from their portfolio) Finance JP Morgan, HSBC, Mastercard, Paypal This assignment should be presented in a standard marketing plan format of between 2,000 – 2,500 words and submitted by Moodle.Please submit your work via Moodle. Please see Moodle for submission date.Module learning outcomes assessed in Assignment 2: Assignment Description MLOs addressed Assessment Individual 1. To  be  able  to  debate  module  concepts  and Marketing theories Plan 2. To use the theory to conduct competently the analysis
of
contemporary
marketing

## Managerial Finance Assignment | New England College

Use the tools and techniques presented in this course to analyze the company’s( NASDAQ: PEPPepsiCo,Inc ) profitability, liquidity, leverage and the common stock as an investment. Prepare a financial analysis on the company using public information such as the company’s annual report, SEC 10-Q and 10-K.The length of the paper should be 4 to 5 typewritten pages.APA Format References10/05/202012computerscience

## Real Estate finance and investment Project

7 page essay due in 24 hoursThe main purpose of this project is to spot light on Real Estate Investment Trusts “REITs” in Saudi Arabia focusing on the meaning, origination, how it works, pros and cons, listed companies, how to invest, and risks.08/05/202050businessfinance

The objective is to make an “audit report”, thereby assessing their business practises in terms of (choose max. 4): – Corporate governance and finance – Marketing – Employee Relations – Sustainability – Technology• Each of the (max. 4) issues you choose, has to cover a minimum of 250 and a maximum of 400 words. The amount of words include: – description of the activities you find and – the assessment of these activities (using theory, concepts and approaches towards ethics provided throughout the course)Formalities: The minimum amount of words to be used is 1000 (choice of 3 or 4 subjects), and the maximum is 1600 (choice of 4 subjects, 400 words each) You may want to include images/graphics etc. (for example from their website) to make your reasoning and argumention more visual and explicative Font: Arial. Size: 12,5pts. Line spacing: 1,5. Text align: Justified. Appendices and References, do not count towards the final wordcount but are strongly recommended (referencing websites, articles, books etc.)10/05/202025socialscience

## 1 2 Discussion Investing Lending And Borrowing Money

OverviewFinance is the science of money management and involves investing, lending, and borrowing money under conditions of uncertainty and risk. In the Entertainment Business Finance course, we examine and study how individuals, businesses, and organizations manage money. This week’s discussion provides an opportunity to share your experiences and views as a borrower, lender, or investor.Initial PostDiscuss two or more of the following questions:What experience do you already have with investing, lending, or borrowing money? Have you made an investment? Have you loaned money? Have you borrowed money? Explain in detail. What went well, and what could have gone better?15/05/20206education

## Finance

our Discussion postings should be written in standard edited English and should follow APA guidelines. Be sure tosupportyour work withspecific in-text citationsfrom this week’s Learning Resources. Refer to thePocket Guide to APA Styleto ensure that your in-text citations and reference list are correct. Initial postings must be 250–350 words (not including references).What is the key difference between financial statement analysis and operating indicator analysis? How are these types of analyses useful to healthcare managers and investors? Consider a healthcare organization with which you are familiar and discuss what are some of the problems or challenges inherent in financial statement analysis?21/05/20208psychology

## Finance

1.Define the efficient market hypothesis (EMH).2. What are the implications of EMH for corporate managers?APA 6th editionMinimun 450 words, add citations and references.BOOK REFERENCE: Vernimmen, P., Quiry, P., Dallocchio, M., Le Fur, Y., & Salvi, A. (2014). Corporate finance: Theory and practice, (4th ed). Chichester, West Sussex UK: John Wiley & Sons21/05/20200.5biology

## Telecom

pick 2 different department team members from “facilities,security,human resources,public relations, information technology, finance, sales and legal” and describe why they were chosen and what skill they should bring.15/05/20203computerscience

## Bookkeeping Services

Bookkeeping services are really helpful for your company. It is always a wise choice to hire an external bookkeeper to look after your financial status. These days QuickBooks is in great trend. You can hire a person with great QuickBooks skills as it simplifies and streamlines the tracking, accounting and reporting is certain parts and guarantees that managing the finance of your company will be much easier. The bookkeeping rates are also low then the amount that you pay to a full-time employee in your company. Get the best QuickBooks, Myob and XERO Bookkeepers at Alexilum Bookkeeping Brisbane, Australia. They have some real gems who are experts in managing the finance of your company in a great way.31/05/20201000businessfinance

1. Compare and contrast the risks of McDonald’s deciding to offer a new sandwich versus a franchisee opening a brand-new store.2. Explain which decision would incur more risks to the restaurant chain and why. 3. Explain which decision would incur more risks to the individual franchisee and why.23/04/202015appliedsciences

## Finance

Explain the reason for not reporting property and equipment at fair value except in specified circumstances.The deliverable length of initial posting must be at least 150 words.26/04/20209businessfinance

## Marketing Strategy discussion

As an owner of a professional sports team, or a stadium:List5 significant revenue and expense line items (a total of ten) fora professional sports facility or team that you can influence or change in the current year.Describe what external factorscan impact these items? How can you as a teamexecutive or executiveof the stadium or arena influence change in these categories? Naming rights, players salaries, rent and debt service are very hard to change in the current year, so use other items.Maximum 2 pages plus references.Follow the assignment file protocol listed in the announcements. Failure to follow the protocol will result in a returned assignment with loss of grade.13/04/202040businessfinance

## Excel finance project

For this project, please use Excel to do your calculations and analysis and then type a report in MS Word. Your report should clearly and thoroughly answer the eight questions below. The report should be typed double-spaced using a Times New Roman Font, size 12. Please limit your report to no more than 10 pages. Submit your report and Excel file on Blackboard, as well as provide me a hard copy of your report in class. All of this needs to be completed by the listed due date on the syllabus.1) What will be the effects of issuing \$3 billion of new debt and using the proceeds to repurchase shares on: Wrigley’s outstanding shares? on the price per share of Wrigley’s stock?2) What will be the effects of issuing \$3 billion of new debt and using the proceeds to pay a dividend on: Wrigley’s outstanding shares? on the price per share of Wrigley’s stock?3) What is Wrigley’s current (pre-recapitalization) weighted average cost of capital (WACC)?4) What would you expect to happen to Wrigley’s WACC if it issued \$3 billion in debt and used the proceeds to pay a dividend or to repurchase shares?5) What will be Wrigley’s current EPS (pre-recapitalization) given the following operating incomes? Assume the following numbers are in millions.Operating income (EBIT)-\$86\$214\$514\$814\$1,114\$1,414\$1,7146) What would you expect to happen to Wrigley’s EPS if it issued \$3 billion in debt and: used the proceeds to pay a dividend? used the proceeds to repurchase shares? Calculate the potential EPS’s given the following incomes. Assume the numbers are in millions.Operating income (EBIT)-\$86\$214\$514\$814\$1,114\$1,414\$1,714Finally, what can you conclude regarding the re-capitalization strategies? Do you recommend Wrigley to pay a dividend or repurchase shares. Used data or graphs to support your recommendation. 29/11/201730businessfinance

## Critical Staffing Challenge

The healthcare industry is facing a critical staffing challenge. What are your thoughts on how to address this issue within the United States? 200 word minimum w/cited references.Baker, J. J., Baker, R. W., & Dworkin, N. R. (2018). Health care finance: Basic tools for nonfinancial managers (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.29/03/20208humanresource-management

## What are the challenges in implementing a global alliance Once an alliance is reached what steps are involved in strategic implementation of the venture?

Answer the above questions, using the below/attached references. Must be at least 300 words in APA format.References(1) Goussak, Gregory W. (2012). CULTURAL PLURALISM: A CRITICAL NEEDS PLAN FOR GENERAL MOTORS. Global Conference on Business & Finance proceedings, 7(1), 249-255. (2) Damanpour, F., Devece, C., Chen, C. C., & Pothukuchi, V. (2012). Organizational culture and partner interaction in the management of international joint ventures in India. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 29(2), 453-478.(3) Jakada, B. A. (2014). Building global strategic alliances and coalitions for foreign investment opportunities. International Journal of Global Business, 7(1), 77-94.(4) Luvison, D., & de Man, A. (2015). Firm performance and alliance capability: The mediating role of culture. Management Decision, 53(7), 1581-1600.24/01/201815businessfinance

## Finance management

What were some critical management decisions that helped Netflix besuccessful vs. Blockbuster?- What other industries can you think of facing similar disruptions?1 pageAPA3 sources12/05/20205businessfinance

## Don

Write 300 words on the topic and respond to three articles with 150 words each1) Write 300-350 words with 3 peer reviewed references in APA formatDiscuss the importance of managerial accounting as “decision-making tool” in your organization.2) Respond to 1st
article with 150 words A Managerial accounting is a system in which managers identify, analyze, interpret, and communicate information to managers to help them make decisions and achieve business goals. The information collected covers all aspects of accounting that inform the Managerial of activities related to the cost of goods or services purchased by the company. Managing accounting ants use budgets to determine work plans. (Sprinkle, 2006) Performance reports are used to determine deviations from actual results compared to budgets.”Managerial accounting and supervision to assist management in the development of Managerial accounting, decision-making, planning, and product Managerial systems and in developing and executing the company’s strategy.” We use the existing Managerial accounting framework to manage, integrate, and evaluate existing experimental Managerial accounting research. Managerial accounting refers to the performance of tracking internal costs for any business process, which helps the company, company, or individual make decisions about the product, operations, and investments in the market. (“Managerial,” n.d.). Companies need a Managerial accounting to know their budget, their value, and then allocate resources in production, sales, and investment. The role of Managerial accounting is very important for the well-being of the company. Its role and responsibility are so great that misunderstanding or neglecting any work plan by the managing accounting ant can also hurt the company’s future.Thompson et al. (2009) note that the Managerial accounting develops ideas for manufacturing and service organizations. Therefore, Managerial accounting techniques can provide strategies for efficiency and cost-effectiveness, which can be used primarily as a competitive tool for growth and profitability in the banking sector. Durand (2003) argues that Managerial reporting is often not used as a powerful mechanism for competitive advantage. Frank (1990) considers the preparation of Managerial and non-Managerial reports for Managerial and accounting reports for non-governmental groups such as shareholders, creditors, regulatory agencies, and the tax office. The Managerial Accounting provides this experience as an experience that encompasses the following three areas:a) Strategic: Raising the role of Managerial accounting as a strategic partner in the organization;b) Outcome Management: Developing business decision-making and organizational Managerial experience;c) Risk Managementa: Support the framework and practices for identifying, measuring, managing and reporting risks to the organization’s goals.Hilton (2008) argues that Managerial accounting ants play a leading role in their teams and provide valuable information that guides the company in achieving its strategic goals. In addition, the division of liability centers may depend on the objectives and methodology of Managerial accounting and analysis, as liability centers may be commercial banking units, corporations, representatives, or departments. Demand centers for retail, corporate, and others can be built based on a commercial bank or banking sector in which the bank operates. Therefore, the construction of the liability center depends on the profitability of any bank. In addition to the traditional services offered by a commercial bank for Managerial purposes, a new assortment of services offered by a Managerial institution can be created by grouping operations into a single system operating system. The relationship between transaction accounting for Managerial accounting and analysis needs to be tightly defined, resulting in the commercial bank being limited to its liability centers, properly determining its revenues and expenses, and creating favorable Managerial proposals. The following are objectives and requirements:  Determining revenues, expenses, and results for each department;    Results of banking operations and services;    Budgeting revenues and expenses for departments and operations;    Tracking and monitoring performance to obtain results and information needed for Managerial.Issues to be solved by using a Managerial accounting include: creating the most suitable process for planning and budgeting for the bank; Profitability control over various products, work areas, departments, and subsidiaries; Control over the structure and timing of assets and liabilities; Monitoring risk levels and capital efficiency; Making Managerial decisions based on factual information about specific transactions and circumstances in the bank; Modeling the results of some activities, analytical results; Improving decision-making processes in banking products; Optimization relationships with customers by assessing customer performance and customer quality; Other expenses; Creating an efficient system of managerial accounting ability for results.3) Respond to 2nd
article with 150 words Managerial accounting refers to a kind of accounting that offers financial information to company decision-makers. Managerial accounting helps to plan, forecast, and budget company operations. This process helps to establish the direction of the organization over a period, either for months or years. A capital budget for the organization is vital since it details an investment’s cost to be undertaken in the future. The budget also outlines projections and costs of acquisitions and equipment. Secondly, managerial accounting helps to guide decisions on project management (Tarver, 2019). Such choices as capital, cash outlays, and debt to finance the project is possible via the use of managerial accounting. Thus, managerial accounting helps to deliver a project within the budget and at the desired time with a focus on its profitability. Besides, managerial accounting is vital to performance tracking. Real-time decisions are possible since the executive has data for a project. Therefore, they can measure performance against budget and forecasts. This move is crucial since the organization will avoid cost overrun. Hence, it maintains a competitive advantage.Additionally, managerial accounting utilizes data provided. Financial and budgeting projections alongside balanced scorecards guide the management concerning the future of the organization (Freedman, 2019). A focus of this information by managers is critical since they make decisions for continuous improvement, which are justifiable because of the intelligent breakdown of the organization’s data. Lastly, managerial accounting helps to establish costing techniques based on the activities the organization should undertake. Activity-based costing techniques help to determine the actions necessary for producing and servicing a product line. Also, these techniques help the producer to advertise their product to the desired customer with a more significant potential to bring profit to the company.4) Respond to 3rd

## Covid19ontourismindustry2

The goal of the analysis is to calculate the effect on the tourism industry in India of the incidence of corona virus. The secondary approach for analysis has been applied. Several literature records, journal articles, work or thesis reports, government documents, etc., is regarded as gathering the details required for the study. For data analysis, detailed literature analyses also gathered secondary data. Government statistics on corona virus incidences have been obtained. In order to understand the effect of the Corona virus on the Chinese tourist industry, statistical data from renowned and genuine data sources were collected. Research reveals that corona virus activity in India has major consequences worldwide. Global tourists have cancelled their visit to India programs, and Chinese visitors are forbidden from entering places that are monitored. The fast dissemination of the Corona virus in India interrupted people’s usual lives in India. This apprehension has influenced the domestic and foreign tourism industry. The airlines have recently cancelled all services to and from India, to avoid the infection from being exported to other nations. This has significantly influenced the economy of the region. The intensification of the Corona virus is projected to have a long-term effect on India’s tourism industry.RESEARCH OBJECTIVES1. To study about the corona virus and its various factors2. To study about the impact of corona virus on tourism industry of UAECHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSISName *QQ Gender *o
Male  Female        Q What is your age?                 Under 18 19-28r  29-35s  36 Above        2. Do you like to travel outside your country for enjoyment with family?*p  Strongly Agreeo   Agreep  Neutralt  Disagreep  Strongly Disagree3. Do you think that current situation has impacted your plan to travel outside?o  Strongly Agreep  Agreep  Neutralp  Disagreep  Strongly Disagree4. Do you think that COVID 19 pandemic has created a fear in your mind to travel to certain places especially India? *o  Strongly Agreep  Agreep  Neutralp  Disagreep  Strongly Disagree5. Do you agree that this pandemic corona virus has been a major reason for cancelling of your travel plan?. *p  Strongly Agreeo   Agreep  Neutralp  Disagreep  Strongly Disagree6. Do you think that there has been a huge loss to the airline sector and tourism industry due to COVID-19?o  Strongly Agreep  Agreep  Neutralp  Disagreep  Strongly Disagree7.  Do you think that even after the situation of COVID-19 gets better you will travel outside after sometime?*o  Strongly Agreep  Agreep  Neutralp  Disagreep  Strongly Disagree8. Do you agree that after few months you will resume your trip plans to travel outside you country? *o  Strongly Agreep  Agreep  Neutralp  Disagreep  Strongly Disagree9. Do you think that Tourism industry can recover from this COVID-19 situation?*o  Strongly Agreep  Agreep  Neutralp  Disagreep  Strongly Disagree`  10. Do you think that after corona vaccine development people will resume their travel ?*p  Strongly Agreeo   Agreep  Neutralp  Disagreep  Strongly Disagree

## 3

Federal Crop Insurance Corp v. Merrill (1947)332 U.S. 380CERTIORARI TO THE SUPREME COURT OF IDAHOSyllabus1. The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, a wholly government owned corporation created by the Federal Crop Insurance Act to insure producers of wheat against crop losses due to unavoidable causes, including drought, promulgated and published in the Federal Register regulations specifying the conditions on which it would insure wheat crops, including a provision making “spring wheat which has been reseeded on winter wheat acreage” ineligible for insurance.  Without actual knowledge of this provision, a wheat grower applied to the Corporation’s local agent for insurance on his wheat crop, informing the local agent that most of it was being reseeded on winter wheat acreage, but this information was not included in the written application.  The Corporation accepted the application subject to the terms of its regulations.  Most of the crop on the reseeded acreage was destroyed by drought.Held:  the Corporation is not liable for the loss on the reseeded acreage.  Pp. 381-386. [332 U.S. 381]2. Having been published in the Federal Register, the Wheat Crop Insurance Regulations are binding on all who seek to come within the Federal Crop Insurance Act, regardless of lack of actual knowledge of the regulations.  P. 385.67 Idaho 196, 174 P.2d 834, reversed.The Supreme Court of Idaho affirmed a judgment against the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation for loss of a wheat crop which had been reseeded on winter wheat acreage.  67 Idaho 196, 174 P.2d 834.  This Court granted certiorari.  331 U.S. 798.  Reversed, p. 386.MR. JUSTICE FRANKFURTER delivered the opinion of the Court.Key excerpts from Justice Frankfurter’s Majority opinion:“….The case no doubt presents phases of hardship.  We take for granted that, on the basis of what they were told by the Corporation’s local agent, the respondents reasonably believed that their entire crop was covered by petitioner’s insurance.  And so we assume that recovery could be had against a private insurance company.  But the Corporation is not a private insurance company.  It is too late in the day to urge that the Government is just another private litigant, for purposes of charging it with liability, whenever it takes over a business theretofore conducted by private enterprise or engages in competition with private ventures.{1}  Government is not partly public or partly private, depending upon the governmental pedigree of the type of a particular activity or the manner [332 U.S. 384] in which the Government conducts it.  The Government may carry on its operations through conventional executive agencies or through corporate forms especially created for defined ends.  See Keifer & Keifer v. Reconstruction Finance Corp., 306 U.S. 381, 390.  Whatever the form in which the Government functions, anyone entering into an arrangement with the Government takes the risk of having accurately ascertained that he who purports to act for the Government stays within the bounds of his authority.  The scope of this authority may be explicitly defined by Congress or be limited by delegated legislation, properly exercised through the rulemaking power.  And this is so even though, as here, the agent himself may have been unaware of the limitations upon his authority.  See, e.g., Utah Power & Light Co. v. United States, 243 U.S. 389, 409; United States v. Stewart, 311 U.S. 60, 70, and see generally In re Floyd Acceptances, 7 Wall. 666.If the Federal Crop Insurance Act had, by explicit language, prohibited the insurance of spring wheat which is reseeded on winter wheat acreage, the ignorance of of such a restriction, either by the respondents or the Corporation’s agent, would be immaterial, and recovery could not be had against the Corporation for loss of such reseeded wheat.  Congress could hardly define the multitudinous details appropriate for the business of crop insurance when the Government entered it.  Inevitably “the terms and conditions” upon which valid governmental insurance can be had must be defined by the agency acting for the Government.  And so, Congress has legislated in this instance, as in modern regulatory enactments it so often does, by conferring the rulemaking power upon the agency created for carrying out its policy.  See § 516(b), 52 Stat. 72, 77, 7 U.S.C. § 1516(b).  Just as everyone is charged with knowledge of the United States Statutes at Large, [332 U.S. 385] Congress has provided that the appearance of rules and regulations in the Federal Register gives legal notice of their contents.  49 Stat. 502, 44 U.S.C. § 307.Accordingly, the Wheat Crop Insurance Regulations were binding on all who sought to come within the Federal Crop Insurance Act, regardless of actual knowledge of what is in the Regulations or of the hardship resulting from innocent ignorance.  The oft-quoted observation in Rock Island, Arkansas & Louisiana R. Co. v. United States, 254 U.S. 141, 143, that “Men must turn square corners when they deal with the Government” does not reflect a callous outlook.  It merely expresses the duty of all courts to observe the conditions defined by Congress for charging the public treasury.  The “terms and conditions” defined by the Corporation, under authority of Congress, for creating liability on the part of the Government preclude recovery for the loss of the reseeded wheat no matter with what good reason the respondents thought they had obtained insurance from the Government.  Indeed, not only do the Wheat Regulations limit the liability of the Government as if they had been enacted by Congress directly, but they were, in fact, incorporated by reference in the application,{2} as specifically required by the Regulations.{3} [332 U.S. 386]….”

## 20200429024424Fin_335_in_class_exercise_2___orn

Entrepreneurial Finance In-Class Exercise 2 Outreach Networks: First Venture Round Solution Steps 1 Select the appropriate comparable companies and explain your choice: 2 Calculate Valuation metric from the Comps that you selected: EV/EBITDA (EBITDA ratio) =  3 Calculate ORN’s value at exit. Apply comp EBITDA ratio to ORN’s projected year 6 EBITDA:       4 Calculate the PV of ORN by discounting the year 6 value at the VC’s required rate of return:      5 Calculate Series A VC’s required ownership percentage by dividing today’s cash investment by the present value:     6 Calculate required shares to be issued (n): n = (Existing shares x Acquired %) / (1 – Acquired %)  7 Calculate total shares outstanding: Existing Shares + New Shares = 8 Price per share (Investment / Shares Received) =  Capitalization Table Shares % Founder/Management Team Everest Partners Total

## Banking Versus Banks

It means a bank is a financial institution that holds payments of the customers and gives back to them whenever they demand it.Banks run the economy by payment system this thing makes the banks special. They only create money in the form of claims on their own debts. Their specialness lies in their abilities to economize on the use of outside money with their on deposit liabilities. Banks are special in so far as they only can lend claims on their own debt which are accepted and used by the public as money. This power grants banks a unique role in the economy. As money creators, they are irreplaceable by no- bank intermediaries. Banking needs more technology.2Four components are used in the development of banking. Each component has its own importance no one of them can be neglected. Banks simply try to implement these steps but still there is big competition between banks. These steps of banking are interrelated to each other. We will discuss these steps or components in detail. We will check the implementation of these steps using banks and other intermediaries.The first element of banking is credit. Banks have always been suppliers of credit to worthy borrowers with the capacity to undertake and finance productive investments. The business of providing credit is made up of origination, funding and servicing. Each element of banking requires different sets of skills and qualifications. A large bank such as Westpac can add real value to the origination and servicing portions of the credit business, but not as much to funding all credit business.The origination side of the credit business firstly involves finding the customer. Getting a customer on the books requires selling skills, be the target of an existing or a new customer. Over the last decade, banks have developed these selling skills.

## Finance Quiz

However, this will have no effect on Net Working Capital since both current liability and the current assets will decrease.The cash in hand will increase by \$5 million. However, there will be no change in Net Working Capitalas the transaction involves only the conversion of an already existing asset from one form to another.Forecasting Payments: If a firm pays its bills with a 30-day delay, what fraction of its purchases will be paid for: in the current quarter. and in the following quarter? What if its payment delay is 60 days?Lock Boxes: Anne Teak, the financial manager of a furniture manufacturer, is considering operating a lock-box system. She forecasts that 400 payments a day will be made to lockboxes with an average payment size of \$2,000. The bank’s charge for operating the lockboxes is \$.40 a check. The interest rate is .015 percent per day.Use these data to compute accounts receivable turnover ratios and average collection periods for 2005 and 2006. Based on your analysis, is Hickory Company managing its receivables better or worse in 2006 than it did in 2005?The president, vice president, and sales manager of Moorer Corporation were discussing the company’s present credit policy. The sales manager suggested that potential sales were being lost to competitors because of Moorer Corporations’ tight restrictions on granting credit to consumers. He stated that if credit policies were loosened, the current year’s estimated credit sales of \$3,000,000 could be increased by at least 20% next year with an increase in uncollectible accounts receivable of only \$10,000 over this year’s amount of \$37,500. He argued that because the company’s cost of sales is only 25% of revenues, the company would certainly come out ahead.The vice president, however, suggested that a better alternative to easier credit terms would be to accept consumer credit cards such as VISA or MASTERCARD. She argued that this alternative could increase sales by 40%. The credit card finance charges to Moorer Corporation would be 4% of the additional sales.

## Decision Support System

It was traditionally aimed at managers to assist in high-level decision making. The present project focuses on the implementation of one of the DSS techniques in running a group of Hotels or rather implementing this tool in effective management.The details of various entities that change every day in the hotel have been collected. Mrs. Danver presented the parameters that need to manipulate or rather clearly needs observation and statistical analysis for taking further decisions. The data in hand is sorted and the steps laid according to DSS are followed such that data when putting in Excel sheets and their linking bar charts help to take further decisions towards the benefit of the hotel. A different category of data that is collected at Hotel Maurer is also presented. As the management issues of a Hotel are large in the number taking into consideration all the entities would make it laborious so few categories like Finance, Housekeeping, Bar, Staff, Restaurant and Old records are focused mainly.Decision Support System is a tool used to improve the process of decision making in complex systems, in particular where information is uncertain or incomplete.It can range from a system to answer simple queries that allow a subsequent decision to be made, to a system that provides detailed querying across a spectrum of related datasets. It was traditionally aimed at managers to assist in high-level decision-making (Tatnall,2002). Any given DSS can be tailored to provide features across a spectrum of users to ensure the system is accessible at the right level for different audiences and to provide only the information appropriate for confidentiality and security purposes.There are many ways in which these are implemented. Simple query tools can provide one level of support. The more complex systems employ some form of artificial intelligence. There are many approaches to these three of them.

## The Aspects of Financial Life in the UK

Barclays has over \$244 billion in assets under management and ‘Barclays Global investors’ manage 65 of the world’s top 100 largest pension plans. Barclays has spread its wings in 37 countries outside the United Kingdom and a strong presence in Africa through acquisitions. Barclays also provides a hedge against falling US dollar which is now at a 14 year low against the pound sterling. ‘Barclays capital’ handles foreign exchange, derivatives, and fixed income business.HSBC holdings have emerged as the single largest bank in the world operating with 9800 branches in nearly 80 countries. The group has identified itself as a giant in providing consumer and commercial banking services, credit cards, asset management, private banking, securities trading, insurance, and leasing. The operations of the bank in the United States include HSBC USA with the purchase in the year 2003 of the consumer lender ‘Household International’ now known as ‘HSBC Finance’.From the above data, consideration of earnings per share, Price/Earnings ratio, dividend yield, Beta risk, and movement of individual share prices, which are the major criteria apart from the others, would provide a clear indication about the stocks in which the investment should be made.By ‘earnings per share’ (EPS) we mean the consensus analysts’ current fiscal year as well as the next fiscal year earnings per share. In the present analysis, the EPS of HSBC is far in excess than that of Barclays both for the current fiscal and the next fiscal. It is 7.68 and 8.18 respectively in the case of HSBC as against 5.02 and 5.52 for Barclays. The stocks of HSBC qualify for investment on this score than that of Barclays.The Price to Earnings (P/E) Ratio is a company Last Closing Price divided by the current year estimate of earnings per share (EPS). To consider an investment-worthy, the price to earnings should be at a lower rate. In numerical terms, the P/E ratio forBarclays is 11.37 as compared to 11.84 of HSBC.

## Intergovernmental Finance and Paying a Share of the Cost Incurred by Provincial Governments for Infrastructure Improvements

The control of funds is in the central government and it determines the distributable pool of resources.This is a Type D grant. It is a shared type of grant because it comes from the national tax. It however under the discretion of the central government where the 10% incomes tax will be allocated that is why it is Type D which is an ad hoc type of shared tax.IV. Annually the national government determines the amount of aid it will provide to subnational governments. The distribution of this financial aid is based on population density, the percentage of citizens under the age of fifteen, and the average household income.This is a Type F grant. This is an ad hoc transfer since it is under the central government’s discretion where to allocate the funds. It is further classified under the formula type of ad hoc transfer since the division of funds for allocation will be based on the computation of certain objective criteria and elements, in this case, population density, household income and percentage of a citizen under 15.This is a Type K grant. This is a type of reimbursable expenditure based on an emergency situation in a local unit. The funds will be approved and will come from the central government and the funds to be allocated would be the total or partial cost needed by the local government.VI. Local governments receive 40 percent of the motor vehicle license fees collected by the provincial government. The fees are allocated to the local governments based on the percentage of motor vehicles the province that is owned by residents in a particular local government jurisdiction.This is a Type B grant. It is a shared type of government funds but instead of being a national tax, the funds are from the provincial government collected from regular fees collected for the issuance of motor vehicle license. Forty percent is allocated to the local unit based on certain elements, in this case, the percentage of a motor vehicle owned by residents in a certain province.

## Beijing Olympics 2008

The effectiveness of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games is reviewed in this paper. A qualitative research approach has been used for reviewing the various aspects of the specific event. A series of studies published in the academic literature has been reviewed in order to check whether the above sport event has been successful or not. Specific aspects of the particular event are set as priorities in this study: Marketing, Operations Quality, and Performance, Legal and Ethical issues, Finance, Human Resources, and Media. Certain articles published in the local and international press have been also employed, for providing additional information, where necessary, on the issue under examination. The main body of this study has been divided into two parts: Discussion and Findings. In the first of these parts, the Discussion part, the findings of the literature related to this study’s subject are presented, being categorized in order for the coherency of the study to be secured. These findings are then evaluated in the second part of the main body, the Findings section, in order to decide whether the management techniques used for managing the above sport event have been successful or not. The findings of the literature review are supported by graphs included in this study’s Appendix. Conclusions in regards to the issues discussed through the paper are provided in the Findings section. in this way, all conclusions are appropriately supported while any gaps, as revealed through the literature, are highlighted. Marketing, as part of the 2008 Beijing Olympic games, can be evaluated by referring to two, different, facts: the popularity of the specific event as it was in progress and the popularity of the city after the end of the particular event. The Beijing Olympic Games of 2008 can be considered as a major event for China’s public image. In fact, since the end of the Olympics, the number of tourists that have visited the region has reached impressive levels. in 2011 about 4.61 million people visited the city, a number that it is quite high (Blanchard and Fan 2012). Gibson, Qi, and Zhang (2008) tried to identify the level at which a major sport event can be used as a tool for improving the image of the hosting country. The case of the Beijing Olympics is used as an example. A survey was developed in Athens among college students during the Athens Olympic Games of 2004. The objective of the survey was to show whether the intention to travel to China could be influenced by the Olympics in Beijing. It was proved that, indeed, a relationship could exist between the hosting of a major sport event and the intention to travel to the hosting country. The above relationship is presented in the graph included in Figure 1, Appendix.

## Managing Professional Development

Makes and receives calls. greets and establishes the business of each visitor. maintains office filing system. handles petty cash. prepares finance reports on a monthly basis. registers all outgoing letters. maintains schedule sheets for drivers, and co-ordinates travel requirements for staff and visitors with Senior Driver.Prepares local contracts/extension letters for employees. makes monthly leave reports. prepares FFE reports on a monthly basis. maintains Personal Confidential Files, etc. prepares office driver payments (fuel expenses, maintenance allowance, overtime, and salary payments). supervises 5 staff directly.Developing management skills throughout my job experiences has been an integral part of the overall process. My time management skills have become one of the first skills that I have practiced and maintained due to the fact that priorities are to be made on a daily basis. Because I have to deal with everyday situations with which I am required to divide my time between different commitments, from planning events and meetings to distributing information, my skills for time management have been honed. I have learned to work under constant pressure and yet still consistently meet stringent deadlines. This was also made more meaningful by the fact that I interacted with expatriates of various cultural backgrounds, honing my organizational savvy in the process. Coordinating with staff members has also allowed me to develop both planning and delegation skills because for my working experiences, there has always been the need to consistently set objectives, distribute tasks, and frequently consult with each other. Because of these needs, skills for target setting have further been practiced and retained in order for my teams to completely learn and understand what our priorities and objectives should be. From here, skills for decision making have also been developed to ensure that appropriate solutions are made and corrective actions are taken.

## Public and Private Finance in Property

ncreased consumption levels, reduction in unemployment rate, increased exports, growth in corporate profits as well as increased foreign direct investments. The British government does not only depend on tax revenue to fund its budget but also other sources which include state owned organizations, privatizations, foreign direct investments, sale of assets. The British government own several corporations, which forms a commendable source of revenue to the government in form of profits. For instance, the UK government own the postal service company- Royal mail, train-operating company-East Coast, and education holding company- BPP Holdings. The British government has been involved in a number of privatizations whereby the government relieve its ownership and interest in parastatal to private investors. An example of such privatization includes that of the British rail in 1993. British government is major player in local business and this is evident through participation in sovereign wealth funds. The UK government own motorways, harbours, airport terminus and sewer lines that forms an important source of revenue to the government when members of the public use these infrastructure. The government has also in a number of occasions disposed off its assets to get additional revenue in order to fund its operations. Government Expenditure The UK government has been experiencing a number of challenges with its expenditure patters for a long period. It is quite unfortunate that the UK government’s total expenditure for its fiscal years have always surpassed its revenue (Parliament, 2012). This trend has remained like this for a considerable period. The government has been forced in most cases to borrow surplus funds from the public in order to meet its expenditure need…. The British government does not only depend on tax revenue to fund its budget but also other sources which include state owned organizations, privatizations, foreign direct investments, sale of assets. The British government own several corporations, which forms a commendable source of revenue to the government in form of profits. For instance, the UK government own the postal service company- Royal mail, train-operating company-East Coast, and education holding company- BPP Holdings. The British government has been involved in a number of privatizations whereby the government relieve its ownership and interest in parastatal to private investors. An example of such privatization includes that of the British rail in 1993. British government is major player in local business and this is evident through participation in sovereign wealth funds. The UK government own motorways, harbours, airport terminus and sewer lines that forms an important source of revenue to the government when members of the public use these infrastructure. The government has also in a number of occasions disposed off its assets to get additional revenue in order to fund its operations. The UK government has been experiencing a number of challenges with its expenditure patters for a long period. It is quite unfortunate that the UK government’s total expenditure for its fiscal years have always surpassed its revenue (Parliament, 2012). The government has been forced in most cases to borrow surplus funds from the public in order to meet its expenditure need.

## MIDYEAR ASSESSMENT Management Finance

One of the behavioural issues that have been noticed within the case study is that of resistance from employees. It is a common observance within an organization to have employees refuses to work with the new system or processes. In some cases employees regard the new system as redundant or unnecessary altogether (Attwood, 1996). In such cases usually employees feel threatened by the new system and feel that it challenges their methods of working and makes them feel redundant. In the case provided it was observed that the supervisor of department D Janet was extremely unhappy after viewing the performance report. This behaviour shown by Janet shows that she felt threatened by the report and refused to accept the system altogether. In some cases employees tend to agree to the new budgeting system but ignore its implementation. Employees tend to assure executives of the organization that they would commit to the processes of the system but in reality tend to hold reservations about it, causing reluctance in the implementation of its implementation (Woldring, 2010). As seen in the case out of all the directors only one of the director was interested in its implementations whereas others were uncertain about it. This caused the directors to become uninterested in its effective implementation. Another behavioural issue that can be seen the company is confusion amongst the employees. While developing a budgeting plan it is vital to communicate with employees to investigate the factors that were involved in formation of the actual budget. Since communication between the executives of the company and the employees was not clear misunderstandings are created during the formation of performance reports (Poornima Charantimath, 2011). This in turn causes employees to disown the report claiming that information provided in the report is baseless and has little or no significance when placed under practical circumstances. Furthermore, there was no training provided to the employees prior to implementing the new financial control system. Direct implementation of the new system caused a great deal of confusion amongst employees who were taken aback on receiving their department’s performance report. Changes to be introduced in the Existing Report System In order to ensure that the current budgeting system is more easily accepted by the company’s employees it is vital that the management removes uncertainty and insecurity that the company employees have regarding it. The first and foremost step that the company could take is to initiate a training program for its employees. The main aim of the training program should be to increase the knowledge and awareness of the employees regarding budgeting and comparative analysis. The training sessions must inform employees of the exact advantages that budgeting and comparative analysis would bring about to the company. The process of training must start with the top executives of the company. Obtaining the consent and backing of the top executives would help in the implementation process (Finkelstein et al., 2008). Moreover, knowing that all the organizational executives share the same vision convincing employees at the lower level makes it a lot easier. Once the company’s executives have been briefed it is then time to convince employees working at the lower level

## Analysis of Pharmaceutical Industry

The key market players of the pharmaceutical industry are the companies originating from USA, Japan, Europe, China, and Brazil. The medicines manufactured by the leading pharmaceutical companies are prevalent across the globe. The USA is regarded as the world’s largest market of pharmaceutical and is also the world leader in the Biopharmaceutical research. 80 Percent of the research and development in pharmaceuticals is conducted in the laboratories of USA (Select USA, 2013). However, the USA is largely dependent on the import of generic drugs and 40 percent of the pharmaceutical is consumed in USA (Select USA, 2013). It is believed that the present market situation of Biologic, over the counter (OTC), and generic drugs reflect the potential of the pharmaceutical market (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2011). As per the reports of the House of Commons, the UK around 650 million prescriptions is prescribed by the general practitioners of the United Kingdom (UK) itself (House of Commons, 2005). The National Health Service which is one of the leading medical organizations of UK sells medicines worth £7 billion every year and 80 percent of these medicines are manufactured by branded companies (House of Commons, 2005). In the UK the pharmaceuticals industry is regarded to be the most profitable sector after Finance and Tourism. Majority of the pharmaceutical company’s revenue is generated from the USA because it is the world’s largest free pricing market for pharmaceuticals. Marketing Environment Analysis The marketing environment analysis will help us in identifying the factors that affect the company directly and indirectly. The macro environmental factors affect the activities of the company directly and the micro environmental factors affect the activities of the company indirectly. The micro environmental factors constitute environmental factors like suppliers, distributors, competitors etc. The macro environmental factors constitute of demographic, economic, socio-cultural, political, physical and legal factors. The PEST analysis will be instrumental in determining the external threats and opportunities faced by the pharmaceutical industry in the USA. Political Factors Department of Health The US department of health is a government body which regularly monitors the activities of the pharmaceutical companies. The main task of this government body is to scrutinize the license, clinical trials etc of the pharmaceutical companies. Economic The medicines manufactured and sold by the pharmaceutical companies are expensive because these companies incur a huge amount of research and development costs. Post-recession majority of the established pharmaceutical companies have closed down their research sites because the cost of research and development is too high and the profit earned by these companies is minuscule (The Guardian, 2013). It is observed that most of the pharmaceutical companies are incurring losses due to the current economic slowdown (Gallagher, 2012). The sales of the medicines in the USA are largely influenced by the ageing population and the increasing obesity among the youth. Although, post-recession the purchasing power of the common people has reduced the demand for the medicines .drugs has not reduced to a large extent.

## Ethics and Social Responsibility

The company also owes the duty of care to every single person or region that it operates from thus bringing in the issue of corporate social responsibility. This paper aims at assessing the ethics and corporate social responsibility at Starbucks Corporation. Ethics and Social Responsibility: The Case of Starbucks Farmer Loans According to Washington (2010), Starbucks coffee processer understands the financial positions of its collaborate farmers, which at times lures the farmers into borrowing high interest loans to finance their activities. Starbucks also understand that financial shortage could make farmers opt for premature harvest of coffee that they sell at lower prices thereby cutting their profit margins (Washington, 2010). To cushion the collaborate farmers from the effects of financial depravity, Starbucks has established pioneering programs designed to provide access to credit to help farmers in managing risks and stabilize business. In 2008, Starbucks offered \$12.5 million as loans to collaborate farmers. In 2009, Starbucks coffee company launched Small farmer Sustainability Initiative (SFSI) in collaboration with the TransFair USA and Fair-trade Labeling Organization International with projections to help in thriving of small scale farmers (Washington, 2010). … Starbucks relies on water for making coffee beverages and washing of containers. In that line, Starbucks coffee processors have prioritized measures to introduce new water conservation strategies. Starbucks have set strategies of sanitizing the coffee handling equipments to reduce excessive wastage of water (Washington, 2010). In 2008, Starbucks made clear their intentions to reduce water consumption in their operations. Starbucks coffee processors have set targets of reducing water consumption by 25% by the end of 2015. So far, Starbucks have made commendable achievements after having managed to reduce its rate of water consumption by 4.1% during its financial year 2008 to 2009 (Washington, 2010). Statement and codes of ethical responsibilities of Starbucks Company The operation of Starbucks coffee company recognizes and embraces diversity as an essential component o its business activities. Starbucks Company also operates under the vigils of providing ample working environment by showing abundant respect of personal dignity to all of its employees (Starbucks Coffee Company, 2007). In addition, Starbucks Company operates with the basic missions of providing high quality coffee under fair prices. Starbucks coffee company operates towards all time satisfaction of its customers’ expectations. Moreover, Starbucks missions and objectives entail positive contribution to community and environmental protection. Starbucks also recognizes the purpose of operation as basic profitability for future survival. Starbucks accountability on ethical and social responsibilities Starbucks have an established Business Ethics and Compliance program that provide guidelines that help partners in ensuring the business operates

## International Trade and finance Law

In a number of ways, the mortgage industry also suffered, culminating in evictions, cancellations of mortgage programs in the pipeline and led to prolonged joblessness. The meltdown contributed immensely towards the closure of important corporations, decreases in buying power, and massive business losses. The ensuing chaos led to a significant slump in economy leading to recession, with lasting ramifications still being felt in Europe as evident in Euro Debt crisis. This paper critically analyses whether or not weak regulations resulted in the crisis. Many factors have been linked to the financial crisis, with differing priorities being attributed to the possible causes. There is consensus, though, that the crisis was the consequence of excessive investment in too risky, intricate financial programs1. Conflicts of interest being kept secret, the ineptitude of credit regulators, and the inability of the market to control the stock market are also other contributing factors linked to the crisis. It is notable that the 1999 amendment of the Glass-Steagall Act by the US Congress, successfully removed the thin line which separated investment and depository financial institutions in the country. As a result, it can be argued that credit regulatory bodies and investors did not provide accurate valuation of the risks that mortgage-related pecuniary products could precipitate on the global economy. Equally, governments failed to modify their regulatory regimes to handle the current neo-modern financial economy. Studies on the origin of the meltdown have also been based on the impact of interest rate. Nonetheless, immediately after the crisis erupted, governments responded by enacting palliative pecuniary policies to control the ripple-effect on different economic sectors. These elaborate self-preservation measures such as the US Dodd-Frank regulatory reforms (2010) point to the laxity of laws as the main cause of the crisis. Poor regulations Out-dated regulatory mechanisms arguably left the financial sector to virtually regulate itself, despite the main aim of business organizations being making profit. It was difficult to verify the intentions of the many citizens who had applied for excess credit in an effort to build their families a decent home. This presumed innocence of the investors has turned the heat on bankers who approved the indiscriminate borrowings2. Banking industry has been an operating under strict laws for a very long time now. but over time and due to the growth of the global economy, the financial services industry may have been operating under lax regulatory regimes that could not handle rapid economic growth and globalization of the economy. This paper will prove that weak regulations and poor policy decisions played an important role in in events that led to the crisis. Institutional policies left oversight authorities with little to do in terms of making effective responses to crises of this magnitude. Regulations are said to have aggravated the negative impacts of the bubble in the value of homes. The laws and policy decisions that arguably contributed toward the crisis will also be considered. If not, new regulatory mechan

## Fundamental Analysis of Hewlett Packard

Acknowledging the significance of the company in its relevant field, this report aims to provide a detailed analysis of the company. This report consists of two major parts. First part of this report encompasses the qualitative information about the company, which includes objective of the company, products manufactured by the company, its target market and competitive edge. The second part incorporates the financial analysis of the company, which includes evaluation of income statement, balance sheet, cash flows and ratio analysis for the past 3 years i.e. 2011, 2010, and 2009. Based upon these analyses, recommendations will be made for investors whether or not to invest in the company. For investor relations, qualitative information is equally important as quantitative information. It allows the investors to gain insights related to the objectives and prevailing operations of the company. Investors cannot take decisions just on the basis of numeric figures. The reason is that sometimes companies manipulate their numeric figures and overstate the figures of profitability. Therefore, qualitative analysis is also studied carefully in order to provide recommendation to investors. The more a company is inclined towards expansion, the more are the chances for it to provide profits to investors. Qualitative analysis of HP has been mentioned in the subsequent sections of this paper. 2.1 Objective of the Company The primary objective of the company is to serve the technology based needs of customers. The company’s major corporate objectives include: Customer Loyalty. HP earns customer loyalty and respect by consistently providing value and the best quality Growth. HP acknowledges and grabs opportunities for growth, which builds upon their competencies and strengths. Profit. the company generates sufficient profits to create value, finance growth and achieve its corporate objectives. Market Leadership. HP leads in market place by designing and delivering innovative and useful products, solutions and services. Commitment to Employees. HP shows commitment towards its employees by rewarding and promoting them, based on their performance and by creating an environment that reflects their values. Global Citizenship. HP claims to fulfill its responsibility to communities by being intellectual, economic and social to where they do business. Leadership Capability. The Company claims to develop leaders who achieve business results, lead to win and grow and exemplify company’s value (HP CORPORATE OBJECTIVES AND SHARED VALUES). 2.2 Products Manufactured There are huge varieties

## Analysis report of Shuttle Wagons project

This happened due to the fact that the safety regime was not defined properly and lacked clarification at the start of the project. Some approvals took longer than expected. the safety regulators did not fully know what the environment of the Channel Tunnel was like because of the Kings Cross Fire incidents which took place in 1987. These are the main considerations of the entire project. Analysis Report of Shuttle Wagons Project Purpose of the Report The task of constructing the shuttle wagons was given to Trans Manche Link who subcontracted other manufacturers to build the wagons. The project faced a lot of business problems and the major problem was the delay in building the shuttle due to several reasons and the approval of safety regulators (Clancy 2008). The purpose of this report is to give comprehensive analytical and evaluative business recommendations and to present solutions to the problems which the Shuttle Wagon Project has faced. In this regard, it is pertinent to address some issues first. Background of the report The Eurotunnel is the biggest infrastructure to be owned and financed privately in the world’s history. … iven to Trans Manche Link (TML) who in turn subcontracted different manufacturers to build high speed shuttle wagons which were to transport freight as well as passengers to different parts of Europe (Clancy 2008). The project was a combination of two different functions firstly it needed the finance and secondly it needed construction contractors. So naturally there were two groups who were involved in the projects, banks and constructions companies. But despite all that there were a number of equity issues that the project was facing due to the fact that the financial institutions were risking more than they originally planned, a number of things got delayed due to the UK general elections, there were no negotiations on a credit agreement and everything was turning out to be a mess due to the delays (Harris 1996). On top of that there were various shuttle design issues and as there was no concise safety regime plan which developed the shuttle wagons were brought back to be redesigned according to the safety regulations. Interest on payments was piling up due to the delays and it was getting difficult for the project to determine the profits. Plus there a number of problems gave birth to other problems for example as all the changes which were to be made systematically as the issue was with the product which was the shuttle, it was necessary to change other elements of their design as well which took time. Secondly there were complications in the design of the under car (Rosenberg 2012). The manufacturing of cross related products became complex, the fact that in order to make one element or design one element a number of elements had to also be re designed this caused problems for the technicians and the manufacturers who were already over burdened with the

## Support for teaching of science practices in school

Support for teaching of science practices in schoolDecreasing populations and tax bases in rural areas reduce the fiscal resources available to the schools. One school district also faced enormous fiscal challenges when a tornado destroyed almost all buildings in the downtown area in 2003. In addition, high prices for gasoline and diesel fuel can devastate school district budgets where transporting students for long distances is the norm (DeYoung, 1991). Government- based support Currently, state finance of learning has attained erosion because of challenging economy. In response to the worsening world economy, state and learning policymakers have reacted to strict fiscal constraints by transforming a bigger share of the financial load from taxpayers to learner rather than by deep evaluation and decrease of costs and/or enhancing efficiency. As learning continues to develop and expand, several major elements of federal policies, regulations, and rules may need to be revisited in order to enable many to continue enrolling for distance education courses. Financing education is a broad and intricate issue. It is intricate in part of because of different basis of revenue, output, or products that are associated to these distinct sources of revenue. In addition, these expenditures and revenue pattern differ significantly by the kind of institution (four year college, university or two year college), means of governance (private or public), and the state. (Pearl Singh, 1999). In the private sector, the pattern of pricing, price discounting and expenditure levels vary significantly according to the wealth of the institution, demographics, and the affluence of the family of the applicant pool. In the public domain, these patterns also differ according to tuition laws, enrolment limits, and state funding levels that are determined by the government or public education governing body or board. The issue of financing education is large because capital underlies the themes of quality and efficiency. In terms of efficiency, there is need for cost effective association between revenues from taxpayers, parents and learner and products or outputs when measured in rates of graduation, student learning and enrolments (Hampel, 2010). Within the wide themes of higher finance underlies institutional and public policy questions that are creative or informed, if not tackled, by financial and economic perspectives. For instance, the familiar question regarding education finance concerns how much it can cost taxpayers and the relevant ratios of learners to administrative and professional staff at different types of institutions (Honderich, 1995). Learning is identified as the major driver of economic growth and as the main determinant of a person’s status and remuneration. Distance learning is essential in maintaining the growth of the economy in the rapidly increasing world economy. This is because it most high and well paying jobs and remuneration will depend on the level of education and in this case, a person with an advanced or higher degree is set to benefit more than a person with a college degree (Holmberg, 1995). Financing education in the twenty first century has a unique salience because of the 2008 financial crisis, which has caused serious economies to economies of countries in the world. However, in most countries, revenues remain strained. Since the current public universities and colleges

## Efforts to Reduce the Budget Deficit

Indeed in line with the conventional analyses, the United States has been a clear example of how disruptive an increasing debt deficit is to the long-term economic growth. The national debt has not only suppressed the overall national savings, which, in effect, has reduced domestic investments, but has also increased the country’s borrowing abroad, as evident in the current account balances. It is undeniable that sustained national debts over the years have played a lead role in increasing interest rates, making internal borrowing for investments expensive, hence the capital from abroad to finance the federal budget for almost every government that has ever been in place. As a result of the alarming successive decreases in the national income due to the huge returns from the domestic capital stock accruing mostly to the foreigners, a trend that has now erected caps on the national productivity via a mounting unemployment, several statutory budget controls have been enacted by the congress to reduce the budget deficit, with most notable efforts beginning in the year 1985. After years of disagreements between Congress and the President [Regan, to be precise] on either tax increases or spending cuts as a way forward in halting the trend of deficit growth, members of Congress from both sides of the divide finally passed the Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985 [popularly known as the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act (GRH)]. Passed and approved by the President as an important step towards rectifying decades of fiscal failure GRH laid down procedures of eliminating the federal budget deficit that stood at \$200 billion in 1986 by the year 1991 (Stith, 1988). GRH was essentially a binding enactment, enforced independent of the legislative budget process and the executive orders, which had failed in cutting down the total government spending and/or resisting political pressure for more government programs. The celebration particularly for President Reagan who had grander ambitions of reducing the share of the national resources consumed by the federal government was, however, short-lived, as the provisions of GRH was ruled a ‘violation of the principles of the separation of powers’ in 1986 by the Supreme Court in Bowsher v. Synar. To save efforts that went into making the GRH from complete collapse, the Congress went back to the drawing board, eliminating the constitutional defects identified by the Supreme Court eventually producing an amended version of GRH that moved automatic sequestration process from the hands of Comptroller General to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in the Office of the President (Stith, 1988). Accordingly, the deficits decreased in the subsequent years as a result of substantial cuts in spending accompanied by economic growth that ensured increased revenues. With the turbulent Bush administration in the 1990s, GRH proved insufficient in restricting the growth of the deficits. Congress, thus, reached an agreement with the regime allowing for a combination of tax increases and caps on government spendin

## Monetary Policy International Finance and the Exchange Rate

The central bank maintains an interest rate target in order to reduce or decrease the rate of inflation, improving the growth rate, stabilizing the financial market, and maintain the stability that is associated with the exchange rate and interest rate (Edwards, 2000). The increase in the demand for the bank reserves results in the increase in the money supply in the economy since the extent of openness in the economy results in the increase in the exchange rate in the economy and it results in the increase in the revenue from exports and maintaining of stability in the exchange rate. The interest rate by the central bank leads to stabilizing the economy for the achievement and attainment of the ultimate goal for stabilizing the economy as a whole (Mishkin, 2007).The decrease in the reserves affects the money supply in the economy and the change in the interest rate mainly affects the consumers and the businesses in changing the aggregate demand and therefore he borrowing activity is directly related to the change in the interest rate which influences or affects the economic activity and the growth rate of the Gross domestic product (Arnold, 2008).The central bank introduces the monetary base through which it can change the money supply and influence the circulation of currency and bank reserves in the economy which is mainly represented by the monetary base which is considered as the total of bank reserves and the currency in circulation in the economy (Mankiw, 2002).From the above diagram, it can be explained that as the money supply curve moves towards the right, the rate of interest rate decreases and the number of money increases by taking into consideration that he demand curve will not shift with the increase in the money supply from Ms1 to Ms2, the interest rate moves from r1 to r2 which indicates that the increase in the money supply decreases the interest rate in the market (Abel and Ben, 2005).