Now parents and children are very different in their opinions about value orientations, fashion, ways of communication, and even way of life as a whole.Prompt, permanent acceleration and updating become the leading characteristics of the life of modern industrial societies. Scientific and technical revolutions make them be extremely dynamic systems, stimulating radical change of social communications and forms of human communication. In modern culture, there is a strongly pronounced layer of innovations, which constantly break and reconstruct cultural tradition, and thus complicating processes of socialization and adaptation of a person to constantly varying conditions and requirements of life. A human being’s search of self, of own individuality and own social status becomes complicated due to the abundance of choice combined with dynamism and novelty.As a specific phenomenon, youth culture arises also in connection with the fact that the physiological acceleration of young people is accompanied by a sharp increase of duration of the period of their socialization (at times till 30 years), that is caused by the necessity of increase of time spent for education and professional training, which are corresponding requirements of the epoch.Today a young man stops to be the child early as to psycho-physical development, but under the social status such a young person still a long time does not belong to the world of adults. Youthful age is the time when economic activity and independence are not reached yet in full. Psychologically the youth belongs to the world of adults, and socially – to the world of adolescence. If in the sense of saturation by knowledge a person mature much earlier, in the sense of position in a society, in the sense of having a chance to make own presence felt persons maturity is put off.
Companies or brands that focus on such areas can gain a competitive advantage.Motorola’s strategy, as outlined below, is to deliver a safe customer relationship service, which speaks to the customer’s desire for clarity of vision. Motorola places a strong emphasis on their ability to provide consistent security in information systems, and also matches the third requirement by maintaining a strong research and development program between all segments. With this approach customers are adequately informed of what the brand is seeking to achieve and benefits that shall accrue to them if they are successfully accomplished.Motorola is known around the world for innovation and leadership in wireless and broadband communications. Motorola (NYSE: MOT) is a global Fortune 100 leader in broadband, automotive communications, wireless technologies, and embedded electronic products. The company’s Government and Enterprise Mobility Solutions (GEMS) business provides integrated radio communications and information solutions for public safety, government, and enterprise customers. Widely distributed sales and system integration teams previously collaborated by improvised phone, e-mail, and paper processes. Motorola consists of three businesses: Connected Home Solutions, Networks Enterprise, and Mobile Devices. Connected Home Solutions provides a scalable, integrated end-to-end system for the delivery of broadband services that keep consumers informed, entertained, and connected. Mobile Devices designs manufacture sells and services wireless subscriber and server equipment for cellular systems, portable energy storage products and systems, servers and software solutions, and related software and accessory products. Networks Enterprise solutions include secure two-way radio, cellular, and wireless broadband systems to meet the needs of public safety, government, private, and service providers and enterprise customers worldwide. The Motorola RAZR cellular phone.
KURZ AND LYONSINTERGROUP INFLUENCES ON STEREOTYPE COMMUNICATIONDoes It Matter Who We are Communicatingabout?Tim KurzNewcastle University, UK and Murdoch University, AustraliaAnthony LyonsNewcastle University, UKPast research in the area of stereotype communication has shown, usingvarious paradigms, a reliable bias toward the communication of stereotypeconsistent information over stereotype inconsistent information (a stereotypeconsistency bias). One aspect of such communication that has receivedlittle attention, however, is the social context in which such communicationoccurs, and in particular, the group membership of the individualsinvolved. In the present study, we further unpack the stereotype consistencybias by varying the relative group memberships of the communicator,target, and audience of a narrative and examine the effect of the communicationof stereotype consistent and inconsistent information. Our resultssuggest that these group memberships can have a dramatic effect uponstereotype communication, with the stereotype consistency bias only beingevident in specific communicative contexts. Findings are discussed interms of theoretical implications for the stereotype communication field,with particular focus on the socially connective functions of stereotypes.The social cognition literature relating to stereotyping has identified a variety ofcognitive processes thought to underlie the formation, maintenance, and changeof stereotypes (e.g., Fiske, 1998. Hamilton, Stroessner, Driscoll, 1994. Hilton 894 KURZ AND LY ONSvon Hippel, 1996. von Hippel, Sekaquaptewa, Vargas, 1995). While this workprovides an invaluable insight into the individual cognitive processes involved,there is a growing body of work that has taken a somewhat different approachto the study of stereotypes. This approach focuses on the interpersonal aspects ofstereotypes and conceptualizes them as being produced, shared, and maintainedthrough communication.One approach to the study of the communication of stereotypes focuses on discussionsbetween ingroup dyads about an outgroup, or a member of an outgroup.For example, Harasty’s (1997) content analysis of communication among ingroupdyads suggested that discussions about outgroups contained more group-levelcomments and fewer self-referent comments than ingroup discussions. Moreover,Ruscher and colleagues have suggested that the prevalence of stereotypical descriptionsin discussions of outgroups within ingroup dyads may stem from a desireto affirm shared beliefs about the outgroup (for reviews, see Ruscher, 1998.Ruscher Hammer, 2006). Thus, it would appear that one of the key aspects inherentin the communication of stereotypes is the extent to which they can be usedto establish, verify, or demonstrate a shared understanding of outgroups amongingroup members.In addition to dyad and group discussion paradigms, other researchers haveinvestigated the process of stereotype communication through the study of theways in which narratives about group members are reproduced between participants.Numerous studies have found that as these narratives are communicatedbetween participants they tend to be stripped of stereotype inconsistent information(SI), with stereotype consistent (SC) information being retained (e.g., Kashima,2000. Lyons Kashima, 2001. Lyons Kashima, 2003. McIntyre, Lyons, Clark, Kashima, 2004). Moreover, this stereotype consistency bias has been shown to beattributable to communication processes (i.e., communication goals) rather thanbeing the result of general memory biases (Lyons Kashima, 2006). Further studieshave also attempted to explain the underpinnings of an SC bias in relation toits potentially greater communicability (Schaller, Conway, Tanchuk, 2002), andits potential for fostering greater social connectivity with a conversational partner(Clark Kashima, 2007. Ruscher, Cralley, O’Farrell, 2005) .One dimension that has tended to be relatively under-theorized in studies of theinterpersonal or communicative aspects of stereotypes has been that of variationsin intergroup context. That is, the relationship between the group membershipsof the communicator, the audience, and target (i.e., the individual being communicatedabout). The importance of intergroup context in relation to the cognitiveprocess of stereotyping has long been highlighted by a number of researchers,especially those adopting a Self Categorization Theory (SCT) perspective (e.g.,Oakes, Haslam, Turner, 1994). Studies conducted within the SCT tradition havedemonstrated that stereotypical cognitive representations of social groups can be influencedby the comparative contexts in which they are measured (for examples,see Haslam, Oakes, Turner, McGarty, 1995. Haslam, Turner, Oakes, McGarty, Hayes, 1992. Hopkins Murdoch, 1999. Hopkins, Regan, Abell, 1997). Thisresearch provides evidence for the ability of an intergroup context to influenceindividuals’ cognitive representations of both outgroups and ingroups. In light ofthis, it would seem logical to also investigate the influence of intergroup contextupon the communication of stereotypes about social groups through narratives.INTERGROUP INFLUENCES ON STEREOTYPE COMMUNICATION 895An account of stereotype communication derived from an SCT perspective (e.g.,Oakes, Haslam, Turner, 1994) suggests that an intergroup (as opposed to intragroup)context would be likely to result in an interpretation and communication ofinformation in more stereotypical, group-level, terms. In line with this, Wigboldus,Spears, and Semin (2005) invoked the concept of the social communicative context todraw a theoretical distinction between intragroup and intergroup communicativecontexts. The former refers to a situation in which the communicator, target,and audience are all members of the same social group (e.g., male communicator,male target, male audience), while the latter refers to a situation where the communicativecontext is not homogenous in relation to group membership. Specifically,Wigboldus et al. (2005) assessed the influence of an intergroup context onparticipants’ tendencies to show a bias toward the description of SC informationat a higher level of linguistic abstractness (Semin Fiedler, 1988) than SI information,that is, a Linguistic Expectancy Bias (LEB) in communication (Maass, 1999.Wigboldus et al., 2000). Wigboldus et al. (2005) found this linguistic expectancy biasonly occurred when the communicative context was intergroup, with no LEB effectoccurring in an intragroup context.Wigboldus et al.’s (2005) proposed model for explaining these findings centersaround the notion that an intergroup context leads to the activation of relevantstereotypes, which reveals itself in an LEB effect (p. 226), with the intragroupcontext less likely to lead to such activation, and thus no LEB effects. What is implicitin this model is a fairly direct correspondence between cognitive activation ofstereotypical information and its communication.However, as suggested by Higgins (1981. McCann Higgins, 1992), as wellas many researchers working from within a discursive social psychological perspective(e.g., Edwards Potter, 1992. Potter Wetherell, 1987), communicationshould not necessarily be thought of as simply a direct transmission of informationbetween minds, but, rather, as a purposeful social interaction that occurs withina particular social context. From Higgins’s perspective, communication achievesmultiple goals that are determined by numerous features of any given interaction.Two such features include (a) the characteristics of the audience and (b) the typeof relationship participants wish to establish or maintain between themselves. Wewould therefore expect the specific nature of an intergroup communicative contextto have an important effect on the extent to which stereotypes are communicated.For example, the intergroup context defined by Wigboldus et al. (2005) as an ingroupmember (e.g., male) communicating about an outgroup member (e.g., female)to an ingroup member (e.g., male) is likely to follow very different communicationrules to an alternative intergroup context where an ingroup member (male)communicates about an outgroup member (female) to a member of that same outgroup(female). In other words, communicating stereotypes, especially negativestereotypes, about an outgroup member to an ingroup member may serve to fostercamaraderie and social connectivity, whereas communicating stereotypes of anoutgroup to a member of that outgroup, or of a fellow ingroup member, may havean opposite effect.We posit that one explanation for Wigboldus et al.’s failure to find such differentialand nuanced effects between different types of intergroup contexts may stemfrom the particular paradigm and dependent measures adopted, namely the levelof linguistic abstraction. While recent research has demonstrated that communicatorsmay, under certain circumstances, be able to consciously inhibit the LEB effect896 KURZ AND LY ONS(Douglas, Sutton, Wilkin, 2008), it would seem unlikely that audiences wouldbe consciously aware of the communication of SC and SI information at differentlevels of abstraction, thus potentially removing the need for the communicator tomonitor his or her LEB as a function of the group membership of the audience.However, one might predict different results using measures of the amount of SCand SI information reproduced, which is more likely to be noticed by an audiencethan would be the case for abstractness levels, and therefore would be more likelyto be manipulated by communicators according to specific features of the intergroupcontext.The Current ResearchThe aim of the present research was to extend past work in the stereotype communicationliterature by examining whether the social communicative context influencesthe tendency toward a stereotype consistency bias in the reproduction ofnarratives about a target. More specifically, we investigate whether, following Higgins’s(1981. McCann Higgins, 1992) multiple goals account of communication,participants vary the level of stereotypicality of their communication dependingon different types of intergroup contexts. We hypothesized, following Clark andKashima (2007), Ruscher, Cralley, and O’Farrell (2005), and also Higgins (1981),that the intergroup context that creates the greatest social connectivity (ingroupmembers communicating with ingroup members about outgroup members) islikely to produce the greatest SC bias. The intragroup context, on the other hand,would be predicted to produce an SI bias because of a desire to avoid ingroupstereotypes. The intergroup contexts involving ingroup communicators and outgroupaudiences were predicted to produce either no SC bias or an SI bias becauseof politeness goals, that is, not wanting to offend the outgroup or portray one’sown group in a better light.Our research used stereotypes about social class in the United Kingdom and experimentallymanipulated social communicative context on the basis of this socialcategory. We did not, in the present study, adopt the serial reproduction paradigmcommonly used in past research, in which the narratives are passed through multiplereiterations (retellings) along a chain, opting instead for a single-reiterationparadigm. With the exception of one study (Kashima, 2000), 1 past studies usingserial reproduction chains have found a significant SC bias (or at least tendencytoward it) at the first point in the chain (Clark Kashima, 2007. Lyons Kashima,2001, 2003, 2006). Given our focus on the social communicative context, wetherefore chose not to investigate whether the observed effects would be amplifiedacross multiple positions in a serial reproduction chain.1. The Kashima (2000) study found an SI bias at the first link in the chain, which later became anSC bias further down the chain. The difference, however, between this study and subsequent studies(that showed SC biases from start to finish) was the likelihood that Kashima (2000) was pickingup basic memory biases. Kashima found no difference between memory and communicationinstruction conditions, potentially on account of the weakness of the operationalization of thecommunication instructions. Subsequent studies, however, more strongly emphasized interpersonalcommunication in their instructions to participants.INTERGROUP INFLUENCES ON STEREOTYPE COMMUNICATION 897MethodParti cipant sThe study involved 80 male (non-psychology) undergraduate students who participatedvoluntarily and were paid £5 (U.S. $9) for their time. Participants rangedin age from 17 to 46 years, with a mean age of 19.77 (SD = 3.34) years. Each participantwas randomly assigned to one of the four experimental conditions (createdby the 2-level manipulation of the target and audience of the communication). Allparticipants self-identified as middle class.Experimenta l DesignThe study employed a 2 x 2 x 2 mixed factorial design with Target (Working Classvs. Middle Class) and Audience (Working Class vs. Middle Class) as between-subjectfactors, and Stereotypicality (SC vs. SI) as a within-subject factor. Participantswere evenly divided between all conditions.Materia lsThree main stimulus materials were used in this study. The first was a story abouta fictitious character (target) called Steve. The second item was a backgrounddescription of Steve, which portrayed him as either working or middle class.Third, an audience description of a fictitious participant (Michael) was used,which portrayed him as either working or middle class.The Story. The story stimulus contained 685 words. To create a story that participantswould believe had been written by another participant, an attempt wasmade to ensure that the sentence structure was relatively naturalistic and complex(see appendix for the full story used). The story contained 16 stereotype-relevantitems. Half (8) of these items were stereotype consistent with regards to the workingclass (WC-SC) and, at the same time, stereotype inconsistent with regards tothe middle class (MC-SI). The other half (8) of the items were stereotype consistentwith regards to the middle class (MC-SC), and, at the same time, stereotype inconsistentwith regards to the working class (WC-SI). As such, half of the items werealways SC and half were always SI, whether the target (Steve) was describedas being working class or middle class. The consistent/inconsistent status of theitems, however, was obviously reversed when switching from a working class to amiddle class target and vice versa. Within each of the two sets of 8 SI and SC items,half of these items (4) were controlled to be positive in valence and half were negativein valence.The story was pilot tested with a sample of 15 undergraduate students whorated each of the 16 items in terms of how stereotypical they felt that the actions,thoughts, or emotions of the target depicted in the item were of both the workingclass and the middle class. Items were rated on a scale from 1 (not stereotypical atall) to 7 (extremely stereotypical) for both working and middle class. The mean ratingsfor each item were found to fall on the appropriate ends of the scale (i.e., 1.0 to898 KURZ AND LY ONS3.5 for SI items and 4.5 to 7.0 for SC items) with regards to both working class andmiddle class stereotypicality. Pilot participants also rated the extent to which theybelieved that the actions, thoughts or emotions displayed by the target in eachitem would be generally thought of as being positive or negative. Mean ratings foreach item were again found to fall on the appropriate ends of the scale.Manipulation of Demographic Variables for the Target. At the top of the page abovethe story, participants were provided with some background information aboutSteve that was said to have been written using information provided by Stevehimself. This description was manipulated to depict Steve as either working ormiddle class by varying information such as which schools he had attended, hiscurrent occupation, and place of residence. In the pilot testing, all 15 respondentscorrectly identified Steve the doctor as middle class and Steve the forklift driveras working class when asked to categorize the descriptions.Manipulation of Demographic Variables for Audience. In the space above the blanklines upon which participants wrote their retelling of the story was a brief descriptionof the person who would ostensibly be reading it. This description wasmanipulated in a similar way to the target description, such that the audience(Michael) was depicted as either working or middle class. All 15 respondentscorrectly identified Michael the cleaner as working class and Michael the architectas middle class when asked to categorize the descriptions in pilot testing.ProcedureBefore reading the story, participants read instructions informing them that theywere about to read an account of a weekend in the life of a particular individual(Steve), which ostensibly came from a diary entry made by someone who participatedin some previous research looking at how people write diaries. Participantswere told they were about to read a retelling of the original diary entry, which hadbeen written by an earlier participant in the current study.Participants were then handed the story to read. At the top of this page was aheading, Background, under which was placed the target description (either theworking class version or the middle class version). Below this was a second headingwhich read Summary of diary entries made over one weekend, after whichcame the story itself.Once the participant had read the story and handed it back to the experimenterthey were asked to perform a filler task for ten minutes. They were then asked torewrite the story in their own words on a blank sheet of paper that was headedwith instructions that informed them that their account would be read by Michael,another participant in the study, for whom a brief description was alsoprovided (either the working class or middle class version). Participants were toldthat in a later version of the study the researchers hoped to use face-to-face interaction,but that since this was not possible in the current study, participants were atleast being provided with some information about the person who would be readingtheir retelling of the story, so that they could visualize their audience.No time limit was given for reproducing the story. Afterward, participants werethoroughly debriefed, thanked for their participation, and reimbursed for theirtime.INTERGROUP INFLUENCES ON STEREOTYPE COMMUNICATION 899ResultsCoding the ReproductionsEach reproduction was coded by two expert coders in relation to whether or notthe 16 stereotype relevant items (8 WC-SC/MC-SI and 8 WC-SI/MC-SC) werepresent. An item was judged to be present if the stereotype meaning of the originalitem was retained. It was not necessary for the item to be reproduced verbatim. Ahigh level of inter-rater reliability was obtained, Kappa = .93.Primary Ana lysesThe reproduction coding data was analyzed using a 2 x 2 x 2 (Stereotypicality xTarget x Audience) mixed model ANOVA, with Stereotypicality as a within-subjectsvariable and Target and Audience as between-subjects variables.No significant main effect was obtained for Stereotypicality, F(1, 76) = 2.32, p =.13) with only a very slight SC bias being observed (M = 59.69 vs. M = 55.93). In addition,no significant two-way interaction was obtained between Stereotypicalityand Audience, F(1, 76) = 0.40, p = .53. However, the reason for the absence of theseeffects becomes apparent when one examines the way in which both effects weremoderated by significant interactions with Target.The Moderating Effect of Target. First, a significant Stereotypicality x Target interactionoccurred, F(1, 76) = 38.61, p lt. .001. When the middle class participantscommunicated a story about a working class person they reproduced more SC (M= 63.43) than SI (M = 44.38) information, t(39) = 5.20, p lt. .001, however when theywere communicating about a fellow middle class person, they reproduced moreSI (M = 76.5) than SC (M = 55.94) information, t(39) = 3.06, p = .004. This effectwas subsumed, however, under a significant 3-way Stereotypicality x Audience xTarget interaction, F(1, 76) = 12.61, p = .001. As Figure 1 shows, when the Audiencewas a fellow middle class person and the Target was working class, communicatorsreproduced more SC (M = 69.38) than SI (M = 40.00) information, t(19) = 6.20,p lt. .001 but more SI (M = 66.88) than SC (48.12) information when the Target wasmiddle class, t(19) = 3.52, p = .002. However, when the Audience of the communicationwas a working class person, no statistically significant biases were foundfor either the middle class Target, t(19) = 0.88, p = .39 or the working class Target,t(19) = 1.88, p = .07.DiscussionOur results demonstrate the importance of considering the specific nature of thesocial communicative context when studying interpersonal communication of stereotypes.In the current study, the SC bias commonly observed in the reproductionof narratives (e.g., Kashima, 2000. Lyons Kashima, 2001. Lyons Kashima, 2003.McIntyre, Lyons, Clark, Kashima, 2004) was found to be dependent upon thespecific intergroup or intragroup communicative context. When communicatingto another ingroup member about an outgroup member, participants displayeda clear SC bias. However, when communicating to an ingroup member about an900KURZ AND LY ONSother member of the ingroup, participants showed the reverse effect, an SI bias.Interestingly, both the outgroup SC bias and the ingroup SI bias failed to occur (toa level of significance) when the audience of the communication was an outgroupmember.These results offer an interesting comparison to those in Wigboldus et al.’s (2005)study in which an LEB effect occurred in their intergroup contexts and a reversedLEB or no LEB effect in an intragroup context. As we predicted, we also found areverse SC (i.e., SI) bias in an intragroup context but a more complex pattern of resultswas obtained for intergroup contexts using our reproduction paradigm. Ourresults show an SC bias in the intergroup context in which an ingroup membercommunicated about an outgroup member to another ingroup member. However,we did not find significant stereotype-related communication biases in the intergroupcondition in which ingroup members were communicating to outgroupmembers, regardless of the group membership of the target involved.Following Higgins (1981), this suggests that when it comes to reproducing narratives,communicators tailor their communication to specific features of an intergroupcontext rather than simply emphasizing the stereotypical in any intergroupcontext, as might be expected from an SCT perspective (e.g., Oakes, Haslam, Turner, 1994). In other words, the presence of an outgroup audience inhibited acommunicator’s usual tendency to favor the transmission of SC information.Moreover, our results suggest that measures based on the amount of reproducedSC and SI information may be more sensitive to specific features of intergroupcontexts than LEB effects, given that Wigboldus et al. (2005) were unable to detectthese differences.In line with Clark and Kashima (2007) and Ruscher, Cralley, and O’Farrell (2005),we suggest that the socially connective functions of stereotype communicationbest explains our results. For example, Ruscher, Cralley, and O’Farrell demonstratedthat newly acquainted dyads that were manipulated to perceive a greater levelof closeness between themselves and their ingroup partner were more likely toengage in stereotypically biased communication about an outgroup member thanFIGURE 1. The mean percentage of SC and SI items communicated according to Target for eachAudience condition.Audience = Middle Class48.1266.88 69.384001020304050607080Middle Class Working ClassSocial Class of TargetMean % of items communicatedSCSIAudience = Working Class63.7557.568.1248.7501020304050607080Middle Class Working ClassSocial Class of TargetMean % of items communicatedSCSIINTERGROUP INFLUENCES ON STEREOTYPE COMMUNICATION 901dyads who did not receive the closeness manipulation. Also, as mentioned earlier,Clark and Kashima (2007) demonstrated that participants perceive SC informationas more useful than SI information when it comes to the formation or maintenanceof social relationships. That is, stereotypes are potentially used to create closeness,or social connectivity, rather than merely being a product of closeness or social connectivity.So in relation to the present findings, communicating stereotypes aboutan outgroup member to an ingroup member may help foster greater social connectivity.Moreover, because communicating stereotypes of the ingroup to otheringroup members or of the outgroup to members of that outgroup is likely toseem offensive and therefore result in reduced connectivity, communicators avoidfavoring SC information and communicate more SI information in these contexts.One limitation of the present study that should be considered relates to our useof social class as the social category in question. While social class was specificallychosen due to its real-world significance (especially in a British context. cf, Argyle,1994), it is worth considering how hot or socially contentious this social categoryreally is when considered in the wider spectrum of categories such as race.As Ruscher et al. (2005) suggest, the socially connective functions of a particularstereotype are likely to be highly influenced by social norms regarding the socialacceptability of communicating stereotypes of that particular social group. A considerationof this possibility would, to our mind, suggest two important avenuesfor future research. First, at a theoretical level, it would appear pertinent for futurestudies to examine the communication of stereotypes relating to highly contentioussocial categories such as racial, religious, or ethnic stereotypes. Second, future researchshould also take into account the beliefs communicators have about thesocial appropriateness of communicating particular stereotypes in particular communicativecontexts. While we have examined here the specific effect of groupmembership, future work should consider other variables that may influence acommunicator’s perceptions of how receptive an audience is likely to be to thecommunication of particular stereotypes.In conclusion, the current research provides strong support for considering thesocial communicative context when examining processes surrounding stereotypecommunication in the reproduction of narratives. On the basis of our findings, thestereotype consistency bias that has been commonly observed in past research (e.g.,Brauer, Judd, Jacquelin, 2001. Harasty, 1997. Kashima, 2000. Lyons Kashima,2001. Lyons Kashima, 2003. McIntyre, Lyons, Clark, Kashima, 2004. Ruscher,1998. Ruscher Hammer, 2006) becomes far more complex, nuanced, and multifacetedwhen one considers the social context in which the communication of stereotypestakes place. Specifically, we have demonstrated, using a narrative reproductionparadigm, that the tendency to reproduce stereotypical information abouta target individual can be greatly influenced by the relative group membershipsof the communicator, the target, and the audience of that communication. Furthermore,our results point to a need to theorize the influence of intergroup context onthe communication of stereotypes in a potentially more nuanced way than is currentlyoffered by accounts of the cognitive activation of stereotypes.902 KURZ AND LY ONSAppendix: The sto ry stimulusSteve had been catching the train to work each day for years, but rarely bothered to buy aticket (since he had never had his ticket checked) (WC-SC/MC-SI, negative). On this Friday,he had been running late for work when he got caught without a ticket on the Metro byone of the ticket inspectors. Not only did he receive a fine, but the inspector kept lecturinghim for what seemed like forever about how irresponsible it was to not buy a ticket, makinghim even later for work.Although he was furious, he tried to stay calm and just repeatedly said he was sorry andthat he wouldn’t do it again, knowing that getting angry would only make things worse(WC-SI, MC-SC, positive). Before leaving work that afternoon he had to ring the localcouncil to find out why they seemed to have been under-charging him on his council tax forthe previous few months (WC-SI, MC-SC, positive). His wife had asked him to buy somecleaning products on his way home from work. Tesco was more on his way home but Stevedecided to catch the train into the city and go to Morrisons, because he knew that he wouldsave a bit of money there. (WC-SC, MC-SI, positive). He liked shopping at Morrisons betteranyway as it was less pretentious than some of the more expensive supermarkets likeSainsburys (WC-SC, MC-SI, positive). He liked to always shop at the same supermarket aswell because he tended to see the same staff at the checkout. He felt like he had some thingsin common with them and enjoyed a good chat when they weren’t too busy (WC-SC, MCSI,positive). Steve and his wife were having Steve’s friend Bill and his wife Alison aroundfor dinner on Saturday night. Steve had worked with Bill for the past 2 years. Although hefound Bill pretty boring and annoying, Steve had to admit that he kind of enjoyed spendingtime with him because Bill was a bit of a loser really and it made him feel better abouthimself because he earned more money than Bill and was clearly more interesting (WC-SI,MC-SC, negative). On Saturday he went into town during the day and bought some expensivewine glasses so that he could impress Bill (WC-SI, MC-SC, negative). Steve thought itwould be a good idea not to get too drunk in front of his friends, so he just had a couple ofglasses of wine with dinner (WC-SI, MC-SC, positive). Bill had been making a big deal ofhow good the wine he had brought was supposed to be, but Steve started to get frustratedover this because he couldn’t make out a single thing on the label, as it all seemed to bewritten in French (WC-SC, MC-SI, negative). On Sunday night Steve went to a pub-quizat a local pub near his house. He really didn’t like the pub they went to because people hedidn’t know kept coming up and trying to talk to him (WC-SI, MC-SC, negative). He alsodidn’t like the fact that people at that pub were always really shabbily dressed and generallylacked style (WC-SI, MC-SC, negative). To make matters worse, it was a mission to getto the tiny bar in between each round of the quiz to get a drink. Whilst Steve was lining upat the bar to get served some bloke pushed in front of him. He was so furious that he shovedthe guy out of the way and yelled at him. The two of them got into a bit of a shoving matchbefore the other guys friends pulled him away telling him to leave it alone (WC-SC, MCSI,negative). The quiz itself was quite fun though as there were lots of questions on topicsthat Steve knew a lot about such as history and science (WC-SI, MC- SC, positive). Becausehe did so well, his team won. The prize was a Newcastle United Football scarf. Steve wasoverjoyed and started cheering like he does at the football. Steve loves football and is a hugefan of Newcastle United (WC-SC, MC-SI, positive).After the quiz ended Steve and his friends moved on to another bar. He ended up gettingso drunk that the night ended with him getting thrown out of the bar for being too intoxicated(WC-SC, MC-SI, negative).INTERGROUP INFLUENCES ON STEREOTYPE COMMUNICATION 903ReferencesArgyle, M. (1994). The psychology of social class.New York: Routledge.Brauer, M., Judd, C., Jacquelin, V. 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Zanna (Eds.), Social cognition:The Ontario symposium (pp. 343-392).Hilsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Hilton, J. L., von Hippel, W. (1996). Stereotypes.Annual Review of Psychology, 47,231-271.Hopkins, N., Murdoch, N. (1999). The roleof the other in national identity: Exploringthe context-dependence of thenational ingroup stereotype. Journal ofCommunity Applied Social Psychology,9, 321-338.Hopkins, N., Regan, M., Abell, J. (1997). Onthe context-dependence of national stereotypes:Some British data. British Journalof Social Psychology, 36, 553-563.Kashima, Y. (2000). Maintaining cultural stereotypesin the serial reproduction ofnarratives. Personality and Social PsychologyBulletin, 26, 594-604.Lyons, A., Kashima, Y. (2001). The reproductionof culture: Communication processestend to maintain cultural stereotypes.Social Cognition, 19, 372-394.Lyons, A., Kashima, Y. (2003). How are stereotypesmaintained through communication?The influence of stereotypesharedness. Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology, 85, 989-1005.Lyons, A., Kashima, Y. (2006). Maintainingstereotypes in communication: Investigatingmemory biases and coherenceseekingin storytelling. Asian Journal ofSocial Psychology, 9, 59-71.Maass, A. (1999). Linguistic intergroup bias:Stereotype perpetuation through language.In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances inexperimental social psychology (Vol. 31, pp.79-121). San Diego: Academic Press.McCann, C. D., Higgins, E. T. (1992). Personaland contextual factors in communication:A review of the communicationgame. In G. Semin K. Fiedler (Eds.),Language, interaction and social cognition(pp. 144-172). London: Sage.McIntyre, A. M., Lyons, A., Clark, A. E., Kashima, Y. (2004). The microgenesis ofculture: Serial reproduction as an experimentalsimulation of cultural dynamics.In M. Schaller C. Crandall (Eds.), The904 KURZ AND LY ONSpsychological foundations of culture (pp.227-258). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Oakes, P., Haslam, S., Turner, J. (1994). Stereotypingand social reality. Oxford, UK:Blackwell.Potter, J., Wetherell, M. (1987). Discourse andsocial psychology: Beyond attitudes and behaviour.London: Sage.Ruscher, J., Hammer, E. (2006). The developmentof shared stereotypic impressionsin conversation: An emerging model,methods, and extensions to cross-groupsettings. Journal of Language and SocialPsychology, 25, 221-243.Ruscher, J., Cralley, E., O’Farrell, K. (2005).How newly acquainted dyads developshared stereotypic impressions throughconversation. Group Processes IntergroupRelations, 8, 259-270.Ruscher, J. (1998). Prejudice and stereotypingin everyday communication. In M. P.Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental socialpsychology (Vol. 30, pp. 241-307). SanDiego, CA: Academic Press.Schaller, M., Conway, L. G., Tanchuk, T. L.(2002). Selective pressures on the onceand future contents of ethnic stereotypes:Effects of the communicabilityof traits. Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology, 82(6), 861-877.Semin, G., Fiedler, K. (1988). The cognitivefunctions of linguistic categories in describingpersons: Social cognition andlanguage. Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology, 54, 558-568.von Hippel, W., Sekaquaptewa, D., Vargas,P. (1995). On the role of encoding processesin stereotype maintenance. In M.P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimentalsocial psychology (Vol. 27, pp. 177-254).San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Wigboldus, D., Semin, G., Spears, R. (2000).How do we communicate stereotypes?Linguistic bases and inferential consequences.Journal of Personality and SocialPsychology, 78, 5-18.Wigboldus, D., Spears, R., Semin, G. (2005).When do we communicate stereotypes?:Influence of the social context on the linguisticexpectancy bias. Group Processes Intergroup Relations, 8, 215-230.Copyright of Social Cognition is the property of Guilford Publications Inc. and its content may not be copied oremailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission.However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.Bias and Stereotyping in Communication ● potential usefulness1. Create awareness of stereotyping in communications2. More effective communication among all teams or members of an organization3. Greater productivity when all team members feel included 4. Further research may enhance diversity training in organizations● limitations1. Research uses social class as the measure of stereotype, could use other measures2. If groups have more influence on stereotyping in communication, group example in student survey would be more relevant● assumptions1. In-groups and out-groups within organizations are typically clearly delineated2. Stereotyping in communication is always well received among in-group members3. Group members do not feel ambivalent about different stereotypes within communications in different groupsBibliographyEndres, D. Gould, M. (2009). I am also in a position to use my whiteness to help them out: the Communication of whiteness in service learning. Western Journal of Communication, 73(4), 418-436.The authors discuss the attitudes and theory of whiteness through an analysis of student service learning projects. A major challenge in service learning is the elimination of whiteness as a factor that influences the message projected by service workers to members of the communityreceiving services. Though students were exposed to whiteness theory prior to their service learning experiences, they still tended to project their ideals onto those receiving services. The authors point out that this behavior tends to widen the gap between the privileged and those with fewer means, rather than serving to bridge the gap. This analysis has important implications forbias in communications. It shows that bias tends to naturally exist through various influences, such as socio-economic status, family experiences and life experiences. Bias in communication then, tends to exist naturally. Awareness alone cannot eliminate bias in communication. It mustalso be practiced and the attitudes that create bias must be addressed.Hanke, S. (2009). Communication styles: What is your impact on others? Professional Safety (May 2009), 22-25. The author discusses the importance of learning how to communicate with various personality types, in order to get the message across. By learning about the audience, through observation and body language, the speaker or communicator can adjust or tailor communications that willreach, rather than offend, multiple members of an audience. This discussion also has implications for communications among individuals. It cannot be assumed that the listener communicates in the same manner as the speaker. The author highlights the need for greater awareness and adaptability in communications, thus eliminating the bias of assuming that theperson receiving the message will interpret the communication exactly as intended.Kurtz, T. (2009). Intergroup influences on the stereotype consistency bias in communication: Does it Matter who we are communicating about and who we are communicating to? Social Cognition, 7(6), 893-904.The author describes research into the communication that occurs within different social groups,specifically in terms of language and stereotyping in communication that occurs within those groups. Stereotyping is described as a means within communication, for the individual to gain favor within the group and survey participants are able to identify various forms of stereotyping in a given scenario. The limitations of the research include a scenario describing the behavior of one individual, rather than of multiple group members. The research clearly indicates that stereotyping does occur in communications, within various social contexts. The research also indicates the need for awareness of stereotyping, in communication with a larger audience that may consist of members of very different groups.Polachek, D. Frantz, A. (2009). Interactivity Accountability: How are We EducatingUndergraduate Students in Communication Studies? The International Journal of Learning, 16(9).The author discusses the importance of addressing all members of an audience, class or group, so that no specific individual or group feels alienated, during discussions. It is important for allmembers of the group or audience to be respected and this is done through inclusion. The authors suggest that, particularly in a class setting, the faculty can set parameters for class communications from the start. It is further suggested that communications within and for a larger group should also consider avoiding language that stereotypes a specific group or groups.Warner, F. (2008). Improving communication: It’s Everybody’s business. Change (Nov-Dec), 29-35.The author stresses the importance of considering the audience in communications. Through the example of the writing assignment given by City University of New York professor Terrance Martell, Warner shows how lack of consideration for the audience can lead to communication that is ineffective and fails to serve its specific purpose. Nearly all of Dr. Martell’s class missed the purpose of the assignment and failed to communicate what was asked. This case presents an argument for teaching methods of communication for a larger audience, in written form. Further investigation of the problem showed that students were not versed in persuasion and argument, within written communication. The implication is that individuals must be taught to consider the audience, in any form of communication.
Digital technology has greatly reduced the costs of compiling, processing, and distributing information. Information and communications technology (ICT) invigorates markets by enhancing the flow of information, not in creating certainty, but making information more symmetric. The rise of the Internet, for example, has increased transparency, improving the ability of all market participants to determine the available range of prices for financial instruments and financial services (Clemons and Hitt, 2000, 4). Indeed, information-driven disintermediation is not limited to the financial sector: The flow of information turns client relationships into markets. This phenomenon is cropping up in fields as diverse as travel agencies, real estate, and the auctioning of flowers in Amsterdam (Anon., 1998).The new markets that hand information to consumers also tend to push down prices. This is a dangerous prospect for branded goods like banking products and services, which behave increasingly like commodities. Moreover, technology has continually lowered the transaction costs of direct financing, facilitating the emergence of new electronic markets, payments and settlement networks, and new market-based risk and wealth management systems.Disintermediation is accompanied by securitization. Large firms increasingly raise finance directly from the financial markets. Companies with secure cash flows create securities from (or securitize) these assets, the value of which is determined by the volume and reliability of the cash flows (Holland et al., 1998, 222). The securities are then sold publicly or privately to institutional investors.
POWER Part 1The incumbent president of the United States, , can be identified as an individual with reflective capabilities for using power. He has been influential in establishing global relationships with various countries as well as mending broken ones. Power among many individuals is utilized to enhance the social well-being and improve various cultural values. The president exhibits power through his eloquence when addressing gatherings in different places, both within the country and at international meetings (Greenstein, 2009). His eloquence has been fundamental in establishing trust and influencing other people within the society. Such influence has been fundamental in winning elections throughout his political career. He has effectively utilized power to influence multitudes and gain essential support from different socio-cultural groups.He has used power in achieving different goals from promises made during the camping periods. Commitment and accountability have been fundamental traits in the utilization of power by president Obama. He always appears calm and relaxed despite the challenges facing the government in containing growing socio-economic issues, within the country. Effectively members of the government have been empowered to perform and make decisions regarding the state at the international level (Nye Jr, Rachman, Mead, Mearsheimer, 2012). Many of the ambassadors perform their responsibilities independent of governmental influence. This has been an incremental approach in ensuring passing of power, and subsequently gaining positive benefits. Many international relationships have been established and restored following this careful transfer of presidential power to ambassadors. Within the real world, individuals become advised to refrain from hoarding power in seeking to ensure that power empowers others. The transfer of power must be undertaken carefully to eliminate possibility of misusing such power. The element of communication remains incremental in ensuring power enhances social agendas and not personal benefits (Bal, Campbell, Steed, Meddings, 2008). The language utilized in communications must, therefore, be clear and eloquent in delivering messages. This effectively results in sufficient understanding between communicating individuals or centers. Individuals can establish relationships based on understanding of each other, and reflection of their situations and emotions. Fundamentally, individuals exhibit power through their capacity to transmit ideologies and perceptions effectively, to other individuals. When people working behind an individual become empowered to take action for the individual, the individual’s power becomes enhanced within the social setting.Part 2Power distance has been defined as the level of acceptance by less powerful individuals within a society in a county, regarding unequal distribution of power. This is based on social beliefs that followers and leaders remain fundamental in endorsement of social inequality. Within an organizational sector employees and managers expect to receive direct communication regarding issues facing the organization. Power distance remains an attribute affected by social factors like masculinity, religion and individualism, within a given social setting. In the United States, power distance has been an issue under discussion in the comprehensive immigration reform bill. Politicians and parties have taken different stands regarding immigration issues within the country (Shear Parker, 2014). The bill under discussion seeks to enhance the experience of non-American citizens seeking permanent migration into the United States. The reforms will empower many authorities to perform various functions related to immigration laws within the country. ReferencesBal, V., Campbell, M., Steed, J., Meddings, K. (2008). The Role of Power in Effective Leadership. Colorado.Greenstein, F. I. (2009). The leadership style of Barack Obama: An early assessment. The Forum, 7(1).Nye Jr, J. S., Rachman, G., Mead, W. R., Mearsheimer, J. (2012). The domestic sources of American foreign policy: insights and evidence. (J. M. McCormick, Ed.). New York: Rowman Littlefield.Shear, M. D., Parker, A. (2014, January 2). Boehner Is Said to Back Change on Immigration. New York Times, p. A1. New York.
Today, the industry is more worth than 9 billion pounds and hires more than 80,000 consultants. The industry extends a wide range of firms, most of which undertake pure management consulting work, of which are part of larger firms that also undertake IT and change programmes and from training individuals and team to provide expert advice in specialized fields (Bushko 45).Essential to the success of the whole consulting industry is their capabilities to deliver high-quality services that enable create sustainable value to organizations. To this end, the MCA has a Code of Practice to which all MCA members pledge. The MCA also encourages the positive contribution made by the industry to the economy and the wider society through the annual MCA Awards (Buono 45). As its clients look for integrated solutions to their IT requirements and management, many consultancy firms are entering into treaties with software suppliers, telecoms or communications firms in order for them to provide a broader range of quality services and outspread their global reach. At the same time, the consultant/client relationship is changing. Boundaries are distorting. Consultants can become part of the client organization for some time, and may as well sometimes share the profits as well as the risks of a scheme or project (Bushko 34). Consultancy firms that have in history competed are now more or less working together on client projects and there will be continuing union within and outside the industry as firms co-operate and join in order to offer better services to their clients (Buono 59).
Effective leaders are able to function in a mentoring role and exhibit empathy towards their team members. These leaders are able to exert their authority without appearing overbearing or inflexible (Kayworth and Liedner, 2002).A positive correlation has been found to exist between transformational leadership and the performance of the organization (Lowe et al, 1996). Transformational leaders are very effective within an organizational context because they are able to inspire their followers, provide support, mentoring and coaching for their followers and infuse them with their own enthusiasm and energy. The transactional leadership style is a more practical kind of leadership pattern and a good transactional leader recognizes the qualities in his followers and makes rewards contingent upon good performance, thereby also contributing to organizational efficacy. (Pillai et al, 1999). Within an organization that focuses on creativity and innovation, the transformational style may be effective, while a transactional style of leadership may be more appropriate for larger organizations where people do not work together in small close-knit groups.The lack of good leadership communication skills or a failure of the leader to interact well with team members in order to provide a supportive working environment provides a badly managed business where organizational effectiveness is hindered. The wrong kind of leadership style may also impact unfavorably upon an organization and impede its effectiveness. In the context of an increasingly global environment where most organizations are subjected to intense competition, existing leadership styles may need revamping to be effective. This quantitative study, therefore, proposes to use a survey method in order to examine these two aspects of leadership in the context of organizational effectiveness. In the case of the first question, the null hypothesis which is proposed is: There is no relation between leadership skill development, leader behavior, supervision, and coordination on the team communication effectiveness.
This analysis shows that the Germans had a better strategy, battle tactics, good communication, home support, support from businesses, better intelligence and drive to conquer (Jackson, 2004). On the other hand, the allies had little intelligence about the enemy, poor economies, we’re reliant on poorly thought out defences, could not establish communications or supply lines and eventually had to fold over as German tanks drove from country to country (Horne, 1969). To fully understand these reasons, it would be best to analyse them on an individual basis.Blitzkrieg is the popular name given to the operational military system under which quick air bombing is followed by a charge of mobile ground forces at the weakest point in the enemy defence lines (Jackson, 2004). The basic element of this tactic of warfare is the speed of the attack and the surprise it generates for the enemy who is basically caught unaware (Horne, 1969). There is some doubt if the Germans had developed these tactics on their own since Foreign Affairs (1941) describes these tactics as having a German origin while Ellis (1990) suggests that the doctrine could have been developed by other tacticians and copied by the Germans to apply to mechanised warfare.Nonetheless, it was effectively employed as a weapon of war and it allowed quick military gains to be made by the Germany forces. Time magazine (1939) was the first popular news source to report on these tactics when a writer described the fall of Poland by saying that: The battlefront got lost and with it the illusion that there had ever been a battlefront. For this was no war of occupation, but a war of quick penetration and obliteration—Blitzkrieg, lightning war. Swift columns of tanks and armoured trucks had plunged through Poland while bombs raining from the sky heralded their coming.
Canada lags behind in offshoring as the firms have a conservative attitude. To survive in the competitive global market, certain policies have to change as offshoring benefits not only the nation’s economy but the world economy as well. Consumers benefit as the prices reduce, reemployment takes place, wages go up, and due to competing firms invest in technology. Both the government and the private sector in Canada have to act fast so that they are not isolated from the world market and continue to have access to the global market.Corporate restructuring, downsizing, and layoffs have led to fundamental changes in the workplace on a global basis. Senior executives and corporate leaders around the world agree that offshoring is good for the world economy. These executives also realize that offshoring can deliver more than just labor cost savings (Daga Kaka, 2006). High technology companies have been contracting out many of their software development projects to overseas software companies, particularly to India. Gradually offshoring is being done in more and more sectors. It is fueled by a combination of quality services at affordable prices both by the service providers and the consumers. The developed countries could venture into offshoring as the developing countries have demonstrated the required skills and upgraded the technology in communications (Sourirajan, 2004).Offshoring emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s initially with tasks related to customer services but now encompasses a broader range of activities including software development, and other activities requiring high skilled human capital. This issue is politically charged as the number of jobs that could be relocated is large. It is expected to have a negative impact on wages and employment. However, economists argue that it has long term benefits and would increase the standard of living in OECD countries.
According to the research findings it can therefore be said that Charles Leadbeater one of the world’s leading authorities on innovation and creativity in organisations said, the primary role of organisations is to get work done. This necessitates that (1) organisations must motivate its people to work so that they contribute most effectively to the collective behaviour. (2) coordinate the collective output to ensure that it fits together and takes place in the right order. and (3) they must innovate continuously by learning, adapting and evolving with the demand of the environment in which they operate and explore opportunities for change. Yet experience dictates that this seemingly simple analogy: motivate. coordinate. innovate is in fact is most complex task for corporates across continents and commerce, some of which apparently are in the state of civil war. As old industrial world recipes of organisation, work and leadership are gradually becoming passé, organisations are innovating to find newer ways of motivating, coordinating and innovating simultaneously with more and more open and networked organisations. Wikipedia, Linux, eBay, YouTube, and many more organisations operating in that direction have raised questions on the concepts of traditional, top-down closed organisations. Organisations are now moving from highly collectivised and unionised environments to highly individualist entities bringing newer realities for labour relations. Amidst this, the author made an attempt to get the current perspective of labour relations in a successful multinational technology enterprise – Orange Business Services. The author interviewed unofficially the officials engaged in labour relations division. The objective was to understand how an old world enterprise such as French Telecom has evolved its labour relations to become one of most successful branded service provider worldwide. The choice of Orange business services was obvious as it is a global leader in communication services with a highly technical workforce that are able to deliver coherent innovative services in spite of working in areas such as cloud and convergence where organisational hierarchies are difficult to prevail . Besides, Orange with a clientele of over 3700 multinational companies in the sphere of collaboration, customer relationship management, mobility, M2M and vertical solutions was a fit case for the study as the company is a recipient of many awards and accolades including the Best Global Operator award at the World Communications Award for four consecutive years (2006-2009) (the only company to have this). and the ‘World Class’ ranking for superior customer satisfaction for the tenth consecutive time (SITA, 2011). 2. Labour relations at Orange Business Services The author interviewed the Labour Relations Manager of Orange Business Services, by a prior appointment in their newly acquired premises where nearly over 2000 employees in various cadres were engaged. This office now housed all the employees which were working in three different parts of the city. However, the Labour Relations Manager agreed for this interview on an informal and anonymous basis. For the purpose of referencing, he advised to approach the company headquarters and obtain permission prior to interviewing. However, due to paucity of time and the requirement being largely to meet academic needs, the author went ahead with the interviews. Due to this
Sexual harassment in the form of the creation of a hostile environment arises when the abuser’s unwelcome sexual conduct creates an intimidating learning or working environment for the victim. In some cases, the abuser’s behavior can be so severe that it affects the victim’s ability to work or benefit from an educational program or activity. In this category of sexual harassment, the abuser does not always have some authority or any form of power over the victim. For instance, students can harass their peers. In the work situation, the abuser can be a low-ranked employee harassing their supervisor (the University of Michigan, n.d.).Sexual harassment of children can occur in a social situation or on the internet. In most cases, the people harassing children sexually in a social setting are either family members or those who are known to the family (UNICEF, n.d.). In the online situation, sexual harassment occurs mostly in the form of unwanted sexual attention and gender harassment. The occurrence of unwanted sexual attention requires direct personal communication between the harasser and the victim (Mitchell, Wolak, Finkelhor, 2008). The harasser sends offensive messages to the victims, which directly refer to sex. In most cases, the victims are asked about their sex life, intimate objects, sex organs, or other sex-related activities. In this category of harassment, the harasser’s intention is to solicit sexual cooperation from the victim (Barak, 2005. Schrock Boyd, 2011). Since children do not always consider such messages offensive, they become sexually harassed without their knowledge.On the other hand, gender harassment involves communications in graphic or verbal formats targeting a specific gender. The abusers deliver such messages in active or passive manners. Active verbal sexual harassment occurs in the form of offensive sexual messages targeting specific victims.
While Western culture is more verbal in communications, the Asian and Indian culture inclines more on nonverbal communications. It is only when we understand the differences and similarities between the cultures of the two nations. we can better understand why people behave as they normally do. In the below paragraphs, the essay tries to examine the contrasts and similarities.People respond to colors in different ways and this greatly has to do with the cultural backgrounds they are from. In the American culture, black signifies death and mourning. Worn mainly due to the weather conditions, it also refers to formality and sophistication that reflects in dressing. However in the Indian culture, black signifies mourning, evil influences, and penance. In certain cultures, completely black attires are worn by men for a chosen number of days in the form of penance. White in the US signifies purity and life. However in India, the meanings are contradictory, and white suggests peace, marriage, and mourning all at once. In the Southern part of India, women wear traditional white saris on the day of the wedding. In times of someone’s death, white is also seen to be worn by widows. Blue color refers to trust and stability in American culture while in India it refers to calmness.Besides individual colors, combinations also have diverse meanings in the two religions. Red, white and blue remind Americans of the native flag and convey patriotism while in India the same patriotism comes through saffron, white and green (colors of the Indian national flag). The colors red and green represent prosperity and marriage in India and refer to Christmas in America. Red and yellow are considered auspicious in India as they represent kumkum2 and turmeric, two ingredients imperative for every Indian wedding. However, in America, colors of red, orange, and yellow signify warmth and thanksgiving.
SWOT and Financial Analysis for Verizon Verizon Communications Inc., which is also acknowledged as Verizon is duly considered to be one of the largest service providers of broadband and telecommunication in America. Verizon was formed in the year 2000 after the merging of Bell Atlantic Corp. and GTE Corp. The company has been listed in Dow Jones Industrial Average in the year 2004 due to its consistent performance in delivering quality services to the clients. It can be apparently observed that the company earned greater business reputation and established itself as one of the leading providers of advanced IT solutions to large business association and government bodies worldwide. Resulting from consistence performance in the telecommunication industry, the company has acquired number of well-known companies like Alltel (Verizon, 2013). With this concern, this paper intends to conduct a complete SWOT analysis and financial analysis of the company (Verizon, 2013). Discussion SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis is regarded as the most common adapted techniques which helps in understanding the strengths along with the weaknesses and also to identify the opportunities available and threats that the organization face and/or would face in future. The main objective behind adapting SWOT technique by modern business organizations in today’s business world is that it helps in identifying the internal along with external factors. These factors often act in favor or against a particular company providing opportunities to mitigate the issues and develop plans to maintain the current position of the company in the global platform (University of Washington, n.d.). In this similar concern, Verizon is regarded as an American based company which deals with the products or services such as broadband and wire line and wireless communication among other related products. It can be viewed that Verizon’s fourth-generation Long Term Evolution (4G LTE) is considered to be the most advanced 4G network around the United States of America (USA). However, the gaining momentum of business market competition in the telecommunication industry and the invention of new technologies are creating a barrier for Verizon to maintain its leading position in the respective industry. Additionally, it has also been viewed that the operation plans of Verizon are facing crucial challenges with the increased level of competitors, alterations in government regulations and global economic slowdown (Verizon, 2013). The SWOT analysis of Verizon has been demonstrated hereunder. Strengths. One of the major strengths of Verizon is normally considered to be its strong liquidity position. The company is regarded as one of the most consistence performers in the global telecommunication platform. The company reported an annual increase in the liquidity ratio resulting in 38% increase in its current assets and 1% increase in current liability in the year 2011. Moreover, the company has also reported a rapid growth in its receivable rate in the year 2011 which is also regarded as the other strength of the company. In terms of strengths, it can be viewed that the company possesses a substantial wireless capacity and coverage in the U.S covering nearly about 296
Misunderstandings occurred occasionally due to communication breakdown and conflicts arose between team mates when there were different thoughts and ideas. I attempt to develop my communication skills and work in a multicultural group by slowing down my speaking speed and pronounce the words correctly in order to convey my ideas and messages clearly. I also try to improve my vocabularies by extensive reading. Besides that, I would like to make effort in developing my interpersonal skills by practising patience and high tolerance rather than being aggressive when facing conflicts. Two-way communications, mutual understanding and positive feedbacks are important in resolving conflicts and disputes (Agar, 1994). Thus, I have learnt to be a good listener and be open to constructive feedbacks and comments. This is especially important if I am to work in a diversity workplace in the future. Time management is another challenge which I have encountered. I faced obstacles in balancing my in-class time, time spent on assignments, study and entertainment. Time management skill is important in overcoming the problem such as careful planning of work, tight monitoring of progress and revision of plan when necessary (Smith, 1994). It would be useful to set a personal goal and develop a flexible schedule to assist me in prioritising my activities. I plan my day ahead and maintain a list of activities which must be done daily at the same allowing room of flexibility for unexpected incidents. It enables me to recognize tasks which are urgent and in need of special focus and attention followed by the important ones. In this case, I would be able to meet deadlines such as assignments deadline without any last minute rush. This skill would definitely assist me in future career success as the optimum use of time would lead to increase work efficiency and productivity. On the other hand, it ensures that I am not overloaded with work contributing to less stress and pressures. Additionally, numerical skill is another area which is in need of improvement as it is critical for my accounting module. Numerical skills involve the ability to recognise and utilize numerical data and reflect on a person’s general intelligence and ability to rapidly perceives, processes and calculates numbers (Psychometric Success, 2011). Employers often recognise the importance of numerical skills in work practise and incorporate it as one of the selection criteria in the recruitment process. This is evidenced by the compulsory completion of numerical ability test by candidates during a job interview. The level of tests would however depend on the relevance of skill to the job (Royal Holloway University of London, 2011). As practise make perfect, I am commit to perform mathematical exercise on a weekly basis and apply it on a daily basis to resolve practical calculations. Moreover, I attempt the numerical skills test available online to assess my skills and continuously monitor my progress. This would not only assist in my current academic success but also increase my employability. Besides that, I would require to enhance my presentation skills as it is useful in every aspect of work and life. Effective presentation and public speaking skills are essential in my university as it is part of the assessment requirements. From a business perspective, it is insufficient to only display capability in work but also be able to be presentable and talk and write well in order to be
The processes of formulation, implementation and evaluation form the three key stages that define strategic management process. Activities that are involved in the formulation process include the setting up of firm’s vision and mission, and performing an environmental scan in order to identify the external opportunities and strengths. As regards the process of implementation, activities that are involved include budget preparations, developing a strategy-supportive culture and creating the right organizational culture. The evaluation stage involves measuring and evaluating performance in order to determine the viability of the project. With the ever-changing environmental factors, change is inevitable for any strategy developed. As such, a review of internal and external factors is always necessary as well as taking corrective actions. How project management in integrated into strategic management process Given the high level of importance that has been attached to strategic management process, necessary tools have to be put in place to ensure the success of this process. According to (Macmillan Tampoe, 2001), turning strategy into reality is not an easy thing. It requires constant investment in management resources. This is where project management comes in. … It also involves identifying performance management goals and developing a management plan. On the project management side, planning involves stakeholders agreeing to project objectives, scope and plans for carrying out the project which has been formally funded and resourced. The other process that integrates project management into strategic management process is the monitoring process. This process measures and assesses the project performance in order to respond to variances and risks (Macmillan Tampoe, 2001). This is possible if performance measures have been identified and selected and measurement scorecards developed. Under this process, a re-verification of critical success factors is done as well as re-planning of the project. This may include changes in resource allocation or the scheduling of events and activities. The result of this may be changes in the strategies and objectives of the organization which requires performance reporting. Performance reporting falls on the performance management side and it involves developing of a communications plan and communicating performance results to stakeholders. How organizational culture influences the selection of a project management structure Culture incorporates beliefs, behaviors, and assumptions shared by individuals within an organization (Hill Jones, 2012). In trying to explain how organizational culture influences the selection of a project management structure, various factors have to be considered. They include whether or not decision-making is done in command and control environments or by self-directed teams, how functional units work with each other and many other factors. How functional units work with each other
The heuristic tasks of design thinking include motivating disgruntling employees, forging supplier relationships, and understanding customer delight. It is the role of CEOs and other top business leaders to be masters of heuristics mentioned above. Designing is a tool powerful enough to bring a change. It is not just a mere tool for styling products and communications. Creative designers devise tools, actions, and methods that they use to change the existing situations into preferred ones. DT is a user-centered approach to innovation and business leadership can learn from the practice of designers. Most of the previous work on design thinking (DT) is mainly theoretical.Organizational managers are increasingly searching for alternative approaches to innovation. As a result, the majority of these managers are focusing their interests in design. Brown (2008) has discussed how organizations can benefit from design thinking. He suggests that business managers can apply a design approach to any innovation challenge that they may encounter within the organization. Design thinking is a distinct approach, separate from other problem-solving approaches. Plattner, Meinel, and Leifer (2013) examine the aspects that distinguish design thinking from other problem-solving approaches. DT is unique because it helps foster creativity and aesthetically appealing product design. There are specific affective and cognitive processes involved when managers engage themselves in design thinking. Brown (2008) supports this view because he interprets DT as a conceptualization of the way designers think and work.A previous study has argued that design thinking is a methodology for innovation that integrates human, technical, and business factors in problem-forming, problem-solving, and designs (Plattner et al., 2013). Another researcher argued that the design thinking approach encompasses three broad phases namely inspiration, ideation, and implementation (Brown, 2008). In the inspiration phase, the players are motivated to search for solutions.
Telecommunications and Networks Applications This study seeks to understand telecommunication and networks application, through the study of video conferencing and geostationary satellites. The uses, benefits as well as the disadvantages of these communication tools will be discussed under this study. Discussion Videoconferencing refers to a mode of communication, where two individuals or groups of people can communicate through audio and visual two-way transmission, which is simultaneous. Through video conferencing, multiple locations can communicate on the same agenda, while listening and seeing each other (Wolfe, 2007). Videoconferencing is made possible using telecommunication technologies, which ensures there is real time communication among the different localities. The requirements for videoconferencing include a video decoder that compresses a video to a transmittable form (Arthur, 2009). A digital network is also required to transmit the waves from one locality to another. A video input, mostly a video camera or a Webcam is required for inputting the video, while outputs which includes a computer and projector are necessary to give the video output (Wolfe, 2007). Audio inputs such as microphones are required for trapping the audio communication, while audio outputs such as speakers are required to give the audio output, from which the individuals involved in communication listens to and then responds. A data transfer network, such as LAN or the internet is necessary, as the line through which the video and audio transmissions are passed from one locality to the other (Arthur, 2009). The advantages associated with videoconferencing are that it offers convenience, by making it possible for people to communicate with each other, at the expense of travelling to meet. Additionally, videoconferencing provides for a face-to-face communication channel, which enhances the communication, since files and other data information can be shared through PowerPoint and other means of display (Wolfe, 2007). It is also cost effective, where the distance to be traveled is long. The risk involved in video conferencing include hacking, where the information being communicated to different localities can be tapped by hackers, more so if it is of a confidential nature. More to this, technical problems such as power outage can interfere with the communication (Arthur, 2009). Geostationary satellite Refers to the communication satellites that are placed above the equator, approximately 22, 300 miles above the earth, which is stationery (Mark, 2009). These satellites are placed stationary at one place, where the antennas on the ground communicate directly with them without any need to move in an attempt to trace the satellites. The Geostationary satellites are used variously. First, they are used for communication, whereby the communication signals are received by the satellites from the antennas on the ground, for example where the caller is, then, amplified and transmitted to the other destination of the receiver, across the world (Arthur, 2009). The Geostationary satellite satellites makes such communication possible in that they are placed in one stationary place, making it possible to be accessed and to transmit the communication waves any time, as opposed to when they could be moving, since calls can only be made at a time when they are accessible by the antennas. The satellites are used for defense and intelligence, where the military uses the spy satellites to trace the location of their enemies or allies (Mark, 2009). Additionally, the military have special communication satellites that ensure that their communication cannot be tracked by ordinary communication devices. Geostationary satellite are also used for weather forecasting, where they provide the information such as the temperatures, humidity, cloud covers, thus assisting weather departments make predictions on the likely weather situations (Arthur, 2009). Additionally, global positioning is another use that these satellites are applied, where an individual with a communication device that has a GPS can know exactly which position of the earth he is (Mark, 2009). A Geostationary satellite has coverage of approximately a third of the whole earth, meaning that the earth can be covered by using just three geostationary satellites (Mark, 2009). There are various advantages associated with the geostationary satellites. These satellites are stationary and placed constantly in the same position. This allows them to give continuously, a repeated observation of the same area, allowing the communication antennas to access them easily, thus, making communication possible round the clock (Wolfe, 2007). These satellites give a high-resolution data, within a very short span of time. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the weather conditions such as storms in real time (Arthur, 2009). However, the disadvantage associated with these satellites is the fact that they have chances of causing delays in audio communication. Considering that they are placed a greater distance high above the earth, the transmission of audio waves can take some time from the antenna to the satellites, causing a delay in voice circuits (Mark, 2009). The other disadvantage is the fact that to build and launch a satellite is expensive. Additionally, it is not possible to repair and maintain them, since they are placed a long distance away from the earth, making it impossible for anyone to access and repair them (Wolfe, 2007). Conclusion Telecommunication networks such as video conferencing and geostationary satellite have greatly improved communication. However, there are various limitations associated with them, including the fact that the costs involved in setting up such tools are high. References Arthur, C. (2009). Extra-Terrestrial Relays: Can Rocket Stations Give Worldwide Radio Coverage? Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Mark, C. (2009). Satellite Communications: The disadvantages of satellites. RPC Telecommunications Ltd. Wolfe, M. (2007). Broadband videoconferencing as knowledge management tool. Journal of Knowledge Management.
Many of these spheres are defined by stereotypes. Those stereotypes determine the nature of the space that is inhabited. How someone reacts to the others around them must be understood through the culturally developed stereotypes that define the potential of the experience that someone has in coming into contact with others on the street. The experience of the American street is a place where visceral prejudices come alive. Where in social gatherings prejudices can be dampened, set aside in order to create relationships that cross boundaries and develop into meaningful interactions, when one encounters an unknown person on a street, the only framework in which to define the potential of that experience is through culturally developed ‘types’. The unfortunate consequence of these types is that the nature of some are automatically considered to have a negative connotation. The concept of the young African American male brings forth a sense of fear, the nature of his representation in culture being angry and violent. The media represents the young African American male through concepts that have developed through stereotyping that occurs on television, through music videos, and through past prejudices that created the concept of the militant angry young African American youth. … This, of course, is not limited to the African American male. There are many stereotypes that become prominent in public spaces when encounters are not framed through introductions. Part of the problem is the high level of population condensed into cities in which most of the people have no interconnections to one another. Because the nature of modern life has created smaller and more intimate conditions of community, there are far more strangers in the world than were once part of American life. In addition, with some of the more prominent crime sprees that have happened, including terrorist acts, more people are now considered ‘enemies’ which creates a type of anxiety that ends in a hyper vigilance that performs as a barrier between people. Being open to interactions with strangers leaves one open and vulnerable to ‘dangers’ that are perceived through the many communications that have framed ‘types’ for their ‘inclinations’ towards creating chaos. Prejudice In 1954, Gordon Allport wrote a seminal book on the nature of prejudice and how it affects human relationships. He states as he begins to define the concept of prejudice that No corner of the world is free from group scorn, which is an appropriate way in looking at the nature of prejudice. Society groups people into categories in order to impose order upon the integration of multiple cultural backgrounds that ends in differences that can be visually seen in ethnic qualities. The way in which language is used to define groups, by suggesting that someone is African American, Native American, or Asian American, suggests that when someone has ethnic markers, this places them in a different social groups. However, it is important
Violation of the rules and regulation concerning the internet is punishable by very heavy fines or imprisonment, and the government of China does this just to safeguard its political interest and easily manipulate the people. As the Chinese Internet and wireless communications sectors continue to grow, additional international corporations will continue to face pressure from the Chinese Government to supply equipment used for censorship and surveillance, hand over user information and enthusiastically censor user content (Human Rights Watch 8). The Chinese government should not censor the internet in China because this is limiting the citizens’ rights to access information, their freedom of speech and expression and it leads to a gross violation of human rights.The government actively filters the information that is posted in the social media and digital news, Scores of journalists and citizens are arrested on the grounds of cyber impropriety. In fact, China has the greatest number of arrests of journalists and internet dissidents, this is to a very great extent limiting and depriving the people of China of their right to information and also their freedom of expression. Those who try to criticise the government are often silenced through detentions and heavy fines. People cannot post whatever they feel or think in social media, especially concerning politics and democracy. After the Arab spring which saw the fall of autocratic regimes in the Middle East, the Chinese government embarked on a crackdown of people who were posting material, which the government deemed sensitive. Social media websites such as Facebook and Twitter are often blocked by the government in what the government says is interests of national security. The government authorities not only block website content but also monitor internet activities of individuals.
It can be noted in this case that the employer discriminated Michael Roberts on the basis of race by virtue of being an African American since other white guys with less experience were hired for the same job. The McDonnell-Douglas test is applicable to this particular case, according to the US Legal (2013), Mcdonnell Douglas test refers to a legal principle requiring a plaintiff (employee) to prove with evidence of employment- discrimination. The test also requires a defendant (employer) to prove with evidence showing that the employment action complained was taken for non discriminatory reasons. Being the judge in the above mentioned case, I will rule in favour of the plaintiff given that a case of racial discrimination against Michael Roberts exists since he did not get the job as a result of being an African American while other whites with less experience were hired for the same position. 2. The African Americans in this case can sue for disparate impact under Title vii of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. According to the Freedictionary (2013), disparate impact is a theory that prohibits the employer from using facially neutral employment practices that have an unjustified effect on protected classes. As aptly shown in the case study, African Americans were unfavourably treated when it comes to securing technical employment. Only 60 % of those who wrote the test were selected while 80 percent of the whites who wrote the same test were selected. However, the employer can use business necessity clause to refute the allegations levelled against him. If this practice is really necessary to the operations of the organization, then the employer would not have any case to answer. It is also important for the plaintiffs to prove that they are a protected class under this legal provision. Failure to do so may render their case invalid. 1. Sue Pappas applied for a position of an attendant for a psychiatric institution. However, she does not succeed in getting the job as a result of her obesity. Before she sues under Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), she has to prove that she has a disability. The ADA defines disability as a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity. a record of such an impairment. or being regarded as having such an impairment, (Reiter, 1). Under ADA, obesity is excluded hence Sue cannot win this particular case. However, ADA Amendments Act of 2008 (ADAAA) has broadened the definition of disability to encompass a lot of other biological functions of the body. Since she cannot perform all of the major life activities because of her obesity, she can sue the employer under the ADAA since it can be seen that she has been unfairly discriminated. Her past experience shows that she can perform this job well so there is no reason for this employer to deny her the opportunity to get this job. Assignment 2 Job Title: Marketing communications officer Position Purpose: The purpose of this position is to maintain a clear communication strategy for the marketing department as well as the organization as a whole. The candidate will communicate vital information to
There are basically seven major factors that motivate small and large companies in diversifying their workforces. These seven factors include the social responsibility, economic payback, resource imperative, legal requirement, marketing strategy, strategy related to business communications and strategy building. As a good diversity practice the people from disadvantaged groups of a community are considered and this relates to corporate responsibility of any business. Through diversification of the workforce the individuals can get a break required for earning a living. Diversification of workforce that is through welfare to work is likely to turn the tax users in tax payers. The changing demographics have greatly affected the workforce. The labor pool today includes people from various backgrounds and different life experiences. Under the legislation many companies round the world are observing equal employment opportunity that makes it best possible to utilize a workforce that is diverse. Nowadays in such a competitive world to fulfill a customer base that is extensive diverse it is very important to have a diverse workforce which is capable of making up for the customer base from every walk of life. For the companies that opt for retaining the homogenous workforces things are likely to become ineffective very soon. While recruiting the employees all the successful companies generally look for a diverse workforce and value them for their unique abilities and qualities. Analysis of Workforce Diversity Valuing and managing the workforce diversity is one of the key elements of effective management of people. This can ultimately enhance the workforce productivity and the overall performance of the company. The demographic changes like organizational restructuring, women in working places and the legislation related to equal employment opportunity require the companies a review of their management procedures and the development of new and innovative ways to manage people. Advantages of Workforce Diversity Diversity at the workplace has a lot of benefits that are discussed ahead. Workforce diversity is probable to lead towards an innovative and creative culture that has no limits. A diverse workforce can lead a profit making by ideas, creativity, innovation and exchange of knowledge (Esty, et al., 1995). An organization that has built up a rapport for diverse workforce is famous for attracting the best talent from all parts of the world. Marketing of products can be made easier as people with different backgrounds can come up with unique marketing campaigns that are likely to increase the sale. People from different areas speak different languages so the workforce that is diverse can understand and can develop better bonds with the customers as the company has employees that can speak various numbers of languages. Workforce diversity is also taken to play a crucial part in the effective solving of problems nowadays. By the diversity different talents are put together and different set of skills is used that increase productivity of the organization. By attracting and retaining the employees with diverse skills, competencies, talents, knowledge etc. the company is likely to win a competitive advantage. Diversity assists in building a synergy amongst teams and improves the communication skills. A lot of money can be saved by this diversification process as this is what the legislation of any country says. Challenges related to Workforce
Unlike other previous forms of communication, wireless communication networks have increasingly gained popularity especially with the recent mode like 3G and 4G which have continuously improved data transfer and communication efficiency. Recent advances in technology have led to efficient satisfaction of the needs of consumers while ensuring that life is easier. The second generation GSM and its evolutional stages of GPRS and EDGE and third generation UMTS are discussed in detail to pave way in understanding the 4G technology. Wireless communication: 1G-4G cellular communication systems 1.0. Introduction Cellular mobile telephone systems development and deployment was triggered by the operational limitations of standard mobile telephone systems (Brand and Aghavami, 1). These limitations include limited capacity for service, inefficient utilization of spectrum and poor service performance. The communication of mobile phone occurs through a temporary distinct radio channel in order to communicate to the cell site. The cell site is contains several channels and each mobile talks to it through only one of the channels. The channels are characterized by a pair of frequencies which are used during the communication. The forward link transmits from the cell site to the users while the reverse link receives calls from users. The radio signal transmitted in early mobiles dissipated with distance and mobiles had to stay close to the base station in order to secure effective communications. According to Brand and Aghvami (1), moving mobile users were not sufficiently offered with an effective means of communication. Mobile radio service has its operations in a closed network with no access to the telephone system unlike the mobile telephone service that allowed interconnection to the telephone network. Traditionally, the mobile service structure included a single powerful transmitter that was located at a high spot to broadcast signals within a radius of up to about 50 km and the mobile telephones were attached to the transmitter (Brand and Aghvami, 2). Conversely, the introduction of cellular telephone system architecture involves placing numerous low-power transmitters within the entire coverage area and each covers a small area called the cell and using varying channels or conversions. The cellular telephone system allows a user to travel while making a phone call with no interruptions since they can use more than one base station. The application of the cellular concept in mobile telephone systems overcame interference problems and improved the efficiency of communication since the cells size was equivalent to the density and demand of subscribers in a particular area and was flexible to accommodate growing population’s demand and user density. Interference is overcame since a cluster can be reused in other cells while conversations can be handed off from one cell to the other and phone services maintained constantly as one moves between cells through handoff (Brand and Aghvami, 2). Cellular phone systems is characterized by four generations which are first generation or 1G, second generation or 2G, third generation or 3G and fourth generation or 4G. This paper explores cellular mobile system generations in terms of their capabilities, date of introduction, and comparison of inherent features. 2.0. First generation or 1G cellular phone systems The 1G cellular phone systems are characterized by the use of analog frequency modulation to facilitate the transmission of speech, frequency shift keying or FSK for signaling while FDMA or frequency Division Multiple Access for the sharing of assigned spectrum (Patil, Karhe and Aher, 614). The most
However, researchers are divided over their opinion on the degree of effectiveness of celebrity endorsements. Although, both researchers and practitioners by and large have shown convergence on their opinion that celebrity endorsements can have positive influence on the credibility, message recall, memory and likability of the advertisement and finally on the purchase intentions (Menon, 2001. Pornpitakapan, 2003. Pringle and Binet, 2005. Roy, 2006. cited by Roozen, 2008). but the extent to which celebrity endorsement are effective has been a contentious issue. There has been numerous research that favours and equally large number of researches that disfavours celebrity endorsement’s claim. The purpose of the present study is to find out if celebrity endorsements contribute towards achieving marketing communications objectives. The findings of the study are expected to fill the gap in the body of knowledge and provide clue to both the industry and the academia as well. The specific aim of the study is to explore contribution of celebrity endorsement in achieving marketing communications objectives in the retail clothing industry in particular…. I would like to thank her for teaching me how to navigate through the ocean of knowledge. A literary assignment of this nature takes a years to materialise, the foundation for which is laid down early in life and by the parents. Their able upbringing, personal sacrifice and high regard for pursuit of knowledge have been the chief factors for my being able to prepare this dissertation. I would like to express my profound gratitude to my parents whose relentless support and encouragement could make me to see this day. Author Contents Abstract iv Acknowledgement v List of Figures ix List of Tables ix Photo Credit ix Chapter 1: Introduction 11 1.1Introduction 11 1.2 Background 11 1.3 Purpose of study 12 1.3.1 Aim of Research 12 1.3.2 Research Objectives 12 1.3.3 Scope and context of Research 13 1.4 Methodology 13 1.5 Conclusion 14 Chapter 2: Literature Review 16 2.1 Introduction 16 2.2.1 Objective of Literature Review 17 2.2.2 Plan for Literature Review 17 2.2 Marketing Functions 19 2.2.1 Marketing and the merchandise 19 Marketing and the merchandise 19 2.2.2 The Marketing Mix 20 2.3 Marketing Communications 21 2.3.1 Definition 21 2.3.2 Marketing communication models 22 2.3.3 Elements of marketing communications 24 2.3.4 Integration of marketing communication elements 25 2.3.5 Advantages of effective marketing communication 26 2.4 Celebrity Endorsement 27 2.4.1 Definition and concept 27 2.4.2 Theories of celebrity endorsement 28 2.4.3 Celebrity endorsement as a strategy 29 2.4.4 Does celebrity endorsement work 31 2.4.5 Impact of celebrity endorsement on consumers’ apparel purchase decisions 33 2.5 Celebrity endorsement at Topsohop 35 2.5.1 Group company description 35 2.5.2 Brand history
Different organizations and companies have their own strategies of management and thus they keep them as a secret to counter their competitors. To effectively use the strategies of the company, the organization has to have its strategists with the expertise to ensure formulation, implementation, and evaluation of the strategies.The retail market of Singapore has expanded by 8.4% from 2004. Due to the high rate of growth. the economy of Singapore has really improved. Although many retail businesses were hugely affected by the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), many embarked on restructuring their businesses and most of them have succeeded. They have different strategies of management to revive their businesses and attract new clients. The strategies they have used include promotions, efficient product ranging, replenishment, and forming alliances to come up within policies to boost their businesses (Gregory Marilyn 270-79).Harvey Norman is a leading household type of equipment distributor in Singapore. It has become a household name as it deals with electronics, furniture, computers, and even bedding. It is an organization that performs its duty under Pertama Merchandising Pte Limited. They are both owned by Pertama Holdings Limited and operate about 264 stores in Australia. Pertama Holdings is an investment company that has subsidiaries that operate retail and wholesale stores in Singapore and Malaysia. Harvey Norman is involved in sales and distribution of home and office products in communications, computers, beddings, small appliances, lighting, furniture, carpets, and flooring and services like home improvements. Harvey Norman has stores in Singapore, Malaysia, Ireland, Slovenia, New Zealand, and Australia. Its headquarters are situated in Australia in New South Wales where the organization has provided approximately 4,760 people with jobs (Michael David 270-79).
To say, hence, that it is still alive as if it is already clutching for dear life would be an understatement. The fact is that live television is a platform by which people are informed today. So long as there are events like disasters, sports, and political exercise such as election, among others, the relevance exists more than ever. The proliferation of canned television shows does not diminish it. Defining Live Bourdon (2000) explained that the concept of live television is fundamentally a label expressing a technological capability (532). It brings people from everywhere – whether at home, work, bars, even the streets – to events as they happen. In the discourse trying to specify the meaning of television and to differentiate it from the cinema, liveness is one of the three identified characteristics that made the medium unique (the other two are screen size and domestic reception) (532). Liveness also denotes the aspect of television that is identified with truth, facts and authenticity. Bourdon cited this point as he defined live television a live transmission of events to the viewers through the use of technological apparatus, making it a public phenomenon since it allows people to live event simultaneously (534). This definition implies two important characteristics. It is all about transmission of events as they occur and, at the same time, it is also about people viewing events together. The concept of live also assumed several meanings. Bourdon comprehensively cited many excellent examples. For example, when a singer does not lip synch in the performance, then it is called live musical performance. There is also the case of talk shows. Resource persons are invited and are moderated by hosts to tell the audience about their lives or to discuss interesting topics (Bourdon, 532). Bourdon argued that live television is present in many programs and television sequences (533). This variable indicates the persistence and permeation of live broadcast even on genre that are not classified with news and reporting on current affairs. Bourdon, called this socio-semiotic unity, a fundamental force that ensures the persistence and survival of live television throughout history (532). Out of all the definitions, White helpfully pointed out thatliveness is the ultimate concept that subsumes a host of other qualities and characteristics and that it serves as an anchor for the properties considered essentially televisual – immediacy, presence, reality effects, intimacy and so on (81). Covering Catastrophe The recent devastation wrought by the super typhoon Haiyan both to human lives and to property in Tacloban City, Philippines is the most recent testament not only to the viewers’ recognition and acceptance towards live broadcast but also its relevance and contribution to television as a medium. Certainly, the most advanced technologies have enabled many reporters to cover the event live as the storm raged even when power, communications and transportation became unreliable. Reports were beamed from the city to the United States as the storm unfolded real time. The static and interference in transmission all served to highlight the catastrophe in the process of flattening
Its innovative strategies are being implemented in every country Intel is situated. It is imperative for the success of the company to implement exactly the same strategies, policies and standards in all of its sites to ensure quality is intact and not compromised. Intel strives to protect the company name and its position in the market by producing only top quality products.Intel uses market and product development as well as combination of both to be able to identify and produce products that are user centric. These are products that not only innovate but also answer the need of customers. Market oriented development is the type of development wherein Intel research what the customer need and design a product that match that need. While product oriented development is where Intel innovate and introduce a new product to the market. The Intel Centrino and dual-core processors are examples of products produced using these development approaches respectively. And in 2007 Intel launched a new material that will be used for manufacturing smaller, faster and more reliable microprocessors. These new product not only is an innovation by itself but also answer the demand of consumers for faster, smaller and high capacity computers. This just illustrates the ability of Intel to combine development approaches to maintain market lead.Vertical integration is what sets Intel apart from its competitors. This strategy means that Intel does its own research and development then manufactures the product. For other companies research and development or manufacturing is outsourced. It can be very risky and it open opportunity for other companies to copy ideas. To avoid this incident Intel uses vertical integration to not only protect ideas and product but also to guarantee that manufactured products are of high quality. Also vertical integration ensures that development is within specified timetable thus product delivery is on time.Known for its conservative ways, the Kingdom first embraces telecommunication technology with the use of fixed phone lines or landlines. This technology is the primary tool used in businesses, government and social communications. However, with the emergence of mobile technology in early 1997 the once reliable landlines are declining in popularity as Saudis rapidly adapted mobile phones (Shoult 2006).
As a marketing communications manager for Zopa UK, I have been entitled to prepare a marketing communications plan for the period ranging September 2011 to September 2012.Zopa UK has been operating in the UK virtual environment for more than 5 years. ZOPA has been providing a lending and borrowing medium to people at cost-effective and competitive rates unlike banks that charge better rates to borrowers at their own terms and conditions. Before attempting a marketing communications strategy on Zopa UK, a situation analysis needs to be performed. Through Internet-TV, relevant audiences’ attention can be captured while their favourite programmes are run on television channels. At the same time, using SMS as means of advertisement to the target audience telling the features of the loan products can click the marketing campaign by contacting the right touch points to attract wider audiences. Using online media tools judiciously can make the marketing campaigns more effective and relevant (Wikipedia, 2010).Zopa can make the otherwise dull business of borrowing and lending more interesting through extensive use of blogging, an online medium, by discussing stories behind borrowings, entertaining Zopa prospective customers intelligently. Resources should be prudently used by mixing PR and word-of-mouth publicity with other marketing functions to save cost on customer acquisition. Related magazines and newspaper readers from The Guardian, The Financial Times, The Economist and The Institute of Directors house magazine should be our target audience as readers. We should involve PR agencies regularly to publish related articles on the risk of borrowing from banks and the leverage to prospective customers from virtual sites such as Zopa UK , explaining the difference in interest rates between the banks and online companies like ours selling ‘A category’
It would also examine the role of marketing communications towards generating competitive advantage for business organizations and development of trust and confidence among the customers so as to generate long term profitability and sustainability in the business market. Table of Contents Case Study Analysis (REPORT) 1 Executive Summary 2 Introduction 4 Part 1 4 New Product Development Process 4 Idea Generation 5 Idea Screening 5 Concept Development and Testing 5 Analysis of Business 6 Development of Product 6 Market Testing 6 Product Commercialisation 7 Product Life Cycle 7 BCG Matrix 8 Part 2 9 Marketing Communications Mix- Comparative Analysis 9 References 13 Introduction Business organizations are essentially operating in a turbulent business environment. The aspect of globalisation has increased the average number of players in the market which has intensified the competition among the business organizations. This has intensified the need for ensuring business excellence that leads to creation of competitive advantage. … using a different strategy which includes improvements in the product or service mix as well as use of a marketing communications strategy that helps firms to communicate and reach out to their target audience. The heightened levels of competition in the markets has also enhanced the importance of brand image that is largely important as it is widely being used by consumers to differentiate between the products and service offered by the different players in the market. The present study would analyse the aspect of new product development by including a comparative analysis of different brands. Part 1 New Product Development Process New product development is a comprehensive process that encompasses the aspects of idea generation, idea screening, concept development and testing, analysis of business, development of product, testing the market and finally product commercialisation (Havaldar, 2010, p.188). Idea Generation Idea generation involves conceptualisation of new ideas for a product or service. The success of this stage largely involves garnering large number of executable ideas which can be either obtained from employees or from any other source. The idea must be such that it is largely unique in nature and has the ability to make a mark for itself in the market. In case of Denkit the teachers had two business ideas which were largely unique and innovative in nature as no such product was available in the market. In case of Hovis the company developed an idea that served to augment the present product offering of the organization by introducing new ideas for product development. Kit Kat’s new product development ideas mainly include the aspect of modifications in packaging and design. Idea Screening The next stage in the new product development includes idea
It is difficult to imagine such a conventional and subdued profession as accounting being embroiled in scandal and intrigue worthy of a spy thriller. Not long ago, however, the word Enron was splashed across newspaper headlines, and instantly the word’s connotation transformed from a solid company name to a synonym for deceit. Enron was but the most publicized among a slew of several other cases – there were Tyco International, HealthSouth, Adelphia Communications, WorldCom, Global Crossing, Arthur Andersen and Rite Aid (Garrison, Noreen and Brewer, 2006, p. 20), which merited either monstrous fines or even imprisonment for the managers who were held responsible. The unethical accounting practices that fueled these scandals brought stark reality into focus, that naïve common trust was misplaced in the business world, and the supposedly iron-clad regulations by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) are but an illusion. Overnight, the image of the insufferably straight-laced, soft-spoken, bespectacled accountant was forever shattered, supplanted by the notorious persona of the quintessential white-collar criminal.These series of scandals became the eye-opener to the need for a more vigilant approach to the proper practice of accounting. Managerial accounting, in particular, being the vehicle by which managers make decisions, plays a pivotal role in ensuring that the requisite ethical standard is observed. The quality of management accounting reports will directly determine the quality of managerial decisions. It thus helps to understand management accounting.Management accounting is defined as the process of identifying, measuring, accumulating, analyzing, preparing, interpreting, and communicating information that helps managers fulfill organizational objectives.
The era can be termed as e age since ‘e-marketing’ is the new phrase for marketing and eCRM is the recent aligning of Customer Relationship Management. As of today, e-commerce is an inevitable part of selling strategies for the majority of B-2-B companies. The role of internet in the B-2-B world is ever widening and its significance is growing eternally as internet has become a gateway to global marketing.This research essay analyses how improvement in information technology especially communications through network has facilitated the business, commerce and communication worldwide and resulted in success of the business through innovation and new knowledge.The most salient characteristics of the Internet include e-mail ,discussion groups [like news groups , forums ,bulletin boards where a net user can post messages and look for replies ] , chats and instant messaging , wikis [ website on the internet that can be edited by any net user] adventurous online games , information retrieval , e-commerce , Internet-based telephone services [VoIP] , and web mashups [ where any net user combine their web-based data and services with those of other companies] and so on. [The Columbia Encyclopaedia 2007].File Transfer Protocol [FTP] is employed to transfer information between computers operating from various networks. The supreme impetus to the popularity of Internet originated from the introduction of World Wide Web [www], a hypertext system that facilitates the browsing more intrusive and fast.Electronic Data Interchange [EDI] can be described as the transmission of information through electronically or exchange of documents between the computer systems in multiple business organisations relied on a structured, standardised and machine-retrievable format.
Technology Competitive Advantage Disruptive technology is basically a replacement of an old technology by an innovation that creates new market value for products or services. Adoption of disruptive technology can be either risky or profitable venture. By using a technology in its early stage can enable one to establish new markets but can also become vulnerable to unforeseen risks. The key lies in choosing the correct time to enter the market (Evans, 10). Disruptive technology can change the structure of an industry by replacing traditional values with new values. It can encourage corporate planners to embark in new avenues for their organizations (Evans, 8). Machine-to-Machine Communication: RFID One example of disruptive technology is the next revolution in machine-to-machine (M2M) communication. It is essentially a technology that helps to establish communication between different sectors of a business without the involvement of additional personnel. One example of an M2M component can be RFID (radio frequency identification). Today, the use of radio frequency identification (RFID) can bring revolution in the supply chain management. RFID tags are small objects that can be attached to or incorporated into any object, and contain silicon chips and antennas that enable them to receive and respond to radio-frequency queries from an RFID reader (Santosh Smith, 2008, p.128). Overall Low-Cost Leadership Strategy In order to execute an overall low-cost leadership strategy, the emphasis should be on finding innovative ways for cost reduction or substitutions in every aspect of supply and distribution chain (Orcullo, 227). The principle focus area of RFID is to provide possibilities to improve the supply chain management, and this can be advantageous for retailers. In combination with mobile computing and online technologies, RFID can help an organization to efficiently manage and upkeep its stocks. This technology can eliminate manual labour for identification of products and their storage, thus labour cost can be reduced to increase the profit margin (Al-Odeh, 343). RFID is an electronic substitute of barcodes and is a vast improvement with superior accuracy, real-time tracking and top-speed read rate. In this ever changing business world, convenience and time-saving techniques are priorities, and RFID is a key to these elements. RFID is currently being used in manufacturing sector, retail stores and supply chain industry. RFID technology can be beneficial to the company in relation to inventory management and supply chain management. Although the initial investment can be huge with no real possibility of returns in the short run, it can however prove to be profitable in the long run. This is because through efficient inventory management it can ensure increase in sales due to reduced out-of-stock items thus leading to higher revenues for the company, and this can give any company an edge over its competitors. One example can be Wal-Mart stores that have implemented RFID technology for cost reduction and increased customer satisfaction (Chen, 7).ReferencesAl-Odeh, Mahmoud. Implementing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology into Supply Chain of Small-to-Medium Manufacturing Factories, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 2.9 (2012) 343-347Chen, Yee. (2008) The Wal-Mart RFID Initiative. 2008, March 2, 2015 from: http://www.winmec.ucla.edu/rfid/course/2008s/The%20Walmart%20Initiative.pdf Evans, Nicholas, D. Business Innovation and Disruptive Technology, NJ: Pearson Education, 2003Orcullo, Norberto A. Fundamentals of Strategic Management, Rex Bookstore, 2008Santosh, Brian L. Smith, Lars S. RFID in the Supply Chain: Panacea or Pandora’s Box, Communications of the ACM, 51.10 (2008) 127-131
During the latter half of the twentieth century, information and communication technologies (ICT) changed the character of national economies and human lives in an unprecedented manner. ICT relegated agriculture, industry, and a host of services to lesser significance and promoted itself as the main engine of economic growth and improved lifestyles, across the globe. Today, information technology (IT) is practically inseparable from ICT.IT industry comprises of the hardware, software, and related services. Developed countries, lead by the USA, Japan, Germany, UK, Canada, and France, have been the main IT markets. Hardware product sales, which accounted for about 50% of the IT revenues worldwideSoftware and services comprise of i) Packaged software products ii) Professional services and iii) Operation / back-office services. In the beginning, hardware companies themselves were developing the required operation and application software programs and also undertaking installation/maintenance services for hardware/software. This was followed by the growth of service providers for customized software development, data processing, installation, systems integration, training, and maintenance.The explosive growth in the usage of personal computers and the Internet as well as the revolution in telecommunications technology during the 90s fuelled the demand for customized software development and other services. In the face of inadequate supply of qualified and trained manpower locally on the one hand, and their mounting costs on the other, and with data transmission from anywhere in the world made possible by the strides in communications technology, competitive forces in the market created the phenomenon of outsourcing and off-shoring. This trend continues today.
E-marketing being a marketing perspective of the current time especially with the advancement of technology has come to be appreciated as a vital tool in the general marketing initiatives of an organization. As time goes by and technology advances e-marketing also changes and so are the approaches to achieving marketing goals and objectives. Currently, there are the mobile technologies like the 3G and PDA’s that have come to shape e-marketing and push the marketing arena to a higher level by incorporating electronic communications technology (Kalyanam 2009). Organisations need to take advantage of this marketing aspect and use the internet to distribute their products, enhancing good customer relations, advertising of products offered and to collect various responses from customers and other stakeholders through comments. An organization should incorporate into their marketing plan various e-marketing tools in order to expand their marketing horizons. In planning for this the organization needs to do a thorough audit in regards to SWOT analysis, analyze the SMART e-marketing objectives, e-marketing strategies, develop tactics that entail the e-marketing mix and thereafter evaluate the e-marketing pan performance to look into various successes and faults (Kalyanam 2009).The field of marketing has been one marred by allegations of failure to uphold ethics in conducting marketing activities like advertising and promotions (Horowitz 2005). One of the major ethical issues relates to pricing strategies that organizations put in place in order to ensure the competitive advantage over the rest. This is a practice well done by big companies and more so multinationals against smaller companies venturing into the same market. Some of the strategies employed are price skimming, bid rigging, and price fixing among others. The pricing strategies woo consumers more than others since the baseline of selling and buying are the price tag of a service or a commodity.
Frank Ohrtman (2003, p.116) indicates that among data exchange standard, there has been phenomenal improvement especially in XML MP3 and TCP/IP the much dependent upon broad access to nonproprietary networking and data communications infrastructure (the Internet) that has been a principle tool in supporting the rising of technology waves and strong development undercurrents . Current technological landscape In this technological age, the combination of new standards, distributed software, expertise and a worldwide Internet infrastructure has created and continues to create a profoundly new technological architecture landscape. The advancement on technology has contributed immensely to heavy investment in the information technology industry. Organisations have increased investments in technologies and standards that allow them to bring structure to unstructured information. The motivation to replace unstructured with structured data is not the sole responsibility of the information community and the library alone, but also among business and national authorities across the world nations. On average enterprises operate with upto 85 percent of unstructured content, upon which efforts are being focused on harnessing their power in order for the enterprises to benefit from resulting competitive advantages. (Aray R., 2004). Among many others, there have emerged search engines as a dominant technical and structural approach towards automated data categorisation. Savvy Web users have become experts (professionally known as SEOs) at optimizing search strategies to maximize of the expected result although pressure has arose for much more advanced/structures search engines. Delivery of mobiles services This technology has also been widely embraced in the mobile technology. Provision of websites that are viewable via mobile phones is increasingly on demand and organisations have largely embraced provision of services and information through mobile technology (Andreas F. 2011) Mobile service providers have been largely affected by the current technology landscape as they have to cope with ever emerging changes in the industry. Big chunks of the world’s population today are holders of mobile phones. Mobiles are not only used as communication devices but as also devices to access the Internet. The integration of such capabilities in the mobile devices has triggered a paralleled competition among mobile service providers as well as manufactures (Ajay R., 210). Effect of coverage and limitations Irrespective of geographical and topographical challenges, mobile service providers have managed to provide network coverage for their services to almost all parts within where their businesses operate. Though some challenges of network coverage are largely found in the African continent, most areas in the continent still enjoy these services. Advantages of 2G, 3G and 4G The mobile telecommunications industry has seen a lot of evolution since the inception of the use of mobile phone as a means of communication. There have been migrations in the industry such as the 2G, 3G and now the famous 4G networks in this industry. These have seen the industry improve provision of service to mobile owners become streamlined and the service advanced. The 2G technology evolved from 1G technology
And this has happened in every field and aspect of life. Transportation, for instance was merely a horse and carriage and now there are automobiles, airplanes, cruise ships, even space shuttles. Similarly, the advent of radio, television, computers, and mobile phones, etc, has completely changed the nature of our very lives as compared to those who lived a few decades ago. Business can be conducted between people placed across the world in a matter of minutes over the telephone, an video conferencing, etc. While most people have made the transition into modernity gradually and accepted these innovations into their lives, some people still prefer to hold on to some things that provide solidarity and meaning to their lives. things that do not change with time. Religion is one of those things that people hold dear to them and this can perhaps best be illustrated by using the example of Islam, a religion that has been under fire since the 9/11 incident. Since this debate is almost certainly never ending about the compatibility of religion and modernity, the discussion on Islam shall be used to arrive at a conclusion to the broader topic of religion as a whole. Before delving further into this debate about the compatibility (or lack of) of religion and modernity, it is important to define modernity in order to provide meaning to this debate. According to Business Dictionary.com (2012), modernity can be defined as: Characteristics of modern (post second World War) societies that have capitalistic economies and democratic political structures, and are highly industrialized and divided into social classes based on economic status. These characteristics include regular pattern of everyday life, urbanization, influx of women at all levels of employment and business, secular outlook, sexual freedom, sharp reduction in birth rate, standardized education system, and pervasive use of technology specially in communications. I shall be using this definition and the points highlighted within it to arrive at a conclusion. The first point in the above definition is about capitalistic economies. Esposito (2001) succinctly states that there are no issues in Islam regarding capitalism which can be clearly seen by the example of the Prophet Muhammad, who was a businessman. Also, Esposito (2001) also mentions that the only reservation Islam has for capitalism is the widening gap between the rich and the poor. The amendment, if I may, suggested by Islam is the notion of Zakat, which is one of the 5 pillars of Islam and calls upon wealthy Muslims to give 2.5% of their wealth to the poor and needy. This would help narrow, or at least lessen, the gap between the various income classes. Secondly, does Islam have any issues with democracy? We need not look any further than what happened in Egypt and Libya in the recent past where rebels fought against military dictatorship to establish a just democracy (Gelvin, 2012). The underlying concept of democracy is equality and justice, two concepts that have repeatedly been mentioned in Islamic scripture. It is clearly stated in the Quran: O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah as witnesses to fair dealings and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just, that is next to piety. Fear Allah, indeed Allah is well-acquainted with all that you do. (5:8) If democracy serves the intended purposes of equality, justice and freedom in practicality, thoroughly advocated in Islam, then Islam has no issues, rather it would encourage a democratic government. The next major point in the definition of
With the advancement in IT and increased competitiveness within the business environment, higher demand for IT services and products within the UK market is evident. It is in this regard that Aspen Communications requires expanding its business activities within the UK IT market so that it could fulfill its strategic objectives and goals for international expansion and growth. Segmentation of the UK market is considered the most appropriate marketing strategy that Aspen communication would employ in its endeavors for business expansion. However, the management within the company requires understanding that the identification of market segments and segmenting the company is achieved through the consideration of various factors. This paper presents a case Study of Aspen Communication in its international expansion of IT business in the UK market. The paper aims at presenting the evidence-based analysis of the factors which must be considered by the company in identifying the market segments and segmenting its market within the UK. The paper also aims at presenting the benefits that the company will achieve through the application of a segmentation approach in marketing its products and services in this market. The purpose of the case study, therefore, is to allow the company to achieve success in the UK market and profitability through the use of the appropriate approach in selecting its market segments and justifying this approach by describing the gains that the company will achieve through segmentation. Aspen Communication is a US company which provides IT solutions by providing its customers with a wide range of products and services in information technology. The company is based in Arizona and global growth expansion is one of its major business strategies. The company intends to expand its business within the UK as a way of meeting its strategic goals and objectives. The need for growth within the UK is motivated by the identification of new market segments and the growth of the range of the company’s IT products and services. In addition, market research conducted by Aspen communications within the UK market illustrates that there is an increased demand for IT products and services. This is related to the competitive business environment in the UK and the need to increase productivity through IT-mediated management within companies and organizations (News Wire, 2009, p.1). Aspen Communications aims at promoting management of human resource within companies which comprise of its market. The company achieves this by providing its client companies and organization technology-based communication solutions. This includes the design, installation and implementation of various technologies and infrastructure within client companies. The services provided by Aspen Communications include IT consultancy and telephony services. In addition, the company offers Networking services and products. Distribution of wireless networks and services and information security solutions also comprise of the company’s IT services and products.
Although these aspects are closely interrelated within a system, addressing and improving them independently results in better performance of the system as a whole (Arens, Chee, Hsu Knoblock, 1993). Data Governance Data governance encompasses a set of procedures ensuring that important assets in data form are properly managed in all divisions of an enterprise (Abiteboul, Benjelloun Milo, 2002). The processes ensure that data is trustworthy and employees can be held accountable for any harmful occurrences that take place due to low quality of data. The organization under review was found not to have effective control measures as to who accessed data and in what way. There were many cases of deleted or edited information by users other than the authorized owners. One way to improve data governance is by defining the governance process (Arens, Chee, Hsu Knoblock, 1993). The organization needs to make data auditable and enable its accountability. This facilitates accurate monitoring and effective reconciliation between the data source and its consumers. The process needs to cover initial input of data, its standardization and refinement along the whole information flow path (Resnik Yarowsky, 2000). … Accountability entails the creating and empowering governance roles in the company. The organization should create the roles at appropriate levels and assign them to dedicated owners and stewards (Arens, Chee, Hsu Knoblock, 1993). With outsourcing of data governance and processing becoming a reality for most organizations, the responsibility hierarchy should be accountable to the owners of data. For example, an outsourcing agent will be held responsible by an organization for breach of governance committed by the outsourced service provider (Resnik Yarowsky, 2000). Data Quality Data quality may be termed as the state of timeliness, validity, completeness, accuracy and consistency that render data suitable for the intended use (Abiteboul, Benjelloun Milo, 2002). A challenge faced by the organization under review is detecting issues caused by the quality of data at the point of entry into the system from the numerous users. They are mostly typing errors as well as intentional decisions. Recommendations to improve data quality include use of simple queries or profiling tools (Resnik Yarowsky, 2000). Others are tracking mail deliverability, verification of information prior to database entry and understanding contents of organizational data and the way it got there. Email and other personalized communications form a considerable percentage of the marketing tools. Therefore, given their high traffic, they can be accurate indicators of data quality. By implementing a process that tracks bounced and returned emails, an organization is able to monitor its data accuracy and make applicable changes (Resnik Yarowsky, 2000).
Swift flow of information allows organizations to excel in their respective businesses and gain a competitive edge over the competitors.
In today’s age, there are seldom any organizations that can avoid the use of technology in their business. It has become an integral part of every activity and the point of differentiation is now determined by the efficiency of the system involved. The more efficient the system, the better the operations and this reflects in the overall success of the business and its standing in the market. An appropriate and successful e-business plan can not only assist and compliment the business but also create growth opportunities in the long run. The availability of reliable and low-cost communications through the use of technology is providing new challenges and opportunities to every industry, especially the airline industry (Jiang, 2014).
Relevance of technology to a business determines the effectiveness of its existence on the web. Airline industries over the world have accepted technology as an integral and unavoidable aspect of their business. Travelers require convenience and service along with information and timeliness. Use of the internet to obtain travel packages, flight information, itineraries, ticket booking and boarding details have revolutionized travelling and the airline industry greatly. Whether it’s advertising, being more mobile friendly, having an efficient response system at hand or merely being ranked above all as a result of search engine, the competitive e-business environment has had its due effect on the airlines industry too.
With the shift in power from the companies to the customers, now they are at the liberty to research several options and opt for the one they find feasible for themselves (Lankes, 2008, pp. 667–686). For air travel, several website offers services like comparing rates and getting the best deal. In these circumstances, an airline company has to focus on
According to the United Nations, terrorism is a criminal activity that is calculated or intended to produce a state of fear in the civilian population. After 2001, the September 11 attacks, the U.S. government termed all kinds of non-state force ‘terrorism. Terrorism results from religious extremists, states, insurgents, and criminals.
Due to the challenges faced by the government to fight terrorism, new technologies have emerged to assist in the fight against terror. Some of these technologies include the monitoring of private communications of individuals around the world and mass surveillance of U.S. citizens. The DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) reported that it has created an information technology that could allow access to personally identifiable information to be in the war on terror. As a result, this has attracted a lot of questions from the general public as well as political bodies on its effectiveness, legality, and ethical boundaries. The concern revolves around the likelihood of the government utilizing personal information on permanent denizen aliens and U.S. citizens that have been gathered by private or public organizations without their consent.
According to the NSA, there are two programs that focus on foreign and domestic surveillance. The local program, ‘metadata program functions by section 215 of the USA Patriotic Act and consist of a gathering of all record data inclusive of times of calls and phone numbers. The foreign program ‘PRISM program works according to section 702 of (FISA) Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act. FISA Act permits a government to perform surveillance that targets the content of communication by non-U.S. citizens that are abroad. This inspection obtains foreign intelligence data. President Obama in 2014 acknowledges the ‘legitimate privacy interests of the nation-U.S and U.S. individuals as conformity to fundamental principles.
nd if the communication process is to be effective then the needs of the citizens to communicate on various issues in order to have them addressed must be fulfilled. This requires then a level of professionalism from both the political organisations and the journalist – the two institutions which are critical to the political communication system. McNamara (2010) definition of effective is worth mentioning here – ‘reaching the citizenry in such a way as to impact their views in a positive way.’
Numerous communication theories have been put forward in order to analyse communication in the political sphere. Grunig and Hunt (1984) has put forward four models of PR, three of which emphasise one way communication and a two-way symmetrical model which is the ideal situation for a democracy and thus for effective political communication,. This model employs communication for the purpose of negotiating with publics, resolving conflicts, and for the promotion of mutual understanding and respect between the organisation and its publics. Present day political communication seems to be lacking to a great extent in this regard.
This paper looks at the work of a number of writers/researchers who have done work in the area of political communication. Each of them has put forward their theory on political communication. The ones which are of interest are introduced and critiqued separately. The paper also provides a comparative analysis of their work.
Blumler and Gurevitch (1995) in their book ‘The Crisis of Public Communication’ looks at the issues affecting effective political communication. Blumler and Gurevitch (1995) attribute this crisis to four sources:
the drive by the two political communication institutions – politicians and journalists, to understand the strategies used by each other in order to make adjustments in response to each others actions. and
Blumler and Gurevitch (1995) link the communicators and the audience in a network of expectations
Promotion QUESTION THREE The elements include advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations and directmarketing. Advertising forms the non-personal way of promotion and presentation of Microsoft services via television, radio or pictures on internet pages. Advertising can be promotional or institutional.
Personal selling employs oral power to persuade and help customers to use Microsoft services and goods. It may entail retail selling, business to business selling or telemarketing. Public relations aim at creating a favorable environment and image of Microsoft Company, its products and services. These can be through charity work and donations. Sales promotion involve seasoned media or non-media communications that aims at increasing consumer and market demands as well as product availabity through coupons, product samples or trade shows. Direct marketing involve channel agnostic advertisements like mobile messaging, online display ads or interactive consumer websites.
A leveraged sales approach will ensure that sale of Microsoft services and goods are greatly expanded without sacrificing profits gained. There will also be instantaneous advancement in productivity.
Brand vision is to empower people with great software on any devise, anytime and anywhere. Brand position would be the market leader, while brand personality is safe. These brands increases sales of Microsoft goods and services as for example, one would prefer services from number one leader and more so a safe one. Building a brand before its launch before its launch is important in ensuring that it does not fail to meet its target or cause problems like Microsoft vista. It would also ensure that the corporation creates necessary structure for accommodating increased services if the brand is successful (Solomon, Cornel and Nizan).
Solomon, Michael R, Lisa Duke l Cornel and Amit Nizan. Launch! Advertising and Promotion in Real Time. New York, NY: Flat World Knowledge, 2003. Print.
ion system is used to enable aircraft to rely on GPS for all phases of flight, including .precision approaches .to any airport within its coverage area. On the other hand, Europe has the European GNSS overlay system (EGNOS). India is launching its GPS-aided Geo-augmented navigation (GAGAN) system. however, Japan has the multifunction satellite augmentation system (MSAS). They are all satellite-based augmentation systems (SBAS) and are already delivering improved accuracy and integrity for GPS users over much of the northern hemisphere.
Since we do not have augmentation system in the Middle East, we came with new idea of creating Middle East wide augmentation system (MEWAS). The system of satellites and ground stations, which will give .GPS .signal corrections for errors, caused by ionosphere disturbances, timing, and satellite orbit errors.
In this report, we will present our new idea Middle East wide augmentation system Space and Ground Segments as an integration part of Global Satellite Augmentation System (GSAS) for enhanced Traffic Control and Management (TCM) globally at sea, on the ground (road and railway vehicles) and in the air. We will discuss how it works. Beside of that, we will look for some benefits, limitations and the future of Middle East wide augmentation system (MEWAS). The purpose of this document is introducing in details (MEWAS) system, which will make flying more efficient and safe for users.
GPS is a global positioning, navigation, and timing network consisting of space, ground control, and user equipment segments that support the broadcasts of military and civil GPS signals. These signals each include positioning and timing information, which enables users with GPS receivers to determine their position and time, 24 hours a day, worldwide. All branches of the military to guide troops’ movements, integrated logistics support and battle space situational awareness, and communications network synchronization use GPS. In addition, bombs and
41000 This paper illustrates that there are several allegations against Nike for its labor practices. Nike, as we know, is the largest shoe manufacturing company. In Indonesia, Nike pays a minimum wage of $2.50 a day to its workers although the daily livable wage in Indonesia is $4.00 to $4.50 a day. The case also reflects the poor living conditions of the workers employed in Nike. Other instances of suppression include settling labor issues through the military, compelling workers for overtime without pay, sexual harassment and molestation of female employees, and total negligence of the welfare of the workers. Nike was definitely at fault because its resources to control, prevent job injuries, tools for advocating health and safety of its workers is not very pertinent. Finally, high rates of occupational illness and poor compensation are a result of inequality in political power. The role of media is huge when it comes to raising awareness and preventing exploitation of people. They are the powerful effect on a countries growth and development. It should serve as agents for the modernization of the third world countries. Media here refers to mass media, print media and all other forms of media including the internet. They should increase their reach and provide all the news about the third world countries to the first world countries in the first place. They should also increase the third world control over communications asset which personnel from the first world countries are permitted to extract and process those into the news. They should also hold some control over world communication institutions like UN agencies. The Social responsibility system advocates press freedom. Its purposes are similar to libertarian goals of informing, entertaining, selling, serving as a check on government. Media acts as a bridge between the government and the citizens of that country. It should keep the citizens aware of the development that is going on in their country and whether it would profit them or led them towards destruction.
This essay will prove that there is another side of the coin in this case. even though intensive cultural contact, technological development and globalization threaten diversity, they make its signs more prominent in world culture.
According to Feld (2000), in the end of 20th century, music was in the state of “constant ﬁssion and fusion”. 100 years of recording was enough to alter the world which kept different styles and genres separate from one another. Folk music became more culture-specific and more general due to the fact that it became more accessible for different people. According to Lomax (1977), intensive cultural contact stimulates the situation where less developed cultures have to adapt to more developed ones.
Many oral cultures lose their uniqueness when civilization reaches them. They learn to read and write. they abandon their natural habitats and move to city blocks searching a way to cope with poverty. The number of people who represent oral cultures decreases every year as their way of life is less convenient than the civilized one. Even totally isolated tribes experience constant visits of researchers who desire to study primitive cultures in their natural conditions of existence.
Inferiority of minority cultures under the insistent influence of popular ones forces people to forget their traditions and accept new ways of behaviour in order to be included in world community. Generally, this is a simple explanation of the process of acculturation which is defined by Herskovits as "those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups” (Wickwire, 1985).
At the same time, globalization always includes two processes of “separation and mixing” (Feld, 2000). Lomax (1977) focuses on ‘mixing’ and forgets about separation in his works. Under the
He does this by setting a Motorsport to field Late Model stock cars in the UARA Starts Touring Series.
There are several assumptions in regards to the PR outline. These include the size of the Marcos Ambrose’s Race Team and its operations. The PR plan’s foundation lie in an appreciation of Public Relation theory, that ranges from systems management to the global dialectics of international PR. In this regard, I will define PR as the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill between an organization and its stakeholders. This PR plan is aimed at building a strategic media and public relation plan which will continue the success of Marcos Ambrose teams in the major sponsorship within V8 supercars Championship.
The recommended plan is based upon 12 month plan with three phases namely: pre-launch. integrated communications and the follow-up to maintain momentum. The following stakeholders have been identified to be important in the implementation of PR plan.
Intensive, integrated communications in October and November 2014 focusing all the activities undertaken by the Marcos Ambrose’s Race Team apart from the field activities. This mainly focuses on the various primary and secondary stakeholders of the motorsport
Grade 15th May Citation J. Schekkerman, Enterprise Architecture Good Practices Guide, 1st Ed, Victoria: Traff publishing Ltd., 2008.
In this framework is an introduction of which structures are in enterprise architecture in key domains and the structure blocks in order to offer a total view on all applicable aspects of enterprise architecture.
Comparing diverse classifications for enterprise architecture, structuring and naming of architecture domains differ. The following key domains are identified: information system, the business and technology architecture. This architecture framework follows the essential structuring of TOGAF and particulars the domains in architecture construction blocks to give a complete summary of all components of enterprise architecture. This paper introduces three essential domains of the enterprise architecture framework. The domains are:
It is oblivious from this definition that Enterprise architecture is not just a group of the component architectures. The interrelationships amongst these architectures and their shared properties are crucial to the enterprise architecture.
According to , the business architecture describes the basic organization and necessities of the business based on company plan and objectives. It is made of four building blocks business model, process architecture, information architecture and organizational architecture. The business model provides a high level view on the type of the business in terms of goods and services existing in the market, the business partners, the value chain, market channel is used and the combination of property and data for producing value add.
The organizational architecture describes the organizational design of the venture and the main cooperation with clients and suppliers.
The process architecture categorizes and describes all process of the company and their individual value adds. It is the key construction block of the company architecture. The progression architecture is classified in the key business process client relationship management, product life cycle management, supply chain management and the operation and support processes.
According to , information architecture brings out the rational structure of all data entities like products, logistic information and business partners.
The application architecture offers a general idea on all applications behind the process of the business with the structure blocks applications, entry and information organization policy, statistics repositories, and EAI Services.
According to , enterprise applications are behind the computerization of business processes and can be assigned to the individual process in provisos of their purposeful support .
The infrastructure or technology architecture is made up of software, hardware and network communications essential for operations of all applications. Infrastructure building blocks are the foundation services, place of work services, storage and server system, and network.
Basic services are significant applications giving a specific purposeful support which are self-governing from business processes.
Work place services give for presentation and work with facts and for output back up at the work place. They are composed of mobile and permanent devices at the customer’s site, central place of work applications and browser.
Server systems back up all back end property like applications, incorporation services, and data repositories. Storage offers all memory power for operating the applications on the server.
Networks provide the contact links in the WAN and LAN, inside the company, connecting companies and in the internet. The framework offers a complete explanation of all relevant fundamentals of enterprise architecture.
For companies based in English-speaking societies, using English to coordinate and control business activities across the globe is less problematic. Yet, implementing a global language for the whole company is difficult for companies based in Asian or Latin Europe societies. however, even in these companies, requiring a language besides English as the international business lingua franca remains problematic (Garzone &. Llie, 2007, p. 28). This essay discusses the implications of English as the lingua franca of the business world for the management, and native and non-native speakers of English. The chosen business genre is negotiation.
Lingua franca is a language or expression that non-native speakers can use to effectively transfer information or exchange ideas with other non-native speakers. English as a lingua franca is defined by Firth (1996 as cited in Koester, 2010, p. 123) as:
In order to explain business communications in the context of lingua franca, the concept of Business English as a Lingua Franca (BELF) was developed (Koester, 2010, p. 123). The increasing significance of English as Lingua Franca (EFL) is caused by a variety of occurrences. These involve the broader application of English as a global business language, English becoming a leading Internet language, the growing population of international students, and the continuous development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) (Bargiela-Chiappini, 2000, p. 311). Nowadays, EFL is the prevailing linguistic system that fulfils a need for communication.
Even though workforce diversity is essential to businesses across the globe, international employees have to openly, clearly, and effectively communicate with one another. In order to cope with the intensifying global competition, an increasing number of European companies are implementing English as their official corporate
Bureaucracy A bureaucracy is a body made up of government officials that are non-discretionary and a group for administrative policy-making. Historically, bureaucracy defined government administration that was managed by non-elected officials through staffed departments. In modern parlance, the word has improved passive connotations for some. Bureaucracies have been criticized for obstinacy, perplexity and inefficiency. Excessive bureaucracy’s dehumanizing influence formed a major theme in Franz Kafka’s work. In modern managerial theory, unnecessary bureaucracy’s elimination forms a key concept, being a central issue in numerous political campaigns.
Specialty is the first characteristic of bureaucracy as outlined by Max Weber. Each employee has official jurisdictional and reinforced areas of work as shown by Office Space in the company Initech. Each clerk has a specialized job description, though some are ranked higher than others, making Weber’s hierarchy of offices the second characteristic of bureaucracy. Lumbergh in the movie was seen as Initech’s head. Weber’s theory would put him at the top of the pyramid. Bureaucracy according to Weber had several different levels of management but very few leaders in a pyramid fashion. With Lumbergh at the top, Peter Gibbons was right below him and was followed downwards by Michael Bolton, Samir and Milton. His position at the bottom of the pyramid meant that Milton had no authority over any employee. Due to this pyramid management, employees hold grudges against higher ranked employees. Lumbergh was particularly menial for his leadership role.
Bureaucracy should be regular and follow given rules and regulations. Workers at Initech were even instructed on the type of stapler to use and were required to regularly fill out TPS reports. They were expected to dress nicely except on Hawaiian shirt day, as well as regulate their radio usage, get to work on time and park on designated spots. As Weber puts it, Initech used rules and regulations to thrive and operate in a completely predictable fashion. Weber argues that bureaucracy seeks the ultimate technical competence beyond following rules and regulations. Bob and Bob were hired by Initech to evaluate the technical qualification and specialization of its workers thus needed to evaluate the effectiveness all employees.
Bureaucracy is not interested in the employee as a person but rather the employee’s technical competence. Impersonality is confirmed in a bureaucracy’s work area as Weber deduced. Lumbergh was not interested in making links with employees but would write impersonal notes to his favorite ones. Workers at Initech were uniformly processed and were not recognized much as members, with Weber explaining this as a characteristic of bureaucracy.
Lumbergh’s notes, formal written communications, were Max Weber’s final characteristic of bureaucracy. Official documents formed the basis for management at Initech, as seen by the requirement to fill TPS notes for all employees. These formal links were a type of communication used by the company. Each employee had records or files kept by the company, confirming its value for formal written links.
Due to the presence of these characteristics in the company, the workers seem to be alienated by their work. As Karl Max explains in “Alienation in Work”, the direct benefits of Initech’s employees were not known to them, leaving them with no option but to work hard. Peter Gibbons insulted his work, terming it as a reason why each day was his worst, evidence of alienation from his work.
Human beings were not meant to feel confined and underproductive. Peter and the employees felt trapped in their cubicles, shown at one time by Lawrence screaming to Peter about a girl on television, to which Peter replied, “damn it Lawrence! Can you not just pretend we cannot hear each other through the walls?” Job security was the only motivation for the employees. As explained by Karl Marx in his essay, this forms strong proof that the employees at Initech felt alienated by their jobs.
Max Weber lists the elements of bureaucracy as hierarchy of offices, specialization, technical deficit, strict regulation and rule and formal written communications. Office Space represents these elements in a humorous way. The theory of privacy by Karl Marx is seen throughout the film. The movie Office Space depicts bureaucracy in an eye-opening way though seemingly in a cynical way.
The products observed in this paper will consist of electronic products, specifically cellular phones, and transportation products, specifically automobiles. In the United States, the competition in the marketplace within both cellular phones producers and automobile manufacturers is quite fierce. From the standpoint of the global marketplace, the countries for consideration relative to consumption of both cellular phones and automobiles would be China, Mexico, and Japan. The international marketplace for cellular phones and automobiles in these nations as compared to use within the United States will be explored in this paper.
The high cellular phone usage stems from the busy life of the average consumer. Modern consumers are forced to be more mobile in today’s society. To take advantage of this consumer need, leaders of companies such as Motorola and Nextel have extensive advertising budgets. They use advertising to increase their corporate customer base and to maintain the loyalty of their existing customers. Within the United States, the market for cellular phones is considerable and experts do not anticipate a decline in the market or usage in the foreseeable future.
The improvements made to cell phone design and function are done so that customers are able to get more uses out of the phone which they possess. In busy lives, multitasking becomes crucial and the multitasking nature of the cell phones that many uses, has become very instrumental to the countless users who subscribe to the service, to begin with. In the case of those who live in China, Jing Wang, in a speech given to the MIT Communications Forum on November 17, 2005, on Cell Phone Culture, says the following, “By 2008, there will be close to 500 million Chinese mobile phone .subscribers. .
The Multi – Cultural Affects of Communication in Large Companies Globalization is the process of speedy yet steady change and integration of countries and the occurrences that happen with the use of foreign trade and many other foreign investments (Bentley &. Ziegler, 2007). Globalization can be expressed as newer opportunities and possibilities for action among people across the world. Globalization has opened up newer avenues for talent and has led to a more a diverse and multi – cultural workforce in almost all companies across the world. This paper aims at understanding how multicultural workforce can affect the communication process in large companies.
Multicultural Work Environment:
A company is referred to have a multi – cultural workforce where the employees of the company is a variety of ethnic, racial, gender, and religious backgrounds. In the current time with the high levels of globalization this is a growing trend and although a very unorthodox management style, this is proving to be a relatively well accepted form of workforce management.
Several benefits have been recognized with having a diverse set of employees and management staff for every company irrespective of its size. Some of these benefits include higher creativity, better decision making, and greater success in marketing especially to foreigners, better economic opportunity distribution and even the upliftment of community especially for the ethnic minorities (Kenig, 2008). Despite the benefits the diverse work cultures also led to numerous issues within organizations, especially large organizations as well. The issues include higher costs, interpersonal conflicts, discrimination issues, and most essentially communication breakdowns.
Effects on Communication:
A multi – cultural organization involves several people with different dialects and multi – cultural communication everywhere. Large companies are faced with numerous issues due to the multi – cultural languages. The first and highest impact is on the marketing processes of the company. Second, people from different cultures have different approaches and perspectives for work. this is a very common fact. For a team to be effective and efficient in large companies, it is essential that all members of the team – work on the same page to bring up the team together. However, with the different views and styles of approaching work, and with the language differences, it would be very difficult to keep in track, and in pace the overall team performance (Sellin &. Winters, 2005).
Various communication styles among various cultures are different and hence this could also be a major cause for a communication breakdown. For instance, as explained by Kenig, “Latinos and other diverse employees communicate indirectly. For example, they may imply that something is wrong but may not say so. Likewise, if they believe that asking a question may damage the relationship, they may not ask it. The reluctance to reveal the existence of a problem (or to ask for help when appropriate) also stems from fear of appearing incompetent. Most minorities bear the burden of their ethnicity. In their minds, any perception of incompetence may be generalized as a trait of their entire race” (Kenig, 2008). This kind of gap in communications among the team of a company can lead to severe damage to the company as a whole. Hence, although the various positive aspects of having a multi – cultural workforce, the issues that come along with this are also high, and severely damaging to the company as well.
Communication among a cross cultural workforce has several implications and the main issues that arise in this area are mainly due to three main elements of businesses especially in terms of a large business. These include a) approach to work, b) the way to share information, and c) views of time (Kenig, 2008). Communication is an integral part of any team and a lack of communication or breakdown of communication due to multi – cultural workforces can prove to be very damaging for the company.
As has been understood from the above discussion, the topic of communication in multi – cultural workforce is a very vast topic. Hence based on this a research can be carried out to check for the main issues that might arise due to the multi – cultural settings in offices and its affects on the complete effectiveness of the teams. The research could be either a general research or could be developed to be a case study for a particularly large organization. This will help narrow down the research and to find out how the break in communication among a diverse workforce can impact the effectiveness of the entire team and the overall performance of the company.
Bentley, J., &. Ziegler, H. (2007). Traditions &. Encounters, Volume 2 from 1500 to the Present, 4th Edition. McGraw – Hill Humanities/ Social Sciences / Languages Publishers.
Kenig, G. (2008, February 27). How Does a Multicultural Workforce Affect Teamwork and Communication in Large Companies? Retrieved October 1, 2009, from network.latpro.com: http://network.latpro.com/profiles/blogs/qampa-how-does-a-multicultural
Sellin, R. G., &. Winters, E. (2005). Cultural Issues in Business Communication . In R. G. Sellin, &. E. Winters, Cultural Issues in Business Communication (pp. 21-26). Program Facilitating.
An appraisal of the contexts and limitations of the data and results will be undertaken. The essay will conclude with a brief summary of the findings of the analysis.
Southgate sets out to debunk the ideas of “cool” and “coolhunting” in favour of the more traditional approach of marketing planning, stating that searching for the next “cool” idea is ultimately self-defeating, as everything that was once “cool” is rendered “uncool” once adopted by the masses. The idea of “cool” had resurfaced in the UK as a political effort to rebrand the UK as a good place for business. The phrase “Cool Britannia” was adopted to reflect this (see, for example, MacLeod 2000, Fisher 2002, Ahmed and Townsend 2003 and Henderson 2004). This article reflects the time within which it is written and, fortunately for Southgate, the ideas of “cool” and “coolhunting” were, indeed, fads. His claim is potentially biased, though, by being (presumably) a marketing agency consultant.
When compared to other research objectives, this article could appear frivolous. Kitchen et al (2008) set out, for example, to consider the relationship between integrated marketing communications’ theory and practice, which appears a more useful area for investigation as marketing and marketing communications are subject to rapid changes in practice that sometimes precede academic findings. This article also reviews an area that is extremely important to other marketers and professionals and will continue to be of interest as the field continues to develop. McArthur and Griffin (1997) wanted to clarify the state of the discipline at that time as several inconsistencies had been reported. Such an article serves not only to provide an account of the inconsistencies and why they might have occurred but also provides future academics and professionals with a staging point for IMC theory.
In this digital age, information technology (IT) is providing a new medium to finally unite society and integrate and mould disparate components of industrial organization. According to a British management expert ‘opportunities and demands presented by modern technology promote the convergence of all societies towards a single set of social patterns and individual behaviors, due in part to the requirements of technology for a common set of development and implementation steps, and for common organization constraints”. In this scenario, for future corporate profitability as well as protection of consumer rights, “the boundaries of national identity must be subsumed to the need for quality products and global goodwill” (Kaye &. Little, 2000). This can only be achieved through the development and adoption of an international legal code of electronic commerce.
The governing authorities in the UK intend to maximize the use of information and communications technology (ICT) to “improve the accessibility, quality and cost-effectiveness of public services, as well as to revitalise the relationship between citizens and public bodies working on their behalf”. But the evidence so far suggests that the general public/consumers are unlikely not to see the intended benefits, given the powerful corporate lobby that thwarts most positive policy initiatives. The UK region as a whole is seeing a digital revolution in the delivery of public services. A survey relating to the penetration of ICT products and services in the UK had found that the majority of the populace “lacks computer skills, never mind computer access” (Kaye &. Little, 2000). As per the Audit Commission, only less than half of local authorities will have made notable .improvements to the way their services are accessed in the next few years, not least because of lack of ICT wielding skills among local authority staff.
This has made it necessary to conduct research across boundaries as it helps to identify regional and global market segments. As firms need to collect information from a broader and more diverse range of markets conducting research in developing countries has become essential. However, conducting market research in developed countries poses certain challenges. These challenges range from collecting accurate and updated data on existing behavior patterns in a cost-effective manner. Collection of data has become easier due to technological advancement but also complex at the same time. The communications infrastructure enables data collection on a much broader and diverse scale. The removal of barriers between countries, the growth of regional and global market infrastructure and the increased mobility of consumers have exerted pressure to have an integrated international marketing strategy. The emerging economies are promising in terms of sales and expansion of the multinationals and hence conducting international market research in these countries is of paramount importance. Before entering these markets, firms have to collect information to assess potential opportunities and determine how to position, price, promote and place their product.
International Marketing Research (IMR) has been defined as market research conducted either simultaneously or sequentially to facilitate marketing decisions in more than one country (Kumar, 2000). The process entails taking into account various market characteristics for facilitating marketing decisions. The various components that are responsible for marketing the product can be traced. Marketing research is an important part of the marketing intelligence system as it helps to improve management decision making by providing relevant, accurate and timely (RAT) information (Aaker, Kumar &. Day, 2001).
Each of the four division offer range of products and service to the three different categories of end markets. Cobham’s US Defence/ security market, non-US Defence/ security Markets and commercial markets with 47%, 28% and 35% of the total market share as depicted from the image below (Cobham Plc. 2014):
The consistent growth is acquired with its strategy of continuous improvement, transformation of business through Excellence in Delivery (EiD). and maintaining focus on the core market of second and third tiers of the defense, security market, commercial aerospace, land and marine market etc. and finally and divesting non-core businesses (Cobham Plc, 2015d. Cobham Plc, 2012). Global market share is presented below:
The industry of the Cobham is highly complex in its characteristics. At one end, it is highly fragmented, facing high level of consolidation, strategic interdependency (ECORYS, 2009) and impact of loaming budgets (ATKearney, 2013). While on the other hand, the company defines opportunities and its respective position in the industry as follows:
According to the annual report 2013, the company offers technologies that are technically diverse and are innovated to facilitate the diverse needs of the customers (Cobham Plc, 2012). Five years’ revenue trends is as follows:
As graph above shows that the company has increased its sales except the CDS due to the slippage in the defense and security programs in USA (Cobham Plc, 2010). However, increasing margins from transformation under EiD program, acquisitions, and redefining scope and renaming of Aerospace and Security as Communications and Connectivity. from CAS. offset impact (Cobham Plc, 2013). Also anticipated decline in the defense sector by 2.5% while appreciation in the demand from the commercial sector by 25% in future years (Deloitte, 2015). has played its role.
.For the nearly two and a half years I have been associated with this group, we have been meeting 2-3 times a month mostly on Saturdays. Every meeting has a structured format, which also runs between 3-3 hours, with a number of members taking part in the diverse roles, in the meetings. We are normally 39 members at our club. Membership is open to every individual above the age of 18 and hoping to enhance their leadership and communications skills.
This organization has helped me a lot enhance my veterinary technician career. I learned through the organization that people who have better communication skills stand a good chance of getting better jobs compared to people who have the required academic qualifications, but poor communication skills. My days at this organization have greatly shaped my communication skills. At least I can stand in front of a group of people and offer a clear presentation and they understand. Two years back this was merely impossible. We are located in California State, Rancho Santa Margarita, and you can reach us at 1-646-558-5908. You can also visit our website @ http://www.toastmasters.org/
T-Mobile is part of a very dynamic technology market where both of these strategies are important in staying competitive as other companies constantly evolve their tactics. According to Miller, et al. “Organizational environments differ in their degree of instability or turbulence, thereby creating very different contexts for adaptation” (Miller et al., 1998). In short, this means that a company in stable economic times with few competitors or other outside pressures will adapt by making small modifications to its approach to strategic planning, but when faced with major outside forces it will certainly make quick assessments and implementation of change in order to compete.
Because dynamic business markets mean constant change and high competition, T-Mobile is much more likely than companies in other industries to use strategic plans that involve quick reaction to change on the operational level. While this often works to the benefit of the company there are drawbacks. Organizations in stable environments are more likely to employ strategic objectives that maintain the status quo and may keep the business headed in a positive direction for longer periods of time with little fluctuation. In the United States, T-Mobile and many of the major players in the telecommunications industry have responded to government deregulation by becoming more dynamic, perhaps at the price of long-term stability in the market. In order to excel, T-Mobile uses the strategy of employing dynamic change to deliver new products and services in dynamic, constantly evolving ways.
At T-Mobile, the operational levels closely match the goals of the company’s dynamic plan, demonstrating its strength. The company employs the ‘better-faster-cheaper’ mantra and quickly changes pace to meet evolving customer expectations with innovative new products and services, evidencing the quick response of the company to outside pressures. For instance, in advertising the new devices T-Mobile Sidekick LX™ and T-Mobile Sidekick Slide™ the company describes its product as “newly designed”, “must-have”, “ ultimate messaging device”, “ newly launched”, “custom-designed”, emphasizing the mantra (T-Mobile, 2009). In addition, the company highlights their association with other popular technologies, such MySpace and LCD technology, demonstrating that the company is on the cutting edge, able to make quick changes to incorporate new trends in technology and communication (T-Mobile, 2009). While the company shows also shows matching on its operational level, the discrepancy here could be the reason why T-Mobile still struggles to capture the same kind of market share in wireless communications that Verizon and AT&.T have accomplished.
Planning and control processes must be congruent in order for a company to achieve optimal performance in the market. Control is a function of strategic planning that depends on the realism of the plan. Realizing a plan from conception to practice can be aided by realistic pairing control and planning. T-Mobile shows a case where the company should increase ties between planning and control, in order to capture a better market share in the competitive field of telecommunications .
Leadership has many definitions and it seems that there is no real consensus on exactly what comprises leadership. Despite this lack of a definition on which everyone can agree upon, the general opinions given by business professionals and analysts such as Welch (2005), Byrne (1998) and Gardner (1995) have several common points with the definition given by House (2004) who states that leadership is, “The ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members (House, 2004, Pg. 15)”.
The importance of leadership is directly related to successful projects because it connects with the idea of creating trust in the guidance of the project leader. This creation of trust and making the employees believe in the leadership of the leader is a trait of the leader since it requires the leader to possess the ability to motivate employees in a transparent manner without using coercion to show that the viewpoint of the leader is the correct one (House, 2004).
According to Welch (2005), the idea of transparency in leadership means being completely honest with the employees about everything. going from their quarterly evaluations to the company’s annual financial reports, the leader has to create trust. It also requires the leader to be good with oral and written communications, be diplomatic and tactful as well as present his/her case to a group of peers or close subordinates when they do not agree with the decision or are hesitant at making tough calls (Gardner, 1995).
Gardner (1995) and DePree (1989) suggest that for projects to be successful, leaders should set an example for the employees that they can emulate. This example depends on a complex yet the close connection between the leader and the employees where the employees try to create the same qualities and abilities within themselves as the leader shows possession of.
Increasing demands upon and exhaustion of ground forces in Iraq, Guerilla and cyber warfare, counter-terrorism, changing threats, mounting operations in mountainous areas and caves where the US Army has little experience, the challenges of insurgencies, the non-fearing combatants too eager to give up their lives as an honor, increasing number of natural disasters on the West Coast, and so on. The operational failures in Iraq and Afghanistan have particularly highlighted the need to enhance the effectiveness of stability operations.
Retired Colonel Douglas Macgregor examines two fundamental assumptions distorting army transformation: The illusion of ‘perfect situational awareness’ and the misguided belief that rapid deployment of forces has priority overprotection and firepower. During Operation Iraqi Freedom, “despite unparalleled intelligence assets, most of the fighting on the ground was characterized by the participants as resulting from meeting engagements-battles in which American forces unexpectedly bumped into the enemy. “1 (Mcgregor, 2004) This is hardly a demonstration of a perfect awareness of the situation! In Bosnia, Kosovo and Afghanistan too, organizing for the stabilization and reconstruction force was ad hoc (Johnson, 2005). Furthermore, it can be claimed that the US Army actually nurtured the insurgency against itself due to its own indecision on the ground in Iraq. Also, “what the army does after it arrives in a theater of crisis or conflict is much more important than how fast it gets there.” (Mcgregor, 2004) He also mentions the limitations of strykers for close combat in urban and complex terrain.
The US Army has a lack of understanding of historical and cultural contexts of many of the areas of operation. Even at home, the US Army demonstrated its incapacity to develop an effective communications network in a disaster scenario as during .Hurricane Katrina. The problem actually was to “integrate numerous other organizations and agencies into its normal military network” (Epperly, 2006), which hitherto had been a closed one.
Before the computers were invented, people used to waste a good amount of their time on things that can be done in minutes using computers now in a more systematic and organized manner. At that time when there were no computers, people had to make everything (cards, posters, leaflets, brochures etc.) manually using their hands and material. They used to keep a record of the data in written and they had to keep it safe from a physical environment which could damage it. Searching was another time taking problem because they manually had to go through each entry until they reach to the required one. But now with computers, it all seems so easy and quick than never before. Computers have cut lots of energy and time wastage which is being used in other developmental strategies and actions (Beisse).
The use of computers has been enhanced in recent years, and it is nearly impossible to step into any field without holding hands with the computer. From studies to entertainment computers are the hosts of everything that is out there in the world. In medical sciences. computers save time which replicates to life for any patient in critical condition. Computer keeps the record of the medical history of a patient which can come handy in crucial situations. It helps doctors to diagnose any patient with better efficiency. Doctors stay connected to each other through computers and it is with the help of a computer that they can access the latest researches and reports related to their specializations in different medical journals online (Caplan).
The increased usage of computer is also because of the Internet. The idea of the internet is too broad and fanciful that no one helps but gets inspired. It has widened the bridge of communications all around the globe. It wouldn’t be wrong if it is said that the world has now become a global village mainly because of the Internet and computers. .
Measures and efforts are of paramount significance as al Qaeda’s leaders have repeatedly pledged to attack the United States at a time it chooses.
The 2001 USA Patriot Act gives the President and federal government broad authority to go after the terrorists, to intercept their communications and stop their plots. The provisions of the USA Patriot Act deal with expanded federal authority under the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) and the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA).1 In 2002 a key court decision dismantled the legal wall (U.S. Attorney John Ashcroft is credited with breaking the wall erected by former Attorney General Janet Reno in the mid-1990s) separating the FBI’s criminal and intelligence probes, thus making the sharing of information easier. it also contributed to an increase in FISA
On July 21, 2005, both House and Senate approved proposals to reauthorize sections of the USA Patriot Act due to expire at the end of 2005. They made permanent, without amendment, several expiring sections of the Act. However, the two sections’ expiration was postponed. These deal with FISA roving wiretaps and the business records library.3
There is an ongoing debate over renewal of these two sections in view of President Bush’s controversial assertion that he has Constitutional and Congressional authority to conduct surveillance of communications of U.S. citizens within the U.S.
In response to the attacks of September 11, 2001, President Bush authorized the National Security Agency (NSA) to conduct warrantless surveillance on international communications into or out of the U.S. of persons linked to al Qaeda or an affiliated terrorist organization. The purpose of this move was to ensure that the U.S. has in place an early warning system to detect and prevent another catastrophic attack on it.4
Because of the accelerated growth in sponsorship in contrast to conventional spots, it is apparent that the benefits have outweighed the limitations of it as a marketing communication tool to many advertisers.
While the growth of TV programme sponsorship has accelerated over the past few years in contrast to the relatively stable airtime sales, the trend in terms of advertisers’ preference of using sponsorship as a major marketing communication tool over advertising is apparent. Tom Duncan, in his book “Principles of Advertising and IMC”, has enumerated various benefits of sponsorships. Some considerations when choosing which to sponsor has been founded on benefits to the advertisers such as: “target audience reach, brand image reinforcement, extendibility, brand involvement, cost-effectiveness, and other sponsors (2005, 614).”
These benefits are the basis for the considerations of various advertisers when choosing a program. Most of these benefits are related to enriching the association of brand image by the TV programme by making the brand part of the programme actively. In contrast to buying air times which are more passive and weaker in terms of reinforcing the brand, advertisers see these benefits of sponsorship as a better strategic tool for the brands.
When the target audience of the TV programme matches the target market of the advertiser, the brand has better chances of reach, as well as extending the benefits of the brand by sponsoring the TV programme.
The major objective of marketing communications is to communicate the brand and the brand’s benefits to its target market. By resorting to sponsorship in contrast to conventional spots in commercial breaks, the advertiser has a better chance to .communicate to the target audience through the programme itself.
Stricter more stringent rules required firms to change their reporting processes, enabling more transparency. The resultant strict rules enacted necessitated firms to adopt modern accounting practices that could only be employed through innovative technology interfaces. The integration of automated or technological applications although costly in terms of resources and time has proven to be an effective control measure for the authorities while simultaneously assisting corporate leaders to manage their internal systems. Other benefits of using technology in finance have been the development of enhanced marketing, communication, research and transaction technologies by organizations.
Technology has been described as the application of individual, logical or material approach to resolving an impasse that leads to enhanced efficiency. It has been credited with the improvement of business operations in firms including administration, communications (from postal letters to email, mobile phones, telecasts, etc.), trading (online trading or e-commerce), automated production line technology, and research facilities among others. The need for embracing advanced technology by corporations was highlighted by the tighter regulations enacted by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in conformity with compliance rules relating to requirements regarding evaluation of internal control over financial reporting and management certification requirements mandatory to amendments under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that were adopted on June 5, 2003, pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Companies needed advanced technology to detect undesired movement in inconsistencies, automated reporting, upholding customer assets, violations, etc., hence avert bad practices while enhancing the companies efficiency (WS&.TStaff, 2005).
Corporate governance encompasses the compliance to rules or procedures, traditions, edicts, .and statutes touching on how a firm is directed, managed or controlled.
The need for DfD, that stands for Design for Disassembly, has thoroughly been discussed in this research paper. Moving forward, it is being attempted that certain computer oriented systems would be made, that would do the DfD process on their own. The researcher states that this would take the processing off human beings’ minds and would eliminate the reluctance that any person may have at the design level phase. It is also suggested that the toy-design for disassembly and transformation of cars be implemented into real world. Recently, A groups of students from the Stanford and the Aalto University in Finland designed a prototype for a laptop that was designed so as to confirm to all the standards of design for disassembly. When disassembled, the electronic components of the laptop get carried into an envelop to an e-cycling destination. The laws made for the successful implementation of Dfd and sustainability should be implemented for sure and the services of companies such as HOBI International should be taken well into account. This company assists in the disposal of electronics. HOBI buys, cells and dis assembles electronics ranging from all sorts of computers to all sorts of communications equipments. In conclusion, the researcher states that the idea of the electrically operated building blocks is given so as to give an idea of the way electrically operable goods should be produced in the real life. This would enhance their usability and thus would serve the purpose of sustainability as well.
Bowels Disorder Bowels Disorder The diagnosis Disturbed body image would be a priority so that the perception of the individual on herself can be effected. In a lifespan, the body image changes with development, childbearing, and illness. Variations of the norms can cause body image disturbance. Altered elimination as a result of proctolectomy can lead to disturbed body image. The 22-year-old patient had colitis, which is an inflammatory disease of mucosal layer of the colon and the proctolectomy that was carried out involved excision of the colon, anus, and rectum. The diagnosis of disturbed body image and assessment is important in planning how the disturbed body image will be addressed (Bolzoni, 2007).
The considerations that are involved in making decisions about priority of patient care include preventing irritation or ulceration from drainage. Secondly, the patient needs to be aware of the self care and ostomy care she should carry out, thirdly the patient needs to be educated on protecting her skin, know when to change the bag, watch her diet, and ensure she takes her medication. The fourth consideration is teaching the patient on the complications that should be reported and considering the lifestyle of a patient.
The nurse would evaluate whether the priority decision for the situation was patient centered through checking if she is comfortable to discuss concerns about his sex life and other activities with the nurse. The nurse should be able to pay attention to the patient for both verbal and non-verbal cues after the procedure and compare them to before the procedure. Evaluating the patient’s mind and body is important so that the patient is taught
Bolzoni, M. (2007). Treating Body-Image Disturbances. Communications of the ACM, 40(8),
Peer Review for mate Research Proposal Peer Review for mate Research Proposal Email communication training is vital to every organization especially in this era of globalization. However, with the assumptions made that email communications is basic, many organizations ignore it. Or this reason, the proposal topic is important and rational too. However, the writer did not include a captivating introduction necessary to change this mentality. Notably the author elaborates the efficiency brought about by email communication as well as its challenge, but does not precisely mention the optimal use of email communication. Although this could induce suspense, provoking the reader to continue reading, the adverse effect of terming the authors suggestion void outdo the former. Possibly, mentioning the best time period for emailing could have positively impacted the message. Moreover, the author makes a contradictory argument in paragraph two. It sounds ambiguous to discourage emailing during both working hours and non-working hours. So, when employees should sent and/or receive emails?
As mention earlier, the topic is vital. The author clearly represents the proposal portraying precise sense of purpose. According to the author email communication is essential and can improve organizations effectiveness. However, due to misuse email communications impact negatively on companies and manger still assume that email communication is basic. This challenge is clearly represented elaborated and so is the solution
Notably, the solution is kept clear. there are several modes of offering the training hence leaving the manager to rationally choose the best. Notably, the author makes a commanding request to managers to incorporate email training in the organizations operations, by not giving any other option to solve the problem. Moreover, by elaborating how training induces email etiquette, a driver of effectiveness in email communication, the solutions make a lot of sense.
Forlornly, the author made the proposal sound as purely personal opinion. No sources were included in the text. Despite including the reference page, the author failed to acknowledge borrowed content and ideas.
The paper is standard, but could still make more impact if improved. Grammar mistakes were minimal and possibly negligible though they can still be corrected. To improve the papers reputation, it’s recommended that the author adjusts the introduction, making it more captivating. Possibly, the author might avoid generalizing the idea but instead develop an optimal amount of time to dedicate to emailing. The timing decision lays in the management, but precise periods could eliminate the ambiguity mentioned in paragraph two.
Secondly, additional research needs to be done both on the adverse effects of the problem as well as the solutions. Its worthy noting that advocating for email training sounds frivolous as the author mentioned. Therefore, to create sense in the proposal, the author needs to provide evidence that the current use of email communication does not only lack etiquette but also negates organizations efficiency. This would ally well with the fact that email communication training is the only solution.
Lastly, incorporation of in-text citations adds value to the message, as their absence triggers the recipient to consider the entire proposal as a personal opinion. Either way, non-cited work will always be treated as hearsay (Miner &. Miner, 2008)
Miner, J. T., Miner, L. E., &. Miner, L. E. (2008). Proposal planning &. writing. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
The interviewee said that the key factor is respect. People may come from different backgrounds and have different life stories, but everyone must respect each other. It is important to try to put yourself in other peoples’ shoes and to see things from their perspective.
3) Discuss the manager/administrator’s Role within the organization
The manager coordinates the activities of the organizations, communicating with key stakeholders. The manager is also a problem-solver and is tasked with resolving disputes. An additional important role in providing foresight: looking to see what things can be improved in the future.
4) What factors enable the manager to Maintain a diverse department/service? which are the most important factors to Create a diverse department/service?
Once again, the key factors discussed were inclusiveness and respect. These were the two most important things. Also having open lines of communications. Workers should be able to feel like someone will listen to them and that they can voice complaints if they have them.
1) Description of the interview (include impressions, general reactions, and feelings about the visit):
I enjoyed my visit to the social worker. The office was clean and well-lit and people treated me with respect and made me feel welcome. I didn’t know much about social work before this visit so I found it fascinating to learn more. I left with an increased sense of respect for the work these people do.
2) Identify one communication barrier: ( example distraction, noise, language, computer noise.)
The social worker spoke with a slight accent which sometimes made it slightly difficult to understand her. I had to ask her to repeat herself a few times.
3)Describe your perspective of the interviewee’s response to the interview:
I found the interviewee to be a straight-shooter. Instead of talking around the subject, she went straight to the heart of it. I appreciated her sincerity and her ability to answer my questions in a succinct and effective manner.
Summary of the interview. summarizing the entire interview with your impression comments and opinions.
I found this interview process to be very interesting. It is one thing to read about social work in a textbook, it is quite another to go to a social worker’s office and speak directly to them. You get a real sense of the environment they work in every day and a sense of the rules and values that govern their operations. You also get a sense of what sort of people are usually attracted to do social work and what motivates them: usually the public interest. Because of this interview, and what I have learned from it, I am considering entering this field myself.
41000 His references, nonetheless, to mass-generated products and to magazines, movies and different parts of the broad communications, together with his impartial and apparently nameless system, made him be viewed as one of the key figures in the improvement of Pop craft in the US (Hamilton 251). Very nearly by definition, prominent society has accomplished a massive worldwide taking after definitely in light of the fact that it is central For some subjects of different nations, however, the close assume control of their own social commercial ventures, particularly for more youthful gatherings of people, is of incredible concern. As humanists Murals paid attention to popular society in that they tried to convey popular culture values and qualities s to people in society in their paintings (Hamilton 254). Take an example of rock music and art. Its fascination is not only because of a specific inclination for uproarious, cadenced sound and hazardously physical moving. Rock music likewise symbolizes an entire bunch of social qualities concerning verbalization toward oneself, spontaneity, discharged sexuality, and maybe above all, disobedience of the asserted stodginess of convention. Murals defined their amazing style of painting in the mid-twentieth century when publicizing was discovering new parkways in mediums, for example, the announcement. Murals and other pop culture activists in the U.S kept on developing plans regarding workmanship, industry, and mainstream society all around the century. Are Rosenbergs momentous works about prominent society as applicable today as they were throughout their lifetime? To answer this inquiry, contrast Rosenquists wall paintings with a contemporary extensive scale two-dimensional work which shows how murals valued popular culture in their art paintings (Hamilton 251).
82000 It is evidently clear from the discussion that one of the main ways the patriotic act limited people’s daily lives is by making them accept the unreasonable casual violation of their basic rights. For instance, the act made Americans accept without question that security agencies can subject them to unreasonable searches and seizures when they are traveling. The patriotic act limits the rights of Americans by increasing the capabilities of government to carry out surveillance in four areas. The act gives the government the power to conduct record searches. It does this by expanding the ability of the government to examine records indicating a person’s activity that are in third-party possession. The Patriotic act also authorizes secret searches that enable the government to search private property without issuing a notice. The Patriotic act also authorizes the government to conduct intelligence searches by extending an exception to the fourth amendment that was made to enable the government to gather foreign intelligence. The act also allows the government to engage in trap and trace searches by enabling the government to track the source and targets of communications and the content. The provisions of the patriotic act limit daily life by violating individual privacy. The act gives the government unchecked power to examine a person’s internet usage, medical history, library usage, and any other activity that leaves a record of some kind. This not only violates individual right to privacy protected in the fourth amend but may make people refrain from certain activities for fear of being watched by the government.
But over the last few decades the steel industry’s importance has come down while financial and banking services have taken the front seat. The financial services sector constituted more than 80% of the country’s GDP. In 2006, Luxembourg had 156 banks. Some of the key points which have helped the economy to perform well are educated labour force adept in different languages, state of the art communications system, easy admittance to surrounding European economies, and a stable government. The government has also taken the initiative to showcase the country as a communications and audio visual hub. The government has promoted satellite technology in this context. The country with its stable political background has attracted considerable amount of FDI or foreign direct investments in small, medium and large industrial projects. Though the agricultural sector constitutes of 1% of the economy the country is famous for high quality white wines (Country profile: Luxembourg, January 2009. Luxembourg: Economy, September 2008).
The country holds a strategic location in Europe being surrounded by or rather landlocked by three big European economies of Germany, France and Belgium. Being one of the most prosperous countries in the world, it has an open culture and is hospitable to people and business from different areas. Moreover, the highly educated workforce is an asset to the countries economy and has attracted many foreign multinationals to set up their IT and financial clusters there. The country offers numerous tax rebates which has acted as an impetus for its growth, especially in the arena of financial services and banking. It has very high level of telecommunication, satellite and basic infrastructure. It believes in liberal policies and has been a proponent of the same at the European Union level also. This has assisted it in becoming one of the best performing economies not only in Europe but all over the world. It has been able to leverage
A Dow 30 corporation with over $120 billion within 2013 proceeds, Verizon makes use of a diverse labor force of 176,800. The system that has been studied is Green Computing at Verizon Wireless.
The organization is faced by increased energy utilization, decreased effectiveness of its data centers, and reduced money saving. The transformation began within 2009 while measurements established that equipment utilized to power the company’s network took account of a noteworthy section of Verizon’s energy utilization. The workforce charged with examining the situation distinguished the prospective for huge savings in energy, as well as dollars. Then, there were no production benchmarks concerning the energy used by system equipment. There was a lot of talk within the communications industry, but nothing took place within most companies (Feng 2014:180). However, Verizon on this matter one of two workers charged with discovering the state of affairs and decided to make a change through green computing. Verizon stood out by making sure that suppliers augmented the effectiveness of their goods by twenty percent. The company was sufficiently big to manipulate the marketplace and did not have to hang around for industry accord.
Efficiently managing an information hub has been a predicament for some time for Verizon. on the other hand, the problem augments with the utilization of physical, as well as virtual machines within diverse environments. Verizon had to make use of green computing through server virtualization. This launches a completely novel globe of reserve mobility and development. Data center managing software is required to scale to decrease the complexity connected with virtualization-stimulated server slouch and allow the computerized, dynamic information center. In this line, Verizon Wireless is faced by key challenges, for instance, lack of skill, difficulty running
41000 Summary of the movie In regard to the summary of the movie, Johnnie was a guy in love with two things: The train called The General on which he was a conductor and Annabelle. When the War began, Johnnie became the first people at the recruitment office, but got rejected since they thought he was more valuable as an engineer. Therefore, Annabelle refused because he was not in the army. When the Union spies capture the train Johnnie loved together with Annabelle, he goes after them targeting to rescue both. Johnnie pursues the captured train using another train, The Texas. After pursuing the Unionists that later learnt that one man was after them, they started chasing after Johnnie (Timothy &. Patricia, 2012). Johnnie entered in a forest and then later discovered the hideout for the Unionists. It was while hidden inside, that he overheard their next plan against the Confederates. Johnnie manages to plot an escape with Annabelle and took her to The General. It then becomes Johnnie roles to run away faster before the Unionists capture him and inform the Confederates of the Unionists latest plan. Plot The film becomes based on a fictionalized plot based on Lieutenant William Pittenger in The Great Locomotive Chase. The Lieutenant undertook Union spies in 1862 near Atlanta and involved a Confederate train. The Union attempted to raid the train called, the general and wretched tracks, communications and bridges as they went away with it (Timothy &. Patricia, 2012). The train became captured with the help of the Lieutenant 10 miles away from the border and the spies hanged. An award became given in 1862 to one of the Raiders that help rescue the train, James Andrews, who was not even in the military. The movie hence became based on a true life story. Cinematography The movie displays marvelous technical plus structural perfection, realistic romance, playful comic inventiveness and non-chalant graceful, including fluid athleticism as seen from Keaton. The movie also employs some realistic stunts making the movie more real to the audience viewing the film. It also got uncontrived, non-stop motion, free-flowing set-pieces, plus a preoccupation with authenticity made parts of the film representing the American Civil War. Setting Part of the film became shot near Tennessee, Cowan, between Chattanooga and Nashville. Another location for the film became around Cottage Grove, alongside Oregon’s Row River. This site became used for shooting the scene where the two trains, The General and The Texas meet (Timothy &. Patricia, 2012). In the film, The General train was not the real one, but the Texas train used for the crash scene was the real one. The film got a distinctive civil war setting plus location setting. It became shot in Oregon since they required to have a narrow gauge railroad track featured in the film. Matthew Brady provided an excellent photography for the movie, especially the extensive actions that involved the two trains. Characters In relation to the characters, Buster Keaton playing Johnnie in The general, brings out the heroic nature of the character. Johnnie was the first person to volunteer to join the army when the war started depicted how brave and heroic. Johnnie became determined to fight for his country. In as much as he got no chance to become a soldier to save his country, he managed to get a
2500 Effectiveness of Visual Communication Methods used in Publication Before I shed light on the Effectiveness of Visual Communication I deem it prerequisite to describe the core objective of communications. The essence of communications is to have your message registered into a reader’s/listener’s brain. In this context, I have studied 7 communication principles (7C’s) of effective communications – i.e. Completeness, Conciseness, Consideration, Concreteness, Clarity, Courtesy and Correctness. However, as &. how the world continued progressing, ways &. means of things kept on changing so did the style &. medium of communications. There has always been a communications Dilemma. Studies show that people are able to remember 10% of what they hear. 20% of what they read, but about 80% what they visualize and do. Thus, in this era, use of visual aids has increased manifold in almost every sector/industry the world over. For instance, if at one hand it has led to boosting sales, marketing, publicity/ promotions, etc. by means of capturing consumers’ brain, on the other hand it has facilitated imparting knowledge or knowledge sharing in academia. As (Koneru, I. 2009) stated, “Glossary supplements the learning modules. Additionally, various visual aids such as pop-up window and rollovers are to be integrated, wherever necessary. These visual aids facilitate maintaining concise modules instead of lengthy text, so as to retain the attention of the BRAOU learners”. Research indicates that consumers overloaded with information exposed to 300 ads per day, over 100,000 per year. Besides that, they probably don’t care very much in the first place. So how would you communicate with overloaded &. uninvolved consumers? To answer this question one needs to understand that like a computer memory system, a human brain too has the same series of memory elements in his/her stimuli – i.e. Sensory Register, Short Term Memory and Long Term Memory. Therefore, to penetrate through a human brain whilst ensuring storage of information for a longer period of time, visuals have been very effective to achieve this goal. Visuals work superb whilst appealing a consumer to click OFF from scan environment, and ON to create memory. As Sedlack, S. &. Keller (2009) stated, “Effective visual communication is not optional for managers and business communicators. it is required. In modern business organizations, our audiences are both demanding and impatient. They want good, persuasive content, but they want to be able to read quickly, digest the information, and decide what to do next. When they read a data document, they want to find the numbers at a glance, immediately see the relationship between numbers, and understand the business implications”. It is a myth that a human brain will not create a memory unless something significant occurs. Hence, if we talk in context of advertisements or catalogues, we must create something significant with the information material to get a customer’s brain to pay attention and create a memory for your message. The (3) three core attributes (Significance, Involvement and Intrigue) that can get your customer’s brain to click ON, cannot be achieved without visuals. Another very important point, that research has proved, is that men and women process information differently in their brains. Studies show that men respond better when text is reinforced by visual product demonstrations or visuals that show benefits while women process verbally descriptive information better. Well, I understand it is going to be a very vast topic and effectiveness of visuals can be proved by giving lot many examples of certain products’ catalogues or tutorial or directional map, etc. etc. However, keeping in mind perception of a lay man, I squeeze it up with a small example that I had personally experienced. At times, when packed milk was introduced in Pakistan, I bought a pack to check the taste. When I came to how to open it up (where to cut from) I had no idea so had a trouble as there was no mark/direction arrow. I went back to the shopkeeper, who took that back and got me another pack which had a dotted line with scissors picture atop. I conclude with an understanding that use of visuals in one way or other gives a boost not only your sale but also leaves a good image in consumer’s mind. Reference Koneru, I. (2009). Designing Information Literacy Modules for Distance Learners in India. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 7(2), 66-81. Sedlack, S. &. Keller (2009). Graphics and Visual Communication for Managers. OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Even organisations in today’s time appreciate the benefits of holidays on an employee’s mind and body and thus provide them with various travel allowances.
Travel Genie is a world-recognized travel and tourism management company that operates almost in all places around the world. Travel Genie is a cross border player and drives efficiency across the industry through proficient systems and service standards. Apart from quality service, the key to Travel genie’s success is its team of dedicated, and highly trained members. At Travel Genie to a certain extent, the planning and the decision-making process is centralised. However, every individual in the hierarchy willfully comes up with suggestions to bring about increased productivity. Though every single member of the organization has an important role to play, it is the tourism managers who bear the maximum responsibility for turning the business into a commercial success. One of the most important criteria for bringing about success in tourism is communication. Below is a part of the organisational structure that elaborates on the details of the managerial hierarchy at Travel Genie.
Effective strategy building can take a business to the higher levels of success and the travel industry is no exception. The managers at Travel Genie have to do a lot of brainstorming and come up with extraordinary commercial marketing strategies and when it comes to marketing, communication plays a very significant role in the travel and tourism industry. The communications manager is the key to transferring information from one party to another. Many times it happens that information is transferred however the recipient cannot appreciate the information. Thus such transfer of information or data is not communication. It is the responsibility of the communications manager to make sure that all information and data are transferred on the right, to the right person and the recipient fully understands the purpose and the meaning of the information transferred. (Cheney G., August 1998)
Historically the children of foster parents or foster carers have been .the hidden caregiver of foster children. Though, according to Ingrid Hojer (2006), less concentration has been given to the children of foster carers and the way they are concerned by changes interconnected to fostering, for instance spending their lives with foster children and having their own houses opened up for visits from birth parents and carers. They have and remain least acknowledged, least guided, least supported and possibly, in most of the cases, least able to manage. .These children of foster carers have remained like a ghost in the darkness of a fostering group of people focused mainly on the requirements of foster children. .Their components, concern, courage and sacrifices are hardly ever accredited and, even not as much of, their personal struggles and pain. The writer uses consequences from the questionnaire of 684 answers he got from children of foster carers (pg. 1), where sons and daughters of foster carers were inquired about their sufferings of fostering. He discussed briefly about the experiences of such children and the impact fostering has on their daily lives, concerning relations and communications with other foster children and get in touch with with their foster parents (pg. 2)
As per writer, the scarcity of debate together with the current approach to foster care (the requirements of foster sons and daughters) continues to downgrade these children to the grade of “hidden” components of the fostering society. He further discussed that no one would argue that the needs of the foster children should not be met, the problem is: why researchers have continued to neglect the wants of an additional group of children, the “Children of Foster Carers” (pg. 7)
.It would be easy to downsize the “slip” in consequences of the staged changes that have taken place in a fostering system in recent years: rising demands of caring children, running a system in predicament, moving violently with the media arguments, regulating the system expansion and working out with new personnel (pg. 8). However, this isn’t the case. there are various causative and contradictory factors that have served up to continue the status quo of such children. Though, results from the paper also provide confirmation of how children take a substantial amount of liability towards their foster brothers and sisters. It is quite obvious that children of foster carers operate as self-directed driving forces, and as a result also have an impact on the way wherein fostering behavior are executed within the foster family unit. Foster assignments could be abundant and time-consuming practically, but theoretically they were provisional because children retained relations to their natural parents (pg. 4).
Poverty has at all times have effects on the welfare of children and foster carers. Poverty callously confines the aptitude of some foster carers to offer basic requirements for their children, counting shelter, food, clothes, health care, and transport to school and required services. Some serious problems continued to be unrequited about the association between poverty, and child mistreatment in foster care (pg. 9). To what degree are detriments of neglect derived from poverty in preference to insufficient parenting that places foster children of foster carers in jeopardy of destruction?
Ingrid Höjer. (September 2006). Sons and daughters of foster carers and the impact of fostering on their everyday life. Department of Social Work, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
Hypothesizing the effect of the Internet on research In 1990’s, there is question who is using internet and for what purpose. To answer this questionone has conduct paper surveys, telephone surveys to calculate the people on the internet. Later implementing the www forms gave the possibility to have direct information available at eh mouser click on the statistics of people. Internet is useful in research particularly in social research areas where information regarding people as individuals and groups, interaction with people is required. Research involving people is a difficult process because the subjects are not constant in their thoughts, approaches, behaviors, and are makes the results variable from time to time. Also there is impact on research from the researcher perspective as he/she is also a person with variability. So, the researcher has to focus on the evidence of live experience which involves the surveillance and collection of data from surroundings. The collection of data includes the interviews of persons, Focus on groups, photographs and records, where internet stands the primary source for such critical information with speed and ease of use.
Primary research involves the gathering information from the world. and secondary research requires reading the books, journals, papers and articles that can be find in the library or on the Internet. Internet is acting like a medium for the data collection. Knowledge base is a fully hyperlinked text which can be used as a sourcebook for the experienced researcher to browse.
In order to provide the evidence to the research hypothesis, qualitative research uses literature reviews. A proper support and broad array of literature avoids the related aspects of own, favoritism and assumptions, expectations and bias in study. Internet offers such scope to collect the large literature from the www.
Levinson (1990) believe that asynchronous electronic communications capability is to provide opportunity for reflection and editing of messages before sending them adds to the production of a closer fit between ideas, intentions and their expression in writing. Responding at their convenience instead of waiting for turn-taking, as required in face-to-face interactions, potentially provides more equality of participation to more reserved participants (Hiltz and Wellman, 1997).
While analyzing the case studies as part of qualitative method, internet gives the information in the form of interviews, blogs, forums where valuable information is hidden directly expressed by the persons or representatives from the case. These documentary materials on internet will be used as first and foremost source of information without using participant observation.
Most of the business research needs up-to-date information on the current trends of their products in scope and the target people. Journals, articles, online news headlines, besides being the repositories of such information, are also reliable in terms of accuracy with their quick and daily updates.
A common problem for qualitative researchers is the availability of lot of information before the researcher before identifying the scope to the study. The researcher has to read the report and synthesizes it, which involves a lot of paper work in normal terms. But the advanced context based search functionalities and the filter tools available on the web sites give the direction, less effort and time saving options to the research. With the help of internet knowledge, qualitative research can attain much validity, reliability with proper measures and ethics. .
The data collected from Internet, being already in the digital and electronic format, facilitates the transfer and sharing the research data with the other groups of researchers in different parts of the world. The information can access much more quickly and efficiently to be processed for research analysis.
1. Colleen M. Kehoe, James E. Pitkow, Surveying the Territory: GVUs Five WWW User Surveys, Accessed on 28 Aug 2007, available from
2. Michael D. Myers, Qualitative Research in Information Systems, Accessed on 28 Aug 2007, available from 3. Patsy Clarke, The Internet as a medium for qualitative research Accessed on 28 Aug 2007, available from
Business Communication In economic point of view, the rate at which a currency trend against other world currency holds a great impact to the general economy. Canada being among the largest exporters in resource-based goods highly depends on the stability of the exchange rates. A decline in the value of the Canadian dollar against the U.S. dollar has advantageous and disadvantageous sides to the Canadian economy considering the balance of trade.
Considering the fact that the Canadian economy depend on its bilateral trade, it is true that in the event $1 CAD compares to $ 0.80-0.85 U.S., then normally the exports is going to be affected negatively. The balance of trade becomes affected in such cases, thereby adversely affected the economy as whole.
The Canadian dollar is positively correlated to the strength of the world commodity prices. This situation will boost imports as most traders will find it highly profitable to export to Canada at a comparatively lower exchange rate compared to the U.S. dollar. However, the exports will be affected negatively since it will be comparatively expensive to export Canadian products compared to the U.S. products.
In conclusion, the fact that the recent report on the Purchasing Power Parity estimates a bundle of goods that cost a consumer $1 CAD in Canada would cost in the range of 80-85 US cents in the United States is a strong indication that some economic improvement should be done. As the Canadian dollar trends along these ranges, the Canadian consumers are, and will be paying a significant value on their goods compared to their counterparts in the United States.
The company sells and develops high-quality sports cars, emphasizes keeping environmental impact at a minimum by developing environmentally low impact products and processes. Porsche manufactures products that have long term sustainability and continuous improvement of operational strategies and decisions is a high priority for the company. The company is also open in its communications and inform the public directly about environmental impact. The Porsche guidelines emphasize employee contribution to save the environment and the production centers regularly check on environmental issues although business partners of Porsche tend to emphasize on protection of the environment. The environmental impact of the company and its products is regularly assessed and concrete environmental aims have also been formulated by the company.
Thus the focus of the Porsche philosophy seems to be the company’s responsibility for environmental sustainability and maintaining a positive environmental impact is its core business agenda and attribute of corporate social responsibility.
As far as its marketing strategy is concerned, Porsche follows a strong policy of internationalization and maintains an objective of balance between demand and supply. Porsche has a global presence in 100 countries and so if demand is low in one country, it is quickly compensated by demand in another. The established markets in Europe and America remain the guarantors of Porsche’s success although, in some saturated markets too like Japan, Porsche seems to be doing remarkably well. Porsche has been maintaining satisfactory delivery and also has high levels of customer satisfaction and with its primary strategy on keeping a balance between demand and supply, the company has made a secured position in all major automobile markets in the world. The sales of the organisation of the company has high-performance records and is a primary tool for the company’s success.
While communications have brought different fashions together from around the world and it is now equally possible to see people wearing business suits as well as kimonos on the streets of Tokyo, the next revolution will come from the integration of communication with fashion. The central piece of human development that makes it possible is the technology that allows integration of diverse arts into one field.
Additionally, another example of how the communications revolution has affected the world of fashion is how communication tools can be converted into and used as fashion accessories. Music forms a central part of this revolution since music itself has exploded in various ways as the communication revolution has gone along its path. With billions of MP3 files being sold, shared and traded between individuals, MP3 players have become as second nature as mobile phones. As nosier has taken the position as the premier supplier of mobile phones around the world, so has Apple taken the position as a recognized brand name in the music, computer and now the fashion industry.
Fashion because the iPod is more than an MP3 player, it is a fashion accessory for the hip and happening people in the 21st century. With several generations of the iPod, it has shown its sticking power and as it has gained acceptability, people have found alternative uses for it. With millions of iPods and billions of MP3s, there is little to object when a company and fashion leader like Levi decides to build on the popularity of the iPod and create a product line that integrates with the digital music player (ACM, 2006).
Levi Strauss has created a line of jeans that incorporates iPod usage technology. it features a joystick control which is built into the jeans’ fifth pocket to enable the person sporting the clothing to operate an iPod without having to remove it .from a specially designed docking cradle located in the side pocket. The name of this mix of technology fashion and communication device is Levi’s RedWire DLX Jeans and they are currently available around the world. It also has a built-in retractable headphone unit to prevent wire tangles.
Behaviors of consumers vary depending on the stimulus introduced. There are many powerful motivating factors that affect the behavior patterns of the consuming public and one of these powerful motivators is fear. The appeal to fear is capable of igniting and heightening the public’s sensitivity to threats, which are present and put him/her either in an offensive or defensive mood. Whatever stances the person would take in a given instance of fear, his/her consumption behaviors are generally affected.
To better understand how “fear is capable of sensitizing people to threats and of changing their behavior” let us, therefore, discuss the different aspects of marketing communications and its effects on the target market.
Fear Appeal is a persuasive strategy commonly employed in the promotion of products and campaigns. This strategy works by sending persuasive messages to the target market or audience about the terrible consequences that will befall on them if they will not follow what is recommended in the message. This strategy has a dual effect. One is to prevent the customer from purchasing or using the product or services and the other is to persuade him/her to patronize such a product.
To illustrate my point, let us look into a simple candy bar. For children are often scared away from this sweet treat by the threat of having rotten teeth and the prospect of doing to the dentist for a tooth extraction or worst, a root canal procedure. The fear of the impending pain brought about by eating too much candy would make children think twice about eating such sugary food. On the contrary, we can compel people to buy or use a product by fear. For example, the fear of aging often makes people buy cosmetic products, which will delay the aging process. Fear of looking old is so real for most people that they are willing to undergo .painful surgeries just to retain their youthful looks. .
Research has shown that seven to nine per cent .of Americans use cell phones only with no landlines though most Americans combine the use of both landlines and cell phones (Westcott, p41).
A cell phone is a short-range communications device that receives and broadcasts low power digital radio signals to and from cell sites which are located throughout populated areas. Older cell phones transmitted analogue signals with some transmitting both digital and analogue signals until 2008 when the support of analogue signals stopped. On the other hand, landline phones are usually linked to a main central utility via telephone lines. Local regulatory commissions normally control the pricing of landline use. Traditionally, landlines were the ones used for homes and offices but nowadays more people have switched to cell phones.
This presentation seeks to examine the pros and cons of cell phones and landlines from different perspectives in terms of their use and possession and provide one with the knowledge to enable him or her to make an informed decision when choosing to have one or both telecommunication devices.
Portability: Unlike landlines, cell phones are very portable and one can carry them along anywhere and use them anywhere where there is a service provider signal. They can be conveniently carried around and used in places where landlines are absent, for example, while on the highways.
Mobility: One can use cell phones while on the move and hence save a lot of time which would have been wasted by being stationary and waiting for the phone call, especially for a busy individual. Besides, one does not have to miss important calls while on the move.
Emergencies: In cases of accidents, one can easily call the ambulance or police while at the scene. One can even take pictures of the accident scene if he has a phone with a camera. In cases where one may be lost, one can call for directions or if he has a GPS enabled phone, the emergency services can trace his position and come to his rescue.
resource professionals of a company must know how to deal with Communications, Change and Adaptability to monitor and to effectively bring about normality in the environment where so many ethnicities are working together in harmony.
This is the need of the time now that diversity increases over the future upcoming years, however the companies are now very vigilant with this and they are ready to spend a lot to recognise this factor and manage on diversity at the workplaces.
The more an organization accepts the cultural diversity in itself, the more is their ratio of making more profits and the more beneficial is this factor for them. And, in the corporate environment, when diversity is handled carefully, there are so many benefits that come their way that they might not realise:
A greater number of solutions to the problems, resources and a great variety of sourcing can be done by diversity. All the employees coming from different ethnic groups and different cultures bring along different talents that help in customer satisfactions and bringing diverse kind of methods to handle the corporate matters which are only in the advantage of the companies that they are employed in.
A large pool of ideas and concepts arise when so many different languages and so many cultural perspectives are mixed together in one place which helps the company to maintain or fasten the pace in their business matters and daily tasks. This way the customers can be handled and also they can be managed perfectly.
Companies that inhibit the cultural diversity are on a loss big time, however on the contrary, the companies that encourage this thing, flourish over the period and greater productivity, return on investments and profits are encountered.
The first barrier could be the ways of perception and the language barriers, and for a company to flourish, it needs to overcome these key barriers as they a long way otherwise and make the teamwork and morale of the teams get ineffective.
To make the study comprehensive, a semi-structured face-to-face interview with marketing and buying directors from 11 major UK fashion retail chains was undertaken. Only those firms that predominantly sold own-brand merchandise and had a turnover in excess of 75 million pounds were interviewed. The study arrived at the conclusion that the trend of fashion own-brand is the most vital element in determining the trading strategies of the major fashion retail players. Through research and analysis, he also deduced that the success of the strategy depends upon management expertise, retailer communications research, planning, and resource investment and most importantly, on the receptivity amongst shoppers. .
In examining the issue, the author undertook the literature review but the introduction of the paper does not give any indication on the sources of information that will be used – whether through books or through websites. The literature search is a significant step in the research process (Reed, n.d.). The purpose of the literature review is to examine fashion own-brands from a retailer perspective. The literature review section should contain an introduction, main body, and conclusion. It contains a proper introduction for the literature review but subsequently, the conclusion has not been segregated from the discussion.
The author, in this case, has researched through recent literature not more than five years old. The research done conveys what others have done in the field and what more is left to be done but it is insufficient. While qualitative research has been undertaken and primary sources used, it is not clear from the sentence structure, whether they are the opinions of the authors concerned or whether those authors have cited other experts in the field. This is because no quotes have been included in the literature search, which normally adds substance to the paper.
Rugby and its subtext Rugby has become a popular game in the globe. I am a devoted supporter of the game and watching itis one of my greatest entertainment activities. The game intrigues me with its blend of strength, tactic, discipline, and teamwork. Every score demonstrates the importance of excelling in all these elements even in life beyond the game. The goodness of rugby notwithstanding, the game and communications regarding it has a subtext that it is a masculine sport and not feminine (Harrington p4). Hardly would the mention of rugby bring the image of a woman or women to mind.
Men’s rugby has received immense publicity while women’s has received minimal. The men who feature in advertisements for rugby have protruding biceps and broad chests like weights lifters. In those advertisements, they use force and excessive energy when countering their counterparts. The subtext in these advertisements implies that women lack the physical capacity to play rugby and this is incorrect. In fact, some women are better body-built than some men are. Using physical capacity as a basis for not featuring women in rugby entrenches the traditional patriarchal stereotype that women are weaker than men are (Harrington p4).
Exemplified tactics in rugby are another concern in considering the explicit absence of women in the arena of rugby. In traditional patriarchal societies, women were not allowed to engage in some activities because they were thought of as not having the mental aptitude required to handle them (Harrington p9). A similar notion is implied when rugby media coverage and advertisement conspicuously miss to mention anything about women. This is a notion that has been disproved, clearly, by the modern woman who ventures into almost every activity to which they were previously restricted and rugby is not an exception.
Discipline is more of a personal matter than one that depends on sex and gender. Individual differences play an important role in a person’s predisposition to discipline. However, some commentators have observed that women are more likely to exercise restraint than men are. If this were to be used in comparing male and female rugby players, females would rate better males. Discipline alone cannot make a good rugby player without the other elements and as such, it would be unfair to exclude women from the game if they succeeded in blending all the elements (Harrington p4). Additionally, the extent to which a player exercises discipline in a game is influenced by their goals and objectives in the game and if women could have these, excluding them would not be justified.
Finally, the subtext in rugby and communications about it downplays the likelihood of women learning teamwork skills. The activities women engage in on a daily basis can exemplify their performance in teamwork. Commentators assert that because of the key roles women play in family life and the social support groups and networks they maintain they perform better in teamwork than some men (Harrington p14). In summary, it is unfair to leave out women in rugby. Women rugby teams should be supported in diverse dimensions in order to help them gain publicity and encourage more women to join.
Harrington, Katy. Women’s rugby deserves better than lazy and harmful stereotypes. The Irish Post, August 11, 2014. Retrieved October 8, 2014 from <. http://www.irishpost.co.uk/sport/womens-rugby-deserves-better-lazy-harmful-stereotypes >.
MANAGING ASSETS AND RESOURCES IN THE DIGITAL FIRM Even though information systems are place to generally solve pertinent technology based problems atthe work place, their mere presence at the workplace does not bring about the desired change. The fact of the matter remains that these information systems ought to be selected and regulated by following strict framework of action and implementation. A typical example of the framework is the one outlined by Damsgaard et al as the “Seven Principles for Selecting Software Packages”. In their opinion, purchasers of software must understand hat they belong to a larger network of end users. With this understanding, it becomes necessary to have a long term perspective that clearly states what one wants out of the network. By so doing, the identification of number of software needed and the scope of usage becomes clearly defined. Subsequently, managers become motivated to focus their attention on the exact demands and aspirations of their organizations without having to look into the interest of other people. In effect, the selection will be done based on one’s capacity in terms of accessibility of knowledge and standardization. Finally, the need to update systems according to the options available to the organization becomes necessary. Indeed, most information systems have failed because they did not consider the prime and exact interest of the companies in which they were set up and this is what the framework seems to address – the need to for individualism (Damsgaard et al., 2010, p. 70). It can be realized that the framework presented by Damsgaard follows a principle that follows the chronological implementation strategy whereby the workability given software are exemplified using step by step progress analysis plan (Flyod, 2009). Moreover, all results presented by the group are based on empirical research that can be substantiated. To this end, it is recommended that the principles and framework be adapted for use.
Damsgaard et al. (2010). Seven Principles for Selecting Software Packages. Communications of the ACM, Vol. 53 No. 8, Pages 63-71
Flyod, T. A. (2009). Principles of Information System Set Ups. New York: Print Well Publications
Communications Persuasive theory In most cases, the messages that we get from the media have a very strong effect, and may persuade one to act accordingly even without certifying the credibility of the source. The persuasion created by these messages offers a limited liability and motivation to think of the credibility of such messages and the source from which the messages might be emanating from. Feng &. MacGeroge (2010) argue that messages are in most cases viewed as being helpful and supporting as well as promoting coping with such messages. In addition, Dakoff &. Taylor (1990) argue that such messages may in fact be unhelpful or insensitive, and may result to making coping much more difficult. This I learned after believing a beer advert that portrayed that taking the beer could make one think better and refresh one’s mind.
The messages that really persuaded me to indulge into taking the beer ran like “drink the beer for better mental refreshment and enhancement.” In most cases, we experience value, belief and lifestyle change as a result of persuasion that is presented through such media adverts, as I was persuaded to believe this message in the advert. An attitude is a precursor of behavior. the manner in which the message was decoded and evaluated made me to develop a liking to this message and was eager to try to benefit from alleged mind refreshment, notwithstanding that I was still an intermediate student. This perceived benefit made me to have a weak control on my behavior, and within no time I was ready to experience the new feeling that I was persuaded to try by the advert. Goldsmith (2000) elaborates that advice messages are potentially threatening to the public or an individual, and may in fact threaten the recipient’s positive face. As I went head to try the effectiveness of this message, I in fact discovered that the advert was distorted and wrong, as I was seriously affected by the beer to an extent that in the following two days, I could hardly walk out of my room. Ego involvement dictates that the more one is motivated in an issue, the more likely that their attitudes will predict behavior. My strong motivation to trying the advert message led me to excessive drinking resulting to the serious repercussions that I faced later on.
The theory of planned behavior explains that the behavior al intention is the determinant of the future behavior, with the intention being influenced by independent constructs, which are. the attitude, perceived behavior control and the subjective norm (Jones, Sinclair &. Rhodes 2004). The subjective norm refers to the social pressures that dictate whether one will or will not perform the behavior. These three are the determining factors that are related or may result from persuasion messages as I later found out. Social cognitive theory was the most applicable theory that I can attribute to the case above. Jones, Sinclair &. Rhodes (2004) explains that the theory states that people will better learn through observing others or through direct experiences and that individual choices are based on the perceived or actual consequences of the behavior. In the above advert, having seen many people drinking, I was persuaded to try the perceived benefits that could have been obtained from taking the beer. In addition, the theory states that the degree of self efficacy that one has affects their ability to learn. My belief, in attaining the benefits as advocated by the message was to blame for my behavior. The social cognitive theory, therefore well elaborates the above case.
Dakoff, G. A., &. Taylor, S. E. (1990). Victims’ perceptions of social support: What is helpful from whom? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 80-89.
Feng B. &. MacGeorge E.L., (2010). The Influences of Message and Source Factors on Advice Outcomes. Communication Research 37(4) 553–575
Goldsmith, D. J. (2000). Soliciting advice: The role of sequential placement in mitigating face threat. Communication Monographs, 67(1), 1-19.
Jones W.L., Sinclair R.C., &. Rhodes E.R., (2004). Promoting exercise behavior: an interrogation of persuasion theories and theory of planned behavior. British Journal of Health Psychology. 9, 505-521.
102500 The group of forty people are managed by a team of experts in the company that help in the production of attractive programs which in turn help the company draw effective charities from the larger society. The people that constitute the company belong to both the disabled and young people groups that are trained by the concern to render quality drama and theatre programs to help entertain the public and draw charities for the larger cause. Scripts for the above programs are written and scripted by eminent authors and through proper management and enthusiasm rendered by the management group the people in the organisation gains confidence in performing in the society (Razed Roof, n.d.). The paper herein tends to focus on the designing of effective communication plan for gaining a larger amount of charities from an enhanced marketplace. A Context Analysis Current Awareness Level of Razed Roof in Harlow Awareness about the charitable organization, Razed Roof is high in the Harlow area where the councillor of the region, Sue Livings focuses on helping in drawing large amount of charitable funds from the locality. The councillor states that drawing in large funds from the locality would help the organization in effectively gaining in resources for training the disabled people to perform productively in the functions and performances organised. Moreover the councillor also endeavours to enhance the awareness level of the organisation among large sections of people belonging to different income categories in the region (Harlow Council, n.d.). The significant awareness of the charitable organization in the Harlow area can be traced from the posting made in the online magazine ‘EverytingHarlow’ on 7th June, 2011. It is stated that the performing arts organization, Razed Roof is one of the shortlisted concerns to gain the benefit of the national awards in producing the ‘best art’ campaign that in turn amounts to a large lottery for the organization. Enhancement of the awareness of the charitable organization is being conducted by the local MP of the Harlow area, Mr. Robert Halfon by inviting large number of localities to render their vote in favour of the performing arts organisations, Razed Roof. These level of activities conducted in the Harlow area signify the mass awareness of the charitable organization in the stated region (EverythingHarlow, 2011). Further a chronology of volunteering events in the Harlow area reflects the amount of charitable funds gained by Razed Roof. During 2011 the group received a volunteer support of around 25,000 Pounds from Heritage Lottery organisation. Similarly during 2010 the charitable organization gained a fund support of around 10,000 Pounds donated by voluntary services rendered by Big Lottery group. In 2007 the organization received a volunteer support of around 19,750 Pounds that was donated by the Arts Council of England. In 2006 also the Council for Arts in England worked to donate a fund amounting to 15,000 Pounds to Razed Roof organization in regards to funding for a program. The above list reflects the pattern of volunteering
Data Gathering Instrument 62 List of Tables List of Figures Chapter 1: Introduction This study aims to determine the factors that influence the choice of entry modes that U.K firms may explore in their effort to establish a presence in a foreign market. Such factors shall pertain to either firm specific or country specific resources and attributes which exert an influence over the eventual choice of a mode of entry of a multinational firm into the host country. During the third quarter of the twentieth century, globalisation was considered a largely political issue, with implications concerning foreign dominance and power wielded by rich, developed nations over the developing and underdeveloped Third World countries. As a consequence, the globalisation commitment entered into by countries in multilateral agreements was met with slow progress and considerable suspicion by political and civic groups. Businessmen were quick to see the advantages, however, of gaining access to new markets opening up across borders. In deciding upon entering a foreign market, a firm takes on considerable risks, but foresees that there is an opportunity to earn considerable returns as well. It will therefore base its decision on whether or not there is a favourable trade-off between risks and returns – that is, whether the chances of earning returns significantly higher than it would in the local market would exceed the risks that it may be facing. This is the crux of the normative decision theory. On the other hand, behavioural theory suggests that a firm may also consider entry into foreign markets depending on the trade-off between the relative availability of resources in the targeted site compared with the home site, as against the degree of control that may be exercised, which is…
The paper tells that in an era of expanding globalization, tastes and preferences of people in different countries and cultures have converged, due to many factors most prominent of which is the increased flow of electronic communications by which people across borders are able to exchange information and socially interact with one another. As a result, the fashion clothing industry has been rapidly expanding across the globe, with the development of brand loyalty and affinity playing a large part in the economic success of certain brands. Fashion clothing companies, in an effort to penetrate new markets and, in some cases, explore new, less costly sources of factors of production, contemplate cross-border expansion. The problem with such a strategy is that there is no one fixed approach to entering another market. Each situation is approached in its own context, because of the unique set of issues relating to each location’s political, economic, social, technical, legal, and environmental circumstances. The particular competencies and resources of the business also work to influence the feasibility of the company’s entry into a foreign market. It is thus possible for a company to select and control the conditions of its entry into other countries, such that it may develop channels of distribution with varying degrees of commitment and exposure. Three companies in particular – Marks &. Spencer, Burberry, and Next – have pursued aggressive expansion strategies in foreign markets.
266500 This suggests that barriers to change could occur from different sources. Managers are the change agents that shape the conditions for change (Saka, 2003). However, they too have to deal with the external environment which includes the organizational culture, the employees, and the top management. In addition, their skill and knowledge to cope with the change process is also critical for the success of the change management process. Despite the importance given to managing change, the change management process at most organizations is a difficult task. Thus, this paper evaluates the change dilemmas and decisions during mergers and the factors that influence change. It also evaluates the role of motivation in implementing change. Change has always been associated with resistance. Resistance can occur when the purpose of change has not been communicated in an appropriate manner. Lack of effective communication can lead to resistance because it disturbs the equilibrium of the workforce that is used to set patterns (Hoang, 2007). Additionally, the change agent may lack the skills, competencies and the ability to manage the change process. They may also fail to recognize that adjustment to a new environment takes time (Kee &. Newcomer, 2008). This would make them push the employees toward change which can lead to frustration. Apart from resistance, employees may demonstrate a demoralized attitude and indifference to work. Gollan (2006) clarifies that management of people is more important than the combined effect of strategy, product quality, service, technology or even investments in research and development. If the staff is not taken into confidence they feel demoralized and they could give vent to their emotions of distrust, shock and anger. According to Schramm (2007) the change management program should be initiated much before the change process so that the transition and change is smooth. AT&.T appears to have adopted the right change management strategy as they linked their HR strategy to the strategic goals of the organization. AT&.T merged two its business units in 1992 and the outcome was the new Global Business Communications Systems (GBCS). When AT&.T merged two business units they faced dilemmas as they encountered several problems in the change process. Human resource effort is necessary to recast policies and programs into tools for linking the new business principles to daily life. The organization recognized that reorganization of the HR function was essential to support the strategic linkage. The change manager at AT&.T was asked to examine every aspect of people dimension which emphasized the need to engage the workforce and create an environment that would support their people as the only sustainable, competitive advantage (Plevel, Lane, Nellis &. Schuler, 1993). This conforms to Alimo-Metcalfe and Alban-Metcalfe (2005) who contend that transformational leaders must be able to articulate a strong vision and purpose to the followers. Transformational leaders must take on teaching role whenever necessary and this is precisely what the leadership at AT&.T organized. The supervisors were asked to work as partners of the employees. The change management process was initiated much in advance. The employees were taken into confidence and the purpose of change was adequately communicated. To counter the apprehensions of the employees, AT&.T initiated extensive communication at the beginning of their change process (Christen, 2005). An
The customers may differ in the time, place, level, type and subject of education.
The choice for market segmentation breathes several crucial reasons for existence and preference. A segmented market provides a better match for customers’ needs. As we know, customers’ needs differ, so we believe that a segmented market shall hold the ability to address these differing needs. This results in greater customer satisfaction and a resultant increase in sales. The acceptance and application of segmentation can see a significant increase in profits for the business. Since every customer can afford a different monetary amount for a commodity, segmentation can help increase the average price. This can add to the profit in business.
Better opportunities for growth find their existence in the segmented market. It aids in building sales. It also helps retain more customers or say more variety of customers. A customer’s need may change with the changing time. For example, the customer grows older, forms families, and has children, change jobs, or care for a change in living place. By virtue of marketing products that appeal to customers at different stages of their life (“life-cycle”), a business can maintain customers who might otherwise change their focus to other existent market products.
Segmentation of the market also helps in the act of targeting marketing communications. It is essential for the growth of any business that its marketing messages reach prospective customers. However, in the case of a huge size market, there exists a strong risk of missing important consumers. The expense of communicating the marketing message to the complete market without the provision of segmentation is really high. The benefit of segmentation here is to reach the targeted customers more often and at lowers expense. Carefully designed segmentation helps target the market with precision. It .enables smaller companies to stand in competition with the bigger ones.
Resume Planning Obviously content is always the more important if we compare it with appearance in regard to resume development. There maybe instances where the opposite will work but generally, a job candidate is better off with a resume containing good content than one with good appearance. This is the case if we are to prioritize only one.
One should remember that a resume functions as a quick overview of a job seeker’s qualification for a position and that its purpose is to provide the employer with a way to identify quickly whether said applicant has the basic qualification for the job. When these variables are absent or are not given enough attention, no matter how pretty a resume looks like, it will end up in the thrash bin. Substance and not the form will ultimately decide the efficacy of an applicant’s dossier. In line with this, I would like to borrow Linda Ormont’s (2001) criteria of strong resume, one that works and catches attention:
1. It has a specific interest to the individual reading it.
2. It is organized and written so that it is easily read. The resume and cover letter will typically be read in approximately thirty seconds.
3. It speaks in powerful, active terms.
4. It presents informative details succinctly.
5. It is impeccably neat and error-free. (p. 155)
However, this is not to say that appearance does not count, because it is also pivotal in achieving a candidate résumé’s objectives. Its significance lies in the fact that it presents an image to the prospective employer. A carefully laid out resume, for instance, could complement the content to project a competent and professional image. Needless to say, a resume that is sloppy or peppered with typographical errors or badly laid-out, would create for the employer an impression that the job applicant would be careless on the job, too. Appearance also helps in getting the resume noticed. It works best in situations where first impressions count – say, when there is a plethora of other resumes and one needs to stand out. This is also true in the creative industry wherein the visual presentation is everything. Usually, there appears a very thin line between content and appearance as the form becomes the substance in this field.
The bottom line here is that content and appearance work hand in hand to communicate the value of the job seeker to a potential employer. Appearance, play the part of positioning and securing the attention of the employer – getting the resume read. The content will nourish the opening and finally detail competencies, enhanced by neat and concise layout.
Not all employers, however, follow the same standard in evaluating resumes. There are those who would scan the dossier in five minutes, there are those who would set store on the first impression, and there are those who value informative content. According to Michael Howard, the degree of importance of these two aspects in resume development varies. (p. 17) For example, if the content, meaning the qualifications, is so outstanding that the candidate just know the employer will be dying to meet with him or her, then there would not be any need for being creative with the appearance at all. Or, if the job applicant knows that his qualifications aren’t going to excite anyone, then he or she could benefit from some creativity in the resume.
Howard, M. (not dated). Alternative Resumes. Alternative Resumes.
Ormont, L. (2001). Career Solutions for Creative People. Allworth Communications, Inc.
The paper gives recommendations on what actions are needed to deal with the legal/ethical issues as well as policies that the company can adopt to prevent such incidents from recurring in the future.
Although the partnership between William H. Gates (more commonly known as Bill Gates) and Paul G. Allen has been established in the year 1975, it was not until a year after that the trade name Microsoft Corporation was officially registered in New Mexico with the Office of the Secretary of the State (Microsoft, 2005). Since then, Microsoft has become renowned worldwide for its extensive range of original products and software as well as their laudable skills in marketing and advertising their products.
As popular the reputation of Microsoft Corporations might be, they have been faced with numerous cases regarding alleged violations of ethical and legal matters. These issues have cropped up in connection with Microsoft’s control of certain markets related to the selling of computers and software.
The earliest inquiry was way back in the year 1990 regarding breach of the Clayton and Sherman antitrust laws. Since then, other complaints from several large corporations such as Apple Computer, Sun Microsystem, and Netscape Communications have been brought against Microsoft Corporation. The most recent antitrust complaint was from Opera Software ASA in the year 2007 with regard to Microsoft’s manipulation of web browsers by combining the Windows operating system with Internet Explorer, thereby going against accepted web standards (Opera Software, 2007).
These complaints have had an effect on Microsoft financially, when .they were made to pay charges and when the price of their stocks started to go downhill. The corporation almost had to split itself into two separate and independent companies, one company was to be in-charge of Windows and the other company was to be for other non-Windows merchandise.
Organization Mission ments AT&.T Mission ment “We aspire to be the most admired and valuable company in the world. Our goal is to enrich our customers personal lives and to make their businesses more successful by bringing to market exciting and useful communications services, building shareowner value in the process” ("At&.t," 2010).
"Your world delivered. Connecting you to your world, everywhere you live and work" ("At&.t," 2010).
Products and Services
AT&.T is the United States second largest telecommunications carrier. As such the organization allocates spectrum wavelengths to telephone manufacturers and charges customers a subscription fee. In addition the organization provides DSL access and wireless service.
"As a leader in communications, Verizons mission is to enable people and businesses to communicate with each other. We are also committed to providing full and open communication with our customers, employees and investors" ("Verizon communications," 2011).
“Rule the Air” ("Verizon communications," 2011).
Products and Services
Verizon is currently the United States primary telecommunications carrier. In addition to providing telecommunications services, Verizon also provides wireless service, High Speed Internet DSL, and a television Fios Video Service ("Verizon communications," 2011).
“To be No. 1 in providing a simple, instant, enriching and productive customer experience” ("Sprint," 2011).
“No. 1 in Customer Experience” ("Sprint," 2011).
Products and Services
Sprint Nextel is the third largest American telecommunications provider behind Verizon Communications and AT&.T. In addition to spectrum telecommunications services, Sprint Next provides wireless services and data plans. They also have three prepaid plans: Boost Mobile and Virgin Mobile USA, and Assurance Wireless ("Sprint," 2011).
At&.t. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.company-statements-slogans.info/list-of- companies-a/at-t.htm
Sprint. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.sprint.com/companyinfo/history/
Verizon communications. (2011). Retrieved from http://www22.verizon.com/investor/app_resources/interactiveannual/2010/index.h tml
The online operation has enabled the Sky PLC to effectively communicate the features and other factors relating to their services to their customers and potential customers. On their website, customers can create their own accounts making it easier for customers to access any information that they want regarding the company’s services. Development of a tailored user interface and activities enables Sky to support and enrich its sustainable business practices.
The entertainment industry is a difficult industry to penetrate and as much difficult for a company to maintain its hold on the market. Sky faces a lot of competition from equally able companies such as Virgin Atlantic. To keep its hold on the market and more so to maintain its hold of its present customers, it becomes exigent to diversify its marketing techniques and such way is through the use of electronic media, especially the internet (Miletsky 2009 p. 217).
The advent of satellite made it possible for Sky to boost its market position. The marketing objectives for Sky have always been to create fresh interest and demand for Sky and to make sure potential customers understand the benefits that come along with using Sky’s products. However, as much as this is necessary or seems necessary in keeping a business going, an extra component of awareness is added to complement this. The campaign and communications have also become an integral part of Sky Digital’s marketing mix embracing public relations (PR), sponsorship and consumer promotions, in-store marketing, branding, and direct marketing activities (Whalen 2009 p. 172).
Focus on e-marketing has proved to be important in most industries, with the target market carving the direction the company takes. For Sky, the major part of its business is aimed at providing digital content. Their target market is divided depending on the content. For example, films would suit film lovers and couples, home banking would suit busy, career-minded people, and documentaries would suit retired people or nature loving people in most cases.
Therefore, as an administrator of the nursing home, he or she has the responsibility to arrange how these patients are going to enjoy their rights to medication. Therefore, the administrator has to choose communication method that will be effective to every resident either traditional, electronic or social media method.
Ancient communication involves using brochures, pamphlets and booklets that are intended to reach audience randomly. However, it is expensive to incur the cost of printing health information in these materials when a few copies are required. Therefore, to be cost effective, many copies of these materials are printed at once.Traditional communication is associated with some advantages such as: convey a precise message because developers of the information seek to produce materials and programs that would meet the need of a large number of potential users, different subgroups in the society were able to access different version of material from the writers. On the other hand, traditional communication hasits disadvantages such that, it is very cumbersome to print a large number of information materials for a large population since the writers writes distinctive information for different population, additionally. if the information to be printed involve a few copies, it is very expensive. Lastly, to customize on population outreach of information by the administrator to different individuals will bedependent upon quick processing of large volume of data hence residents can misunderstand information leading to ineffectiveness of the administrator to the residents.
Emergence of tailored health communication was an indication of growing marketing approach to modify communication in nursing home formedby uniting various innovations at once. Tailored health communication (THC) refers to bringing together information and performance change plans expected to get to a particular person
LB’s Management Case Study Questions Throughout the launching process, the Forever Young global advertising and communications team faced various challenges including miscommunication between the Toronto and London offices, information deficiency, and deficiency of time to deliver a final product. Team’s poor coordination and the decision by Florin and David to leave resulted in a team that had little knowledge of the market. These difficulties derailed the launching process.
The difficulties experienced by LB’s organization are attributable to the use of a long communication link instead of a direct communication which was needed for the turnaround. The organization’s communication link encompassed account supervisors at the London and Toronto offices causing delays, and making it hard for the teams to quickly share information that would have helped in product designing. Also, these challenges are attributable to the failure of LB to adopt face-to-face communication, which would have helped in building the togetherness that the organization direly needed at the launching phase.
If I were Janet Carmichael, I will decentralize the team. After decentralization, I would adopt the traditional format of task assigning. This would be most expedient for the organization.
After decentralization, it will imply that client’s local offices will gain more ability and power. Effective coordination will thus take place at the local level, and cost efficiency of the venture will be enhanced since LB’s team will work directly with clients. To bring a product with a high prospect of success in the Canadian market, this decentralization is necessary since it will allow the marketing in the mass media will be done by utilizing local advertising proficiency.
Case Analysis of NOGO Railroad Affiliation: The NOGO Railroad case study shows a case of a corporation suffering from both macro and micro HR problems, poor performance and lack of morale among employees. Among the macro problems facing NOGO railroad include miscommunication due to complications in the resolution procedures, the telegraph operators’ contract, and employee motivation/morale. On the micro HR problems, the problems identified include favoritism, featherbedding, poor labor distribution, internal politics, and gender insensitivity in assigning contracts. According to the case study at hand, the cause of these problems include excess man power, resistance to change, HR policy is inappropriate, and guarantee-generated extra expenses (Brown, 2010).
In order to respond to these problems, Dave Keller, the new communications is assigned the work of overhauling the structural configuration of the organization and to create an organizational development strategy. However, based on the traditional archaic procedures of resolving issues and the psycho-social effects of favoritism, gender insensitivity, and lack of communication at the place of work among employees and management, employees are more likely to present resistance to change. The areas of resistance include support system where employees are wary that the support they used to get from management would subside or vanish. Employees will resist the alternative of downsizing the labor force as this would mean laying off of some employees. Additionally, a change in organization policy may influence change resistance as some employees may experience side effects of the change – e.g. possible career stagnation. Lastly, due to workplace politics, employee groups are likely to influence change resistance based on historical events associated with the proposed changes (Brown, 2010).
In order to resolve the identified challenges, the organization has the options of developing performance appraisal programs and management, human resource forecasting and planning, proper analysis of responsibilities, and the creation of training and development programs.
Brown, D. (2010). An experiential approach to organization development, 8th edition. Prentice Hall.
Oral Speech Presentation Career Presentation: A Seattle Company My presentation focuses on a specific firm that I desire to work after attaining my Bachelor of Arts in Communication Studies (BA) degree and to give my reason for the same choice.
Introduction: I have identified an organization that I would like to work for/with when I attain my career requirements. I have collected all this information through their company website prior to having a one-on-one inquiry session with the company’s representative at the Human Resources Department, Ms. Brooke IllaHuston. The name of the company is stated below:
Name of the company: PeopleFirm, Seattle
Description: PeopleFirm was founded 12 years ago with the idea of creating a different kind of consulting firm: A company focused on people and grounded in collective experiences in transforming businesses and leading strategic change.
Mission: Helping clients achieve a competitive advantage through their people.
For any job position, they have a set of background pre-requisites.
Pre-requisites for the desired job:
8-10 years prior experience, including experience consulting in large firms or firms specializing in OD, CM, TM, or Human Capital Consulting
An advanced degree in a relevant discipline
No tolerance to cookie cutter solutions – an eye for creativity and innovation
Think, talk straight, and communicate well
Experience with people/team management, as well as large/complex project management
Willingness and an interest in traveling up to 100% to meet a project’s needs
I choose PeopleFirm because, apart from the many years of experience needed which I may not have already, they have other platforms of being in their team as they work in a Lily Pad Model that s more of a lattice rather than a ladder. You only choose where you want to be. Are you a branch, the trunk, bark, a leaf, or the root? Awesome Team! (Adler &. Rodman, 2012).
Visual Aids – a demonstration of team work leading to a better world. PeopleFirm adopts the best team work that focuses of a person’s ability.
Current Salary Range: Substantial for any career person and what is more comfortable here also are the benefits that come with growth in the field! Health, holiday and paid-up off days! Isn’t that the desire of all of us?
What I have learned from the interview:
I got to learn that it is important to build a strong and cooperative human capital in order for any firm to
succeed. I gathered that my presentation is also a workable capacity to enable me to interact with people
from all walks of life. Proper communication is also key in this place and I am happy that I was able to
do this well.
What I have learned in this class:
This class has taught me to develop self confidence and how to handle an interview. This helped me a lot
in knowing how to approach the staff of PeopleFirm and how to indicate what I needed to know. From
the interview, I can relate good team work that has been taught in my class to the success of any
If you have any question I will be ready to answer them. THANK YOU.
Adler, Ronald B. &. George Rodman. (2012). “Understanding Human Communications” Oxford
41000 A CSR communications strategy provides the potential to generate stakeholder participation, which can yield the discussion, production, and dissemination of meaningful ethical norms and practices. Sensemaking enables different stakeholder groups to openly and comprehensively discuss CSR issues and problems. Stakeholders refer to anyone who will be/are affected by the organization’s goals and actions. Sensemaking allows stakeholders to “make sense of things in organizations while in conversation with others while reading communications from others while exchanging ideas with others”. Sensemaking expands ways of thinking and doing through collaboration and questioning groupthink processes. Moreover, despite apprehension for CSR intentions, Ihlen, Bartlett, and May (2011) asserted that companies must exert full effort in expressing CSR intentions because it can engender stakeholder participation. They noted that communication theory offers models for stakeholder involvement and collaboration, including those that deal with conflict and yet build consensus (Ihlen et al, 2011, p.12). Recognizing that companies have self-interests and finding ways to balance that with stakeholder interests are integral to the communication process. Aside from sensemaking, stakeholder theory can improve stakeholder participation. CSR communications treat stakeholders as value-producing in the long run, where value includes financial and social aspects (Morsing &. Schultz, 2006, p.324). CSR concerns the critical balance between financial and non-financial goals of organizations.
Cloud computing and IT management Issues to Implementation of Cloud Computing Cloud computing is an emerging computing model that is centered around scalability, virtualized and distributed resources those are provided as services hosted over Internet. Cloud computing is set to revolutionize delivery and consumption of IT services, various examples of services those are hosted and provided over the Internet include: Intrastructure-as-a-service, Platform-as-a-service and Software-as-a-service. Presently cloud computing market is worth $16.2bn and leading market research firm IDC has forecasted that this figure is expected to rise up to $42bn by 2012.
As per the researchers and practitioners into cloud computing, five key challenges faced by cloud computing include (Brown):
Current enterprise applications cannot be migrated conveniently
Risks (legal, regulatory, and business)
Difficulty of managing cloud applications
Lack of Service Level Agreements
Lack of cost advantage for cloud computing
2. HealthcareIT and the Challenges
Rapid developments in the fields of computers and communications technologies have enabled information technology to secure a commanding position in all walks of life ranging from financial transactions through entertainment to water supplies. Surprisingly, healthcare systems – a domain of high social relevance, world over can be considered as laggards in adopting information technologies (Braa et al. 1). The prime issues those are challenging healthcare IT are (Hersh, 2273):
1. High Costs: Owing to high costs and slow return of investment, healthcare management organizations are not encouraged to deploy IT applications in hospitals.
2. Interoperability: Lack of standardization is the root cause of the missing interoperability amongst various applications of IT in healthcare. This leads to information “silos”.
3. Technical Issues: Technical issues such as complexity leads to low user friendliness in the case of various IT applications in healthcare.
Despite these challenges, forward looking and IT savvy clinicians are trying their best to lead the adoption drive in their respective healthcare set ups, the day is not far when IT applications in healthcare will merge into mainstream healthcare delivery systems.
3. HealthIT Business/Service Concept
Telemedicine (use of information technologies like internet to deliver healthcare services at a distance) is one applications of HealthIT that has the potential to not only address some of the intransigent healthcare issues but is also promising enough from a business perspective. Telemedicine enables delivery of healthcare services and medical education from one geographical location to another primarily to address challenges like uneven distribution and shortage of infrastructural and human resources.
Tertiary hospitals can set up peripheral hospitals in remote and isolated areas these and these peripheral hospitals can have telemedicine linkages via internet with the tertiary level (referral) hospital primarily to extend the reach of specialized medical services to remote and isolated cases. This type of business concept has been used by a number of healthcare service providers around the globe. Slowly and steadily such services are not only bridging the digital divide but are also acting as pathways for revenue generation.
1. Braa, J., O. Hanseth, A. Heywood, W. Mohammed, and V. Shaw. "Developing Health Information Systems in Developing Countries: The Flexible Standards Strategy." MIS Quarterly. 31.2 (2007): 381-402.
2. Brown, E.D. "Risks and issues in Cloud Computing." Eric D Brown: Technology, Strategy, People and Projects 2 Feb 2009: n. pag. Web. 4 Nov 2009. .
3. Hersh, W. "Health Care Information Technology: Progress and Barriers." Journal of American Medical Association. 292.18 (2004): 2273-2274.
A theme that was present in the case study is motivation. Motivation can be defined as a driving force that initiates and directs behavior (Romando). The use of motivation in the workplace can enhance the efficiency and productivity of employees. The person that is mostly responsible for providing motivation at work is the manager. Managers must motivate the staff to achieve higher levels of performance. Speaking openly to employees and encouraging them to tell their ideas are great ways to enhance communications in the workplace. Managers can provide motivation by using intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Public praise and recognition are examples of intrinsic rewards, while tangible rewards in the workplace such as promotions are examples of extrinsic rewards. A good leader is able to inspire others through his actions, words, and job achievements.
In workplaces were the bosses show favoritism employees often get discourage and lose motivation. Felt inequity in the workplace is a factor that destroys motivation. Equity theory states that employees will react based on their felt perception of fairness and justice (Managementstudyguide). Motivating the employees is in the best interest of the manager or leader. Employees that are motivated are more likely able to achieve job satisfaction. “In order for an organization to be successful they must continuously ensure the satisfaction of their employees” (Arizona). Companies that have motivated staffs suffer from lower employee turnover rate. Losing employees is not in the best interest of companies since employee churn hurts the company in terms of training cost, productivity, and recruiting expenses.
In the case study Bonuses can Backfire the company made the mistake of relying solely on bonuses to motivate employees. The use of rewards can reduce the employees’ intrinsic interest in the task they are supposed to perform. A more effective strategy is for a manager to combine the use of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. It is important for employees to get the moral support of their superiors. Often intangible rewards such as telling a worker that they did a good job at the end of the shift can inspire the employee. Sometimes employees cheat the system and act in unethical and illicit manners in order to obtain a financial reward. Kenneth Fay, former CEO of Enron, is an example of an executive that falsified financial information to obtain an economic benefit. His bonuses were tied to the financial performance of the corporation.
Companies must never forget that the performance of an enterprise is dependent on the human factor. The employees of a firm are the heart and soul of the operation. Keeping these workers motivated is imperative towards the success of the company. The case study proved that one type of motivator such a financial reward is not sufficient. Keeping the lines of communication open between the managerial staff and the blue collar workers can enhance the ability of the manager to lead the staff. Firms must pay a total compensation package that is equal or higher than the market to ensure that workers are happy and motivated.
Work Cited Page
Arizona.edu. “Job Satisfaction.” 18 February 2013. Managementstudyguide.com. 2012. “Equity Theory of Motivation.” 18 February 2013. Romando, R. 2013. “Define Motivation.” 18 February 2013.