## Chemistry homework

These are a portion of the questions that are needed to be answered. If you decided to complete this assignment I will screenshot and send the remaining 9 questions.1. The equilibrium constant KP for the reaction is 203 at a certain temperature. CalculatePO2ifPNO = 0.411 atm and PNO2 = 0.385 atm.2NO2(g)⇆ 2NO(g) O2(g) PO2 = atm2. Enter your answer in the provided box. For the reaction N2(g) 3H2(g)⇆ 2NH3(g) KP is 0.000817 at 683°C.What is Kc for the reaction? Kc =3. A reaction vessel contains NH3, N2, and H2 at equilibrium at a certain temperature. The equilibrium concentrations are [N2] = 0.41 M, [H2] = 1.26 M, and [NH3] = 0.40 M.Calculate the equilibrium constant, Kc, if the reaction is represented as (1/2)N2(g) (3/2)H2(g) ⇌ NH3(g)4. Ammonium carbamate, NH4CO2NH2,decomposes as follows: NH4CO2NH2(s) ⇆ 2NH3(g) CO2(g) Starting with only the solid, it is found that at 40°C the total gas pressure(NH3 and CO2) is 0.263 atm.Calculate the equilibrium constant KP5. Enter your answer in the provided box.A 2.180 mole quantity of NOCl was initially placed in a1.150 L reaction chamber at 400°C. After equilibrium was established,it was found that 28.60 percent of the NOCl has dissociated:2NOCl(g) ⇆ 2NO(g) Cl2(g)Calculate the equilibrium constant Kc for the reaction.6. At 1000 K, a sample of pure NO2 gas decomposes:2NO2(g) ⇌ 2NO(g) O2(g)The equilibrium constant, KP, is 158. Analysis shows that the partial pressure of O2 is 0.43 atm at equilibrium. Calculate the pressure of NO and NO2 in the mixture.13/05/202015chemistry

## Chemistry

Crystal Violet Lab Report:1. Based on your data and graphs, determine the order of the reaction in crystal violet. Explain the reasoning for your choice.2 Determine the pseudo rate constant, K’, for Trial # 1.3. Using the pseudo rate law, determine the rate of the reaction for trial # 1 after 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 15 minutes.4. Write the integrated form of the rate law for Trial #1 relating [CV] to time.5. Determine the half- life for Trial 16. Using the data from the two runs, determine the order of the reaction in OH. Round the closest integer.7. Calculate the Value of the true rate constant for Trial #1 and Trial #2 and include the units.8. Write the rate law for this reaction using the average rate constant found in question 7.11/05/202020chemistry

## Cities and states have slashed spending on infrastructureâfrom highways to sewage systems to EnSci100 Exam 1 ReviewTwo questionsI need a 1225 word strategic analysis Attached is the information from part 1 that was previously submitted FOR EXCEPTIONAL PROFF ONLY&quot

we talked about it College chemistry 2 (1046)Web Development HomeworkFor FLOVODOH ONLY!!!!! Topic: The Music and life of Pierre Schaeffer *A brief biography of him. The paper must focus on his musical career and his compositions. How long would it take to write a paper over Political Writings? Not ratedwrite a paperCh. 1 “Know Why You’re Writing” (p. 3) Ch. 2 “Understand Your Readers” (p. 7)

## Unknown and Undiluted Titration Date

﻿Unknown and Undiluted Titration DateIntroductionDry Chelating agent is dissolved in the nanopure water to make the product that is NA2H2EDTA.2H2O, which is a standard solution. Furthermore the EDTA solution is calculated and analysis has it that, it is 0.0018+-0.00004M.hence the unknown fraction with a factor of 5 is diluted and titrated three times, the total concentration of Mg2+ and Ca2+ was calculated using one of the factor in unknown sample. Notably the total concentration is 0.050+-0.005M due to calculations. Moreover, the unknown sample is three times titrated hence the concentration of the Ca2+ only, is used to calculate the data that did result to 0.0230+-0.0004M.Furthermore,the concentration of Cca2+ is again subtracted from all the total concentration, in addition the Mg2+ concentration is 0.0227+-0.005M after calculation.Experimental sectionAll the calculation did use Ca/Mg solution of quantity 1.00ml50.00ml of solution under goes dilution in unknown 10.00mlOutcomesStandard EDTA solution concentration After Na2H2EDTA.2H2O is prepared, and goes in contamination by water in 0.3 wtpercentage the standard solution has to be corrected. Here below are the equations that analyses and further determines the EDTA solution concentration. Mass without impurity is the mass corrected and the mass actual is the dried chelating agent. EDTA concentration bears the name as CEDTA. the initial MW represents molecular weight. and the volume of the solution (500 ml) is V solution. Propagation of the errors calculates the uncertainty. Balance of uncertainty is +- 0.0001g and that of volumetric flask’s uncertainty is +-0.15 ml. standard relative deviation is initialized by SRD.Calculation of results is in tabulation in the table. Results show that, both relative derivation volume and relative derivation balance is +-0.0003.Moreso, after calculating using the values above EDTA concentration solution is 0.0018+-0.0004M.Unknown sample titration1.00ml Ca/Mg solution in spike is contained in the blank titration, Ph 10 buffer solution, water in conjunction with the indicator. From all the titration, the data in trial one from all the titrations undergoes nullification due to it being carried out hastily. Additional of 1.00ml in dilution of the unknown sample to the blank titration is put in performance. Equation below is used to calculate V total:Sample of unknown and undiluted titrationSpike solution of1.00ml Ca/Mg, NAOH, water and lastly indicator did perform titration, all-inclusive. Furthermore, the unknown titration bears additional 1.00ml of which in calculates blank titration.DiscussionUnknown sample concentration of Mg2+ and Ca2+Both the standard deviation and the mean of part one and part two titrations are as follows and in illustration in table 4.Concentration of Mg2+ and Ca2+ can be identified from the values in the unknown sample. Dilution factor will be multiplied with the total concentrations of the calculations results, since the unknown sample is involved in the titration.5 is a dilution factor because 10.00 mL of sample that is unknown is used in the 50.00 mL volumetric flask.1.00ml is the entire value of Valiquote.Ca2+ concentration calculation as in equations (11) and (12), since the unknown diluted samples is used then there is no dilution factor (Masterton 121). It is pertinent to note that, by subtracting the concentration of the Ca2+ from the resultant concentration, the Mg2+ is found following the example in (13) and (14) equations. Due to propagation of the errors, uncertainties come in and are notable. The numerical values are in illustration in table 5 and represent each equation:0.0049+- 0.0001M results from the unknown samples and the total concentration of Mg2+ and Ca2+.Ca2+ has the concentration of 0.0032+-0.0003M and 0.0017+-0.0001M is the concentration of Mg2+ . Preparation of standard EDTA solution was in association with uncertainties, pipetting the concentration of the unknown is neglected due to availability of the possibility of ignoring unfair accuracies.Mg2+ to Ca2+ molar ration is 0.5 which is less that 0.1 value. Therefore, there is no significant contamination of the unknown samples.Work cited Masterton , William. Chemistry: Principles and Reactions, 2nd Edition, New York: Cengage Learning, 2009.

## Argumentative and Assignment

One of these alternatives of giving remedies to diseases and ailment is referred to as homeopathy. In homeopathy, the proponents propose that when highly diluted form of infection substances are injected into the body of an ailing person with the same disease. he/she is able to realize normalcy since the highly diluted form of the antigens injected in the body will eradicate the ailment. This proposal has elicited serious rejection form different quarters with the proponents and the opponents maintaining equal position with reference to the effectiveness of homeopathy. Thesis Statement Having conceptualize the information surrounding homeopathy and how it gives remedies to diseases and ailment, I have not found any scientific backing as to whether the proposed form of rendering remedy can indeed work as stated. I therefore hold a contrary opinion about the process, believe that the process is short of basic science, and cannot be relied upon in giving medication in the contemporary medication arena. In the Article titled ‘Evidence and Simplicity. Why we should Reject Homeopathy’ by Scott Sehon and Donald Stanley, there is a logical criticism on the functionality of homeopathy as a form of medication. In the criticism of the way homeopathy works, the article sought to address two fundamental questions about the remedy. is there a plausible explanatory theory about homeopathy that will make it appreciable by the opponent and if that is the case. Can we fully rely on homeopathy as a way of giving remedies given it usefulness as proposed by the proponent and is there sound and empirical evidence that the effectiveness of homeopathy is real (Sehon and Stanley, 4). The tow questions that were sought in the articles drew party answers from the proponents leaving a row of speculation on the efficacy of their proposed method of remedies. The proponents of this method of medication themselves accept that they don’t understand the science behind it and all they know is that it works miraculously, this response is irresponsible in the science domain. In science, cogent evidence, clarity, examples, and inferences are important facets of convincing eager audience about a proposal. Without scientific backing, such proposals are at best considered bad jokes. According to science, for anything to be considered able to give remedy, it must consider to explain the chemistry art of the medication and how it interacts with the body physiology. These important facts are ignored by homeopathy making its belief significantly impossible. The only defense the proponents of homeopathy are putting forth is that the medication needs not to march the western medication. The reason as to why I find the functionality of homeopathy patchy is the principle known in the medicinal field. Small microorganisms called antigens are responsible for the occurrence of diseases. The diseases are caused by the antigens, which are specific, and exhibit similar clinical symptoms from one person to another. The antigens are different and can only be cleared by the different drugs or prevented by vaccines. In homeopathy, this is not the case. the same antigens responsible for the occurrence of a disease are also responsible for the remedies upon dilution. This argument have no scientific reasoning and that explains why it has been disregarded by most scientist as

## Research Process and Terminology

There are many research methods that once can choose in the field of criminal justice research. Most of them include the perceiving, gathering, analyzing and then carefully researching by bringing into use the scientific method, and in all these steps, the knowledge of terminology regarding the field plays an important role in fulfilling the requirements of all these steps (Hagan, 2010). Many experts argue that many of the terms which are used in the everyday life have been originated from social sciences research. and little credit has been given to the undertakings that have been achieved through theoretical knowledge because quickly after the discoveries, they were dissolved into the conventional astuteness (Brennett, Briggs Triola, 2003). The experts seem to support their assertions by stating the fact that various numbers of practitioners from the field of criminal justice had to face failure every time because they relied more upon their common sense rather than concentrating upon the terminology that has been specially specified for this field (Ellis, Hartley Walsh, 2010). Over the years, the criminal justice professionals have been facing a lot of challenges in their efforts to restore the tear created in the social fabric. It is a well known fact that one can’t even begin to flourish in any field in this world without a foundation from which to build, and knowledge if terminology is the foundation of criminal justice research (Ellis, Hartley Walsh, 2010). Having to go forward in a field without building a solid foundation increases the problems and would continuously perplex the situation further. Having the sound knowledge of the proper terminology and knowledge to the professionals of the field can prove to be very beneficial in incorporation of scientific knowledge and research methods in collecting and analyzing the data and ultimately the results that are extracted from these researches can greatly influence the professionalism and career building ethics (Hagan, 2010). It is a well known fact that research is the fundamental part of any field of science such as biology, physics and chemistry. Moreover, the same research analysis is also needed in the fields of social sciences, criminal management research and education as well. Experiments are conducted for every research, and in every experiment two types of variables are there, namely. independent variables and independent variables (Brennett, Briggs Triola, 2003). An independent variable is the variable that the person who is conducting the research directly and systematically manipulates, or is that variable that is selected by the researcher to determine the relation of any type of observation. In other words, this is a variable that can be under the control of the researcher, like a treatment, or may be not in control such as an exposure. On the other hand, the dependent variables in an experiment are factors which are observed and measured and determined as a result of manipulation that has been done in the independent variables. In short, the dependent variable is the outcome of the experiment that has been obtained by causing a change in the independent variables (Ellis, Hartley Walsh, 2010). An important point worth mentioning here is that instead of studying specific elementary concepts such as studying the terminology of the field

## I Have An Organic Chemistry Exam In A Few Days!! I Found An Old Copy Of An Exam And I Am Trying To Work Through

2. Structure. Answer the following questions with respect to Molecule A shown below (10
marks). i) Draw the shorthand (skeletal) structure. H 05F
Molecule A: H3C/ 2 \CH3
l 3
ii) Draw the lone pairs on the ﬂuorine atom.
iii) Assign a hybridization state to all carbon atoms. iv) Calculate the degree of unsaturation using the appropriate formula. v) Give a systematic name. vi) Draw a Newman projection of Molecule A in its staggered conformation looking
down the Carbon 3- carbon 2 bond (Carbon 3 in front). vii) Draw a constitutional (structural) isomer of Molecule A. viii) Is Molecule A chiral? Why or why not? ix) Draw the carbocation derived from loss of ﬂuorine from Molecule A (1 mark).
Add a proton to the ﬂuorine atom of Molecule A and draw the resultant structure (1
mark) Science

## Inorganic Chemistry Questions On Spinel Structures Such As Mgal2o4 And Fe3o4

Fe3O4 has the inverse spinel structure where half of the trivalent B cations are in the eight
tetrahedral holes and the 16 octahedral holes are filled with other half of the B cations and
all of…Science

## In A Bookcase 4 Different Math Books 6 Different Physics Books And 2 Different Chemistry Books Will Be

(@)det P stands for the collection of 6 different physics
books, M stands for the collection of 4 different math
books.
books, and C stands for the collection of 2 different chemistry
Numbers of…Statistics and Probability

## Hello This Is Organic Chemistry I Need Accurate Answers Please Take Your Time To Finish These

1. Nomenclature. Give the IUPAC name of the compound below; put your answer on the
line below the compound. Remember that benzene compound may have common names as
parent names – make sure you…Science

## 1) In Chemistry The Ph Of An Aqueous Solution Is A Measure Of Its Acidity

A solution with a pH of 7 is said to

Question

# 1) In chemistry, the pH of an aqueous solution is a measure of its acidity. A solution with a pH of 7 is said to

be neutral, a solution with a pH greater than 7 is basic, and a solution with a pH less than 7 is acidic. we need a vector of structures with various solutions and their pH values. and need a function that will determine acidity. Add another field to every structure for this.

mysol(3)=struct(‘name’,’bleach’,’PH’,12);

mysol(1)=struct(‘name’,’juice’,’PH’,5);

mysol(2)=struct(‘name’,’milk’,’PH’,7);

function acidity=deter(mysol)

for i=1:length(mysol)

if mysol(i).PH7

mysol(i).acidity=’acidic’;

elseif mysol(i).PH==7

mysol(i).acidity=’neutral’;

elseif mysol(i).PH7

mysol(i).acidity=’basic’;

end

end

end

Can someone please tell me where i got it wrongjQuery22402895685611183094_1571272908984

Statistics and Probability

Question

chemistry experiment requires you to mix two chemicals in a test tube. To safely observe the chemical reaction you should:

a. Peer into the test tube from a safe distance

Question

# I am looking for help with general chemistry equations results. I need help with determining what the resultants

are from the following reaction:

1. pentane + sulphuric acid and potassium permanganate = ?
2. cyclohexane + sulphuric acid and potassium permanganate = ?
3. phenyl acetylene + sulphuric acid and potassium permanganate = ?
4. biphenyl + sulphuric acid and potassium permanganate = ?
5. toluene + + sulphuric acid and potassium permanganate = ?
6. pentane + ammoniacal silver = ?
7. cyclohexane + ammoniacal silver = ?
8. phenylacetylene + ammoniacal silver = ?
9. biphenyl + ammoniacal silver = ?
10. toluene + ammoniacal silver = ?
11. pentane + sulphuric acid = ?
12. cyclohexane + sulphuric acid = ?
13. phenylacetylene + sulphuric acid + ?
14. biphenyl + sulphuric acid = ?
15. toluene + sulphuric acid = ?

Thank you in advance for your help. I am struggling with the resulting chemicals from these equations (right side of the equations)

Science

Question

# Hello, so I need to assign the hybridizations for a molecule.I remember from lecture, our prof said

that if there is possibility of delocalization of electrons through resonance that can lead to formation of a double bond on one atom, that atom’s hybridization will be an SP2 instead of an SP3. I have attached pictures of two molecules as examples. however, when I was watching the organic chemistry tutors video on this topic, he did not consider this and assigned SP3 to the N atom. could you please assign the hybridization on N atom in the two pictures and explain to me how I can determine this by myself?

A famous drug which is marketed for its
famous quot;side effectquot;… Assign hybridizations!
This chemical
Rosmula belongs to viagra. a
-7
2
CH3
2
Z
spe
HaC- N:
ZI
O
2
Sp2
CH3
2
CH3
hilite
resonanceScience

## How I Need Help Before Tomorrow Morning Any Of You Night Organic Chemistry Owls Up ?

1. Frequency is IR is directly related to the energy a bond requires to vibrate, remember E =
hv. So when a bond is stronger energy required would be more so will be the frequency.
Conjugation…Science

## When Dealing With Organic Chemistry Ii Please Provide Reagents For The Following Synthesis Reactions Please Use An

8. Provide the reagents necessary to accomplish the following transformations (4 points each).
You may use anything you wish, as big as you like.
Note: If you can make something via ketone or via ester, choose the ester.
a.
OCH3
Br
OH
b.
Br
OH
OH
C.
OH
d.
e.
HO
X
O
f.
Br
OHScience

Question

# Organic Chemistry- Mass Spectroscopy A molecule with a mass of 100 g/mol shows a mass spectrum

with a peak at m/z=100 with an abundance of 36 and a peak of m/z=101 with an abundance of 3. How many carbons does this molecule have? Show work and explain how you get this

Science

Question

# Hi, am learning about conversions in my general chemistry class and I have no clue how to cancel things like my

professor does while solving a problem. For example, we had a question where we had to convert kilograms to picograms and I simply do not understand how she knows where exactly to place the numbers in order to start cancelling and end up with the right answer. Would you please help me solve any conversion problem it can be from kg to picogram or km per hour to miles per second since that is what we have been learning in my chem class.

Thanks.

Science

## Lab Report Needed Please A Lab Report With Questions Answered They’Re In 2 Separate Files The Procedure Is

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY ASSIGNMENT
The mas of sodium borohydride that would be required for the complete reaction of for the complete
reduction of off 5ml of cyclohexanone considering the density of…Science

Question

# 11.4.3. Lab: Molecular Models Chemistry 1 The number of bonds an atom can form

without violating the octet rule is reflected in the number of holes the ball for that atom has in the ball-and-stick model set. Based on that information, how many holes would you expect to see in models of atoms for each of the following elements:

a. Carbon (C)

b. Nitrogen (N)

c. Oxygen (O)

d. Hydrogen (H)

Science

## This Is A Question For Inorganic Chemistry (Group Theory)Please Answer This Question In Detail Asap

(a) Number of vibrational degrees of freedom = 3N-6 = 3*4-6= 6 ( N is the number of atoms)
(b) There are four symmetric of these vibrations which are shown below : (c) All vibrations are present in…Science

## What is the Important Thing in Your Life and What have You Done in Order to Achieve It

As such, I would like to pursue a master’s degree in materials science and engineering, a field of study I am immensely enthusiastic about.
I graduated with a bachelor’s degree in materials science and engineering at UCLA. I have acknowledged that the university was successful in inculcating the theoretical frameworks needed to firmly establish concepts for future work applications. The undergraduate degree had provided the building blocks for confirming the interest in materials science as a field of discipline. The courses taken included chemistry, mathematics, physics, as well as engineering sciences. I affirm that the conceptual frameworks provided the knowledge and skills set that assisted in preparing me to apply them in future endeavors.
One of the noted activities that were undertaken was the creation of a Facebook group for Koreans since there was no way to communicate with each other in 2011. The move was considered very effective in terms of enabling the sharing of personal, family, and relationship information over the course of time. Currently, over 2000 people joined the group. The initiative to come up with the design and process to make Facebook accessible to Koreans was acknowledged to be commendable. given the popularity of the social network site. However, cultural and language barriers make access to Facebook in its original English format was deemed to be intimidating to youngsters, who were identified to form the majority portion of Facebook users. Therefore, enabling Facebook to be accessed in the native language with options to tap offered services and applications was considered timely then, and effective to achieve the purpose of social networking.

## INTRODUCTION of FRIEDELCRAFTS ACYLATION

Friedel-Crafts alkylation and Acylation reactions are normally in the special of the electrophilic aromatic substitution where the underlying electrophile is either a carbocation or acylium ion. The reaction is highly significant since it entail carbon-carbon bond formation thus permitting alkyl and acyl groups to be substituted onto the underlying aromatic rings. Clemmensen reduction method is normally preferable in cases where there is introduction of an n-alkyl group onto the underlying aromatic ring subsequent with the acylation. This is because clemmensen reduction route normally hinders secondary alkyl substitution that results from corresponding carbocation on rearrangement (Klein, 195-269). Nevertheless, in direct alkylation, the underlying ratio of the primary to secondary alkyl substitution can differ depending on the existing aromatic substrate and reaction conditions.
Mechanism for the Friedel-Crafts acylation of benzene
Acyl halide first reacts with the underlying Lewis acid resulting to formation of more electrophilic C, an acylium ion. The n-electrons of the underlying aromatic C=C which act as nucleophile then attack the electrophilic C+ thereby destroying aromaticity resulting to the cyclohexadienyl cation intermediate. Finally proton is removed from sp3 C bearing the acyl-group reforms the corresponding C=C and the required aromatic system resulting to the creation of HCl and regeneration of the active catalyst.
Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction occur when an alkyl group is added to a benzene molecule through electrophile aromatic substitution reaction.
The reaction commence with the generation of methyl carbonation from the corresponding methyl bromide. Carbonation then reacts with underlying n electron system of the benzene in order to form a nonaromatic carbocation that subsequently loses a proton to in order to regenerate aromaticity of the system (Klein, 53-134). The reaction takes place in steps with an electrophile formation via reaction of the methylchlorine and aluminium chloride.
The underlying electrophile then attacks the underlying n-electron system of the existing benzene ring to result to a nonaromatic carbocation.
Positive charge on the resultant carbonation is delocalized via molecule Aromaticity is then restored through the loss of a proton from the corresponding atom that is bonded to the methyl group.
Prevailing proton the reacts with the underlying AlCl 4 − to restore the AlCl 3 catalyst thus forming HCl Carbocation then rearranges during the process to form unpredicted products.
Work Cited
Klein, David R. Organic Chemistry Ii As a Second Language: Translating the Basic Concepts. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley, 2011. Print.

## Chaingrowth polymerization reactions

Task: Chain Growth Polymerization Outline Chain growth polymerization is a polymerization process or technique Chain growth polymerization has the chemical equation. (-M-)N (polymer) +M (monomer) -&gt. (-M-) n+1
It leads to the generation of different material composites and polymers
Polystyrene is a polymer of styrene consists of adjoined identical molecules.
Polythene is composed of–CH2– units
Chain growth polymerization corresponds to a polymerization process or technique in which unsaturated monomer molecules add to the active site of a growing polymer chain. These occurs one monomer at a time. This process has distinct characteristics because of the limited number of active sites on the polymer. Chain growth polymerization can be symbolized using this chemical equation. (-M-)N (polymer) +M (monomer) -&gt. (-M-) n+1 (Peacock and Allison 86). In this case, n refers to the degree or extent of polymerization and M occurs as an unsaturated compound. Chain growth polymerization occurs in distinctive steps. The first step involves chain initiation in which an initiator commences the chemical process. The next step involves chain elongation followed by chain transfer. Chain transfer concludes the chain after which the active site is moved to the new chain. Polymers, solvents and monomers can facilitate this. This processes leads to an increase in the branching of the ensuing polymer. Chain termination occurs as the last step through disproportion or combination. Termination in fundamental polymerization occurs when free radicals combine.
The active center for a chain growth polymerization can assume the state of a free radical in the corresponding polymerization. Radical polymerization in this case involves the successive addition of radical building blocks. This can occur through several mechanisms, which involve different initiator molecules (Wünsch 131). After the generation process, the initiating radical adds monomer units, which leads to the growth of the polymer.
Chain growth polymerization leads to the formation of an elevated molecular weight polymer at low conversion. In this case, the mass depends on the rate of chain termination upon comparison to the rate of propagation. This incorporates both chain termination, as well as chain transfer steps. Temperatures above the ceiling temperatures disrupt the polymerization process (Wünsch 77).
Practical Uses of Polystyrene and Polythene
Polystyrene is a polymer of styrene consists of adjoined identical molecules. It appears as a neutral and oily substance. It has a structure that resembles inflexible and transparent thermoplastic or stiff white foam (Wünsch 101). It is a common plastic found in home and industrial applications. Polystyrene is used by the package industry in making packaging bags that keep delicate materials safely enclosed. It is also used in DVD cases and plastic forks, models of cars, housing computers and most plastic materials. Polythene is relatively soft, and facilitates the construction of plastic films. The common categories of polythene are known based on their density.
Works Cited
Peacock, Andrew J, and Allison Calhoun. Polymer Chemistry: Properties and Applications. Munich [u.a.: Hanser, 2006. Print.
Richardson, Terry L, and Erik Lokensgard. Industrial Plastics: Theory and Application. Albany, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning, 2003. Print.
Wünsch, J R. Polystyrene: Synthesis, Production and Applications. Shawbury, Shrewsbury: Rapra Technology Ltd, 2000. Print.

## Influence Of Slope Aspects On Woodland Ecosystem Of Duhok

Studies have shown that position of a slope in an ecosystem affect the quality of organic material, soil chemistry, and nutrient cycling, largely. it affects the soil quality than even the type of bedrock beneath the soil (Yimer, Sting and Adelkadir 2006, p.95). Research that has been conducted on influence of topographical features on soils in southern Italy clearly demonstrate that soils originating from the same parent material, with the same vegetative covering and climate, with the only difference being the position of the landscape produced different and varied microclimatic conditions (Chen, Hsieh, Jiang, Hsieh and Sun 1997, p.230).
In the northern temperate climatic zone, the aspect of a slope was found to be a huge influence of the microclimatic conditions of the area mainly influenced by the temperature levels (Coleman, Crossley and Hendrix 2004, p.312). This is because the amount of solar that area experiences will determine the levels of temperature and water in the soil, the inherent characteristics of the soil will be affected (Fu, Liu, Ma and Zhu 2004, p.48). In the Pinus laricio forests of southern Italy, the north-facing slope receives higher insolation and as a result, there is low moisture content that is also connected to the scanty vegetative cover and insolating effects of small vegetation (Gong, Chen, Fu and Wei 2007, p.1).
Differences in the soil microbial activities offer the different type of plant species. These plant species depend on the soil moisture, root activities, temperature and organic matter that return to the soil through the litter that falls from the plants (Gong, Brueck, Giese, Zhang, Sattelmacher and Lin 2008, p.484). Studies have been carried out to determine the effects of climatic conditions on the soil and vegetation properties, however no studies have been carried to determine the influence of aspect in the soil and vegetation properties(Tewksbury and Lloyd 2001, p.426).

## Psychoanalysis and Family Therapy

While psychology may be one of the oldest learned sciences, it remains still one that is shrouded in darkness and mystery. In the past, psychiatry was chiefly being carried out with the help of theories, ideologies and concepts with no idea about their true depth. The evolution of this field led to a world of revolutions and proposals. Some claimed that there is the role of biological factors while others blamed on the environmental factors etc.
The complications in the treatment of various mental disorders are still lagging behind due to many reasons. There is still much to be learned about the efficacy of various treatment strategies that have been introduced in the field of psychology. More structured information needs to be made in order to achieve better results (Fonagy, 2004, p. 357).
Psychoanalysis has been identified as one of the most efficient method of assessing various personality types and disorders. An invention of Freud, this methodology has been able to provide an alternative to hypnosis, a once very popular method of psyche assessment. Through in depth assessment of the person through verbal and symbolic communications, the psychiatrist is able to identify issues that are affecting the person (Fonagy, 2004, p. 357).
“the deficiencies in our description would probably vanish if we were already in a position to replace the psychological terms with physiological or chemical ones…..we may expect [physiology and chemistry] to give the most surprising information and we cannot guess what answers it will return in a few dozen years of questions we have put to it. They may be of a kind that will blow away the whole of our artificial structure of hypothesis.” (Freud, 1920, pp 60).
Psychoanalysis has been identified as one of the most effective methods in psychiatric treatments, and has been widely accepted in many health care systems of the world (Hau and Leuzinger- Bohleber, nd, pp 4). Many names have been given to this

## Garage Sale by Janet Fox

Critical Review of "Garage Sale" There are different modes that are utilized by people for shopping. It all depends upon the preferences of specific people. Means of shopping include malls, markets and different commercial centers. A different and interesting form of shopping includes garage sales. This sale is unique and as the name indicates it is that sale which is installed in a person’s garage for the purpose of auctioning household products. An interesting short story “Garage Sale” written by Janet Fox presents a scenario of one such garage sale. The story depicts a perfect image of the setting according to the time and place. It shows a flawless chemistry between the characters of the story interweaving the different aspects of the novel in an intriguing manner.
The “Garage Sale”, by Janet Fox (100 Great Fantasy Short Stories, 1984) begins with the introduction of two friends, Stella and Jen who are out on a drive. They are both explained as different characters with Jen being presented as more sober and Stella as a fun loving girl. Stella drives to the wrong road and they end up locating a garage sale in a suburban locality. Both the friends enter the garage sale. They see a lady sitting over there and both of them start looking at different things. It is here that Jen comes across a man who appears to be dead to her. She tries to grab the attention of her friend Stella but before that the lady of the sale intervenes and makes the attempt of Jen unsuccessful. It is then known that the lady is actually a witch. She presents an offer to Jen that she can purchase the man as her husband in ten dollars. Though this appears to be a strange offer but Jen gets convinced and pays the bill and purchases Ben. The witch infuses life into the still man who is Ben. Jen and Ben enter a different era immediately where they are together in a house. Towards the end it can be understood that there is a loss of coordination between the husband and wife and they present with a complex relationship.
Janet Fox gives a perfect presentation of the story and the characters are designed in a manner to completely fit their picture in the story. From the beginning of the plot till the end she explains the characters with reference to their roles and their dialogues are designed in a way to provide an in depth explanation of their nature. She begins with the description of the characters of Jen and Stella presenting their physical appearances. Stella is explained as a girl who changes her style every now and then whereas comparatively Jen is simpler. This can be seen when Fox says “Jen was to Stella as the wren is to the cardinal, not noticeable beside the more flamboyant display, yet having a quiet style of her own.” (Fox, 100).
Stella seems to be very engaged in her own life and enjoying her life in a different manner. She is not worried when they turn the wrong way and then they reach the garage sale. Her attitude can also be seen in the garage when she goes around looking at things and not caring about her surroundings. On the other hand, Jen appears to be a very observant girl who notices the fact when Stella goes wrong on the roads. She also appears to be quiet comparatively and looks at things around attentively. This is seen when she figures the man who seems to be dead in the garage. The character of Jen can also be considered to be lonely as well as sympathetic. This judgment can be reached when she thinks that she could not leave Ben lying there and she also accepts him as her husband. This part of Jen’s character is explained by Fox in this way”She didn’t think she could just leave him there like that, staring into space and sitting in that ratty recliner for all eternity. And then, she hadn’t had much luck getting a husband the usual way, so….” (Fox 103).
The “Garage Sale” is presented by Janet Fox with a plot that closely relates to the characters and explains their relation with respect to the story. This story is set in a fascinating manner which captures the reader and keeps him engaged in the plot till the end. The story runs in a smooth manner with the display of the characters of Stella and Jen. It then moves to the garage sale and the character of Jen is further explained and there is introduction of Ben and the witch as well. Thus the story interweaves the flow of the story with the characters.

## Analysis of Frankenstein by Mary Shelley

She also helped in editing and promoting the poems written by her husband. Through this, Shelley’s skills in writing developed greatly. When she was just 18, Shelley began writing the novel Frankenstein, and it was published two years later. This has remained to be one of her most popular works. She passed away in 1853 aged 53 (Pastore, ed., 14). The novel mainly centers on a scientist named Victor Frankenstein, who creates a being like a man, but more powerful. By reading the novel, it is evident that the idea of the Gothic novel and the Romantic Movement are infused. There are a number of similarities between Victor Frankenstein and the creature he made. This essay explores some of these similarities and differences.
A deeper reading of this novel reveals that both Victor Frankenstein and his creature have similar characteristics and personalities. First, both are self-centered people whose main aim is to pursue happiness and fulfill their dreams. Victor’s desire to create life is a personal wish he fulfills with total disregard of the people around him. In fact, Victor says that “One of the phenomena which had peculiarly attracted my attention was the structure of the human frame” (Shelley, 50). This was his main desire. It was at this point that he decided to make a “to make the being of gigantic stature” (Shelley, 50). He does not take time to look at the consequences of what he is about to do. In the end, his creation ends up affecting everybody. When Victor enters Ingolstadt University, he studies chemistry and philosophy. It is while still at the university that he is consumed by a strong desire to understand the secret of life. He is later convinced that he has found the secret of life. He then spends months making his creature from body parts and chemicals. Clearly, this illustrates the self-centered nature of Victor, whose main aim is to fulfill his dreams without any regard for the people around him. In the end, the monster creates havoc, killing people in the process. Similarly, Victor’s creation can be seen as a self-centered being. When Victor abandons this creature, it attempts to integrate into society and live with other humans. Unfortunately, the creature realizes that he is different and takes revenge by hurting people. Just like Victor, the creature is mainly concerned about pursuing its own happiness, and in the process, hurting others. His emotions and instincts lead him to hurt others, including murdering of Victor’s brother and friend.

## Photosynthesis (why does is matter to us)

Why Does Photosynthesis Matter To Us Photosynthesis is described as a process by which plants and some bacteria utilize the solar energy to convert carbon dioxide in to organic matter. Photosynthetic life forms have chlorophyll that is responsible for extracting solar energy used to power photosynthetic process. On this note, it is important to point out that the photosynthetic process plays important role in supporting other functions on earth. This essay will discuss the importance of photosynthetic process to human beings.
To start with, the photosynthetic process utilizes a small portion of the light energy to produce more stable chemical compounds. According to the University of Illinois, photosynthetic plants utilize a small portion of the radiant energy to perform a series of transduction reactions that lead to formation of stable chemical compounds (n.d). The formation of the chemical compounds involves several steps that can be divided into light depended and light in depended reactions. During the light dependent reactions, light is utilized by the chlorophyll to make ATP, free oxygen, hydrogen and electrons, produced from water, and a carrier molecule, NADPH (Royal Society of Chemistry n.d).
During the light independent reactions, that take place in the stroma, the ATP and NADP produced during the light depended reactions are used to produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide (Royal Society of Chemistry n.d). During these reactions, sugars and oxygen are produced as the final products. The photosynthetic process can be summarized in the following equation:
6CO2&nbsp.+ 6H2O + Energy –&gt. C6H12O6&nbsp.+ 6O2 (Clinton Community College n.d)
Of more importance, the products of photosynthesis make the process to be important to most of the living creatures on earth. This is because the process contributes largely to the sustainability process of living ecosystems. Firstly, the process is credited for the vast amount of oxygen released into the air. Most of the living creatures including human beings require oxygen to perform various physiological functions that are important for their survival. According to Faunce, the photosynthetic process accounts for approximately 1011 t/yr flux of oxygen on earth (2012). This means that the process is vital for the survival of human beings and other creatures that rely on oxygen to carry out physiological processes.
Secondly, photosynthesis serves as means of storing solar energy. According to Blankenship, photosynthesis utilizes the solar energy and converts it in to chemical energy that is stable (2013). Faunce expresses the entire photosynthetic process as a free energy equation as shown below (2012).
(ΔG) in eV→2H2O→2H2O→2H2+2O2
Faunce, further states that the electrons produces are then stored in terms of ATP and NADPH which are energy storage molecules (2013). In addition, fossils of photosynthetic bacteria are known to produce oil after being decomposed for several years (Faunce 2012).
On the other hand, photosynthesis helps to reduce the green house effect on earth. Many physiological processes carried out by human beings and animals result in production of carbon dioxide as a byproduct. In addition, human activities such as burning of fossil fuel lead to production of carbon dioxide gas that is responsible for the green house effect on earth. This emitted carbon dioxide is utilized in photosynthetic process which intern releases the much needed oxygen. Therefore, photosynthesis helps to maintain the balance in the atmospheric composition for the two gases. According to Faunce, the photosynthetic process accounts for carbon dioxide flux of about 124PgC/Yr (2012). This indicates that the photosynthetic process is essential for maintaining the atmospheric composition of oxygen and carbon dioxide hence reducing the green house effect.
In conclusion, photosynthetic process matters a lot to human beings. This is because the products of the process facilitate sustainability of human beings and other creatures. From the above discussion, it is evident that photosynthesis not only provides essential products like oxygen and carbohydrate to human beings, but also creates a good living environment for humans and other creature by reducing the green house effect on earth.

References
Faunce, T. A. (2012).&nbsp.Nanotechnology for a sustainable world: Global artificial photosynthesis as nanotechnologys moral culmination. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Blankenship, R.E. (2013). Molecular Mechanisms of Photosynthesis. Chichester: John Wiley &amp. Sons.

## BIOTECHNOLOGY

In the discover y of drugs, cellular and genetic factors that play a role in specific diseases are identified by scientists, chemists and pharmacologists. A search is carried out for chemical and biological substances targeting biological markers and likely to have drug-like effects.
Out of the many new compounds identified during the discovery process, a few are clinically evaluated and considered safe for testing in humans. Further clinical testing is done and effective compounds are approved for treatment.
There are many new scientific approaches being used to identify targets and obtain lead compounds. They include the use of synthetic chemistry, genomic and proteomic technology, laboratory automation, recombinant DNA and bioinformatics.
a. Physiology based drug discovery: It follows physiological readouts where compounds are screened and profiled based on the read out. Purely physiology-based approaches jump right into screening, identification of drug target and action mechanism follows in later stages. This is done through deduction based on the specific pharmacological properties that lead compounds poses.
b. Target-based drug discovery: Identification of the function of a possible therapeutic target and its role in disease is done first. This is sometimes a difficult task, given the huge number of human or pathogen genes and the different types of their gene products.
Understanding the mechanism of a disease guides research and develops a possible treatment to reverse the disease process. Disease mechanisms can be classified into genetic disorders, infection by bacteria, fungi or viruses, immune or autoimmune disease, trauma and acute disease based on organ failure or injury and multicausal disease.
Particular gene defects that cause hereditary disorders have been identified in a number of diseases. Advancements in DNA sequencing technology have facilitated prompt identification of disease genes through genetic

## Clinical Chemistry Study

The only conclusive tests recommended for establishing whether a person is infected with Hepatitis A virus is by obtaining a blood sample and then conducting serological tests on the blood sample. The tests include looking for Immunoglobulin M antibody to Hepatitis A virus and Immunoglobulin G antibody for Hepatitis A virus (Palmer, 2004).
The laboratory investigations revealed that the levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin AST and Alk. Phos., above the reference range implying that the patient general had a disease of the liver. Urea and creatinine are usually used to test for liver diseases and higher levels are indicators of renal failure. Bilirubin is usually an indicator of pre-hepatic or posts hepatic block depending on the rations while AST and Alk. Phos., are indicators of damage to the biliary tree (Basten, 2010).
Biochemical investigations of the liver primarily involve finding out the level of biomolecules found in the liver and the exact position of these biomolecules. Since studies have been able to establish the normal ranges for these biomolecules any ranges outside the normal or when particular biomolecules are found at suspicious sites, then these could indicate liver disease (Sheety, 2009).
Urine tests aids in the monitoring of the functioning of the liver and establishing whether the liver is diseased or not. Urine tests also target biomolecules that would otherwise not be found in urine or measures the levels of normal biomolecules found in the urine. An example is the compound Delta Aminolevulinic Acid that is produced from amino acids in the liver. Reduction in the levels of the compound might indicate chronic liver disease. In essence, urine tests target such compounds to establish the condition of the liver at a given time (Schiff, 2011).

## Dmitri Mendeleev vs Lothar Meyer who is the father of the periodic table

Dmitri Mendeleev vs. Lothar Meyer – Who is the father of the periodic table? The periodic table is a complete displayof chemical elements that are categorically arranged in terms of atomic number, chemical properties and electron configuration (Levi 3). According to historical studies, Dmitri Mendeleev is regarded as the father of the periodic table. However, various scientists have significantly contributed vital information with regard to the present form of the periodic table. There has been continued disagreement concerning who should receive the credits as the father of the periodic table between Lothar Meyer and Dmitri Mendeleev. This article will discuss the individual who deserves the credentials as the father of the periodic table between Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer.
Dmitri Mendeleev was a Russian professor in the Chemistry department of various institutions. According to several sources, he is credited as the creator of the first version of the period table in 1869 (Scerri 9). He also predicted some of the properties that were yet to be discovered by using the first version of the periodic table which he had created. During this era, Mendeleev was also studying the capillarity of liquids and the functioning of the stethoscope. The first version of the periodic table comprised of 56 elements (Levi 5). In his predictions, Mendeleev made it clear that the eight elements he predicted would have the prefixes dvi, tri and eka in their naming.
On the other hand, Julius Lothar Meyer was a German chemist who published an expanded version of the periodic table in 1870. His table consisted of 44 elements, which were arranged in terms of their valency. He is also honored for his contribution in the periodic classification of elements. It is quite clear that Meyer was also doubtful about the periodic table published by Mendeleev just like several other scientists (Gordin 34). The main contribution of Meyer included the concept, which asserts that the carbon atoms found in benzene are arranged in the form of a ring. The table presented by Meyer was virtually identical to the table created by Mendeleev. After constructing the table, Meyer gave it to a colleague for proper evaluation. He also criticized Mendeleev since. he changed some of the atomic weights of the existing elements.
Most individuals claim that both Mendeleev and Meyer are co- creators of the period table. However, most individuals virtually agree that Mendeleev made an accurate prediction compared to Meyer. In addition, he also predicted more elements such as gallium and germanium, which were discovered in 1875 and 1886 respectively (Scerri 17). After Mendeleev’s periodic table was published, it became available to the scientific community all over the world. Most of his predictions were correct because most of the elements were discovered at a later date.
Mendeleev and Meyer worked independently to construct the periodic table, hence. both of them are highly acknowledged for the development of the modern periodic table. Meyer had compiled a duplicate of the periodic table using molar volume. According to the global view, it is quite evident that Mendeleev is the sole originator of the periodic table because he created an expanded periodic table. Most of the elements contained in the table by Meyer were similar to those documented by Mendeleev (Levi 25). Hence, Mendeleev is the father of the periodic table.
Works Cited
Gordin, Michael. A Well-Ordered Thing: Dmitri Mendeleev and the Shadow of the Periodic Table. New York: Basic Books, 2004. Print.
Levi, Primo. The Periodic Table. New York: Everymans Library, 1996. Print.
Scerri, Eric. The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.

## Assignment3

In other world, in real life, a tree is made up of the main stem and the branches. The branches get support or originate from the main stem. In my example, the same situation ensue, B, C, D and E explain more about A. as you go down the tree, it is clear that branch C and E also have branches. Those are referred to as sub-branches. They explain further on A through C and E.
Like I mentioned in the above discussion, this is the most reliable form of diagramming techniques which is easier to explain and understand. The second that I consider my favorite diagramming technique is the dataflow diagram. This example explains how the operation flows from one level to another. The objects that represent data are shown and they obviously relate to the procedure in place. In this case, the diagram is only useful in indicating or rather showing how data flow. It does not require much explanation, in fact if there is any explanation required, it must be very basic.
The diagram I have used as my example is self-explanatory, a step explains more about the previous. The other major advantage of this format is that there are writings on the side of the arrow. the writings explain what happens between the stages.
Lastly on examples, I will talk about my third favorite diagramming technique. The name of the diagramming technique is Data flow graphs. This is a graph which is in other words referred to as directed graph. It consists of some kind of edges. The edges represent the flow of data. It also contain nodes, the nodes represent all operations that goes on in the graph. The diagram below explains.
My response to the question why we should do conceptual analysis of visual images is that it does well in explaining the point deeper. I will use an example of a classroom environment where a teacher, for instance, is lecturing and giving notes to students in titration in Chemistry (this is just an example to explain my point

## The energy flow among organisms of a food chain

Energy flow in deciduous forest Maple tree (P) Oak tree (P) Barred owl (C)
Wood bearing beetle (C) (C) White tailed deer
Red squirrel (C)
Wood pecker (C)
(C) Wood land vole (C) garter snake

Long tailed weasel (C)
Service berry (P) Fungi, Bacteria (D)
Organisms found in the ecosystem:
White tailed deer, long tailed weasel, red squirrel, wood frog, garter snake, newt, woodland vole, ground and wood bearing beetle, barred owl, golden crowned knight, wood pecker, chipmunks,&nbsp.mice, snakes, black bear,&nbsp.rabbits,&nbsp.hares, bobcats,&nbsp.fox,&nbsp.coyote,&nbsp.fisher, and skunk.
The barred owl is well adapted for the deciduous forest. The two main organs that are involved include firstly. the eyes. Their eyes are set forward on their heads, are large and extremely sensitive to light. This enables them to see in the dark. Secondly. their wings consist of fringed flight feathers thus allowing them to fly quietly and enabling them to hunt.
The red squirrel is also well adapted. Firstly, the skin is adapted well for camouflage and protection from the predators. Secondly, their eyes are sensitive to such an extent that they have clear vision in the night and thus can hunt for food.
There are two main types of consumers:
Primary consumers in the deciduous forest ecosystem
Woodland vole, red squirrel, white tailed deer and wood boring beetle
Secondary consumers in the deciduous forest ecosystem
Garter snake, long tailed squirrel, wood pecker and barred owl
Food chains in the deciduous forest ecosystem
1. The woodland vole eats the oak tree and is eaten by the garter snake
The wood land vole adapts to the changing climate of the deciduous forest via their ability to hibernate. The rodent builds a furrow and enters into a state of dormancy during harsh climates and decreases its metabolic rate and finally coming out of the hibernacula at the time of spring.
2. The wood bearing beetle eats the oak tree and is eaten by the wood pecker which is eaten by the barred owl
3. The maple tree is eaten by the woodland vole which in turn is eaten by the weasel which in turn is eaten by the barred owl
The weasels are mainly adapted in the ecosystem through their ability change fur color via molting. During molting the weasel sheds the existing layer of fur and slowly alters it to a color that fits the environment. This adaptation makes these organisms successful predators particularly with their ability to blend into the pure white snow
Almost all deciduous forests have been a subject to human impact. Due to changes in the atmosphere chemistry, indirect elevation of CO2 has shifted the forest productivity as well as the composition of the forest species has been shifted. A greater factor affecting the population of animal species in the ecosystem is the raised levels of nitrogen deposition. This could have an impact on the specie population within the habitat, litter quality and nutrient mass cycling rates. The major hazard caused by human population is the deforestation. This affects the climate of the ecosystem and is observed to cause changes in the evaporation rate as well as the precipitation rate. &nbsp.In those areas where evaporation increases more than precipitation, soil will tend to become drier, the lake levels will drop, and the rivers will carry less water. Other threats involve the air pollution, global warming and human development. Regarding the population growth of the ecosystem is concerned. the biotic potential can produce an exponential growth. However, this exponential role cannot be continued indefinitely and will be affected by certain factors. The population regulation within the ecosystem is done mainly by environmental resistance as well as through the competition for resources. Furthermore, density-Independent Factors tend to limit Populations regardless of their density while the Density-Dependent factors tend to become more effective as population density increases and lastly, the predators and parasites are seen to exert density-dependent controls on populations within the deciduous forest (Audesirk &amp. Audesirk, 2005).
Reference
Amsel, Sheri (2014), “Forests of the World.” Deciduous Forests. Exploring Nature Educational Resource. © 2005 – 2014. June 22, 2014. http://exploringnature.org/db/detail.php?dbID=44&amp.detID=573
Lee.F &amp. Peter.B, (2002), Temperate Deciduous Forests, Volume 2, The Earth system: biological and ecological dimensions of global environmental change, pp 565–569, John Wiley &amp. Sons, Ltd, Chichester, 2002
Audesirk, T., &amp. Audesirk, G. (2005).&nbsp.Biology: Life on earth. New Jersey: Pearson.

## NMR

NMR determination of Keto-Enol Equilibrium constant Introduction NMR has been very effective in organic chemistry. Indetermining Keto-Enol equilibrium constant, Proton NMR spectroscopy is used to evaluating a number of keto-mixtures. The spin-spin splitting and the chemical shift pattern are employed. The equilibrium constant is affected by both temperature and solvent.
Material and methods
The NMR spectrometer is used. Several milliliters of acetylacetone (CH3OCH2COCH3) and ethyl acetoacetate (CH3CH2OCOCH2COCH3) together with two solvents are used in the experiment. The two solvents represent a non-polar and polar solvent because both are very important in determining the effect of solvent on the equilibrium constant. Hydrogen bonding stabilizes the enol form in polar solvents contrary to the non-polar solvents that lack hydrogen bonding. Stabilization of the enol form is attained by intramolecular hydrogen bonding.
Results/ Data Analysis
The HNMR spectrum for compound CH3OH display two peaks with a chemical shift of 4.9287 and 3.3721 and integration of 1 and 3 respectively. The computed equilibrium constant for acetylacetone in CCl4 is higher than the equilibrium constant for acetylacetone in CH3OH.
Discussion
The equilibrium constant for acetylacetone in CCl4 is higher than that in CH3OH because it is a non-polar solvent. The equilibrium constant is a ratio of the quantity of enol form to the quantity of keto form. Therefore, the quantity of keto form is inversely proportional to the equilibrium constant. The keto form increases with increase in solvent polarity because keto is favored by hydrogen-bonding solvents. The CH3OH compound used in this experiment display only two peaks in the NMR spectrum. The spectrum lacks the OH peak thus gives a slightly lower keto form than expected.
The main factor in stabilizing any form is the intermolecular hydrogen bond. From research, the polar solvent has the capability of establishing two intermolecular bonds in one molecule and the non-polar solvent establishes only one intermolecular hydrogen bond. (Malcolm). However, in this case, the polar solvent only establishes one intermolecular hydrogen bond. The temperature affecting the equilibrium constant is related to the equilibrium change in enthalpy to that of entropy.
Work cited
Malcolm, Levitt. Spin Dynamics: Basics of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Chichester: John Wiley &amp. Sons, 2001.

## Oes the molecular weight of polymers affect the performance of polymer (organic) solar cells

Effects of Molecular Weight on Performance of PSC I. Introduction (a) Thesis ment: molecular weight is one of the main factors that can alter the polymer’s characteristics.
(b) General information: As the world continues seeking renewable energy, solar cells have been proven to have the highest potential, due to its wide abundance. The efficiency of the solar cell is growing due to the vast conducting research. Integrating new materials in designing the solar cells can be one of possible way of enhancing efficiency. The large industry of polymers has introduced conducting polymers that can be used in the solar cells to improve the energy transformation. Physical and chemical properties of polymers may vary based on different factors. &nbsp.
II. First Topic: Understanding Photovoltaic effect
(a) Photovoltaic effect is the formation of electric current or voltage in the material upon exposure to light, and it is the principle that solar cells run on.
(b) Solar cells’ characteristics such as current, voltage, and resistance vary when exposed to light.
(c) Thus, examining the effect of the polymer molecular weight on those characteristics is a necessity, because these are the key factors for developing more efficient cells.
III. Second Topic: Performance of polar solar cells
(a) The performance of polar solar cells relies on a number of factors including the structure of the device, active layer material and interfaces between distinct layers.
(b) Key among these factors is the physical properties of bulk heterojunction, which plays a significant role (Kingsley et al. 22). Components of bulk heterojunction require a broad absorption response in the solar spectrum, which then ensure efficient harvesting of the photons.
(c) In addition, the energy levels donor, which is usually a conjugated polymer, need to match with that of the electron acceptor, which typically is a derivative of fullerene (Intemann et al. 3190). This implies that the donor polymer needs to possess a deep highest occupied molecular orbital, which will ensure a large open circuit voltage (Xiao et al. 75).
IV. Third Topic: Need for improvement
(a) Currently, the recovery of the light is considered to be very low, but it can be improved via changing the properties of the polymers, so the absorption of the light can be more effective.
(b) On this research paper, the effect of the molecular weight will be examined to see if it affects the performance of polymer solar cells. &nbsp.
V. Conclusion
(a) The molecular weight of a conjugated polymer influences the effective conjugated chain (Liu et al. 12165). Therefore, molecular weight makes the electrical and optical properties of the polymers to vary, which improves the performance of polymer solar cells.
(b) Prior to conducting and finalizing the research papers, the writers expect that correlations will be evident between the molecular weight and voltage, light absorbance, and current density of solar cells. These correlations will be further investigated and addressed in depth in the final report.
Works Cited
Intemann, Jeremy J. et al. “Molecular Weight Effect on the Absorption, Charge Carrier Mobility, and Photovoltaic Performance of an Indacenodiselenophene-Based Ladder-Type Polymer.” Chemistry of Materials 25.15 (2013): 3188–3195. ACS Publications. Web. 5 Mar. 2015.
Kingsley, James W. et al. “Molecular Weight Dependent Vertical Composition Profiles of PCDTBT: PC71BM Blends for Organic Photovoltaics.” Scientific Reports 4 (2014): n. pag. www.nature.com. Web. 5 Mar. 2015.
Liu, Chang et al. “Molecular Weight Effect on the Efficiency of Polymer Solar Cells.” ACS Applied Materials &amp. Interfaces 5.22 (2013): 12163–12167. ACS Publications. Web. 5 Mar. 2015.
Xiao, Zeyun et al. “Effect of Molecular Weight on the Properties and Organic Solar Cell Device Performance of a Donor–Acceptor Conjugated Polymer.” Polymer Chemistry (2015): n. pag. pubs.rsc.org. Web. 5 Mar. 2015.

## Bioaccummulution

Bioaccumulation Bioaccumulation Bioaccumulation is the process occurring in aquatic ecosystem wherein the chemical concentration in an organism has a higher level than that of the water due to different chemical uptakes such as dietary absorption, respiration or through dermal absorption. There are two contributing processes leading to bioaccumulation namely bioconcentration and biomagnification (Gobas et al., 2003). The issue of bioaccumulation can be considered as one of the detrimental effects the humans have on the environment. By studying the process of bioaccumulation the movement of xenobiotic pollutants (found within the body of the organisms) through the food chain (Kim and Kim, 2013)
One of the foci in the issue of bioaccumulation is the lack of intensive research and accumulated knowledge specifically in terms of the bioaccumulation of hazardous chemicals and their long-term effects in humans. One of the main reasons for the said lack of knowledge and efforts for research is the fact that the understanding of the concept is “superficial” which means humans are detaching themselves to what is happening in the aquatic ecosystem though there is a great probability that the effects of accumulated toxic materials would be more potent for terrestrial organisms. The superficial view on bioaccumulation lessens the impact and the urgency for in depth study. In addition, as explored by the study conducted by Kim and Kim, the concept is at a certain degree lost in translation specifically in non-English speaking nations. This is also related to the issue that the lack of in depth exploration on the subject causes educational institutions to disseminate misconceptions that can cause escalation of more misconceptions to students as well as the other members of the general population (Kim and Kim, 2013).
References
Gobas, F.A.P.C., Mackintosh, C.E., Webster, M.I., Parkerton, T.F. and Robillard, K. (2003). Bioaccumulation of Phthalate Esters in aquatic food-webs. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, 3 (Q): 201-225. Doi: 10.1007/b11467.
Kim, H.T. &amp. Kim, J.G. (2013). How do high school science textbooks in Korea, Japan, and the U.S. explain bioaccumulation-related concepts? Science Education International, 24(4), 416-436.

## Chemistry of Hazardous Materials

Liquid oxygen is primarily used in hospitals and for propulsion purposes.
The hazardous aspect of liquid oxygen is derived from the fact that oxygen accelerates combustion. Although oxygen by itself is not flammable, it enhances burning processes. When liquid oxygen comes into contact with organic materials, it can easily trigger fires and explosions. this is the reason why spillage of liquid oxygen on asphalt pavement is potentially hazardous (Beeson &amp. Smith, 2007). Asphalt is an organic material and liquid oxygen is highly concentrated. Spilled liquid oxygen is absorbed by the asphalt material, making the pavement potentially prone to fire and/or explosion.
The ongoing activities on the asphalt pavement at the time of liquid oxygen spillage can raise or reduce the underlying hazards. Fumes of concentrated oxygen could be absorbed by the clothes passersby are wearing and any kind of spark or glowing material (burning cigarette) could trigger a fire. On the same note, vehicle impacts on asphalt-soaked in liquid oxygen could result in massive explosions, thereby destroying lives and properties (Beeson &amp. Smith, 2007). Area of spillage should be avoided until safety is restored.

## Process Analysis on How to Choose a College Major

This is a process analysis essay on how to choose a college major. For many who are on their last year of high school, college can be a daunting idea. There are so many things to consider like tuition fee, location and, most importantly, what major to take. It is necessary to know the proper steps in choosing a college major primarily so as not to waste time studying a major that is useless in one’s future career.
The first thing a high school student should do is to decide on his strengths and weaknesses. (Stewart, E., n.d.) Does he excel in the arts, science or literature? Is he more comfortable talking to people or being by himself? Does the idea of working in an office appeal to him more than working outdoors? Does he mind working with numbers? Can he stand working at a high altitude or having someone barking orders at him most of the time? Answering these questions will lead the individual to a specific job he would probably enjoy doing. This is very significant. Individuals who only follow their friends to college or comply with their parents’ choice end up studying half-heartedly.
After this evaluation, the individual should then compare occupations where he can apply his strengths. This may seem trivial but is also another important step because the individual will be tied to whatever job he chooses to apply for. There are positions that can explore the individual’s strengths but may also inadvertently tap into the person’s weakness. A good example is someone who loves being with people but cannot handle stress well. With the interpersonal skills, this person would make a good salesperson. However, if the salesperson position comes with quotas and deadlines this person would not be fit for the job because of the stress.
The next step is to find a major that serves as a prerequisite for the individual’s choice of job. There are several majors in college which can lead to a certain job post. For example, someone who wants to be a doctor may start with an undergraduate degree in Psychology, Biology, Physics, Chemistry or the like. An individual who wants to be in business can study Economics, Business Administration or Finance. An individual with the appropriate college degree can confidently apply for a job since some jobs advertise only for graduates of a specific major and do not entertain applicants with other degrees regardless of previous experience in a similar position. Moreover, learning principles which are associated with a certain profession will serve to make the individual a more effective worker. Due to the insight the person acquires in college, he is able to have the necessary skills for the tasks assigned to him.
Lastly, an individual needs to do research on universities that offer the course he intends to take up. During this step, the individual should also do a comparison of several factors such as the schools’ cost, location, facilities, size, quality of education, campus security, extra-curricular activities, etc. These are essential. The individual can lose motivation to study in a certain college if, outside of his classes, his experiences are unpleasant. College life can be a rewarding period of an individual’s life if controllable factors were planned well.
Choosing a college major may prove to be hard for some individuals. Proper planning, however, can make the decision much easier. If an individual only takes time to evaluate his personal skills, interests, universities of choice and future career goals, deciding on an undergraduate degree will be a piece of cake.
References:
Stewart, E. (n.d.) Strategy Tips for for Deciding on a College Major. Retrieved from http://www.collegeview.com/articles/article/strategy-tips-for-deciding-on-a-major

## Worlds Poorest Countries Are at a Competitive Disadvantage in Every Sector of Their Economies

The essay aims to suggest how three different countries are coping up with the changing times whereby their economic activities are not that thriving, and they have been marred by issues that have had a very important bearing upon their own selves.
It is a fact the world over that those countries which are remarked as poor and not so affluent are the ones who are losing out on one context or the other. This was the case in the yesteryears and the same has continued even in the present times. There is reason enough to believe why such an anomaly has come about and how the problem can be stemmed once and for all. However much work needs to be done in order to curtail the negativities that are connected with the problem that the world’s poorest countries are facing at this juncture in time. The world’s poorest countries are constantly at war with their own selves (Satz 2005). They cannot make both ends meet when it comes to their respective resources and hence lack of planning and control results due to the same. The lack of capital is another element which poses a significant problem here. The underdeveloped nations of the world are usually those which are facing severe problems and that too on a consistent basis. These are hampered by the lack of structural reforms, a basic shortcoming of measures and undertakings which are needed in entirety, and so on and so forth. The underdeveloped nations are usually facing these problems because they do not know how to get out of the rot and do something different. Their leaders and decision-makers have not helped their cause much. If only there is perfect chemistry between the developed countries and the underdeveloped nations, and if only there is more proper distribution of wealth across the board, this world would surely become a much better place in the days to come.
There are a number of nations which are going through some serious problems of late. These have included the third world countries that have been involved in quagmires, not essentially of their own making.

## The Problem of a Role of Transnational Companies in the North Africa

The modern world is the world of changes. It is characterized by a range of influential trends. One of such trends is the growing role of multinational companies not only in the business world but in the whole society. Transnational companies have an influence equal to the influence of some countries. That is why it is important to study their role and predict possible future. It is going to be the main task of this research paper. The big attention is going to be paid to national economies and place of TNCs in the countries of North Africa.
To begin with, it would be reasonable to provide background information about the region under consideration. North Africa is the widest part of the mainland. This region of Africa includes the following countries: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Sudan, Tunisia, and Western Sahara. Canary Islands, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Madeira are also sometimes referred to North Africa.
North Africa is the most developed among African countries. The most developed are the following countries: Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria. This region has a favorable economic and geographical position, situated at the crossroads of three continents – Europe, Asia, and Africa. Trade has always played an important role, especially after the construction of the Suez Canal. Then the region gained important military-strategic importance.
Countries in the region are heterogeneous in terms of economic development. Basis countries are members of OPEC, where GDP per capita is 17-20 thousand dollars. The region is rich in minerals (phosphates, chromite, bauxite, zinc), but the main resource is energy – oil and natural gas.
Profits from the sale of oil – "petrodollars" in recent decades have been invested in the economy. According to experts, this figure reaches more than a trillion dollars. Most of them went to the creation of new industries in these countries: automotive, petroleum, chemistry, organic synthesis, basic chemistry, light industry, and others.&nbsp.

## Frankinstein Book

As his knowledge in science increased, his passion to answer his questions increased also. As a result, he created a living thing secretly in the hope that someday, he will prove his studies to have been true after all and, that his critics were mere scholars who were afraid to indulge in the studies he pursued. Unfortunately, in contrast to what he expected, the beautiful creation he anticipated proved to be nothing but a monster which will soon make his life miserable. The monster killed people whom Frankenstein loved and adored and the once, sweet dream of the young student. became his most horrible nightmare. The story may be a work of fiction but it somehow shows readers the value not only of science but also of ethics in performing scientific experiments using the scientific method as exemplified in the story.
Frankenstein’s pursuit to find answers to his questions led him to perform an experiment. Like any educated scientist, it could be said that he followed the scientific method. First, he had this unquenchable question which he knew, only natural science could answer. As the main character of the story mentioned, “”Whence, I often asked myself, did the principle of life proceed?” (Shelley) Having a problem, he then came up with a purpose and that is, to experiment on bringing life, a being from the dead parts of men. However, before he begun, he first closely observed living things and how dead animals and men decomposed. The character describes his activities, “I paused, examining and analyzing all the minutia of causations exemplified in the change from life to death, and death to life” (Shelley). He read more books on the subject of Agrippa’s principles and he also expanded his knowledge on other natural sciences such as chemistry. He was very diligent in his studies and he had extensive preparations. Frankenstein possessed and portrayed certain characteristics

## The Role of a Biomedical Scientist

As quoted by Iles, the clinical test reports demanded by a doctor are used to diagnose, monitor and screen the patient’s condition and provide appropriate treatment. Here comes the role of a biomedical scientist. He should be proficient enough to properly collect and examine the sample, carry out the appropriate lab tests and finally prepare and provide accurate reports timely to the consulting doctor. Being a registered biomedical scientist thus involves huge and important responsibility of conducting and supervising the laboratory activities. (Iles &amp. Docherty n.d. p. 370). These vital contributions of biomedical scientists occur without much direct contact with the patient. But since the job of biomedical scientists “further relates to the diagnosis and treatment of a patient” (Compositions and Methods for Modulating Vascular Development 2009) they should be very well trained and are expected to be extremely motivated to give high-level performance always. The training of biomedical scientists is not a onetime activity but a continuous one because it is necessary to keep the self-updated with the advancements and developments in the field of laboratory testing and also require learning the new techniques and equipment.

Being a biomedical scientist involves an initial learning period where the individual familiarizes himself with the varied physiological and pathological aspects of diseases. Here only, he gets introduced to the different diagnostic techniques as well. Further, the biomedical scientist needs to specialize. The area of specialization could be hematology, cytology, virology, histopathology, medical microbiology or clinical chemistry depending on an individual’s choice and interest. According to Iles and Docherty in the initial stages, a trainee gets exposure to all the areas of laboratory testing and this carves the area for further development. While working as a biomedical scientist, the individual gets to explore his area of interest and can attain further expertise in the same by learning&nbsp.through varied diplomas, degree and certificate courses available.

## Why I Choose to Study Medicine

Why I choose to study Medicine I am applying for the MD program for High School graduates (6 years). I’m 24, an American, and may be older than mostof the applicants to the school but I have been really lucky to travel around the world. Both my parents work for the airlines (My mom is a stewardess and my dad is a pilot). I have been to countries such as China, India, South Africa, Brazil, almost all EU countries, New Zealand, and many others. I have seen and lived many different cultures throughout my short life. Because of this, I can easily adjust to different cultures.
I am halfway through working on my private pilots’ license (PPL) which includes study of Air Regulations (Air Law), Navigation Meteorology, and Aeronautics Pilotage (Airmanship).
I am applying for the 6year (out-of-high-school) program instead of the 4year out of University program. Perhaps because of my early fascination with frequent traveling with my parents, I have never really put a big effort into my BSc. (I am about 90 credits in.)
Completion into something is what I meant to do now. I have taken courses in Kinesiology, Philosophy Calculus, Physics, Chemistry, and English. I would like to go through Medicine if in order.
Saving other people’s lives is something that I would like to do. I feel like I have taken enough from this world and now its time to put a little back in it. There is a pride, I think, in being a doctor, but there is also the challenge to make good. Imagine the beat of life lying in your hands but you would have to think and move to be an instrument to let that beat continue on and live. Imagine that those lives are the very ones to also let other lives beat on. If I were that doctor, how great is the challenge to answer the hopes of families gaping at you for answers.
This is the kind of life I would like to go into. There is meaning and there is purpose. All the time my life was suspended on air, I would think of these things. Life are precious it could crumble anytime. But it could also be saved. If given the chance, I would like to join the medical world. At least, I could say I am useful for others after all.
I am a voracious reader of all types of books. As such, it will not be strange to me to be meeting requirements in school for much reading and research. I am proficient in English besides. Aside from my concern for mental health, I also go for physical health. I exercise regularly and enjoy all sorts of sports but mainly skiing.
Ive been told that Im very personable and easy to get along with. Therefore, if I would be mixing with other cultures in school, I am ready for it. Over in my church community, I meet all sorts of people. I think I am of the gregarious kind and this is no problem. When one becomes a doctor, he doesn’t look into the color of the patient’s skin before he decides to serve.
I volunteer at a Union Gospel Mission soup kitchen whenever I get to church as this is my way of mixing with the community. I love the feeling that I can be of use to others, especially the underprivileged. I’m a manager of a restaurant – a small fish and chips place. We do a really high volume business so I know how to work under stress which is also shown in my flying lessons.
In my restaurant, I am a multi-tasking king and keep a level head during stressful times.
At work, I am in charge or everything, including payroll, schedules, making sure everything during the day goes smoothly, cooking, cleaning, and dealing with customers. I guess, from all of these experiences, I have grown a lot. If given the chance to study medicine, I know the things I have learned at work will come in handy.

## A LongTerm Career in the Field of Medicine

Personal ment Having a close relationship with my father, he has inspired me to pursue a long-term career in the field of medicine. Since he works as a physician, I grew up witnessing how my father took great pain in reaching out for the needy. For this reason, I have decided to follow his footstep by pursuing a career in dentistry.
At the ______ University, I am currently graduating from _____ course. In general, I excel in subjects related to Mathematics, Biology, and Chemistry. Since I wanted to learn more from other students and Science professors, I actively participate in school as Biology teaching staff.
Aiming to pursue a career in Dentistry, I have spent a lot of time reading books related to dental care during my free time. Aside from going through a lot of self-learning process, I have recently joined a job shadow in a dental clinic.
Aside from having a competitive knowledge on the basic dental care, I also have a strong communication skill which I have gained from being active in school activities. Although I have a little experience when I joined a job shadow in a dental clinic, I was able to learn the importance of public relations in the field of dentistry.
As a person, I am not only known for being a career motivated person but also a self-motivated and self-directed individual. I consider these characteristics as a personal strengths since having a positive attitude will enable me to become a successful dentist one day.
Part of my personal weaknesses includes the lack of formal education and work experience related to Dentistry. In order to narrow down the gap associated with my personal weaknesses, I have strongly decided to strengthen my qualification by taking a Dentistry course from a reputable university.
My long-term career goal is to become a professional dentist. By taking a dentistry course, I will be able strengthen my existing skills and knowledge on proper dental care. Being able to finish a degree in Dentistry will give me the opportunity not only in becoming a licensed dentist but also the privilege to work with people who will need my professional services in the near future.
My strong desire to learn more and improve my personal skills and knowledge in Dentistry encouraged me to perform well academically. Since there is a tight competition in the field of Dentistry, I consider taking a Dentistry course as a first step in making my long-term goal possible. As soon as I finish Dentistry and pass the license exam, I plan to work as a dentist for a short span of 5 years. Since I strongly believe in the importance of continuous learning, I plan to take up further studies related to Dentistry after having work as a professional dentist for some time.
Given that I am about to graduate from the university, I have applied in several nearby schools that offer Dentistry courses last year. Although I was invited for an interview at some schools, I was placed on the waiting list since it was almost Christmas season when I submitted my application.

## Physician Assistants as a Filling Gap

SSN CASPA ID As she gave the woman’s hand a squeeze, having administered her a dosage of intravenous medicine, I watched days later in owe as the woman’s face transformed from a state of near hopelessness, to one of positive expectation, convinced now, more than ever I had chosen the right career path. The place was a small health center in my home town, and the woman had been diagnosed of liver cirrhosis, and had been visibly agitated convinced that the end had come for her. She was a waitress in one of the five coffee centers in my home town and lived alone with her six year old daughter. I had known her all my life and couldn’t help the elation of pride I felt working with Elizabeth Gobber PA-C. It was my sixth job shadowing experience in health care delivery but it was my first with a Physician Assistant.
I had previously shadowed Dr. Keith Shuey, a rural family doctor who has had great experience with patients of varying kinds, Dr. William Coady, an urban family physician from whom I learnt so much, Dr. Asha Wurdeman, a Geriatric Physician who treats her patients with so much compassion that re-enforces my conviction that health care is a perfect synonym for community service, Dr. Jodi Hedrick, OB/GYN from whom I learnt how physicians can truly be best friends with patients, and Dr. Judith Scott, OB/GYN who offered me the rear opportunity to observe two surgeries and follow her during her round and clinic appointments.
I graduated from Wayne State University in August 2010 having majored in Biology, Chemistry Health Science and psychology. I believe I was born with a heart to serve, and that perhaps was responsible for the great affinity I had for my service at a community service group in my school I had the rear privilege to lead. The memories of the smiles on the faces of the retirees to whom we sang Christmas carols every Christmas is something I consider of great value until this moment. The kids for whom we packaged and served food linger today in my mind. I am driven by a desire to serve, especially the underserved in the community, and that again was responsible for my switch from pharmacy to pursuit of a career in medicine.
In my mind’s eyes, no other school epitomizes health care training better than SLU. The 25th rank awarded the Physician Assistant Education in SLU in the 2012 edition of News and World Report Best Graduate School was to me, in reality No1. Has your school not maintained a 98 percent first time pass rate in PANCE?
I am confident I will be greatly challenged at your school’s PA education and will come out equipped to do what I have always wanted to do – serve the underserved.
Name :
SSN :
CASPA ID :
The Increasing Role of the Physician Assistant
The role of the physician assistant has increased over the past decades in response to the challenges faced in our health care delivery supply, the changing health care need of the population and the increasing cost of health care delivery. Since the development of the PA profession in the mid 1960s, physician assistants have continued to be in increasingly high demand to supplement the services rendered by physicians. AAPA census reports have shown over the years that clinically serving physician assistants have increased, as physicians and patients alike have found them increasingly needful in the health care industry.
Majorly, they have improved access to health care as they have been proven to handle large volume of patients in primary health care services with ease. they provide quality care, conduct examination on patients, diagnose and treat illnesses, educate patients, assist in surgery and prescribe medications. The use physician assistants has resulted in an increase in patients flow since they create room for physicians to focus on the more critically sick patients, while the PA takes charge of chronic conditions, patients’ education and follow ups, thus improving access to health care.
As the cost of health care increases, and health care service providers are forced to make changes resulting from a decrease in re-imbursement and the increasing need to cut cost, physician assistants have taken on a role that help increase health care productivity at cost effective level. In Steve Crane, Ph.D., executive vice president and CEO of the American Academy of Physician Assistants, view, the use of physician assistants has spread not only to primary health needs, but also to highly specialized practices.
Since PAs do their jobs with a high level of professional and ethical discipline, there has been a significant improvement in patients, and physician satisfaction. Physicians who started out engaging a PA with stated precaution are developing greater confidence in the professionalism of the PA. In the 2010 AAPA census report, the use of physician assistants was discovered to have spread from primary health services, across intensive/critical care units of hospitals, in and out patients unit of hospitals, hospital emergency rooms, free standing health care center, surgical centers, to mention but a few.
Physician assistants are filling a gap in our health care delivery system in such ways that not only control cost, but improves accessibility and delivery effectiveness. That is perhaps why they are present in all fifty states of the union in hundreds, and sometimes thousands. I am convinced that the cost effectiveness PAs bring stands out as a reliable model of sustainability for our health care system.

## Music assigment

Blues after Dark a ndI remember Clifford by Benny Golson In blues after dark by Benny Golson, the physical performance incorporates the mind, body and soul as the musicians has mastered the right elements of performing on stage. As he performs, the musicians tactfully and precisely sing while on the stage, he deals with the spatial awareness on his audiences, thus are able to know what the audiences expect of him on the stage and give them that. In addition, his performance can also be witnessed from his character as he sings from the character as he is able to successfully move from his speech to song. The performance space is fabricated to depict his songs and musical concepts, thus easily altering the mood of his audiences from one stage to the next. The audiences are particularly attentive as the songs are being played as they find themselves knocked off their feet by the skillfulness and humor of the band. Moreover, the success of the majority of his albums has positively influenced the reception of his Benny performances as audiences are always eager to learn more from performances done by the band. The use of visual aspects in performances featuring blues after dark by Benny Golson add to the performance as they make the show lively, hence retaining the audience attention in listening the different bands being played.
Blues after dark by Benny Golson is a piece of the album gone with Gibson. The duration of the piece is eight minutes and thirty seven seconds and the original date which it was released was January 20, 2009. The tune reminds an audience of the artistry involved in the composition of the piece since it is associated with synchronized swimming. The piece also has a wonderful team of blues which is carefully coordinated to show the chemistry and teamwork resulting to the melancholy of the piece. The sound produced from the piece is rich and compelling to audiences as its simple and passionate.
I remember Clifford by benny Gibson is piece paying homage to the hard bop jazz trumpeter Clifford Brown. The use of lyrics versions in this piece has improvised the use of instrumental solos, making the piece interesting to the different audiences present at the performance. The sound effects used in the piece also compliments the use of instruments like the piano, thus creating a rhythm that augurs well with audiences listening to the performance. Instrument use like use of string, brass enhances the beats of the piece thus making the performance to be conducted at the stipulated time.
Blues after dark by Benny Golson and I remember Clifford by benny Gibson are similar as they share the same vocal version. Moreover, the two pieces show that Gilson’s performances and playing are still edgy while also being philosophical when situations call for it. The sound effects, instruments and lyrics used in the two pieces goes in harmony with the songs thus making the pieces worthy for the audiences their expectations are of the songs and performance are met. However, the two pieces may be different as they both relay different messages and there are some instruments which are used in one piece but not used on the other piece.
In sum, the performance by Benny was astonishing as it kept me lively throughout the session. I liked how organized the band playing the performance was on the stage, but was not completely satisfied as not all the band members were participating in the performance by character. In the future, I will still attend Benny’s performances as I am a jazz fanatic and would strive to meet with the event coordinators to share my recommendations of the performances like on ways of involving the band to participate in character by advising them to dance to the different pieces being played.
Work Cited
Discography. Benny Golsons Official Website. Web. 8 Nov. 2014. .

## The Discovery of Double Helix

The physical sciences interrelate with each other and may burrow some concept for example in Chemistry and Biology. There is some biological invention that was informed by the Chemistry knowledge in the two researchers disagreed on the mode of communications. The invention and discovery of DNA by Watson and Crick have no difference as from the above argument. This paper is an attempt of reflection of the double helix discovery and its contributions in the scientific inquiries. Biology as a discipline that studies animals and plant have on record the history of the discovery of the DNA double helix structure. The work is attributed to Watson and Crick whose work depended on the data gathered by Rosalind Franklin.
Franklin’s work paves the way as without her knowledge Watson and Crick gain access to her findings and the x-ray image of the DNA. It is the foundation of one of the most discoveries in science and the greatest injustice ever.
Narrator: In 1962, the three scientists Watson, Crick, and Wilkins were awarded Noble Prize for their ground bearing invention of DNA which is considered as one of the greatest achievement n histories and unlock the secrets of
The original thinker of the model that was used in the discovery process was Rosalind Frank. A chemist by profession she discovered the photo 51 that provided crucial information to derive the model of DNA. The photo 51 showed the diffraction pattern which could be used the basis of her discoveries. The famous image of the DNA model using x-ray techniques that did not require a sample to be crystal.DNA are big molecules that do not form crystal prefers the form of organized fibers. The diffraction pattern determined the helical nature of the double strand that is anti-parallel. She figured out two forms of DNA which made solving the whole structure possible. The backbone of A form is ant parallel B form which is antiparallel.nbsp.

## EntrepreneurshipStrengths and weaknesses of family businesses

Entrepreneurship- Strengths and weaknesses of family business Various forms of business patterns exist in market and are practiced throughout the world. While some are purely corporate and no kin relationship based, others are explicitly family oriented businesses where the chain of command and disciplinary authority is transferred within the family generation after generation. Such businesses have their own peculiarities, trends, strengths and weaknesses.
Strengths:
Various features are attributed to the family businesses which primarily include the informal means of conducting the daily operations. Another feature that is often tagged to this kind of business includes the loyalty factor and long term relationship between the company and its employees. The degree of control over inter departmental affairs is relatively strongly managed in family businesses. The culture is considerably flexible, informal and occasional use of local language might be seen in practice. Long term dependencies and affiliations are another feature of family businesses.
Such businesses are not total loss. rather have lots of positives to them. The first and foremost advantage being enjoyed in such cultures is that of trust, reliability and endurance. The chemistry amongst the members of the kin creates a benevolent atmosphere in itself which is very fruitful for the overall working environment.
For many, the family businesses perform much better than other kinds of businesses and evidences have been seen where the throughputs have been far better compared to their non allegiance based enterprises. Weaknesses:
The weak links in any family business often starts with the succession of an individual by a family member which might be compromising in context of the merit and requirements of professional operations. The resistance to change is relatively more deep routed in the company as personal biases are involved directly or indirectly.
The family business environment is often termed as closed loop business atmosphere, since it in contrast to the conventional form of business environment, has relatively related faces around that are more loosely in the organization and business because of personal belonging and affiliations.
The existence of obligation to transfer the power amongst family member regardless of the capabilities and professional experience, this serves as serious draw back in this concept of business world. Meritocracy is often believed to be compromised in such forms of business. Personal enmity and competition in a negative way can be another damning factor in the working environment of an industry.
Factor of consideration, ability to understand the strengths and weaknesses of an individual are easily manageable in cases of family oriented businesses.
The exponents of quality and marketing success believe that a professional paradigm is often compromised in this kind of business setup. Since the rules and obligations of professional business norms are not followed and are compromised to some extent due to the family factor, such businesses might not make it to the top of list due to the reasons characteristic of this model of business.
Bottom Line:
A competent company member who has been in the organization for many years might not be able to reach the top rank and be the decision maker just because he is not from the family. Hence this is one of the serious drawbacks in such systems. The doors of transparent and without any hurdle promotion to the highest rank might not be possible. On the other hand, a realistic approach would invite introduction of entrepreneurship in the organization by giving space to the non family member to nurture and come up with his own possibilities that benefit the incumbent business.
Conclusion:
Having discussed the strengths and weakness of family business, certain pre requisites may be advised to such businesses because it can be easily said that the margin for growth, excellence and achieving the degree of entrepreneurship are relatively constrained due to the family hierarchy.
References:
Moores, K amp. Barrett, M 2002, Learning Family Business: Paradoxes and Pathways, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd, Hampshire.
Stewart, A, Lumpkin, GT amp. Katz, JA 2010, Entrepreneurship and Family Business, 12th edn, Emerald Group Publishing.Press.

## Description of Water Pollution Sources in Lake Victoria

Lake Victoria has a surface area of 68800 km2 hence making it the second largest lake in the world. Currently, the lake is characterized by eutrophication and low dissolved oxygen due to pollution from human activity (Scheren et al., 2000). The pollution load is mainly domestic in nature with little industrial pollution. The article tries to identify a reliable method to gauge this pollution in terms of intensity and quantity from the various sources. Since the lake shares among three nations, Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania, the research determines the pollution load from each side and the management policies in place and their effectiveness is curbing the pollution into the lake. The article also views policies for sustainable development useful in the region (Scheren et al., 2000).
The lead researcher and author of the article are M. Scheren. A member of The United Nations Industrial Development Organisation based in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire (Scheren et al., 2000). The organization is responsible for monitoring and advising both the region and the United Nations Security Council on the effects of Industrial development on the environment.
The second Author, H.A. Zanting is a member of the Faculty of Technology Management and center technology for sustainable development in the Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands (Scheren et al., 2000). His expertise in sustainable development is key to the research as pollution due to increased human activity is an issue of sustainable development. A. M. Lemmens is a corresponding author in the research and often consulted on technical matters that require specialized opinion (Scheren et al., 2000).
The increased pollution of Lake Victoria is the recent past that has subsequently resulted in immense alterations in the chemistry and biology of the lake’s ecosystem necessitated the research.

## Chemistry assignment

Thus we must multiply 3 to get the integers 3 and 4, for Fe and O subscripts respectively. This is the simplest, or empirical, formula because the subscripts are the smallest integers that express ratios of atoms present in the compound.
Certain elements appear to violate the rules in electron configuration. The electron configuration of chromium is rather than , as one might have expected. Similarly, the configuration of copper is instead of . This anomalous behavior is largely a consequence of the closeness of the 3d and 4s orbital energies. It frequently occurs when there are enough electrons to lead to precisely half-filled sets of degenerate orbitals (as in chromium) or to completely filled d subshell (as in copper).
Increasing the distance from the nucleus decreases the attraction between the electrons and the nucleus. As this attraction decreases, it becomes easier to remove the electron and, thus, lower ionization energy. Element A has the largest atomic number (greatest distance between outer electron and nucleus) because it has the least ionization energy.
The ionization energies for an element increase in magnitude as successive electrons are removed. But when the next electron removed is an inner-shell electron, there is a sharp increase in ionization energy. The figure shown below tells us which group elements A-E should be placed.
19. 27.823g of Na2CO3.xH2O crystals were dissolved in water and made up to 1000 cm3 of solution. 25 cm3 of this solution required 48.8 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 HCI for complete neutralisation. Find the value of x in Na2CO3.xH2O using the following steps:
20. 4.00g of lawn sand (a mixture of sand and ammonium sulphate) was weighed into a conical flask, and 25 cm3 of 2.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide solution was pipetted into the same flask. The conical flask was boiled for 20 minutes, after which time all the ammonia had been driven off,

## Trace the scientific Method in a Primary Scientific Article

Trace the scientific method in a primary scientific article due: Trace the scientific methodin a primary scientific article
This paper is a discussion of a scientific method published in an article by the Science Daily web-site New Evidence. The study was conducted by Fumuhiko Horio and colleagues to determine if regular coffee taking minimizes the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Steps of the scientific method
The main steps include separating the laboratory mice into two groups. The second phase is to make the living environment and the diet same for the two groups. The next step includes feeding one group of 10 laboratory mice with two-fold diluted black coffee and the other group of 11 mice on regular drinking water. The final step includes monitoring the blood glucose every week for five weeks (American Chemical Society, 2010).
Observations
There was no difference in the body mass of the laboratory mice in the two groups.
Specific hypothesis
The hypothesis of the study was to test the antidiabetic impact of coffee and caffeine in the laboratory mice used to test diabetes.
Experimental design
The experimental design consists of a control group that is made up of a control group that comprised of 11 mice given regular water. The treatment group comprise of 10 laboratory mice that were fed on diluted coffee. The independent variables are diluted water and regular drinking water. The dependent variables are the mice and the blood glucose.
Summary of the results and the conclusion
The outcomes indicate that drinking coffee may prevent the growth of high blood sugar as well as enhance insulin responsiveness in the laboratory mice. The conclusions suggest that caffeine is a very effective antidiabetic compound in coffee (American Chemical Society, 2010).
Criticism
The test subjects and the treatment were important and appropriate because the issue of concern in this study was to test if coffee could reduce the level of blood glucose. Therefore, it was paramount for one group to be fed with coffee and the other with regular water. The restriction of the conclusion drawn by the study is that it does not specify the quantity of coffee drank by each mouse in the control group. Therefore, it difficult to conclude which amount of diluted coffee is suitable to suppress diabetes.
Relevance of this research
This research is important because it gives a comprehension of how the caffeine in the coffee is assumed to lower the blood glucose. The caffeine is ingested hence causing amelioration of hyperglycemia and also enhances fatty liver. As a result, coffee puts a suppressive impact on hyperglycemia through the improvement of insulin reactivity (Yamauchi et al., 2010).
Hypothesis of this experiment
It is assumed that drinking coffee regularly reduces the development of blood glucose in diabetic patients.
References
American Chemical Society. (2010, June 10). New evidence that drinking coffee may reduce
the risk of diabetes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 11, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100609111316.htm
Yamauchi, R., Kobayashi, M., Matsuda, Y., Ojika, M., Shigeoka, S., Yamamoto, Y., … amp.
Horio, F. (2010). Coffee and caffeine ameliorate hyperglycemia, fatty liver, and inflammatory adipocytokine expression in spontaneously diabetic KK-Ay mice. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 58(9), 5597-5603.

## Chemistry Paper

Chemistry al Affiliation) Nuclear Test Ban The article talks about the formation of the comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty that imposed a ban for nuclear tests across the world. This was after a series of nuclear tests that lead to environmental pollution and even death. This ban ensured that there is proper handling of chemicals to reduce their exposure to the environment.
The comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty was formed in September of 1996 when the states came together to ban the explosives that were mostly used as tests for nuclear explosives to environment. The first explosive to be tested was by the United States and was 1940s. The treaty had over 300 stations that were used as sniffers of the radionuclides. It also had the ability to listen to the lowest frequencies, and had the ability to record the tremors. The main purpose of this treaty was to exercise the chemistry principle that went be the terms safer chemistry for accident prevention.
The main reason for this concept or principle was to exercise all activities that were environment friendly. The establishment of this treaty led to more emphasis on environment consciousness by all countries including the super powers like the United States. The international monetary system supports the CTBT process with over 1 billion dollars’ worth of funds. The funding has ensured that the treaty is implemented successfully, which is attributable to the reduction of activities involving testing of explosives.
The plan was set up that would enable institutions and some individuals to work with CTBT was a good step as this will enable them to learn more from each other hence making sure the environment friendly activities are exercised fully. Most of these institutions handle chemical substances. Working with CTBT will ensure proper use and exposure of these chemicals.

Reference
Clery, D. (2015). Plundering a nuclear test ban treasure-trove. News.sciencemag.org. Retrieved 23 June 2015, from http://news.sciencemag.org/people-events/2015/06/plundering-nuclear-test-ban-treasure-trove?rss=

## Summary and poems

Chemistry: Summary and poems Summary Electrochemistry is a subsidiary of chemical sciences. It is ed to reactions that occur in electrified solutions with electron conductor (semiconductor or a metal) and an electrolyte. It observes at the electron transfer from the species or electrolyte solution to the electrode. Electrochemical reactions occur when a chemical reaction is followed after application of external voltage in a process known as electrolysis. This can be clearly illustrated by what takes place in a battery. In the same way, chemical reactions do occur in molecules. these reactions are simply known as REDOX reactions (oxidation and reduction. Reduction involves removal of oxygen molecule or additional of hydrogen molecules, while reduction involves additional oxygen and removal of hydrogen molecules. In summary, chemistry analyzes situations where reduction and oxidation reactions are separated by time or in space by external electric circuits (Carl, H. Hamann, Andrew, Hamnett, and Wolf, Vielstich, 22).
Poem on reduction and oxidation
Electrochemistry the back bone of electrolysis,
Forms the basis of our car batteries,
Our dry cell and fuel cell fall the truck,
Oxidation and reduction is the foundation of our chemistry.
Half reactions are encompassed with simplicity,
Rendering comprehension to all,
Young scholars enjoy every bit,
Oxidation and reduction is the foundation of our chemistry.
The knowledge facilitates our daily activities,
Apparatus under the subject are comprehensible,
Tutors and instructors have an easy time in illustrations,
Oxidation and reduction is the foundation of our chemistry.
Tools under the line are variety,
Voltmeter to galvanometer,
Standard hydrogen electrode and standard reduction potentials terminologies follow the trend,
Oxidation and reduction is the foundation of our chemistry.
Awareness of the subject’s significance is crucial,
Corrosion protections by galvanizing,
Corrosion protection by painting, cathodic protection most efficient,
Oxidation and reduction is the foundation of our chemistry.
His knowledge has driven us to where we are,
Let us work hard and improve his ideologies,
Oxidation and reduction is the foundation of our chemistry.
Work cited
Carl, H. Hamann, Andrew, Hamnett, and Wolf, Vielstich. Electrochemistry Electrochemistry. Wiley-VCH, 2007.

Prof’s Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) are the most common behavioral issues that children face (Furman 994). The exact origin of ADHD and ADD, and even their very existence, has been a matter of intense debate for some time now (Kirkpatrick 19), because many of the conditions are simply considered normal or slightly abnormal expressions of childhood behavior. The exact cause of ADHD is unknown as of yet, but the two main contenders for its cause are neurochemical imbalance (as in the case with other behavioral issues such as depression) and social conditioning factors such as family life and lived experience. While it is clear that brain chemistry plays some role, the latter explanation seems more compelling and fully developed.
Brain chemistry is one of the two main ways that one can theoretically approach ADHD and ADD. Using this theory, one would treat ADHD like a number of other neurological problems such as depression and anxiety, and treat it with drugs that affect the brain’s chemical balance in order to solve the underlying problem. The problem with this approach, however, is the fact that ADHD has never been conclusively linked to any particular brain imbalance, and no neurological test can be used to definitively identify its symptoms, unlike a large series of other neurological disorders (Furman 994). Thus, it seems that what we consider a disorder is actually a collection of symptoms that has not actually been associated with other neurological issues (Furman 998). The cause of ADHD thus does not appear to be a chemical imbalance in the brain.
The competing hypothesis is essentially that there has been a great deal of social and lived experience that contributes to the development of these disorders. There is a great deal of support for such an argument: primarily, it seems that treating the co-morbid issues of children facing ADHD (such as family issues, learning problems and so forth) has a direct impact on their experience of ADHD, a reason why a variety of treatments, including family counseling and educational assessments, are necessary in dealing with ADHD (Furman 999). This theory, thus, constructs ADHD as more of a volitional disorder (Garro and Yarris 603), which, like many behavior problems, has its roots in choices that children make along with the environment in which they develop. This cause-effect relationship is better supported by evidence than the brain-chemical model, which is directly disputed by the prevalence of co-morbid issues, and the fact that no neurological test can actually identify ADHD.
ADHD is a complex disorder, and it is unlikely that anyone will ever truly uncover exactly what its cause is. The two competing theories are a brain-chemical model and a social-behavioral model, each of which has its issues. The fact is, however, that the brain-chemical model has been directly refuted by a number of tests that would help identify its veracity, so we must conclude that ADHD is caused by more social and behavioral factors.
Works Cited
Furman, Lydia. What is Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorer (ADHD)? Journal of Child Neurology 20.12 (2005): 994-1002. Print.
Garro, Linda C., and Kristen E. Yarris. ‘A massive Long Way’: Interconnecting Histories, a ‘Special Child,’ ADHD, and Everyday Family Life. Cult Med Psychiatry 33 (2009): 559-607. Print.
Kirkpatrick, LaVonne. ADHD Treatment and Medication: What Do you Need to Know as an Educator? Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin (2005): 19-26. Print.

## Report The Elements A Very Short Introduction by Philip Ball

1250

They used to believe that these are the only four elements which are needed by the modern world scientists in creating the elements like hassium and meitnerium. Philip also writes in his book that, earlier he paid less attention and respect to the Periodic Table portrait. The Periodic Table is a famous and helpful term of all the chemical elements which are being used in chemistry. The author also mentions that the chemists only promote the notions related to the elements, and they also believes that chemistry starts with the portrait of Periodic Table only. They forget to bring up the full acknowledgement of these elements, where and how these elements have derived from. Author says that today, the molecular science needs only few and selective list of hundred or more elements, as contained in the Periodic Table today. By clearing his point, Philip quotes some famous examples either such as. a piano teacher would never start to teach the pupil by giving the details to play every note of the keyboard. He will only give the lessons by focusing on the few keys, to play some specific tune. Music is all about tunes, chords and harmonies, instead of every note. Philip relates this example with the chemistry and the Periodic Table, that chemistry is all about molecules and compounds not elements. Philip states that no chemist in the entire world, including me can ever resist the elements. Wecan just not consider elements, if they don’t comprise in chemistry.Philip refers to one chemist named Oliver Sack, who used to collect elements in his childhood, instead of coins or stamps, in comparison to other kids.Sack used to spend his pocket money on a lump of sodium. Philip refers to his own self saying that I would just smuggle the lumps of sulphur and bottles of mercury from my school, as compared to Sack. The author shares his feelings about the smell and preciousness of the elements, which forced him to write a book

Question

# using the Internet, research organic chemistry and its differences from other branches of chemistry, such as

inorganic or physical chemistry. Based on your research, respond to the following:

Science

Question

# using the Internet, research organic chemistry and its differences from other branches of chemistry, such as

inorganic or physical chemistry. Based on your research, respond to the following:

Science

## Hello I need homework help with my organic chemistry unit I have attached photos of the question from

Questions 1- 2- Outline the mechanis- of sodium horohydrido reduction of ketomss in eﬂnanolic solution
(mfg: to any standard organic chemistry tsxtbook)- 1What type of reaction and
mechanism are imrolvod here? Draw the pro-duct of the following reactions: /\/\/lll\ 1- HERE
2. H+
Science

## Hello I need homework help with my organic chemistry unit I have attached photos of the question from

Questions 1- 2- Outline the mechanis- of sodium horohydrido reduction of ketomss in eﬂnanolic solution
(mfg: to any standard organic chemistry tsxtbook)- 1What type of reaction and
mechanism are imrolvod here? Draw the pro-duct of the following reactions: /\/\/lll\ 1- HERE
2. H+
Science

Question

# Hi I am with these problems from General Chemistry 21. For propanoic acid (CH3CH2COOH, Ka =

1.3 x 10-5), determine the concentration of all species in solution (H3O+, OH-, CH3CH2COOH, and CH3CH2COO-), the pH, and the percentage of dissociation of a 0.100 M solution

3. Monochloroacetic acid (ClCH2COOH, Ka = 1.35 x 10-3) is a skin irritant that is used in chemical peels intended to remove the top layer of dead skin from the face and ultimately improve the complexion. Calculate the pH of a 0.10 M solution of monochloroacetic acid.

4. Determine the pH of an HNO2 (Ka = 4.5 x 10-4) solution of each concentration. In which cases can you not make the simplifying assumption that x is too small? a) 0.500 M b) 0.100 M c) 0.0100 M

Science

Question

# Hi I am with these problems from General Chemistry 21. For propanoic acid (CH3CH2COOH, Ka =

1.3 x 10-5), determine the concentration of all species in solution (H3O+, OH-, CH3CH2COOH, and CH3CH2COO-), the pH, and the percentage of dissociation of a 0.100 M solution

3. Monochloroacetic acid (ClCH2COOH, Ka = 1.35 x 10-3) is a skin irritant that is used in chemical peels intended to remove the top layer of dead skin from the face and ultimately improve the complexion. Calculate the pH of a 0.10 M solution of monochloroacetic acid.

4. Determine the pH of an HNO2 (Ka = 4.5 x 10-4) solution of each concentration. In which cases can you not make the simplifying assumption that x is too small? a) 0.500 M b) 0.100 M c) 0.0100 M

Science

## 1 …

Traditionally in chromatography the eluting solvent is an organic compound, such as hexane or

Question

# 1. Traditionally in chromatography the eluting solvent is an organic compound, such as hexane or

acetonitrile. Explain, in terms of green chemistry, why this experiment uses environmentally friendly compounds, such as table salt, water and isopropyl alcohol. Research an alternative solvent that is currently being used in chromatography to reduce costly wastes and describe the benefits of that solvent, as well as any complications that may be related to the use of the alternative solvent.

Science

## 1 …

Traditionally in chromatography the eluting solvent is an organic compound, such as hexane or

Question

# 1. Traditionally in chromatography the eluting solvent is an organic compound, such as hexane or

acetonitrile. Explain, in terms of green chemistry, why this experiment uses environmentally friendly compounds, such as table salt, water and isopropyl alcohol. Research an alternative solvent that is currently being used in chromatography to reduce costly wastes and describe the benefits of that solvent, as well as any complications that may be related to the use of the alternative solvent.

Science

Question

# This is a pre lab for general chemistry 2.

NAME:
Pre-Lab Questions
quot;Titration of the Carbonate Buffer Systemquot;
1. Write the formulas and calculate the molar masses of the two compounds you will
be using in this experiment.
a) Sodium carbonate
b) Sodium bicarbonate
2. Write the reaction for each compound from #1 with water:
get
carbonate + Bicarbonate
a)
right
b )
Go
3. What volume of 0. 100 M HCI is required to titrate 0.100 g of sodium bicarbonate to
its equivalence point?
Titration of the Carbonate Buffer System
153
Science

Question

# This is a pre lab for general chemistry 2.

NAME:
Pre-Lab Questions
quot;Titration of the Carbonate Buffer Systemquot;
1. Write the formulas and calculate the molar masses of the two compounds you will
be using in this experiment.
a) Sodium carbonate
b) Sodium bicarbonate
2. Write the reaction for each compound from #1 with water:
get
carbonate + Bicarbonate
a)
right
b )
Go
3. What volume of 0. 100 M HCI is required to titrate 0.100 g of sodium bicarbonate to
its equivalence point?
Titration of the Carbonate Buffer System
153
Science

## Help with answers to the following word document on organic chem covering carbohydrates and

nucleic acids
Chapter 24 Carbohydrates and Nucleic Acids
1) How many molecules of carbon dioxide and water are needed to make a molecule of glucose
in photosynthesis?
A) 5 CO2 and 5…
Science

## Help with answers to the following word document on organic chem covering carbohydrates and

nucleic acids
Chapter 24 Carbohydrates and Nucleic Acids
1) How many molecules of carbon dioxide and water are needed to make a molecule of glucose
in photosynthesis?
A) 5 CO2 and 5…
Science

Question

# In chemistryassigning oxidation numbers to elements

Oxidation numbers are assigned to elements using these rules:
1. All elements in their free state (uncombined with other elements) have an oxidation number of
zero.
Examples: Na, Cu, Mg, H2 , O2 ,…
Science

Question

# In chemistryassigning oxidation numbers to elements

Oxidation numbers are assigned to elements using these rules:
1. All elements in their free state (uncombined with other elements) have an oxidation number of
zero.
Examples: Na, Cu, Mg, H2 , O2 ,…
Science

;x -;

Question

# # 1 solve the system of elimination. if he system is inconsistent or has dependent equations, say so ; x –

4y = – 4

-4 – 3y= – 3

#2. Jill is 17.5 kilometers away from joe. both begin to walk toward each other at the same time. Kill walks at 2 kilometers per hour. they meet in 5 hours. how fast is Joe walking?

#3 In a chemistry class, 9 liters of a 4% silver oxide solution must be mixed with 10% solution to get a 6% solution. How many liters of the 10% solution are needed?

#4 divide

42×4-36×3+12×2

Question

# a).In the study of chemistry and engineering relations,the choice of the best type of reboiler or vapouriser for a

given duty will depend on three factors namely:

b).write down the statement of the Nernst’s theory in chemistry of electric cells

Science

Question

# a).In the study of chemistry and engineering relations,the choice of the best type of reboiler or vapouriser for a

given duty will depend on three factors namely:

b).write down the statement of the Nernst’s theory in chemistry of electric cells

Science

;x -;

Question

# # 1 solve the system of elimination. if he system is inconsistent or has dependent equations, say so ; x –

4y = – 4

-4 – 3y= – 3

#2. Jill is 17.5 kilometers away from joe. both begin to walk toward each other at the same time. Kill walks at 2 kilometers per hour. they meet in 5 hours. how fast is Joe walking?

#3 In a chemistry class, 9 liters of a 4% silver oxide solution must be mixed with 10% solution to get a 6% solution. How many liters of the 10% solution are needed?

#4 divide

42×4-36×3+12×2

Question

Question

Question

# some questions of organic chemistry 2. in the worksheet there are several reactions, for example give you

reactants and fill in the product, etc

all questions are attached in the worksheet attached

1) Provide a reasonable mechanism for the following reactions. 2) Provide a reasonable synthesis for the following transformations. 4 C3H7Cl + 3 C6H6 = 3 C10H14 + 4 HCl
Science

Question

# some questions of organic chemistry 2. in the worksheet there are several reactions, for example give you

reactants and fill in the product, etc

all questions are attached in the worksheet attached

1) Provide a reasonable mechanism for the following reactions. 2) Provide a reasonable synthesis for the following transformations. 4 C3H7Cl + 3 C6H6 = 3 C10H14 + 4 HCl
Science

Question

# Please solve the problems in the file attached. The topic is introduction to Organic Chem.

CHE 110
Final Exam Review Guide (Part II)
Name ______________________________________ Due _____12/19/2016____ I. Organic Chemistry
a) Identify the following molecules as alkane, alkene, alkynes,…
Science

Question

# Please solve the problems in the file attached. The topic is introduction to Organic Chem.

CHE 110
Final Exam Review Guide (Part II)
Name ______________________________________ Due _____12/19/2016____ I. Organic Chemistry
a) Identify the following molecules as alkane, alkene, alkynes,…
Science

Question

# Chemistry 1 Journal Article Report (JAR).I have a JAR that is due this Wednesday (3-28-17).

Attachment Images 3014, 3016, 3017, and 3018 cover the experiment as it was presented to us.

The Exp 10 Data attachment is the data I collected.

Attachment Jar basic 1-4 are the JAR instructions given in the lab book. As you can see in my notes, we were asked to add additional information, those being: *the Introduction to also include explanation of what elemental analysis is. *the Results to also include sample calculations. *the Discussion and Conclusion section to also include a comparison of the two trial, and if they are different then why?, as well as explanation on how you would know if you put enough aluminum in, and what will happen if all the copper didn’t precipitate?

The final attachment is the grading rubric.

The JAR must always be in third person.

EMPIRICAL FORMULA OF A HYDRATE
PURPOSE
Understanding how to determine the empirical formula of a hydrate compound. In addition to
grasping the concept of empirical formula determination, the…
Science

Question

# Chemistry 1 Journal Article Report (JAR).I have a JAR that is due this Wednesday (3-28-17).

Attachment Images 3014, 3016, 3017, and 3018 cover the experiment as it was presented to us.

The Exp 10 Data attachment is the data I collected.

Attachment Jar basic 1-4 are the JAR instructions given in the lab book. As you can see in my notes, we were asked to add additional information, those being: *the Introduction to also include explanation of what elemental analysis is. *the Results to also include sample calculations. *the Discussion and Conclusion section to also include a comparison of the two trial, and if they are different then why?, as well as explanation on how you would know if you put enough aluminum in, and what will happen if all the copper didn’t precipitate?

The final attachment is the grading rubric.

The JAR must always be in third person.

EMPIRICAL FORMULA OF A HYDRATE
PURPOSE
Understanding how to determine the empirical formula of a hydrate compound. In addition to
grasping the concept of empirical formula determination, the…
Science

Question

# A chemistry student weighs out 0.500 kg of an unknown solid compound X and adds it to 6.00 L of distilled water at

29.° C . After 10 minutes of stirring, only some of the X has dissolved. The student drains off the solution, then washes, dries and weighs the X that did not dissolve. It weighs 0.710 kg.

1) Using the information above, can you calculate the solubility of X?

2) If so, calculate it. Remember to use the correct significant digits and units

Science

Question

# A chemistry student weighs out 0.500 kg of an unknown solid compound X and adds it to 6.00 L of distilled water at

29.° C . After 10 minutes of stirring, only some of the X has dissolved. The student drains off the solution, then washes, dries and weighs the X that did not dissolve. It weighs 0.710 kg.

1) Using the information above, can you calculate the solubility of X?

2) If so, calculate it. Remember to use the correct significant digits and units

Science