Bis 104 Cell Biologyhello I’M Taking Cell Biology (Bis104 At Uc Davis)

ER
Resealed ER vesicles
called microsomes (b/c of lipid
properties)
Break cells with
Dounce homogenizer:
Membranes fragment
then reseal with a
particular orientation
Extra-cellular domain
Peripheral membrane
protein (cytoplasmic:
Inside the cell)
Intergral
Luminal protein
membrane
(Extra cellular:
protein
outside the cell)
Intra-cellular domainScience

How Does Divergence Lead To Reproductive Isolation? What Are Some Ways That Divergence Leads To Reproductive

Question

how does divergence lead to reproductive isolation? What are some ways that divergence leads to reproductive

isolation? Reproductive isolation is when different species live in the same area but some characteristics of individuals keep them from interbreeding. I wanted to know how divergences leads to this type of mechanism and what are some disadvantages/advantages.

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Asked by Tanaya Chaphekar
Student at The University of Tennessee Knoxville
How does divergence lead to reproductive isolation?
What are some ways that divergence leads to reproductive isolation? Reproductive
isolation is when different species live in the same area but some characteristics of the
individuals keep them from interbreeding. I wanted to know how divergence leads to this
type of mechanism and what are some disadvantages/advantages.
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Lecture Exam 1 Review Sheet Exam Date 10/5/2016 Chapter 1 Biology 1

ulgtltligthey, can you please explain each of the terms briefly.. and please show examples if you thinkLecture Exam 1 Review Sheet
Exam Date: 10/5/2016
Chapter 1: Biology
1. Biology: It is a natural science deals with the study of living organisms, as well as their structure, growth, function,…Science

Measurements Micropipetting and Sterile Techniques

MICROPIPETTING AND STERILE PIPETTING TECHNIQUE Index Purpose 2. Procedure 3. Result 4. Conclusion 5. References Micropipetting Practice Using Sterile Technique
Here we discuss about two techniques named as ‘Micropipetting’ and ‘Sterile pipetting’
for laboratory experiments based on microbiology or on the micro chemical protocols and small volume of DNA has to measure with pure cultures.
Purpose:
Sterile technique must use to protect the sterile broth, plates, slants and pure cultures form the microbes. In this technique only sterile surfaces touch each other sterile surfaces according to this method exposure of the sterile surfaces to the air should be minimum and in micropipetting is the technique of measuring small volumes even if in micro liters.
PROCEDURE:
1. The size of the micropipettor should be either 100-1000 or P1000 on the circle on top of the plunger.
2. To read 015, we have to set the numbers in the window( fig.). It shows 150 micro liters.
Where,
1 micro liter = 1/1,00,000 liters
3. Now, with a great attention place a tip strongly on the end of the micropipettor(fig.). To prevent the samples from contamination we must not touch the pointed end of the tip with our fingers.
4. to take up a volume of sample

a. Press the plunge r up to first stop. When you feel the resistance then don’t push the button.
b. Keep the tube and micropipettor at the eye level. Put the point of the tip into the liquid found in the tube labeled “CW” for colored water.
c. Gradually release the plunger button and suction up liquid.
d. You have to repeat this process if there is any bubble present in the tube.
5. To remove or expel the volume of the sample on the filter paper (fig.).
a. Put the tip of the micropipettor directly on the labeled filter paper.
b. Slowly push the plunger button (from first stop to second stop) and make sure all the liquid came out.
6. To eject the tip:
a. Hold the tip over a waste disposal container.
b. Push the eject button.
7. Reset the numbers in the window to read 020 (fig.). Write 020 and your name on another piece of filter paper. Follow steps 3-5 to transfer this volume of liquid to the filter paper. What volume in μl does 020 represent?
8. Now reset the numbers in the window to read 024 (fig.). Write 024 and your name on another piece of filter paper and follow steps 3-6. What volume in μl does 024 represent?
Result:
By this experiment we measured very small volumes of liquids and gels like DNA. Proper pipetting and sterile technique is essential for correct result. If there is any inaccuracy in pipetting or in sterile technique then it may cause poor and incorrect results. By using sterile technique we developed an ideal environment which protects our sample from contamination. If we put our finger on the tip of the pointed end then sample becomes contaminate.
CONCLUSION:
Many laboratory experiments based on the microbiology or on the micro chemical protocols and small volume of DNA has to measure with pure cultures which is done with the help of two techniques-Micropipetting and sterile pipetting. These techniques take us towards nearer to the correct results. Use of these techniques is very important for the better result.
We can obtain ideal environment by this method ‘Sterile Technique’. This helps us to gain better results. It means that in this process sterile surfaces or sterile media is protected from contamination by microbes. It is very necessary to maintain sterile conditions properly to reduce the probability of contaminating with bacteria and fungus.
By using these methods we can measure small volumes also. Small volume micropipettor and Large volume micropipettor exercises are used to perorm this experiment. Scientists used an instrument called “Micropippettor” for this. Hence, micropipettor is a device or an instrument which is used to measure small volumes of liquids in the lab. In the experiments related with the measurement of small volumes like DNA we can use “Micropipetting Technique”, which makes our result more accurate.
Q .When is necessary to use sterile technique?
If live bacteria are needed at the end of a manipulation (general culturing and transformation), sterile technique is not necessary if the bacteria are destroyed by the manipulation in the experiment or when solutions for DNA analysis (plasmid isolation, DNA restriction and DNA legation) are being used. To protect pure cultures from microbes we use this technique. A sterile swab, pipette or toothpick can be used instead of an inoculating loop.
References:
1. Teresa Thiel , ‘Science in the Real World: Microbes in action (sterile technique)’, Department of Biology university of Missouri –St. Louis.1999. 23 Sep. 2007
www.umsl.edu/~microbes/pdf/steriletechnique.pdf
2. Bloom, Freyer, and Micklos, Laboratory DNA Science
3. ‘BioTeach for high School Students’, Schedule: June 18 –25, 2002. Tuesday, June 18, 25 sep 2007,
main.uab.edu/sys/images/cord/Microbial-Techniques-BioTeach-Module-1.pdf

Evolution of Biology

Evolutionary Development of the Fibroblast Growth Factor The article, “Evolution of FGF Gene Family” by Oulion, Bertrand and Escriva was published in the International Journal of Evolutionary Biology in the year 2012. The article reflects on the evolutionary development and progression of the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family over the years. The FGF family is involved in the normal developmental and physiological processes of human biology. The research observes the FGF family evolution in the chordates and the eumetazoan family which helps in understanding the evolution of the FGF family brought about by the successive genetic alterations.
On the basis of the FGF amino acid sequences found in the metazoan lineages, it has been exhibited that the evolutionary scenarios in the metazoan lineages are associated with the FGF gene content. Two hypotheses have been proposed on the basis of the evolutionary progression in the metazoan lineage. The first hypothesis states that the eight FGF subfamilies are chordae-specific and the second hypothesis states that the eight subfamilies were ancestral to all eumetazoans. The study results showed that the chordates possessed two gene copies of the FGF gene and duplications occurred generating the current diversity. The metazoan lineage, on the other hand, exhibits high degree of gene losses during their evolution. Therefore, a total of eight gene families were present in the eumetazoan ancestors, out of which there were six gene losses in cnidarians, five in ambulacrarians and five in protostomes.
For phylogenetic analysis of vertebrae FGFs, the amino acids were aligned and maximum likelihood tree was built. For the nonvertebrae FGF phylogenetic analyses, the obtained FGF sequences were aligned with the already known FGF sequences from the metazoan lineages. Maximum likelihood tree for this group was also generated. The methodology focuses on comparing the FGF subfamilies from the vertebrae and non-vertebrae groups to understand the genetic evolutionary process. The approach of the methods used by the research was focused on supporting the hypothesis and different sequences were compared so that an understanding of the variations in the genetics of FGF family could be compared. The data is exhibited through easy to understand diagrams and chromosomal maps. For exhibiting the evolutionary progression of the FGF family the comparison of the amino acid sequences is crucial so that the duplications or losses could be understood.
The hypothesis is supported successfully by the results of the data which represents that the FGF family specific in the chordae was a result of various gene duplications and the ancestral eumetazoan had at least a set of two genes of the FGF family from the current FGF family seen in the metazoan lineage. However, the research focuses only on the genetic evolution of the FGF family and the morphological and functional evolution of the FGF family is not discussed, hence the functional evolution of the signal should also be discussed. The process of diversification in the chordae as well as the metazoan lineage is consistent with the current understanding of the evolutionary genetics changes an organism has to undergo over several generations for its survival and progress.
References
Oulion, Silvan, Stephanie Bertrand and Hector Escriva. "Evolution of FGF Gene Family." International Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 2012. Web. 11 Mar. 2014. http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijeb/2012/298147/

Young Women Feminism and the Future

One philosophy is that sex is socially formed instead of being spontaneously created. This is by keeping in mind that hominids are genetic beings, where our genetic system affects who we are as men and women. Nonetheless, from a women’s libber view, there exists a composite interaction between culture and biology and genetic attributes may be transformed by social or environmental settings. Feminism describes gender as arrange of social anticipations that are replicated and transmitted via an aspect of social acquiring. This paper entails an argumentative essay on feminism as a social movement.

(A-2) A second women’s movement philosophy is that gender is a crucial organizing aspect within the social domain. Gender is entrenched in social interactions and processes of daily life along with all social establishments. At the organizational level, gender is molded by the economic and political structure of a society. In all societies, specific forms of gender norms prevail, and these norms can differ from community to community consequently more substantiation that gender is fashioned socially. Conferring to the feminist standpoint no sex is intrinsically superior to another. Conversely, the ethnicity of a civilization may instill one sex with a superior significance than another sex. For example in the Western and most other societies, masculinity (of traits and behaviors related to being male) is esteemed more hellish than feminineness (of traits and behaviors related to being female). The men, hence, are bestowed grander access to rewards and resources in these communities, solely because they stand out as (masculine) men. Therefore, discrepancy valuing produces gender bias (Curran 47).

A common misunderstanding concerning feminism is that it centers only on womenfolk or "females issues." (B-1)Feminisms chief objective, from a theoretical outlook, partakes to review and refine the status of womenfolk in&nbsp.community, mostly since womenfolk and the traits and behaviors related to them have been ignored or devalued in the past.&nbsp.

Omnivores Dilemma (Industrial Corn)

To investigate and analyze the entire food chains of human food habits, Pollan throws an in-depth light on each of the food chains initiating from the industrial food to the final source of the final meal.
The book is divided into three neat parts, bearing the titles, ‘Industrial Corn’, ‘Pastoral Grass’ and ‘Personal the Forest’. Apart from this, there is also one introduction bearing the title, ‘Our Natural Eating Disorder’. ‘Industrial Corn’ is the first part of the book and it contains seven chapters. In this portion of the book, Pollan tends to explore the food chain from which the vast variety of American meals evolve. This portion of the book also throws light on the food chain based on industrial food that is widely dependant on corn. It exposes the nature and the way corn is consumed by American masses in their food directly through food or used as a feed to the livestock. Corn is widely used in the processing of chemicals like glucose and used widely in the manufacturing of high-fructose corn syrup and ethanol. The first portion of the book, ‘Industrial Corn’ is a thorough discussion on the process of how the corn plant has actually dominated the entire course of American diet achieved through a proper blend of factors pertaining to biology, politics, and culture.
The seven chapters that compose the first portion of the book, ‘Industrial Corn’ bears the following titles chronologically, ‘The Plant: Corn’s Conquest’, ‘The Farm’ ‘The Elevator’ ‘The Feedlot: Making Meat’, ‘The Processing Plant: Making Complex Food’, ‘The Consumer: A Republic of Fat’, ‘The Meal: Fast Food’ (Pollan, 2006).
Pollan starts by discussing that corn plant controls the American diet to a great extent. It dominates the American way of food. To investigate the way the corn plant exercises its influence on the American food habits, Pollan starts&nbsp.his investigation from the grass-root level and in order to accomplish it, he visits a corn farm in Iowa owned by George Naylor.&nbsp.

Pharmacogenetics in Cancer

Various problems have been realized during the cancer therapy using the conventional chemotherapy. This is because to attain reasonable efficacy, a considerable degree of toxicity is needed and hence severe side-effects. Most oncologists are faced with the major challenge of the variability of the treatment responses as well as narrow therapeutic index for the anticancer drugs. Therefore, there is no doubt that the developments in molecular biology and molecular genetics, and of the associated methods have had considerable effects on the comprehension of drug action. Therefore, drawing on a variety of sources the paper will discuss pharmacogenetics in cancer.
Cancer is a very unusual disease because it emanates from the accumulation of several gene mutations within the cell, thus disrupting normal cellular function as well as normal checks. Therefore, cancer cells have definite genetic profiles. As result, pharmacogenetics is helpful as a cancer therapeutic since is focuses on the genetic profiles and a person’s interaction with the drug. Pharmacogenetics can be described as the interaction between the drug and individual traits, and is very helpful in cancer therapeutics. Therefore, it is based on the clinical efficacy observations as well as tolerability profile of a drug in a person (Licinio and Wong 129). The most common challenge in cancer treatment is the related to the anticancer drugs. The pharmacogenetics can assist in the discovery, development, and individualization of the anticancer drugs.

Physiological Processes Involved in our Spatial Vision

Seeing is a process which enables a person to see things of this world around him/her. To see is a natural God gifted phenomenon. One gets benefits and enjoys the environment. During this phenomenon, the patterns of light are projected on our retinas by the objects. From the scientific view, vision is a complex process. The image is encoded in the retina. The retina goes through some important processes and then reaches to the stage of recognizing an object or personality or anything else. Actually, it is the object that reflects light from its background and the luminant boundaries in the retinal image are formed. This is a useful starting point in the spatial vision and is performed by an important group of retinal cells, the ganglion cells. (Jenkin, 1994)
Spatial vision is that branch of psychology/biology that deals with the study of interpretation of light patterns on the retina by the visual system. This is a new interdisciplinary approach and is also called as vision sciences. This field of science integrates psychological, computational, neuro-scientific perceptions and visual brain knowledge. Rods and cons of the eye are photoreceptor in nature and transduce light into electrical impulses inside our nerve fibers. Both types of cells are interdependent with each other. Not only a discrete area of human cognition is involved in spatial vision, but various other areas are also taking part in this two-sided/faceted relation. Spatial perception influences and is influenced. (DeValois &amp. Russell L., 1990)
The field of visually perceived space introduces the knowledge of scientific psychology. In the current era, its importance is at a great rise. Keen interest is being shown by the biologists and psychologists. They are busy conducting active research in this most important scientific knowledge. The visual space is usually described in terms of conscious experiences.&nbsp.

Psychological Understanding of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

3750 Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be one of the earliest recorded psychological disorders in history. Symptoms that resemble the affliction were noted in Ancient Greece as an effect of battle, and examples of these symptoms can be found throughout recorded history in similar war-related situations. However, the actual designation of PTSD and the development of related treatment did not begin until the 1970s. It is not a coincidence that interest in identifying and studying this disorder occurred in step with the much-maligned Vietnam War. PTSD continues to be strongly linked to participation in wars (MacGregor, 2009), although this is far from the only type of traumatic experience that can be associated with the disorder.&nbsp.PTSD is classified as a type of anxiety disorder that occurs after you’ve witnessed, been involved in, or have otherwise experienced a traumatic event (physical and/or psychological) that involves a serious threat to some aspect of the observer’s perspective well being (which may include experiencing threats to others). The trauma that triggers PTSD may be experienced at any age and can be in a wide variety of forms, such as being assaulted, witnessing a murder, being in battle, or living through natural disasters (NCBI, 2011). The onset and duration of PTSD can vary. Long-term afflictions (chronic), short-term (acute), and forms of the disorder that do not manifest immediately after the traumatic experience (delayed-onset) are some of the categories that describe the various kinds of PTSD.&nbsp.Due to a lack of evidence connecting biology to PTSD (links do exist, but they are new and few at this point), the disorder is diagnosed based on the potentially traumatic experience, as well as behavioral changes that may follow the event.

Social Determinants of Health and WellBeing

There is a long list provided by the WHO of the social determinants necessary to influence the well-being and health of every individual. While some parts of this list are far from being social influences, many do indeed fall within the list of determinants in society that affect its individuals. This list includes: income, education or more specifically health literacy, employment, physical environment, child development, biology, gender and culture. Thus, as proven, some factors are a far cry from what can be considered as social determinants to the prevailing health system today. Yet aspects like housing: physical environment, education: health literacy and culture can play a tremendous role in determining the kind of health services available. Additional aspects of social determinants to health are the early life of an individual, their working conditions, income distribution and food security (The Social Determinants of Health).

The importance of these social determinants is not one that is lost on everyone. Individual writers like Raphael speak of the social determinants as responsible for the economic and social conditions that assist in shaping the health of not just individuals but also communities and jurisdictions. He defines social determinants as responsible for determining the degree to which their resources: physical, personal and societal can satisfy their needs and help cope with the surrounding environment.

To better understand the part played by social determinants it is necessary to understand how these determinants can affect the health and causes diseases. Research has been carried out that determines a cultural/behavioral or materialistic/structuralist approach to understanding the mechanisms that influence this process (Townsend, Davidson &amp. Whitehead).

The cultural/behavioral theme concentrates on the individual’s choices and behavior. For instance, it can include the amount of tobacco or alcohol in

Final Exam Biology

The primary consumers will have all the energy from the sun and synthesize nutrients. These nutrients will be used by each level with little being passed to the next trophic level hence the biomass will decrease.
Considering the concept of ecological efficiency, only about ten per cent of the nutrients and energy passed to a given trophic level will be utilized. Therefore, that will be lost with the one in the next trophic level being smaller by ten percent. This is the main reason why the pyramid will rarely have more than seven trophic levels.
The acacia ants live in the thorns. The acacia produce the substance that the ants use for food. On the other hand, the ants defend the acacia from herbivores by stinging them. Therefore, when the ants were removed, the acacia left could have been destroyed by herbivores with their height remaining limited. The ants also prune other plants that grow under the acacia making them dominant. This explains the information presented on the graph.
Dead zones are also called hypoxic zones. They exist in oceans where there is low oxygen concentration such that aerobic organisms living there die due to lack of oxygen. Dead zones are formed due to an interaction between biological, chemical and physical factors. Nutrients from agriculture and urban development are washed off to the water bodies such as the ocean. The excess nutrients fertilize the quick growing microscopic plants in a process known as eutrophication. Once all the nutrients are used up by the phytoplankton, they sink to the bottom and decompose. The decomposition process by the aerobic bacteria depletes the oxygen making the region hypoxic. This leads to the formation of dead zones.
Hamilton addressed the issue of altruism to develop the equation above. His approach considered that provided there is a genetic basis for altruistic tendencies should-via the principle of independent assortment-produce siblings with a particular probability

Girl Before Mirror by Pablo Picasso

Lecturer: Girl Before Mirror by Pablo Picasso The Girl Before Mirror is a painting that was done by Pablo Picasso in 1932 using a style of production that Picasso had employed at the time to bring to mind an image of Vanity similar to those that had been used in the earlier times (Lobdell and Burgard 39). Regardless of this, the painter shifts the focus and develops a totally different perception to the image. A close look at the image creates an interpretation of numerous varying symbols in different sections of the painting. The facial aspect of the girl is depicted with a lateral profile as well as a complete anterior image. One side portrays the day time where is illustrated donning make-up while the other side is characterized by a rough charcoal texture of the night. It can be interpreted that when the girl stares at her image in the reflection, she sees an older woman. This is depicted in the green coloration of the face, the darkened attributes of the face as well as the outlines which demonstrate that her young figure has gone through distortion.
The painting, which is vertically oriented and standing at more than five feet, depicts the image of a girl and her reflection occupying almost the whole working area. Therefore, the girl in the painting is not scale down, but is depicted as being larger than life making the scale of the painting and of the girl a powerful impression when viewed in person. The design is founded on symmetrical balance with the girl being on the left and her image on the right side. The mirror’s left post is close to the vertical axis and thus divides the composition into two parts. The reflection of the girl in the mirror does not match her actual face, the warm colors on the girl are reflected as cool colors in the mirror and the firm shapes are also depicted as being smooth.
Attention is mainly drawn towards the face of the girl in the painting which is a natural focal point. This is emphasized through painting one half yellow and surrounding the head with an oval of white and green that separates it from the rest of the busy pattern in the background while providing adequate visual weight that creates equilibrium in the form of the mirror. The proportions are also modified in such a manner that makes the facial attributes of the girl occupy the whole space of her head. Her head that is depicted as having yellowish hair and her half-yellow expression is portrayed as the lightest part of the picture as it is the main light source.
Attention is drawn to the body that has been divided in a vertical manner, through the use of cool and pale hues that are started by darkened shapes and lines. The left half is dressed in a stripped garment, possibly a bathing suit, while the right side is bare. The manner in which the stomach is swollen suggests an element of childbearing as well as renewal of life. Her biology is stressed in the image that appears in the mirror as her belly is reflected in a confident manner. Attention is attracted to this part of the painting through a rapid shift in value as since the rest of the mirror image is darkened, the breasts and the belly are lighter.
Works cited
Lobdell, Frank, and Timothy A. Burgard. Frank Lobdell: The Art of Making and Meaning.
San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco,&nbsp.2003. Print.

Each paper is on cultural relativism on the writings provided below

82000 This fact cannot be denied that people believing in traditional healing systems will not go for biomedicine if they have firm believe in their culture and folk medicine procedures. Their beliefs should be respected and they should not be imposed that they must use the medicine that has no linkage with their culture. Even they should be facilitated with knowledge of their culture so that they can be provided with sufficient provision of needed support. AIDS is not a small or negligible disease as it keeps the capacity of killing a person. This disease is quite common in Africa and people make use of traditional or fold healing systems to get rid of this disease. It is essential for our researchers to make use of cultural herbal medicines and other ways of supporting people to get rid of their disease to facilitate the patients of AIDS with medicines that are not only biomedical but also traditional. Medical anthropologists have researched the topic of AIDS by keeping social and cultural aspects in view and state that the disease cannot be understood well without understanding the environment and culture of people involved. The writers Singer and Baer (2007) use a term bioculturalism to define the linkage between biology and culture and according to their view, interaction between cultures and biology can be seen well by studying health and illness. AIDS as a disease can be well understood by gaining knowledge of the culture of the people as culture informs us about explaining, sensing and experiencing about pain. Biomedicine cannot be successful for any diseased person until and unless, the culture, political status and environment, all are not well understood. Sexually transmitted disease such as AIDS involves cultural beliefs and practices. According to Singer and Baer (2007), “disease expression is shaped by cultural values, beliefs and expectations” (12). Therefore, the notion cannot be negated AIDS as a disease in various parts of the world can be best understood, explained and cured by means of understanding the cultures of people. Culture plays a major part in giving value to its followers and also provides people with fighting against diseases in their own constructed and reliable manners. References Singer, Merrill and Baer, Hans A. (2007). Introducing medical anthropology: a discipline in action. Boulevard: Rowman Altamira. Ethnomedicine: The Worlds of treatment and Healing Ethnomedicine can be defined as a term that circulates all the kinds of traditional medicines and its study whether the medicinal procedures are well documented or not. However, the medicinal study and procedures that come under the title of ethnomedicine are well established and people rely on them from centuries due to which, they are well reputed. The writers, Singers and Baer in their book, “Introducing Medical Anthropology” give the description of ethnomedicine as something that has “transcended multiple cultural boundaries”, which means that ethnomedicine has got so much repute that culturally, it is well-liked in nearly all cultures. The writers use the term ethnomedicine against the term biomedicine, which can be defined as study of medicinal procedures and medicine that is adopted globally. Ethnomedicine also called

The Double Helix

The double helix Double helix, as used in molecular biology, refers to pairing of dual strands of nucleic acid molecules. Examples of such strands are found in DNA molecules. In this paper, I seek to explore the role of double helix in complementary base pairing in DNA replication and the nature of the pairing.
The role of the double helix in complementary base pairing in DNA replication is to ensure an identical daughter cell in the replication process. The double helix strand consists of two chains, each with similar nucleotides but arranged in an opposite direction. The strands are copied with similar nucleotide information from each of the parent strands. As a result, a replication of the original DNA is achieved with the parent and daughter molecules having exactly the same properties. The double helix in the complementary based pairing therefore ensures that daughter molecules derive exactly the same characteristics as the parent molecules (Teerikorpi, Valtonen, Lehto, Byrd and Chernin, 2008).
The phrase, ‘two strands of DNA in the double helix are antiparallel,’ means that the strands run in opposite directions. This is because of properties of the different structures of the strands that ensure the opposite directions for bonding in the double helix strands (Strachan, 2003). If the strands were parallel, the ends of the double helix strands would have similar properties. This would result from the strands pairing with both strands aligned in the same direction as opposed to the opposite directional stranding of the ‘antiparallel’ double helix strands (Behr, 2008).
References
Behr, J. (2008). The lock-and-key principle, the state of the art–100 years On. New York, NY: John Wiley &amp. Sons
Strachan, T. (2003). Human molecular genetics. Derby, UK: Garland Science
Teerikorpi, P., Valtonen, M., Lehto, K., Byrd, G. and Chernin, A. (2008). The evolving universe and the origin of life: the search for our cosmic roots. New York, NY: Springer

Adoptive Children it’s in Their Genes

Until now, many of us are wondering if we inherit not only boliogical traits but personality factors as well. Some people rationalize that personality traits are learned as a consequence of interaction with people close to us like our parents, sibling ,a nd even friends. However, the article chosen sheds some light on this issue.
The article is titled “ It’s in Their Genes” written by Rebecca Klein. It was published in an online magazine known as “Adoptive Families”. The article begins with an interesting abstract that provokes the readers to read more about the article. The abstract suggests that certain personality traits can either be learned or simply inherited. The article presents the case of Jenae Neiderhise whose biological traits resemble that of her adoptive parents. However, her difference with them is marked by her educational achievement as she finished her doctoral degree. She is currently a psychology professor. On the contrary, the adoptive family had family members who weren’t able to finish college. Jenae tried to research about her biological family and later learned that some of her relatives were also highly-educated. As a consequence, she took interest in researching about genetics, particularly that of adoptive families.
In fact, she is not just an ordinary researcher. Her findings were even funded by the National Institutes of Health, an institution that studies families and open adoption. The early findings of her research were presented in earlier issues of the journal. Nevertheless, the article presents the following interesting revelations that Neiderhise stumbled upon her research:
1. Based in biology
Not everything is heritable since the environment accounts for half of traits acquired.
2. Extroversion and risk-taking
As for these traits families plus environment can influence traits but not to the point of alter one’s personality make-up.
3. Happiness
This trait can be inherited but again, environment and people around may influence the disposition of a child.
4. IQ
There is no doubt that nutrition as well as intelligent environment play a great role in enhancing IQ. Thus, bedtime stories and good choice of toys pay up.
5 Conservatism
The study presents that conservatism is genetically inherited and shows as early as age 12.
Other important findings such as impact of inheritance on religiousness, environmental impact, aggression, academic achievement and ability to bond were included in the article. In conclusion, the article illustrated that genetics still play a role in most traits although it does not fully answer the question: nurture or nature? Rather, the article asserts that interaction of environment with good genetic factors is the real thing. It argues that: &nbsp."The way you parent has an impact on your child, but part of the way you parent is determined by your child," says Neiderhiser. "Its not your fault if things go wrong, nor do you get all the credit if things go right."
Works Cited:
Klein, Rebecca. "Adoption – Adoptive Families."&nbsp.Adoption News and Information from Adoptive Families. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2010. .

BIOL final lab

Bioethical Issues on Mandatory DNA Fingerprint and Bisphenol A (BPA) Mandatory DNA Fingerprinting DNA fingerprinting is the genetical method that involves isolation and making of the DNA sequences mostly used in the verification of the identity of a strange person. It is common in criminal investigations to identify suspected criminals or in areas of law like paternity checkups. The process of obtaining a DNA fingerprint involves obtaining a fingerprint cell sample from a suspected individual under investigation and extracting its DNA. This is then compared to the samples of DNA from other sources used as evidence like a blood stain from the crime scene. Matching samples can then be used as evidences of guilt and can be used for justice and prosecution actions (Mader et al. 2014).
Even though the reliability of DNA fingerprinting has been a subject of debate, it has proven to be effective and precise in giving criminal investigators, police officers and detectives’ access to efficient information about violence and criminal cases. This hence enables justice of the victimized individual thus helping in ensuring sturdy and justified prison sentences to avoid repeated criminal activities. This is hence used as one of the most sophisticated crime tools to bring into judgment murderers and violent offenders who apprehended that they may go undetected. Spreading the technology will hence reduce criminal cases in streets and cities hence reducing the cost of fighting crime (Mader et al. 2014).
The technology has been declared mandatory over 50 states to look into criminal activities with sexual assaults and homicides given an upper hand. Moreover, other states use the mandatory DNA fingerprint technology in testing of juvenile offenders. Like in California, there is a constitutional declaration that allows federal law enforcement on suspects of a crime to be subjected to a mandatory DNA fingerprint. Some states however consider this as violation of privacy especially those that may require intrusion into the body for blood samples. It can also be important for defense and vindication as defenders may provide DNA samples as evidences of not committing a crime.
Bioethical Issue: Should BPA be banned?
Bisphenol A (BPA) chemical is a carbon-based, colorless synthetic compound which is soluble in organic solvents. It belongs to the chemical group of diphenylemethane derivatives together with bisphenols and has been in use from1957 in the making of plastics epoxy resins. Its plastic products are tough and clear and they include sport equipment, DVDs, water bottles etc. its epoxy resins are used in the lining of water pipes and coating of many beverage and food cans.
The use of BPA has been debated whether to be banned or not since it exposes users to health hazards. While scientific evidences show that BPA is found in majority of American states and is dangerous to human health, the overwhelming body of science concerning BPA suggests that the banning of BPA will be disastrous to public health. Food containers aligned with BPA resins prevents the growth of fatal pathogens like Escherichia coli in the food supplied to consumers. Studies done by U.S, WHO as well as other governmental bodies in European Union, Canada and Japan have concluded that the BPA risks in the body are negligible. This is because human body naturally metabolizes it without any negative impact to the body (Mader et al. 2014).
The use of products containing high concentration of BPA is however related to hormone disruption, early puberty in children, obesity diabetes and cancer. Since there are no efficient alternatives to BPA resins, its ban when passed into law could lead to increase in food spoilage and serious food-borne and food related infections. According to the above evidences therefore, the quantity of BPA put into use should be checked rather that considering a complete ban.
Work Cited
Mader S, Windelspecht M and Preston L. Essential of Biology (3rd Edition) New York, McGraw Hill Publishers, 2014

Why do people have/want children

Why Do People Have/Want Children? The continuity of human race is driven by human reproduction.In other words, generational progress from time to time is driven by bearing children. As much as people bear children and drive the growth and development of the human race, there are different reasons why people have/want children. These reasons are spread across cultural, social, economic, and political contexts. The three reasons for having/wanting children considered in this paper include biological, familial, and personal pleasure.
People have/want children because they feel they have a biological role to play. This perspective is backed up by Bernard Berelson in his essay, The Value of Children: A Taxonomical Essay. Berelson shows that people want to bear and take care of babies by asking the following questions: “Do people innately want children for some built-in reason of physiology? Is there anything to maternal instinct, or parental instinct? Or is biology satisfied with the sex instinct as the way to assure continuity?” (220). Wanting and having children is an in-born thing in people.
The familial reason of having/wanting children is informed by the need to extend family size and name. Children in the family set up also strengthen family bonds, thus creating a sense of security and responsibility. To support this, Berelson states, “Children need family, but the family seems also to need children” (223). Finally, the personal pleasure reason for having/wanting children is driven by the need to satisfy oneself. People derive personal comfort from wanting/having children, and Berelson supports this by saying, “In the list of reasons for wanting children is the altruistic pleasure of having them, caring for them, watching them grow, shaping them, being with them, enjoying them” (225).

Strengths and Weakness as a Writer

In high school, writing involved descriptive writing, which mostly involves creating a word picture of places, people, feelings, and objects. Careful choice of points is used to express an idea to the reader, which is also a common feature in college, particularly when formulating a compare/contrast writing assignments (Wyrick, 2013). However, at college, writing is much wider and is different from high school since you are required to offer a description, for instance about a particular biological process, with much greater details that necessitate an extensive study and research before coming up with a credible paper.
In a biology major, the essential writings encompass multiple writing strategies depending on the task. The majority of writing tasks in biology require various approaches. Most often, you may find yourself blending approaches, for instance, through the utilization of examples in comparisons, use of descriptions in definitions, and use of causal analysis in arguments (Wyrick, 2013). Writing is utilized to understand concepts, establish relationships between occurrences and events, formulate theories, and determine the validity of arguments. For example, you may be asked to carry out an empirical study on the effect of pollution on fish and come up with your conclusion.
Currently, writing in college begins when you had an assignment and instructed to research on a particular topic (Wyrick, 2013). Alternatively, you may perform an experiment in the lab and be required to analyze, discuss and offer a conclusion about the information you obtain from the analysis. It is during the study/research, or after the experiment that you start writing. It happens when you are combining information from different sources such as journal article, books. In the end, you have to document your sources to avoid plagiarism. Such tasks are usually longer and necessitate the combination of multiple writing strategies in unique ways to address the task thoroughly, objective, and audience.
Difficulties emerge when I cannot find the information that I need from other sources to assist me in comparing or learning something new, which usually happens when the topic I am studying is unique or has received little research in the academic world. During such periods, I am regularly compelled to utilize whatever source and combine it with my knowledge to develop a meaningful conclusion. My strengths lie in being able to analyze information and coming up with a good end. I can compare numerous sources, and derive the required data. My limitation is being slow during writing. I usually write in a slow manner, but I understand what I am writing. I can enhance my writing experience by reading different books to gain a wider understanding of the relationship between biology and the world and by practising writing articles in blogs regarding issues and topics that touch biology.
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Cancer and How It Develops

Cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cells, invasion of surrounding tissue and metastasis through which other locations in the body are affected. These characteristics differentiate a malignant tumor from a benign tumor which is an abnormal but localized tissue mass that can be surgically removed.
Genetic abnormalities accumulate in cancerous cells and exhibits changes in the cell shape, nuclei and organization. These cells can be distinguished by its unusually large and irregular nuclei. Such pre-cancerous cells proliferate uncontrollably on its way to malignancy. However a tumor on reaching a critical mass secretes chemicals to tempt blood vessels to invade the tumor to provide a channel for its nutrient supply and waste removal to support its uncontrolled growth. This also opens up a route for the cancer cells to metastasize or spread to other locations in the body through the blood and lymph vessels making surgical removal impossible. Chemotherapy or radiation is used to destroy metastasized cells.
Genes involved in cancer development
Cancerous cells defy the control mechanisms that are placed to regulate cell division. In a normal cell cycle proto oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in combination with each other regulate cell division. Proto-oncogenes promote the division of cells through its effects on growth factors or by producing them where as products of tumor- suppressor genes act in damage control such as repair and programmed cell death. Mutations in these genes results in malfunctions in cell cycle and leads to uncontrolled cell division giving rise to cancerous cells. Mutation in the tumor-suppressor gene p53 is associated with more than half known cancers. A protein produced by gene p53 regulates another gene whose gene product keeps a check on cell division. A mutation in p53 lifts that check resulting in uncontrolled cell division. Mutations in a proto-oncogene turn it to an oncogene which produces larger amounts of proteins (which are mostly growth factors or its receptors) or enhances the activity of the protein resulting in hyper stimulation of cell-division.
Characteristics of cancer cells
A distinguishing character of cancer cells is its lack of contact inhibition. They are devoid of anchorage unlike in normal cells that stop division on contact with neighboring cells through information from signaling systems.
Failure to trigger the mechanism of programmed cell death or apoptosis also is a characteristic of cancerous cells. The genetic suicide program is activated in normal cells in response to a physiological or biological signal in case of faulty regulator genes. A mutation in the tumor-suppressor gene p53 is responsible partially for the failure of this mechanism in cancer cells as p53 also functions to prevent damaged DNA replication. The gene stops cell division for the damaged DNA to be repaired and initiate apoptosis when the damage is beyond repair. A mutated p53 fails to initiate the process and continue division and metastasis which is not even susceptible to radiation or chemotherapy which relies on programmed cell death to destroy the cancer cells by damaging its DNA.
Telomerase enzyme responsible for telomeres at chromosome tips serve as an indicator of the number of cell divisions as it is shaved off from the chromosome with every cell division until it is no more resulting in the death of the cell. Cancerous cells seem to have an unceasing telomerase production which might be the reason for its unlimited cell division.
Metastasis which occurs due to the formation of blood vessels in cancerous cells is due to the mutation in p53 as it also produces proteins that prevent the formation of blood vessels in tissues normally due to the damage it could cause to certain tissues.
Cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) holding cells together are dissolved by enzymes secreted by cancerous cells that break loose and enter circulation to spread to different locations. It evades self destruction as would have happened in normal case on being unanchored by the false message send to the nucleus by its oncogenes saying the cells are properly anchored.
Defense cells in the body such as natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells distinguish cancer cells from normal body cells by its altered membrane proteins and destroy them. However some cancer cells evade this mechanism by actively inhibiting the defense cells or actively multiplying without being destroyed by the defense cells.
A number of factors are implicated in the formation of cancer in addition to the heritable multiple mutations carried in genes. A physical factor or substance that transforms a normal cell into a cancerous cell is called a carcinogen. Some of the carcinogens are described below:
Microbial agents: Some viruses and bacteria contribute to less than 15% of known cancers. Viruses replicate by inserting its DNA into the host and might contribute to the development of cancer by impairing a normal gene function. Some of the cancer causing viruses include Human papillomavirus (cancers of the cervix and penis), Hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (liver cancer) and HIV(Kaposis sarcoma, non Hodgkin’s lymphoma).The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is implicated in stomach cancers.
Chemical agents: Chemical agents cause cancer by damaging DNA directly and also by increasing the potency of other carcinogens with its presence. Most of the chemical carcinogens are of industrial origin and include pesticides, dyes, asbestos, soot, coal tar, benzene and vinyl chloride.
Radiation: Skin cancer particularly that of the melanin producing cells called melanoma caused by the ultraviolet B rays in sun’s radiation is the most frequent and dangerous of cancers caused by radiations. Frequent sunburns as well as exposure to ultra violet radiations from tanning booths and sun lamps increase the risk of melanoma. Other sources of radiation are radioactive radon gas released by soil, rock and groundwater as well as trace amounts from household appliances, power lines and cellular phones.
Tobacco: Tobacco is considered the most lethal carcinogen in the United States accounting to over 30% of cancer deaths. Smoking raises the risk of cancers of the mouth, pharynx, lungs, pancreas and the bladder. Passive smokers are also at risk of lung cancer while chewing and snuffing tobacco is a risk factor of cancers of esophagus, pharynx and mouth.
Diet: Risk factors in diets include saturated animal fat and red meat that might cause cancers of prostate, colon and rectum whereas an increased salt intake might cause stomach cancer. Aflatoxin is a fungal carcinogen that infects nuts. Obesity is also considered a general risk factor for a number of cancers.
Internal factors: Free radicals produced by biochemical reactions in the body are detoxified by peroxisomes. Inefficient detoxification might result in its accumulation which might cause damage to molecules including DNA. The contribution of these free radicals to the development of cancer is still under study.
Cancer development is a multi step process with a number of risk factors and gene mutations implicated in the process. The hereditary predisposition to the disease depends upon the number of genes damaged. At least two gene mutations and in most cases more than six gene mutations are required for a cancer to develop.
REFERENCES
Goodenough, J..McGuire, B, (2010) Biology of humans: concepts, applications, and issues, 3rd ed. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings: 470-476
Johnson, M.D. (2010) Human biology: concepts and current issues, 5th ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings: 426-428

Methods Section Rubric

The Absorbency of Paper Towels Partners’ s TA’s Biology Lab Report 30 September Materials and Methods The experiment sought to determine the absorbance of two types of paper towels namely premium paper towel and premium recycled paper towel. It was hypothesized that the cloth-like texture of the premium paper towel would lead to better absorbance than the recycled paper towels. The independent variable was the type of paper towel while the dependent variable was mass of water absorbed. Twelve dry pieces of both brands of paper towel were taken out, weighed using a measuring scale, and their weight was recorded. The paper towels were put on trays and made wet by adding drops of water from a beaker with the aid of a dropper. The water was added until the towels became saturated and could no longer hold additional water.
The weight of the saturated paper towels was also weighed and recorded. The weight of water held by the paper towels was determined by getting the difference between the weight of the wet and dry paper towels (Baxter, Shavelson, Goldman, and Pine4). This difference in weight was recorded for each type of paper towel. The procedure was repeated eight times for each type of paper towel to obtain nine replicates. The results were recorded in a table. A fully saturated paper towel of each type was used as positive control for each replicate to determine a standard level of saturation before taking weight measurements.
Data Analysis and Hypothesis Testing
The hypothesis was tested by getting the average and total amount of water held by each type of paper towel. The final results (average and totals) were then compared for the two types of paper towels. The type of paper towel that held the highest amount of water was regarded the most absorbent towel.
Work Cited
Baxter, Gail P., Richard J. Shavelson, Susan R. Goldman, and Jerry Pine. "Evaluation of Procedure-Based Scoring for Hands-On Science Assessment." Journal of Educational Measurement 29.1 (1992): 1-17. Print.

Intellectual Property Law in the UK

Margaret is currently negotiating with Leo (a Canadian inventor) to move into a partnership contract between them. It has been noted that Leo has emerged with a new idea which later led to the development of a waterproofing compound that can protect fabrics and tents. The compound developed by Leo also has the ability to protect fabrics from sunlight. Leo gets this particular idea from his grandfather who also mentioned this particular technique in his autobiography named ‘Cold Prospector’ which was published by the Manitou Press of Saskatchewan in the year 1932. The compound that has been developed by Leo has a particular chemical substance that is primarily obtained from the sweat gland of Caribou (It is a mammal that lives in the Arctic region). However, this particular chemical can also be easily synthesized through scientific technique in the absence of the chemical that is present in secretions from the sweat glands of the Caribou. While being in the Canadian Institute of Arctic Biology as research scientists, he discovered about how Carabiner (chemical secreted from the sweat glands of the Caribou) makes the fur of the mammal waterproof which further give rise to his invention. However, the findings of the research were later on published in the Canadian Nature Journal. He, later on, gave up his job as a research biologist with the Canadian Institute of Arctic Biology and engaged in a further investigation with the assistance of Canadian Mounted Police. While conducting further tests, new facts were discovered regarding the properties of Carabiner. In the latter scenario, Leo applied for patenting his invention in the Canadian Patent Office.
Observably, Margaret is in negotiation with Leo to develop an agreement of partnership between the two with regard to the invention of a specific compound by Leo. Since this invention of Leo is quite beneficial and a major source of conducting profitable business, there is always a danger of the idea to be stolen by others who can use it for their benefit. Contextually, Margaret needs to consider certain aspect with regard to protect the invention after she acquires it from Leo through the agreement.&nbsp.

Skinny Models to Everyday Women

The Research proposal proves vital for the well being of all women.
Just imagine Michael Angelo sculpting an Ally McBeal? Or Rembrandt painting Naomi Campbell? Or even Jane Austen portraying her female protagonist Elizabeth in beautiful gowns with nothing but bones and skin over her body? Besides saving Marble for the statue, paint, and material for the painting, and word space to describe her heroine, there seems little achievement in choosing such models to depict the concept of beautiful women, in the field of art, literature or society, be it in the early 1500 century or the 21 century we are living in.
But that was a time when there was nothing like the modern media. The society had scope to think for itself. Forms of expressions were for the betterment of society and were devoid of manipulations. They were close to reality and in genuine proximity to nature, unlike today. Women were a focus of every society although perspectives of representations of females have undergone catastrophic changes through the far-reaching tentacles of the seductive, tantalizing and captivating media of modern consumerism and the capitalistic society.
Buxom Belles represented beauty and prosperity. The Milkmaid by J Vermeer is admired as a masterpiece of art even today. Not only because of its excellence in painting skills and the superb realistic effects in the painting but also because of the daily life maid, the bulky but beautiful model he has chosen for his painting.
Religions the world over revered the natural status of women for childbearing and rearing. Medical fields respected natural biology and the unique metabolism of humans. Sociologists acknowledge the well being of women to be a vital part of a healthy society in a nation. Anthropologists reported buxom bodied women as highly regarded females in native cultures of the world.

A Critique of One Hundred Percent American Article and Doing Anthropology MIT Anthropology Video

The antiquity of the thinker is told “as if” it might be condensed to a four-act piece. If the symbol of a sequence of acts looks boring or that the advent to the excellence of the human brain is too solid, then the production is an enjoyable surprise.
Before Darwin, numerous scholars penned about the ancestries of man as well as the commencements of mental life. Such literature, however, were forthrightly speculative since there were few concurred-upon pieces of evidence. There as no comprehensive hypothetical frame in which to place facts and beliefs. The article articulates that, in addition, he inspired scholars of biology and anthropological behavior to and construe data applicable to the definite, as opposed to the fictional, "prehistory" of the human brain and man (Erickson and Liam 80).
The word fieldwork is an interesting term to use to describe what an anthropologist needs to do since it embraces natural sciences and laboratory. Mostly it is about talking and observing conversations and talking to individuals as well as taking them what they think. It also encompasses doing things with other people. The video entails doing research work on three field sites, which include:
The constant theme in the video resonates around the ideologies of Cultural Anthropology as a collective science that explores the way people comprehend as well as their worldly actions. The context of the short film features three associates of MIT’s Anthropology Division, Stefan, Erica, and Heather to discuss their current effort and the procedure of doing fieldwork.
This video involves Frans de Waal’s lecture on the moral behavior of animals. Empathy, collaboration, equality, and reciprocity, which is caring about the happiness of others appear like a very human mannerism.&nbsp.&nbsp.

Cancer biology

l inflammatory drugs or NSAIDS are a class of drugs that provide anti-pyretic and analgesic effects at low doses and anti-inflammatory effects at high doses. Aspirin, naproxen and ibuprofen are the most popular members of this group and are used all over the world for several reasons ranging from simple body pain and fevers to daily chemopreventive regimens for patients with cardiovascular diseases. NSAIDS inhibit the enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) which act as catalysts in the production of thromboxane and prostaglandins. Prostaglandins play a key role in the process of inflammation. While COX-1 is a part of a number of normal physiological processes, COX-2 is specifically used in the process of inflammation.
There are two main classes of NSAIDS available in the market, the non-selective COX-1/COX-2 inhibitors, which include aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen, and the selective COX-2 inhibitors, which include celecoxib. The most common long-term use of NSAIDS is in the case
of osteo-arthiritic pain where they not only act as analgesics but also reduce inflammation at joints. The most common adverse side effect of NSAIDS is the increased occurrence of gastric and duodenal ulcers with selective COX-2 inhibitors having lesser gastric effects but an increased suspected risk of myocardial infarction (Bombardier, et al., 2000).
COX-2 enzyme is the major link between NSAID use and cancer progression. While the origin of cancer is dependent upon multiple genetic changes which allow uncontrolled multiplication and resistance to apoptotic signals in cancerous cells, the progression of cancer relies upon ancillary processes that are not pathological on their own but are simply the human body’s response to allow repair of injured cells by maintaining homeostasis. One such process is inflammation. Inflammation on its own is an orchestrated effort of human immune system to defend cells against microbes and allow optimum conditions for cellular

Articles reviews

When submitting a statement any author must provide ample supporting evidence, in absence of this the information put forward by the author can be unauthentic or unrealistic.
The author of the article has conducted research to understand the force behind the cognitive skill and emotional behavior of man and animals. The author here is contemplating more on the animal psychology to investigate about the human cognitive function, which is not an ideal procedure. This is due to the fact that, all religious principles reinstate that animal and man has been created simultaneously. So the question of animal evolving in to human being does not have validity which makes the article partially defective. In the further part of the article, the author has discussed about the concept of evolutionary biology and points out about the poor researching done by scientists in this regard. This shows the author’s ability to gauge information and criticizes it in right manner and at right position.
The interesting part is that, the author has taken effort to introduce other disciplines like neurobiology and computer science into the article. The article clearly mentions the correlation between neurons and evolutionary cognitive system. This helps the readers to absorb more information about the way brain works in co –ordination with its natural environment. Here the author also makes it evident that invention of computer has opened up new avenue for the scientists, psychologists and researchers to investigate about the cognitive functioning of mankind .Even though the author exerts importance on the concept of cognition, he also contradicts about the mystery surrounding the functioning of brain in human beings. The article completely ignores the existence of spiritual or divine power which could be the real hand behind the creation of cosmic intelligence.
Here the author is attempting to study the functioning of brain by assuming

Why I Want to Study at Medical School

To anyone with a South Asian cultural background, the means to become wealthy and stable while being respected at the same time is by being a doctor. Choosing a career other than medicine is frowned upon. I myself had a personal experience of defying my parents’ wish to become a doctor because in my own opinion, being a doctor can be very tiring, and it is actually not a very lucrative career itself. Also, in my days studying the American culture, everyone keeps saying that there is no point of working or having a job that does not make me happy for the rest of my life. And I believed that with all my heart, that doing something else would make me both happy and rich. Because of such dreams of grandeur I took a liking to engineer and business courses, thinking that one day I might strike gold and become rich and famous like Bill Gates or Warren Buffet. However, my dreams of becoming rich and famous by being a businessman or an engineer came to an end when I realized that I had no sure way of achieving those goals. I just accepted the fact that I had too many selfish hopes and high dreams with unrealistic expectations. As I went through high school, I happened to discover that my strengths actually lie in my interest in the field of biology, especially of the human body.
My interest in the human body was greatly influenced by my father, a well-respected physician. As a child, I could remember him talking about the cases that he worked on, and even bringing me to the hospital to get close to the action. My efforts to defy what my parents wish for failed, as I realized that what they push me to do was actually my personal calling. My decision to volunteer at a hospital and a walk-in clinic solidified my choice of becoming a doctor, especially the unique experiences that I had while being there. What inspired me, even more, to press on becoming a doctor was the fact that the clinic I volunteered in was a non-profit charity organization, and that everyone was putting their lives on the line by helping the neediest among the needy, the poorest of the poor. The case of Michael Thornton, a patient with a painful case of osteoarthritis in his finger joints moved me the most. After telling the secretary about his complaint, he was promptly attended to by Dr Ali, the physician on-duty. Seeing the look of relief and joy in Michael’s face after getting treatment made me realize that this was what kept my father going as a physician. Realizing that fulfillment as a doctor is possible after seeing the relief and the gratitude in their eyes after getting helped, and this is the true essence of being a doctor under the Hippocratic Oath: of helping the ill, regardless of their status, and doing them no harm and healing them to the best of my abilities (Miles, 2005). While the pay cannot be denied to be important in day-to-day living, at the day’s end the feeling of being able to help others feel better gives a doctor his feeling of success, and this is something that money can never buy. After thinking deeply, I personally choose not to become one of the doctors that just focus on their own comfort and wealth. I will be like my own father, who chooses to help others and even going beyond what is needed to get the patients the help that they deserve.
At present, I just started shadowing and doing neurostructural research, which I believe would be very useful to me as I continue my studies to become a doctor that puts the patients first.

Fauna A Treasuretrove of Learning and Inspiration

Video Link: http www.youtube.com/watch?v=0RDU7fuZ3EQ Fauna: A Treasure-trove of Learning and Inspiration For thousandsof years, countless people have achieved scientific breakthroughs and even philosophical enlightenment through the observation and mimicry of different attributes of plants. The Reuters’ video exemplifies this with scientists developing a stain-, scratch-, and damage-resistant coating inspired by the slippery walls of the pitcher plant.
People have greatly benefited from the innovations spurred on by the study of nature, especially plants. In fact, the opportunity for rediscovering new and useful technologies from nature is so great that a new body of science has been established: Biomimetics. Biomimetics or Biomimicry is the creation of new technology by imitating functions found in nature and applying these concepts to various fields such as robotics, engineering and even medicine (Lepora, et. al.). Many commonplace materials such as velcro, to complex architectural designs are innovations inspired by plants (Cohen 6,13, 612). Plants are also used as biological models to study the action of various organic and inorganic substances at the cellular level and they are also utilized for studies in molecular biology and genetics (Morrissey 295).
Aside from the benefits gained by science, plants also impart wisdom in conducting our day-to-day lives. Growth, resilience, stability, and nurture can all be observed and imbibed from planting trees from seeds. Appreciation for life in general can be fostered through gardening and watching the plants bloom and fruit in their season. These are important values which should be rooted in every man’s soul.
Sources of knowledge and inspiration can come from all around. Plants should never be disregarded in this aspect for the kingdom contains a plethora of scientific information as well as examples for our everyday lives. As Sir Francis Bacon once said,
Natural abilities are like natural plants, they need pruning by study (Klein). From the realms of science and technology to the depths of man’s psyche, the fountain of knowledge from the world of plants continue to enrich, enlighten and inspire.
Works Cited
Cohen, Yoseph Bar, “Biomimetics: nature based innovation”. pp. 6, 13, and 612. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. 2012. Web. 9 March 2013.
Klein, Jurgen. “Francis Bacon” Stanford Encyclopedia of philosophy. 7 Dec 2012. Web. 9 March 2013
Lepora, Nathan F., Verschure, Paul, and Prescott, Tony J. “Perspective: the state of the art in biomimetics” Bioinspiration and Biomimetics. IOP Publishing. 9 Jan 2013. Web. 9 March 2013
Morrisey, J. P. “Biological activity of defence-related plant secondary metabolite” Plant-derived Natural products. p295.ed. Anne E. Osborne and Virginia Lanzotti. New York: Springer Science+ Business Media, LLC. 2009. Web. 9 March 2013

Describe and contrast two psychological/cognitive models of consciousness with supporting evidence

PSYCHOLOGICAL/COGNITIVE MODELS OF CONSCIOUSNESS By Psychology The of the School The and where it is located
The Date
Psychological/Cognitive Models of Consciousness: Baars vs. Edelman
Bernard Baars’ Global Workspace (GW) theory and Edelman’s The Dynamic Core characterize how the brain engenders conscious mental content. Edelman supposes that re-entrant neural activity in the thalamocortical structure has an influence on the conscious experience. The two theorists present a similar hypothesis that guide perceptions, but with some slight comparisons. While Edelman’s theory hinges on history, Baars theory focuses on primary consciousness.
Baars and Edelman affirm that biological evidence has a considerable bearing on phenomenal and access consciousness (Block, 2007, 481). The subjective conscious experience has varied distinguishable phenomenal properties that have overlying neural mechanisms (Raffone and Pantani, 2010, 580). A perfect neuronal combination determines consciousness and global accessibility (Maia and Cleeremans, 2005, 397). According to Edelman, consciousness depends on the perception of the brain on the prevailing situation. Phenomenal consciousness is a raw idiosyncratic feeling ornbsp.visual illusion while access consciousness characterizes reason and available information. The perception of the brain explains consciousness in lucid dreams and virtual imaginations (Voss, Schermelleh-Engel, Windt, Frenzel, and Hobson, 2013, 8).
There has been a successful unfolding of the biology of life, which has enabled humans to gain an understanding of monumental and covert phenomenal (Seth, 2012, 1). Brains are biological organs that determine consciousness, as seen in the Global Workspace perspective. Jackson (1986) presents an interesting argument that one cannot sense a colour if they have not seen the colour before. It takes a great deal of imagination and power, explained through physicalism, to figure out such a fact (Jackson, 1986, 292). Shoemaker (1982) presents a similar argument, spelling out that different human consciousness determines naïve perceptions that arise from colour. In addition, this consciousness may differ at different times (Shoemaker, 1982, 358).
List of References
Block, N., 2007, Consciousness, accessibility, and the mesh between psychology and neuroscience. Behavioural and Brain Sciences 30, 481 – 548.
Chakravarthi, R., n.d., Consciousness. PowerPoint presentation.
De Loof, E., Verguts, T., Fias, W., amp. Van Opstal, F., 2013, Opposite Effects of Working Memory on Subjective Visibility and Priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition. Doi: 10.1037/a0033093
Edelman, G., Gally, J. and Baars, B., 2011, Biology of consciousness. Front. Psychol., 25 January 2011 | Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00004.
Jackson, F., 1986, What Mary didn’t Know. Journal of Philosophy, Inc.
Vol. 83, No. 5 (May 1986), pp. 291-295.
Maia, T. and Cleeremans, A., 2005, Consciousness: converging insights from connectionist modelling and neuroscience. Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Vol.9 No.8 August 2005.
Raffone, A. and Pantani, M., 2010, A global workspace model for phenomenal and access consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2010) 580–596.
Seth, A., 2012, Putting Descartes before the horse: quantum theories of consciousness. Phys Life Rev 291.
Shoemaker, S., 1982, the Inverted Spectrum. Journal of Philosophy, Inc. Vol. 79, No. 7 (Jul. 1982), pp. 357-381.
Voss, U., Schermelleh-Engel, K., Windt, J., Frenzel, C., and Hobson, A., 2013, Measuring consciousness in dreams: The lucidity and consciousness in dreams scale. Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 22, Issue 1, March 2013, Pages 8–21.

Discussion Forum #2

Discussion Forum #2 – Do Human Races Exist? Evidently, most anthropologists feel that human races have very little meaning as biology, but the races ought to be understood as an aspect of culture. As seen in the research conducted by Jurmain, Kilgore amp. Trevathan, race varies from one context to the next (313). The same can be evidenced in the audio lecture (2015) that explains the term race referring to a sub species. The speaker, however, indicates that there is no great variation between different human populations that allows for classification as sub-species (Audio lecture 2015). This means that the races can be viewed both as a biological construct that focuses on low levels of genetic diversity of humans, the clinical distribution of human characteristics, the non-concordance of human traits as well as the greater polymorphic as opposed to polytypic variants. In the case of cultural construct, it is arguable that the concept of race simply exists in the minds of different people.
The anthropologists, therefore, believe that race cannot be solely explained through biology but by the understanding of the how individuals use the external attributes of humans to link them to different genetic traits that classify humans. This explains that it is extremely practical to understand the concept of race by assessing how humans create different groups in the society and how they strive to identify with these groups. Racial identification is evident in the different group interactions (Audio lecture 2015).
It is, therefore, worth to conclude that an understanding of relations of different people in relation to culture as well as understanding of their physical characteristics is extremely vital and useful in the study pf races as compared to applying biological concepts. For instance, race is non-concordant since it is not correlated to bodily attributes such as skin color, weight or height. Race is also clinally invariant since we cannot trace its onset or its end.
Works Cited
Jurmain, Robert. Kilgore, Lynn amp. Trevathan, Wenda. Essentials of Physical Anthropology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. 2012. Print.
The Nature of Human Biological Variation. Anthropology. 3 Jun. 2015. Lecture.

Amniocentesis

AMNIOCENTESIS nbsp.Amniocentesis Amniocentesis is a procedure which involves the extraction of a small quantity of amniotic fluid from the mother’s uterus for diagnostic purposes. This amniotic fluid can be used to detect many genetic and metabolic disorders of the baby because the fluid carries cells of the baby as it circulates in and out of the baby’s body. The role of amniocentesis as a prenatal diagnostic test is controversial. Firstly, it is an invasive procedure and is associated with a list of potential risks. Although it is highly beneficial in detecting the genetic and hereditary metabolic disorders, some people who are against abortion will not find this procedure useful (Sloane 2002. O’Mara et al 2003). The risks and benefits of amniocentesis should be considered before opting for this prenatal test.
Amniocentesis is mostly recommended after false positive or false negative triple screen test which is a simple blood tests used for the same purposes. Amniocentesis is performed with the aid of ultrasound and the amniotic fluid is collected through a needle and takes about 45 minutes. The collected fluid is used for laboratory analysis. 14 and 20 weeks of pregnancy are the most suitable time for the procedure to be performed. However, the amniocentesis can be delayed till the third trimester (America Pregnancy Association 2006). The procedure is indicated mostly in pregnant women above the age of 35, a couple who has a history of previous children with Down’s Syndrome or any other chromosomal abnormality, history of genetic disease in the family and detection of any chromosomal abnormality in any of the parents (Sloane 2002).
The most common chromosomal abnormality looked for in amniocentesis is Down’s syndrome or Trisomy 21. Neural tube defects like spina bifida and genetic disorders like cystic fibrosis are also looked for in the amniotic fluid. More than 70 inborn errors of metabolism can be detected through amniocentesis for instance Tay’ Sachs disease, Fabry’s disease, galactosemia and Gaucher’s disease. The increasing age of the mother is a high risk factor for development of chromosomal abnormalities specifically Down’s syndrome. Hence, the importance of amniocentesis in older age mothers increases. With early detection of the disorders, an abortion can be performed to prevent the birth of a baby suffering from a lifetime of deformity and suffering. However, those who disagree with the notion of abortion, this procedure is mostly useless for them (Sloane 2002. American Pregnancy Association 2006).
Since amniocentesis is an invasive procedure, it is also associated with some unsafe outcomes. A potential risk of miscarriage of about 1-3% has been observed. However, the risk can be reduced if the procedure is performed with high levels of skill and care. Observations of low birth weight babies in an estimate of 0.5% mothers and increased incidence of respiratory distress syndrome have also been documented. In case the procedure has to be repeated because of any reason, the risk of miscarriage increases from 3% to 6% (O’Mara et al 2003). Maternal risks include rupture of bladder, intestines or any blood vessels. Some minor potential side effects include cramping pains, fluid leakage and irritation at the site of the puncture (Sloane 2002. American Pregnancy Association 2006).
Amniocentesis is greatly effective in the early detection of genetic, chromosomal and neural defects in the baby. This provides the couple an early awareness of their baby’s condition and they can plan before time for instance planning for a fetal surgery, indentifying support groups and special needs for the child and even early abortion. In spite of its significant role in prenatal testing, amniocentesis is associated with minor maternal risks and some high potential fetal risk factors like miscarriages.
References
American Pregnancy Association. (2006). Amniocentesis. American Pregnancy Association: Prenatal Testing.
O’Mara, Peggy, Facciolo, Jackie amp. Ponte, Wendy. (2003). Mothering Magazine’s having a Baby, Naturally: The Mothering magazine Guide to pregnancy and childbirth. Atria: New York.
Sloane, Ethel.(2002). Biology of Women. Albany, NY: Delmar Thomson Learning.

AP Biology for Dummies

Replication takes place in the nucleus of the cell. The raw materials for the process are nucleotides, RNA primer, and enzyme DNA polymerase whereas the end product is double-stranded DNA. Translation, on the other hand, takes place in the nucleus. The raw materials are a DNA strand that acts as a template, enzyme RNA polymerase whereas the end product is a messenger RNA (mRNA) strand. This process takes place in the ribosomes. Translation requires mRNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), enzyme aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, and amino acids thereafter giving proteins as the final products.
DNA replication, transcription, and translation take place in all living cells except the red blood cells because they do not contain nuclei. These processes are fundamental in humans because they ensure the continuity of life through maintaining the integrity of the genome. They also ensure that physiological processes take place normally because the proteins produced serve numerous functions in the body.
2. The Importance of the Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder during Digestion
The liver, pancreas, and gall bladder carry out the same function of conveying digestive substances to the duodenum. The liver secretes bile juice, which contains bile salts that emulsify fat droplets, increasing their surface area and making it easy for digestive enzymes to work on them. Bile, in addition, increases the alkalinity of the stomach fluids thus making the environment favorable for digestive enzymes (The liver, gallbladder, and pancreas: The digestive system and the liver. (n.d.).
The gallbladder stores bile, which is secreted in the liver. During storage, the gallbladder concentrates and thickens the bile making it more efficient during the digestive process.
The pancreas, on the other hand, secretes various digestive enzymes. These enzymes get into the duodenum via the pancreatic duct. The pancreatic enzymes are vital for digestion and include the pancreatic amylase that breaks down carbohydrates, pancreatic lipase that breaks down fats into fatty acids and glycerol molecules. The pancreas also produces enzymes trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen that are responsible for the digestion of proteins. The pancreas secretes these two enzymes in inactive forms. The ductal cells of the pancreas also exude bicarbonate ions that neutralize the acidity of chyme from the stomach.

Experiences

I organized an American Red Cross blood drive event in which 50 people happily donated their blood.
This made me realize that there are some people just like me who care and who are willing to sacrifice for the sake of complete strangers. The count of 150 lives that would be saved instilled in me a greater feeling of humanity and further drove me to perform better. My inner voice ushered me to volunteer the captaining of UMKC’s Pre-Health Relay for Life team either, and it further kept me boosted in supervising the whole event despite the tiredness my body felt. I also helped initiate the Science Pioneers Program, which was earlier present only for young girls, to young boys of middle school too. This would not only introduce all of them to the world of biology, but also appear as a significant career choice to those who, like me, have always dreamt of saving lives. When I was honored with the responsibility of being the President of BSSG, my critical thinking as well as problem solving skills were honed, as I had to plan various service and social events despite significant challenges that stood in the way. Some examples of these events include Harvesters Community Food Network, Habitat for Humanity, Ronald McDonald House Charities as well as Meet, Greet amp. Recruit, KC Zoo Trip etc. While the service events focused on helping people in need by providing them with basic amenities such as food and shelter, the social events aimed to inspire more students to join BSSG as well as enhance the understanding of all members by providing opportunities to explore sea life, African Safari etc.
I am someone who thoroughly believes in gratitude and the concept of giving back, mostly because that is the environment I was brought up in. Islamic School of Greater Kansas City was my community high school and in the light of this deeply rooted concept, I have always been in touch with the school’s principal as well as

Inheritance Lab

Inheritance Lab Report ________________________ _________________________ Up d 5/15 Purpose To develop and apply an understandingMendelian inheritance patterns and Punnett squares.
Preparation (4 points)
Review the background document on inheritance and describe the concepts of dominant and recessive alleles, gametes, phenotype and genotypes.
Materials and Methods
Read the Inheritance Lab Background materials. No other materials are required for this lab. You will observe a variety of phenotypic characteristics in yourself and record these in the table in the Results section below. Using the logic of Mendelian genetics, you will then record your possible genotypes, as well as your parents’ possible genotypes. Do not refer to your parent’s phenotypes in order to infer the possible crosses that could have led to your phenotype.
Complete the following steps, and record your findings in the table in the Results section.
1. Record each of your phenotypes in the Your Phenotype column. Identify your phenotype using a single letter for each trait as indicated below (capital letter indicates dominant allele, lowercase indicates recessive allele):
E – free earlobes. e – attached earlobes
D – dimples. d – no dimples
T – able to roll tongue. t – not able to roll tongue
F – second toe longer than big toe. f – second toe shorter than big toe
W – widow’s peak. w – no widow’s peak
2. Identify and record your possible genotypes based on your phenotypes. Genotypes are represented using two alleles. Identify the alleles using the letters indicated below (capital letter indicates dominant allele, lowercase indicates recessive allele):
E – free earlobes. e – attached earlobes
D – dimples. d – no dimples
T – able to roll tongue. t – not able to roll tongue
F – second toe longer than big toe. f – second toe shorter than big toe
W – widow’s peak. w – no widow’s peak
3. Using your possible genotypes, identify and record all of the possible pairings of parental genotypes that could have led to your possible genotypes. Crosses are denoted in this form: FF x Ff and indicates the genotypes of both parents. You should list all of the possible crosses that could lead to your phenotype.
Preliminary Analysis (4 points)
Describe how a genetic trait can skip one or more generations without being apparent. How might one learn about unseen alleles in a child’s parents by observing traits in the child?
Results (26 points)
Use the chart below to record the observations of your phenotypes and to record your inferences regarding your genotype and all of the possible crossings of parental genotypes that can account for your genotype. Phenotypes are expressed with a single letter related to the trait. Genotypes include both alleles and are, thus, expressed with two letters (one for each allele). Possible parental genotypes and crosses consist of two genotypes crossed. For instance, a freckled person will have a phenotype of F and possible genotypes of FF and Ff. One of the possible parental genotype and crosses is (FF x Ff). Be sure to list all possible parental genotypes in terms of possible crosses. Crosses are denoted in this form: FF x Ff and you should list all of the possible crosses that could lead to your phenotype.
Physical Characteristic
Your Phenotype
Your Genotype or Possible Genotypes
All Possible Parental Crosses
Earlobes: Free or Attached
E
EE, Ee
EE×EE, EE×Ee, EE×ee, Ee×Ee
Dimples
d
dd
dd×dd, Dd×Dd, Dd×dd
Tongue Rolling
T
TT, Tt
TT×TT, TT×Tt, TT×tt
Second Toe Longer Than Big Toe on Foot
f
ff
ff×ff, Ff×Ff, Ff×ff
Widow’s Peak
w
ww
ww×ww, Ww×Ww, Ww×ww
Analysis (12 points)
It was observed that the presence of a dominant gene in the genotype always led to the expression of the dominant trait, which is seen as the phenotype. In addition, the occurrence of a certain genotype could result from the crossing of several possible parental genotypes. This lab provided knowledge that recessive traits were denoted by small letters while dominant traits were denoted by capital letters. One component of my genotype came from each parent due to the process of meiosis. Meiosis is a type of cell division that takes place in eukaryotic cells and leads to the formation of gametes (Kratz, 2009). During meiosis, the parental genotypes are halved by the division of the number of chromosomes to form gametes. The succeeding process of fertilization brings together haploid number of chromosomes in the parental gametes to form a diploid zygote. As a result, the genotype of an offspring includes one component from each parent.
Punnett squares are utilized in the visualization of the probabilities of inheriting a certain gene. When the parental genotypes have dominant and recessive traits, a Punnett square shows the offspring that are likely to inherit two dominant genes, two recessive traits or a mixture of the two (Ireland, 2010). Mendelian logic implies that a dominant attribute trait is one that manifests even when the second copy of the gene for that particular trait differs. Conversely, a recessive attribute is one that only manifests when two copies of its gene are present. For instance, the trait for free earlobes (E) is dominant over attached earlobes (e). Therefore, if a person has one gene for free earlobes and another copy for the attached earlobe, the result is free earlobe. Therefore, Mendelian logic is helpful in determining the possible genotypes of an offspring.
Conclusion (4 points)
I learned from this lab that recessive traits were shown by small letters while dominant traits were indicated by capital letters. This experiment showed that the phenotype of a person was always as a result of a dominant gene in the person’s genotype or two copies of a recessive trait. One copy of an offspring’s genotype came from each of the parents. The cellular process of meiosis made it possible to inherit a copy of each gene from both parents. Meiosis was a process of cell division that led to the production of gametes with half the total number of chromosomes (haploid). The union of two haploid gametes from the egg and sperm led to the formation of a zygote with the required number of chromosomes. Mendelian logic guided the determination of parental and offspring genotypes and phenotypes. In addition, a Punnett square made it easier to determine the probability of inheriting a certain gene.
Overall, this lab enabled the understanding of recessive and dominant traits in an offspring with respect to parental genotypes. The occurrence of a certain genotype was not obvious due to the varying distribution of parental genotypes in the offspring. However, the lab was not clear about the mechanisms of crossing and the probabilities of having offspring with certain phenotypes (traits). Therefore, future experiment could look at the probabilities of obtaining certain phenotypes when various parental genotypes are crossed.
References
Kratz, R. F. (2009). Molecular and cell biology for dummies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley amp. Sons.
Ireland, K. A. (2010).Visualizing human biology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley amp. Sons.

HPV in women

2000

HPV in women Direct skin contact with an HPV infected person is the main way through which genital HPV occurs. The contact areas are the anal, vaginal, and oral sex. The diverse categories of HPV are responsible for the formation of genital warts on the skin. Genital warts are hard and usually rough lumps that become visible on the skin of a sick person. Any sexually active person is prone to acquire the virus and the genital warts. The genital warts in women predominantly appear around or inside the vagina, around or inside the anus, on the vulva, on the groin and on the cervix (Monsonego 37). Classification and morphology The human papilloma viruses are heterogeneous in nature. They affect both the mucosal epithelial tissues and the skin. Besides, they are hugely responsible for causing the cervical carcinogenesis. According to the results of the studies in molecular biology, more than one hundred genotypes of the virus exist in humans. The virus falls under two classifications mainly the low risk HPV (LR-HPV and the high risk HPV (HR-HPV). The low risk HPV is predominant in squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) with low grades and the benign lesions. Meanwhile, the high risk HPV includes the HPV-16 and HPV-18. Other high-risk HPV types include HPV-31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 55, 56, 58, 66, 68, and 70 (Evans and Kaslow 602). The high risk HPV has 80 to 90 per cent prevalence rate in cervical cancer and the squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). In the morphological dimension, the genome of the papilloma virus is covalently circular and closed. Its DNA is double stranded and has a measurement of about 8kbp. All the genes of the papilloma virus are coded in the strands that define DNA. Through this, it utilizes the alternative DNA strand to splice the expression of individual gene. The expression of the papilloma virus has a characteristic of large mRNAs array of cells that code for diverse gene types. Additionally, the HPV has a diameter of 55nm (Evans and Kaslow 602). Molecular Biology and Replication Strategy The HPV contamination begins with the infection of the host cell. This promotes the discharge of the virus from the nucleus. As this happens, there are interactions of many cellular transcription factors. These interactions occur with the viral regulatory region (LRC) that does not code. As a result, the two HPV-16 begin to transcript and transforms earlier genes of E6 and E7. Consequently, the proteins that continue to transform interact with the cellular antioncogenic regulator p53. This action results in the disruption of the cell cycle. The cell cycle is under the regulation of the complexes of cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and the cyclins (Evans and Kaslow 692). The CDK complexes always inhibit the action of the cyclin. It is a condition for cells to pass the restriction point of G1 in order for the progression of the cell cycle (Evans and Kaslow 692). Retinoblastoma pockets bacteria, RB, p 107, and p 130 are the ones that regulate this process. There is only an indication in the RB leaving the other pocket proteins with the same functions and activities. In essence, they inactivate and bind up the E2F transcription factors. This leads to the inducement of the S phase genes expression that will trigger a mitogenic signal. This signal leads to the activation of the cyclin D1-CDK6 and cyclin D1-CDK4 complexes. The result of this is the

Mirror for Man

Paper Due Mirror for Man In Mirror for Man, Clyde Kluckhohn, has presented his outlooks on how culture develops. Kluckhohn considers that culture is developed from a combination of human biology, laws of nature and the human nature. There are immense differences in the customs of different people all over the world. Similarly, there are a few characteristics that are present in most societies like the concept of peer pressure. Kluckhohn has given many examples from his personal experience to illustrate how two different cultures could have different behaviour patterns. Kluckhohn carefully points out that every culture has its own characteristics and few similarities. These similarities result of human biology, rather than from the human training or their upbringing. The diverse culture of our species varies in several ways, from religion to eating habits. Also, the author has pointed out it is not the body that makes a man but their mind. How the mind gets nurtured and trained decides what the man becomes and his thought process.
Mirror for Man, by Clyde Kluckhohn, suggests that a person’s cultural upbringing is responsible for their behaviour rather than their genetic makeup. Kluckhohns position that behaviour of people is based on the fact that, ‘they were brought up that way’ is precise. as the culture where a person gets raised is reflected in their attitudes, behaviour and values. Personally, I am in agreement with the author’s views. His passage turned out to be an interesting reading as his thoughts and expression brought my own personal experience of dealing with people from different countries and speakers of different language. Through Clyde Kluckhohns passage, we can interpret and comprehend the real meaning of culture through an anthropologist’s point of view.
Works Cited
Kluckhohn, Clyde. Mirror for Man: The Relation of Anthropology to Modern Life. New York: Whittlesey House, 1949. Print.

The Theoretician and the Experimenter

He tried to apply this concept in understanding heredity and in the future prospect of manipulating it to gain social goals. And the basic premise of his theory was that the environment of a human being had no influence on his character or intelligence (Cowan, 516). Marks has described Eugenics as an attempt to interpret, cultural history in fundamental biological terms (650). Galton’s thought is further explained by Marks by introducing Galton’s belief that cultural ‘progress’ was driven principally by the birth rate of geniuses regardless of any other social processes (650). Between 1910 and 1930, Eugenics had dominated all research works and beliefs in the field of genetics and biology but after this period, the entire concept was questioned and almost discarded (Marks, 650).
Galton had conceptualized Eugenics as the science of cultivating better men and women, on the similar lines of cultivating better plants and animals (Farrall, 111). Farrall has observed that for Galton, Eugenics was the basis of a scientific religion, which could lead to the Utopian situation where problems such as alcoholism, criminality, disease and poverty had disappeared (111). Galton thought that once he could find out the exact ways in which intelligence and behavioural characteristics transmitted from parents to children, such social engineering will be made possible.
The motivation for Galton to develop Eugenics was a belief that statistics would solve the problem of heredity and that heredity, once understood, could be used to resolve the political and social contexts that plague the race of men (Cowan, 510). Thus Galton wanted to create a perfect Eugenic state (Cowan, 510). The first question that he started with, was, can extraordinary intellectual gifts be inherited? (Cowan, 510). He started his work by counting the number of men listed in a biographical dictionary who were relatives of someone else on the list and then based on this, he published the book, Hereditary Talent and Character.nbsp.nbsp.

Happiness and the Limits of Satisfaction

I think increased choice does not make us happy, and therefore, individual choices should not be paternalistically restricted because happiness is not the highest aim of human conduct. There are those actions which add to pleasurable activities that cannot be taken as always right. Moral virtue does not imply end of life since life can continue with unhappiness, misery, and inactivity. Therefore, moral virtues are gained by behaving virtuously but they can be damaged by either defect or excess. People are free to determine what type of self they will have, what type of people they will be. For instance, people are free to be frivolous or serious, selfish or selfless (Ignacio 67). The most significant thing is that at least one should be in a position to maintain the goal of maximal self-determination as a desirable moral and psychological state. Hence, a fully self-determined person is one that is unconstrained by biology, social constructions or by habit. Such a person will operate without constraints, which in turn enables him or her to make choices in the world to maximize his or her preferences in maintaining tenets of rational choice (Mike 42).
Happiness is the central core of living, which depends entirely on cultivation of virtues. Playing the mean is the way of cultivating virtues that includes moral virtues for the attainment of individual happiness. Playing the mean is the virtue between two extreme excesses and deficiency. For instance, exercising the act of justice in getting too little or getting too much. Therefore, human beings make choices depending on the circumstances that surround them by choosing on one option and neglecting the other. The task of ethics or tenets of rational choice were to come up with the highest and the best good that is found in human life. Thus, all human activities always aim at some recognized higher end that we always consider as good. Most activities that human beings incur in life are a

Biology Model/ICT Activity and Justification Assessment Task and Rubric

The learning outcomes outlined in the Biology syllabus on enzymes seems overwhelming to a new teacher. Studying the role of enzymes in metabolism, describing their chemical composition and using a simple model to describe their specificity on substrates, not to mention investigating the effects of temperature on the enzymes would simply leave a teacher stunned in thinking of ways and means to teach the unit to a high school class.
The ICT Model presentation proposed is a combination of an interactive lecture and first hand investigation. The lecture portion initiates students into the rich information about enzymes complete with detailed illustrations to help them interact with the graphic and visualize enzymes, thus aiding in their retention of the concept. With the right timing of clicking for animation effects, the student’s attention and interest may be held for a prolonged period of time. Science concepts may be difficult to grasp for most students, but the way information is presented in this ICT takes into account various learning styles of the students.
The first hand investigation part guides the students through an experiment with a step by step process. Being able to do each step together as a class helps them follow directions accurately and compare outcomes of their moves with each other. The exchange of information in every step is a rich experience that binds the whole group together instead of segregating them into competition.
The whole presentation attempts to address most of the intelligences in Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence theory (Gardner, 1983). It involves most of the senses of the learners making them fully engaged in the material. In traditional biology classes, information is usually delivered by the teacher verbally delivering a lecture with limited visual aids. This ICT model may be presented by the teacher or a chosen student, according to the learning pace of the class. Supplemented by text, the

Master of Biology

Topic: Masters in Biology My prior ambition is to seek education in the field of Biology. To fulfill my ambition, I pursue to get admission in the university. To gain quality education has always remained inspirational for me, as it is education and knowledge that keeps the capacity of enabling a human being to excel in a society. After passing the Technician pharmacy course in 1994 from Secondary Health institute, Damam, KSA, it became impossible for me to stay away the field of Biology. Then I did King Fahad Hospital Certificate course in 1996 from 50 day training from Pharmacy Department, Madina, KSA. After that, I passed Associate Degree in Pharmacy in 1999 from Intermediate Science College, Hofaf, KSA. In September 2009, I successfully completed IPPE hours and observed patient care and other activities of the pharmacy personnel. Then I successfully completed Rite Aid Findlay, OH in summer 2009 where I successfully completed IPPE hours and assisted pharmacist in patient care and pharmacy. The most recent education of mine is Bachelor of Science in Biology from Ohio Northern University, OH.
I have a work experience of about 12 years from 1994 to 2006 at Ministry of Health, Hulaf City, KSA. During my work experience, I worked as an assistant pharmacist and worked in dispensing and shelving medicine. I provided my services to Community Development Programs. I checked food items for their expiry dates at Ada Food Pentary, Ada OH in 2008. The food items were to be dispensed to people. In the same year, I worked for Habitat for Humanity, Findlay OH where I was assigned to provide food for the people who were building homes for the homeless people. About the same year, I worked for Findlay Hancock Country Public Library, Findlay, OH. There I worked as volunteer and cleaned and labeled shelves of library. In the same year of 2008, I helped Hancock Christian Clearing House, Findlay, OH by cleaning the spaghetti tables and fund raising activity. Lastly, I served the community by Chapin Hall Food Pantry, Findlay, OH in 2008. There I delivered food to clients and helped clean up. All of these Community development programs have provided me a vast knowledge. I learnt a lot about cleanliness and food items.
During my educational period, I have studied related courses to Masters in Biology, which will help me in achieving my further education. The courses contained the study of Anatomy, Histology, Immunology, Pharmacology, Pharmaceutical, Physiology 1, Physiology 2, Physiology 3, Organic Chemistry, Med Microbiology, Bio Science 1 and Bio Science 2. I have also taken classes on health and issues related to health. Through my studies, I discovered that medical field is the best field among all the fields in my point of view. The field has given me a lot of knowledge and I want to enhance my skills and knowledge. I know knowledge is power and I am ambitious to gain as much education as possible for me. After finishing my masters’ degree, I am planning to have either some professional education in pharmacy or in any other relevant field to find a better job.

Is the Creation of Artificial Humans with Human Ability Real

The essay will evaluate the two arguments and give a personal supported opinion that is against computationalism, the reason being the impossibility of scientists to create systems similar to humans’, thus the weakness of Dennett’s argument. Dennett (1994) argues that someday, robots will be made that will be able to function just like humans do. To him, human beings are …a sort of robot ourselves…with extraordinarily complex self-controlling, self-sustaining physical mechanisms, designed by natural selection… He admits that it is a wild ambition to imagine that human replication can succeed in triumphing over nature by creating an artificial human, but it is not unachievable. The main point of his argument is based on his perspective that a consciousness machine is in no way different from a perpetual one in that both can be programmed to execute specific functions by use of physical processes. The only constriction that [his] project would encounter are the expensive costs of assembling billions of minute mechanisms to direct the robots’ actions.
First of all, a robot is a material thing, whereas it is common sense that consciousness requires materialism to exist, a theory of dualism. What this means is that what a man can create will only utilize materials such as metals, plastic, wires, chips and so on, but these are never going to make anything with the ability to think on its own. The reason for that is because there is more to the human being than just the material part. the mind which is not physical, and that is what controls intelligence. Dennett counters this perspective as follows. he defines the notion of immaterial stuff as mere superstition since all body processes are today defined and explained and understood through today’snbsp.biology (Dennett, 1994).nbsp.

Importance of Radioisotopes and Isotopes

Some of the isotopes undergo radioactive decay over time, therefore, known as radioactive isotopes. On the other hand, those isotopes not been observed to undergo any form of decay are known as stable isotopes. In general, isotopes have similar chemical properties but different physical properties. For example, hydrogen has three different isotopes (fig 1). 1H, 2H, and 3H. Hydrogen 1 or protium is the most abundant isotope.
As they all have similar chemical properties they can form similar bonds. H2O and D2O are some examples but they have different physical properties. H2O has melting point of 0.0oC and boiling point of 100.0oC but D2O melts at 3.82oC and boils at 101.4oC. (Stoker 55).
Isotopes have various applications in different sectors. In the medical field, radioactive and stable isotopes are used in medical procedures for the purpose of diagnosis and therapeutic use. Isotopes have a significant application in biomedical research field as well as research in physics, biology, chemistry, geosciences and other branches of science and technology.
Isotopes can be used in various ways in the various fields discussed above. They are generally helpful because of their emission properties. Isotopes with short half life decay and emit various radiations such as beta emissions which can be detected by various means. Therefore, they can be used as ‘tracers’. For example, scientists can measure the uptake of nutrients in a plant by using a radioactive isotope of phosphorous. 32P containing compound can be introduced in the soil which is taken up by the plant. It has a short half life of about 2 weeks and the rate of uptake can be found my measuring the time taken for it to appear in the leaves. It can be traced in the leaves by detecting the beta emissions. (Kotz, Treichel and Townsend 1086). Many other applications of radioactive isotopes apply similar technique.
There are many applications of isotopes in the field of medicine. Iodine is an essential

Assignment3552

Education Management Legal Errors Education management, legal errors As a principal there are various errors that Sam Warren commits in his line of work.
1. He commits as a principle is seen during the incident when he asks his secretary to call a local parochial school to inform them that they would not be able to use the school bus for a zoo trip because they are religious school. This bias isjust because the school is a religious one.
2. Principal Warren should not have waved form that Mr. Booth signed because school can still be liable for loose bus step. The legal reason is the principal still has standard of care responsibility for students on trip (Alexander amp. Alexander, 2005).
3. Principal Warren should have contacted the school district superintendent and attorney to warn them of this potential legal problem. The legal reason is the school district faces liability charges against it.
4. When Principal Warren meets with the superintendent he tell him that evaluation of all the teachers was already been done while this is particularly not true. He could have given the correct details to the superintendent.
5. Another thing that he does that can be termed as an error is when he substitutes the sick biology teacher with a parent. He does this without taking into consideration that there is need to be qualified and proper replacement process that is supposed to be followed (Sharma, 2009).
6. Principal Warren should have made sure that the school has a substitute biology teacher so that there can always be someone to step in for the biology teacher whenever they are absent.
7. The principal does not go through the proper procedure that is supposed to be taken in a case where a teacher is being subbed. He should have made sure that the sub’s credentials are checked and she is briefed on how far the class had gone through syllabus.
8. It is also not allowed to hire any teaching staff without the consultation of the Board of Governors. Principal Warren would have made sure that he did this before seeking a sub for the biology teacher.
9. He also communicates the matter of lack of salary increments in a faulty way and even the decision on salaries are not supposed to be decided entirely by a single individual in such a setting.
10. When he goes to evaluate one of the teachers he only stays for 20 minutes and then leaves never to come again. This period is far below the period that is recommended for the observation of teachers.
11. He approves a trip for a class to go to a factory without waiting for parents to sign the permission forms. The reason that he gives is that the same class had recently visited the zoo. However, these are two different trips and permissions should be sought for every trip.
12. A factory trip is far much risky than a zoo trip, therefore, as a principal he should have made sure that all the safety measures had been taken before approving the trip.
13. The other thing that he does is suspending a student over the allegations that he had punched the Board President’s daughter (International Conference on Education and Educational Technology amp. Wang, 2011).
14. Another thing that is wrong about the suspension is that Principal Warren does not do any digging into the details but suspends the student immediately.
15. Despite knowing that the students are supposed to be in class for the first lesson, he does nothing when he finds Bill Moore addressing a group of freshman Bible Discussion Group. The best thing would to dismiss them in order fro them to join the others in class.
16. Principal Warren writes to Moore to commend him of addressing the students at that time despite it not being the right time.
17. When Principal Warren is summoned by the board to a meeting he is questioned about the discipline levels of the school. He has the responsibility of maintaining the school’s discipline.
18. When faced with allegations of only observing one of the teachers for only 28 minutes. He would have avoided this by just staying fro the whole session.
19. He goes to the class and observes for an additional 2 minutes, then informs the teacher that he had now completed the required the 30 minute observation period (Welner amp. Chi, 2008). The problem here is that the additional 2 minutes do not make the session complete.
20. He also goes ahead and agrees with a local minister who calls and asks to give an innovation during at commencement without making any consultations with the relevant individuals in the institution.
21. When notices that Joe Smith is missing from the study hall he assumes that he had just left briefly instead of trying to find out exactly where he is.
22. When the father to the child who had been hit by a pencil threatened to take legal action for his negligence he could have contacted the school district superintendent and attorney to warn them of this potential legal problem.
23. Principal Warren does not carry any investigation on the incident that led to the injury of the student.
24. Another failure is seen when one of the teachers of the name Paul Friend had paddled one of the students after finding them smoking in the restroom. Despite the fact that paddling is against the school’s policies he does this because he had done it a number of times before and the principal had always come to his support. This is very wrong because the principal should always make sure that every punishment that is given to students in the institution is in accordance to the regulations and policies of the institution (Cizek, 1999).
25. Principal Warren does not take any legal action against Paul friend despite the fact that the teacher had breached education laws.
26. By the end of the week Principal Warren is not yet through with evaluating the teachers despite having told the superintendent that he was already through with the evaluations.
27. When he is told about the bleacher that is broken by one of the parents at the baseball stadium he does not take an immediate action like a true leader should. Instead, he chooses to sit elsewhere. The broken bleacher later causes an injury to ten people. He would have made sure that he gives orders for a public notice to be put on the broken bleacher warning people against using that bleacher. He could also make sure that the broken bleacher is attended to immediately.
References
Alexander, K., amp. Alexander, M. (2005). American Public School Law, 6th ed. New York: Thompson/Wadsworth.
Cizek, G. J. (1999). Handbook of educational policy. San Diego: Academic Press.
International Conference on Education and Educational Technology, amp. Wang, Y. (2011). Education management, education theory and education application. Berlin: Springer-Verlag GmbH Berlin Heidelberg
Sharma, S. L. (2009). Educational management: A unified approach of education. New Delhi: Global India Publications.
Welner, K. G., amp. Chi, W. C. (2008). Current issues in education policy and the law. Charlotte, N.C: Information Age Pub.

Sterling college scholarship opportunity

nbsp.However, apart from helping me in my Christianity life, I believe Sterling College is the ideal place that can pursue my career from. I would like to study biology in this college and specialize in medicine as a cancer doctor specifically for children, which is my dream career. Since my childhood, I have always inspired to become a doctor so that I can help to relieve people pain, and even save the lives of those who die as a result of lack of medical services. During my holidays, one of the things I like ding most is visiting the less fortunate specifically the sick and aged. During such times, when I visit the sick in hospitals I always meet children who are diagnosed with cancer. Though being with them give me the joy of knowing that am showing passion to others I still feel I have a duty to do more than that. As such I believe that pursuing a career in medicine will place me in a better place to help such children and others and most importantly help me to achieve my dream.
Sterling college is the only institution with the adequate resources and a conducive environment for me to pursue this career. Additionally, in line with its mission, to develop creative and thoughtful leaders who understand a maturing Christian faith( internationalstudent.com) , Sterling college will not only help me to became a professional but also a Christian professional who can do my job not necessarily for the purpose of earning a living but most importantly do it for the glory of the God.

Applications and ethics of genetic engineering and biotechnology

Biotechnology traces its roots as early as two thousand years ago. In this depiction, commonly referred to as traditional biotechnology, practices of bread baking, alcohol brewing, food crops breeding were evident. However, the recent advancements in molecular biology have provided a new meaning to biotechnology. This is called modern biotechnology and has provided opportunities and challenges to the public. Modern biotechnology can bear significant impacts on the society and the entire world economy. A distinct example of modern biotechnology is genetic engineering (Keener, Thomas and Rekha 2011).
Genetic engineering is defined as the process of transferring selected genes of interest between organisms. Additionally, it can refer to the modification of genes within organisms. It can be achieved by addition or deletion of a desired trait. It is through this technique that genetically modified crops or organisms, commonly referred to as transgenics are formed. It has been at the epicenter of public attention and concern to consumers with regards to ethical issues. The objective of this paper is to clearly elaborate the gains made by modern biotechnology in applications such as human gene therapy and genetically modified organisms. With equal measure, these paper discuses the ethical concerns surrounding biotechnological applications (Gifford, 2000).
Research advancements in genetic engineering and biotechnology achieved over the last twenty years have had worldwide impacts in a number of ways. Generally, a larger percentage of the public has warmly embraced the technology. Furthermore, the same group has termed it as being beneficial with minimal challenge. However, there is a growing comprehension that new technologies harbor risks, costs and benefits. For example, in 2000 the U.S government increased its funding towards development of biotechnology and genetic engineering. This was a strategy to fight hunger in

One of the biotechnology techniques is called CRISPR/Cas9 sometimes referred to as a gene editing technology

Question

One of the biotechnology techniques is called CRISPR/Cas9 – sometimes referred to as a gene editing technology.

This technique is very new (first described in 2012) but it is already have a large impact on biology and medicine. In late 2018 you may remember news reports about the first gene edited babies which were born in China. This resulted from an experimental procedure in which CRISPR/Cas9 was used to carry out gene editing in human embryos. There are several links below to some of the scientific and news articles describing these experiments.

This news generated quite a bit of controversy. What do you think about the use of gene editing in humans? Do you think there need to be regulations or controls on the use of this type of technology? In your post first summarize what you understand about what this technology (CRISPR/Cas9) is and how it works, and then share your thoughts on its use.

Below are two articles to start your reading on this topic – feel free to share additional resources or articles that you find interesting and helpful.

Shwartz, M., (2018). Target, Delete, Repair – CRISPR is a revolutionary gene-editing tool, but its not without risk.Stanford Medicine. Retrieved from https://stanmed.stanford.edu/2018winter/CRISPR-for-gene-editing-is-revolutionary-but-it-comes-with-risks.html

Cyronoski, D., (2019). The CRISPR-baby scandal: what’s next for human gene-editing. Nature, 566, 440-442 Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00673-1

Science

What is the difference between DNA and RNA?

This is being in regards to marine biology
Com .srlson RNA mes Ribonucleic acid. Deon ribonucleic acid Sugar m the structure Ribose 1s a pentose sugar. Deoxyrihose sugar with one
less oxygen atom in contrast
to RNA. Nltrogeucus bases…
Science

One of the biotechnology techniques is called CRISPR/Cas9 sometimes referred to as a gene editing technology

Question

One of the biotechnology techniques is called CRISPR/Cas9 – sometimes referred to as a gene editing technology.

This technique is very new (first described in 2012) but it is already have a large impact on biology and medicine. In late 2018 you may remember news reports about the first gene edited babies which were born in China. This resulted from an experimental procedure in which CRISPR/Cas9 was used to carry out gene editing in human embryos. There are several links below to some of the scientific and news articles describing these experiments.

This news generated quite a bit of controversy. What do you think about the use of gene editing in humans? Do you think there need to be regulations or controls on the use of this type of technology? In your post first summarize what you understand about what this technology (CRISPR/Cas9) is and how it works, and then share your thoughts on its use.

Below are two articles to start your reading on this topic – feel free to share additional resources or articles that you find interesting and helpful.

Shwartz, M., (2018). Target, Delete, Repair – CRISPR is a revolutionary gene-editing tool, but its not without risk.Stanford Medicine. Retrieved from https://stanmed.stanford.edu/2018winter/CRISPR-for-gene-editing-is-revolutionary-but-it-comes-with-risks.html

Cyronoski, D., (2019). The CRISPR-baby scandal: what’s next for human gene-editing. Nature, 566, 440-442 Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-019-00673-1

Science

What is the difference between DNA and RNA?

This is being in regards to marine biology
Com .srlson RNA mes Ribonucleic acid. Deon ribonucleic acid Sugar m the structure Ribose 1s a pentose sugar. Deoxyrihose sugar with one
less oxygen atom in contrast
to RNA. Nltrogeucus bases…
Science

SC160 Basic BiologyAnswer in complete sentences and be sure to use correct English spelling

Question

SC160 Basic Biology

Answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English, spelling

and grammar. Your response should be four pages.

Integrate by discussion the properties of life, basic chemical terminology, and molecules and compounds of a cell necessary for life. Include the basic anatomy and physiology of a cell and describe how cell respiration, photosynthesis, and cell reproduction occur in a succinct manner. Include a brief discussion about Mendel’s Laws and an overview of DNA structure and function. Conclude with a discussion of cancer and the mechanisms of gene control.

Science

SC160 Basic BiologyAnswer in complete sentences and be sure to use correct English spelling

Question

SC160 Basic Biology

Answer in complete sentences, and be sure to use correct English, spelling

and grammar. Your response should be four pages.

Integrate by discussion the properties of life, basic chemical terminology, and molecules and compounds of a cell necessary for life. Include the basic anatomy and physiology of a cell and describe how cell respiration, photosynthesis, and cell reproduction occur in a succinct manner. Include a brief discussion about Mendel’s Laws and an overview of DNA structure and function. Conclude with a discussion of cancer and the mechanisms of gene control.

Science

Coastal Dynamics (3 06)

BIOLOGY ASSIGNMENT NAME UNIVERSITY BIOLOGY Understand how various factors affect the Abundance of Organisms Estuaries
Is the tidal mouth of a large river, where the tide meets the stream? In order…
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Coastal Dynamics (3 06)

BIOLOGY ASSIGNMENT NAME UNIVERSITY BIOLOGY Understand how various factors affect the Abundance of Organisms Estuaries
Is the tidal mouth of a large river, where the tide meets the stream? In order…
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Are gender differences biological or cultural?

Explain both sides of the argument.
In what ways do biology and

Question

Are gender differences biological or cultural? Explain both sides of the argument. In what ways do biology and

culture interact to create gender differences? Explain thoroughly and provide examples. Do you think biology or culture is ultimately more determinant? Why?

** Note – This is coming from a Gender and Society course **

Sociology

Are gender differences biological or cultural?

Explain both sides of the argument.
In what ways do biology and

Question

Are gender differences biological or cultural? Explain both sides of the argument. In what ways do biology and

culture interact to create gender differences? Explain thoroughly and provide examples. Do you think biology or culture is ultimately more determinant? Why?

** Note – This is coming from a Gender and Society course **

Sociology

Hello i have a practice exam from cell biology that i need answers for

i have attached 2 different versions of

Question

Hello i have a practice exam from cell biology that i need answers for, i have attached 2 different versions of

almost excatly the same except he changed the terms.(both dont need to be done, just the spring 2016) the word document. Please understand these are not general biology question, they are formulated from my professor and are advanced, so they have to be read carefully to answer correctly.

YOUR HELP WILL BE VERY APPRECIATED!:)

1A 2A 3B 4A 5B 6B 7A 8A 9B 10A 11-carrier-The protein triskelion material that is directly associated with coated vesicle formation and
binding to receptor proteins 12-) The protein triskelion…
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Hello i have a practice exam from cell biology that i need answers for

i have attached 2 different versions of

Question

Hello i have a practice exam from cell biology that i need answers for, i have attached 2 different versions of

almost excatly the same except he changed the terms.(both dont need to be done, just the spring 2016) the word document. Please understand these are not general biology question, they are formulated from my professor and are advanced, so they have to be read carefully to answer correctly.

YOUR HELP WILL BE VERY APPRECIATED!:)

1A 2A 3B 4A 5B 6B 7A 8A 9B 10A 11-carrier-The protein triskelion material that is directly associated with coated vesicle formation and
binding to receptor proteins 12-) The protein triskelion…
Science

It is your first semester as a newly hired assistant professor and you are developing your lesson plans and

Question

It is your first semester as a newly hired assistant professor, and you are developing your lesson plans and

lectures for your undergrad microbiology course. To start your class off on the right foot, you’d like to review some important introductory biology concepts to ensure that all of the students have the necessary biological background knowledge. You have decided to expand your lectures on biologically important molecules. Your first lecture will focus on the formation of large molecules through synthesis reactions and two of the four groups of these large biological molecules: the lipids and the proteins.

Part A – Bond Formation

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Science

It is your first semester as a newly hired assistant professor and you are developing your lesson plans and

Question

It is your first semester as a newly hired assistant professor, and you are developing your lesson plans and

lectures for your undergrad microbiology course. To start your class off on the right foot, you’d like to review some important introductory biology concepts to ensure that all of the students have the necessary biological background knowledge. You have decided to expand your lectures on biologically important molecules. Your first lecture will focus on the formation of large molecules through synthesis reactions and two of the four groups of these large biological molecules: the lipids and the proteins.

Part A – Bond Formation

While writing your lecture notes, you are trying to develop a way to impart to you

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I need assistance formulating a Hypothesis Item Porterhouse SteakA State a hypothesis about which

Question

I need assistance formulating a Hypothesis.

Item: Porterhouse Steak

A. State a hypothesis about which

micro (vitamins and minerals) and macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, fats) this item contains. Remember, a hypothesis is an educated guess or prediction of results.

BIOLOGY Hypothesis: if you eat porterhouse steak, then you will be able to get micro molecules (such
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I need assistance formulating a Hypothesis Item Porterhouse SteakA State a hypothesis about which

Question

I need assistance formulating a Hypothesis.

Item: Porterhouse Steak

A. State a hypothesis about which

micro (vitamins and minerals) and macromolecules (proteins, carbohydrates, fats) this item contains. Remember, a hypothesis is an educated guess or prediction of results.

BIOLOGY Hypothesis: if you eat porterhouse steak, then you will be able to get micro molecules (such
vitamins and minerals) as well as macromolecules (such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats)…
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Assignment 1 Biology ArticleSelect an article from a magazine or newspaper

Question

Assignment 1: Biology Article

Select an article from a magazine or newspaper

that has something in it that pertains to biology. This will serve as the target article for this assignment. For instance, you can select an article about medicine, invasive species, nature, conservation, genetic technology, ecology, or any other topic that is related to biology. One purpose of this assignment is to help you become aware of how biology is related to your everyday life.

  1. Summarize the article in one (1) or more paragraphs, using your own words. Be sure to identify the article using an in-text citation in the body of the paper, as well as a reference in the reference section.
  2. Explain how the article relates to this course. Identify which biological concepts from the course and / or text are relevant to the topic covered in the article. Citing the course text, discuss the ways in which this course does (or doesn’t) provide background information to help you understand the article and the larger issues surrounding it.
  3. Explain why the article caught your attention. Relate the article to your life and to issues that are important to you. Discuss how or if the scientific knowledge about the topic covered in the article affects you directly or indirectly.
  4. Discuss your opinion on how research on this topic should be funded. State whether you think taxpayer monies should support research on this topic or whether such research in this area should be funded by the private sector. Rate the importance of research on this topic, relative to other areas of research.

In addition to the target article, you should use at least one additional resource, such as your textbook or another article.

Running head: ARTICLE ON AGEING ANALYSIS Article on Ageing Analysis
Name
Institutional Affiliation
Date 1 ARTICLE ON AGEING ANALYSIS 2 The paper explores the discovery scientists made in the…
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[Biology Invertebrate Zoology]If you are not familiar with invertebrate zoology please go back thank

Question

[Biology Invertebrate Zoology]

If you are not familiar with invertebrate zoology, please go back thank

you

This is not a homework

This is a studyguide for an exam

I want accurate answers you dont have to rush and hurry.

Please take you time and comment me if you have anything to say.

Thank you

BIOLOGY STUDY GUIDE NAME UNIVERSITY BIOLOGY Why are pollutants particularly dangerous to aquatic/marine life? (Again, this could also
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Biology 100 Intro to Biology Discussion After viewing the video

Epigenetics,

(Links to an external

Question

Biology 100 Intro to Biology Discussion

After viewing the video, Epigenetics, (Links to an external

site.)respond to the following questions (3 questions)

1. What did you learn about DNA?

2. What applications do genetics have in a new form of medicine?

3. What concerns or interests do you have regarding this topic?

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The course is Environmental ScienceTopic Introduction Greenland Vikings Environmental Literacy Human

Question

The course is Environmental Science

Topic: Introduction, Greenland Vikings, Environmental Literacy, Human

populations

Lithosphere

Hydrosphere

Biosphere – Energy Flow, Nutrient Cycles

and so on.

Please see the question below

Thanks

Running head: BIOLOGY Biology
Name
Institution BIOLOGY
Biology
1. The global human population has had two major growth spurts. When did
they occur, and what are they called? (4 pts)
o Ten thousand…
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