When the level of technology is low or out of date, the system level autonomy is limited due to lack of proper requirements while when the level of technology is good, the system level is less limited. .Investment levelThis matters a lot. Low level of investment is likely to limit the level of the autonomy of the system-level whereby this will be due to lack of adequate resources while on the other hand if the investment is good the system-level may not be much limited.
2. Hierarchy of surrogate decision makingsurrogate hierarchy of decision making is based on the fact the in the absence of the competent advanced directives, the decision still has to be made. In this case, the surrogate hierarchy comes into play. The hierarchy of the surrogate decision making is therefore as follows: .A spouse to the patient .In case it reaches the decision-making point when the suffering patient is out of reach the first people to be consulted in this case is the patient’s spouse with help in the final decision making. . .State registered domestic partners are also allowed to come in and play this role together with the sibling. The adult sisters or brothers to the patient.In the absence of the siblings to the patient or the there unavailability, the grown-up sisters or brother are the next people to be consulted for the purpose of decision making to the suffering patient. .Guardian to the appointed patient .Whenever both the spouse to the patient and his or her brothers and sisters are out of reach, the hierarchy of decision making looks upon the appointed guardian in this case. . .The individual to who the patient has handed the power of attorney .If no one is there to be consulted the attorney to the court-appointed guardian is also to be consulted for decision making. .3. Systematic biases in resource allocation measurement biases arise in the case of assigning resources. others may be favoured while others may not be favoured. Selection biases may come in place due to self-selection and convenience selection. Self-selection occurs when individuals allocate resources for themselves while convenience occurs when occurring when resources are easy to allocate .4. Core ethical principles relevant to the delivery of health care . .Principle of common good this principle is composed of all the conditions that the social experiences and the positivity behind those conditions. .All community must actively show concern towards improving health awareness in order to make it a better place. This principle has three essential elements which are social welfare, peace and security and respect for persons. This principle aims at protecting human rights in each and every society around the world. .Principle of distributive justice .It is in line with the concept of human dignity, common good and human rights. It implies what society at large can offer to the individual person. This principle requires that every person within the society be able to access basic health care services that are necessary. .Principle of double effect. .This principle states that for any action to be good, it should consist of two effects which are intended. .Page 2761. Basic types of public police public health policy this is a policy which its objective is to educate and create awareness to the public. It, therefore, implements ways that will reduce the chances of spreading diseases. As it is known, health is a very vital aspect of our lives. Once the correct measures are put into place, chances are that fewer cases of illness will be reported. Everett Koop (1967), Public health is more important and therefore due consideration should be taken. .The key function of this policy lies in assessing collected data from the public. That is, data is collected and analyzed to get information which is used to identify the health problems that might be facing the public. This information will lead to a conclusion in order to take the right solutions to the identified problems. .There are some promises which are made to the public. Therefore, it’s the duty of this policy to ensure all this is met. Campaigns, strategies and some programs are established to meet all these promises. The public will feel being protected. .Environmental policy is a policy which ensures care is taken on the surrounding. It reinforces laws and regulations which ensure the conservation of the environment. It condemns human activities which do cause pollution. This policy ensures that a conducive and productive surrounding human is established. There are goals as well as rules which are established to ensure the effectiveness of the policy. .Drug policy this policy tries to eradicate the abuse of drugs. It has policies which act against the abuse of these drugs. Its main goal is to stop drug trafficking, selling of illicit drugs and violence from abuse of drugs. Also, it tries to ensure that those involved in these crimes face the law. Some organizations have been formed in order to curb drug abuse. .Energy policy without energy, many crises may arise. This is, therefore, a policy which tries to focus on production, consumption, and distribution of energy. This policy will ensure that the produced energy is friendly to the environment and also not harmful to human health. With these taken into consideration, the policy will ensure that there is no shortage of energy. .2. Role of lobbying in the creation of public policy lobbying is an act that that is normally carried out by organized groups, private sectors and different types of people. Their aim is to try to influence and reinforce most of the decisions which are made by the people who are in government positions. Normally, most of these officials try to make empty promises. The great lobbyists try to work on behalf of some group. They may be hired in order to influence the legislation. Their aim will be to succeed in favour of the group. .3. How long term care policy in the U.S is fragmented it’s seen that some serious problems do occur in hospitals. This is because there lack cooperation and the appropriate data among the hospital workers. Some health professors describe this issue to reduce the long term investment of an individual. Long term care is not well considered since most of those taken care of are seen to bring no value. Mixed reactions are experienced since most of the medical officers are salaried. This has been the major cause of the fragmentation in the U.S. this makes the health care of the U.S to be very complex. This is due to the fact that people with disabilities are left with no health care coverage. .4. Federal legislationsRight to access medication very person is being entitled to be offered full coverage on his health. That’s why health covers are encouraged. .5. Medicaid waivers and its relationship to long term care medicare waiver are defined as a note written from the Medicare which can be given to someone before receiving some services. Normally it acts as a cover to some liabilities arising from financial crises. With all this, one has the right to either accept or refuse service at will. As this is concerned, long term care service enables one to meet his medical bills or other needs. Both have a relationship because they serve similar services to the owner. .6. Principles that favours long term core precautionary principle this principle enables the policymakers to justify some of the made decisions which may cause harm. It is used to defend such a decision when it can be seen that some proof may lack. This principle normally protects the public or creates defence when certain harm may be seen to arise. The principle will hold until its justified or proved that no public harm may arise. .Due consideration is taken on whether the harm will arise from the environment or not. The whole of society will definitely be given bold preventive measures. This principle prevents pollution of the environment air dealing this is a policy which will allow individuals to have a right to use the reference of other materials. This will enable patients to acquire more information on life issues and their solutions.